Electroweak boson production in double parton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Emilia
2014-11-01
We study the W+W- and Z0Z0 electroweak boson production in double parton scattering using QCD evolution equations for double parton distributions. In particular, we analyze the impact of splitting terms in the evolution equations on the double parton scattering cross sections. Unlike the standard terms, the splitting terms are not suppressed for large values of the relative momentum of two partons in the double parton scattering. Thus, they play an important role which we discuss in detail for the single splitting contribution to the cross sections under the study.
Tetraquark production in double parton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, F.; Cazaroto, E. R.; Gonçalves, V. P.; Navarra, F. S.
2016-02-01
We develop a model to study tetraquark production in hadronic collisions. We focus on double parton scattering and formulate a version of the color evaporation model for the production of the X (3872 ) and of the T4 c tetraquark, a state composed by the c c ¯c c ¯ quarks. We find that the production cross section grows rapidly with the collision energy √{s } and make predictions for the forthcoming higher energy data of the LHC.
Multiple photon production in double parton scattering at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palota da Silva, R.; Brenner Mariotto, C.; Goncalves, V. P.
2016-04-01
The high density of gluons in the initial state of hadronic collisions at LHC implies that the probability of multiple parton interactions within one proton-proton collision increases. In particular, the probability of having two or more hard interactions in a collision is not significantly suppressed with respect to the single interaction probability. In this contribution we study for the first time the production of prompt photons in double parton scattering processes. In particular, we estimate the rapidity distribution for the double Compton process, which leads to two photons plus two jets in the final state. Besides, we study the production of three and four photons in the final state, which are backgrounds to physics beyond the Standard Model.
Double Parton Scattering and 3D Proton Structure: A Light-Front Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio; Traini, Marco; Vento, Vicente
2016-06-01
Double parton scattering, occurring in high energy hadron-hadron collisions, e.g. at the LHC, is usually investigated through model dependent analyses of the so called effective cross section {σ_{eff}}. We present a dynamic approach to this fundamental quantity making use of a Light-Front model treatment. Within such a framework {σ_{eff}} is initially evaluated at low energy scale using the model and then, through QCD evolution, at high energy scale to reach the experimental conditions. Our numerical outcomes are consistent with the present experimental analyses of data in kinematical region we investigate. An important result of the present work is the {x_i} dependence of {σ_{eff}}, a feature directly connected to double parton correlations and which could unveil new information on the three dimensional structure of the proton.
Four-jet production in single- and double-parton scattering within high-energy factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutak, Krzysztof; Maciula, Rafal; Serino, Mirko; Szczurek, Antoni; van Hameren, Andreas
2016-04-01
We perform a first study of 4-jet production in a complete high-energy factorization (HEF) framework. We include and discuss contributions from both single-parton scattering (SPS) and double-parton scattering (DPS). The calculations are performed for kinematical situations relevant for two experimental measurements (ATLAS and CMS) at the LHC. We compare our results to those reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations for different sets of kinematical cuts. The results of the HEF approach are compared with their counterparts for collinear factorization. For symmetric cuts the DPS HEF result is considerably smaller than the one obtained with collinear factorization. The mechanism leading to this difference is of kinematical nature. We conclude that an analysis of inclusive 4-jet production with asymmetric p T -cuts below 50 GeV would be useful to enhance the DPS contribution relative to the SPS contribution. In contrast to the collinear approach, the HEF approach nicely describes the distribution of the Δ S variable, which involves all four jets and their angular correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutak, Krzysztof; Maciuła, Rafał; Serino, Mirko; Szczurek, Antoni; van Hameren, Andreas
2016-07-01
In the present paper, we discuss how to maximize the double-parton scattering (DPS) contribution in four-jet production by selecting kinematical cuts. Here both single-parton and double-parton scattering effects are calculated in the kT -factorization approach, following our recent developments of relevant methods and tools. Several differential distributions are shown and discussed in the context of future searches for DPS effects, such as rapidity of jets, rapidity distance, and azimuthal correlations between jets. The dependence of the relative DPS amount is studied as a function of those observables. The regions with an enhanced DPS contribution are identified. Future experimental explorations could extract more precise values of σeff and its potential dependence on kinematical variables.
All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, Lance J.; Esterlis, Ilya
2016-07-01
Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 → 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 → 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar {N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.
All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering
Dixon, Lance J.; Esterlis, Ilya
2016-07-21
Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 → 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 → 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limitmore » to high loop order in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. Furthermore, we also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.« less
Chatrchyan, Serguei
2014-03-05
Double parton scattering is investigated in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV where the final state includes a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, and two jets. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb^{–1}, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Observables sensitive to double parton scattering are investigated after being corrected for detector effects and selection efficiencies. The fraction of W + 2-jet events due to double parton scattering is measured to be 0.055 +/- 0.002 (stat.) +/- 0.014 (syst.). Finally, the effective cross section, σ_{eff}, characterizing the effective transverse area of hard partonic interactions in collisions between protons is measured to be 20.7 +/- 0.8 (stat.) +/- 6.6 (syst.) mb.
Chatrchyan, Serguei
2014-03-05
Double parton scattering is investigated in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV where the final state includes a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, and two jets. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb–1, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Observables sensitive to double parton scattering are investigated after being corrected for detector effects and selection efficiencies. The fraction of W + 2-jet events due to double parton scattering is measured to be 0.055 +/- 0.002 (stat.) +/- 0.014 (syst.). Finally, the effective cross section, σeff, characterizing the effectivemore » transverse area of hard partonic interactions in collisions between protons is measured to be 20.7 +/- 0.8 (stat.) +/- 6.6 (syst.) mb.« less
Production of γγ+2 jets from double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Jun-Quan; Zhang, Si-Jing; Shen, Yu-Qiao; Fan, Jia-Wei; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng
2015-12-01
Cross sections for the production of pairs of photons plus two additional jets produced from double parton scattering in high-energy proton-proton collisions at the LHC are calculated for the first time. The estimates are based on the theoretical perturbative QCD predictions for the productions of γγ at next-to-next-to-leading-order, jet+jet and γ+jet at next-to-leading-order, for their corresponding single-scattering cross sections. The cross sections and expected event rates for γγ+2 jets from double parton scattering, after typical acceptance and selections, are given for proton-proton collisions with the collision energy \\sqrt{s}=13 TeV and integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1 planned for the following years, and also \\sqrt{s}=14 TeV with 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity as the LHC design. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11061140514, 11505208), China Ministry of Science and Technology (2013CB838700) and CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni
2014-07-01
For the first time in the literature, we discuss the production of a four-jet final state in proton-proton collisions at the LHC through the mechanism of double-parton scattering (DPS), in the context of jets with large rapidity separation. This is the region where searches for a Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) signal are planned and/or being performed. The DPS contributions are calculated within the so-called factorized ansatz, and each step of DPS is calculated in the leading order (LO) collinear approximation. The LO pQCD calculations are shown to give a reasonably good description of recent CMS and ATLAS data on inclusive jet production; therefore, this formalism can be used to estimate the DPS effects. We demonstrate that the relative contribution (with respect to single parton scattering dijets and to the BFKL Mueller-Navelet jets) of DPS is growing at large rapidity distance between jets. This is consistent with our experience from previous studies of DPS effects in the case of open and hidden charm production. The calculated differential cross sections, as a function of rapidity distance between the jets that are the most remote in rapidity, are compared with recent results of leading logarithm and next-to-leading logarithm BFKL calculations for the Mueller-Navelet jet production at √s =7 TeV. The DPS contribution to widely rapidity separated jet production is carefully studied for the present energy √s =7 TeV, and also at the nominal LHC energy √s =14 TeV and in different ranges of jet transverse momenta. The differential cross section as a function of dijet transverse momenta as well as two-dimensional (pT(ymin)×pT(ymax))-plane correlations for DPS mechanism are also presented. Some ideas as to how the DPS effects could be studied in the case of four-jet production are suggested.
How to impose initial conditions for QCD evolution of double parton distributions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Emilia
2014-07-01
Double parton distribution functions are used in the QCD description of double parton scattering. The double parton distributions evolve with hard scales through QCD evolution equations which obey nontrivial momentum and valence quark number sum rules. We describe an attempt to construct initial conditions for the evolution equations which exactly fulfill these sum rules and discuss its shortcomings. We also discuss the factorization of the double parton distributions into a product of two single parton distribution functions at small values of the parton momentum fractions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.
2016-07-01
Associated production of bottomonia and open charm hadrons in pp collisions at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV is observed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 accumulated with the LHCb detector. The observation of five combinations, Y(1S)D0, Y(2S)D0, Y(1S)D+, Y(2S)D+ and Y(1S)D s + , is reported. Production crosssections are measured for Y(1S)D0 and Y(1S)D+ pairs in the forward region. The measured cross-sections and the differential distributions indicate the dominance of double parton scattering as the main production mechanism. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Generalized Valon Model for Double Parton Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broniowski, Wojciech; Ruiz Arriola, Enrique; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof
2016-03-01
We show how the double parton distributions may be obtained consistently from the many-body light-cone wave functions. We illustrate the method on the example of the pion with two Fock components. The procedure, by construction, satisfies the Gaunt-Stirling sum rules. The resulting single parton distributions of valence quarks and gluons are consistent with a phenomenological parametrization at a low scale.
Generalized Valon Model for Double Parton Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broniowski, Wojciech; Ruiz Arriola, Enrique; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof
2016-06-01
We show how the double parton distributions may be obtained consistently from the many-body light-cone wave functions. We illustrate the method on the example of the pion with two Fock components. The procedure, by construction, satisfies the Gaunt-Stirling sum rules. The resulting single parton distributions of valence quarks and gluons are consistent with a phenomenological parametrization at a low scale.
Parton-parton elastic scattering and rapidity gaps at SSC and LHC energies
Duca, V.D.
1993-08-01
The theory of the perturbative pomeron, due to Lipatov and collaborators, is used to compute the probability of observing parton-parton elastic scattering and rapidity gaps between jets in hadron collisions at SSC and LHC energies.
Parton-parton elastic scattering and rapidity gaps at Tevatron energies
Del Duca, V.; Tang, Wai-Keung
1993-08-01
The theory of the perturbative pomeron, due to Lipatov and collaborators, is used to compute the probability of observing parton-parton elastic scattering and rapidity gaps between jets in hadron collisions at Tevatron energies.
Triple parton scattering in collinear approximation of perturbative QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snigirev, A. M.
2016-08-01
Revised formulas for the inclusive cross section of a triple parton scattering process in a hadron collision are suggested based on the modified collinear three-parton distributions. The possible phenomenological issues are discussed.
Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: Beyond helicity amplitude approximation
Zhang, Ben-Wei; Wang, Xin-Nian
2003-01-21
Multiple parton scattering and induced parton energy loss in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off heavy nuclei is studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD with a complete calculation beyond the helicity amplitude (or soft bremsstrahlung) approximation. Such a calculation gives rise to new corrections to the modified quark fragmentation functions. The effective parton energy loss is found to be reduced by a factor of 5/6 from the result of helicity amplitude approximation.
Double parton effects for jets with large rapidity separation
Szczurek, Antoni; Cisek, Anna; Maciuła, Rafal
2015-04-10
We discuss production of four jets pp → jjjjX with at least two jets with large rapidity separation in proton-proton collisions at the LHC through the mechanism of double-parton scattering (DPS). The cross section is calculated in a factorizaed approximation. Each hard subprocess is calculated in LO collinear approximation. The LO pQCD calculations are shown to give a reasonably good descritption of CMS and ATLAS data on inclusive jet production. It is shown that relative contribution of DPS is growing with increasing rapidity distance between the most remote jets, center-of-mass energy and with decreasing (mini)jet transverse momenta. We show also result for angular azimuthal dijet correlations calculated in the framework of k{sub t} -factorization approximation.
High energy parton-parton elastic scattering in QCD
Tang, W.K.
1993-08-01
We show that the high energy limit of quark-quark, or gluon-gluon, elastic scattering is calculable in terms of the BFKL pomeron when {minus}t {much_gt} {Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}. Surprisingly, this on-shell amplitudes does not have infrared divergences in the high energy limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.; Snigirev, A. M.; Zotov, N. P.
2016-05-01
The production of weak gauge bosons in association with heavy flavored mesons at the LHCb conditions is considered, and a detailed study of the different contributing processes is presented including single and double parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms. We find that the usual DPS factorization formula needs to be corrected for the limited partonic phase space, and that including the relevant corrections reduces discrepancies in the associated Z D production. We conclude finally that double parton scattering dominates the production of same-sign W±D± states, as well as the production of W- bosons associated with B mesons. The latter processes can thus be regarded as new useful DPS indicators.
Diffraction scattering and the parton model in QCD
White, A.
1985-01-01
Arguments are presented that the validity of the parton model for hadron scattering in QCD is directly related to the occurrence of the Critical Pomeron description of diffraction scattering. An attractive route suggested for Electroweak and Grand Unification is also briefly described.
Deep Exclusive Scattering and Generalized Parton Distributions : Experimental Review
Franck Sabatie
2004-10-01
Since the Generalized Parton Distribution theoretical framework was introduced in the late 90's, a few published and numerous preliminary results from Deep Exclusive Scattering (DES) have been extracted from non-dedicated experiments at HERA and Jefferson Lab. We review most of these results, comment on the ongoing dedicated research in this topic and conclude with the expectations from the next generation of experiments in the near future.
Double Parton Fragmentation Function and its Evolution in Quarkonium Production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Zhong-Bo
2014-01-01
We summarize the results of a recent study on a new perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum pT at collider energies. Such a new factorization formalism includes both the leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the mQ2/p_T^2 expansion for heavy quark mass mQ. For the NLP contribution, the so-called double parton fragmentation functions are involved, whose evolution equations have been derived. We estimate fragmentation functions in the non-relativistic QCD formalism, and found that their contribution reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit NLO calculations in the color singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization, in contrast to the single parton fragmentation function. This might shed some light on the heavy quarkonium polarization puzzle.
Generalized parton distributions from deep virtual compton scattering at CLAS
Guidal, M.
2010-04-24
Here, we have analyzed the beam spin asymmetry and the longitudinally polarized target spin asymmetry of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process, recently measured by the Jefferson Lab CLAS collaboration. Our aim is to extract information about the Generalized Parton Distributions of the proton. By fitting these data, in a largely model-independent procedure, we are able to extract numerical values for the two Compton Form Factors $H_{Im}$ and $\\tilde{H}_{Im}$ with uncertainties, in average, of the order of 30%.
Generalized parton distributions from deep virtual compton scattering at CLAS
Guidal, M.
2010-04-24
Here, we have analyzed the beam spin asymmetry and the longitudinally polarized target spin asymmetry of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process, recently measured by the Jefferson Lab CLAS collaboration. Our aim is to extract information about the Generalized Parton Distributions of the proton. By fitting these data, in a largely model-independent procedure, we are able to extract numerical values for the two Compton Form Factorsmore » $$H_{Im}$$ and $$\\tilde{H}_{Im}$$ with uncertainties, in average, of the order of 30%.« less
Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering
Frankfurt, L.; Hyde, C. E.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.
2007-03-01
We study rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H=dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp{yields}p+(gap)+H+(gap)+p. Our approach is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent because they proceed over widely different time and distance scales. We implement this idea in a partonic description of proton structure, which allows for a model-independent treatment of the interplay of hard and soft interactions. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons, whose amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distribution (GPD), measured in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate neglecting correlations between hard and soft interactions (independent interaction approximation). We obtain an analytic expression for the RGS probability in terms of the phenomenological pp elastic scattering amplitude, without reference to the eikonal approximation. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons ('diffraction pattern'). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the
D0 results on diphoton direct production and double parton interactions in photon + 3 jet events
Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.
2010-01-01
We report the measurement of differential diphoton direct production cross sections and a study of photon + 3-jet events with double parton (DP) interactions, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. We measure single differential cross sections as a function of the diphoton mass, the transverse momentum of the diphoton system, the azimuthal angle between the photons, and the polar scattering angle of the photons. In addition, we measure double differential cross sections considering the last three kinematic variables in three diphoton mass bins. The results are compared with different perturbative QCD predictions and event generators. We have used a sample of photon + 3-jet events collected by the D0 experiment with an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb{sup -1} to determine the fraction of events with double parton scattering (f{sub DP}) in a single p{bar p} collision at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The DP fraction and effective cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}), a process-independent scale parameter related to the parton density inside the nucleon, are measured in three intervals of the second (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup jet2} within the range 15 < p{sub T}{sup jet} < 30 GeV. In this range, f{sub DP} varies between 0.23 < f{sub DP} < 0.47, while {sigma}{sub eff} has the average value {sigma}{sub eff}{sup ave} = 16.4 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 2.3(syst) mb.
Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering
Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss
2007-03-01
We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering and generalized parton distributions at CLAS
Niccolai, Silvia
2008-11-01
The exclusive electroproduction of real photons and mesons at high momentum transfer allows us to access the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). The formalism of the GPDs provides a unified description of the hadronic structure in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular, the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), ep â e2p2Å , is one of the key reactions to determine the GPDs experimentally, as it is the simplest process that can be described in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS has been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. Beam-spin asymmetries, resulting from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process and DVCS have been extracted over the widest kinematic range ever accessed for this reaction ( 1.2 < Q 2 < 3.7 (GeV/c 2, 0.09 < - t < 1.3 (GeV/c 2, 0.13 < x B < 0.46 . In this paper, the results obtained experimentally are shown and compared to GPD parametrizations.
Double parton interactions in photon+3 jet events in ppbar collisions sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV
Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; /Northeastern U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF
2009-12-01
We have used a sample of photon+3 jets events collected by the D0 experiment with an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb{sup -1} to determine the fraction of events with double parton scattering (f{sub DP}) in a single ppbar collision at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The DP fraction and effective cross section (sigma{sub eff}), a process-independent scale parameter related to the parton density inside the nucleon, are measured in three intervals of the second (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momentum pT{sub jet2} within the range 15 < pT{sub jet2} < 30 GeV. In this range, f{sub DP} varies between 0.23 < f{sub DP} < 0.47, while sigma{sub eff} has the average value sigma{sub effave} = 16.4 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 2.3(syst) mb.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hameren, Andreas; Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni
2015-09-01
We present first results for the 2 → 4 single-parton scattering gg → c c bar c c bar subprocess for the first time fully within the kt-factorization approach. In this calculation we have used the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin unintegrated gluon distribution which effectively includes some class of higher-order gluon emissions, and an off-shell matrix element squared calculated using recently developed techniques. The results are compared with our earlier result obtained within the collinear-factorization approach. Only slightly larger cross sections are obtained than in the case of the collinear approach. Inclusion of transverse momenta of gluons entering the hard process leads to a much stronger azimuthal decorrelation between cc and c bar c bar than in the collinear-factorization approach. A comparison to predictions of double parton scattering (DPS) results and the LHCb data strongly suggests that the assumption of two fully independent DPS (gg → c c bar ⊗ gg → c c bar) may be too approximate.
Ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon scattering and parton distributions at small x
Henley, Ernest M.; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal
2006-05-01
The cross section for ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon scattering is very sensitive to the parton distributions at very small values of Bjorken x (x{<=}10{sup -4}). We numerically investigate the effects of modifying the behavior of the gluon distribution function at very small x in the DGLAP evolution equation. We then use the Color Glass Condensate formalism to calculate the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultrahigh energies and compare the result with those based on modification of DGLAP evolution equation.
Ma, Guo -Liang; Bzdak, Adam
2014-11-04
In this study, we show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest parton–parton cross-section of σ = 1.5 – 3 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.
Double parton interactions as a background to associated HW production at the Tevatron
Bandurin, Dmitry; Golovanov, Georgy; Skachkov, Nikolai
2010-11-01
In this paper we study events with W+jets final state, produced in double parton (DP) interactions, as a background to the associated Higgs boson (H) and W production, with H {yields} b{bar b} decay, at the Tevatron. We have found that the event yield from the DP background can be quite sizable, what necessitates a choice of selection criteria to separate the HW and DP production processes. We suggest a set of variables sensitive to the kinematics of DP and HW events. We show that these variables, being used as an input to the artificial neural network, allow one to significantly improve a sensitivity to the Higgs boson production.
Ultra-High Energy Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering and Parton Distributions at Small x
Henley, Ernest M.; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal
2006-11-17
The cross section for ultra-high energy neutrino-nucleon scattering is very sensitive to the parton distributions at very small values of Bjorken x (x {<=} 10-4). We numerically investigate the effects of modifying the behavior of the gluon distribution function at very small x in the DGLAP evolution equation. We then use the Color Glass Condensate formalism to calculate the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultra-high energies and compare the result with those based on modification of DGLAP evolution equation.
QCD CORRECTIONS TO DILEPTON PRODUCTION NEAR PARTONIC THRESHOLD IN PP SCATTERING.
SHIMIZU, H.; STERMAN, G.; VOGELSANG, W.; YOKOYA, H.
2005-10-02
We present a recent study of the QCD corrections to dilepton production near partonic threshold in transversely polarized {bar p}p scattering, We analyze the role of the higher-order perturbative QCD corrections in terms of the available fixed-order contributions as well as of all-order soft-gluon resummations for the kinematical regime of proposed experiments at GSI-FAIR. We find that perturbative corrections are large for both unpolarized and polarized cross sections, but that the spin asymmetries are stable. The role of the far infrared region of the momentum integral in the resummed exponent and the effect of the NNLL resummation are briefly discussed.
A study of four-jet events and search for double parton interactions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV
Keeble, L.J.; CDF Collaboration
1992-11-01
Kinematic properties of four-jet events in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV are compared with the predictions of leading order quantum chromodynamics. We place an upper limit on the double parton scattering cross of {sigma}{sub DP} < 120 nb (95% C.L.) for partons with transverse momenta greater than 18 GeV/c. Defining the effective cross section {sigma}{sub eff} through the equation of {sigma}{sub eff} = {sigma}{sub DP} = {sigma}{sub dijet}/({sup 2}/{sigma}{sub eff}), where {sigma}{sub dijet} is the cross section for two-jets events, the limit {sigma}{sub eff} > 3.9 mb (95% C.L.) is also placed. Implications for physics at the SSC ({radical}s = 40 TeV) are discussed.
Hard scattering of partons as a probe of collisions at RHIC using the STAR detector system
Christie, W.B.
1995-07-15
Presented here is the current state of the author`s investigations into the use of hard probes to study pp, pA, and AA collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The overall goal of the RHIC program is the discovery and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which is predicted to be formed at the high energy densities reached at RHIC in high energy AA collisions. The term {open_quotes}Hard probes{close_quotes} as used in this document includes those particles whose origin is the result of a direct hard parton scatter (i.e qq, qg, or gg). The final states of these hard parton scatters which the author proposes to study include dijets, gamma-jet coincidences, and inclusive high P{sub t} particle spectra. A brief discussion of the physics objectives is given in section 1. This is followed by an introduction to the STAR detector system in section 2, with particular details given for the proposed STAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC). The present simulation studies and results are given in section 3. The author concludes with a summary and a discussion of future plans in section 4.
Analytical Expressions for the Hard-Scattering Production of Massive Partons
Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2016-01-01
We obtain explicit expressions for the two-particle differential cross section $E_c E_\\kappa d\\sigma (AB \\to c\\kappa X) /d\\bb c d \\bb \\kappa$ and the two-particle angular correlation function \\break $d\\sigma(AB$$ \\to$$ c\\kappa X)/d\\Delta \\phi \\, d\\Delta y$ in the hard-scattering production of massive partons in order to exhibit the ``ridge" structure on the away side in the hard-scattering process. The single-particle production cross section $d\\sigma(AB \\to cX) /dy_c c_T dc_T $ is also obtained and compared with the ALICE experimental data for charm production in $pp$ collisions at 7 TeV at LHC.
Generalized parton distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on proton at CLAS
R. De Masi
2007-12-01
Two measurements of target and beam spin asymmetries for the reaction ep→epγ were performed with CLAS at Jefferson Laboratory. Polarized 5.7 GeV electrons were impinging on a longitudinally polarized ammonia and liquid hydrogen target respectively. These measurements are sensitive to Generalized Parton Distributions. Sizable sin phi azimuthal angular dependences were observed in both experiments, indicating the dominance of leading twist terms and the possibility of extracting combinations of Generalized Parton Distributions on the nucleon.
CT14QED parton distribution functions from isolated photon production in deep inelastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Carl; Pumplin, Jon; Stump, Daniel; Yuan, C.-P.
2016-06-01
We describe the implementation of quantum electrodynamic (QED) evolution at leading order (LO) along with quantum chromodynamic (QCD) evolution at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the CTEQ-TEA global analysis package. The inelastic contribution to the photon parton distribution function (PDF) is described by a two-parameter ansatz, coming from radiation off the valence quarks, and based on the CT14 NLO PDFs. Setting the two parameters to be equal allows us to completely specify the inelastic photon PDF in terms of the inelastic momentum fraction carried by the photon, p0γ, at the initial scale Q0=1.295 GeV . We obtain constraints on the photon PDF by comparing with ZEUS data [S. Chekanov et al. (ZEUS Collaboration), Phys. Lett. B 687, 16 (2010)] on the production of isolated photons in deep inelastic scattering, e p →e γ +X . For this comparison we present a new perturbative calculation of the process that consistently combines the photon-initiated contribution with the quark-initiated contribution. Comparison with the data allows us to put a constraint at the 90% confidence level of p0γ≲0.14 % for the inelastic photon PDF at the initial scale of Q0=1.295 GeV in the one-parameter radiative ansatz. The resulting inelastic CT14QED PDFs will be made available to the public. In addition, we also provide CT14QEDinc PDFs, in which the inclusive photon PDF at the scale Q0 is defined by the sum of the inelastic photon PDF and the elastic photon distribution obtained from the equivalent photon approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guidal, M.
2010-09-01
We have analyzed the longitudinally polarized proton target asymmetry data of the Deep Virtual Compton process recently published by the HERMES Collaboration in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions. We have fitted these new data in a largely model-independent fashion and the procedure results in numerical constraints on the accent="true">H˜Im Compton Form Factor. We present its t- and ξ-dependencies. We also find improvement on the determination of two other Compton Form Factors, HRe and HIm.
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich
2016-03-01
We use a sample of diphoton+dijet events to measure the effective cross section of double parton interactions, which characterizes the area containing the interacting partons in proton-antiproton collisions, and find it to be σeff=19.3±1.4(stat)±7.8(syst) mb. The sample was collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider inmore » $$p\\bar{p}$$ collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$$ TeV and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb-1.« less
Study of double parton interactions in diphoton +dijet events in p p ¯ collisions at √{s }=1.96 TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cuth, J.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franc, J.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gaspar, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schott, M.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.
2016-03-01
We use a sample of diphoton+dijet events to measure the effective cross section of double parton interactions, which characterizes the area containing the interacting partons in proton-antiproton collisions, and find it to be σeff=19.3 ±1.4 (stat)±7.8 (syst) mb . The sample was collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p p ¯ collisions at √{s }=1.96 TeV and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb-1 .
Full Wave Single and Double Scatter from Rough Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahar, E.; El-Shenawee, M.
1994-12-01
Using the full wave approach, the single and double scattered electromagnetic fields from deterministic one-dimensional rough surfaces are computed. Full wave expressions for the single and double scattered far fields are given in terms of multidimensional integrals. These integrals are evaluated using the Cornell National Supercomputer IBM/3090. Applying the steepest descent approximation to the double scattered field expressions, the dimensions of the integrals are reduced from four to two in the case of one-dimensional rough surfaces. It is shown that double scatter in the backward direction is significant for near normal incidence when the rough surface is highly conducting and its mean square slope is very large. Even for one-dimensional rough surfaces, depolarization occurs when the reference plane of incidence is not parallel to the local planes of incidence and scatter. A geometrical optics approximation is used to interpret the results of the double scattered fields for normal incidence near backscatter. The physical interpretation of the results could shed light on the observed fluctuations in the enhanced backscatter phenomenon as the angle of incidence increases from near normal to grazing angles. The results show that double scatter strongly depends upon the mean square slope, the conductivity of the rough surface and the angle of incidence.
Double deeply virtual Compton scattering on nucleons and nuclei
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Schmidt, Ivan; Siddikov, M.
2010-07-01
In this paper we evaluate the double deeply virtual Compton scattering on nucleons and nuclei in the framework of the color dipole model. Both the effects of quark and the gluon shadowing are taken into account.
Measurement of partonic nuclear effects in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering using MINERvA
Mousseau, J.
2016-04-19
Here, the MINERvA Collaboration reports a novel study of neutrino-nucleus charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) using the same neutrino beam incident on targets of polystyrene, graphite, iron, and lead. Results are presented as ratios of C, Fe, and Pb to CH. The ratios of total DIS cross sections as a function of neutrino energy and flux-integrated differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x are presented in the neutrino-energy range of 5–50 GeV. Based on the predictions of charged-lepton scattering ratios, good agreement is found between the data and prediction at medium x and low neutrino energy.more » However, the ratios appear to be below predictions in the vicinity of the nuclear shadowing region, x < 0.1. This apparent deficit, reflected in the DIS cross-section ratio at high Eν, is consistent with previous MINERvA observations [B. Tice (MINERvA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 231801 (2014).] and with the predicted onset of nuclear shadowing with the axial-vector current in neutrino scattering.« less
Measurement of partonic nuclear effects in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering using MINERvA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousseau, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerν A Collaboration
2016-04-01
The MINERvA Collaboration reports a novel study of neutrino-nucleus charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) using the same neutrino beam incident on targets of polystyrene, graphite, iron, and lead. Results are presented as ratios of C, Fe, and Pb to CH. The ratios of total DIS cross sections as a function of neutrino energy and flux-integrated differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x are presented in the neutrino-energy range of 5-50 GeV. Based on the predictions of charged-lepton scattering ratios, good agreement is found between the data and prediction at medium x and low neutrino energy. However, the ratios appear to be below predictions in the vicinity of the nuclear shadowing region, x <0.1 . This apparent deficit, reflected in the DIS cross-section ratio at high Eν, is consistent with previous MINERvA observations [B. Tice et al. (MINERvA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 231801 (2014).] and with the predicted onset of nuclear shadowing with the axial-vector current in neutrino scattering.
Systematic improvement of parton showers with effective theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgart, Matthew; Marcantonini, Claudio; Stewart, Iain W.
2011-02-01
We carry out a systematic classification and computation of next-to-leading order kinematic power corrections to the fully differential cross section in the parton shower. To do this we devise a map between ingredients in a parton shower and operators in a traditional effective field theory framework using a chain of soft-collinear effective theories. Our approach overcomes several difficulties including avoiding double counting and distinguishing approximations that are coordinate choices from true power corrections. Branching corrections can be classified as hard-scattering, that occur near the top of the shower, and jet-structure, that can occur at any point inside it. Hard-scattering corrections include matrix elements with additional hard partons, as well as power suppressed contributions to the branching for the leading jet. Jet-structure corrections require simultaneous consideration of potential 1→2 and 1→3 branchings. The interference structure induced by collinear terms with subleading powers remains localized in the shower.
Inelastic scattering of atoms in a double well
Annibale, E. S.; Fialko, O.; Ziegler, K.
2011-04-15
We study a mixture of two light spin-1/2 fermionic atoms and two heavy atoms in a double-well potential. Inelastic scattering processes between both atomic species excite the heavy atoms and renormalize the tunneling rate and the interaction of the light atoms (polaron effect). The effective interaction of the light atoms changes its sign and becomes attractive for strong inelastic scattering. This is accompanied by a crossing of the energy levels from singly occupied sites at weak inelastic scattering to a doubly occupied and an empty site for stronger inelastic scattering. We are able to identify the polaron effect and the level crossing in the quantum dynamics.
An 8-element neutron double-scatter directional detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanier, Peter E.; Forman, Leon
2005-09-01
We have constructed a fast-neutron double-scatter spectrometer that efficiently measures the neutron spectrum and direction of a spontaneous fission source. The device consists of two planes of organic scintillators, each having an area of 125 cm2, efficiently coupled to photomultipliers. The four scintillators in the front plane are 2 cm thick, giving almost 25% probability of detecting an incident fission-spectrum neutron at 2 MeV by proton recoil and subsequent ionization. The back plane contains four 5-cm-thick scintillators which give a 40% probability of detecting a scattered fast neutron. A recordable double-scatter event occurs when a neutron is detected in both a front plane detector and a back plane detector within an interval of 500 nanoseconds. Each double-scatter event is analyzed to determine the energy deposited in the front plane, the time of flight between detectors, and the energy deposited in the back plane. The scattering angle of each incident neutron is calculated from the ratio of the energy deposited in the first detector to the kinetic energy of the scattered neutron.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accardi, A.; Brady, L. T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Owens, J. F.; Sato, N.
2016-06-01
We present a new set of leading-twist parton distribution functions, referred to as "CJ15," which take advantage of developments in the theoretical treatment of nuclear corrections as well as new data. The analysis includes, for the first time, data on the free neutron structure function from Jefferson Lab and new high-precision charged lepton and W -boson asymmetry data from Fermilab. These significantly reduce the uncertainty on the d /u ratio at large values of x and provide new insights into the partonic structure of bound nucleons.
Guegan, Baptiste
2012-11-01
The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.
Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.
2016-02-01
We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.
Accardi, A.; Brady, L. T.; Melnitchouk, W.; Owens, J. F.; Sato, N.
2016-06-20
Here, we present a new set of leading twist parton distribution functions, referred to as "CJ15", which take advantage of developments in the theoretical treatment of nuclear corrections as well as new data. The analysis includes for the first time data on the free neutron structure function from Jefferson Lab, and new high-precision charged lepton and W-boson asymmetry data from Fermilab, which significantly reduce the uncertainty on the d/u ratio at large values of x.
Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui
2010-07-28
We measured the polarization- and angle-resolved optical scattering and reflection spectra of the quasiordered nanostructures in the bird feather barbs. In addition to the primary peak that originates from single scattering, we observed a secondary peak which exhibits depolarization and distinct angular dispersion. We explained the secondary peak in terms of double scattering, i.e., light is scattered successively twice by the structure. The two sequential single-scattering events are considered uncorrelated. Using the Fourier power spectra of the nanostructures obtained from the small-angle x-ray scattering experiment, we calculated the double scattering of light in various directions. The double-scattering spectrum is broader than the single-scattering spectrum, and it splits into two subpeaks at larger scattering angle. The good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data confirms that double scattering of light makes a significant contribution to the structural color.
Pion double charge exchange scattering above the delta resonance
Burleson, G.R.
1989-01-01
Data are presented on pion-nucleus double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 500 MeV, the highest energies measured so far, together with a review of results at lower energies. The small-angle excitation functions disagree with predictions based on a sex-quark cluster model and on an optical model consistent with single-charge-exchange scattering at these energies, but they are consistent with a distorted-wave calculation. Data on f{sub 7/2}-shell nuclei are in partial agreement with a two-amplitude model which is successful at lower energies. In order to achieve good understanding of this process at these energies, more work; both experimental and theoretical, is needed. 16 refs., 6 figs.
NEUTRON SPECTROSCOPY BY DOUBLE SCATTER AND ASSOCIATED PARTICLE TECHNIQUES.
DIOSZEGI,I.
2007-10-28
Multiple detectors can provide [1,2] both directional and spectroscopic information. Neutron spectra may be obtained by neutron double scatter (DSNS), or the spontaneous fission associated particle (AP) technique. Spontaneous fission results in the creation of fission fragments and the release of gamma rays and neutrons. As these occur at the same instant, they are correlated in time. Thus gamma ray detection can start a timing sequence relative to a neutron detector where the time difference is dominated by neutron time-of-flight. In this paper we describe these techniques and compare experimental results with Monte Carlo calculations.
Generalized Parton Distributions and their Singularities
Anatoly Radyushkin
2011-04-01
A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) Ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function $f(\\beta)/\\beta$ rather than with the usual parton density $f(\\beta)$. This results in a non-integrable singularity at $\\beta=0$ exaggerated by the fact that $f(\\beta)$'s, on their own, have a singular $\\beta^{-a}$ Regge behavior for small $\\beta$. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs $H(x,\\xi)$ that are finite and continuous at the "border point'' $x=\\xi$. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate the implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the $\\beta=0$ singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD $f(\\beta, \\alpha)$ into the "plus'' part $[f(\\beta,\\alpha)]_{+}$ and the $D$-term. It is demonstrated that the "DD+D'' separation method allows to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution $f(x)=H(x,0)$ and the border function $H(x,x)$ with the $D$-term function $D(\\alpha)$.
Generalized parton distributions and their singularities
Radyushkin, A. V.
2011-04-01
A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function f({beta})/{beta} rather than with the usual parton density f({beta}). This results in a nonintegrable singularity at {beta}=0 exaggerated by the fact that f({beta})'s, on their own, have a singular {beta}{sup -a} Regge behavior for small {beta}. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs H(x,{xi}) that are finite and continuous at the 'border point' x={xi}. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the {beta}=0 singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD f({beta},{alpha}) into the 'plus' part [f({beta},{alpha})]{sub +} and the D term. It is demonstrated that the ''DD+D'' separation method allows one to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution f(x)=H(x,0) and the border function H(x,x) with the D-term function D({alpha}).
Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions
I. Schienbein, J.Y. Yu, C. Keppel, J.G. Morfin, F. Olness, J.F. Owens
2009-06-01
We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a {chi}{sup 2} analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x{sub Bj}-dependent and Q{sup 2}-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x{sub Bj}, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.
The Drell-Yan process as a testing ground for parton distributions up to LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basso, Eduardo; Bourrely, Claude; Pasechnik, Roman; Soffer, Jacques
2016-04-01
The Drell-Yan massive dilepton production in hadron-hadron collisions provides a unique tool, complementary to Deep Inelastic Scattering, for improving our understanding of hadronic substructure and in particular for testing parton distributions. We will consider measurements of the differential and double-differential Drell-Yan cross sections from FNAL Tevatron up to CERN LHC energies and they will be compared to the predictions of perturbative QCD calculations using most recent sets (CT14 and MMHT14) of parton distribution functions, as well as those provided by the statistical approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekhin, S.; Blümlein, J.; Klein, S.; Moch, S.
2010-01-01
We determine the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in a next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the inclusive neutral-current deep-inelastic-scattering (DIS) world data combined with the neutrino-nucleon DIS di-muon data and the fixed-target Drell-Yan data. The PDF evolution is performed in the Nf=3 fixed-flavor scheme and supplementary sets of PDFs in the 4- and 5-flavor schemes are derived from the results in the 3-flavor scheme using matching conditions. The charm-quark DIS contribution is calculated in a general-mass variable-flavor-number (GMVFN) scheme interpolating between the zero-mass 4-flavor scheme at asymptotically large values of momentum transfer Q2 and the 3-flavor scheme prescription of Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven (BMSN) at the value of Q2=mc2. The results in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme are compared with those of the fixed-flavor scheme and other prescriptions used in global fits of PDFs. The strong coupling constant is measured at an accuracy of ≈1.5%. We obtain at next-to-next-to-leading order αs(MZ2)=0.1135±0.0014 in the fixed-flavor scheme and αs(MZ2)=0.1129±0.0014 applying the Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven prescription. The implications for important standard candle and hard scattering processes at hadron colliders are illustrated. Predictions for cross sections of W±- and Z-boson, the top-quark pair, and Higgs-boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC based on the 5-flavor PDFs of the present analysis are provided.
Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.; Moch, S.
2010-01-01
We determine the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in a next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the inclusive neutral-current deep-inelastic-scattering (DIS) world data combined with the neutrino-nucleon DIS di-muon data and the fixed-target Drell-Yan data. The PDF evolution is performed in the N{sub f}=3 fixed-flavor scheme and supplementary sets of PDFs in the 4- and 5-flavor schemes are derived from the results in the 3-flavor scheme using matching conditions. The charm-quark DIS contribution is calculated in a general-mass variable-flavor-number (GMVFN) scheme interpolating between the zero-mass 4-flavor scheme at asymptotically large values of momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and the 3-flavor scheme prescription of Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven (BMSN) at the value of Q{sup 2}=m{sub c}{sup 2}. The results in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme are compared with those of the fixed-flavor scheme and other prescriptions used in global fits of PDFs. The strong coupling constant is measured at an accuracy of {approx_equal}1.5%. We obtain at next-to-next-to-leading order {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1135{+-}0.0014 in the fixed-flavor scheme and {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1129{+-}0.0014 applying the Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven prescription. The implications for important standard candle and hard scattering processes at hadron colliders are illustrated. Predictions for cross sections of W{sup {+-}-} and Z-boson, the top-quark pair, and Higgs-boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC based on the 5-flavor PDFs of the present analysis are provided.
Disentangling correlations in multiple parton interactions
Calucci, G.; Treleani, D.
2011-01-01
Multiple Parton Interactions are the tool to obtain information on the correlations between partons in the hadron structure. Partons may be correlated in all degrees of freedom and all different correlation terms contribute to the cross section. The contributions due to the different parton flavors can be isolated, at least to some extent, by selecting properly the final state. In the case of high energy proton-proton collisions, the effects of correlations in the transverse coordinates and in fractional momenta are, on the contrary, unavoidably mixed in the final observables. The standard way to quantify the strength of double parton interactions is by the value of the effective cross section and a small value of the effective cross section may be originated both by the relatively short transverse distance between the pairs of partons undergoing the double interaction and by a large dispersion of the distribution in multiplicity of the multiparton distributions. The aim of the present paper is to show how the effects of longitudinal and transverse correlations may be disentangled by taking into account the additional information provided by double parton interactions in high energy proton-deuteron collisions.
Gao Yajun
2008-08-15
A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.
Excited nucleon as a van der Waals system of partons
Jenkovszky, L. L.; Muskeyev, A. O. Yezhov, S. N.
2012-06-15
Saturation in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is associated with a phase transition between the partonic gas, typical of moderate x and Q{sup 2}, and partonic fluid appearing at increasing Q{sup 2} and decreasing Bjorken x. We suggest the van der Waals equation of state to describe properly this phase transition.
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Jackson, H. E.; Reimer, P. E.; HERMES Collaboration; Physics; Univ. of Michigan; Yerevan Physics Inst.; Univ. of Illinois; DESY Lab.
2008-01-01
The momentum and helicity density distributions of the strange quark sea in the nucleon are obtained in leading order from charged-kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering on the deuteron. The distributions are extracted from spin-averaged K{sup {+-}} multiplicities, and from K{sup {+-}} and inclusive double-spin asymmetries for scattering of polarized positrons by a polarized deuterium target. The shape of the momentum distribution is softer than that of the average of the {bar u} and {bar d} quarks. In the region of measurement 0.02 < x < 0.6 and Q{sup 2} > 1.0 GeV{sup 2}, the helicity distribution is zero within experimental uncertainties.
Structure functions and parton distributions
Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.
1995-07-01
The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed.
Generalized parton distributions in nuclei
Vadim Guzey
2009-12-01
Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of nuclei describe the distribution of quarks and gluons in nuclei probed in hard exclusive reactions, such as e.g. deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). Nuclear GPDs and nuclear DVCS allow us to study new aspects of many traditional nuclear effects (nuclear shadowing, EMC effect, medium modifications of the bound nucleons) as well as to access novel nuclear effects. In my talk, I review recent theoretical progress in the area of nuclear GPDs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellm, Johannes; Plätzer, Simon; Richardson, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej; Webster, Stephen
2016-08-01
We report on the possibility of reweighting parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions for scale variations in the parton-shower algorithm. The method is based on a generalization of the Sudakov veto algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using example physical distributions. Implementations are available for both of the parton-shower modules in the Herwig 7 event generator.
Modeling Nucleon Generalized Parton Distributions
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2013-05-01
We discuss building models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E that are based on the formalism of double distributions (DDs). We find that the usual "DD+D-term'' construction should be amended by an extra term, generated by GPD E(x,\\xi). Unlike the $D$-term, this function has support in the whole -1 < x< 1 region, and in general does not vanish at the border points|x|=\\xi.
Leakage and scatter radiation from a double scattering based proton beamline.
Moyers, M F; Benton, E R; Ghebremedhin, A; Coutrakon, G
2008-01-01
Proton beams offer several advantages over conventional radiation techniques for treating cancer and other diseases. These advantages might be negated if the leakage and scatter radiation from the beamline and patient are too large. Although the leakage and scatter radiation for the double scattering proton beamlines at the Loma Linda University Proton Treatment Facility were measured during the acceptance testing that occurred in the early 1990s, recent discussions in the radiotherapy community have prompted a reinvestigation of this contribution to the dose equivalent a patient receives. The dose and dose equivalent delivered to a large phantom patient outside a primary proton field were determined using five methods: simulations using Monte Carlo calculations, measurements with silver halide film, measurements with ionization chambers, measurements with rem meters, and measurements with CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. The Monte Carlo dose distribution was calculated in a coronal plane through the simulated patient that coincided with the central axis of the beam. Measurements with the ionization chambers, rem meters, and plastic nuclear track detectors were made at multiple locations within the same coronal plane. Measurements with the film were done in a plane perpendicular to the central axis of the beam and coincident with the surface of the phantom patient. In general, agreement between the five methods was good, but there were some differences. Measurements and simulations also tended to be in agreement with the original acceptance testing measurements and results from similar facilities published in the literature. Simulations illustrated that most of the neutrons entering the patient are produced in the final patient-specific aperture and precollimator just upstream of the aperture, not in the scattering system. These new results confirm that the dose equivalents received by patients outside the primary proton field from primary particles that leak
Leakage and scatter radiation from a double scattering based proton beamline
Moyers, M. F.; Benton, E. R.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Coutrakon, G.
2008-01-15
Proton beams offer several advantages over conventional radiation techniques for treating cancer and other diseases. These advantages might be negated if the leakage and scatter radiation from the beamline and patient are too large. Although the leakage and scatter radiation for the double scattering proton beamlines at the Loma Linda University Proton Treatment Facility were measured during the acceptance testing that occurred in the early 1990s, recent discussions in the radiotherapy community have prompted a reinvestigation of this contribution to the dose equivalent a patient receives. The dose and dose equivalent delivered to a large phantom patient outside a primary proton field were determined using five methods: simulations using Monte Carlo calculations, measurements with silver halide film, measurements with ionization chambers, measurements with rem meters, and measurements with CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. The Monte Carlo dose distribution was calculated in a coronal plane through the simulated patient that coincided with the central axis of the beam. Measurements with the ionization chambers, rem meters, and plastic nuclear track detectors were made at multiple locations within the same coronal plane. Measurements with the film were done in a plane perpendicular to the central axis of the beam and coincident with the surface of the phantom patient. In general, agreement between the five methods was good, but there were some differences. Measurements and simulations also tended to be in agreement with the original acceptance testing measurements and results from similar facilities published in the literature. Simulations illustrated that most of the neutrons entering the patient are produced in the final patient-specific aperture and precollimator just upstream of the aperture, not in the scattering system. These new results confirm that the dose equivalents received by patients outside the primary proton field from primary particles that leak
Accardi, Alberto; Owens, Jeff F.
2013-07-01
Three new sets of next-to-leading order parton distribution functions (PDFs) are presented, determined by global fits to a wide variety of data for hard scattering processes. The analysis includes target mass and higher twist corrections needed for the description of deep-inelastic scattering data at large x and low Q^2, and nuclear corrections for deuterium targets. The PDF sets correspond to three different models for the nuclear effects, and provide a more realistic uncertainty range for the d quark PDF compared with previous fits. Applications to weak boson production at colliders are also discussed.
Extractions of polarized and unpolarized parton distribution functions
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro
2014-01-01
An overview of our ongoing extractions of parton distribution functions of the nucleon is given. First JAM results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented first, and followed by a short report on the status of the JR unpolarized parton distributions. Different aspects of PDF analysis are briefly discussed, including effects of the nuclear structure of targets, target-mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the structure functions.
Self-Organizing Maps and Parton Distribution Functions
K. Holcomb, Simonetta Liuti, D. Z. Perry
2011-05-01
We present a new method to extract parton distribution functions from high energy experimental data based on a specific type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. We illustrate the features of our new procedure that are particularly useful for an anaysis directed at extracting generalized parton distributions from data. We show quantitative results of our initial analysis of the parton distribution functions from inclusive deep inelastic scattering.
Covariance Matrix of a Double-Differential Doppler-broadened Elastic Scattering Cross Section
Arbanas, Goran; Becker, B.; Dagan, R; Dunn, Michael E; Larson, Nancy M; Leal, Luiz C; Williams, Mark L
2012-01-01
Legendre moments of a double-differential Doppler-broadened elastic neutron scattering cross section on {sup 238}U are computed near the 6.67 eV resonance at temperature T = 10{sup 3} K up to angular order 14. A covariance matrix of these Legendre moments is computed as a functional of the covariance matrix of the elastic scattering cross section. A variance of double-differential Doppler-broadened elastic scattering cross section is computed from the covariance of Legendre moments.
Transverse nucleon structure and diagnostics of hard parton-parton processes at LHC
L. Frankfurt, M. Strikman, C. Weiss
2011-03-01
We propose a new method to determine at what transverse momenta particle production in high-energy pp collisions is governed by hard parton-parton processes. Using information on the transverse spatial distribution of partons obtained from hard exclusive processes in ep/\\gamma p scattering, we evaluate the impact parameter distribution of pp collisions with a hard parton-parton process as a function of p_T of the produced parton (jet). We find that the average pp impact parameters in such events depend very weakly on p_T in the range 2 < p_T < few 100 GeV, while they are much smaller than those in minimum-bias inelastic collisions. The impact parameters in turn govern the observable transverse multiplicity in such events (in the direction perpendicular to the trigger particle or jet). Measuring the transverse multiplicity as a function of p_T thus provides an effective tool for determining the minimum p_T for which a given trigger particle originates from a hard parton-parton process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco; Soffer, Jacques
2011-04-01
We consider the extension of the statistical parton distributions to include their transverse momentum dependence, by using two different methods, one is based on our quantum statistical approach, the other on a relativistic covariant method. We take into account the effects of the Melosh-Wigner rotation for the polarized distributions. The results obtained can be compared with recent semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data on the cross section and double longitudinal-spin asymmetries from JLab. We also give some predictions for future experiments on electron-neutron scattering.
On the Accuracy of Double Scattering Approximation for Atmospheric Polarization Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Marshak, Alexander L.
2011-01-01
Interpretation of multi-angle spectro-polarimetric data in remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols require fast and accurate methods of solving the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The single and double scattering approximations could provide an analytical framework for the inversion algorithms and are relatively fast, however accuracy assessments of these approximations for the aerosol atmospheres in the atmospheric window channels have been missing. This paper provides such analysis for a vertically homogeneous aerosol atmosphere with weak and strong asymmetry of scattering. In both cases, the double scattering approximation gives a high accuracy result (relative error approximately 0.2%) only for the low optical path - 10(sup -2) As the error rapidly grows with optical thickness, a full VRTE solution is required for the practical remote sensing analysis. It is shown that the scattering anisotropy is not important at low optical thicknesses neither for reflected nor for transmitted polarization components of radiation.
Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms
Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I.
1995-08-01
The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of {open_quotes}double-to-single{close_quotes} ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification.
The MESA polarimetry chain and the status of its double scattering polarimeter
Aulenbacher, K.; Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Molitor, M.; Tioukine, V.
2013-11-07
We plan to have two independent polarimetry systems at MESA based on totally different physical processes. A first one tries to minimize the systematic uncertainties in double polarized Mo/ller scattering, which is to be achieved by stored hydrogen atoms in an atomic trap (Hydro-Mo/ller-Polarimeter). The other one relies on the equality of polarizing and analyzing power which allows to measure the effective analyzing power of a polarimeter with very high accuracy. Since the status of Hydro-Mo/ller is presented in a separate paper we concentrate on the double scattering polarimeter in this article.
Chu, Yizhuo; Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Crozier, Kenneth B
2011-08-01
The strong coupling between localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons in a double resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is described by a classical coupled oscillator model. The effects of the particle density, the particle size and the SiO2 spacer thickness on the coupling strength are experimentally investigated. We demonstrate that by tuning the geometrical parameters of the double resonance substrate, we can readily control the resonance frequencies and tailor the SERS enhancement spectrum. PMID:21934853
Modeling Nucleon Generalized Parton Distributions
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2013-05-01
We discuss building models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E that are based on the formalism of double distributions (DDs). We found that the usual "DD+D-term" construction should be amended by an extra term, xiE^1_+ (x,xi) built from the alpha/Beta moment of the DD e(Beta,alpha) that generates GPD E(x,xi). Unlike the D-term, this function has support in the whole -1< x<1 region, and in general does not vanish at the border points |x|=xi.
SINGULARITIES OF GENERALIZED PARTON DISTRIBUTIONS
Anatoly Radyushkin
2012-12-01
We discuss recent developments in building models for generalized parton distributions (GPDs) that are based on the formalism of double distributions (DDs). A special attention is given to a careful analysis of the singularity structure of DDs. The DD formalism is applied to construction of a model GPDs with a singular Regge behavior. Within the developed DD-based approach, we discuss the structure of GPD sum rules. It is shown that separation of DDs into the so-called ``plus'' part and the D-term part may be treated as a renormalization procedure for the GPD sum rules. This approach is compared with an alternative prescription based on analytic regularization.
AN 8-ELEMENT FAST-NEUTRON DOUBLE-SCATTER DIRECTIONAL DETECTOR.
VANIER, P.E.; FORMAN, L.
2005-07-31
We have constructed a fast-neutron double-scatter spectrometer that efficiently measures the neutron spectrum and direction of a spontaneous fission source. The device consists of two planes of organic scintillators, each having an area of 125 cm{sup 2}, efficiently coupled to photomultipliers. The four scintillators in the front plane are 2 cm thick, giving almost 25% probability of detecting an incident fission-spectrum neutron at 2 MeV by proton recoil and subsequent ionization. The back plane contains four 5-cm-thick scintillators which give a 40% probability of detecting a scattered fast neutron. A recordable double-scatter event occurs when a neutron is detected in both a front plane detector and a back plane detector within an interval of 500 nanoseconds. Each double-scatter event is analyzed to determine the energy deposited in the front plane, the time of flight between detectors, and the energy deposited in the back plane. The scattering angle of each incident neutron is calculated from the ratio of the energy deposited in the first detector to the kinetic energy of the scattered neutron.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Sang-Hoon; Wdowinski, Shimon
2012-01-01
Common vegetation scattering theories indicate that short wavelength Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations (X- and C-band) measure mainly vegetation canopies as the short-wavelength radar signal interacts mostly with upper sections of the vegetation. Furthermore, these theories also suggest that SAR cross- polarization (cross-pol) observations reflect only volume scattering. Consequently most SAR decomposition techniques assume that the cross-pol signal represents solely volume scattering. However, short-wavelength and cross-pol observations from the Everglades wetlands, south Florida, suggest that a significant portion of the SAR signal scatters from the surface and not only from the upper sections of the vegetation. The indication for surface scattering in wetland environment is derived from phase observable processed using interferometric techniques. The interferometric SAR (InSAR) observations reveal coherent phase signal in all polarizations and all wavelengths, reflecting water level changes beneath the vegetation. This coherent phase signal cannot be explained by neither volume scattering nor radar signal interaction with the upper sections of the vegetations, because canopies and branches are frequently move by wind. The only way that such coherent signal can be maintained and represents surface water level changes is when a multiple bounce from the vegetation and surface occurs. The simplest multi-bounce scattering mechanism that generate cross-pol signal occurs by rotated dihedrals. Thus, we use the rotated dihedral mechanism to explain the InSAR wetland observations and to revise the current vegetation scattering theories to accounts also for double bounce component in cross-pol observations.
Double scattering of light from Biophotonic Nanostructures with short-range order
Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui
2010-07-28
We investigate the physical mechanism for color production by isotropic nanostructures with short-range order in bird feather barbs. While the primary peak in optical scattering spectra results from constructive interference of singly-scattered light, many species exhibit secondary peaks with distinct characteristic. Our experimental and numerical studies show that these secondary peaks result from double scattering of light by the correlated structures. Without an analog in periodic or random structures, such a phenomenon is unique for short-range ordered structures, and has been widely used by nature for non-iridescent structural coloration.
Tojo, H.; Itami, K.; Hatae, T.; Ejiri, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takase, Y.; Hiratsuka, J.
2012-02-15
This paper presents an experimental demonstration to determine electron temperature (T{sub e}) with unknown spectral sensitivity (transmissivity) in a Thomson scattering system. In this method, a double-pass scattering configuration is used and the scattered lights from each pass (with different scattering angles) are measured separately. T{sub e} can be determined from the ratio of the signal intensities without knowing a real chromatic dependence in the sensitivity. Note that the wavelength range for each spectral channel must be known. This method was applied to the TST-2 Thomson scattering system. As a result, T{sub e} measured from the ratio (T{sub e,r}) and T{sub e} measured from a standard method (T{sub e,s}) showed a good agreement with <|T{sub e,r}-T{sub e,s}|/T{sub e,s}>= 7.3%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doroshkevich, Anton A.; Bryukhanova, Valentina V.
2015-11-01
The work is devoted to remote sensing droplet clouds by coaxial lidar. The results of numerical modeling of the distribution of polarization ellipse parameters of lidar returns in the double-scattering approximation are discussed. It is shown that the polarization state of sounding radiation transforms from a linear (or circular) to the elliptical at the study droplet clouds.
Double-logarithmic asymptotics of quark scattering amplitudes with flavor exchange
Kirschner, R.; Lipatov, L.N.
1982-09-01
We propose simple equations in terms of the definite-signature partial waves of the quark scattering and annihilation amplitudes with quark-quark and quark-antiquark states in the exchange channel. We discuss the singularities in the complex angular momentum plane generated by the double-logarithmic contributions and point out their relation to the particle Regge trajectories.
Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter
Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D'Enterria, Valeria Muccifora
2009-12-01
We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.
Radescu, Voica A.
2009-03-23
A new averaging method is used to combine previously published HERA-I data by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations of neutral and charged current inclusive cross sections for e{sup {+-}}p scattering. The combination procedure takes into account the systematic error correlations in a coherent approach, leading to a significantly reduced overall cross section uncertainty. This precise combined HERA-I data set is then used as the sole input for a next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD parton distribution function (PDF) fit. The consistent treatment of systematic uncertainties in the combined data results in PDFs with greatly reduced experimental uncertainties compared to the separate analyses of the H1 and ZEUS experiments. Model uncertainties, including those arising from parametrisation dependence, are also carefully considered. The resulting HERAPDFs have impressive precision compared to the global fits.
Double-confocal resonator for X-ray generation via intracavity Thomson scattering
Xie, M.
1995-12-31
There has been a growing interest in developing compact X-ray sources through Thomson scattering of a laser beam by a relativistic electron beam. For higher X-ray flux it is desirable to have the scattering to occur inside an optical resonator where the laser power is higher. In this paper I propose a double-confocal resonator design optimized for head-on Thomson scattering inside an FEL oscillator and analyze its performance taking into account the diffraction and FEL gain. A double confocal resonator is equivalent to two confocal resonators in series. Such a resonator has several advantages: it couples electron beam through and X-ray out of the cavity with holes on cavity mirrors, thus allowing the system to be compact; it supports the FEL mode with minimal diffraction loss through the holes; it provides a laser focus in the forward direction for a better mode overlap with the electron beam; and it provides a focus at the same location in the backward direction for higher Thomson scattering efficiency; in addition, the mode size at the focal point and hence the Rayleigh range can be adjusted simply through intracavity apertures; furthermore, it gives a large mode size at the mirrors to reduce power loading. Simulations as well as analytical results will be presented. Also other configurations of intracavity Thomson scattering where the double-confocal resonator could be useful will be discussed.
Multiple parton interaction studies at DØ
Lincoln, D.
2016-04-01
Here, we present the results of studies of multiparton interactions done by the DØ collaboration using the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. We also present three analyses, involving three distinct final signatures: (a) a photon with at least 3 jets ( γ + 3jets), (b) a photon with a bottom or charm quark tagged jet and at least 2 other jets ( γ + b/c + 2jets), and (c) two J/ ψ mesons. The fraction of photon + jet events initiated by double parton scattering is about 20%, while the fraction for events inmore » which two J/ ψ mesons were produced is 30 ± 10. While the two measurements are statistically compatible, the difference might indicate differences in the quark and gluon distribution within a nucleon. Finally, this speculation originates from the fact that photon + jet events are created by collisions with quarks in the initial states, while J/ ψ events are produced preferentially by a gluonic initial state.« less
TOPICS IN THEORY OF GENERALIZED PARTON DISTRIBUTIONS
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2013-05-01
Several topics in the theory of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. First, we give a brief overview of the basics of the theory of generalized parton distributions and their relationship with simpler phenomenological functions, viz. form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes. Then, we discuss recent developments in building models for GPDs that are based on the formalism of double distributions (DDs). A special attention is given to a careful analysis of the singularity structure of DDs. The DD formalism is applied to construction of a model GPDs with a singular Regge behavior. Within the developed DD-based approach, we discuss the structure of GPD sum rules. It is shown that separation of DDs into the so-called ``plus'' part and the $D$-term part may be treated as a renormalization procedure for the GPD sum rules. This approach is compared with an alternative prescription based on analytic regularization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, D. C.; Giustarini, L.; Garcia-Pintado, J.; Cloke, H. L.
2014-05-01
Flooding is a particular hazard in urban areas worldwide due to the increased risks to life and property in these regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors are often used to image flooding because of their all-weather day-night capability, and now possess sufficient resolution to image urban flooding. The flood extents extracted from the images may be used for flood relief management and improved urban flood inundation modelling. A difficulty with using SAR for urban flood detection is that, due to its side-looking nature, substantial areas of urban ground surface may not be visible to the SAR due to radar layover and shadow caused by buildings and taller vegetation. This paper investigates whether urban flooding can be detected in layover regions (where flooding may not normally be apparent) using double scattering between the (possibly flooded) ground surface and the walls of adjacent buildings. The method estimates double scattering strengths using a SAR image in conjunction with a high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) height map of the urban area. A SAR simulator is applied to the LiDAR data to generate maps of layover and shadow, and estimate the positions of double scattering curves in the SAR image. Observations of double scattering strengths were compared to the predictions from an electromagnetic scattering model, for both the case of a single image containing flooding, and a change detection case in which the flooded image was compared to an un-flooded image of the same area acquired with the same radar parameters. The method proved successful in detecting double scattering due to flooding in the single-image case, for which flooded double scattering curves were detected with 100% classification accuracy (albeit using a small sample set) and un-flooded curves with 91% classification accuracy. The same measures of success were achieved using change detection between flooded and un-flooded images. Depending on the particular flooding
Studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Bessel weighting
Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; De Sanctis, E.; Gamberg, L.; Mirazita, M.; Musch, B.; Prokudin, A.; Rossi, P.
2015-03-01
In this paper we present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy/Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.
Studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Bessel weighting
Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; De Sanctis, E.; Gamberg, L.; Mirazita, M.; Musch, B.; Prokudin, A.; Rossi, P.
2015-03-01
In this paper we present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Montemore » Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy/Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, David; Giustarini, Laura; Garcia-Pintado, Javier; Cloke, Hannah
2014-05-01
Flooding is a particular hazard in urban areas worldwide due to the increased risks to life and property in these regions. SAR sensors are often used to image flooding because of their all-weather day-night capability, and now possess sufficient resolution to image urban flooding. The flood extents extracted from the images may be used for flood relief management and improved urban flood inundation modelling. A difficulty with using SAR for urban flood detection is that, due to its side-looking nature, substantial areas of urban ground surface may not be visible to the SAR due to radar layover and shadow caused by buildings and taller vegetation. While most flooding along roads perpendicular to the satellite direction of travel may be detected successfully, a good deal of the flooding along roads parallel to it will remain unseen. Considering the latter, an area of flooded road in front of the wall of a building on the farther side of a road from the satellite track may be allocated to the same range bin as the wall, causing layover which generally results in a strong return, and a possible misclassification of flooded ground as un-flooded. This paper investigates whether urban flooding can be detected in layover regions using double scattering [1]. If the road in a layover region is flooded, backscatter due to the double scattering from sensor to road to wall to sensor (or vice versa) should be stronger than if the road is not flooded. The method estimates double scattering strengths using a SAR image in conjunction with a high resolution LiDAR height map of the urban area. A SAR simulator is applied to the LiDAR data to generate maps of layover and shadow, and estimate the positions of double scattering curves in the SAR image. Observations of double scattering strengths were compared to the predictions from an electromagnetic scattering model, for both the case of a single image containing flooding, and a change detection case in which the flooded image was
Single and double inclusive forward jet production at the LHC at √{ s} = 7 and 13 TeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bury, Marcin; Deak, Michal; Kutak, Krzysztof; Sapeta, Sebastian
2016-09-01
We provide a description of the transverse momentum spectrum of single inclusive forward jets produced at the LHC, at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 13 TeV, using the high energy factorization (HEF) framework. We subsequently study double inclusive forward jet production and, in particular, we calculate contributions to azimuthal angle distributions coming from double parton scattering. We also compare our results for double inclusive jet production to those obtained with the PYTHIA Monte Carlo generator. This comparison confirms that the HEF resummation acts like an initial state parton shower. It also points towards the need to include final state radiation effects in the HEF formalism.
Double-scattering/reflection in a Single Nanoparticle for Intensified Ultrasound Imaging
Zhang, Kun; Chen, Hangrong; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong; Zheng, Yuanyi; Zheng, Hairong; Shi, Jianlin
2015-01-01
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) designed by the conventional composition-based strategy, often suffer from relatively low ultrasound utilization efficiency. In this report, a structure-based design concept of double-scattering/reflection in a single nanoparticle for enhancing ultrasound imaging has been proposed. To exemplify this concept, a rattle-type mesoporous silica nanostructure (MSN) with two contributing interfaces has been employed as the ideal model. Contributed by double-scattering/reflection interfaces, the rattle-type MSN, as expected, performs much better in in vitro and in vivo ultrasound imaging than the other two nanostructures (solid and hollow) containing only one scattering/reflection interface. More convincingly, related acoustic measurements and simulation calculations also confirm this design concept. Noticeably, the rattle-type MSN has also been demonstrated capable of improving intracellular ultrasound molecular imaging. As a universal method, the structure-design concept can extend to guide the design of new generation UCAs with many other compositions and similar structures (e.g., heterogeneous rattle-type, double-shelled). PMID:25739832
Prospects For Measurements Of Generalized Parton Distributions At COMPASS
Neyret, Damien
2007-06-13
The concept of Generalized Parton Distributions extends classical parton distributions by giving a '3-dimensional' view of the nucleons, allowing to study correlations between the parton longitudinal momentum and its transverse position in the nucleon. Measurements of such generalized distributions can be done with the COMPASS experiment, in particular using Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering events. They require to modify the set-up of COMPASS by introducing a recoil proton detector, an additional electromagnetic calorimeter and a new liquid hydrogen target. These upgrades are presently under study, and the first data taking could take place in 2010.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; Lerose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L.-G.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.
2012-02-01
We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized He3 target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16
Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al
2012-01-01
We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less
Huang, J; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Katich, J; Qian, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Lerose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L-G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X
2012-02-01
We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry A{LT} for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16
Parton Saturation and the Color Glass Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.
2007-03-01
We review recent developments in the field of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate. We discuss the classical gluon fields of McLerran-Venugopalan model. We explain how small- x non-linear quantum evolution corrections can be included into the total cross section for deep inelastic scattering. We proceed by reviewing saturation physics predictions for the particle production in p( d) A collisions and conclude by demonstrating how such predictions were confirmed by the RHIC experiments.
Access to generalized parton distributions at COMPASS
Nowak, Wolf-Dieter
2015-04-10
A brief experimentalist's introduction to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) is given. Recent COMPASS results are shown on transverse target-spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ρ{sup 0} production and their interpretation in terms of a phenomenological model as indication for chiral-odd, transverse GPDs is discussed. For deeply virtual Compton scattering, it is briefly outlined how to access GPDs and projections are shown for future COMPASS measurements.
Modeling the Pion Generalized Parton Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mezrag, C.
2016-02-01
We compute the pion Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) in a valence dressed quarks approach. We model the Mellin moments of the GPD using Ansätze for Green functions inspired by the numerical solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSE) and the Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE). Then, the GPD is reconstructed from its Mellin moment using the Double Distribution (DD) formalism. The agreement with available experimental data is very good.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nefedov, M. A.; Saleev, V. A.
2015-11-01
The hadroproduction of prompt isolated photon pairs at high energies is studied in the framework of the parton Reggeization approach. The real part of the NLO corrections is computed (the NLO⋆ approximation), and the procedure for the subtraction of double counting between real parton emissions in the hard-scattering matrix element and unintegrated parton distribution function is constructed for the amplitudes with Reggeized quarks in the initial state. The matrix element of the important next-to-next-to-leading-order subprocess R R →γ γ with full dependence on the transverse momenta of the initial-state Reggeized gluons is obtained. We compare obtained numerical results with diphoton spectra measured at the Tevatron and the LHC and find a good agreement of our predictions with experimental data at the high values of diphoton transverse momentum, pT, and especially at the pT larger than the diphoton invariant mass, M . In this multi-Regge kinematics region, the NLO correction is strongly suppressed, demonstrating the self-consistency of the parton Reggeization approach.
Enhanced Raman scattering assisted by ultrahigh order modes of the double metal cladding waveguide
Xu, Tian; Huang, Liming; Jin, Yonglong; Fang, Jinghuai E-mail: fjhuai@ntu.edu.cn; Yin, Cheng E-mail: fjhuai@ntu.edu.cn; Huang, Meizhen
2014-10-20
Distinguished from the usual strategy to enhance the Raman scattering such as creating hot spots in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering, this paper takes a quite different approach based on the double metal cladding waveguide. The target analyte is located in the guiding layer of sub-millimeter scale, where several ultrahigh order modes with high intensity are simultaneously excited via a focused laser beam. The experimental setup is simple, and both simulation and experimental results confirm the enhancement mechanism of these oscillating modes. Other appealing features include the large detection area and the ability to excite guided modes via both polarizations. This scheme can be applied to large molecules detection and readily integrated with other Raman enhancement techniques.
Double-Polarized pd Scattering and Test of Time-reversal Invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uzikov, Yuriy
2016-02-01
The integrated proton-deuteron cross section σ˜ for the case of transversal polarization ppy of the proton and tensor polarization Pxz of the deuteron provides a null test signal for time-reversal invariance violating but P-parity conserving effects. The corresponding experiment is planned at COSY to measure the observable σ˜. Here we consider in general case the status of the null-test observable in pd scattering, calculate σ˜ within the Glauber theory of the double-polarized pd scattering at 100 - 1000 MeV and study the contribution of the deuteron S- and D-waves for several type of the T-odd NN interactions.
Multi-wavelength generation based on cascaded Raman scattering and self-frequency-doubling in KTA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, K.; Li, J. S.; Xu, D. G.; Ding, X.; Zhou, R.; Wen, W. Q.; Li, Z. Y.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, P.; Yao, J. Q.
2010-04-01
A multi-wavelength laser is developed based on cascaded stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-frequency-doubling in an x-cut KTA crystal pumped by an A-O Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The generation of 1178 nm from cascaded SRS of 234 and 671 cm-1 Raman modes is observed. The six wavelengths, including the fundamental 1064 nm, four Stokes waves at 1091, 1120, 1146, 1178 nm, and the second harmonic generation (SHG) of 1146 nm, are tens to hundreds of millwatts for each at 10 kHz, corresponding to a total conversion efficiency of 8.72%.
Effect of spin-flip scattering on the electron transport through double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Fu-Bin; Huang, Rui; Cheng, Yan
2015-05-01
We systematically investigate the electron transport through double quantum dots (DQD) with particular emphasis on the spin-flip scattering of an electron in the DQD. By means of the slave-boson mean-field approximation, we calculate the linear conductance and the transmission in the Kondo regime at zero temperature. The obtained results show that both the linear conductance and transmission probability are quite sensitive to the spin-flip strength when the DQD structure is changed among the serial, parallel and T-shaped. It is suggested that such a theoretical model can be used to study the physical phenomenon related to the spin manipulation transport.
Agnello, M.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Calvo, D.; Gianotti, P.; Iazzi, F.; Lamberti, C.; Minetti, B. ); Balocco, E. )
1992-10-01
This paper reports on a neutron spectrometer based on the double scattering technique which has been designed and built at the Laboratorio Tecnologico of INFN - Turin (Italy) for Cold Fusion experiments. The operating principle for the reconstruction of the energy can be applied to various fields (neutron emission from sources, fission and fusion) and is described together with the performed tests: a resolution of less than 560 KeV FWHM has been obtained for neutrons of 2.45 MeV, in a typical running configuration.
Double folding cluster potential for {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C elastic scattering
Hassanain, M. A.; Ibraheem, Awad A.; Farid, M. El-Azab
2008-03-15
Using the alpha ({alpha})-cluster structure of {sup 12}C nucleus, two versions of the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C real double folded optical potentials have been generated based upon effective {alpha}-{alpha},{alpha}-nucleon (N) and N-N interactions. The obtained potentials, in conjunction with shallow phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary parts, successfully reproduce the elastic scattering differential cross section for 12 sets of data over the broad energy range 70-360 MeV. No renormalization of the real folded potentials is required to fit the data. The energy dependence of the extracted real and imaginary volume integrals and total reaction cross section is investigated.
Role of elastic projectile-electron scattering in double ionization of helium by fast proton impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, M.; Ciappina, M. F.; Kirchner, T.; Fischer, D.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.
2009-04-01
We present a systematic study of atomic four-body fragmentation dynamics. To this end we have measured a variety of multiple differential double ionization cross sections for 6 MeV p+He collisions. The data are compared to a first-order calculation with correlated electrons and to a simulation representing a second-order process, with some experimental results seemingly in favor of the first, others in agreement with the second approach. This apparent conflict can be resolved by accounting for elastic scattering between the projectile and one electron already promoted to the continuum through electron-electron correlation in the first-order process.
Partonic Transverse Momentum Distributions
Rossi, Patrizia
2010-08-04
In recent years parton distributions have been generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom and new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) parton distributions and fragmentation functions were introduced. Different experiments worldwide (HERMES, COMPASS, CLAS, JLab-Hall A) have measurements of TMDs in semi-inclusive DIS processes as one of their main focuses of research. TMD studies are also an important part of the present and future Drell-Yan experiments at RICH and JPARC and GSI, respectively, Studies of TMDs are also one of the main driving forces of the Jefferson Lab (JLab) 12 GeV upgrade project. Progress in phenomenology and theory is flourishing as well. In this talk an overview of the latest developments in studies of TMDs will be given and newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as planned near term and future measurements will be discussed.
Are partons confined tachyons?
Noyes, H.P.
1996-03-01
The author notes that if hadrons are gravitationally stabilized ``black holes``, as discrete physics suggests, it is possible that partons, and in particular quarks, could be modeled as tachyons, i.e. particles having v{sup 2} > c{sup 2}, without conflict with the observational fact that neither quarks nor tachyons have appeared as ``free particles``. Some consequences of this model are explored.
Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6
Nilsen, Gøran. J.; Thompson, Corey M.; Ehlers, Georg; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Greedan, John E.
2015-02-23
Here we investigated diffuse magnetic scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6 using polarized neutrons. Consistent with previous reports, the material shows two apparent transitions at 47 and 36 K to an eventual type I face-centered-cubic magnetic ground state. The (100) magnetic reflection shows different behavior from the five other observed reflections upon heating from 1.8 K, with the former broadening well beyond the resolution limit near 36 K. Closer examination of the latter group reveals a small, but clear, increase in peak widths between 36 and 47 K, indicating that this regime is dominated by short-range spin correlations.more » Diffuse magnetic scattering persists above 47 K near the position of (100) to at least 200 K, consistent with strong frustration. Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the diffuse scattering from 45 to 200 K finds that the spin-spin correlations between nearest and next-nearest neighbors are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively, at temperatures near the upper ordering temperature, but both become antiferromagnetic and of similar magnitude above 100 K. The significance of this unusual crossover is discussed in light of the super-superexchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in this material and the demands of type I order. The dimensionality of the correlations is addressed by reconstructing the scattering in the (hk0) plane using the RMC spin configurations. This indicates that one-dimensional spin correlations dominate at temperatures close to the first transition. In addition, a comparison between mean-field calculations and (hk0) scattering implies that further neighbor couplings play a significant role in the selection of the ground state. Finally, the results and interpretation are compared with those recently published for monoclinic Sr2YRuO6, and similarities and differences are emphasized.« less
Cancellation of Glauber Gluon Exchange in the Double Drell-Yan Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Ostermeier, Daniel; Plößl, Peter; Schäfer, Andreas
2016-06-01
For any factorisation proof, a crucial step is a demonstration of the cancellation of so-called Glauber gluons. We summarise a recent paper in which we demonstrated this cancellation for double Drell-Yan production (the double parton scattering process in which a pair of electroweak gauge bosons is produced), both for the integrated cross section and for the cross section differential in the boson transverse momenta.
Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.
2015-03-19
Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized ^{14}NH_{3} target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.
How large is the gluon polarization in the statistical parton distributions approach?
Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco
2015-04-10
We review the theoretical foundations of the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions and we show that by using some recent experimental results from Deep Inelastic Scattering, we are able to improve the description of the data by means of a new determination of the parton distributions. We will see that a large gluon polarization emerges, giving a significant contribution to the proton spin.
How large is the gluon polarization in the statistical parton distributions approach?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco
2015-04-01
We review the theoretical foundations of the quantum statistical approach to parton distributions and we show that by using some recent experimental results from Deep Inelastic Scattering, we are able to improve the description of the data by means of a new determination of the parton distributions. We will see that a large gluon polarization emerges, giving a significant contribution to the proton spin.
Double distributions and evolution equations
A.V. Radyushkin
1998-05-01
Applications of perturbative QCD to deeply virtual Compton scattering and hard exclusive meson electroproduction processes require a generalization of usual parton distributions for the case when long-distance information is accumulated in nonforward matrix elements < p{prime} {vert_bar}O(0,z){vert_bar}p > of quark and gluon light-cone operators. In their previous papers the authors used two types of nonperturbative functions parameterizing such matrix elements: double distributions F(x,y;t) and nonforward distribution functions F{sub {zeta}}(X;t). Here they discuss in more detail the double distributions (DD's) and evolution equations which they satisfy. They propose simple models for F(x,y;t=0) DD's with correct spectral and symmetry properties which also satisfy the reduction relations connecting them to the usual parton densities f(x). In this way, they obtain self-consistent models for the {zeta}-dependence of nonforward distributions. They show that, for small {zeta}, one can easily obtain nonforward distributions (in the X > {zeta} region) from the parton densities: F{sub {zeta}} (X;t=0) {approx} f(X{minus}{zeta}/2).
Scattering equations, twistor-string formulas and double-soft limits in four dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Song; Liu, Zhengwen; Wu, Jun-Bao
2016-07-01
We study scattering equations and formulas for tree amplitudes of various theories in four dimensions, in terms of spinor helicity variables and on-shell superspace for supersymmetric theories. As originally obtained in Witten's twistor string theory and other twistor-string models, the equations can take either polynomial or rational forms, and we clarify the simple relation between them. We present new, four-dimensional formulas for all tree amplitudes in the non-linear sigma model, a special Galileon theory and the maximally supersymmetric completion of the Dirac-Born-Infeld theory. Furthermore, we apply the formulas to study various double-soft theorems in these theories, including the emissions of a pair of soft photons, fermions and scalars for super-amplitudes in super-DBI theory.
Large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne studies of neutrons and gamma rays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zych, A. D.; Herzo, D.; Koga, R.; Millard, W. A.; Moon, S.; Ryan, J.; Wilson, R.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.
1975-01-01
A large area double scattering telescope for balloon-borne research is described. It measures the flux, energy and direction of 2-100 MeV neutrons and 0.5-30 MeV gamma rays. These measurements are made using time-of-flight and pulse height analysis techniques with two large tanks of mineral oil liquid scintillator. Results from Monte Carlo calculations of the efficiency, energy resolution and angular resolution are presented and the electronics implementation for the processing of 80 photomultiplier tubes signals will be discussed. The detector weighs 800 kg with a large part of this weight being the liquid scintillator (320 kg). It will be flown at 3 mbars for flight durations up to 40 hours. The first flight is planned for Spring, 1975.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Shusu
2009-10-01
The measurement of event anisotropy, often called v2, provides a powerful tool for studying the properties of hot and dense medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. The important discoveries of partonic collectivity and the brand-new process for hadronization - quark coalescence were obtained through a systematic analysis of the v2 for 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC [1]. However, early dynamic information might be masked by later hadronic rescatterings. Multistrange hadrons (φ, ξ and φ) with their large mass and presumably small hadronic cross sections should be less sensitive to hadronic rescattering in the later stage of the collisions and therefore a good probe of the early stage of the collision. We will present the measurement of v2 of π, p, KS^0, λ, ξ, φ and φ in heavy ion collisions. In minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV, a significant amount of elliptic flow, almost identical to other mesons and baryons, is observed for φ and φ. Experimental observations of pT dependence of v2 of identified particles at RHIC support partonic collectivity. [4pt] [1] B. I. Abelev et al., (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 77, 054901 (2008).
Investigating GPDs in the framework of the double distribution model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazari, F.; Mirjalili, A.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we construct the generalized parton distribution (GPD) in terms of the kinematical variables x, ξ, t, using the double distribution model. By employing these functions, we could extract some quantities which makes it possible to gain a three-dimensional insight into the nucleon structure function at the parton level. The main objective of GPDs is to combine and generalize the concepts of ordinary parton distributions and form factors. They also provide an exclusive framework to describe the nucleons in terms of quarks and gluons. Here, we first calculate, in the Double Distribution model, the GPD based on the usual parton distributions arising from the GRV and CTEQ phenomenological models. Obtaining quarks and gluons angular momenta from the GPD, we would be able to calculate the scattering observables which are related to spin asymmetries of the produced quarkonium. These quantities are represented by AN and ALS. We also calculate the Pauli and Dirac form factors in deeply virtual Compton scattering. Finally, in order to compare our results with the existing experimental data, we use the difference of the polarized cross-section for an initial longitudinal leptonic beam and unpolarized target particles (ΔσLU). In all cases, our obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
A GRAVITATIONAL DOUBLE-SCATTERING MECHANISM FOR GENERATING HIGH-VELOCITY OBJECTS DURING HALO MERGERS
Samsing, Johan
2015-02-01
We present a dynamical model that describes how halo particles can receive a significant energy kick from the merger between their own host halo and a target halo. This could provide a possible explanation for some high-velocity objects, including extended systems like globular clusters (GCs). In the model we especially introduce a double-scattering mechanism, where a halo particle receives a significant part of its total energy kick by first undergoing a gravitational deflection by the target halo and subsequently by its original host halo. This generates an energy kick that is due to the relative velocity between the halos during the deflections. We derive analytically the total kick energy of the particle, which is composed of energy from the double-scattering mechanism and tidal fields, as a function of its position in its original host halo just before merger. In the case of a 1:10 merger, we find that the presented mechanisms can easily generate particles with a velocity approximately two times the virial velocity of the target halo. This motivates us to suggest that the high velocity of the recently discovered GC HVGC-1 can be explained by a head-on halo merger. Finally, we illustrate the orbital evolution of high-velocity particles outside the virial sphere of the target halo by solving the equation of motion in an expanding universe. We find a sweet spot around a scale factor of 0.3-0.5 for ejecting particles into large orbits, which can easily reach beyond approximately five virial radii.
A Gravitational Double-scattering Mechanism for Generating High-velocity Objects during Halo Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samsing, Johan
2015-02-01
We present a dynamical model that describes how halo particles can receive a significant energy kick from the merger between their own host halo and a target halo. This could provide a possible explanation for some high-velocity objects, including extended systems like globular clusters (GCs). In the model we especially introduce a double-scattering mechanism, where a halo particle receives a significant part of its total energy kick by first undergoing a gravitational deflection by the target halo and subsequently by its original host halo. This generates an energy kick that is due to the relative velocity between the halos during the deflections. We derive analytically the total kick energy of the particle, which is composed of energy from the double-scattering mechanism and tidal fields, as a function of its position in its original host halo just before merger. In the case of a 1:10 merger, we find that the presented mechanisms can easily generate particles with a velocity approximately two times the virial velocity of the target halo. This motivates us to suggest that the high velocity of the recently discovered GC HVGC-1 can be explained by a head-on halo merger. Finally, we illustrate the orbital evolution of high-velocity particles outside the virial sphere of the target halo by solving the equation of motion in an expanding universe. We find a sweet spot around a scale factor of 0.3-0.5 for ejecting particles into large orbits, which can easily reach beyond approximately five virial radii.
Polarization effects in double open-charm production at LHCb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echevarría, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian
2015-04-01
Double open-charm production is one of the most promising channels to disentangle single from double parton scattering (DPS) and study different properties of DPS. Several studies of the DPS contributions have been made. A missing ingredient so far has been the study of polarization effects, arising from spin correlations between the two partons inside an unpolarized proton. We investigate the impact polarization has on the double open-charm cross section. We show that the longitudinally polarized gluons can give significant contributions to the cross section, but for most of the considered kinematic region only have a moderate effect on the shape. We compare our findings to the LHCb data in the D 0 D 0 final state, identify observables where polarization does have an impact on the distribution of the final state particles, and suggest measurements which could lead to first experimental indications of, or limits on, polarization in DPS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martel, P. P.; Miskimen, R.; Aguar-Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J.; Akondi, C. S.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H. J.; Barnes, W.; Beck, R.; Bernstein, A.; Borisov, N.; Braghieri, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Cherepnya, S.; Collicott, C.; Costanza, S.; Denig, A.; Dieterle, M.; Downie, E. J.; Fil'kov, L. V.; Garni, S.; Glazier, D. I.; Gradl, W.; Gurevich, G.; Hall Barrientos, P.; Hamilton, D.; Hornidge, D.; Howdle, D.; Huber, G. M.; Jude, T. C.; Kaeser, A.; Kashevarov, V. L.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kondratiev, R.; Korolija, M.; Krusche, B.; Lazarev, A.; Lisin, V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mancell, J.; Manley, D. M.; Meyer, W.; Middleton, D. G.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Nefkens, B. M. K.; Neganov, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Oberle, M.; Ortega Spina, H.; Ostrick, M.; Ott, P.; Otte, P. B.; Oussena, B.; Pedroni, P.; Polonski, A.; Polyansky, V.; Prakhov, S.; Rajabi, A.; Reicherz, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Sarty, A.; Schrauf, S.; Schumann, S.; Sikora, M. H.; Starostin, A.; Steffen, O.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strub, T.; Supek, I.; Thiel, M.; Tiator, L.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M.; Usov, Y.; Watts, D. P.; Witthauer, L.; Werthmüller, D.; Wolfes, M.; A2 Collaboration at MAMI
2015-03-01
The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to extract the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton scattering. Double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetries on the proton were measured in the Δ (1232 ) region using circularly polarized incident photons and a transversely polarized proton target at the Mainz Microtron. Fits to asymmetry data were performed using a dispersion model calculation and a baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation, and a separation of all four proton spin polarizabilities in the multipole basis was achieved. The analysis based on a dispersion model calculation yields γE 1 E 1=-3.5 ±1.2 , γM 1 M 1=3.16 ±0.85 , γE 1 M 2=-0.7 ±1.2 , and γM 1 E 2=1.99 ±0.29 , in units of 1 0-4 fm4 .
Global QCD Analysis of Polarized Parton Densities
Stratmann, Marco
2009-08-04
We focus on some highlights of a recent, first global Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the helicity parton distributions of the nucleon, mainly the evidence for a rather small gluon polarization over a limited region of momentum fraction and for interesting flavor patterns in the polarized sea. It is examined how the various sets of data obtained in inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and polarized proton-proton collisions help to constrain different aspects of the quark, antiquark, and gluon helicity distributions. Uncertainty estimates are performed using both the robust Lagrange multiplier technique and the standard Hessian approach.
Nonperturbative approach to the parton model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simonov, Yu. A.
2016-02-01
In this paper, the nonperturbative parton distributions, obtained from the Lorentz contracted wave functions, are analyzed in the formalism of many-particle Fock components and their properties are compared to the standard perturbative distributions. We show that the collinear and IR divergencies specific for perturbative evolution treatment are absent in the nonperturbative version, however for large momenta pi2 ≫ σ (string tension), the bremsstrahlung kinematics is restored. A preliminary discussion of possible nonperturbative effects in DIS and high energy scattering is given, including in particular a possible role of multihybrid states in creating ridge-type effects.
Optical vector analysis based on double-sideband modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering.
Qing, Ting; Li, Shupeng; Xue, Min; Pan, Shilong
2016-08-01
A high-resolution and high-accuracy optical vector analysis based on optical double-sideband modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Different from the conventional OVA based on optical single-sideband modulation, in which the measurement range is limited by the bandwidth of the microwave and optoelectronic components, and the measurement accuracy is restricted by the high-order sidebands, the proposed technique measures the magnitude and phase responses by making use of both ±1st-order sidebands without spectrum response aliasing. As a result, the measurement range is doubled, and the high-order, sideband-induced errors only appear at specific frequencies that are predictable and removable. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out. The transmission response of a fiber Bragg grating, in a range of 80 GHz, is measured with a resolution of less than 667 kHz by using 40 GHz microwave components. PMID:27472646
Chen, Peili; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Hu, Xiaoli
2011-01-01
The interaction between palladium(II)-aminophylline and fluorescein sodium was investigated by resonance Rayleigh scattering, second-order scattering and frequency doubling scattering spectrum. In pH 4.4 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer medium, aminophylline (Ami) reacted with palladium(II) to form chelate cation([Pd(Ami)]2+), which further reacted with fluorescein sodium (FS) to form ternary mixed ligand complex [Pd(Ami)(FS)2]. As a result, resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), second-order scattering (SOS) and frequency doubling scattering spectrum (FDS) were enhanced. The maximum scattering wavelengths of [Pd(Ami)(FS)2] were located at 300 nm (RRS), 650 nm (SOS) and 304 nm (FDS). The scattering intensities were proportional to the Ami concentration in a certain range and the detection limits were 7.3 ng mL(-1) (RRS), 32.9 ng mL(-1) (SOS) and 79.1 ng mL(-1) (FDS), respectively. Based on it, the new simple, rapid, and sensitive scattering methods have been proposed to determine Ami in urine and serum samples. Moreover, the formation mechanism of [Pd(Ami)(FS)2] and the reasons for enhancement of RRS were fully discussed. PMID:21163688
PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS
VENUGOPALAN,R.
1999-03-20
Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions.
Parton Distributions in the Nucleon and the Pauli Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buccella, Franco; Soffer, Jacques
The Pauli principle is used, together with some deep inelastic scattering data, to guide us in making reasonable assumptions for various polarized parton distributions in terms of unpolarized distributions. We relate the violation of the Gottfried and Ellis-Jaffe sum rules and we anticipate a substantial violation of the Bjorken sum rule.
Zang, Jie; Cong, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhang, Xingyu; Qin, Zengguang; Liu, Zhaojun; Lu, Jianren; Wu, Dong; Fu, Qiang; Jiang, Shiqi; Zhang, Shaojun
2016-04-01
This paper presents the tunable Stokes laser characteristics of KTiOAsO_{4} (KTA) crystal based on stimulated polariton scattering (SPS). When the pumping laser wavelength is 1064.2 nm, the KTA Stokes wave can be discontinuously tuned from 1077.9 to 1088.4 nm with four gaps from 1079.0 to 1080.1 nm, from 1080.8 to 1082.8 nm, from 1083.6 to 1085.5 nm, and from 1085.8 to 1086.8 nm. When a frequency doubling crystal LiB_{3}O_{5} (LBO) is inserted into the Stokes laser cavity, the frequency-doubled wave can be discontinuously tuned from 539.0 to 539.5 nm, from 540.1 to 540.4 nm, from 541.3 to 541.8 nm, from 542.7 to 542.9 nm and from 543.4 to 544.2 nm. With a pumping pulse energy of 130.0 mJ and an output coupler reflectivity of about 30%, the obtained maximum Stokes laser pulse energy at 1078.6 nm is 33.9 mJ and the obtained maximum frequency-doubled laser pulse energy at 543.8 nm is 15.7 mJ. By using the most probably coupled transverse optical modes obtained from the literature, the polariton refractive indexes, and the simplified polariton Sellmeier equations, the polariton dispersion curve is obtained. The formation of the Stokes frequency gaps is explained. PMID:27137044
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dean, David Jarvis
1991-02-01
The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a dynamical 3 + 1-dimensional model of interacting hadrons in relativistic collisions. The model incorporates the valence quark structure functions of the hadrons into the dynamical Nambu-Goto string picture. The nucleon is viewed as an ensemble average of various initial string configurations such that the flavor averaged valence quark structure function is reproduced. A stochastic decay mechanism is also developed and applied to string fragmentation (hadronization). The interaction e^+e^-togamma ^{*}to q| q is studied at energies from sqrt{s} = 14 to 30 GeV, and decay parameters are chosen such that the correct experimental multiplicity of particles is obtained. Transverse momentum production is obtained by dynamically generating q| q pairs according to a phenomenological momentum distribution. The interaction mechanism between two colliding nucleons is based on a quark-quark scattering and exchange. The quark scattering cross section is parameterized to reproduce the experimental results. The interactions coupled with the hadronization mechanism successfully reproduce many of the observed inclusive distributions. These include, the charged particle, rapidity, scaled parallel momentum, and p_| distributions. At the present stage of numerical calculations p_ | < 1.1 GeV region has been studied. The model interaction is capable of investigating higher p_| values, which require better statistics and more computing time. Using this interaction, pp collisions at sqrt{s} = 19.4 and 53 GeV are studied and reasonable fits to data are obtained. A further application of the model involves the study of the nuclear attenuation effects observed in e^-A when compared to e ^-p collision experiments. These effects are also observed in the string-parton calculation. At energies of v < 10 GeV the nuclear medium influences the hadronization process. At higher energies the effect is negligible.
Quantum Statistical Parton Distributions and the Spin Crisis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buccella, F.; Miele, G.; Tancredi, N.
1996-10-01
Quantum statistical distributions for partons provide a fair description of deep inelastic scattering data at Q2 = 3 and 10 (GeV/c)2. Study of the polarized structure functions seems to suggest an alternative possible solution of the spin crisis based on the Pauli principle. In this scheme, in fact, it becomes apparent that the defects of the Gottfried sum rule and Ellis-Jaffe sum rule for the proton are strongly connected. This possibility finds particular evidence from the phenomenological observation that the relation Δu = 2$tilde{F} + u - d - 1 seems to be satisfied well by parton distributions.
A triple axis double crystal multiple reflection camera for ultra small angle X-ray scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambard, Jacques; Lesieur, Pierre; Zemb, Thomas
1992-06-01
To extend the domain of small angle X-ray scattering requires multiple reflection crystals to collimate the beam. A double crystal, triple axis X-ray camera using multiple reflection channel cut crystals is described. Procedures for measuring the desmeared scattering cross-section on absolute scale are described as well as the measurement from several typical samples : fibrils of collagen, 0.3 μm diameter silica spheres, 0.16 μm diameter interacting latex spheres, porous lignite coal, liquid crystals in a surfactant-water system, colloidal crystal of 0.32 μm diameter silica spheres. L'extension du domaine de diffusion des rayons-X vers les petits angles demande l'emploi de cristaux à réflexions multiples pour collimater le faisceau. Nous décrivons une caméra à rayons-X à trois axes où les réflexions multiples sont réalisées dans deux cristaux à gorge. Nous donnons ensuite les procédures de déconvolution pour obtenir la section efficace de diffusion en échelle absolue, ainsi que les résultats des mesures effectuées avec plusieurs échantillons typiques : fibres de collagène, sphères de silice de 0,3 μm de diamètre, sphères de latex de 0,16 μm de diamètre en interaction, charbon lignite poreux, cristaux liquides formés dans un système eau-tensioactif, solution colloïdale de sphères de silice de 0,32 μm de diamètre.
Helicity-dependent generalized parton distributions and composite constituent quarks
Scopetta, Sergio; Vento, Vicente
2005-01-01
An approach, recently proposed to calculate the nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in a constituent quark model (CQM) scenario, in which the constituent quarks are taken as complex systems, is used to obtain helicity-dependent GPDs. They are obtained from the wave functions of the nonrelativistic CQM of Isgur and Karl, convoluted with the helicity-dependent GPDs of the constituent quarks themselves. The latter are modeled by using the polarized structure functions of the constituent quark, the double distribution representation of GPDs, and a phenomenological constituent quark form factor. The present approach permits us to access a kinematical range corresponding to both the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi and the Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage regions, for small values of the momentum transfer and of the skewedness parameter. In this kinematical region, the present calculation represents a prerequisite for the evaluation of cross sections relevant to deeply virtual Compton scattering. In particular, we have calculated the leading twist helicity-dependent GPD H-tilde and, from our expressions, its general relations with the nonrelativistic definition of the axial form factor and with the leading twist polarized quark density are consistently recovered.
Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration
Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.
2012-07-15
We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.
Tuning Interior Nanogaps of Double-shelled Au/Ag Nanoboxes for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Zhang, Weiqing; Rahmani, Mohsen; Niu, Wenxin; Ravaine, Serge; Hong, Minghui; Lu, Xianmao
2015-01-01
Double-shelled Au/Ag hollow nanoboxes with precisely controlled interior nanogaps (1 to 16 nm) were synthesized for gap-tunable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The double-shelled nanoboxes were prepared via a two-step galvanic replacement reaction approach using Ag nanocubes as the templates, while 4-aminothiolphenol (4-ATP) as SERS probe molecules were loaded between the two shells. More than 10-fold enhancement of SERS is observed from the double-shelled nanoboxes than Ag nanocubes. In addition, the SERS of the double-shelled nanoboxes increase significantly with the decrease of gap size, consistent with the theoretical prediction that smaller gap size induces larger localized electromagnetic enhancement. PMID:25670352
Advanced light-scattering materials: Double-textured ZnO:B films grown by LP-MOCVD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addonizio, M. L.; Spadoni, A.; Antonaia, A.
2013-12-01
Double-textured ZnO:B layers with enhanced optical scattering in both short and long wavelength regions have been successfully fabricated using MOCVD technique through a three step process. Growth of double-textured structures has been induced by wet etching on polycrystalline ZnO surface. Our double-layer structure consists of a first ZnO:B layer wet etched and subsequently used as substrate for a second ZnO:B layer deposition. Polycrystalline ZnO:B layers were etched by utilizing diluted solutions of fluoridic acid (HF), chloridric acid (HCl) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and their effect on surface morphology modification was systematically investigated. The morphology of the second deposited ZnO layer strongly depended on the surface properties of the etched ZnO first layer. Growth of cauliflower-like texture was induced by protrusions presence on the HCl etched surface. Optimized double-layer structure shows a cauliflower-like double texture with higher RMS roughness and increased spectral haze values in both short and long wavelength regions, compared to conventional pyramidal-like single texture. Furthermore, this highly scattering structure preserves excellent optical and electrical properties.
Illuminating the 1/x Moment of Parton Distribution Functions
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; /Indiana U.
2007-10-15
The Weisberger relation, an exact statement of the parton model, elegantly relates a high-energy physics observable, the 1/x moment of parton distribution functions, to a nonperturbative low-energy observable: the dependence of the nucleon mass on the value of the quark mass or its corresponding quark condensate. We show that contemporary fits to nucleon structure functions fail to determine this 1/x moment; however, deeply virtual Compton scattering can be described in terms of a novel F1/x(t) form factor which illuminates this physics. An analysis of exclusive photon-induced processes in terms of the parton-nucleon scattering amplitude with Regge behavior reveals a failure of the high Q2 factorization of exclusive processes at low t in terms of the Generalized Parton-Distribution Functions which has been widely believed to hold in the past. We emphasize the need for more data for the DVCS process at large t in future or upgraded facilities.
Charge symmetry at the partonic level
Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-07-01
This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.
General Helicity Formalism for Polarized Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering
Anselmino, M; Boglione, M; D’Alesio, U; Melis, S; Murgia, F; Nocera, E R; Prokudin, A
2011-06-01
We study polarized Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) processes, within the QCD parton model and a factorization scheme, taking into account all transverse motions, of partons inside the initial proton and of hadrons inside the fragmenting partons. We use the helicity formalism. The elementary interactions are computed at LO with non collinear exact kinematics, which introduces phases in the expressions of their helicity amplitudes. Several Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) distribution and fragmentation functions appear and contribute to the cross sections and to spin asymmetries. Our results agree with those obtained with different formalisms, showing the consistency of our approach. The full expression for single and double spin asymmetries is derived. Simplified, explicit analytical expressions, convenient for phenomenological studies, are obtained assuming a factorized Gaussian dependence on intrinsic momenta for the TMDs.
Experimental consistency in parton distribution fitting
Pumplin, Jon
2010-04-01
The recently developed 'data set diagonalization' method is applied to measure compatibility of the data sets that are used to determine parton distribution functions. Discrepancies among the experiments are found to be somewhat larger than is predicted by propagating the published experimental errors according to Gaussian statistics. The results support a tolerance criterion of {Delta}{chi}{sup 2{approx_equal}}10 to estimate the 90% confidence range for parton distribution function uncertainties. No basis is found in the data sets for the larger {Delta}{chi}{sup 2} values that are in current use, though it may be necessary to retain those larger values until improved methods can be developed to take account of systematic errors in applying the theory, including the effect of parametrization dependence. The data set diagonalization method also measures how much influence each experiment has on the global fit and identifies experiments that show significant tension with respect to the others. The method is used to explore the contribution from muon scattering experiments, which are found to exhibit the largest discrepancies in the current fit.
Experimental studies of Generalized Parton Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niccolai, Silvia
2015-12-01
Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are nowadays the object of an intense effort of research, in the perspective of understanding nucleon structure. They describe the correlations between the longitudinal momentum and the transverse spatial position of the partons inside the nucleon and they can give access to the contribution of the orbital momentum of the quarks to the nucleon spin. Deeply Virtual Compton scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction on the nucleon, at the quark level, of a real photon, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs of the nucleon. Depending on the target nucleon (proton or neutron) and on the DVCS observable extracted (cross-sections, target- or beam-spin asymmetries, etc.), different sensitivity to the various GPDs for each quark flavor can be exploited. This article is focused on recent promising results, obtained at Jefferson Lab, on cross-sections and asymmetries for DVCS, and their link to GPDs. These data open the way to a “tomographic” representation of the structure of the nucleon, allowing the extraction of transverse-space densities of the quarks at fixed longitudinal momentum. The extensive experimental program to measure GPDs at Jefferson Lab with the 12 GeV-upgraded electron accelerator and the complementary detectors that will be housed in three experimental Halls (A, B and C), will also be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishna Podagatlapalli, G.; Hamad, Syed; Tewari, Surya P.; Sreedhar, S.; Prasad, Muvva D.; Venugopal Rao, S.
2013-02-01
We have fabricated stable silver nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures (NSs) effectively through double ablation of bulk silver substrate immersed in double distilled water using ˜2 ps laser pulses. The effects of multiple/double/single ablation on silver substrates via surface morphology studies along with average size distribution of Ag NPs were investigated. Prepared Ag NPs in solution exhibited yellow color with an absorption peak near 410 nm, assigned to localized surface Plasmon resonance of nano-sized silver. Depending on the ablation parameters average sizes observed were ˜13 nm/˜17 nm in multiple/double ablation case and ˜7 nm in single ablation case. High resolution transmission electron microscope studies highlighted that most of the Ag NPs were spherical and polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphology of the substrates was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. A different scenario was observed in the double ablation case compared to single/multiple ablation case. Double ablation resulted in dome like NSs on the substrate with dimensions of few hundreds of nanometers while single ablation did not. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of Ag NPs were investigated using Z-scan technique with ˜2 ps pulses and corresponding NLO coefficients were obtained. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on multiple/double ablated Ag substrates with adsorbed Rhodamine 6G molecules were carried out using excitation wavelengths of 532 nm, 785 nm, and three orders of enhancement in Raman signal intensity was observed. Furthermore, influence of laser fluence on the fabrication of SERS active Ag substrates with double ablation was also investigated. In this case, Raman spectra of adsorbed Research Department eXplosive (RDX) molecules on ablated surfaces were recorded for 532 nm and 785 nm excitation. Enhancements up to 460 were observed from substrates fabricated at fluences of 12 J/cm2, 16 J/cm2 with
Medium Effects in Parton Distributions
William Detmold, Huey-Wen Lin
2011-12-01
A defining experiment of high-energy physics in the 1980s was that of the EMC collaboration where it was first observed that parton distributions in nuclei are non-trivially related to those in the proton. This result implies that the presence of the nuclear medium plays an important role and an understanding of this from QCD has been an important goal ever since Here we investigate analogous, but technically simpler, effects in QCD and examine how the lowest moment of the pion parton distribution is modified by the presence of a Bose-condensed gas of pions or kaons.
Parton distributions from lattice QCD: an update
Detmold, W; Melnitchouk, W; Thomas, A W
2004-04-01
We review the extraction of parton distributions from their moments calculated in lattice QCD, focusing in particular on their extrapolation to the physical region. As examples, we consider both the unpolarized and polarized isovector parton distributions of the nucleon.
Nuclear modifications of Parton Distribution Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adeluyi, Adeola Adeleke
-called shadowing region. We also investigate the effects of nuclear modifications on observed quantities in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Specifically, we consider deuteron-gold collisions and observables which are directly impacted by modifications, such as pseudorapidity asymmetry and nuclear modification factors. A good description of the shadowing region is afforded by Gribov Theory. Gribov related the shadowing correction to the differential diffractive hadron-nucleon cross section. We generalize Gribov theory to include both the real part of the diffractive scattering amplitude and higher order multiple scattering necessary for heavy nuclei. The diffractive dissociation inputs are taken from experiments. We calculate observables in deuteron-gold collisions. Utilizing the factorization theorem, we use the existing parameterizations of nuclear PDFs and fragmentation functions in a pQCD-improved parton model to calculate nuclear modification factors and pseudorapidity asymmetries. The nuclear modification factor is essentially the ratio of the deuteron-gold cross section to that of the proton-proton cross section scaled by the number of binary collisions. The pseudorapidity asymmetry is the ratio of the cross section in the negative rapidity region relative to that in the equivalent positive rapidity region. Both quantities are sensitive to the effects of nuclear modifications on PDFs. Results are compared to experimental data from the BRAHMS and STAR collaborations.
Parton and valon distributions in the nucleon
Hwa, R.C.; Sajjad Zahir, M.
1981-06-01
Structure functions of the nucleon are analyzed in the valon model in which a nucleon is assumed to be a bound state of three valence quark clusters (valons). At high Q/sup 2/ the structure of the valons is described by leading-order results in the perturbative quantum chromodynamics. From the experimental data on deep-inelastic scattering off protons and neutrons, the flavor-dependent valon distributions in the nucleon are determined. Predictions for the parton distributions are then made for high Q/sup 2/ without guesses concerning the quark and gluon distributions at low Q/sup 2/. The sea-quark and gluon distributions are found to have a sharp peak at very small x. Convenient parametrization is provided which interpolates between different numbers of flavors.
Deeply exclusive processes and generalized parton distributions
Marc Vanderhaegen
2005-02-01
We discuss how generalized parton distributions (GPDs) enter into hard exclusive processes, and focuses on the links between GPDs and elastic nucleon form factors. These links, in the form of sum rules, represent powerful constraints on parameterizations of GPDs. A Regge parameterization for the GPDs at small momentum transfer -t is extended to the large-t region and it is found to catch the basic features of proton and neutron electromagnetic form factor data. This parameterization allows to estimate the quark contribution to the nucleon spin. It is furthermore discussed how these GPDs at large-t enter into two-photon exchange processes and resolve the discrepancy between Rosenbluth and polarization experiments of elastic electron nucleon scattering.
New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2014-01-01
We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.
Double-hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium.
Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotski, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Borissov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Grebeniouk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, J; Lu, S; Ma, B-Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Mikloukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Roelon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P
2006-04-28
The first measurements of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering within the nuclear medium were made with the HERMES spectrometer at DESY HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam. By comparing data for deuterium, nitrogen, krypton, and xenon nuclei, the influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields was investigated. Nuclear effects on the additional hadron are clearly observed, but with little or no difference among nitrogen, krypton, or xenon, and with smaller magnitude than effects seen on previously measured single-hadron multiplicities. The data are compared with models based on partonic energy loss or prehadronic scattering and with a model based on a purely absorptive treatment of the final-state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter. PMID:16712217
Double-Hadron Leptoproduction in the Nuclear Medium
Airapetian, A.; Deconinck, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Taroian, S.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Bailey, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Makins, N.C.R.; Rubin, J.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Boettcher, H.; Gregor, I.M.
2006-04-28
The first measurements of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering within the nuclear medium were made with the HERMES spectrometer at DESY HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam. By comparing data for deuterium, nitrogen, krypton, and xenon nuclei, the influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields was investigated. Nuclear effects on the additional hadron are clearly observed, but with little or no difference among nitrogen, krypton, or xenon, and with smaller magnitude than effects seen on previously measured single-hadron multiplicities. The data are compared with models based on partonic energy loss or prehadronic scattering and with a model based on a purely absorptive treatment of the final-state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.
Neutron inelastic scattering processes as a background for double-{beta} decay experiments
Mei, D.-M.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V.; Kazkaz, K.
2008-05-15
We investigate several Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) and Ge(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions. We measure {gamma}-ray production from Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions that can be a significant background for double-{beta} decay experiments which use lead as a massive inner shield. Particularly worrisome for Ge-based double-{beta} decay experiments are the 2041-keV and 3062-keV {gamma} rays produced via Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}). The former is very close to the {sup 76}Ge double-{beta} decay endpoint energy and the latter has a double escape peak energy near the endpoint. We discuss the implications of these {gamma} rays on past and future double-{beta} decay experiments and estimate the cross section to excite the level that produces the 3062-keV {gamma} ray. Excitation {gamma}-ray lines from Ge(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions are also observed. We consider the contribution of such backgrounds and their impact on the sensitivity of next-generation searches for neutrinoless double-{beta} decay using enriched germanium detectors.
New mechanisms for double charmed meson production at the LHCb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciuła, Rafał; Saleev, Vladimir A.; Shipilova, Alexandra V.; Szczurek, Antoni
2016-07-01
We discuss production of D0D0 (and Dbar0Dbar0) pairs related to the LHCb Collaboration results for √{ s} = 7 TeV in proton-proton scattering. We consider double-parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms of double c c bar production and subsequent cc →D0D0 hadronization as well as double g and mixed gc c bar production with gg →D0D0 and gc →D0D0 hadronization calculated with the help of the scale-dependent hadronization functions of Kniehl et al. Single-parton scattering (SPS) mechanism of digluon production is also taken into account. We compare our results with several correlation observables in azimuthal angle φD0D0 between D0 mesons or in dimeson invariant mass MD0D0. The inclusion of new mechanisms with g →D0 fragmentation leads to larger cross sections, than when including only DPS mechanism cc →D0D0 with standard scale-independent fragmentation functions. Some consequences of the presence of the new mechanisms are discussed. In particular a larger σeff is needed to describe the LHCb data. There is a signature that σeff may depend on transverse momentum of c quarks and/or c bar antiquarks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Fengling; Huang, Wei; Yang, Jidong; Li, Qin
In pH 3.25-3.35 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, albendazole (ABZ) could react with eosin Y (EY) to form a 1:1 ion-association complex, which not only results in the quenching of fluorescence, but also resulted in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and frequency doubling scattering (FDS). Furthermore, a new RRS spectrum will appear, and the maximum RRS wavelength was located at about 356 nm. The detection limit for ABZ were 21.51 ng mL-1 for the fluorophotometry, 6.93 ng mL-1 for the RRS method and 12.89 ng mL-1 for the FDS method. Among them, the RRS method had the highest sensitivity. The experimental conditions were optimized and effects of coexisting substances were evaluated. Meanwhile, the influences of coexisting substances were tested. The methods have been successfully applied to the determination of ABZ in capsules and human urine samples. The composition and structure of the ion-association complex and the reaction mechanism were discussed.
Tian, Fengling; Huang, Wei; Yang, Jidong; Li, Qin
2014-05-21
In pH 3.25-3.35 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, albendazole (ABZ) could react with eosin Y (EY) to form a 1:1 ion-association complex, which not only results in the quenching of fluorescence, but also resulted in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and frequency doubling scattering (FDS). Furthermore, a new RRS spectrum will appear, and the maximum RRS wavelength was located at about 356nm. The detection limit for ABZ were 21.51ng mL(-)(1) for the fluorophotometry, 6.93ng mL(-)(1) for the RRS method and 12.89ng mL(-)(1) for the FDS method. Among them, the RRS method had the highest sensitivity. The experimental conditions were optimized and effects of coexisting substances were evaluated. Meanwhile, the influences of coexisting substances were tested. The methods have been successfully applied to the determination of ABZ in capsules and human urine samples. The composition and structure of the ion-association complex and the reaction mechanism were discussed. PMID:24594885
Working Group I: Parton distributions: Summary report for the HERA LHC Workshop Proceedings
Dittmar, M.; Forte, S.; Glazov, A.; Moch, S.; Alekhin, S.; Altarelli, G.; Andersen, Jeppe R.; Ball, R.D.; Blumlein, J.; Bottcher, H.; Carli, T.; Ciafaloni, M.; Colferai, D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Corcella, G.; Del Debbio, L.; Dissertori, G.; Feltesse, J.; Guffanti, A.; Gwenlan, C.; Huston, J.; /Zurich, ETH /DESY, Zeuthen /Serpukhov, IHEP /CERN /Rome III U. /INFN, Rome3 /Cambridge U. /Edinburgh U. /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Oxford U. /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /Michigan State U. /Uppsala U. /Barcelona U., ECM /Podgorica U. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Fermilab /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II
2005-11-01
We provide an assessment of the impact of parton distributions on the determination of LHC processes, and of the accuracy with which parton distributions (PDFs) can be extracted from data, in particular from current and forthcoming HERA experiments. We give an overview of reference LHC processes and their associated PDF uncertainties, and study in detail W and Z production at the LHC.We discuss the precision which may be obtained from the analysis of existing HERA data, tests of consistency of HERA data from different experiments, and the combination of these data. We determine further improvements on PDFs which may be obtained from future HERA data (including measurements of F{sub L}), and from combining present and future HERA data with present and future hadron collider data. We review the current status of knowledge of higher (NNLO) QCD corrections to perturbative evolution and deep-inelastic scattering, and provide reference results for their impact on parton evolution, and we briefly examine non-perturbative models for parton distributions. We discuss the state-of-the art in global parton fits, we assess the impact on them of various kinds of data and of theoretical corrections, by providing benchmarks of Alekhin and MRST parton distributions and a CTEQ analysis of parton fit stability, and we briefly presents proposals for alternative approaches to parton fitting. We summarize the status of large and small x resummation, by providing estimates of the impact of large x resummation on parton fits, and a comparison of different approaches to small x resummation, for which we also discuss numerical techniques.
Nuclear Parton Distributions with the LHeC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Max
2016-03-01
Nuclear parton distributions are far from being known today because of an infant experimental base. Based on design studies of the LHeC and using new simulations, of the inclusive neutral and charged current cross section measurements and of the strange, charm and beauty densities in nuclei, it is demonstrated how that energy frontier electron-ion collider would unfold the complete set of nuclear PDFs in a hugely extended kinematic range of deep inelastic scattering, extending in Bjorken x down to values near to 10-6 in the perturbative domain. Together with a very precise and complete set of proton PDFs, the LHeC nPDFs will thoroughly change the theoretical understanding of parton dynamics and structure inside hadrons.
Projective symmetry of partons in Kitaev's honeycomb model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mellado, Paula
2015-03-01
Low-energy states of quantum spin liquids are thought to involve partons living in a gauge-field background. We study the spectrum of Majorana fermions of Kitaev's honeycomb model on spherical clusters. The gauge field endows the partons with half-integer orbital angular momenta. As a consequence, the multiplicities reflect not the point-group symmetries of the cluster, but rather its projective symmetries, operations combining physical and gauge transformations. The projective symmetry group of the ground state is the double cover of the point group. We acknowledge Fondecyt under Grant No. 11121397, Conicyt under Grant No. 79112004, and the Simons Foundation (P.M.); the Max Planck Society and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (O.P.); and the US DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER46544 (O.T.).
Bueno, Juan M.; Pérez, Guillermo; Benito, Antonio; Artal, Pablo
2015-01-01
We compared objective Double-Pass (DP) image quality data with subjective visual parameters measured within the same modified instrument for different amounts of scatter. The original DP imaging channel of a clinical instrument was maintained intact and two additional channels were included, one for visual testing and another for tear film (TF) imaging by using a retro-illumination technique. Contrast sensitivity (CS) was compared with measurements of the Objective Scattering Index (OSI) obtained from DP retinal images corresponding to different scatter levels induced by pre-defined filters. OSI values were correlated with the change in CS for different spatial frequencies measured with the same instrument. Since TF and DP images were recorded at the same rate, this provided additional information about the dynamic spatial stability of the tear film. This new DP instrument has been proven to provide accuracy and repeatability, and to be suitable for clinical diagnosis, with a complete evaluation of the eye’s performance by a simultaneous objective and subjective assessment under the same experimental conditions. PMID:26713198
Bueno, Juan M; Pérez, Guillermo; Benito, Antonio; Artal, Pablo
2015-12-01
We compared objective Double-Pass (DP) image quality data with subjective visual parameters measured within the same modified instrument for different amounts of scatter. The original DP imaging channel of a clinical instrument was maintained intact and two additional channels were included, one for visual testing and another for tear film (TF) imaging by using a retro-illumination technique. Contrast sensitivity (CS) was compared with measurements of the Objective Scattering Index (OSI) obtained from DP retinal images corresponding to different scatter levels induced by pre-defined filters. OSI values were correlated with the change in CS for different spatial frequencies measured with the same instrument. Since TF and DP images were recorded at the same rate, this provided additional information about the dynamic spatial stability of the tear film. This new DP instrument has been proven to provide accuracy and repeatability, and to be suitable for clinical diagnosis, with a complete evaluation of the eye's performance by a simultaneous objective and subjective assessment under the same experimental conditions. PMID:26713198
Huang, Danhong; Lyo, S.K.
1999-08-09
The effect of higher-order corrections to the Born approximation is studied for the previously obtained giant conductance enhancement in tunnel-coupled double quantum wires in a parallel magnetic field. The relative correction is found to be significant and depends on various effects such as the magnetic field, electron and impurity densities, impurity positions, symmetric and asymmetric doping profiles, and center barrier thickness.
Analysis of the double bounce scattering mechanism of buildings in VHR SAR data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunner, D.; Bruzzone, L.; Ferro, A.; Fortuny, J.; Lemoine, G.
2008-10-01
This paper presents a detailed experimental study on the behavior of the backscattering of buildings in very high resolution (VHR) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images under varying conditions. The double bounce effect caused by the corner reflector between the front wall of the buildign and its surrounding ground area is an important characterist of the building in VHR SAR. Therefore, we focus on the analysis of the relation between the double bounce effect and the aspect angle of the building. The study is carried out in three phases: i)development of a laboratory experimental setup on a scaled building model under well-controlled conditions with a variety of viewing configurations; ii) validation of the results obtained from the laboratyr measurements with real VHR airborne SAR data; iii) comparison of the above mentioned results with the simulations obtained by two theoretical models derived from electromagnetic theory. The laboratory experiments were carried out at the European Microwave Signature Lab (EMSL) at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC), whie the real airborne SAR images wer acquired by the RAMSES sensor and were processed in order to obtain simulations of COSMO-SkyMed satellite images. The analyses showed that the strength of the double bounce drops rapidly in the low aspect angle range, while it decreases moderately for larter angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thakkar, Disha; Gevriya, Bhavesh; Mashru, R. C.
2014-03-01
Linezolid reacted with palladium to form 1:1 binary cationic chelate which further reacted with eosin dye to form 1:1 ternary ion association complex at pH 4 of Walpole's acetate buffer in the presence of methyl cellulose. As a result not only absorption spectra were changed but Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS), Second-order Scattering (SOS) and Frequency Doubling Scattering (FDS) intensities were greatly enhanced. The analytical wavelengths of RRS, SOS and FDS (λex/λem) of ternary complex were located at 538 nm/538 nm, 240 nm/480 nm and 660 nm/330 nm, respectively. The linearity range for RRS, SOS and FDS methods were 0.01-0.5 μg mL-1, 0.1-2 μg mL-1 and 0.2-1.8 μg mL-1, respectively. The sensitivity order of three methods was as RRS > SOS > FDS. Accuracy of all methods were determined by recovery studies and showed recovery between 98% and 102%. Intraday and inter day precision were checked for all methods and %RSD was found to be less than 2 for all methods. The effects of foreign substances were tested on RRS method and it showed the method had good selectivity. For optimization of process parameter, Taguchi orthogonal array design L8(24) was used and ANOVA was adopted to determine the statistically significant control factors that affect the scattering intensities of methods. The reaction mechanism, composition of ternary ion association complex and reasons for scattering intensity enhancement was discussed in this work.
KOVCHEGOV,Y.V.
2000-04-25
The authors derive an equation determining the small-x evolution of the F{sub 2} structure function of a large nucleus which resumes a cascade of gluons in the leading logarithmic approximation using Mueller's color dipole model. In the traditional language it corresponds to resummation of the pomeron fan diagrams, originally conjectured in the GLR equation. The authors show that the solution of the equation describes the physics of structure functions at high partonic densities, thus allowing them to gain some understanding of the most interesting and challenging phenomena in small-x physics--saturation.
Raman scattering of a photon with frequency doubling by a channelled positron
Kalashnikov, N P; Krokhin, O N
2014-12-31
We have analysed the possibility of appearance of anti-Stokes lines in the spectrum of Raman scattering of a photon by a 'quasi-bound' charged particle in the regime of planar (axial) channelling. It is shown that radiation may emerge at the frequency, which is a combination of the incident photon frequency ω{sub 0} and transition frequency ω{sub i} in the transverse quantised motion of a channelled particle: ω = ω{sub 0} ± 2γ{sup 2}ω{sub i}, where γ is the relativistic (Lorentz) factor of a channelled particle. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
The impact of new neutrino DIS and Drell-Yan data on large-x parton distributions
J.F. Owens; J. Huston; C.E. Keppel; S. Kuhlmann; J.G. Morfin; F. Olness; J. Pumplin; D. Stump
2007-03-01
New data sets have recently become available for neutrino and antineutrino deep inelastic scattering on nuclear targets and for inclusive dimuon production in pp pd interactions. These data sets are sensitive to different combinations of parton distribution functions in the large-x region and, therefore, provide different constraints when incorporated into global parton distribution function fits. We compare and contrast the effects of these new data on parton distribution fits, with special emphasis on the effects at large x. The effects of the use of nuclear targets in the neutrino and antineutrino data sets are also investigated.
The Impact of new neutrino DIS and Drell-Yan data on large-x parton distributions
Owens, J.F.; Huston, J.; Keppel, C.E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Morfin, J.G.; Olness, F.; Pumplin, J.; Stump, D.; /Michigan State U.
2007-02-01
New data sets have recently become available for neutrino and antineutrino deep inelastic scattering on nuclear targets and for inclusive dimuon production in pp and pd interactions. These data sets are sensitive to different combinations of parton distribution functions in the large-x region and, therefore, provide different constraints when incorporated into global parton distribution function fits. We compare and contrast the effects of these new data on parton distribution fits, with special emphasis on the effects at large x. The effects of the use of nuclear targets in the neutrino and antineutrino data sets are also investigated.
Research of the system response of neutron double scatter imaging for MLEM reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, M.; Peng, B. D.; Sheng, L.; Li, K. N.; Zhang, X. P.; Li, Y.; Li, B. K.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, P. W.; Zhang, X. D.; Li, C. H.
2015-03-01
A Maximum Likelihood image reconstruction technique has been applied to neutron scatter imaging. The response function of the imaging system can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, which is very time-consuming if the number of image pixels and particles is large. In this work, to improve time efficiency, an analytical approach based on the probability of neutron interaction and transport in the detector is developed to calculate the system response function. The response function was applied to calculate the relative efficiency of the neutron scatter imaging system as a function of the incident neutron energy. The calculated results agreed with simulations by the MCNP5 software. Then the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction method with the system response function was used to reconstruct data simulated by Monte Carlo method. The results showed that there was good consistency between the reconstruction position and true position. Compared with back-projection reconstruction, the improvement in image quality was obvious, and the locations could be discerned easily for multiple radiation point sources.
Tan, Xuanping; Yang, Jidong; Li, Qin; Yang, Qiong; Shen, Yizhong
2016-05-15
Four simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods were proposed for the simultaneous determination of three β-adrenergic blockade, e.g. atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol. The methods were based on the reaction of the three drugs with erythrosine B (EB) in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH4.6. EB could combine with the drugs to form three ion-association complexes, which resulted in the resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity that is enhanced significantly with new RRS peaks that appeared at 337nm and 370nm, respectively. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of EB was also quenched. The enhanced scattering intensities of the two peaks and the fluorescence quenched intensity of EB were proportional to the concentrations of the drugs, respectively. What is more, the RRS intensity overlapped with the double-wavelength of 337nm and 370nm (so short for DW-RRS) was also proportional to the drugs concentrations. So, a new method with highly sensitive for simultaneous determination of three bisoprolol drugs was established. Finally, the optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors and spectral enhanced mechanism were investigated. The new DW-RRS method has been applied to simultaneously detect the three β-blockers in fresh serum with satisfactory results. PMID:26926395
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Ross, T. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Allmond, J. M.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.
2015-05-01
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were performed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory on enriched 76Ge and 76Se scattering samples. From measurements at incident neutron energies from 2.0 to 4.0 MeV, many new levels were identified and characterized in each nucleus; level lifetimes, transition probabilities, multipole mixing ratios, and other properties were determined. In addition, γ-ray cross sections for the 76Ge(n,n'γ) reaction were measured at neutron energies up to 5.0 MeV, with the goal of determining the cross sections of γ rays in 2040-keV region, which corresponds to the region of interest in the neutrinoless double β decay of 76Ge. Gamma rays from the three strongest branches from the 3952-keV level were observed, but the previously reported 2041-keV γ ray was not. Population cross sections across the range of incident neutron energies were determined for the 3952-keV level, resulting in a cross section of ~0.1 mb for the 2041-keV branch using the previously determined branching ratios. Beyond this, the data from these experiments indicate that previously unreported γ rays from levels in 76Ge can be found in the 2039-keV region.
Inelastic neutron scattering studies of Ge-76 and Se-76: relevance to neutrinoless double-beta decay
Crider, Ben; Peters, Erin; Ross, T.J.; McEllistrem, M; Prados-Estevez, F.; Allmond, James M; Vanhoy, J.R.; Yates, S.W.
2015-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were performed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory on enriched Ge-76 and Se-76 scattering samples. From measurements at incident neutron energies from 2.0 to 4.0 MeV, many new levels were identified and characterized in each nucleus; level lifetimes, transition probabilities, multipole mixing ratios, and other properties were determined. In addition, gamma-ray cross sections for the Ge-76(n,n'gamma) reaction were measured at neutron energies up to 5.0 MeV, with the goal of determining the cross sections of gamma rays in 2040-keV region, which corresponds to the region of interest in the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. Gamma rays from the three strongest branches from the 3952-keV level were observed, but the previously reported 2041-keV gamma ray was not. Population cross sections across the range of incident neutron energies were determined for the 3952-keV level, resulting in a cross section of similar to 0.1 mb for the 2041-keV branch using the previously determined branching ratios. Beyond this, the data from these experiments indicate that previously unreported gamma rays from levels in Ge-76 can be found in the 2039-keV region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xuanping; Yang, Jidong; Li, Qin; Yang, Qiong; Shen, Yizhong
2016-05-01
Four simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods were proposed for the simultaneous determination of three β-adrenergic blockade, e.g. atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol. The methods were based on the reaction of the three drugs with erythrosine B (EB) in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 4.6. EB could combine with the drugs to form three ion-association complexes, which resulted in the resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity that is enhanced significantly with new RRS peaks that appeared at 337 nm and 370 nm, respectively. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of EB was also quenched. The enhanced scattering intensities of the two peaks and the fluorescence quenched intensity of EB were proportional to the concentrations of the drugs, respectively. What is more, the RRS intensity overlapped with the double-wavelength of 337 nm and 370 nm (so short for DW-RRS) was also proportional to the drugs concentrations. So, a new method with highly sensitive for simultaneous determination of three bisoprolol drugs was established. Finally, the optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors and spectral enhanced mechanism were investigated. The new DW-RRS method has been applied to simultaneously detect the three β-blockers in fresh serum with satisfactory results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Allmond, J. M.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.
2015-09-01
The experimental signature in searches for the neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge is a peak near 2039 keV in the spectrum. Given the low probability of the process, it is important that the background in this region be well understood. Inelastic scattering reactions with neutrons from muon-induced interactions and (α ,n ) reactions in the surrounding materials or in the detector can provide contributions to the background. We have measured the production cross sections for γ rays from the 76Ge(n ,n'γ ) reaction in the 2039-keV region at incident neutron energies up to 4.9 MeV. In addition to determining that the cross sections of a previously known 2040.7-keV γ ray from the 3952-keV level in 76Ge are rather small, we find that a larger contribution arises from a 2037.5-keV γ ray which is attributed to a newly identified level at 3147 keV in 76Ge. A third contribution is also possible from another new level at 3577 keV. These results indicate that the 2039-keV region in 76Ge neutrinoless double-β decay searches is more complex than was previously thought.
Crider, Ben; Peters, Erin; Allmond, James M; McEllistrem, M; Prados-Estevez, F.; Ross, T.J.; Vanhoy, J.R.; Yates, S.W.
2015-01-01
The experimental signature in searches for the neutrinoless double- decay of 76Ge is a peak near 2039 keV in the spectrum. Given the low probability of the process, it is important that the background in this region be well understood. Inelastic scattering reactions with neutrons from muon-induced interactions and ( ,n) reactions in the surrounding materials or in the detector can provide contributions to the background. We have measured the production cross sections for rays from the 76Ge(n,n ) reaction in the 2039-keV region at incident neutron energies up to 4.9 MeV. In addition to determining that the cross sectionsmore » of a previously known 2040.7-keV ray from the 3952-keV level in 76 Ge are rather small, we find that a larger contribution arises from a 2037.5-keV ray which is attributed to a newly identified level at 3147 keV in 76Ge. A third contribution is also possible from another new level at 3577 keV. These results indicate that the 2039-keV region in 76Ge neutrinoless double- decay searches is more complex than was previously thought.« less
Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Allmond, J. M.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.
2015-09-11
The experimental signature in searches for the neutrinoless double- decay of 76Ge is a peak near 2039 keV in the spectrum. Given the low probability of the process, it is important that the background in this region be well understood. Moreover, inelastic scattering reactions with neutrons from muon-induced interactions and ( ,n) reactions in the surrounding materials or in the detector can provide contributions to the background. We also measured the production cross sections for rays from the 76Ge(n,n ) reaction in the 2039-keV region at incident neutron energies up to 4.9 MeV. In addition to determining that the crossmore » sections of a previously known 2040.7-keV ray from the 3952-keV level in 76 Ge are rather small, we find that a larger contribution arises from a 2037.5-keV ray which is attributed to a newly identified level at 3147 keV in 76Ge. Finally, a third contribution is also possible from another new level at 3577 keV. These results indicate that the 2039-keV region in 76Ge neutrinoless double- decay searches is more complex than was previously thought.« less
The parton distribution function library
Plothow-Besch, H.
1995-07-01
This article describes an integrated package of Parton Density Functions called PDFLIB which has been added to the CERN Program Library Pool W999 and is labelled as W5051. In this package all the different sets of parton density functions of the Nucleon, Pion and the Photon which are available today have been put together. All these sets have been combined in a consistent way such that they all have similar calling sequences and no external data files have to be read in anymore. A default set has been prepared, although those preferring their own set or wanting to test a new one may do so within the package. The package also offers a program to calculate the strong coupling constant {alpha}, to first or second order. The correct {Lambda}{sub QCD} associated to the selected set of structure functions and the number of allowed flavours with respect to the given Q{sup 2} is automatically used in the calculation. The selection of sets, the program parameters as well as the possibilities to modify the defaults and to control errors occurred during execution are described.
Jet correlations from unintegrated parton distributions
Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.
2008-10-13
Transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions can be introduced gauge-invariantly in QCD from high-energy factorization. We discuss Monte Carlo applications of these distributions to parton showers and jet physics, with a view to the implications for the Monte Carlo description of complex hadronic final states with multiple hard scales at the LHC.
Introduction to Parton-Shower Event Generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höche, Stefan
This lecture discusses the physics implemented by Monte Carlo event generators for hadron colliders. It details the construction of parton showers and the matching of parton showers to fixed-order calculations at higher orders in perturbative QCD. It also discusses approaches to merge calculations for a varying number of jets, the interface to the underlying event and hadronization.
A statistical approach for polarized parton distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Buccella, F.
2002-04-01
A global next-to-leading order QCD analysis of unpolarized and polarized deep-inelastic scattering data is performed with parton distributions constructed in a statistical physical picture of the nucleon. The chiral properties of QCD lead to strong relations between quarks and antiquarks distributions and the importance of the Pauli exclusion principle is also emphasized. We obtain a good description, in a broad range of x and Q^2, of all measured structure functions in terms of very few free parameters. We stress the fact that at RHIC-BNL the ratio of the unpolarized cross sections for the production of W^+ and W^- in pp collisions will directly probe the behavior of the bar d(x) / bar u(x) ratio for x ≥ 0.2, a definite and important test for the statistical model. Finally, we give specific predictions for various helicity asymmetries for the W^±, Z production in pp collisions at high energies, which will be measured with forthcoming experiments at RHIC-BNL and which are sensitive tests of the statistical model for Δ bar u(x) and Δ bar d(x).
Chiral dynamics and partonic structure at large transverse distances
Mark Strikman, Christian Weiss
2009-12-01
We study large-distance contributions to the nucleon's parton densities in the transverse coordinate (impact parameter) representation based on generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Chiral dynamics generates a distinct component of the partonic structure, located at momentum fractions x ~< M_pi / M_N and transverse distances b ~ 1/M_pi. We calculate this component using phenomenological pion exchange with a physical lower limit in b (the transverse ``core'' radius estimated from the nucleon's axial form factor, R_core = 0.55 fm) and demonstrate its universal character. This formulation preserves the basic picture of the ``pion cloud'' model of the nucleon's sea quark distributions, while restricting its application to the region actually governed by chiral dynamics. It is found that (a) the large-distance component accounts for only ~1/3 of the measured antiquark flavor asymmetry dbar - ubar at x ~ 0.1; (b) the strange sea quarks, s and sbar, are significantly more localized than the light antiquark sea; (c) the nucleon's singlet quark size for x < 0.1 is larger than its gluonic size, average(b^2)_{q + qbar} > average(b^2)_g, as suggested by the t-slopes of deeply-virtual Compton scattering and exclusive J/psi production measured at HERA and FNAL. We show that our approach reproduces the general N_c-scaling of parton densities in QCD, thanks to the degeneracy of N and Delta intermediate states in the large-N_c limit. We also comment on the role of pionic configurations at large longitudinal distances and the limits of their applicability at small x.
Transverse Momentum-Dependent Parton Distributions From Lattice QCD
Michael Engelhardt, Bernhard Musch, Philipp Haegler, Andreas Schaefer
2012-12-01
Starting from a definition of transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and the Drell-Yan process, given in terms of matrix elements of a quark bilocal operator containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection, a scheme to determine such observables in lattice QCD is developed and explored. Parametrizing the aforementioned matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes permits a simple transformation of the problem to a Lorentz frame suited for the lattice calculation. Results for the Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts are presented, focusing in particular on their dependence on the staple extent and the Collins-Soper evolution parameter.
First JAM results on the determination of polarized parton distributions
Accardi, Alberto; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Melnitchouk, Wally
2014-01-01
The Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum (JAM) Collaboration is a new initiative to study the angular momentum dependent structure of the nucleon. First results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions at intermediate and large x from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented. Different aspects of global QCD analysis are discussed, including the effects of nuclear structure of deuterium and {sup 3}He targets, target mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} structure functions.
The Generalized Parton Distribution Program at Jefferson Lab
C. Munoz Camacho
2010-05-01
Recent results on the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) program at Jefferson Lab (JLab) will be presented. The emphasis will be in the Hall A program aiming at measuring Q^2-dependences of different terms of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) cross section. This is a fundamental step before one can extract GPD information from JLab DVCS data. The upcoming program in Hall A, using both a 6 GeV beam (2010) and a 11 GeV beam (~2015) will also be described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gao, R. S.; Dutta, C. M.; Lane, N. F.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.; Kimura, M.
1992-01-01
Measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for direct scattering, single-charge transfer, and double-charge transfer in collisions of 1.5-, 2.0-, 6.0-, and 10.0-keV (He-3)2+ with an He-4 target are reported. The measurements cover laboratory scattering angles below 1.5 deg with an angular resolution of about 0.03 deg. A quantum-mechanical molecular-state representation is employed in the calculations; in the case of single-charge transfer a two-state close-coupling calculation is carried out taking into account electron-translation effects. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental results for direct scattering and double-charge transfer. The present calculation identifies the origins of oscillatory structures observed in the differential cross sections.
Guiseppe, Vincente E; Elliott, Steve R; Hime, Andrew; Perepelitsa, Dennis V
2008-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in {gamma} rays near the signature endpoint energy in a number of {beta}{beta} isotopes. In particular, there are {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb that might produce energy deposits at the {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}{beta}} in Ge detectors used for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} searches. The levels that produce these {gamma} rays can be excited by n,n'{gamma} reactions, but the cross sections are small and previously unmeasured. The cross section on {sup nat}Pb to produce the 2041-keV {gamma} ray from {sup 206}Pb is measured to be 3.1 {+-} 0.6 (stat.) {+-} 0.3 (syst.) mb at {approx} 9.6 MeV. The cross section on {sup nat}Pb to produce the 3062-keV {gamma} ray from {sup 207}Pb is measured to be 4.3 {+-} 0.8 (stat.) {+-} 0.4 (syst.) mb at the same energy. We place upper limits on the cross sections for exciting some other levels in Pb that have transition energies corresponding to Q{sub {beta}{beta}} in orhter {beta}{beta} isotopes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crider, Benjamin P.
While neutrino oscillations indicate that neutrino flavors mix and that neutrinos have mass, they do not supply information on the absolute mass scale of the three flavors of neutrinos. Currently, the only viable way to determine this mass scale is through the observation of the theoretically predicted process of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nubetabeta). This yet-to-be-observed decay process is speculated to occur in a handful of nuclei and has predicted half-lives greater than 1025 years. Observation of 0nubetabeta is the goal of several large-scale, multinational efforts and consists of detecting a sharp peak in the summed energies at the Q-value of the reaction. An exceptional candidate for the observation of 0nubetabeta is 76Ge, which offers an excellent combination of capabilities and sensitivities, and two such collaborations, MAJORANA and GERDA, propose tonne-scale experiments that have already begun initial phases using a fraction of the material. The absolute scale of the neutrino masses hinges on a matrix element, which depends on the ground-state wave functions for both the parent (76Ge) and daughter (76Se) nuclei in the 0nubetabeta decay and can only be calculated from nuclear structure models. Efforts to provide information on the applicability of these models have been undertaken at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using gamma-ray spectroscopy following inelastic scattering reactions with monoenergetic, accelerator-produced fast neutrons. Information on new energy levels and transitions, spin and parity assignments, lifetimes, multipole mixing ratios, and transition probabilities have been determined for 76Se, the daughter of 76Ge 0nubetabeta, up to 3.0 MeV. Additionally, inaccuracies in the accepted level schemes have been addressed. Observation of 0nubetabeta requires precise knowledge of potential contributors to background within the region of interest, i.e., approximately 2039 keV for 76Ge. In addition to backgrounds
Parton Energy Loss Limits and Shadowing in Drell-Yan Dimuon Production
Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; Towell, R.S.; Willis, J.L.; Geesaman, D.F.; Kaufman, S.B.; Mueller, B.A.; Reimer, P.E.; Brown, C.N.; Cooper, W.E.; He, X.C.; Lee, W.M.; Petitt, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Carey, T.A.; Garvey, G.T.; Hawker, E.A.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Peng, J.C.; Reimer, P.E.; Sondheim, W.E.; Towell, R.S.; Beddo, M.E.; Chang, T.H.; Papavassiliou, V.; Webb, J.C.; Stankus, P.W.; Young, G.R.; Vasiliev, M.A.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Hawker, E.A.; Tribble, R.E.; Koetke, D.D.
1999-09-01
A precise measurement of the ratios of the Drell-Yan cross section per nucleon for an 800 GeV/{ital c} proton beam incident on Be, Fe, and W targets is reported. The behavior of the Drell-Yan ratios at small target-parton momentum fraction is well described by an existing fit to the shadowing observed in deep-inelastic scattering. The cross-section ratios as a function of the incident-parton momentum fraction set tight limits on the energy loss of quarks passing through a cold nucleus. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Constraints on spin-dependent parton distributions at large x from global QCD analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Delgado, P.; Avakian, H.; Melnitchouk, W.
2014-11-01
We investigate the behavior of spin-dependent parton distribution functions (PDFs) at large parton momentum fractions x in the context of global QCD analysis. We explore the constraints from existing deep-inelastic scattering data, and from theoretical expectations for the leading x → 1 behavior based on hard gluon exchange in perturbative QCD. Systematic uncertainties from the dependence of the PDFs on the choice of parametrization are studied by considering functional forms motivated by orbital angular momentum arguments. Finally, we quantify the reduction in the PDF uncertainties that may be expected from future high-x data from Jefferson Lab at 12 GeV.
An O([alpha][sub s]) Monte Carlo for W production with parton showering
Baer, H.A.
1991-01-01
We construct an event generator for p[bar p][yields]W[sup +]X[yields]e[sup +][nu]X including complete O([alpha][sub s]) corrections, and interface with initial and final state parton showers. Problems with negative weights and with double counting higher order parton radiation are averted. We present results for W+n-jet production, and compare with results from complete tree-level calculations, and shower calculations off of the lowest order 2[yields]2 sub-process. We also compute the [sub qT](W) distribution, and compare with data.
An O({alpha}{sub s}) Monte Carlo for W production with parton showering
Baer, H.A.
1991-12-31
We construct an event generator for p{bar p}{yields}W{sup +}X{yields}e{sup +}{nu}X including complete O({alpha}{sub s}) corrections, and interface with initial and final state parton showers. Problems with negative weights and with double counting higher order parton radiation are averted. We present results for W+n-jet production, and compare with results from complete tree-level calculations, and shower calculations off of the lowest order 2{yields}2 sub-process. We also compute the {sub qT}(W) distribution, and compare with data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordanova, V.
2015-12-01
The mechanisms for particle injection in the near-Earth space environment and their subsequent trapping or loss have been studied for many years, however, their theoretical evaluation and implementation in numerical models remain challenging. We address these outstanding questions using our RAM-SCB model that couples the kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model with an Euler potential-based three-dimensional plasma equilibrium code. We simulate wave-particle interactions on a global scale using L and MLT-dependent event-specific wave models and investigate the fast dropout of the radiation belts during the October 2012 "double-dip" storm event. The calculated cold plasma densities with a coupled time-dependent 2-D plasmasphere model show good agreement with in situ EMFISIS observations along the Van Allen Probes' orbits. The simulated with RAM-SCB precipitating electron fluxes are compared with measurements of electron precipitation by multiple NOAA satellites during the investigated storm event. The combined effects from radial transport and scattering by plasma waves on ring current and radiation belt dynamics are evaluated.
Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; DeLuca, Paul M
2014-01-01
In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903
Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; Deluca, Paul M
2009-02-21
In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903
Evidence for double incoherent Raman scattering in binary gas mixtures: SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2}
Verzhbitskiy, I. A.; Chrysos, M.; Rachet, F.; Kouzov, A. P.
2010-01-15
We report a collision-induced Raman band by room temperature gas mixtures of sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen. The band is centered at the sum of the frequencies of the symmetric-stretching nu{sub 1} transition of SF{sub 6} and the fundamental transition of N{sub 2}, and its intensity scales as the product of the partial densities of the gases. The observed process is evidence of double incoherent Raman scattering (DRS) by SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2}, in which both molecules simultaneously undergo two Raman-allowed transitions. The band was found to be almost fully depolarized, in agreement with previous observations in other systems and with theoretical predictions. Its integrated intensity is about one-third higher than the total area predicted by the leading-order dipole-induced dipole model. This discrepancy suggests that DRS is a practical means of assessing the quality of intermolecular potential models, which, in the case of SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2}, is still believed to be not good enough. Our work is expected to open the door to a multitude of studies involving complicated processes encountered in nonpolar gases and their mixtures, which are of direct relevance to atmospheric research.
Patrick, Cheryl
2016-01-01
Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.
Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA
Newman, Paul
2011-07-15
Recent inclusive charged and neutral current scattering data from HERA are presented. Emphasis is placed on the resulting constraints on the proton parton densities and on the influence of low x proton structure on diffraction.
Pre-equilibrium parton dynamics: Proceedings
Wang, Xin-Nian
1993-12-31
This report contains papers on the following topics: parton production and evolution; QCD transport theory; interference in the medium; QCD and phase transition; and future heavy ion experiments. This papers have been indexed separately elsewhere on the data base.
Unraveling hadron structure with generalized parton distributions
Andrei Belitsky; Anatoly Radyushkin
2004-10-01
The recently introduced generalized parton distributions have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. They combine the features of form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes - the functions used for a long time in studies of hadronic structure. Generalized parton distributions are analogous to the phase-space Wigner quasi-probability function of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which encodes full information on a quantum-mechanical system. We give an extensive review of main achievements in the development of this formalism. We discuss physical interpretation and basic properties of generalized parton distributions, their modeling and QCD evolution in the leading and next-to-leading orders. We describe how these functions enter a wide class of exclusive reactions, such as electro- and photo-production of photons, lepton pairs, or mesons.
Studies of Partonic Transverse Momentum and Spin Structure of the Nucleon at HERMES
Contalbrigo, Marco
2011-10-21
The investigation of the partonic degrees of freedom beyond collinear approximation (3D description) has been gained increasing interest in the last decade. At the HERMES experiment, azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of pions and charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of electrons and positrons off a transversely (polarized) hydrogen and deuterium target have been measured. Such asymmetries provide new insights on crucial aspects of the parton dynamics. By measuring various hadron types in the initial and final states, flavor sensitivity is achieved. Evidence is reported of the poorly known transversity function and of naive-T-odd transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions related to spin-orbit effects. Evidence of spin-orbit effects in quark fragmentation is also observed, which are opposite in sign for favored and disfavored processes.
QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckley, Andy; Pollard, Chris
2016-02-01
We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth particle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre-hadronisation partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clustered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudojet combinations to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, and potential uses for truth-level physics object definitions and tagging.
Parton physics on a Euclidean lattice.
Ji, Xiangdong
2013-06-28
I show that the parton physics related to correlations of quarks and gluons on the light cone can be studied through the matrix elements of frame-dependent, equal-time correlators in the large momentum limit. This observation allows practical calculations of parton properties on a Euclidean lattice. As an example, I demonstrate how to recover the leading-twist quark distribution by boosting an equal-time correlator to a large momentum. PMID:23848864
The midpoint between dipole and parton showers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höche, Stefan; Prestel, Stefan
2015-09-01
We present a new parton-shower algorithm. Borrowing from the basic ideas of dipole cascades, the evolution variable is judiciously chosen as the transverse momentum in the soft limit. This leads to a very simple analytic structure of the evolution. A weighting algorithm is implemented that allows one to consistently treat potentially negative values of the splitting functions and the parton distributions. We provide two independent, publicly available implementations for the two event generators P ythia and S herpa.
The midpoint between dipole and parton showers
Höche, Stefan; Prestel, Stefan
2015-09-28
We present a new parton-shower algorithm. Borrowing from the basic ideas of dipole cascades, the evolution variable is judiciously chosen as the transverse momentum in the soft limit. This leads to a very simple analytic structure of the evolution. A weighting algorithm is implemented that allows one to consistently treat potentially negative values of the splitting functions and the parton distributions. Thus, we provide two independent, publicly available implementations for the two event generators PYTHIA and SHERPA.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marukyan, Hrachya
2015-11-01
This paper reviews the experimental measurements in the field of deeply virtual Compton scattering and related theoretical efforts aimed for the extraction of generalized parton distributions, objects, describing the three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei. The future experiments and theoretical expectations are also considered.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering on longitudinally polarized protons and neutrons at CLAS
Silvia Niccolai
2012-04-01
This paper focuses on a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly-6-GeV polarized electron beam, two longitudinally polarized (via DNP) solid targets of protons (NH{sub 3}) and deuterons (ND{sub 3}) and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Here, preliminary results for target-spin asymmetries and double (beam-target) asymmetries for proton DVCS, as well as a very preliminary extraction of beam-spin asymmetry for neutron DVCS, are presented and linked to Generalized Parton Distributions.
Endpoint behavior of high-energy scattering cross sections
Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul
2010-11-01
In high-energy processes near the endpoint, there emerge new contributions associated with spectator interactions. Away from the endpoint region, these new contributions are suppressed compared to the leading contribution, but the leading contribution becomes suppressed as we approach the endpoint and the new contributions become comparable. We present how the new contributions scale as we reach the endpoint and show that they are comparable to the suppressed leading contributions in deep inelastic scattering by employing a power-counting analysis. The hadronic tensor in deep inelastic scattering is shown to factorize including the spectator interactions, and it can be expressed in terms of the light cone distribution amplitudes of initial hadrons. We also consider the contribution of the spectator contributions in Drell-Yan processes. Here the spectator interactions are suppressed compared to double parton annihilation according to the power counting.
Constraints on parton distribution from CDF
Bodek, A.; CDF Collaboration
1995-10-01
The asymmetry in W{sup -} - W{sup +} production in p{bar p} collisions and Drell-Yan data place tight constraints on parton distributions functions. The W asymmetry data constrain the slope of the quark distribution ratio d(x)/u(x) in the x range 0.007-0.27. The published W asymmetry results from the CDF 1992.3 data ({approx} 20 pb{sup -1}) greatly reduce the systematic error originating from the choice of PDF`s in the W mass measurement at CDF. These published results have also been included in the CTEQ3, MRSA, and GRV94 parton distribution fits. These modern parton distribution functions axe still in good agreement with the new 1993-94 CDF data({approx} 108 pb{sup -1} combined). Preliminary results from CDF for the Drell-Yan cross section in the mass range 11-350 GeV/c{sup 2} are discussed.
Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.; Mantysaari, H.
2015-02-25
We argue that the proton multiplicities measured in Roman pot detectors at an electron ion collider can be used to determine centrality classes in incoherent diffractive scattering. Incoherent diffraction probes the fluctuations in the interaction strengths of multi-parton Fock states in the nuclear wavefunctions. In particular, the saturation scale that characterizes this multi-parton dynamics is significantly larger in central events relative to minimum bias events. As an application, we examine the centrality dependence of incoherent diffractive vector meson production. We identify an observable which is simultaneously very sensitive to centrality triggered parton fluctuations and insensitive to details of the model.
Evolution of parton fragmentation functions at finitetemperature
Osborne, Jonathan; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian
2002-06-12
The first order correction to the parton fragmentation functions in a thermal medium is derived in the leading logarithmic approximation in the framework of thermal field theory. The medium-modified evolution equations of the parton fragmentation functions are also derived. It is shown that all infrared divergences, both linear and logarithmic, in the real processes are canceled among themselves and by corresponding virtual corrections. The evolution of the quark number and the energy loss (or gain) induced by the thermal medium are investigated.
Measurement of parton shower observables with OPAL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, N.; Gieseke, S.; Kluth, S.; Plätzer, S.; Skands, P.
2016-07-01
A study of QCD coherence is presented based on a sample of about 397,000 e+e- hadronic annihilation events collected at √s = 91 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The study is based on four recently proposed observables that are sensitive to coherence effects in the perturbative regime. The measurement of these observables is presented, along with a comparison with the predictions of different parton shower models. The models include both conventional parton shower models and dipole antenna models. Different ordering variables are used to investigate their influence on the predictions.
Iterative Monte Carlo analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Nobuo; Melnitchouk, W.; Kuhn, S. E.; Ethier, J. J.; Accardi, A.; Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum Collaboration
2016-04-01
We present a comprehensive new global QCD analysis of polarized inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, including the latest high-precision data on longitudinal and transverse polarization asymmetries from Jefferson Lab and elsewhere. The analysis is performed using a new iterative Monte Carlo fitting technique which generates stable fits to polarized parton distribution functions (PDFs) with statistically rigorous uncertainties. Inclusion of the Jefferson Lab data leads to a reduction in the PDF errors for the valence and sea quarks, as well as in the gluon polarization uncertainty at x ≳0.1 . The study also provides the first determination of the flavor-separated twist-3 PDFs and the d2 moment of the nucleon within a global PDF analysis.
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions from lattice QCD
Michael Engelhardt, Philipp Haegler, Bernhard Musch, John Negele, Andreas Schaefer
2012-12-01
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs) relevant for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process can be defined in terms of matrix elements of a quark bilocal operator containing a staple-shaped Wilson connection. Starting from such a definition, a scheme to determine TMDs in lattice QCD is developed and explored. Parametrizing the aforementioned matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes permits a simple transformation of the problem to a Lorentz frame suited for the lattice calculation. Results for the Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts are obtained using ensembles at the pion masses 369MeV and 518MeV, focusing in particular on the dependence of these shifts on the staple extent and a Collins-Soper-type evolution parameter quantifying proximity of the staples to the light cone.
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD
Engelhardt, Michael G.; Musch, Bernhard U.; Haegler, Philipp G.; Negele, John W.; Schaefer, Andreas
2013-08-01
A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.
Studies of partonic transverse momentum and spin structure of the nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contalbrigo, M.
2014-06-01
The investigation of the partonic degrees of freedom beyond collinear approximation (3D description) has been gained increasing interest in the last decade. The Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, after the CEBAF upgrade to 12 GeV, will become the most complete facility for the investigation of the hadron structure in the valence region by scattering of polarized electron off various polarized nucleon targets. A compendium of the planned experiments is here presented.
Systematic Improvement of QCD Parton Showers
Winter, Jan; Hoeche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Schonherr, Marek; Zapp, Korinna; Schumann, Steffen; Siegert, Frank; /Freiburg U.
2012-05-17
In this contribution, we will give a brief overview of the progress that has been achieved in the field of combining matrix elements and parton showers. We exemplify this by focusing on the case of electron-positron collisions and by reporting on recent developments as accomplished within the SHERPA event generation framework.
Progress in the dynamical parton distributions
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro
2012-06-01
The present status of the (JR) dynamical parton distribution functions is reported. Different theoretical improvements, including the determination of the strange sea input distribution, the treatment of correlated errors and the inclusion of alternative data sets, are discussed. Highlights in the ongoing developments as well as (very) preliminary results in the determination of the strong coupling constant are presented.
Fragmentation of parton jets at small x
Kirschner, R.
1985-08-01
The parton fragmentation function is calculated in the region of small x in the doubly logarithmic approximation of QCD. For this, the method of separating the softest particle, which has hitherto been applied only in the Regge kinematic region, is developed. Simple arguments based on unitarity and gauge invariance are used to derive the well known condition of ordering of the emission angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marwa, N. El-Hammamy
2015-03-01
The experimental data on elastic and inelastic scattering of 270 MeV 3He particles to several low lying states in 90Zr, 116Sn and 208Pb are analyzed within the double folding model (DFM). Fermi density distribution (FDD) of target nuclei is used to obtain real potentials with different powers. DF results are introduced into a modified DWUCK4 code to calculate the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. Two choices of potentials form factors are used; Woods Saxon (WS) and Woods Saxon Squared (WS2) for real potential, while the imaginary part is taken as phenomenological Woods Saxon (PWS) and phenomenological Woods Saxon Squared (PWS2). This comparison provides information about the similarities and differences of the models used in calculations.
Deeply Virtual Exclusive Processes and Generalized Parton Distributions
,
2011-06-01
The goal of the comprehensive program in Deeply Virtual Exclusive Scattering at Jefferson Laboratory is to create transverse spatial images of quarks and gluons as a function of their longitudinal momentum fraction in the proton, the neutron, and in nuclei. These functions are the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the target nucleus. Cross section measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reaction ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A support the QCD factorization of the scattering amplitude for Q^2 {>=} 2 GeV^2. Quasi-free neutron-DVCS measurements on the Deuteron indicate sensitivity to the quark angular momentum sum rule. Fully exclusive H(e, e'p{gamma} ) measurements have been made in a wide kinematic range in CLAS with polarized beam, and with both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized targets. Existing models are qualitatively consistent with the JLab data, but there is a clear need for less constrained models. Deeply virtual vector meson production is studied in CLAS. The 12 GeV upgrade will be essential for for these channels. The {rho} and {omega} channels reactions offer the prospect of flavor sensitivity to the quark GPDs, while the {phi}-production channel is dominated by the gluon distribution.
Non-Universality of Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distributions at Small-x
Xiao, Bowen; Yuan, Feng
2010-02-22
We study the universality of the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions at small-x, by comparing the initial/final state interaction effects in dijet-correlation in pA collisions with that in deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering. We demonstrate the non-universality by an explicit calculation in a particular model where the multiple gauge boson exchange contributions are summed up to all orders. We furthercomment on the implications of our results on the theoretical interpretation of di-hadron correlation in dA collisions in terms of the saturation phenomena in deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering.
Global parton distributions with nuclear and finite-Q^2 corrections
Owens, J. F.; Accardi, Alberto; Melnitchouk, Wally
2013-05-01
We present three new sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) determined by global fits to a wide variety of data for hard scattering processes. The analysis includes target mass and higher twist corrections needed for the description of deep inelastic scattering data at large x and low Q^2, and nuclear corrections for deuterium targets. The PDF sets correspond to three different models for the nuclear effects, and provide a more realistic uncertainty range for the d quark PDF, in particular, compared with previous fits. We describe the PDF error sets for each choice of the nuclear corrections, and provide a user interface for utilizing the distributions.
Fleyer, Michael; Heerschap, Seth; Cranch, Geoffrey A; Horowitz, Moshe
2016-03-15
We study, theoretically and experimentally, intensity noise induced by double Rayleigh scattering in long optical fibers. The results of the theoretical model are compared to experimental results performed with a high-coherence-length laser with a frequency noise spectrum that is dominated by 1/f^{ν} noise. Excellent quantitative agreement between theoretical and experimental RF spectra were obtained for frequencies as low as 10 Hz and for fiber lengths between 4 and 45 km. Strong low-frequency intensity noise that is induced by 1/f^{ν} frequency noise of the laser may limit the performance of interferometric fiber optic sensors that require high-coherence-length lasers. The intensity noise due to double Rayleigh backscattering can be suppressed by reducing the coherence length of the laser. Therefore, the intensity noise has a complex and non-monotonic dependence on the 1/f^{ν} frequency noise amplitude of the laser. Stimulated Brillouin scattering will add a significant noise for input powers greater than about 7 mW for a 30 km length fiber. PMID:26977685
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacMullin, Sean Patrick
In underground physics experiments, such as neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, fast neutrons may be the dominant and potentially irreducible source of background. Experimental data for the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections of neutrons from argon and neon, which are target and shielding materials of interest to the dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay communities, were previously unavailable. Unmeasured neutron scattering cross sections are often accounted for incorrectly in Monte-Carlo simulations. Elastic scattering cross sections were measured at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using the neutron time-of-flight technique. Angular distributions for neon were measured at 5.0 and 8.0 MeV. One full angular distribution was measured for argon at 6.0 MeV. The cross-section data were compared to calculations using a global optical model. Data were also fit using the spherical optical model. These model fits were used to predict the elastic scattering cross section at unmeasured energies and also provide a benchmark where the global optical models are not well constrained. Partial gamma-ray production cross sections for (n,xngamma ) reactions in natural argon and neon were measured using the broad spectrum neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Neutron energies were determined using time of flight and resulting gamma rays from neutron-induced reactions were detected using the GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Partial gamma-ray production cross sections for six transitions in 40Ar, two transitions in 39Ar and the first excited state transitions is 20Ne and 22Ne were measured from threshold to a neutron energy where the gamma-ray yield dropped below the detection sensitivity. Measured (n,xngamma) cross sections were compared with calculations using the TALYS and CoH3 nuclear reaction codes. These new measurements will help to identify potential backgrounds in
Jet fragmentation via recombination of parton showers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Kyong Chol; Fries, Rainer J.; Ko, Che Ming
2016-04-01
We propose to model hadronization of parton showers in QCD jets through a hybrid approach involving quark recombination and string fragmentation. This is achieved by allowing gluons at the end of the perturbative shower evolution to undergo a nonperturbative splitting into quark and antiquark pairs, then applying a Monte Carlo version of instantaneous quark recombination, and finally subjecting remnant quarks (those which have not found a recombination partner) to Lund string fragmentation. When applied to parton showers from the pythia Monte Carlo event generator, the final hadron spectra from our calculation compare quite well to pythia jets that have been hadronized with the default Lund string fragmentation. Our new approach opens up the possibility to generalize hadronization to jets embedded in a quark gluon plasma.
Generalized parton distributions and exclusive processes
Guzey, Vadim
2013-10-01
In last fifteen years, GPDs have emerged as a powerful tool to reveal such aspects of the QCD structure of the nucleon as: - 3D parton correlations and distributions; - spin content of the nucleon. Further advances in the field of GPDs and hard exclusive processes rely on: - developments in theory and new methods in phenomenology such as new flexible parameterizations, neural networks, global QCD fits - new high-precision data covering unexplored kinematics: JLab at 6 and 12 GeV, Hermes with recoil detector, Compass, EIC. This slide-show presents: Nucleon structure in QCD, particularly hard processes, factorization and parton distributions; and a brief overview of GPD phenomenology, including basic properties of GPDs, GPDs and QCD structure of the nucleon, and constraining GPDs from experiments.
The statistical parton distributions: status and prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Buccella, F.
2005-06-01
New experimental results on polarized structure functions, cross sections for e^{±}p neutral and charge current reactions and ν (bar{ν}) charge current on isoscalar targets are compared with predictions using the statistical parton distributions, which were previously determined. New data on cross sections for Drell-Yan processes, single-jet data in pbar{p} collisions and inclusive π^0 production data in pp collisions are also compared with predictions from this theoretical approach. The good agreement which we find with all these tests against experiment strengthens our opinion on the relevance of the role of quantum statistics for parton distributions. We will also discuss the prospects of this physical framework.
Electron structure: Shape, size, and generalized parton distributions in QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Gerald A.
2014-12-01
The shape of the electron is studied using lowest-order perturbation theory. Quantities used to probe the structure of the proton—form factors, generalized parton distributions, transverse densities, Wigner distributions and the angular momentum content—are computed for the electron-photon component of the electron wave function. The influence of longitudinally polarized photons, demanded by the need for infrared regularization via a nonzero photon mass, is included. The appropriate value of the photon mass depends on experimental conditions, and consequently the size of the electron (as defined by the slope of its Dirac form factor) bound in a hydrogen atom is found to be about four times larger than when the electron is in a continuum scattering state. The shape of the electron, as determined from the transverse density and generalized parton distributions, is shown not to be round, and the continuum electron is shown to be far less round than the bound electron. An electron distribution function (analogous to the quark distribution function) is defined, and that of the bound electron is shown to be suppressed compared to that of the continuum electron. If the relative transverse momentum of the virtual electron and photon is large compared with the electron mass, the virtual electron and photon each carry nearly the total angular momentum of the physical electron (1 /2 ), with the orbital angular momentum being nearly (-1 /2 ). Including the nonzero photon mass leads to the suppression of end-point contributions to form factors. Implications for proton structure and color transparency are discussed.
Generalized Parton Distributions from Lattice QCD
Orginos, Konstantinos
2007-10-01
I review recent results on moments of Generalized Parton Distribution functions (GPDs) from Lattice QCD. In particular, I discuss the methodology of lattice calculations, and how various systematic errors arising in these calculations are controlled. I conclude with an overview of the roadmap towards precision non-perturbative determination of moments of GPDs, and discuss the potential impact to the extraction of GPDs form experiment.
Nucleon Form Factors from Generalized Parton Distributions
M. Guidal; Maxim Polyakov; Anatoly Radyushkin; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2004-10-01
We discuss the links between Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) and elastic nucleon form factors. These links, in the form of sum rules, represent powerful constraints on parametrizations of GPDs. A Regge parametrization for GPDs at small momentum transfer, is extended to the large momentum transfer region and it is found to describe the basic features of proton and neutron electromagnetic form factor data. This parametrization is used to estimate the quark contribution to the nucleon spin.
Parton Distributions in the Impact Parameter Space
Matthias Burkardt
2009-08-01
Parton distributions in impact parameter space, which are obtained by Fourier transforming GPDs, exhibit a significant deviation from axial symmetry when the target and/or quark is transversely polarized. In combination with the final state interactions, this transverse deformation provides a natural mechanism for naive-T odd transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive DIS. The deformation can also be related to the transverse force acting on the active quark in polarized DIS at higher twist.
Calculating scattering amplitudes efficiently
Dixon, L.
1996-01-01
We review techniques for more efficient computation of perturbative scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, in particular tree and one- loop multi-parton amplitudes in QCD. We emphasize the advantages of (1) using color and helicity information to decompose amplitudes into smaller gauge-invariant pieces, and (2) exploiting the analytic properties of these pieces, namely their cuts and poles. Other useful tools include recursion relations, special gauges and supersymmetric rearrangements. 46 refs., 11 figs.
Fermi-Dirac distributions for quark partons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourrely, C.; Buccella, F.; Miele, G.; Migliore, G.; Soffer, J.; Tibullo, V.
1994-09-01
We propose to use Fermi-Dirac distributions for quark and antiquark partons. It allows a fair description of the x-dependence of the very recent NMC data on the proton and neutron structure functions F {2/ p } (x) and F {2/ n } (x) at Q 2=4 GeV2, as well as the CCFR antiquark distributionxbar q(x). We show that one can also use a corresponding Bose-Einstein expression to describe consistently the gluon distribution. The Pauli exclusion principle, which has been identified to explain the flavor asymmetry of the light-quark sea of the proton, is advocated to guide us for making a simple construction of the polarized parton distributions. We predict the spin dependent structure functions g {1/ p } (x) and g {1/ n } (x) in good agreement with EMC and SLAC data. The quark distributions involve some parameters whose values support well the hypothesis that the violation of the quark parton model sum rules is a consequence of the Pauli principle.
Guzey, Vadim; Goeke, Klaus; Siddikov, Marat
2009-01-01
We generalize the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing and calculate quark and gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of spinless nuclei. We predict very large nuclear shadowing for nuclear GPDs. In the limit of the purely transverse momentum transfer, our nuclear GPDs become impact parameter dependent nuclear parton distributions (PDFs). Nuclear shadowing induces non-trivial correlations between the impact parameter $b$ and the light-cone fraction $x$. We make predictions for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) amplitude and the DVCS cross section on $^{208}$Pb at high energies. We calculate the cross section of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process and address the issue of the extraction of the DVCS signal from the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ cross section. We find that the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ differential cross section is dominated by DVCS at the momentum transfer $t$ near the minima of the nuclear form factor. We also find that nuclear shadowing leads
Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Accardi, Alberto; Melnitchouk, Wally
2014-02-01
We present the first results of a new global next-to-leading order analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from the most recent world data on inclusive polarized deep-inelastic scattering, focusing in particular on the large-x and low-Q^2 regions. By directly fitting polarization asymmetries we eliminate biases introduced by using polarized structure function data extracted under nonuniform assumptions for the unpolarized structure functions. For analysis of the large-x data we implement nuclear smearing corrections for deuterium and 3He nuclei, and systematically include target mass and higher twist corrections to the g_1 and g_2 structure functions at low Q^2. We also explore the effects of Q^2 and W^2 cuts in the data sets, and the potential impact of future data on the behavior of the spin-dependent parton distributions at large x.
Tao, Liang; McCurdy, Bill; Rescigno, Tom
2010-06-10
Our previously developed finite-element/ discrete variable representation in prolate spheroidal coordinates is extended to two-electron systems with a study of double ionization of H$_2$ with fixed-nuclei. Particular attention is paid to the development of fast and accurate methods for treating the electron-electron interaction. The use of exterior complex scaling in the implementation offers a simple way of enforcing Coulomb boundary conditions for the electronic double continuum. While the angular distributions calculated in this study are found to be completely consistent with our earlier treatments that employed single-center expansions in spherical coordinates, we find that the magnitude of the integrated cross sections are sensitive to small changes in the initial-state wave function. The present formulation offers significant advantages with respect to convergence and efficiency and opens the way to calculations on more complicated diatomic targets.
The Polarized TMDs in the covariant parton model approach
A.V. Efremov, P. Schweitzer, O.V. Teryaev, P. Zavada
2011-05-01
We derive relations between polarized transverse momentum dependent distribution functions (TMDs) and the usual parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the 3D covariant parton model, which follow from Lorentz invariance and the assumption of a rotationally symmetric distribution of parton momenta in the nucleon rest frame. Using the known PDF $g_{1}^{q}(x)$ as input we predict the $x$- and $\\mathbf{p}_{T}$-dependence of all polarized twist-2 naively time-reversal even (T-even) TMDs.