Science.gov

Sample records for double-strand break rejoining

  1. DNA Double-Strand Break Rejoining in Complex Normal Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebe, Claudia E.; Kuehne, Martin; Fricke, Andreas

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: The clinical radiation responses of different organs vary widely and likely depend on the intrinsic radiosensitivities of their different cell populations. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious form of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, and the cells' capacity to rejoin radiation-induced DSBs is known to affect their intrinsic radiosensitivity. To date, only little is known about the induction and processing of radiation-induced DSBs in complex normal tissues. Using an in vivo model with repair-proficient mice, the highly sensitive {gamma}H2AX immunofluorescence was established to investigate whether differences in DSB rejoining could account for the substantial differences in clinical radiosensitivity observed among normal tissues. Methods and Materials: After whole body irradiation of C57BL/6 mice (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy), the formation and rejoining of DSBs was analyzed by enumerating {gamma}H2AX foci in various organs representative of both early-responding (small intestine) and late-responding (lung, brain, heart, kidney) tissues. Results: The linear dose correlation observed in all analyzed tissues indicated that {gamma}H2AX immunofluorescence allows for the accurate quantification of DSBs in complex organs. Strikingly, the various normal tissues exhibited identical kinetics for {gamma}H2AX foci loss, despite their clearly different clinical radiation responses. Conclusion: The identical kinetics of DSB rejoining measured in different organs suggest that tissue-specific differences in radiation responses are independent of DSB rejoining. This finding emphasizes the fundamental role of DSB repair in maintaining genomic integrity, thereby contributing to cellular viability and functionality and, thus, tissue homeostasis.

  2. Radiation induced DNA double strand breaks are rejoined by ligation and recombination processes.

    PubMed Central

    Weibezahn, K F; Coquerelle, T

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of filter elution of double stranded DNA under neutral conditions we have shown that most of gamma-ray induced double strand breaks (DSB) are rejoined in both mammalian and bacterial cells. Rejoining also occurs in the G1 phase in V79 Chinese hamster cells and under different growth conditions. Within 8 minutes at 37 C, half the breaks are rejoined. The rejoining in E. coli is equally fast and depends on the presence of DNA ligase. Some of the breaks in E. coli rejoin slowly, and these require rec+. The non-rejoined DSB are distributed over the DNA without any preference for the nucleosomal or the linker structure in the chromosome. Two kinds of DSB rejoining are discriminated, a fast process of DNA ligation and a slower process involving rec functions. PMID:7024911

  3. In vitro rejoining of double strand breaks in genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Iliakis, George; Mladenov, Emil; Cheong, Nge

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic and biochemical studies have provided important insights into the mechanism of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathways in higher eukaryotes, and have facilitated the functional characterization of several of its components including DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos, and Artemis. Nevertheless, there is evidence that as of yet uncharacterized repair factors may contribute to the efficiency of NHEJ, for example by modulating the activity of known factors. Also, the discovery of alternative pathways of NHEJ that function as backup to the classical DNA-PK-dependent pathway of NHEJ has added yet another dimension in the set of activities involved. The biochemical characterization of NHEJ in higher eukaryotes has benefited significantly from in vitro plasmid-based end joining assays. However, because of differences in the organization and sequence of genomic and plasmid DNA, and because multiple pathways of NHEJ are operational, it is possible that different factors are preferred for the rejoining of DSBs induced in plasmid versus genomic DNA organized in chromatin. Here, we describe an in vitro assay that allows the study of DSB rejoining in genomic DNA. The assay utilizes as a substrate DSBs induced by various means in genomic DNA prepared from agarose-embedded cells after appropriate lysis. Two extremes in terms of state of DNA organization are described: "naked" DNA and DNA organized in chromatin. We describe the protocols developed to carry out and analyze these in vitro reactions, including procedures for the preparation of cell extract and the preparation of the substrate DNA ("naked" DNA or nuclei). PMID:22941623

  4. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand break rejoining in human tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, M. I.; Villalobos, M.; Olea, N.; Valenzuela, M. T.; Pedraza, V.; McMillan, T. J.; Ruiz de Almodóvar, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Five established human breast cancer cell lines and one established human bladder cancer cell line of varying radiosensitivity have been used to determine whether the rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) shows a correlation with radiosensitivity. The kinetics of dsb rejoining was biphasic and both components proceeded exponentially with time. The half-time (t1/2) of rejoining ranged from 18.0 +/- 1.4 to 36.4 +/- 3.2 min (fast rejoining process) and from 1.5 +/- 0.2 to 5.1 +/- 0.2 h (slow rejoining process). We found a statistically significant relationship between the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and the t1/2 of the fast rejoining component (r = 0.949, P = 0.0039). Our results suggest that cell lines which show rapid rejoining are more radioresistant. These results support the view that, as well as the level of damage induction that we have reported previously, the repair process is a major determinant of cellular radiosensitivity. It is possible that the differences found in DNA dsb rejoining and the differences in DNA dsb induction are related by a common mechanism, e.g. conformation of chromatin in the cell. PMID:7841046

  5. Inactivation, DNA double strand break induction and their rejoining in bacterial cells irradiated with heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M.; Zimmermann, H.; Schmitz, C.

    1994-01-01

    Besides inactivation one of the major interests in our experiments is to study the primary damage in the DNA double strand breaks (DSB) after heavy ion irradiation. These damages lead not only to cell death but also under repair activities to mutations. In further experiments we have investigated the inactivation with two different strains of Deinococcus radiodurans (R1, Rec 30) and the induction of DSB as well as the rejoining of DSB in stationary cells of E. coli (strain B/r) irradiated with radiations of different quality. In the latter case irradiations were done so that the cell survival was roughly at the same level. We measured the DSB using the pulse field gelelectrophoresis which allows to separate between intact (circular) and damaged (linear) DNA. The irradiated cells were transferred to NB medium and incubated for different times to allow rejoining.

  6. Efficient Rejoining of DNA Double-Strand Breaks despite Increased Cell-Killing Effectiveness following Spread-Out Bragg Peak Carbon-Ion Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Nicole B; Topsch, Jana; Scholz, Michael; Kraft-Weyrather, Wilma; Durante, Marco; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy of solid tumors with charged particles holds several advantages in comparison to photon therapy; among them conformal dose distribution in the tumor, improved sparing of tumor-surrounding healthy tissue, and an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the tumor target volume in the case of ions heavier than protons. A crucial factor of the biological effects is DNA damage, of which DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious. The reparability of these lesions determines the cell survival after irradiation and thus the RBE. Interestingly, using phosphorylated H2AX as a DSB marker, our data in human fibroblasts revealed that after therapy-relevant spread-out Bragg peak irradiation with carbon ions DSBs are very efficiently rejoined, despite an increased RBE for cell survival. This suggests that misrepair plays an important role in the increased RBE of heavy-ion radiation. Possible sources of erroneous repair will be discussed. PMID:26904506

  7. Induction and Rejoining of DNA Double Strand Breaks Assessed by H2AX Phosphorylation in Melanoma Cells Irradiated with Proton and Lithium Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, Irene L.; Bracalente, Candelaria; Molinari, Beatriz L.; Palmieri, Monica A.; Policastro, Lucia; Kreiner, Andres J.; Burlon, Alejandro A.; Valda, Alejandro; Navalesi, Daniela; Davidson, Jorge; Davidson, Miguel; Vazquez, Monica; Ozafran, Mabel; Duran, Hebe

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the induction and rejoining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in melanoma cells exposed to low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Methods and Materials: DSBs and survival were determined as a function of dose in melanoma cells (B16-F0) irradiated with monoenergetic proton and lithium beams and with a gamma source. Survival curves were obtained by clonogenic assay and fitted to the linear-quadratic model. DSBs were evaluated by the detection of phosphorylated histone H2AX ({gamma}H2AX) foci at 30 min and 6 h post-irradiation. Results: Survival curves showed the increasing effectiveness of radiation as a function of LET. {gamma}H2AX labeling showed an increase in the number of foci vs. dose for all the radiations evaluated. A decrease in the number of foci was found at 6 h post-irradiation for low LET radiation, revealing the repair capacity of DSBs. An increase in the size of {gamma}H2AX foci in cells irradiated with lithium beams was found, as compared with gamma and proton irradiations, which could be attributed to the clusters of DSBs induced by high LET radiation. Foci size increased at 6 h post-irradiation for lithium and proton irradiations in relation with persistent DSBs, showing a correlation with surviving fraction. Conclusions: Our results showed the response of B16-F0 cells to charged particle beams evaluated by the detection of {gamma}H2AX foci. We conclude that {gamma}H2AX foci size is an accurate parameter to correlate the rejoining of DSBs induced by different LET radiations and radiosensitivity.

  8. Relationship between DNA double-strand break rejoining and cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation in human fibroblast strains with differing ATM/p53 status: Implications for evaluation of clinical radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Severin, Diane; Murray, David . E-mail: davem@cancerboard.ab.ca

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To better understand the impact of defects in the DNA damage-surveillance network on the various cell-based assays used for the prediction of patient radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: We examined noncancerous human fibroblast strains from individuals with ataxia telangiectasia (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM] deficient) or Li-Fraumeni syndrome (p53 deficient) using the neutral comet, H2AX phosphorylation, and clonogenic survival assays. Results: Using the comet assay, we found that, compared with normal fibroblasts, cells lacking either ATM or p53 function exhibited a reduced rate of double-strand break (DSB) rejoining early ({<=}4 h) after exposure to 8 Gy of {gamma}-radiation and also exhibited high levels of unrejoined DSBs later after irradiation. ATM-deficient and p53-deficient fibroblasts also exhibited abnormally increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) at later intervals after irradiation. In the clonogenic assay, ATM-deficient cells exhibited marked radiosensitivity and p53-deficient cells had varying degrees of radioresistance compared with normal fibroblasts. Conclusion: Regardless of whether ataxia telangiectasia and Li-Fraumeni syndrome fibroblasts are DSB-repair deficient per se, it is apparent that p53 and ATM defects greatly influence the cellular phenotype as evidenced by the neutral comet and {gamma}-H2AX assays. Our data suggest that the {gamma}-H2AX levels observed at later intervals after irradiation may represent a reliable measure of the overall DSB rejoining capabilities of human fibroblasts. However, it appears that using this parameter as a predictor of radiosensitivity without knowledge of the cells' p53 status could lead to incorrect conclusions.

  9. CHO cell repair of single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks induced by gamma- and alpha-radiations.

    PubMed

    Cole, A; Shonka, F; Corry, P; Cooper, W G

    1975-01-01

    Neutral and alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis was used to measure double- and single-strand breaks in the DNA of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to either gamma- or alpha-radiation. After irradiation, cells were incubated for 15-180 min to test the ability of the cell to rejoin the DNA breaks. Essentially complete rejoining was observed for single-strand breaks induced by gamma- or alpha-doses below 20 krad and for double-strand breaks induced by gamma doses below 60 krad. Approximately 80% rejoining was observed for double-strand breaks induced by alpha doses below 40 krad. At higher doses, the repair system appeared to saturate in such a way that essentially no additional breaks were rejoined. PMID:1191188

  10. Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Martin; Lukasova, Emilie; Kozubek, Stanislav

    The genetic information of cells continuously undergoes damage induced by intracellular processes including energy metabolism, DNA replication and transcription, and by environmental factors such as mutagenic chemicals and UV and ionizing radiation. This causes numerous DNA lesions, including double strand breaks (DSBs). Since cells cannot escape this damage or normally function with a damaged genome, several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved. Although most "single-stranded" DNA lesions are rapidly removed from DNA without permanent damage, DSBs completely break the DNA molecule, presenting a real challenge for repair mechanisms, with the highest risk among DNA lesions of incorrect repair. Hence, DSBs can have serious consequences for human health. Therefore, in this chapter, we will refer only to this type of DNA damage. In addition to the biochemical aspects of DSB repair, which have been extensively studied over a long period of time, the spatio-temporal organization of DSB induction and repair, the importance of which was recognized only recently, will be considered in terms of current knowledge and remaining questions.

  11. Genetics of x-ray induced double strand break repair in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    The possible fates of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined. One possible pathway which breaks can follow, the repair pathway, was studied by assaying strains with mutations in the RAD51, RAD54, and RAD57 loci for double-strand break repair. In order of increasing radiation sensitivity one finds: rad57-1(23/sup 0/)> rad51-1(30/sup 0/)> rad54-3(36/sup 0/). At 36/sup 0/, rad54-3 cells cannot repair double-strand breaks, while 23/sup 0/, they can. Strains with the rad57-1 mutation can rejoin broken chromosomes at both temperatures. However, the low survival at 36/sup 0/ shows that the assay is not distinguishing large DNA fragments which allow cell survival from those which cause cell death. A rad51-1 strain could also rejoin broken chromosomes, and was thus capable of incomplete repair. The data can be explained with the hypothesis that rad54-3 cells are blocked in an early step of repair, while rad51-1 and rad57-1 strains are blocked in a later step of repair. The fate of double-strand breaks when they are left unrepaired was investigated with the rad54-3 mutation. If breaks are prevented from entering the RAD54 repair pathway they become uncommitted lesions. These lesions are repaired slower than the original breaks. One possible fate for an uncommitted lesion is conversion into a fixed lesion, which is likely to be an unrepairable or misrepaired double-strand break. The presence of protein synthesis after irradiation increases the probability that a break will enter the repair pathway. Evidence shows that increased probability of repair results from enhanced synthesis of repair proteins shortly after radiation. (ERB)

  12. X-ray induced DNA double strand break production and repair in mammalian cells as measured by neutral filter elution.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, M O; Kohn, K W

    1979-01-01

    This work presents a neutral filter elution method for detecting DNA double strand breaks in mouse L1210 cells after X-ray. The assay will detect the number of double strand breaks induced by as little as 1000 rad of X-ray. The rate of DNA elution through the filters under neutral conditions increases with X-ray dose. Certain conditions for deproteinization, pH, and filter type are shown to increase the assay's sensitivity. Hydrogen peroxide and Bleomycin also induce apparent DNA double strand breaks, although the ratios of double to single strand breaks vary from those produced by X-ray. The introduction of double strand cuts by HpA I restriction endonuclease in DNA lysed on filters results in a rapid rate of elution under neutral conditions, implying that the method can detect double strand breaks if they exist in the DNA. The eluted DNA bands with a double stranded DNA marker in cesium chloride. This evidence suggests that the assay detects DNA double strand breaks. L1210 cells are shown to rejoin most of the DNA double strand breaks induced by 5-10 krad of X-ray with a half-time of about 40 minutes. PMID:92010

  13. Simulation of the Formation of DNA Double Strand Breaks and Chromosome Aberrations in Irradiated Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Wu, Honglu; Blattnig, Steve; George, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    The formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosome aberrations is an important consequence of ionizing radiation. To simulate DNA double-strand breaks and the formation of chromosome aberrations, we have recently merged the codes RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) and NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image). The program RITRACKS is a stochastic code developed to simulate detailed event-by-event radiation track structure: [1] This code is used to calculate the dose in voxels of 20 nm, in a volume containing simulated chromosomes, [2] The number of tracks in the volume is calculated for each simulation by sampling a Poisson distribution, with the distribution parameter obtained from the irradiation dose, ion type and energy. The program NASARTI generates the chromosomes present in a cell nucleus by random walks of 20 nm, corresponding to the size of the dose voxels, [3] The generated chromosomes are located within domains which may intertwine, and [4] Each segment of the random walks corresponds to approx. 2,000 DNA base pairs. NASARTI uses pre-calculated dose at each voxel to calculate the probability of DNA damage at each random walk segment. Using the location of double-strand breaks, possible rejoining between damaged segments is evaluated. This yields various types of chromosomes aberrations, including deletions, inversions, exchanges, etc. By performing the calculations using various types of radiations, it will be possible to obtain relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for several types of chromosome aberrations.

  14. Targeting DNA Double-Strand Breaks with TAL Effector Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Michelle; Cermak, Tomas; Doyle, Erin L.; Schmidt, Clarice; Zhang, Feng; Hummel, Aaron; Bogdanove, Adam J.; Voytas, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered nucleases that cleave specific DNA sequences in vivo are valuable reagents for targeted mutagenesis. Here we report a new class of sequence-specific nucleases created by fusing transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to the catalytic domain of the FokI endonuclease. Both native and custom TALE-nuclease fusions direct DNA double-strand breaks to specific, targeted sites. PMID:20660643

  15. Nucleolar responses to DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Dorthe Helena; Stucki, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of cellular homeostasis is key to prevent transformation and disease. The cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, primarily orchestrated by the ATM/ATR kinases is one of many mechanisms that serve to uphold genome stability and homeostasis. Upon detection of double-strand breaks (DSBs), several signaling cascades are activated to halt cell cycle progression and initiate repair. Furthermore, the DNA damage response (DDR) controls cellular processes such as transcription, splicing and metabolism. Recent studies have uncovered aspects of how the DDR operates within nucleoli. It appears that the DDR controls transcription in the nucleoli, not only when DNA breaks occur in the rDNA repeats, but also when a nuclear DDR is activated. In addition, we have gained first insights into how repair of DSBs is organized in the nucleolus. Collectively, these recent studies provide a more comprehensive picture of how the DDR regulates basic cellular functions to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this review we will summarize recent findings and discuss their implications for our understanding of how the DDR regulates transcription and repair in the nucleolus. PMID:26615196

  16. Nucleolar responses to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Dorthe Helena; Stucki, Manuel

    2016-01-29

    Maintenance of cellular homeostasis is key to prevent transformation and disease. The cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, primarily orchestrated by the ATM/ATR kinases is one of many mechanisms that serve to uphold genome stability and homeostasis. Upon detection of double-strand breaks (DSBs), several signaling cascades are activated to halt cell cycle progression and initiate repair. Furthermore, the DNA damage response (DDR) controls cellular processes such as transcription, splicing and metabolism. Recent studies have uncovered aspects of how the DDR operates within nucleoli. It appears that the DDR controls transcription in the nucleoli, not only when DNA breaks occur in the rDNA repeats, but also when a nuclear DDR is activated. In addition, we have gained first insights into how repair of DSBs is organized in the nucleolus. Collectively, these recent studies provide a more comprehensive picture of how the DDR regulates basic cellular functions to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this review we will summarize recent findings and discuss their implications for our understanding of how the DDR regulates transcription and repair in the nucleolus. PMID:26615196

  17. Entropy in DNA Double-Strand Break, Detection and Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Schindler, Christina; Heermann, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    In biology, the term entropy is often understood as a measure of disorder - a restrictive interpretation that can even be misleading. Recently it has become clearer and clearer that entropy, contrary to conventional wisdom, can help to order and guide biological processes in living cells. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most dangerous lesions and efficient damage detection and repair is essential for organism viability. However, what remains unknown is the precise mechanism of targeting the site of damage within billions of intact nucleotides and a crowded nuclear environment, a process which is often referred to as recruitment or signaling. Here we show that the change in entropy associated with inflicting a DSB facilitates the recruitment of damage sensor proteins. By means of computational modeling we found that higher mobility and local chromatin structure accelerate protein association at DSB ends. We compared the effect of different chromatin architectures on protein dynamics and concentrations in the vicinity of DSBs, and related these results to experiments on repair in heterochromatin. Our results demonstrate how entropy contributes to a more efficient damage detection. We identify entropy as the physical basis for DNA double-strand break signaling.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA repairs double-strand breaks in yeast chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ricchetti, M; Fairhead, C; Dujon, B

    1999-11-01

    The endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells proposes that genetic information can be transferred from mitochondria to the nucleus of a cell, and genes that are probably of mitochondrial origin have been found in nuclear chromosomes. Occasionally, short or rearranged sequences homologous to mitochondrial DNA are seen in the chromosomes of different organisms including yeast, plants and humans. Here we report a mechanism by which fragments of mitochondrial DNA, in single or tandem array, are transferred to yeast chromosomes under natural conditions during the repair of double-strand breaks in haploid mitotic cells. These repair insertions originate from noncontiguous regions of the mitochondrial genome. Our analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial genome indicates that the yeast nuclear genome does indeed contain several short sequences of mitochondrial origin which are similar in size and composition to those that repair double-strand breaks. These sequences are located predominantly in non-coding regions of the chromosomes, frequently in the vicinity of retrotransposon long terminal repeats, and appear as recent integration events. Thus, colonization of the yeast genome by mitochondrial DNA is an ongoing process. PMID:10573425

  19. Subdiffusion Supports Joining Of Correct Ends During Repair Of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girst, S.; Hable, V.; Drexler, G. A.; Greubel, C.; Siebenwirth, C.; Haum, M.; Friedl, A. A.; Dollinger, G.

    2013-08-01

    The mobility of damaged chromatin regions in the nucleus may affect the probability of mis-repair. In this work, live-cell observation and distance tracking of GFP-tagged DNA damage response protein MDC1 was used to study the random-walk behaviour of chromatin domains containing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Our measurements indicate a subdiffusion-type random walk process with similar time dependence for isolated and clustered DSBs that were induced by 20 MeV proton or 43 MeV carbon ion micro-irradiation. As compared to normal diffusion, subdiffusion enhances the probability that both ends of a DSB meet, thus promoting high efficiency DNA repair. It also limits their probability of long-range movements and thus lowers the probability of mis-rejoining and chromosome aberrations.

  20. A computational approach to the relationship between radiation induced double strand breaks and translocations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, W. R.; Chatterjee, A.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical framework is presented which provides a quantitative analysis of radiation induced translocations between the ab1 oncogene on CH9q34 and a breakpoint cluster region, bcr, on CH 22q11. Such translocations are associated frequently with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The theory is based on the assumption that incorrect or unfaithful rejoining of initial double strand breaks produced concurrently within the 200 kbp intron region upstream of the second abl exon, and the 16.5 kbp region between bcr exon 2 and exon 6 interact with each other, resulting in a fusion gene. for an x-ray dose of 100 Gy, there is good agreement between the theoretical estimate and the one available experimental result. The theory has been extended to provide dose response curves for these types of translocations. These curves are quadratic at low doses and become linear at high doses.

  1. DNA double-strand break repair inhibitors as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2015-01-22

    Among DNA damages, double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most harmful lesions to a cell. Failure in DSB repair could lead to genomic instability and cancer. Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are major DSB repair pathways in higher eukaryotes. It is known that expression of DSB repair genes is altered in various cancers. Activation of DSB repair genes is one of the reasons for chemo- and radioresistance. Therefore, targeting DSB repair is an attractive strategy to eliminate cancer. Besides, therapeutic agents introduce breaks in the genome as an intermediate. Therefore, blocking the residual repair using inhibitors can potentiate the efficacy of cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the importance of targeting DSB repair pathways for the treatment of cancer. Recent advances in the development of DSB repair inhibitors and their clinical relevance are also addressed. PMID:25579208

  2. Do DNA Double-Strand Breaks Drive Aging?

    PubMed

    White, Ryan R; Vijg, Jan

    2016-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rare, but highly toxic, lesions requiring orchestrated and conserved machinery to prevent adverse consequences, such as cell death and cancer-causing genome structural mutations. DSBs trigger the DNA damage response (DDR) that directs a cell to repair the break, undergo apoptosis, or become senescent. There is increasing evidence that the various endpoints of DSB processing by different cells and tissues are part of the aging phenotype, with each stage of the DDR associated with specific aging pathologies. In this Perspective, we discuss the possibility that DSBs are major drivers of intrinsic aging, highlighting the dynamics of spontaneous DSBs in relation to aging, the distinct age-related pathologies induced by DSBs, and the segmental progeroid phenotypes in humans and mice with genetic defects in DSB repair. A model is presented as to how DSBs could drive some of the basic mechanisms underlying age-related functional decline and death. PMID:27588601

  3. RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious DNA lesions, which if unrepaired or repaired incorrectly can cause cell death or genome instability that may lead to cancer. To counteract these adverse consequences, eukaryotes have evolved a highly orchestrated mechanism to repair DSBs, namely DNA-damage-response (DDR). DDR, as defined specifically in relation to DSBs, consists of multi-layered regulatory modes including DNA damage sensors, transducers and effectors, through which DSBs are sensed and then repaired via DNAprotein interactions. Unexpectedly, recent studies have revealed a direct role of RNA in the repair of DSBs, including DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA)-directed and RNA-templated DNA repair. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries of RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair and discuss the potential impact of these novel RNA components of the DSB repair pathway on genomic stability and plasticity. PMID:25960340

  4. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Maria E.; Derbes, Rebecca S.; Ade, Catherine M.; Ortego, Jonathan C.; Stark, Jeremy; Deininger, Prescott L.; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs) as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) and single strand annealing (SSA), which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the “error prone” non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair. PMID:26966913

  5. Ku recruits XLF to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ken-ichi; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Wang, Shih-Ya; Uematsu, Naoya; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Weterings, Eric; Chen, David J

    2008-01-01

    XRCC4-like factor (XLF)--also known as Cernunnos--has recently been shown to be involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is the main pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells. XLF is likely to enhance NHEJ by stimulating XRCC4-ligase IV-mediated joining of DSBs. Here, we report mechanistic details of XLF recruitment to DSBs. Live cell imaging combined with laser micro-irradiation showed that XLF is an early responder to DSBs and that Ku is essential for XLF recruitment to DSBs. Biochemical analysis showed that Ku-XLF interaction occurs on DNA and that Ku stimulates XLF binding to DNA. Unexpectedly, XRCC4 is dispensable for XLF recruitment to DSBs, although photobleaching analysis showed that XRCC4 stabilizes the binding of XLF to DSBs. Our observations showed the direct involvement of XLF in the dynamic assembly of the NHEJ machinery and provide mechanistic insights into DSB recognition. PMID:18064046

  6. End Resection at Double-Strand Breaks: Mechanism and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Symington, Lorraine S.

    2014-01-01

    RecA/Rad51 catalyzed pairing of homologous DNA strands, initiated by polymerization of the recombinase on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), is a universal feature of homologous recombination (HR). Generation of ssDNA from a double-strand break (DSB) requires nucleolytic degradation of the 5′-terminated strands to generate 3′-ssDNA tails, a process referred to as 5′–3′ end resection. The RecBCD helicase–nuclease complex is the main end-processing machine in Gram-negative bacteria. Mre11-Rad50 and Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 can play a direct role in end resection in archaea and eukaryota, respectively, by removing end-blocking lesions and act indirectly by recruiting the helicases and nucleases responsible for extensive resection. In eukaryotic cells, the initiation of end resection has emerged as a critical regulatory step to differentiate between homology-dependent and end-joining repair of DSBs. PMID:25085909

  7. Buried territories: heterochromatic response to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi-Li; Xiang, Ji-Feng; Kong, Na; Cai, Xiu-Jun; Xie, An-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), the most deleterious type of DNA damage, is highly influenced by higher-order chromatin structure in eukaryotic cells. Compared with euchromatin, the compacted structure of heterochromatin not only protects heterochromatic DNA from damage, but also adds an extra layer of control over the response to DSBs occurring in heterochromatin. One key step in this response is the decondensation of heterochromatin structure. This decondensation process facilitates the DNA damage signaling and promotes proper heterochromatic DSB repair, thus helping to prevent instability of heterochromatic regions of genomes. This review will focus on the functions of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling cascade involving ATM, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-associated protein-1 (KAP-1), tat-interacting protein 60 (Tip60), and many other protein factors in DSB-induced decondensation of heterochromatin and subsequent repair of heterochromatic DSBs. As some subsets of DSBs may be repaired in heterochromatin independently of the ATM signaling, a possible repair model is also proposed for ATM-independent repair of these heterochromatic DSBs. PMID:27151295

  8. ATM controls meiotic double-strand-break formation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Julian; Pan, Jing; Cole, Francesca; Thelen, Michael P; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2011-11-10

    In many organisms, developmentally programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) formed by the SPO11 transesterase initiate meiotic recombination, which promotes pairing and segregation of homologous chromosomes. Because every chromosome must receive a minimum number of DSBs, attention has focused on factors that support DSB formation. However, improperly repaired DSBs can cause meiotic arrest or mutation; thus, having too many DSBs is probably as deleterious as having too few. Only a small fraction of SPO11 protein ever makes a DSB in yeast or mouse and SPO11 and its accessory factors remain abundant long after most DSB formation ceases, implying the existence of mechanisms that restrain SPO11 activity to limit DSB numbers. Here we report that the number of meiotic DSBs in mouse is controlled by ATM, a kinase activated by DNA damage to trigger checkpoint signalling and promote DSB repair. Levels of SPO11-oligonucleotide complexes, by-products of meiotic DSB formation, are elevated at least tenfold in spermatocytes lacking ATM. Moreover, Atm mutation renders SPO11-oligonucleotide levels sensitive to genetic manipulations that modulate SPO11 protein levels. We propose that ATM restrains SPO11 via a negative feedback loop in which kinase activation by DSBs suppresses further DSB formation. Our findings explain previously puzzling phenotypes of Atm-null mice and provide a molecular basis for the gonadal dysgenesis observed in ataxia telangiectasia, the human syndrome caused by ATM deficiency. PMID:22002603

  9. DNA double strand break repair, aging and the chromatin connection.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Are DNA damage and mutations possible causes or consequences of aging? This question has been hotly debated by biogerontologists for decades. The importance of DNA damage as a possible driver of the aging process went from being widely recognized to then forgotten, and is now slowly making a comeback. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are particularly relevant to aging because of their toxicity, increased frequency with age and the association of defects in their repair with premature aging. Recent studies expand the potential impact of DNA damage and mutations on aging by linking DNA DSB repair and age-related chromatin changes. There is overwhelming evidence that increased DNA damage and mutations accelerate aging. However, an ultimate proof of causality would be to show that enhanced genome and epigenome stability delays aging. This is not an easy task, as improving such complex biological processes is infinitely more difficult than disabling it. We will discuss the possibility that animal models with enhanced DNA repair and epigenome maintenance will be generated in the near future. PMID:26923716

  10. Chromatin modifications and DNA repair: beyond double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    House, Nealia C. M.; Koch, Melissa R.; Freudenreich, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair must take place in the context of chromatin, and chromatin modifications and DNA repair are intimately linked. The study of double-strand break repair has revealed numerous histone modifications that occur after induction of a DSB, and modification of the repair factors themselves can also occur. In some cases the function of the modification is at least partially understood, but in many cases it is not yet clear. Although DSB repair is a crucial activity for cell survival, DSBs account for only a small percentage of the DNA lesions that occur over the lifetime of a cell. Repair of single-strand gaps, nicks, stalled forks, alternative DNA structures, and base lesions must also occur in a chromatin context. There is increasing evidence that these repair pathways are also regulated by histone modifications and chromatin remodeling. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of chromatin modifications that occur during non-DSB repair, highlighting similarities and differences to DSB repair as well as remaining questions. PMID:25250043

  11. Repair of Chromosomal Double-Strand Breaks by Precise Ligation in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, William Y.; Wilson, John H.; Lin, Yunfu

    2013-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs), a common type of DNA lesion, occur daily in human cells as a result of both endogenous and exogenous damaging agents. DSBs are repaired in two general ways: by the homology-dependent, error-free pathways of homologous recombination (HR) and by the homology-independent, error-prone pathways of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), with NHEJ predominating in most cells. DSBs with compatible ends can be re-joined in vitro with DNA ligase alone, which raises the question of whether such DSBs require the more elaborate machinery of NHEJ to be repaired in cells. Here we report that chromosomal DSBs with compatible ends introduced by the rare-cutting endonuclease, ISceI, are repaired by precise ligation nearly 100% of the time in human cells. Precise ligation depends on the classical NHEJ components Ku70, XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV, since siRNA knockdowns of these factors significantly reduced the efficiency of precise ligation. Interestingly, knockdown of the tumor suppressors p53 or BRCA1 showed similar effects as the knockdowns of NHEJ factors. In contrast, knockdown of components involved in alternative NHEJ, mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, and single-strand break repair did not reduce precise ligation. In summary, our results demonstrate that DSBs in human cells are efficiently repaired by precise ligation, which requires classical NHEJ components and is enhanced by p53 and BRCA1. PMID:23707303

  12. Double-Strand Breaks from a Radical Commonly Produced by DNA-Damaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Double-strand breaks are widely accepted to be the most toxic form of DNA damage. Molecules that produce double-strand breaks via a single chemical event are typically very cytotoxic and far less common than those that form single-strand breaks. It was recently reported that a commonly formed C4′-radical produces double-strand breaks under aerobic conditions. Experiments described herein indicate that a peroxyl radical initiates strand damage on the complementary strand via C4′-hydrogen atom abstraction. Inferential evidence suggests that a C3′-peroxyl radical induces complementary strand damage more efficiently than does a C4′-peroxyl radical. Complementary strand hydrogen atom abstraction by the peroxyl radical is efficiently quenched by thiols. This mechanism could contribute to the higher than expected yield of double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation. PMID:25749510

  13. DNA double-strand break repair: a relentless hunt uncovers new prey.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, JoAnn M; Ferguson, David O

    2006-01-27

    A major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks is nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). In this issue of Cell, and report the discovery of a new NHEJ factor called Cernunnos-XLF. Both groups report that this protein is mutated in a rare inherited human syndrome characterized by severe immunodeficiency, developmental delay, and hypersensitivity to agents that cause DNA double-strand breaks. PMID:16439201

  14. Cernunnos/XLF: a new player in DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ken-ichi; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the predominant repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in vertebrates and also plays a crucial role in V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin genes. Cernunnos/XLF is a newly identified core factor for NHEJ, and its defect causes a genetic disease characterized by neural disorders, immunodeficiency and increased radiosensitivity. Cernunnos/XLF has at least two distinct functions in NHEJ. Cernunnos/XLF interacts with and stimulates the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex, which acts at the final ligation step in NHEJ. In living cells, Cernunnos/XLF quickly responds to DSB induction and accumulates at damaged sites in a Ku-dependent but XRCC4-independent manner. These observations indicate that Cernunnos/XLF plays a unique role in bridging damage sensing and DSB rejoining steps of NHEJ. Recent crystallographic analyses of the homodimeric Cernunnos/XLF protein provide structural insights into the Cernunnos/XLF functions. These studies offer important clues toward understanding the molecular mechanism for NHEJ-defective diseases. PMID:18992362

  15. Chromosomal double-strand break repair in Ku80-deficient cells.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, F; Romanienko, P J; Weaver, D T; Jeggo, P A; Jasin, M

    1996-01-01

    The x-ray sensitive hamster cell line xrs-6 is deficient in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and exhibits impaired V(D)J recombination. The molecular defect in this line is in the 80-kDa subunit of the Ku autoantigen, a protein that binds to DNA ends and recruits the DNA-dependent protein kinase to DNA. Using an I-SceI endonuclease expression system, chromosomal DSB repair was examined in xrs-6 and parental CHO-K1 cell lines. A DSB in chromosomal DNA increased the yield of recombinants several thousand-fold above background in both the xrs-6 and CHO-K1 cells, with recombinational repair of DSBs occurring in as many as 1 of 100 cells electroporated with the endonuclease expression vector. Thus, recombinational repair of chromosomal DSBs can occur at substantial levels in mammalian cells and it is not grossly affected in our assay by a deficiency of the Ku autoantigen. Rejoining of broken chromosome ends (end-joining) near the site of the DSB was also examined. In contrast to recombinational repair, end-joining was found to be severely impaired in the xrs-6 cells. Thus, the Ku protein appears to play a critical role in only one of the chromosomal DSB repair pathways. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8799130

  16. Multiple pathways of DNA double-strand break processing in a mutant Indian muntjac cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Bouffler, S.D.; Jha, B.; Johnson, R.T. )

    1990-09-01

    DNA break processing is compared in the Indian muntjac cell lines, SVM and DM. The initial frequencies and resealing of X-ray generated single- and double-strand breaks are similar in the two cell lines. Inhibiting the repair of UV damage leads to greater double-strand breakage in SVM than in DM, and some of these breaks are not repaired; however, repair-associated single-strand breakage and resealing are normal. Dimethylsulfate also induces excess double-strand breakage in SVM, and these breaks are irreparable. Restricted plasmids are reconstituted correctly in SVM at approximately 30% of the frequency observed in DM. Thus SVM has a reduced capacity to repair certain types of double-strand break. This defect is not due to a DNA ligase deficiency. We conclude that DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by a variety of pathways within mammalian cells and that the structure of the break or its mode of formation determines its subsequent fate.

  17. Radiation-induced heat-labile sites that convert into DNA double-strand breaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The yield of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in SV40 DNA irradiated in aqueous solution was found to increase by more than a factor of two as a result of postirradiation incubation of the DNA at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0 for 24 h. This is in agreement with data from studies performed at 37 degrees C that were published previously. Importantly, similar results were also obtained from irradiation of mammalian DNA in agarose plugs. These results suggest that heat-labile sites within locally multiply damaged sites are produced by radiation and are subsequently transformed into DSBs. Since incubation at 50 degrees C is typically employed for lysis of cells in commonly used pulsed-field gel assays for detection of DSBs in mammalian cells, the possibility that heat-labile sites are present in irradiated cells was also studied. An increase in the apparent number of DSBs as a function of lysis time at 50 degrees C was found with kinetics that was similar to that for irradiated DNA, although the magnitude of the increase was smaller. This suggests that heat-labile sites are also formed in the cell. If this is the case, a proportion of DSBs measured by the pulsed-field gel assays may occur during the lysis step and may not be present in the cell as breaks but as heat-labile sites. It is suggested that such sites consist mainly of heat-labile sugar lesions within locally multiply damaged sites. Comparing rejoining of DSBs measured with short and long lysis procedure indicates that the heat-labile sites are repaired with fast kinetics in comparison with repair of the bulk of DSBs.

  18. Accumulation of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Normal Tissues After Fractionated Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebe, Claudia E.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: There is increasing evidence that genetic factors regulating the recognition and/or repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are responsible for differences in radiosensitivity among patients. Genetically defined DSB repair capacities are supposed to determine patients' individual susceptibility to develop adverse normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. In a preclinical murine model, we analyzed the impact of different DSB repair capacities on the cumulative DNA damage in normal tissues during the course of fractionated irradiation. Material and Methods: Different strains of mice with defined genetic backgrounds (SCID{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous, and ATM{sup +/+}wild-type mice) were subjected to single (2 Gy) or fractionated irradiation (5 x 2 Gy). By enumerating gammaH2AX foci, the formation and rejoining of DSBs were analyzed in organs representative of both early-responding (small intestine) and late-responding tissues (lung, kidney, and heart). Results: In repair-deficient SCID{sup -/-} and ATM{sup -/-}homozygous mice, large proportions of radiation-induced DSBs remained unrepaired after each fraction, leading to the pronounced accumulation of residual DNA damage after fractionated irradiation, similarly visible in early- and late-responding tissues. The slight DSB repair impairment of ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous mice was not detectable after single-dose irradiation but resulted in a significant increase in unrepaired DSBs during the fractionated irradiation scheme. Conclusions: Radiation-induced DSBs accumulate similarly in acute- and late-responding tissues during fractionated irradiation, whereas the whole extent of residual DNA damage depends decisively on the underlying genetically defined DSB repair capacity. Moreover, our data indicate that even minor impairments in DSB repair lead to exceeding DNA damage accumulation during fractionated irradiation and thus may have a significant impact on normal

  19. High-throughput detection of DNA double-strand breaks using image cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Tyler L.; Bailey, Alison M.; Bednarz, Bryan P.; Kimple, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of γH2AX expression for studying DNA double-strand break formation is often performed by manual counting of foci using immunofluorescence microscopy, an approach that is laborious and subject to significant foci selection bias. Here we present a novel high-throughput method for detecting DNA double-strand breaks using automated image cytometry assessment of cell average γH2AX immunofluorescence. Our technique provides an expedient, high-throughput, objective, and cost-effective method for γH2AX analysis. PMID:25605579

  20. High-throughput detection of DNA double-strand breaks using image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Tyler L; Bailey, Alison M; Bednarz, Bryan P; Kimple, Randall J

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of γH2AX expression for studying DNA double-strand break formation is often performed by manual counting of foci using immunofluorescence microscopy, an approach that is laborious and subject to significant foci selection bias. Here we present a novel high-throughput method for detecting DNA double-strand breaks using automated image cytometry assessment of cell average γH2AX immunofluorescence. Our technique provides an expedient, high-throughput, objective, and cost-effective method for γH2AX analysis. PMID:25605579

  1. Branch Migration Prevents DNA Loss during Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mawer, Julia S. P.; Leach, David R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The repair of DNA double-strand breaks must be accurate to avoid genomic rearrangements that can lead to cell death and disease. This can be accomplished by promoting homologous recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes. Here, using a unique system for generating a site-specific DNA double-strand break in one copy of two replicating Escherichia coli sister chromosomes, we analyse the intermediates of sister-sister double-strand break repair. Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we show that when double-strand breaks are formed in the absence of RuvAB, 4-way DNA (Holliday) junctions are accumulated in a RecG-dependent manner, arguing against the long-standing view that the redundancy of RuvAB and RecG is in the resolution of Holliday junctions. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we explain the redundancy by showing that branch migration catalysed by RuvAB and RecG is required for stabilising the intermediates of repair as, when branch migration cannot take place, repair is aborted and DNA is lost at the break locus. We demonstrate that in the repair of correctly aligned sister chromosomes, an unstable early intermediate is stabilised by branch migration. This reliance on branch migration may have evolved to help promote recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes to prevent genomic rearrangements. PMID:25102287

  2. Zinc chromate induces chromosome instability and DNA double strand breaks in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Hong; Holmes, Amie L.; Young, Jamie L.; Qin Qin; Joyce, Kellie; Pelsue, Stephen C.; Peng Cheng; Wise, Sandra S.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Wallace, William T.; Hammond, Dianne; Wise, John Pierce E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu

    2009-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory toxicant and carcinogen, with solubility playing an important role in its carcinogenic potential. Zinc chromate, a water insoluble or 'particulate' Cr(VI) compound, has been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiology studies and to induce tumors in experimental animals, but its genotoxicity is poorly understood. Our study shows that zinc chromate induced concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, chromosome damage and DNA double strand breaks in human lung cells. In response to zinc chromate-induced breaks, MRE11 expression was increased and ATM and ATR were phosphorylated, indicating that the DNA double strand break repair system was initiated in the cells. In addition, our data show that zinc chromate-induced double strand breaks were only observed in the G2/M phase population, with no significant amount of double strand breaks observed in G1 and S phase cells. These data will aid in understanding the mechanisms of zinc chromate toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  3. CRISPR-Mediated Base Editing without DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Plosky, Brian S

    2016-05-19

    Targeting point mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 so far has required efficient homologous recombination (HR) and donor oligonucleotides. In a recent Nature paper, Komor and colleagues (2016) describe a way to make specific base changes that does not depend on HR or donor DNA and does not involve making double-strand breaks. PMID:27203175

  4. Quantitation of single- and double-strand DNA breaks in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kohen, R.; Szyf, M.; Chevion, M.

    1986-05-01

    This communication describes a rapid and convenient procedure for quantitation of strand breaks in bacterial DNA, both in vitro and in vivo, using agarose gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic determination of single strand breaks is carried out in alkaline medium, followed by renaturation of the gel and intercalation of the fluorescent dye, ethidium bromide. Double-strand breaks are determined by electrophoresis in neutral medium containing the dye. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes, the determination of the number-average molecular weight, the quantitation of the average number of DNA breaks per molecule, and the ratio between the single- and double-strand breaks are evaluated from microdensitometric scanning of the gels. The application of this analysis to damage caused by a combination of ascorbate and copper is demonstrated.

  5. Identification of defective illegitimate recombinational repair of oxidatively-induced DNA double-strand breaks in ataxia-telangiectasia cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, M. E.; Winters, T. A.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal-recessive lethal human disease. Homozygotes suffer from a number of neurological disorders, as well as very high cancer incidence. Heterozygotes may also have a higher than normal risk of cancer, particularly for the breast. The gene responsible for the disease (ATM) has been cloned, but its role in mechanisms of the disease remain unknown. Cellular A-T phenotypes, such as radiosensitivity and genomic instability, suggest that a deficiency in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may be the primary defect; however, overall levels of DSB rejoining appear normal. We used the shuttle vector, pZ189, containing an oxidatively-induced DSB, to compare the integrity of DSB rejoining in one normal and two A-T fibroblast cells lines. Mutation frequencies were two-fold higher in A-T cells, and the mutational spectrum was different. The majority of the mutations found in all three cell lines were deletions (44-63%). The DNA sequence analysis indicated that 17 of the 17 plasmids with deletion mutations in normal cells occurred between short direct-repeat sequences (removing one of the repeats plus the intervening sequences), implicating illegitimate recombination in DSB rejoining. The combined data from both A-T cell lines showed that 21 of 24 deletions did not involve direct-repeats sequences, implicating a defect in the illegitimate recombination pathway. These findings suggest that the A-T gene product may either directly participate in illegitimate recombination or modulate the pathway. Regardless, this defect is likely to be important to a mechanistic understanding of this lethal disease.

  6. Single-cell microarray enables high-throughput evaluation of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weingeist, David M; Ge, Jing; Wood, David K; Mutamba, James T; Huang, Qiuying; Rowland, Elizabeth A; Yaffe, Michael B; Floyd, Scott; Engelward, Bevin P

    2013-03-15

    A key modality of non-surgical cancer management is DNA damaging therapy that causes DNA double-strand breaks that are preferentially toxic to rapidly dividing cancer cells. Double-strand break repair capacity is recognized as an important mechanism in drug resistance and is therefore a potential target for adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, spontaneous and environmentally induced DSBs are known to promote cancer, making DSB evaluation important as a tool in epidemiology, clinical evaluation and in the development of novel pharmaceuticals. Currently available assays to detect double-strand breaks are limited in throughput and specificity and offer minimal information concerning the kinetics of repair. Here, we present the CometChip, a 96-well platform that enables assessment of double-strand break levels and repair capacity of multiple cell types and conditions in parallel and integrates with standard high-throughput screening and analysis technologies. We demonstrate the ability to detect multiple genetic deficiencies in double-strand break repair and evaluate a set of clinically relevant chemical inhibitors of one of the major double-strand break repair pathways, non-homologous end-joining. While other high-throughput repair assays measure residual damage or indirect markers of damage, the CometChip detects physical double-strand breaks, providing direct measurement of damage induction and repair capacity, which may be useful in developing and implementing treatment strategies with reduced side effects. PMID:23422001

  7. Single-cell microarray enables high-throughput evaluation of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Weingeist, David M.; Ge, Jing; Wood, David K.; Mutamba, James T.; Huang, Qiuying; Rowland, Elizabeth A.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Floyd, Scott; Engelward, Bevin P.

    2013-01-01

    A key modality of non-surgical cancer management is DNA damaging therapy that causes DNA double-strand breaks that are preferentially toxic to rapidly dividing cancer cells. Double-strand break repair capacity is recognized as an important mechanism in drug resistance and is therefore a potential target for adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, spontaneous and environmentally induced DSBs are known to promote cancer, making DSB evaluation important as a tool in epidemiology, clinical evaluation and in the development of novel pharmaceuticals. Currently available assays to detect double-strand breaks are limited in throughput and specificity and offer minimal information concerning the kinetics of repair. Here, we present the CometChip, a 96-well platform that enables assessment of double-strand break levels and repair capacity of multiple cell types and conditions in parallel and integrates with standard high-throughput screening and analysis technologies. We demonstrate the ability to detect multiple genetic deficiencies in double-strand break repair and evaluate a set of clinically relevant chemical inhibitors of one of the major double-strand break repair pathways, non-homologous end-joining. While other high-throughput repair assays measure residual damage or indirect markers of damage, the CometChip detects physical double-strand breaks, providing direct measurement of damage induction and repair capacity, which may be useful in developing and implementing treatment strategies with reduced side effects. PMID:23422001

  8. Double-strand DNA breaks recruit the centromeric histone CENP-A

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Samantha G.; Baker, Norman M.; Chapados, Brian R.; Soutoglou, Evi; Wang, Jean Y. J.; Berns, Michael W.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    The histone H3 variant CENP-A is required for epigenetic specification of centromere identity through a loading mechanism independent of DNA sequence. Using multiphoton absorption and DNA cleavage at unique sites by I-SceI endonuclease, we demonstrate that CENP-A is rapidly recruited to double-strand breaks in DNA, along with three components (CENP-N, CENP-T, and CENP-U) associated with CENP-A at centromeres. The centromere-targeting domain of CENP-A is both necessary and sufficient for recruitment to double-strand breaks. CENP-A accumulation at DNA breaks is enhanced by active non-homologous end-joining but does not require DNA-PKcs or Ligase IV, and is independent of H2AX. Thus, induction of a double-strand break is sufficient to recruit CENP-A in human and mouse cells. Finally, since cell survival after radiation-induced DNA damage correlates with CENP-A expression level, we propose that CENP-A may have a function in DNA repair. PMID:19717431

  9. Choreographing the Double Strand Break Response: Ubiquitin and SUMO Control of Nuclear Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Shane M.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is a multifaceted signaling program that centers on post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and SUMOylation. In this review we discuss how ubiquitin and SUMO orchestrate the recognition of DSBs and explore how this influences chromatin organization. We discuss functional outcomes of this response including transcriptional silencing and how pre-existing chromatin states may control the DSB response and the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:27375678

  10. Effects of heavy ions on inactivation and DNA double strand breaks in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Schafer, M; Schmitz, C; Bucker, H

    1994-10-01

    Inactivation and double strand break (dsb) induction after heavy ion irradiation were studied in stationary phase cells of the highly radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1. There is evidence that the radiation sensitivity of this bacterium is nearly independent on energy in the range of up to 15 MeV/u for lighter ions (Ar). The responses to dsb induction for charged particles show direct relationship between increasing radiation dose and residual intact DNA. PMID:11539954

  11. DNA double-strand breaks induced by high-energy neon and iron ions in human fibroblasts. II. Probing individual notI fragments by hybridization.

    PubMed

    Löbrich, M; Rydberg, B; Cooper, P K

    1994-08-01

    The initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks induced by energetic heavy ions (425 MeV/u neon and 250, 400 and 600 MeV/u iron) in comparison to X rays were measured in normal human diploid fibroblast cells within three small areas of the genome, defined by NotI fragments of 3.2, 2.0 and 1.2 Mbp. The methodology involves NotI restriction endonuclease digestion of DNA from irradiated cells, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Southern blotting and hybridization with probes recognizing single-copy sequences within the three NotI fragments. The gradual disappearance of the full-size NotI fragment with dose and the appearance of a smear of broken DNA molecules are quantified. Assuming Poisson statistics for the number of double-strand breaks induced per NotI fragment of known size, absolute yields of DNA double-strand breaks were calculated and determined to be linear with dose in all cases, with the neon ion (LET 32 keV/microns) producing 4.4 x 10(-3) breaks/Mbp/Gy and all three iron-ion beams (LETs from 190 to 350 keV/microns) producing 2.8 x 10(-3) breaks/Mbp/Gy, giving RBE values for production of double-strand breaks of 0.76 for neon and 0.48 for iron in comparison to our previously determined X-ray induction rate of 5.8 x 10(-3) breaks/Mbp/Gy. These RBE values are in good agreement with results of measurements over the whole genome as reported in the accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, M. Löbrich and P. Cooper, Radiat. Res. 139, 133-141, 1994). The distribution of broken DNA molecules was similar for the various radiations, supporting a random distribution of double-strand breaks induced by the heavy ions over Mbp distances; however, correlated breaks (clusters) over much smaller distances are not ruled out. Reconstitution of the 3.2 Mbp NotI fragment was studied during postirradiation incubation of the cells as a measure of rejoining of correct DNA ends. The proportion of breaks repaired decreased with increasing LET. PMID:8052689

  12. Role of RAD52 Epistasis Group Genes in Homologous Recombination and Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Symington, Lorraine S.

    2002-01-01

    The process of homologous recombination is a major DNA repair pathway that operates on DNA double-strand breaks, and possibly other kinds of DNA lesions, to promote error-free repair. Central to the process of homologous recombination are the RAD52 group genes (RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RDH54/TID1, RAD55, RAD57, RAD59, MRE11, and XRS2), most of which were identified by their requirement for the repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Rad52 group proteins are highly conserved among eukaryotes, and Rad51, Mre11, and Rad50 are also conserved in prokaryotes and archaea. Recent studies showing defects in homologous recombination and double-strand break repair in several human cancer-prone syndromes have emphasized the importance of this repair pathway in maintaining genome integrity. Although sensitivity to ionizing radiation is a universal feature of rad52 group mutants, the mutants show considerable heterogeneity in different assays for recombinational repair of double-strand breaks and spontaneous mitotic recombination. Herein, I provide an overview of recent biochemical and structural analyses of the Rad52 group proteins and discuss how this information can be incorporated into genetic studies of recombination. PMID:12456786

  13. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase acts on double-strand breaks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong Ming

    2007-02-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is likely responsible for DNA cytidine deamination, although it may also act as an RNA deaminase. It functions on single-stranded DNA, the non-template strand in double-stranded DNA during transcription, or both strands in supercoiled DNA. To ask whether AID is able to deaminate cytidine at DNA breaks, plasmids, containing a SnaBI site (TAC downward arrowGTA) that forms blunt ends after digestion with SnaBI, were generated. If AID deaminates cytidine at the upstream blunt end, the ATG start codon in either of two drug resistance genes will be regenerated after ligation and replication in UDG-null E. coli cells. This study shows that AID targets cytidine at the break. The extent of deamination activity beyond the break is correlated with the base composition in the break region. If the break region is A, T-rich, C > T transitions are extensive. However, when the break region is not A, T-rich, mutations are mainly restricted to the break, similar to findings in vivo. The results indicate that AID has activity on double strand breaks (DSBs). Based on previous and current findings, a somatic hypermutation (SHM) model is proposed, in which collision between the transcription apparatus and the replication fork generates DSBs. After AID acts on break ends, the error-prone DNA repair machinery fixes and creates mutations. PMID:16697045

  14. Joining of correct and incorrect DNA ends at double-strand breaks produced by high-linear energy transfer radiation in human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Cooper, P. K.; Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured within a 3.2-Mbp NotI fragment on chromosome 21 of cells of a normal human fibroblast cell line. Correct rejoining of DSBs was followed by measuring reconstitution of the original-size NotI fragment, and this was compared to total rejoining as measured by a conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis technique (FAR assay). After 80 Gy of particle irradiations with LETs in the range of 7-150 keV/microm, it was found that the repair kinetics was generally slower after irradiation with high-LET particles compared to X irradiation and that a larger proportion of the breaks remained unrepaired after 24 h. On the other hand, the misrejoining frequency as measured by the difference between correct and total rejoining after 24 h did not change with LET, but was approximately the same for all radiations at this dose, equal to 25-30% of the initial breaks. This result is discussed in relation to formation of chromosomal aberrations, deletion mutations and other biological end points.

  15. Sources of DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Models of Recombinational DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anuja; Haber, James E.

    2014-01-01

    DNA is subject to many endogenous and exogenous insults that impair DNA replication and proper chromosome segregation. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most toxic of these lesions and must be repaired to preserve chromosomal integrity. Eukaryotes are equipped with several different, but related, repair mechanisms involving homologous recombination, including single-strand annealing, gene conversion, and break-induced replication. In this review, we highlight the chief sources of DSBs and crucial requirements for each of these repair processes, as well as the methods to identify and study intermediate steps in DSB repair by homologous recombination. PMID:25104768

  16. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks in boron neutron capture reaction.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nakai, Kei; Fumiyo Yoshida; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR) using plasmid DNA, boron solution, and gel electrophoresis. The amount of the linear form of DNA produced by DSBs increased with the neutron-beam irradiation dose. The amount of the open-circular form of DNA produced by single-strand breaks (SSBs) increased with the neutron-beam irradiation dose and the (10)B concentration. The model facilitated quantification of BNCR-induced DSBs and SSBs, irrespective of the DNA repair mechanism. PMID:26302660

  17. A critical role for topoisomerase IIb and DNA double strand breaks in transcription.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Stuart K

    2016-05-26

    Recent studies have indicated a novel role for topoisomerase IIb in transcription. Transcription of heat shock genes, serum-induced immediate early genes and nuclear receptor-activated genes, each required DNA double strands generated by topoisomerase IIb. Such strand breaks seemed both necessary and sufficient for transcriptional activation. In addition, such transcription was associated with initiation of the DNA damage response pathways, including the activation of the enzymes: ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1. DNA damage response signaling was involved both in transcription and in repair of DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase IIb. PMID:27100743

  18. Organization and dynamics of the nonhomologous end-joining machinery during DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Dylan A.; Keegan, Sarah; Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Watanabe, Go; Strande, Natasha T.; Chang, Howard H.; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Fenyo, David; Lieber, Michael R.; Ramsden, Dale A.; Rothenberg, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), involving synapsis and ligation of the broken strands. We describe the use of in vivo and in vitro single-molecule methods to define the organization and interaction of NHEJ repair proteins at DSB ends. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allowed the precise visualization of XRCC4, XLF, and DNA ligase IV filaments adjacent to DSBs, which bridge the broken chromosome and direct rejoining. We show, by single-molecule FRET analysis of the Ku/XRCC4/XLF/DNA ligase IV NHEJ ligation complex, that end-to-end synapsis involves a dynamic positioning of the two ends relative to one another. Our observations form the basis of a new model for NHEJ that describes the mechanism whereby filament-forming proteins bridge DNA DSBs in vivo. In this scheme, the filaments at either end of the DSB interact dynamically to achieve optimal configuration and end-to-end positioning and ligation. PMID:25941401

  19. Overhang polarity of chromosomal double-strand breaks impacts kinetics and fidelity of yeast non-homologous end joining

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhuobin; Sunder, Sham; Nallasivam, Sivakumar; Wilson, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the main repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells with limited 5′ resection. To better understand how overhang polarity of chromosomal DSBs affects NHEJ, we made site-specific 5′-overhanging DSBs (5′ DSBs) in yeast using an optimized zinc finger nuclease at an efficiency that approached HO-induced 3′ DSB formation. When controlled for the extent of DSB formation, repair monitoring suggested that chromosomal 5′ DSBs were rejoined more efficiently than 3′ DSBs, consistent with a robust recruitment of NHEJ proteins to 5′ DSBs. Ligation-mediated qPCR revealed that Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 rapidly modified 5′ DSBs and facilitated protection of 3′ DSBs, likely through recognition of overhang polarity by the Mre11 nuclease. Next-generation sequencing revealed that NHEJ at 5′ DSBs had a higher mutation frequency, and validated the differential requirement of Pol4 polymerase at 3′ and 5′ DSBs. The end processing enzyme Tdp1 did not impact joining fidelity at chromosomal 5′ DSBs as in previous plasmid studies, although Tdp1 was recruited to only 5′ DSBs in a Ku-independent manner. These results suggest distinct DSB handling based on overhang polarity that impacts NHEJ kinetics and fidelity through differential recruitment and action of DSB modifying enzymes. PMID:26773053

  20. Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: joining of correct and incorrect ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated from the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results from this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 X 10(-3) break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. The misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between 2 and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes.

  1. Use of the HPRT gene to study nuclease-induced DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Gravells, Polly; Ahrabi, Sara; Vangala, Rajani K.; Tomita, Kazunori; Brash, James T.; Brustle, Lena A.; Chung, Christopher; Hong, Julia M.; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Humphrey, Timothy C.; Porter, Andrew C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of chromosomal double-strand break repair (DSBR) provides insight into genome instability, oncogenesis and genome engineering, including disease gene correction. Research into DSBR exploits rare-cutting endonucleases to cleave exogenous reporter constructs integrated into the genome. Multiple reporter constructs have been developed to detect various DSBR pathways. Here, using a single endogenous reporter gene, the X-chromosomal disease gene encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), we monitor the relative utilization of three DSBR pathways following cleavage by I-SceI or CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases. For I-SceI, our estimated frequencies of accurate or mutagenic non-homologous end-joining and gene correction by homologous recombination are 4.1, 1.5 and 0.16%, respectively. Unexpectedly, I-SceI and Cas9 induced markedly different DSBR profiles. Also, using an I-SceI-sensitive HPRT minigene, we show that gene correction is more efficient when using long double-stranded DNA than single- or double-stranded oligonucleotides. Finally, using both endogenous HPRT and exogenous reporters, we validate novel cell cycle phase-specific I-SceI derivatives for investigating cell cycle variations in DSBR. The results obtained using these novel approaches provide new insights into template design for gene correction and the relationships between multiple DSBR pathways at a single endogenous disease gene. PMID:26423459

  2. Processing of 3'-Phosphoglycolate-Terminated DNA Double-StrandBreaks by Artemis Nuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Povrik, Lawrence F.; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Ruizhe; Cowan, Morton J.; Yannone, Steven M.

    2005-10-01

    The Artemis nuclease is required for V(D)J recombination and for repair of an as yet undefined subset of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. To assess the possibility that Artemis functions on oxidatively modified double-strand break termini, its activity toward model DNA substrates, bearing either 3{prime}-hydroxyl or 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate moieties, was examined. A 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate had little effect on Artemis-mediated trimming of long 3{prime} overhangs (>9 nucleotides), which were efficiently trimmed to 4-5 nucleotides. However, 3{prime}-phosphoglycolates on overhangs of 4-5 bases promoted selective Artemis-mediated trimming of a single 3{prime}-terminal nucleotide, while at least 2 nucleotides were trimmed from identical hydroxyl-terminated substrates. Artemis also efficiently removed a single nucleotide from a phosphoglycolate-terminated 3-base 3{prime} overhang, while leaving an analogous hydroxyl-terminated overhang largely intact. Such removal was dependent upon Ku, DNA-dependent protein kinase, and ATP. Together, these data suggest that Artemis-mediated cleavage of 3{prime} overhangs requires a minimum of 2 nucleotides, or a nucleotide plus a phosphoglycolate, 3{prime} to the cleavage site. Shorter 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate-terminated overhangs and blunt ends were also processed by Artemis, but much less efficiently. Consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of Artemis, human cells lacking Artemis exhibited hypersensitivity to X-rays, bleomycin and neocarzinostatin, which all induce 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate-terminated double-strand breaks. Collectively, these results suggest that 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate termini and/or specific classes of DNA ends that arise from such blocked termini are relevant Artemis substrates in vivo.

  3. Regulation of DNA double-strand break repair by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers.

    PubMed

    Schwertman, Petra; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2016-05-23

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions. The swift recognition and faithful repair of such damage is crucial for the maintenance of genomic stability, as well as for cell and organismal fitness. Signalling by ubiquitin, SUMO and other ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) orchestrates and regulates cellular responses to DSBs at multiple levels, often involving extensive crosstalk between these modifications. Recent findings have revealed compelling insights into the complex mechanisms by which ubiquitin and UBLs regulate protein interactions with DSB sites to promote accurate lesion repair and protection of genome integrity in mammalian cells. These advances offer new therapeutic opportunities for diseases linked to genetic instability. PMID:27211488

  4. Impact of Charged Particle Exposure on Homologous DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Human Blood-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Melanie; Kraft, Daniela; Volcic, Meta; Cucu, Aljona; Nasonova, Elena; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Bönig, Halvard; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Fournier, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation generates DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) which, unless faithfully repaired, can generate chromosomal rearrangements in hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPC), potentially priming the cells towards a leukemic phenotype. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based reporter system, we recently identified differences in the removal of enzyme-mediated DSB in human HSPC versus mature peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), particularly regarding homologous DSB repair (HR). Assessment of chromosomal breaks via premature chromosome condensation or γH2AX foci indicated similar efficiency and kinetics of radiation-induced DSB formation and rejoining in PBL and HSPC. Prolonged persistence of chromosomal breaks was observed for higher LET charged particles which are known to induce more complex DNA damage compared to X-rays. Consistent with HR deficiency in HSPC observed in our previous study, we noticed here pronounced focal accumulation of 53BP1 after X-ray and carbon ion exposure (intermediate LET) in HSPC versus PBL. For higher LET, 53BP1 foci kinetics was similarly delayed in PBL and HSPC suggesting similar failure to repair complex DNA damage. Data obtained with plasmid reporter systems revealed a dose- and LET-dependent HR increase after X-ray, carbon ion and higher LET exposure, particularly in HR-proficient immortalized and primary lymphocytes, confirming preferential use of conservative HR in PBL for intermediate LET damage repair. HR measured adjacent to the leukemia-associated MLL breakpoint cluster sequence in reporter lines revealed dose dependency of potentially leukemogenic rearrangements underscoring the risk of leukemia-induction by radiation treatment. PMID:26618143

  5. RecG Directs DNA Synthesis during Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Azeroglu, Benura; Mawer, Julia S. P.; Cockram, Charlotte A.; White, Martin A.; Hasan, A. M. Mahedi; Filatenkova, Milana; Leach, David R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides a mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) that requires an intact, homologous template for DNA synthesis. When DNA synthesis associated with DSBR is convergent, the broken DNA strands are replaced and repair is accurate. However, if divergent DNA synthesis is established, over-replication of flanking DNA may occur with deleterious consequences. The RecG protein of Escherichia coli is a helicase and translocase that can re-model 3-way and 4-way DNA structures such as replication forks and Holliday junctions. However, the primary role of RecG in live cells has remained elusive. Here we show that, in the absence of RecG, attempted DSBR is accompanied by divergent DNA replication at the site of an induced chromosomal DNA double-strand break. Furthermore, DNA double-stand ends are generated in a recG mutant at sites known to block replication forks. These double-strand ends, also trigger DSBR and the divergent DNA replication characteristic of this mutant, which can explain over-replication of the terminus region of the chromosome. The loss of DNA associated with unwinding joint molecules previously observed in the absence of RuvAB and RecG, is suppressed by a helicase deficient PriA mutation (priA300), arguing that the action of RecG ensures that PriA is bound correctly on D-loops to direct DNA replication rather than to unwind joint molecules. This has led us to put forward a revised model of homologous recombination in which the re-modelling of branched intermediates by RecG plays a fundamental role in directing DNA synthesis and thus maintaining genomic stability. PMID:26872352

  6. Gamma-irradiated quiescent cells repair directly induced double-strand breaks but accumulate persistent double-strand breaks during subsequent DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Yusuke; Atsumi, Yuko; Shinohara, Akira; Murakami, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Ken-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    H2AX is expressed at very low levels in quiescent normal cells in vivo and in vitro. Such cells repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by γ-irradiation through a transient stabilization of H2AX. However, the resultant cells accumulate small numbers of irreparable (or persistent) DSBs via an unknown mechanism. We found that quiescent cells that had repaired DSBs directly induced by γ-rays were prone to accumulate DSBs during the subsequent DNA replication. Unlike directly induced DSBs, secondary DSBs were not efficiently repaired, although Rad51 and 53BP1 were recruited to these sites. H2AX was dramatically stabilized in response to DSBs directly caused by γ-rays, enabling γH2AX foci formation and DSB repair, whereas H2AX was barely stabilized in response to secondary DSBs, in which γH2AX foci were small and DSBs were not efficiently repaired. Our results show a pathway that leads to the persistent DSB formation after γ-irradiation. PMID:27251002

  7. DNA double strand breaks in the acute phase after synchrotron pencilbeam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Palomo, C.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Trippel, M.; Schroll, C.; Requardt, H.; Bartzsch, S.; Nikkhah, G.; Schültke, E.

    2013-07-01

    Introduction. At the biomedical beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), we have established a method to study pencilbeam irradiation in-vivoin small animal models. The pencilbeam irradiation technique is based on the principle of microbeam irradiation, a concept of spatially fractionated high-dose irradiation. Using γH2AX as marker, we followed the development of DNA double strand breaks over 48 hrs after whole brain irradiation with the pencilbeam technique. Method. Almost square pencilbeams with an individual size of 51 × 50 μm were produced with an MSC collimator using a step and shoot approach, while the animals were moved vertically through the beam. The center-to-center distance (ctc) was 400 μm, with a peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) of about 400. Five groups of healthy adult mice received peak irradiation doses of either 330 Gy or 2,460 Gy and valley doses of 0.82 Gy and 6.15 Gy, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 12 and 48 hrs after irradiation. Results. DNA double strand breaks are observed in the path of the pencilbeam. The size of the damaged volume undergoes changes within the first 48 hours after irradiation. Conclusions. The extent of DNA damage caused by pencilbeam irradiation, as assessed by H2AX antibody staining, is dose- dependent.

  8. Nonhomologous end joining of complex DNA double-strand breaks with proximal thymine glycol and interplay with base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Almohaini, Mohammed; Chalasani, Sri Lakshmi; Bafail, Duaa; Akopiants, Konstantin; Zhou, Tong; Yannone, Steven M; Ramsden, Dale A; Hartman, Matthew C T; Povirk, Lawrence F

    2016-05-01

    DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation are often accompanied by ancillary oxidative base damage that may prevent or delay their repair. In order to better define the features that make some DSBs repair-resistant, XLF-dependent nonhomologous end joining of blunt-ended DSB substrates having the oxidatively modified nonplanar base thymine glycol at the first (Tg1), second (Tg2), third (Tg3) or fifth (Tg5) positions from one 3' terminus, was examined in human whole-cell extracts. Tg at the third position had little effect on end-joining even when present on both ends of the break. However, Tg as the terminal or penultimate base was a major barrier to end joining (>10-fold reduction in ligated products) and an absolute barrier when present at both ends. Dideoxy trapping of base excision repair intermediates indicated that Tg was excised from Tg1, Tg2 and Tg3 largely if not exclusively after DSB ligation. However, Tg was rapidly excised from the Tg5 substrate, resulting in a reduced level of DSB ligation, as well as slow concomitant resection of the opposite strand. Ligase reactions containing only purified Ku, XRCC4, ligase IV and XLF showed that ligation of Tg3 and Tg5 was efficient and only partially XLF-dependent, whereas ligation of Tg1 and Tg2 was inefficient and only detectable in the presence of XLF. Overall, the results suggest that promoting ligation of DSBs with proximal base damage may be an important function of XLF, but that Tg can still be a major impediment to repair, being relatively resistant to both trimming and ligation. Moreover, it appears that base excision repair of Tg can sometimes interfere with repair of DSBs that would otherwise be readily rejoined. PMID:27049455

  9. The cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from induction of double-strand breaks in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colis, Laureen C.; Woo, Christina M.; Hegan, Denise C.; Li, Zhenwu; Glazer, Peter M.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2014-06-01

    The metabolite (-)-lomaiviticin A, which contains two diazotetrahydrobenzo[b]fluorene (diazofluorene) functional groups, inhibits the growth of cultured human cancer cells at nanomolar-picomolar concentrations; however, the mechanism responsible for the potent cytotoxicity of this natural product is not known. Here we report that (-)-lomaiviticin A nicks and cleaves plasmid DNA by a pathway that is independent of reactive oxygen species and iron, and that the potent cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs). In a plasmid cleavage assay, the ratio of single-strand breaks (ssbs) to dsbs is 5.3 ± 0.6:1. Labelling studies suggest that this cleavage occurs via a radical pathway. The structurally related isolates (-)-lomaiviticin C and (-)-kinamycin C, which contain one diazofluorene, are demonstrated to be much less effective DNA cleavage agents, thereby providing an explanation for the enhanced cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A compared to that of other members of this family.

  10. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. II. Biophysical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Goodwin, E. H.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    A biophysical model for the kinetics of the formation of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is developed to account for the recent experimental results obtained with a combination of the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. In this model, we consider the broken ends of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to be reactant and make use of the interaction distance hypothesis. The repair/misrepair process between broken ends is suggested to consist of two steps; the first step represents the two break ends approaching each other, and the second step represents the enzymatic processes leading to DNA end-to-end rejoining. Only the second step is reflected in the kinetics observed in experiments using PCC. The model appears to be able to fit existing data for human cells. It is shown that the kinetics of the formation of chromosome aberrations can be explained by a single rate that characterizes both rejoining and misrejoining of DSBs, suggesting that repair and misrepair share the same mechanism. Fast repair (completed in minutes) in a subset of DSBs is suggested as an explanation of the complete exchanges observed with PCC in human lymphocytes immediately after irradiation. The fast repair component seems to be absent in human fibroblasts.

  11. [p53 activation by PI-3K family kinases after DNA double-strand breaks].

    PubMed

    Pernin, D; Uhrhammer, N; Verrelle, P; Bignon, Y J; Bay, J O

    2000-09-01

    p53 plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and to DNA damage in general. The protein kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK detect DSBs and transmit this information to p53 by phosphorylation. This phosphorylation dissociates p53 from its negative regulator, mdm2. p53 then undergoes further modification and activates transcription of the genes responsible for cell cycle arrest. In certain circumstances, p53 also activates transcription of the genes responsible for apoptosis. The dysfunction of this cascade of events is oncogenic, with P53 itself being the most commonly mutated gene in malignant cells, although mutations in both the DNA damage sensors and cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis effectors are frequent. A more complete understanding of p53 and the proteins it interacts with may allow the development of new cancer treatments. PMID:11038413

  12. RPA Antagonizes Microhomology-Mediated Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Sarah K; Gibb, Bryan; de Almeida, Mariana Justino; Greene, Eric C; Symington, Lorraine S

    2014-01-01

    Microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) is a Ku and Ligase IV independent mechanism for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, which contributes to chromosome rearrangements. Here we used a chromosomal end-joining assay to determine the genetic requirements for MMEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that end resection influences the ability to expose microhomologies; however, it is not rate limiting for MMEJ in wild-type cells. The frequency of MMEJ increased by up to 350-fold in rfa1 hypomorphic mutants, suggesting that replication protein A (RPA) bound to the ssDNA overhangs formed by resection prevents spontaneous annealing between microhomologies. In vitro, the mutant RPA complexes were unable to fully extend ssDNA and were compromised in their ability to prevent spontaneous annealing. We propose the helix-destabilizing activity of RPA channels ssDNA intermediates from mutagenic MMEJ to error-free homologous recombination, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:24608368

  13. DNA double-strand break formation and repair in Tetrahymena meiosis.

    PubMed

    Loidl, Josef; Lorenz, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The molecular details of meiotic recombination have been determined for a small number of model organisms. From these studies, a general picture has emerged that shows that most, if not all, recombination is initiated by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) that is repaired in a recombinogenic process using a homologous DNA strand as a template. However, the details of recombination vary between organisms, and it is unknown which variant is representative of evolutionarily primordial meiosis or most prevalent among eukaryotes. To answer these questions and to obtain a better understanding of the range of recombination processes among eukaryotes, it is important to study a variety of different organisms. Here, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is introduced as a versatile meiotic model system, which has the additional bonus of having the largest phylogenetic distance to all of the eukaryotes studied to date. Studying this organism can contribute to our understanding of the conservation and diversification of meiotic recombination processes. PMID:26899715

  14. Functional significance of the interaction with Ku in DNA double-strand break recognition of XLF.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ken-ichi; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Chen, David J

    2011-03-23

    Ku heterodimer is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Ku recruits XLF, also known as Cernunnos, to DSBs. Here we report domain analyses of Ku-XLF interaction. The heterodimeric domain of Ku was found to be sufficient for the recruitment of XLF to DSBs and for the interaction of Ku with XLF. A small C-terminal deletion of XLF completely abolished recruitment of XLF to DSBs and Ku-XLF interaction. This deletion also led to marked reduction of XLF-XRCC4 interaction although the XRCC4-binding site on the XLF N-terminal domain remained intact. These results demonstrate the significance of Ku-XLF interaction in the molecular assembly of NHEJ factors. PMID:21349273

  15. Visualization of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair at the Single-Molecule Level

    SciTech Connect

    Dynan, William S.; Li, Shuyi; Mernaugh, Raymond; Wragg, Stephanie; Takeda, Yoshihiko

    2003-03-27

    Exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation is universal. The signature injury from ionizing radiation exposure is induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The first line of defense against DSBs is direct ligation of broken DNA ends via the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Because even a relatively high environmental exposure induces only a few DSBs per cell, our current understanding of the response to this exposure is limited by the ability to measure DSB repair events reliably in situ at a single-molecule level. To address this need, we have taken advantage of biological amplification, measuring relocalization of proteins and detection of protein phosphorylation as a surrogate for detection of broken ends themselves. We describe the use of specific antibodies to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of repair of very small numbers of DSBs in human cells by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway.

  16. Coupling end resection with the checkpoint response at DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Villa, Matteo; Cassani, Corinne; Gobbini, Elisa; Bonetti, Diego; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2016-10-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a nasty form of damage that needs to be repaired to ensure genome stability. The DSB ends can undergo a strand-biased nucleolytic processing (resection) to generate 3'-ended single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that channels DSB repair into homologous recombination. Generation of ssDNA also triggers the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, which couples cell cycle progression with DSB repair. The checkpoint response is intimately linked to DSB resection, as some checkpoint proteins regulate the resection process. The present review will highlight recent works on the mechanism and regulation of DSB resection and its interplays with checkpoint activation/inactivation in budding yeast. PMID:27141941

  17. Apparent Epigenetic Meiotic Double-Strand-Break Disparity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Franklin W.; Rehan, Maryam Binti Mohamed; Foss, Henriette M.; Borts, Rhona H.

    2016-01-01

    Previously published, and some unpublished, tetrad data from budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are analyzed for disparity in gene conversion, in which one allele is more often favored than the other (conversion disparity). One such disparity, characteristic of a bias in the frequencies of meiotic double-strand DNA breaks at the hotspot near the His4 locus, is found in diploids that undergo meiosis soon after their formation, but not in diploids that have been cloned and frozen. Altered meiotic DNA breakability associated with altered metabolism-related chromatin states has been previously reported. However, the above observations imply that such differing parental chromatin states can persist through at least one chromosome replication, and probably more, in a common environment. This conclusion may have implications for interpreting changes in allele frequencies in populations. PMID:27356614

  18. DNA double-strand break repair: a tale of pathway choices.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xingzhi

    2016-07-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic lesions that must be repaired either through homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. DSB repair is critical for genome integrity, cellular homeostasis and also constitutes the biological foundation for radiotherapy and the majority of chemotherapy. The choice between HR and NHEJ is a complex yet not completely understood process that will entail more future efforts. Herein we review our current understandings about how the choice is made over an antagonizing balance between p53-binding protein 1 and breast cancer 1 in the context of cell cycle stages, downstream effects, and distinct chromosomal histone marks. These exciting areas of research will surely bring more mechanistic insights about DSB repair and be utilized in the clinical settings. PMID:27217474

  19. RNF20-SNF2H Pathway of Chromatin Relaxation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Akihiro; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in the study on the association of histone modifications with chromatin remodeling factors has broadened our understanding of chromatin dynamics in DNA transactions. In DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the well-known mark of histones is the phosphorylation of the H2A variant, H2AX, which has been used as a surrogate marker of DSBs. The ubiquitylation of histone H2B by RNF20 E3 ligase was recently found to be a DNA damage-induced histone modification. This modification is required for DSB repair and regulated by a distinctive pathway from that of histone H2AX phosphorylation. Moreover, the connection between H2B ubiquitylation and the chromatin remodeling activity of SNF2H has been elucidated. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of RNF20-mediated processes and the molecular link to H2AX-mediated processes during DSB repair. PMID:26184323

  20. Multiple Pathways of Recombination Induced by Double-Strand Breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pâques, Frédéric; Haber, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the principal organism used in experiments to examine genetic recombination in eukaryotes. Studies over the past decade have shown that meiotic recombination and probably most mitotic recombination arise from the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). There are multiple pathways by which such DSBs can be repaired, including several homologous recombination pathways and still other nonhomologous mechanisms. Our understanding has also been greatly enriched by the characterization of many proteins involved in recombination and by insights that link aspects of DNA repair to chromosome replication. New molecular models of DSB-induced gene conversion are presented. This review encompasses these different aspects of DSB-induced recombination in Saccharomyces and attempts to relate genetic, molecular biological, and biochemical studies of the processes of DNA repair and recombination. PMID:10357855

  1. Significant correlation of species longevity with DNA double strand break recognition but not with telomere length.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Antonello; Johnson, F Brad; Oliver, Anthony; Tresini, Maria; Smith, Jasmine S; Hdeib, Mona; Sell, Christian; Cristofalo, Vincent J; Stamato, Thomas D

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the wide differences in species lifespan remains one of the major unsolved problems of the biology of aging. We measured the capacity of nuclear protein to recognize DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and telomere length of skin fibroblasts derived from mammalian species that exhibit wide differences in longevity. Our results indicate DNA DSB recognition increases exponentially with longevity. Further, an analysis of the level of Ku80 protein in human, cow, and mouse suggests that Ku levels vary dramatically between species and these levels are strongly correlated with longevity. In contrast mean telomere length appears to decrease with increasing longevity of the species, although not significantly. These findings suggest that an enhanced ability to bind to DNA ends may be important for longevity. A number of possible roles for increased levels of Ku and DNA-PKcs are discussed. PMID:19896964

  2. APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases in Double-Strand DNA Break Repair and Cancer Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    High frequency of cytidine to thymidine conversions were identified in the genome of several types of cancer cells. In breast cancer cells these mutations are clustered in long DNA regions associated with ssDNA, double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and genomic rearrangements. The observed mutational pattern resembles the deamination signature of cytidine to uridine carried out by members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular deaminases. Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells. A3G is another member of the cytidine deaminases family predominantly expressed in lymphoma cells, where it is involved in mutational DSB repair following ionizing radiation treatments. This activity provides us with a new paradigm for cancer cell survival and tumor promotion and a mechanistic link between ssDNA, DSBs and clustered mutations. PMID:23598277

  3. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in double-strand DNA break repair and cancer promotion.

    PubMed

    Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

    2013-06-15

    High frequency of cytidine to thymidine conversions was identified in the genome of several types of cancer cells. In breast cancer cells, these mutations are clustered in long DNA regions associated with single-strand DNA (ssDNA), double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), and genomic rearrangements. The observed mutational pattern resembles the deamination signature of cytidine to uridine carried out by members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular deaminases. Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells. A3G is another member of the cytidine deaminases family predominantly expressed in lymphoma cells, where it is involved in mutational DSB repair following ionizing radiation treatments. This activity provides us with a new paradigm for cancer cell survival and tumor promotion and a mechanistic link between ssDNA, DSBs, and clustered mutations. Cancer Res; 73(12); 3494-8. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23598277

  4. Double-strand break repair on sex chromosomes: challenges during male meiotic prophase

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    During meiotic prophase, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-mediated homologous recombination (HR) occurs for exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. Unlike autosomes or female sex chromosomes, human male sex chromosomes X and Y share little homology. Although DSBs are generated throughout male sex chromosomes, homologous recombination does not occur for most regions and DSB repair process is significantly prolonged. As a result, male sex chromosomes are coated with many DNA damage response proteins and form a unique chromatin structure known as the XY body. Interestingly, associated with the prolonged DSB repair, transcription is repressed in the XY body but not in autosomes, a phenomenon known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which is critical for male meiosis. Here using mice as model organisms, we briefly summarize recent progress on DSB repair in meiotic prophase and focus on the mechanism and function of DNA damage response in the XY body. PMID:25565522

  5. Targeted molecular trait stacking in cotton through targeted double-strand break induction

    PubMed Central

    D'Halluin, Kathleen; Vanderstraeten, Chantal; Van Hulle, Jolien; Rosolowska, Joanna; Van Den Brande, Ilse; Pennewaert, Anouk; D'Hont, Kristel; Bossut, Martine; Jantz, Derek; Ruiter, Rene; Broadhvest, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments of tools for targeted genome modification have led to new concepts in how multiple traits can be combined. Targeted genome modification is based on the use of nucleases with tailor-made specificities to introduce a DNA double-strand break (DSB) at specific target loci. A re-engineered meganuclease was designed for specific cleavage of an endogenous target sequence adjacent to a transgenic insect control locus in cotton. The combination of targeted DNA cleavage and homologous recombination–mediated repair made precise targeted insertion of additional trait genes (hppd, epsps) feasible in cotton. Targeted insertion events were recovered at a frequency of about 2% of the independently transformed embryogenic callus lines. We further demonstrated that all trait genes were inherited as a single genetic unit, which will simplify future multiple-trait introgression. PMID:23777410

  6. Visualization of complex DNA double-strand breaks in a tumor treated with carbon ion radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Oike, Takahiro; Niimi, Atsuko; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Murata, Kazutoshi; Matsumura, Akihiko; Noda, Shin-Ei; Kobayashi, Daijiro; Iwanaga, Mototaro; Tsuchida, Keisuke; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Shibata, Atsushi; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy shows great potential as a cure for X-ray-resistant tumors. Basic research suggests that the strong cell-killing effect induced by carbon ions is based on their ability to cause complex DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, evidence supporting the formation of complex DSBs in actual patients is lacking. Here, we used advanced high-resolution microscopy with deconvolution to show that complex DSBs are formed in a human tumor clinically treated with carbon ion radiotherapy, but not in a tumor treated with X-ray radiotherapy. Furthermore, analysis using a physics model suggested that the complexity of radiotherapy-induced DSBs is related to linear energy transfer, which is much higher for carbon ion beams than for X-rays. Visualization of complex DSBs in clinical specimens will help us to understand the anti-tumor effects of carbon ion radiotherapy. PMID:26925533

  7. Hyperactivation of DNA-PK by Double-Strand Break Mimicking Molecules Disorganizes DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Quanz, Maria; Chassoux, Danielle; Berthault, Nathalie; Agrario, Céline; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Cellular response to DNA damage involves the coordinated activation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. The early steps of DNA damage recognition and signaling in mammalian cells are not yet fully understood. To investigate the regulation of the DNA damage response (DDR), we designed short and stabilized double stranded DNA molecules (Dbait) mimicking double-strand breaks. We compared the response induced by these molecules to the response induced by ionizing radiation. We show that stable 32-bp long Dbait, induce pan-nuclear phosphorylation of DDR components such as H2AX, Rpa32, Chk1, Chk2, Nbs1 and p53 in various cell lines. However, individual cell analyses reveal that differences exist in the cellular responses to Dbait compared to irradiation. Responses to Dbait: (i) are dependent only on DNA-PK kinase activity and not on ATM, (ii) result in a phosphorylation signal lasting several days and (iii) are distributed in the treated population in an “all-or-none” pattern, in a Dbait-concentration threshold dependant manner. Moreover, despite extensive phosphorylation of the DNA-PK downstream targets, Dbait treated cells continue to proliferate without showing cell cycle delay or apoptosis. Dbait treatment prior to irradiation impaired foci formation of Nbs1, 53BP1 and Rad51 at DNA damage sites and inhibited non-homologous end joining as well as homologous recombination. Together, our results suggest that the hyperactivation of DNA-PK is insufficient for complete execution of the DDR but induces a “false” DNA damage signaling that disorganizes the DNA repair system. PMID:19621083

  8. Sp1 Facilitates DNA Double-Strand Break Repair through a Nontranscriptional Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Beishline, Kate; Kelly, Crystal M.; Olofsson, Beatrix A.; Koduri, Sravanthi; Emrich, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) in response to ionizing radiation and H2O2. Here, we show by indirect immunofluorescence that Sp1 phosphorylated on serine 101 (pSp1) localizes to ionizing radiation-induced foci with phosphorylated histone variant γH2Ax and members of the MRN (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) complex. More precise analysis of occupancy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) shows that Sp1, like Nbs1, resides within 200 bp of DSBs. Using laser microirradiation of cells, we demonstrate that pSp1 is present at DNA DSBs by 7.5 min after induction of damage and remains at the break site for at least 8 h. Depletion of Sp1 inhibits repair of site-specific DNA breaks, and the N-terminal 182-amino-acid peptide, which contains targets of ATM kinase but lacks the zinc finger DNA binding domain, is phosphorylated, localizes to DSBs, and rescues the repair defect resulting from Sp1 depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that Sp1 is rapidly recruited to the region immediately adjacent to sites of DNA DSBs and is required for DSB repair, through a mechanism independent of its sequence-directed transcriptional effects. PMID:22826432

  9. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks and chromosome translocations using ligation-mediated PCR and inverse PCR.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Michael J; Betti, Christopher J; Vaughan, Andrew T M

    2005-01-01

    Current techniques for examining the global creation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks are restricted in their sensitivity, and such techniques mask any site-dependent variations in breakage and repair rate or fidelity. We present here a system for analyzing the fate of documented DNA breaks, using the MLL gene as an example, through application of ligation-mediated PCR. Here, a simple asymmetric double-stranded DNA adapter molecule is ligated to experimentally induced DNA breaks and subjected to seminested PCR using adapter and gene-specific primers. The rate of appearance and loss of specific PCR products allows detection of both the break and its repair. Using the additional technique of inverse PCR, the presence of misrepaired products (translocations) can be detected at the same site, providing information on the fidelity of the ligation reaction in intact cells. Such techniques may be adapted for the analysis of DNA breaks introduced into any identifiable genomic location. PMID:15502230

  10. Modeling the yield of double-strand breaks due to formation of multiply damaged sites in irradiated plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Xapsos, M.A.; Pogozelski, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Although double-strand breaks have long been recognized as an important type of DNa lesion, it is well established that this broad class of damage does not correlate well with indicators of the effectiveness of radiation as the cellular level. Assays of double-strand breaks do not distinguish the degree of complexity or clustering of singly damaged sites produced in a single energy deposition event, which is currently hypothesized to be key to understanding cellular end points. As a step toward this understanding, double-strand breaks that are formed proportionally to dose in plasmid DNA are analyzed from the mechanistic aspect to evaluate the yield that arises from multiply damaged sites as hypothesized by Ward (Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 35, 95-125, 1988) and Goodhead (Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 65, 7-17, 1994) as opposed to the yield that arises form single hydroxyl radicals as hypothesized by Siddiqi and Bothe (Radiat. Res. 112, 449-463, 1987). For low-LET radiation such as {gamma} rays, the importance of multiply damaged sites is shown to increase with the solution`s hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. For moderately high-LET radiation such as 100 keV/{mu}m helium ions, a much different behavior is observed. In this case, a large fraction of double-strand breaks are formed as a result of multiply damaged sties over a broad range of scavenging conditions. Results also indicate that the RBE for common cellular end points correlates more closely with the RBE for common cellular end points correlates more closely with the RBE for multiply damaged sites than with the RBE for total double-strand breaks over a range of LET up to at least 100 keV/{mu}m. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Role of Double-Strand Break End-Tethering during Gene Conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for maintaining genome stability. Whereas gene conversion (GC)-mediated repair is mostly error-free, repair by break-induced replication (BIR) is associated with non-reciprocal translocations and loss of heterozygosity. We have previously shown that a Recombination Execution Checkpoint (REC) mediates this competition by preventing the BIR pathway from acting on DSBs that can be repaired by GC. Here, we asked if the REC can also determine whether the ends that are engaged in a GC-compatible configuration belong to the same break, since repair involving ends from different breaks will produce potentially deleterious translocations. We report that the kinetics of repair are markedly delayed when the two DSB ends that participate in GC belong to different DSBs (termed Trans) compared to the case when both DSB ends come from the same break (Cis). However, repair in Trans still occurs by GC rather than BIR, and the overall efficiency of repair is comparable. Hence, the REC is not sensitive to the “origin” of the DSB ends. When the homologous ends for GC are in Trans, the delay in repair appears to reflect their tethering to sequences on the other side of the DSB that themselves recombine with other genomic locations with which they share sequence homology. These data support previous observations that the two ends of a DSB are usually tethered to each other and that this tethering facilitates both ends encountering the same donor sequence. We also found that the presence of homeologous/repetitive sequences in the vicinity of a DSB can distract the DSB end from finding its bona fide homologous donor, and that inhibition of GC by such homeologous sequences is markedly increased upon deleting Sgs1 but not Msh6. PMID:27074148

  12. Molecular recombination and the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in CHO cells.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, M A; Moore, P D

    1979-01-01

    Molecular recombination and the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) have been examined in the G-0 and S phase of the cell cycle using a temperature-sensitive CHO cell line to test i) if there are cell cycle restrictions on the repair of DSB's' ii) the extent to which molecular recombination can be induced between either sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes and iii) whether repair of DSB's involves recombination (3). Mitomycin C (1-2 micrograms/ml) or ionizing radiation (50 krad) followed by incubation resulted in molecular recombination (hybrid DNA) in S phase cells. Approximately 0.03 to 0.10% of the molecules (number average molecular weight: 5.6 x 10(6) Daltons after shearing) had hybrid regions for more than 75% of their length. However, no recombination was detected in G-0 cells. Since the repair of DSB was observed in both stages with more than 50% of the breaks repaired in 5 hours, it appears that DSB repair in G-0 cells does not involve recombination between homologous chromosomes. The possibility is not excluded that repair in G-0 cells involves only small regions (less than 4 x 10(6) Daltons). PMID:493136

  13. Primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with defective DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Gennery, A R

    2006-01-01

    Damaging DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, potentially lead to cell death or carcinogenesis. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the main repair pathway employed by vertebrate cells to repair such damage. Many repair pathway proteins have been identified. The creation of many diverse lymphocyte receptors to identify potential pathogens has evolved by breaking and randomly re-sorting the gene segments coding for antigen receptors. Subsequent DNA-DSB repair utilizes the NHEJ proteins. Individuals with defective repair pathways are increasingly recognized with radiosensitivity and immunodeficiency. Patients with defects in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, nibrin, MRE11, Rad50, Artemis, DNA ligase IV and Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor have been identified. Most exhibit immunodeficiency, with a spectrum of presentation and overlap between conditions. Conventional treatment with immunoglobulin replacement or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be effective. A greater understanding of the molecular defect will enable better, tailored therapies to improve survival. PMID:16971555

  14. PARP-1 and Ku compete for repair of DNA double strand breaks by distinct NHEJ pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Wenqi; Rosidi, Bustanur; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) recognizes DNA strand interruptions in vivo and triggers its own modification as well as that of other proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose to form polymers. This modification causes a release of PARP-1 from DNA ends and initiates a variety of responses including DNA repair. While PARP-1 has been firmly implicated in base excision and single strand break repair, its role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that PARP-1, probably together with DNA ligase III, operates in an alternative pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that functions as backup to the classical pathway of NHEJ that utilizes DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos and Artemis. PARP-1 binds to DNA ends in direct competition with Ku. However, in irradiated cells the higher affinity of Ku for DSBs and an excessive number of other forms of competing DNA lesions limit its contribution to DSB repair. When essential components of the classical pathway of NHEJ are absent, PARP-1 is recruited for DSB repair, particularly in the absence of Ku and non-DSB lesions. This form of DSB repair is sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors. The results define the function of PARP-1 in DSB repair and characterize a candidate pathway responsible for joining errors causing genomic instability and cancer. PMID:17088286

  15. PARP-1 and Ku compete for repair of DNA double strand breaks by distinct NHEJ pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Wenqi; Rosidi, Bustanur; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) recognizes DNA strand interruptions in vivo and triggers its own modification as well as that of other proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose to form polymers. This modification causes a release of PARP-1 from DNA ends and initiates a variety of responses including DNA repair. While PARP-1 has been firmly implicated in base excision and single strand break repair, its role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that PARP-1, probably together with DNA ligase III, operates in an alternative pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that functions as backup to the classical pathway of NHEJ that utilizes DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos and Artemis. PARP-1 binds to DNA ends in direct competition with Ku. However, in irradiated cells the higher affinity of Ku for DSBs and an excessive number of other forms of competing DNA lesions limit its contribution to DSB repair. When essential components of the classical pathway of NHEJ are absent, PARP-1 is recruited for DSB repair, particularly in the absence of Ku and non-DSB lesions. This form of DSB repair is sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors. The results define the function of PARP-1 in DSB repair and characterize a candidate pathway responsible for joining errors causing genomic instability and cancer. PMID:17088286

  16. ATM Release at Resected Double-Strand Breaks Provides Heterochromatin Reconstitution to Facilitate Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Löbrich, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) represent the two main pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). During the G2 phase of the mammalian cell cycle, both processes can operate and chromatin structure is one important factor which determines DSB repair pathway choice. ATM facilitates the repair of heterochromatic DSBs by phosphorylating and inactivating the heterochromatin building factor KAP-1, leading to local chromatin relaxation. Here, we show that ATM accumulation and activity is strongly diminished at DSBs undergoing end-resection during HR. Such DSBs remain unrepaired in cells devoid of the HR factors BRCA2, XRCC3 or RAD51. Strikingly, depletion of KAP-1 or expression of phospho-mimic KAP-1 allows repair of resected DSBs in the absence of BRCA2, XRCC3 or RAD51 by an erroneous PARP-dependent alt-NHEJ process. We suggest that DSBs in heterochromatin elicit initial local heterochromatin relaxation which is reversed during HR due to the release of ATM from resection break ends. The restored heterochromatic structure facilitates HR and prevents usage of error-prone alternative processes. PMID:23935532

  17. Transcription and double-strand breaks induce similar mitotic recombination events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrera, Sergio; García-Rubio, María; Aguilera, Andrés

    2002-01-01

    We have made a comparative analysis of double-strand-break (DSB)-induced recombination and spontaneous recombination under low- and high-transcription conditions in yeast. We constructed two different recombination substrates, one for the analysis of intermolecular gene conversions and the other for intramolecular gene conversions and inversions. Such substrates were based on the same leu2-HOr allele fused to the tet promoter and containing a 21-bp HO site. Gene conversions and inversions were differently affected by rad1, rad51, rad52, and rad59 single and double mutations, consistent with the actual view that such events occur by different recombination mechanisms. However, the effect of each mutation on each type of recombination event was the same, whether associated with transcription or induced by the HO-mediated DSB. Both the highly transcribed DNA and the HO-cut sequence acted as recipients of the gene conversion events. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that transcription promotes initiation of recombination along the DNA sequence being transcribed. The similarity between transcription-associated and DSB-induced recombination suggests that transcription promotes DNA breaks. PMID:12399375

  18. A single double-strand break system reveals repair dynamics and mechanisms in heterochromatin and euchromatin.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Aniek; Breuer, Gregory A; Brinkman, Eva K; van der Meulen, Annelot I; Borden, Sean V; van Steensel, Bas; Bindra, Ranjit S; LaRocque, Jeannine R; Karpen, Gary H

    2016-07-15

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) must be properly orchestrated in diverse chromatin regions to maintain genome stability. The choice between two main DSB repair pathways, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), is regulated by the cell cycle as well as chromatin context.Pericentromeric heterochromatin forms a distinct nuclear domain that is enriched for repetitive DNA sequences that pose significant challenges for genome stability. Heterochromatic DSBs display specialized temporal and spatial dynamics that differ from euchromatic DSBs. Although HR is thought to be the main pathway used to repair heterochromatic DSBs, direct tests of this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we developed an in vivo single DSB system for both heterochromatic and euchromatic loci in Drosophila melanogaster Live imaging of single DSBs in larval imaginal discs recapitulates the spatio-temporal dynamics observed for irradiation (IR)-induced breaks in cell culture. Importantly, live imaging and sequence analysis of repair products reveal that DSBs in euchromatin and heterochromatin are repaired with similar kinetics, employ both NHEJ and HR, and can use homologous chromosomes as an HR template. This direct analysis reveals important insights into heterochromatin DSB repair in animal tissues and provides a foundation for further explorations of repair mechanisms in different chromatin domains. PMID:27474442

  19. Controlled DNA double-strand break induction in mice reveals post-damage transcriptome stability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongkyu; Sturgill, David; Tran, Andy D; Sinclair, David A; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

    2016-04-20

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair can cause extensive epigenetic changes. As a result, DSBs have been proposed to promote transcriptional and, ultimately, physiological dysfunction via both cell-intrinsic and cell-non-autonomous pathways. Studying the consequences of DSBs in higher organisms has, however, been hindered by a scarcity of tools for controlled DSB induction. Here, we describe a mouse model that allows for both tissue-specific and temporally controlled DSB formation at ∼140 defined genomic loci. Using this model, we show that DSBs promote a DNA damage signaling-dependent decrease in gene expression in primary cells specifically at break-bearing genes, which is reversed upon DSB repair. Importantly, we demonstrate that restoration of gene expression can occur independently of cell cycle progression, underlining its relevance for normal tissue maintenance. Consistent with this, we observe no evidence for persistent transcriptional repression in response to a multi-day course of continuous DSB formation and repair in mouse lymphocytesin vivo Together, our findings reveal an unexpected capacity of primary cells to maintain transcriptome integrity in response to DSBs, pointing to a limited role for DNA damage as a mediator of cell-autonomous epigenetic dysfunction. PMID:26687720

  20. Controlled DNA double-strand break induction in mice reveals post-damage transcriptome stability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongkyu; Sturgill, David; Tran, Andy D.; Sinclair, David A.; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair can cause extensive epigenetic changes. As a result, DSBs have been proposed to promote transcriptional and, ultimately, physiological dysfunction via both cell-intrinsic and cell-non-autonomous pathways. Studying the consequences of DSBs in higher organisms has, however, been hindered by a scarcity of tools for controlled DSB induction. Here, we describe a mouse model that allows for both tissue-specific and temporally controlled DSB formation at ∼140 defined genomic loci. Using this model, we show that DSBs promote a DNA damage signaling-dependent decrease in gene expression in primary cells specifically at break-bearing genes, which is reversed upon DSB repair. Importantly, we demonstrate that restoration of gene expression can occur independently of cell cycle progression, underlining its relevance for normal tissue maintenance. Consistent with this, we observe no evidence for persistent transcriptional repression in response to a multi-day course of continuous DSB formation and repair in mouse lymphocytes in vivo. Together, our findings reveal an unexpected capacity of primary cells to maintain transcriptome integrity in response to DSBs, pointing to a limited role for DNA damage as a mediator of cell-autonomous epigenetic dysfunction. PMID:26687720

  1. The radiomimetic enediyne C-1027 induces unusual DNA damage responses to double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Daniel R; Beerman, Terry A

    2006-03-21

    Cells lacking the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) have defective responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), including an inability to activate damage response proteins such as p53. However, we previously showed that cells lacking ATM robustly activate p53 in response to DNA strand breaks induced by the radiomimetic enediyne C-1027. To gain insight into the nature of C-1027-induced ATM-independent damage responses to DNA DSBs, we further examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular response to this unique radiomimetic agent. Like ionizing radiation (IR) and other radiomimetics, breaks induced by C-1027 efficiently activate ATM by phosphorylation at Ser1981, yet unlike other radiomimetics and IR, DNA breaks induced by C-1027 result in normal phosphorylation of p53 and the cell cycle checkpoint kinases (Chk1 and Chk2) in the absence of ATM. In the presence of ATM, but under ATM and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) deficient conditions, C-1027 treatment resulted in a decrease in the level of Chk1 phosphorylation but not in the level of p53 and Chk2 phosphorylation. Only when cells were deficient in both ATM and ATR was there a reduction in the level of phosphorylation of each of these DNA damage response proteins. This reduction was also accompanied by an increased level of cell death in comparison to that of wild-type cells or cells lacking either ATM or ATR. Our findings demonstrate a unique cellular response to C-1027-induced DNA DSBs in that DNA damage response proteins are unaffected by the absence of ATM, as long as ATR is present. PMID:16533058

  2. DNA polymerase θ (POLQ), double-strand break repair, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard D; Doublié, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    DNA polymerase theta (pol θ) is encoded in the genomes of many eukaryotes, though not in fungi. Pol θ is encoded by the POLQ gene in mammalian cells. The C-terminal third of the protein is a family A DNA polymerase with additional insertion elements relative to prokaryotic homologs. The N-terminal third is a helicase-like domain with DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Pol θ is important in the repair of genomic double-strand breaks (DSBs) from many sources. These include breaks formed by ionizing radiation and topoisomerase inhibitors, breaks arising at stalled DNA replication forks, breaks introduced during diversification steps of the mammalian immune system, and DSB induced by CRISPR-Cas9. Pol θ participates in a route of DSB repair termed "alternative end-joining" (altEJ). AltEJ is independent of the DNA binding Ku protein complex and requires DNA end resection. Pol θ is able to mediate joining of two resected 3' ends harboring DNA sequence microhomology. "Signatures" of Pol θ action during altEJ are the frequent utilization of longer microhomologies, and the insertion of additional sequences at joining sites. The mechanism of end-joining employs the ability of Pol θ to tightly grasp a 3' terminus through unique contacts in the active site, allowing extension from minimally paired primers. Pol θ is involved in controlling the frequency of chromosome translocations and preserves genome integrity by limiting large deletions. It may also play a backup role in DNA base excision repair. POLQ is a member of a cluster of similarly upregulated genes that are strongly correlated with poor clinical outcome for breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancer types. Inhibition of pol θ is a compelling approach for combination therapy of radiosensitization. PMID:27264557

  3. The MRE11 GAR motif regulates DNA double-strand break processing and ATR activation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhenbao; Vogel, Gillian; Coulombe, Yan; Dubeau, Danielle; Spehalski, Elizabeth; Hébert, Josée; Ferguson, David O; Masson, Jean Yves; Richard, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex is the primary sensor rapidly recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). MRE11 is known to be arginine methylated by PRMT1 within its glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) motif. In this study, we report a mouse knock-in allele of Mre11 that substitutes the arginines with lysines in the GAR motif and generates the MRE11RK protein devoid of methylated arginines. The Mre11RK/RK mice were hypersensitive to γ-irradiation (IR) and the cells from these mice displayed cell cycle checkpoint defects and chromosome instability. Moreover, the Mre11RK/RK MEFs exhibited ATR/CHK1 signaling defects and impairment in the recruitment of RPA and RAD51 to the damaged sites. The MRKRN complex formed and localized to the sites of DNA damage and normally activated the ATM pathway in response to IR. The MRKRN complex exhibited exonuclease and DNA-binding defects in vitro responsible for the impaired DNA end resection and ATR activation observed in vivo in response to IR. Our findings provide genetic evidence for the critical role of the MRE11 GAR motif in DSB repair, and demonstrate a mechanistic link between post-translational modifications at the MRE11 GAR motif and DSB processing, as well as the ATR/CHK1 checkpoint signaling. PMID:21826105

  4. Chromatin dynamics during repair of chromosomal DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Manisha; Peterson, Craig L

    2010-01-01

    The integrity of a eukaryotic genome is often challenged by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Even a single, unrepaired DSB can be a lethal event, or such unrepaired damage can result in chromosomal instability and loss of genetic information. Furthermore, defects in the pathways that respond to and repair DSBs can lead to the onset of several human pathologic disorders with pleiotropic clinical features, including age-related diseases and cancer. For decades, studies have focused on elucidating the enzymatic mechanisms involved in recognizing, signaling and repairing DSBs within eukaryotic cells. The majority of biochemical and genetic studies have used simple, DNA substrates, whereas only recently efforts have been geared towards understanding how the repair machinery deals with DSBs within chromatin fibers, the nucleoprotein complex that packages DNA within the eukaryotic nucleus. The aim of this review is to discuss our recent understanding of the relationship between chromatin structure and the repair of DSBs by homologous recombination. In particular, we discuss recent studies implicating specialized roles for several, distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes in facilitating multiple steps within the homologous recombination process. PMID:20495614

  5. Mechanisms and Consequences of Double-Strand DNA Break Formation in Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Cannan, Wendy J; Pederson, David S

    2016-01-01

    All organisms suffer double-strand breaks (DSBs) in their DNA as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. DSBs can also form when replication forks encounter DNA lesions or repair intermediates. The processing and repair of DSBs can lead to mutations, loss of heterozygosity, and chromosome rearrangements that result in cell death or cancer. The most common pathway used to repair DSBs in metazoans (non-homologous DNA end joining) is more commonly mutagenic than the alternative pathway (homologous recombination mediated repair). Thus, factors that influence the choice of pathways used DSB repair can affect an individual's mutation burden and risk of cancer. This review describes radiological, chemical, and biological mechanisms that generate DSBs, and discusses the impact of such variables as DSB etiology, cell type, cell cycle, and chromatin structure on the yield, distribution, and processing of DSBs. The final section focuses on nucleosome-specific mechanisms that influence DSB production, and the possible relationship between higher order chromosome coiling and chromosome shattering (chromothripsis). PMID:26040249

  6. Genome-wide detection of DNA double-stranded breaks induced by engineered nucleases.

    PubMed

    Frock, Richard L; Hu, Jiazhi; Meyers, Robin M; Ho, Yu-Jui; Kii, Erina; Alt, Frederick W

    2015-02-01

    Although great progress has been made in the characterization of the off-target effects of engineered nucleases, sensitive and unbiased genome-wide methods for the detection of off-target cleavage events and potential collateral damage are still lacking. Here we describe a linear amplification-mediated modification of a previously published high-throughput, genome-wide, translocation sequencing (HTGTS) method that robustly detects DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) generated by engineered nucleases across the human genome based on their translocation to other endogenous or ectopic DSBs. HTGTS with different Cas9:sgRNA or TALEN nucleases revealed off-target hotspot numbers for given nucleases that ranged from a few or none to dozens or more, and extended the number of known off-targets for certain previously characterized nucleases more than tenfold. We also identified translocations between bona fide nuclease targets on homologous chromosomes, an undesired collateral effect that has not been described previously. Finally, HTGTS confirmed that the Cas9D10A paired nickase approach suppresses off-target cleavage genome-wide. PMID:25503383

  7. Chromosome position determines the success of double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Ruoxi W.; Chang, Hsiao-Han; Capurso, Daniel; Segal, Mark R.; Haber, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of a chromosomal double-strand break (DSB) by gene conversion depends on the ability of the broken ends to encounter a donor sequence. To understand how chromosomal location of a target sequence affects DSB repair, we took advantage of genome-wide Hi-C analysis of yeast chromosomes to create a series of strains in which an induced site-specific DSB in budding yeast is repaired by a 2-kb donor sequence inserted at different locations. The efficiency of repair, measured by cell viability or competition between each donor and a reference site, showed a strong correlation (r = 0.85 and 0.79) with the contact frequencies of each donor with the DSB repair site. Repair efficiency depends on the distance between donor and recipient rather than any intrinsic limitation of a particular donor site. These results further demonstrate that the search for homology is the rate-limiting step in DSB repair and suggest that cells often fail to repair a DSB because they cannot locate a donor before other, apparently lethal, processes arise. The repair efficiency of a donor locus can be improved by four factors: slower 5′ to 3′ resection of the DSB ends, increased abundance of replication protein factor A (RPA), longer shared homology, or presence of a recombination enhancer element adjacent to a donor. PMID:26715752

  8. Analysis of DNA double-strand break response and chromatin structure in mitosis using laser microirradiation

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Wu, Tao; Sherman, Adria J.; Lee, Christopher S.; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Zhongsheng, You; Yokomori, Kyoko; Berns, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the femtosecond near-IR and nanosecond green lasers are used to induce alterations in mitotic chromosomes. The subsequent double-strand break responses are studied. We show that both lasers are capable of creating comparable chromosomal alterations and that a phase paling observed within 1–2 s of laser exposure is associated with an alteration of chromatin as confirmed by serial section electron microscopy, DAPI, γH2AX and phospho-H3 staining. Additionally, the accumulation of dark material observed using phase contrast light microscopy (indicative of a change in refractive index of the chromatin) ∼34 s post-laser exposure corresponds spatially to the accumulation of Nbs1, Ku and ubiquitin. This study demonstrates that chromosomes selectively altered in mitosis initiate the DNA damage response within 30 s and that the accumulation of proteins are visually represented by phase-dark material at the irradiation site, allowing us to determine the fate of the damage as cells enter G1. These results occur with two widely different laser systems, making this approach to study DNA damage responses in the mitotic phase generally available to many different labs. Additionally, we present a summary of most of the published laser studies on chromosomes in order to provide a general guide of the lasers and operating parameters used by other laboratories. PMID:20923785

  9. Reprint of "Functional overlaps between XLF and the ATM-dependent DNA double strand break response".

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipul; Alt, Frederick W; Oksenych, Valentyn

    2014-05-01

    Developing B and T lymphocytes generate programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during the V(D)J recombination process that assembles exons that encode the antigen-binding variable regions of antibodies. In addition, mature B lymphocytes generate programmed DSBs during the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) process that allows expression of different antibody heavy chain constant regions that provide different effector functions. During both V(D)J recombination and CSR, DSB intermediates are sensed by the ATM-dependent DSB response (DSBR) pathway, which also contributes to their joining via classical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ). The precise nature of the interplay between the DSBR and C-NHEJ pathways in the context of DSB repair via C-NHEJ remains under investigation. Recent studies have shown that the XLF C-NHEJ factor has functional redundancy with several members of the ATM-dependent DSBR pathway in C-NHEJ, highlighting unappreciated major roles for both XLF as well as the DSBR in V(D)J recombination, CSR and C-NHEJ in general. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the mechanisms that contribute to the repair of DSBs generated during B lymphocyte development and activation with a focus on potential functionally redundant roles of XLF and ATM-dependent DSBR factors. PMID:24767946

  10. Functional Overlaps Between XLF and The ATM-dependent DNA Double Strand Break Response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipul; Alt, Frederick W.; Oksenych, Valentyn

    2014-01-01

    Developing B and T lymphocytes generate programmed DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) during the V(D)J recombination process that assembles exons that encode the antigen-binding variable regions of antibodies. In addition, mature B lymphocytes generate programmed DSBs during the Immunoglobulin Heavy chain (IgH) Class Switch Recombination (CSR) process that allows expression of different antibody heavy chain constant regions that provide different effector functions. During both V(D)J recombination and CSR, DSB intermediates are sensed by the ATM-dependent DSB response (DSBR) pathway, which also contributes to their joining via Classical Non-Homologous End-Joining (C-NHEJ). The precise nature of the interplay between the DSBR and C-NHEJ pathways in the context of DSB repair via C-NHEJ remains under investigation. Recent studies have shown that the XLF C-NHEJ factor has functional redundancy with several members of the ATM-dependent DSBR pathway in C-NHEJ, highlighting unappreciated major roles for both XLF as well as the DSBR in V(D)J recombination, CSR and C-NHEJ in general. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the mechanisms that contribute to the repair of DSBs generated during B lymphocyte development and activation with a focus on potential functionally redundant roles of XLF and ATM-dependent DSBR factors. PMID:24674624

  11. Functional overlaps between XLF and the ATM-dependent DNA double strand break response.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipul; Alt, Frederick W; Oksenych, Valentyn

    2014-04-01

    Developing B and T lymphocytes generate programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during the V(D)J recombination process that assembles exons that encode the antigen-binding variable regions of antibodies. In addition, mature B lymphocytes generate programmed DSBs during the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) process that allows expression of different antibody heavy chain constant regions that provide different effector functions. During both V(D)J recombination and CSR, DSB intermediates are sensed by the ATM-dependent DSB response (DSBR) pathway, which also contributes to their joining via classical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ). The precise nature of the interplay between the DSBR and C-NHEJ pathways in the context of DSB repair via C-NHEJ remains under investigation. Recent studies have shown that the XLF C-NHEJ factor has functional redundancy with several members of the ATM-dependent DSBR pathway in C-NHEJ, highlighting unappreciated major roles for both XLF as well as the DSBR in V(D)J recombination, CSR and C-NHEJ in general. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the mechanisms that contribute to the repair of DSBs generated during B lymphocyte development and activation with a focus on potential functionally redundant roles of XLF and ATM-dependent DSBR factors. PMID:24674624

  12. Stable gene replacement in barley by targeted double-strand break induction

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Koichi; Breier, Ulrike; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schubert, Ingo; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting is becoming an important tool for precision genome engineering in plants. During gene replacement, a variant of gene targeting, transformed DNA integrates into the genome by homologous recombination (HR) to replace resident sequences. We have analysed gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare) using a model system based on double-strand break (DSB) induction by the meganuclease I-SceI and a transgenic, artificial target locus. In the plants we obtained, the donor construct was inserted at the target locus by homology-directed DNA integration in at least two transformants obtained in a single experiment and was stably inherited as a single Mendelian trait. Both events were produced by one-sided integration. Our data suggest that gene replacement can be achieved in barley with a frequency suitable for routine application. The use of a codon-optimized nuclease and co-transfer of the nuclease gene together with the donor construct are probably the components important for efficient gene targeting. Such an approach, employing the recently developed synthetic nucleases/nickases that allow DSB induction at almost any sequence of a genome of interest, sets the stage for precision genome engineering as a routine tool even for important crops such as barley. PMID:26712824

  13. PML nuclear body disruption impairs DNA double-strand break sensing and repair in APL

    PubMed Central

    di Masi, A; Cilli, D; Berardinelli, F; Talarico, A; Pallavicini, I; Pennisi, R; Leone, S; Antoccia, A; Noguera, N I; Lo-Coco, F; Ascenzi, P; Minucci, S; Nervi, C

    2016-01-01

    Proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair localize within the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), whose disruption is at the root of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) pathogenesis. All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment induces PML-RARα degradation, restores PML-NB functions, and causes terminal cell differentiation of APL blasts. However, the precise role of the APL-associated PML-RARα oncoprotein and PML-NB integrity in the DSB response in APL leukemogenesis and tumor suppression is still lacking. Primary leukemia blasts isolated from APL patients showed high phosphorylation levels of H2AX (γ-H2AX), an initial DSBs sensor. By addressing the consequences of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSB response in primary APL blasts and RA-responsive and -resistant myeloid cell lines carrying endogenous or ectopically expressed PML-RARα, before and after treatment with RA, we found that the disruption of PML-NBs is associated with delayed DSB response, as revealed by the impaired kinetic of disappearance of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci and activation of ATM and of its substrates H2AX, NBN, and CHK2. The disruption of PML-NB integrity by PML-RARα also affects the IR-induced DSB response in a preleukemic mouse model of APL in vivo. We propose the oncoprotein-dependent PML-NB disruption and DDR impairment as relevant early events in APL tumorigenesis. PMID:27468685

  14. Telomere Dysfunction Triggers Palindrome Formation Independently of Double-Strand Break Repair Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Raykov, Vasil; Marvin, Marcus E.; Louis, Edward J.; Maringele, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Inverted chromosome duplications or palindromes are linked with genetic disorders and malignant transformation. They are considered by-products of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair: the homologous recombination (HR) and the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Palindromes near chromosome ends are often triggered by telomere losses. An important question is to what extent their formation depends upon DSB repair mechanisms. Here we addressed this question using yeast genetics and comparative genomic hybridization. We induced palindrome formation by passaging cells lacking any form of telomere maintenance (telomerase and telomere recombination). Surprisingly, we found that DNA ligase 4, essential for NHEJ, did not make a significant contribution to palindrome formation induced by telomere losses. Moreover RAD51, important for certain HR-derived mechanisms, had little effect. Furthermore RAD52, which is essential for HR in yeast, appeared to decrease the number of palindromes in cells proliferating without telomeres. This study also uncovered an important role for Rev3 and Rev7 (but not for Pol32) subunits of polymerase ζ in the survival of cells undergoing telomere losses and forming palindromes. We propose a model called short-inverted repeat-induced synthesis in which DNA synthesis, rather than DSB repair, drives the inverted duplication triggered by telomere dysfunction. PMID:27334270

  15. Accumulation of Ku70 at DNA double-strand breaks in living epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2011-10-15

    Ku70 and Ku80 play an essential role in the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway, i.e., nonhomologous DNA-end-joining (NHEJ). No accumulation mechanisms of Ku70 at DSBs have been clarified in detail, although the accumulation mechanism of Ku70 at DSBs plays key roles in regulating the NHEJ activity. Here, we show the essential domains for the accumulation and function of Ku70 at DSBs in living lung epithelial cells. Our results showed that EGFP-Ku70 accumulation at DSBs began immediately after irradiation. Our findings demonstrate that three domains of Ku70, i.e., the {alpha}/{beta}, DNA-binding, and Ku80-binding domains, but not the SAP domain, are necessary for the accumulation at or recognition of DSBs in the early stage after irradiation. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the leucine at amino acid 385 of Ku70 in the Ku80-binding domain, but not the three target amino acids for acetylation in the DNA-binding domain, is involved in the localization and accumulation of Ku70 at DSBs. Furthermore, accumulations of XRCC4 and XLF, but not that of Artemis, at DSBs are dependent on the presence of Ku70. These findings suggest that Artemis can work in not only the Ku-dependent repair process, but also the Ku-independent process at DSBs in living epithelial cells.

  16. DNA double strand breaks and Hsp70 expression in proton irradiated living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Anja; Reinert, Tilo; Tanner, Judith; Butz, Tilman

    2007-07-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in living cells can be directly provoked by ionising radiation. DSBs can be visualized by immunostaining the phosphorylated histone γH2AX. Our concern was to test the feasibility of γH2AX staining for a direct visualization of single proton hits. If single protons produce detectable foci, DNA DSBs could be used as "biological track detectors" for protons. Ionising radiation can also damage proteins indirectly by inducing free radicals. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) help to refold or even degrade the damaged proteins. The level of the most famous heat shock protein Hsp70 is increased by ionising radiation. We investigated the expression of γH2AX and Hsp70 after cross and line patterned irradiation with counted numbers of 2.25 MeV protons on primary human skin fibroblasts. The proton induced DSBs appear more delocalised than it was expected by the ion hit accuracy. Cooling the cells before the irradiation reduces the delocalisation of DNA DSBs, which is probably caused by the reduced diffusion of DNA damaging agents. Proton irradiation seems to provoke protein damages mainly in the cytoplasm indicated by cytoplasmic Hsp70 aggregates. On the contrary, in control heat shocked cells the Hsp70 was predominantly localized in the cell nucleus. However, the irradiated area could not be recognized, all cells on the Si 3N 4 window showed a homogenous Hsp70 expression pattern.

  17. Using carbon nanotubes to induce micronuclei and double strand breaks of the DNA in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, Jelena; Joksic, Gordana; Leskovac, Andreja; Petrovic, Sandra; Valenta Sobot, Ana; Neskovic, Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are unique one-dimensional macromolecules with promising applications in biology and medicine. Since their toxicity is still under debate, here we present a study investigating the genotoxic properties of purified single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and amide functionalized purified SWCNTs on cultured human lymphocytes employing cytokinesis block micronucleus assay and enumeration of γH2AX foci as a measure of double strand breaks (DSBs) of the DNA in normal human fibroblasts. SWCNTs induce micronuclei (MN) formation in lymphocytes and decrease the proliferation potential (CBPI) of cells. In a fibroblast cell line the same dose of SWCNTs induces γH2AX foci 2.7-fold higher than in a control. Amide functionalized purified SWCNTs behave differently: they do not disturb the cell proliferation potential of harvested lymphocytes, but induce micronuclei to a higher extent than SWCNTs. When applied on fibroblasts, amide functionalized SWCNTs also induce γH2AX foci, 3.18-fold higher than the control. The cellular effects of MWCNTs display the broad spectrum of clastogenic properties seen as the highest incidence of induced lymphocyte micronuclei and anaphase bridges among nuclei in binucleated cells. Surprisingly, the incidence of induced γH2AX foci was not as high as was expected by the micronucleus test, which indicates that MWCNTs act as clastogen and aneugen agents simultaneously. Biological endpoints investigated in this study indicate a close relationship between the electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes and observed genotoxicity.

  18. Proliferation of Double-Strand Break-Resistant Polyploid Cells Requires Drosophila FANCD2.

    PubMed

    Bretscher, Heidi S; Fox, Donald T

    2016-06-01

    Conserved DNA-damage responses (DDRs) sense genome damage and prevent mitosis of broken chromosomes. How cells lacking DDRs cope with broken chromosomes during mitosis is poorly understood. DDRs are frequently inactivated in cells with extra genomes (polyploidy), suggesting that study of polyploidy can reveal how cells with impaired DDRs/genome damage continue dividing. Here, we show that continued division and normal organ development occurs in polyploid, DDR-impaired Drosophila papillar cells. As papillar cells become polyploid, they naturally accumulate broken acentric chromosomes but do not apoptose/arrest the cell cycle. To survive mitosis with acentric chromosomes, papillar cells require Fanconi anemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCI, as well as Blm helicase, but not canonical DDR signaling. FANCD2 acts independently of previous S phases to promote alignment and segregation of acentric DNA produced by double-strand breaks, thus avoiding micronuclei and organ malformation. Because polyploidy and impaired DDRs can promote cancer, our findings provide insight into disease-relevant DNA-damage tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27270041

  19. Phosphorylation of Ku dictates DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice in S phase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jong; Saha, Janapriya; Sun, Jingxin; Fattah, Kazi R.; Wang, Shu-Chi; Jakob, Burkhard; Chi, Linfeng; Wang, Shih-Ya; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Davis, Anthony J.; Chen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways are active in S phase of the cell cycle; however, DSBs are primarily repaired by homologous recombination (HR) in this cell cycle phase. As the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) factor, Ku70/80 (Ku), is quickly recruited to DSBs in S phase, we hypothesized that an orchestrated mechanism modulates pathway choice between HR and NHEJ via displacement of the Ku heterodimer from DSBs to allow HR. Here, we provide evidence that phosphorylation at a cluster of sites in the junction of the pillar and bridge regions of Ku70 mediates the dissociation of Ku from DSBs. Mimicking phosphorylation at these sites reduces Ku's affinity for DSB ends, suggesting that phosphorylation of Ku70 induces a conformational change responsible for the dissociation of the Ku heterodimer from DNA ends. Ablating phosphorylation of Ku70 leads to the sustained retention of Ku at DSBs, resulting in a significant decrease in DNA end resection and HR, specifically in S phase. This decrease in HR is specific as these phosphorylation sites are not required for NHEJ. Our results demonstrate that the phosphorylation-mediated dissociation of Ku70/80 from DSBs frees DNA ends, allowing the initiation of HR in S phase and providing a mechanism of DSB repair pathway choice in mammalian cells. PMID:26712563

  20. Rapid pairing and resegregation of distant homologous loci enables double-strand break repair in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Laub, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) can lead to the loss of genetic information and cell death. Although DSB repair via homologous recombination has been well characterized, the spatial organization of this process inside cells remains poorly understood, and the mechanisms used for chromosome resegregation after repair are unclear. In this paper, we introduced site-specific DSBs in Caulobacter crescentus and then used time-lapse microscopy to visualize the ensuing chromosome dynamics. Damaged loci rapidly mobilized after a DSB, pairing with their homologous partner to enable repair, before being resegregated to their original cellular locations, independent of DNA replication. Origin-proximal regions were resegregated by the ParABS system with the ParA structure needed for resegregation assembling dynamically in response to the DSB-induced movement of an origin-associated ParB away from one cell pole. Origin-distal regions were resegregated in a ParABS-independent manner and instead likely rely on a physical, spring-like force to segregate repaired loci. Collectively, our results provide a mechanistic basis for the resegregation of chromosomes after a DSB. PMID:26240183

  1. Rapid pairing and resegregation of distant homologous loci enables double-strand break repair in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) can lead to the loss of genetic information and cell death. Although DSB repair via homologous recombination has been well characterized, the spatial organization of this process inside cells remains poorly understood, and the mechanisms used for chromosome resegregation after repair are unclear. In this paper, we introduced site-specific DSBs in Caulobacter crescentus and then used time-lapse microscopy to visualize the ensuing chromosome dynamics. Damaged loci rapidly mobilized after a DSB, pairing with their homologous partner to enable repair, before being resegregated to their original cellular locations, independent of DNA replication. Origin-proximal regions were resegregated by the ParABS system with the ParA structure needed for resegregation assembling dynamically in response to the DSB-induced movement of an origin-associated ParB away from one cell pole. Origin-distal regions were resegregated in a ParABS-independent manner and instead likely rely on a physical, spring-like force to segregate repaired loci. Collectively, our results provide a mechanistic basis for the resegregation of chromosomes after a DSB. PMID:26240183

  2. Chromosomal Integrity after UV Irradiation Requires FANCD2-Mediated Repair of Double Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Federico, María Belén; Vallerga, María Belén; Radl, Analía; Paviolo, Natalia Soledad; Bocco, José Luis; Di Giorgio, Marina; Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs). FANCD2, a central factor of the FA pathway, is essential for the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) generated during fork collapse at ICLs. While lesions different from ICLs can also trigger fork collapse, the contribution of FANCD2 to the resolution of replication-coupled DSBs generated independently from ICLs is unknown. Intriguingly, FANCD2 is readily activated after UV irradiation, a DNA-damaging agent that generates predominantly intra-strand crosslinks but not ICLs. Hence, UV irradiation is an ideal tool to explore the contribution of FANCD2 to the DNA damage response triggered by DNA lesions other than ICL repair. Here we show that, in contrast to ICL-causing agents, UV radiation compromises cell survival independently from FANCD2. In agreement, FANCD2 depletion does not increase the amount of DSBs generated during the replication of UV-damaged DNA and is dispensable for UV-induced checkpoint activation. Remarkably however, FANCD2 protects UV-dependent, replication-coupled DSBs from aberrant processing by non-homologous end joining, preventing the accumulation of micronuclei and chromatid aberrations including non-homologous chromatid exchanges. Hence, while dispensable for cell survival, FANCD2 selectively safeguards chromosomal stability after UV-triggered replication stress. PMID:26765540

  3. Host Double Strand Break Repair Generates HIV-1 Strains Resistant to CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Kristine E.; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for HIV-1 infection. CRISPR/Cas9 induced double strand breaks (DSBs) targeted to the integrated viral genome have been shown to decrease production of progeny virus. Unfortunately HIV-1 evolves rapidly and may readily produce CRISPR/Cas9 resistant strains. Here we used next-generation sequencing to characterize HIV-1 strains that developed resistance to six different CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs (gRNAs). Reverse transcriptase (RT) derived base substitution mutations were commonly found at sites encoding unpaired bases of RNA stem-loop structures. In addition to RT mutations, insertion and/or deletion (indel) mutations were common. Indels localized to the CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage site were major contributors to CRISPR gRNA resistance. While most indels at non-coding regions were a single base pair, 3 base pair indels were observed when a coding region of HIV-1 was targeted. The DSB repair event may preserve the HIV-1 reading frame, while destroying CRISPR gRNA homology. HIV-1 may be successfully edited by CRISPR/Cas9, but the virus remains competent for replication and resistant to further CRISPR/Cas9 targeting at that site. These observations strongly suggest that host DSB repair at CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage sites is a novel and important pathway that may contribute to HIV-1 therapeutic resistance. PMID:27404981

  4. Induction of DNA double-strand breaks and cellular senescence by human respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Isidoro; García-Carpizo, Verónica; Guijarro, Trinidad; García-Gomez, Ana; Navarro, Diego; Aranda, Ana; Zambrano, Alberto

    2016-05-18

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) accounts for the majority of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. HRSV provokes a proliferation arrest and characteristic syncytia in cellular systems such as immortalized epithelial cells. We show here that HRSV induces the expression of DNA damage markers and proliferation arrest such as P-TP53, P-ATM, CDKN1A and γH2AFX in cultured cells secondary to the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). The DNA damage foci contained γH2AFX and TP53BP1, indicative of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and could be reversed by antioxidant treatments such as N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) or reduced glutathione ethyl ester (GSHee). The damage observed is associated with the accumulation of senescent cells, displaying a canonical senescent phenotype in both mononuclear cells and syncytia. In addition, we show signs of DNA damage and aging such as γH2AFX and CDKN2A expression in the respiratory epithelia of infected mice long after viral clearance. Altogether, these results show that HRSV triggers a DNA damage-mediated cellular senescence program probably mediated by oxidative stress. The results also suggest that this program might contribute to the physiopathology of the infection, tissue remodeling and aging, and might be associated to long-term consequences of HRSV infections. PMID:26809688

  5. Chromosomal Integrity after UV Irradiation Requires FANCD2-Mediated Repair of Double Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Federico, María Belén; Vallerga, María Belén; Radl, Analía; Paviolo, Natalia Soledad; Bocco, José Luis; Di Giorgio, Marina; Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs). FANCD2, a central factor of the FA pathway, is essential for the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) generated during fork collapse at ICLs. While lesions different from ICLs can also trigger fork collapse, the contribution of FANCD2 to the resolution of replication-coupled DSBs generated independently from ICLs is unknown. Intriguingly, FANCD2 is readily activated after UV irradiation, a DNA-damaging agent that generates predominantly intra-strand crosslinks but not ICLs. Hence, UV irradiation is an ideal tool to explore the contribution of FANCD2 to the DNA damage response triggered by DNA lesions other than ICL repair. Here we show that, in contrast to ICL-causing agents, UV radiation compromises cell survival independently from FANCD2. In agreement, FANCD2 depletion does not increase the amount of DSBs generated during the replication of UV-damaged DNA and is dispensable for UV-induced checkpoint activation. Remarkably however, FANCD2 protects UV-dependent, replication-coupled DSBs from aberrant processing by non-homologous end joining, preventing the accumulation of micronuclei and chromatid aberrations including non-homologous chromatid exchanges. Hence, while dispensable for cell survival, FANCD2 selectively safeguards chromosomal stability after UV-triggered replication stress. PMID:26765540

  6. Numerical constraints and feedback control of double-strand breaks in mouse meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kauppi, Liisa; Barchi, Marco; Lange, Julian; Baudat, Frédéric; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Different organisms display widely different numbers of the programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination (e.g., hundreds per meiocyte in mice and humans vs. dozens in nematodes), but little is known about what drives these species-specific DSB set points or the regulatory pathways that control them. Here we examine male mice with a lowered dosage of SPO11, the meiotic DSB catalyst, to gain insight into the effect of reduced DSB numbers on mammalian chromosome dynamics. An approximately twofold DSB reduction was associated with the reduced ability of homologs to synapse along their lengths, provoking prophase arrest and, ultimately, sterility. In many spermatocytes, chromosome subsets displayed a mix of synaptic failure and synapsis with both homologous and nonhomologous partners (“chromosome tangles”). The X chromosome was nearly always involved in tangles, and small autosomes were involved more often than large ones. We conclude that homolog pairing requirements dictate DSB set points during meiosis. Importantly, our results reveal that karyotype is a key factor: Smaller autosomes and heteromorphic sex chromosomes become weak links when DSBs are reduced below a critical threshold. Unexpectedly, unsynapsed chromosome segments trapped in tangles displayed an elevated density of DSB markers later in meiotic prophase. The unsynapsed portion of the X chromosome in wild-type males also showed evidence that DSB numbers increased as prophase progressed. These findings point to the existence of a feedback mechanism that links DSB number and distribution with interhomolog interactions. PMID:23599345

  7. Asf1 facilitates dephosphorylation of Rad53 after DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Waterman, David P; Aguilar, Fiona; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Eapen, Vinay V; Memisoglu, Gonen; Haber, James E

    2016-05-15

    To allow for sufficient time to repair DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint. In budding yeast, Rad53 (mammalian Chk2) phosphorylation parallels the persistence of the unrepaired DSB and is extinguished when repair is complete in a process termed recovery or when the cells adapt to the DNA damage checkpoint. A strain containing a slowly repaired DSB does not require the histone chaperone Asf1 to resume cell cycle progression after DSB repair. When a second, rapidly repairable DSB is added to this strain, Asf1 becomes required for recovery. Recovery from two repairable DSBs also depends on the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 and the cullin subunit Rtt101, both of which modify histone H3 that is associated with Asf1. We show that dissociation of histone H3 from Asf1 is required for efficient recovery and that Asf1 is required for complete dephosphorylation of Rad53 when the upstream DNA damage checkpoint signaling is turned off. Our data suggest that the requirements for recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint become more stringent with increased levels of damage and that Asf1 plays a histone chaperone-independent role in facilitating complete Rad53 dephosphorylation following repair. PMID:27222517

  8. Programmed induction of endoreduplication by DNA double-strand breaks in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Sumiko; Minamisawa, Kazunori; Okushima, Yoko; Inagaki, Soichi; Yoshiyama, Kaoru; Kondou, Youichi; Kaminuma, Eli; Kawashima, Mika; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami; Kurihara, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Umeda, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Genome integrity is continuously threatened by external stresses and endogenous hazards such as DNA replication errors and reactive oxygen species. The DNA damage checkpoint in metazoans ensures genome integrity by delaying cell-cycle progression to repair damaged DNA or by inducing apoptosis. ATM and ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and -Rad3-related) are sensor kinases that relay the damage signal to transducer kinases Chk1 and Chk2 and to downstream cell-cycle regulators. Plants also possess ATM and ATR orthologs but lack obvious counterparts of downstream regulators. Instead, the plant-specific transcription factor SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response 1) plays a central role in the transmission of signals from both ATM and ATR kinases. Here we show that in Arabidopsis, endoreduplication is induced by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but not directly by DNA replication stress. When root or sepal cells, or undifferentiated suspension cells, were treated with DSB inducers, they displayed increased cell size and DNA ploidy. We found that the ATM–SOG1 and ATR–SOG1 pathways both transmit DSB-derived signals and that either one suffices for endocycle induction. These signaling pathways govern the expression of distinct sets of cell-cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases and their suppressors. Our results demonstrate that Arabidopsis undergoes a programmed endoreduplicative response to DSBs, suggesting that plants have evolved a distinct strategy to sustain growth under genotoxic stress. PMID:21613568

  9. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced human ovarian aging: double strand DNA breaks and microvascular compromise.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Reza; Heytens, Elke; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Oktay, Kutluk

    2011-08-01

    The mechanism of chemotherapy-induced acceleration of ovarian aging is not fully understood. We used doxorubicin, a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic, in a variety of in vivo xenograft, and in vitro models to investigate the impact of chemotherapy-induced aging on the human ovary. Doxorubicin caused massive double-strand-DNA-breaks in primordial follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in a dose dependent fashion as revealed by accumulating γH2AX foci. This damage was associated with apoptotic oocyte death and resulted in the activation of ATM. It appeared that the repair response enabled a minor proportion of oocytes (34.7%) and granulosa cells (12.1%) to survive while the majority succumbed to apoptotic death. Paradoxically, inhibition of ATM by KU-55933 resulted in improved survival, probably via prevention of downstream activation of TAp63α. Furthermore, doxorubicin caused vascular and stromal damage in the human ovary, which might impair ovarian function both pre- and post-menopausally. Chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian aging appears to result from a complex process involving both the germ- and non-germ cell components of the ovary. These effects may have clinical implications in aging both for premenopausal and postmenopausal cancer survivors. PMID:21869459

  10. Cdc14A and Cdc14B Redundantly Regulate DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han; Ha, Kyungsoo; Lu, Guojun; Fang, Xiao; Cheng, Ranran; Zuo, Qiuhong

    2015-01-01

    Cdc14 is a phosphatase that controls mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast. In mammals, the two Cdc14 homologues, Cdc14A and Cdc14B, have been proposed to regulate DNA damage repair, whereas the mitotic exit and cytokinesis rely on another phosphatase, PP2A-B55α. It is unclear if the two Cdc14s work redundantly in DNA repair and which repair pathways they participate in. More importantly, their target(s) in DNA repair remains elusive. Here we report that Cdc14B knockout (Cdc14B−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed defects in repairing ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which occurred only at late passages when Cdc14A levels were low. This repair defect could occur at early passages if Cdc14A levels were also compromised. These results indicate redundancy between Cdc14B and Cdc14A in DSB repair. Further, we found that Cdc14B deficiency impaired both homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), the two major DSB repair pathways. We also provide evidence that Cdh1 is a downstream target of Cdc14B in DSB repair. PMID:26283732

  11. DNA Double-Strand Break Repair at −15°C

    PubMed Central

    Dieser, Markus; Battista, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The survival of microorganisms in ancient glacial ice and permafrost has been ascribed to their ability to persist in a dormant, metabolically inert state. An alternative possibility, supported by experimental data, is that microorganisms in frozen matrices are able to sustain a level of metabolic function that is sufficient for cellular repair and maintenance. To examine this experimentally, frozen populations of Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) to simulate the damage incurred from natural background IR sources in the permafrost environment from over ∼225 kiloyears (ky). High-molecular-weight DNA was fragmented by exposure to 450 Gy of IR, which introduced an average of 16 double-strand breaks (DSBs) per chromosome. During incubation at −15°C for 505 days, P. arcticus repaired DNA DSBs in the absence of net growth. Based on the time frame for the assembly of genomic fragments by P. arcticus, the rate of DNA DSB repair was estimated at 7 to 10 DSBs year−1 under the conditions tested. Our results provide direct evidence for the repair of DNA lesions, extending the range of complex biochemical reactions known to occur in bacteria at frozen temperatures. Provided that sufficient energy and nutrient sources are available, a functional DNA repair mechanism would allow cells to maintain genome integrity and augment microbial survival in icy terrestrial or extraterrestrial environments. PMID:24077718

  12. DNA repair by thiols in air shows two radicals make a double-strand break

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, J.R.; Ng J.Y.Y.; Wu, C.C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Using agarose gel electrophoresis, we have measured the yields of DNA single- and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) for plasmid DNA {gamma}-irradiated in aerobic aqueous solution. The presence during irradiation of either of the thiols cysteamine or N-(2-thioethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (WR-1065) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the yield of SSBs and a much greater decrease in the yield of DSBs. This large differential protective effect was not produced by thioethers or an alcohol of structural similarity to the two thiols, suggesting that repair of DSB radical precursors by thiols is more efficient than for SSB precursors. These observations suggest the existence of a diradical intermediate in the formation of DSBs. The results argue against a major contribution by a single radical mechanism involving interstrand radical transfer via hydrogen abstraction by a peroxyl intermediate, since the half-life of this radical transfer reaction appears to be significantly greater than the lifetime of the intermediate. 35 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Fine-tuning the ubiquitin code at DNA double-strand breaks: deubiquitinating enzymes at work

    PubMed Central

    Citterio, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification broadly implicated in cellular functions. Signaling processes mediated by ubiquitin (ub) are crucial for the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most dangerous types of DNA lesions. In particular, the DSB response critically relies on active ubiquitination by the RNF8 and RNF168 ub ligases at the chromatin, which is essential for proper DSB signaling and repair. How this pathway is fine-tuned and what the functional consequences are of its deregulation for genome integrity and tissue homeostasis are subject of intense investigation. One important regulatory mechanism is by reversal of substrate ubiquitination through the activity of specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), as supported by the implication of a growing number of DUBs in DNA damage response processes. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of how ub-mediated signaling at DSBs is controlled by DUBs, with main focus on DUBs targeting histone H2A and on their recent implication in stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:26442100

  14. REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and impacts PARP inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guotai; Yuan, Jingsong; Mistrik, Martin; Bouwman, Peter; Bartkova, Jirina; Gogola, Ewa; Warmerdam, Daniël; Barazas, Marco; Jaspers, Janneke E.; Watanabe, Kenji; Pieterse, Mark; Kersbergen, Ariena; Sol, Wendy; Celie, Patrick H. N.; Schouten, Philip C.; van den Broek, Bram; Salman, Ahmed; Nieuwland, Marja; de Rink, Iris; de Ronde, Jorma; Jalink, Kees; Boulton, Simon J.; Chen, Junjie; van Gent, Dik C.; Bartek, Jiri; Jonkers, Jos; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is achieved by homologous recombination (HR), and BRCA1 is an important factor for this repair pathway1. In the absence of BRCA1-mediated HR, administration of PARP inhibitors induces synthetic lethality of tumor cells of patients with breast or ovarian cancers2,3. Despite the benefit of this tailored therapy, drug resistance can occur by HR restoration4. Genetic reversion of BRCA1-inactivating mutations can be the underlying mechanism of drug resistance, but this does not explain resistance in all cases5. In particular, little is known about BRCA1-independent restoration of HR. Here, we show that loss of REV7 (also known as MAD2L2) re-establishes CtIP-dependent end resection of DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to HR restoration and PARP inhibitor resistance, reversed by ATM kinase inhibition. REV7 is recruited to DSBs in a manner dependent on the H2AX-MDC1-RNF8-RNF168-53BP1 chromatin pathway, and appears to block HR and promote end joining in addition to its regulatory role in DNA damage tolerance6. Finally, we establish that REV7 blocks DSB resection to promote non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Our results reveal an unexpected critical function of REV7 downstream of 53BP1 in coordinating pathological DSB repair pathway choices in BRCA1-deficient cells. PMID:25799992

  15. DNA double-strand breaks alter the spatial arrangement of homologous loci in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Takeshi; Katagiri, Yohei; Ando, Tadashi; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin dynamics and arrangement are involved in many biological processes in nuclei of eukaryotes including plants. Plants have to respond rapidly to various environmental stimuli to achieve growth and development because they cannot move. It is assumed that the alteration of chromatin dynamics and arrangement support the response to these stimuli; however, there is little information in plants. In this study, we investigated the chromatin dynamics and arrangement with DNA damage in Arabidopsis thaliana by live-cell imaging with the lacO/LacI-EGFP system and simulation analysis. It was revealed that homologous loci kept a constant distance in nuclei of A. thaliana roots in general growth. We also found that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce the approach of the homologous loci with γ-irradiation. Furthermore, AtRAD54, which performs an important role in the homologous recombination repair pathway, was involved in the pairing of homologous loci with γ-irradiation. These results suggest that homologous loci approach each other to repair DSBs, and AtRAD54 mediates these phenomena. PMID:26046331

  16. Role of the double-strand break repair pathway in the maintenance of genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Le Guen, Tangui; Ragu, Sandrine; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Lopez, Bernard S

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly lethal lesions that jeopardize genome integrity. However, DSBs are also used to generate diversity during the physiological processes of meiosis or establishment of the immune repertoire. Therefore, DSB repair must be tightly controlled. Two main strategies are used to repair DSBs: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HR is generally considered to be error-free, whereas NHEJ is considered to be error-prone. However, recent data challenge these assertions. Here, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in HR and NHEJ and the recently described alternative end-joining mechanism, which is exclusively mutagenic. Whereas NHEJ is not intrinsically error-prone but adaptable, HR has the intrinsic ability to modify the DNA sequence. Importantly, in both cases the initial structure of the DNA impacts the outcome. Finally, the consequences and applications of these repair mechanisms are discussed. Both HR and NHEJ are double-edged swords, essential for maintenance of genome stability and diversity but also able to generate genome instability. PMID:27308383

  17. Radiation dose determines the method for quantification of DNA double strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Bulat, Tanja; Keta, Otilija; Korićanac, Lela; Žakula, Jelena; Petrović, Ivan; Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra; Todorović, Danijela

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (γH2AX). Immunofluorescent staining visualizes formation of γH2AX foci, allowing their quantification. This method, as opposed to Western blot assay and Flow cytometry, provides more accurate analysis, by showing exact position and intensity of fluorescent signal in each single cell. In practice there are problems in quantification of γH2AX. This paper is based on two issues: the determination of which technique should be applied concerning the radiation dose, and how to analyze fluorescent microscopy images obtained by different microscopes. HTB140 melanoma cells were exposed to γ-rays, in the dose range from 1 to 16 Gy. Radiation effects on the DNA level were analyzed at different time intervals after irradiation by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunochemically stained cells were visualized with two types of microscopes: AxioVision (Zeiss, Germany) microscope, comprising an ApoTome software, and AxioImagerA1 microscope (Zeiss, Germany). Obtained results show that the level of γH2AX is time and dose dependent. Immunofluorescence microscopy provided better detection of DSBs for lower irradiation doses, while Western blot analysis was more reliable for higher irradiation doses. AxioVision microscope containing ApoTome software was more suitable for the detection of γH2AX foci. PMID:26959322

  18. Telomere Dysfunction Triggers Palindrome Formation Independently of Double-Strand Break Repair Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Raykov, Vasil; Marvin, Marcus E; Louis, Edward J; Maringele, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Inverted chromosome duplications or palindromes are linked with genetic disorders and malignant transformation. They are considered by-products of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair: the homologous recombination (HR) and the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Palindromes near chromosome ends are often triggered by telomere losses. An important question is to what extent their formation depends upon DSB repair mechanisms. Here we addressed this question using yeast genetics and comparative genomic hybridization. We induced palindrome formation by passaging cells lacking any form of telomere maintenance (telomerase and telomere recombination). Surprisingly, we found that DNA ligase 4, essential for NHEJ, did not make a significant contribution to palindrome formation induced by telomere losses. Moreover RAD51, important for certain HR-derived mechanisms, had little effect. Furthermore RAD52, which is essential for HR in yeast, appeared to decrease the number of palindromes in cells proliferating without telomeres. This study also uncovered an important role for Rev3 and Rev7 (but not for Pol32) subunits of polymerase ζ in the survival of cells undergoing telomere losses and forming palindromes. We propose a model called short-inverted repeat-induced synthesis in which DNA synthesis, rather than DSB repair, drives the inverted duplication triggered by telomere dysfunction. PMID:27334270

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection Introduces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanada, Katsuhiro; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Watada, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Nahomi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Shiota, Seiji; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Graham, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an inflammation-related malignancy related to long-standing acute and chronic inflammation caused by infection with the human bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Inflammation can result in genomic instability. However, there are considerable data that H. pylori itself can also produce genomic instability both directly and through epigenetic pathways. Overall, the mechanisms of H. pylori-induced host genomic instabilities remain poorly understood. We used microarray screening of H. pylori-infected human gastric biopsy specimens to identify candidate genes involved in H. pylori-induced host genomic instabilities. We found upregulation of ATM expression in vivo in gastric mucosal cells infected with H. pylori. Using gastric cancer cell lines, we confirmed that the H. pylori-related activation of ATM was due to the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs were observed following infection with both cag pathogenicity island (PAI)-positive and -negative strains, but the effect was more robust with cag PAI-positive strains. These results are consistent with the fact that infections with both cag PAI-positive and -negative strains are associated with gastric carcinogenesis, but the risk is higher in individuals infected with cag PAI-positive strains. PMID:25069978

  20. RNF4 regulates DNA double-strand break repair in a cell cycle-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Li, Xu; Stark, Jeremy M.; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Ann, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both RNF4 and KAP1 play critical roles in the response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but the functional interplay of RNF4 and KAP1 in regulating DNA damage response remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated the recruitment and degradation of KAP1 by RNF4 require the phosphorylation of Ser824 (pS824) and SUMOylation of KAP1. In this report, we show the retention of DSB-induced pS824-KAP1 foci and RNF4 abundance are inversely correlated as cell cycle progresses. Following irradiation, pS824-KAP1 foci predominantly appear in the cyclin A (-) cells, whereas RNF4 level is suppressed in the G0-/G1-phases and then accumulates during S-/G2-phases. Notably, 53BP1 foci, but not BRCA1 foci, co-exist with pS824-KAP1 foci. Depletion of KAP1 yields opposite effect on the dynamics of 53BP1 and BRCA1 loading, favoring homologous recombination repair. In addition, we identify p97 is present in the RNF4-KAP1 interacting complex and the inhibition of p97 renders MCF7 breast cancer cells relatively more sensitive to DNA damage. Collectively, these findings suggest that combined effect of dynamic recruitment of RNF4 to KAP1 regulates the relative occupancy of 53BP1 and BRCA1 at DSB sites to direct DSB repair in a cell cycle-dependent manner. PMID:26766492

  1. Host Double Strand Break Repair Generates HIV-1 Strains Resistant to CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Kristine E; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for HIV-1 infection. CRISPR/Cas9 induced double strand breaks (DSBs) targeted to the integrated viral genome have been shown to decrease production of progeny virus. Unfortunately HIV-1 evolves rapidly and may readily produce CRISPR/Cas9 resistant strains. Here we used next-generation sequencing to characterize HIV-1 strains that developed resistance to six different CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs (gRNAs). Reverse transcriptase (RT) derived base substitution mutations were commonly found at sites encoding unpaired bases of RNA stem-loop structures. In addition to RT mutations, insertion and/or deletion (indel) mutations were common. Indels localized to the CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage site were major contributors to CRISPR gRNA resistance. While most indels at non-coding regions were a single base pair, 3 base pair indels were observed when a coding region of HIV-1 was targeted. The DSB repair event may preserve the HIV-1 reading frame, while destroying CRISPR gRNA homology. HIV-1 may be successfully edited by CRISPR/Cas9, but the virus remains competent for replication and resistant to further CRISPR/Cas9 targeting at that site. These observations strongly suggest that host DSB repair at CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage sites is a novel and important pathway that may contribute to HIV-1 therapeutic resistance. PMID:27404981

  2. Using carbon nanotubes to induce micronuclei and double strand breaks of the DNA in human cells.

    PubMed

    Cveticanin, Jelena; Joksic, Gordana; Leskovac, Andreja; Petrovic, Sandra; Sobot, Ana Valenta; Neskovic, Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are unique one-dimensional macromolecules with promising applications in biology and medicine. Since their toxicity is still under debate, here we present a study investigating the genotoxic properties of purified single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and amide functionalized purified SWCNTs on cultured human lymphocytes employing cytokinesis block micronucleus assay and enumeration of gamma H2AX foci as a measure of double strand breaks (DSBs) of the DNA in normal human fibroblasts. SWCNTs induce micronuclei (MN) formation in lymphocytes and decrease the proliferation potential (CBPI) of cells. In a fibroblast cell line the same dose of SWCNTs induces gamma H2AX foci 2.7-fold higher than in a control. Amide functionalized purified SWCNTs behave differently: they do not disturb the cell proliferation potential of harvested lymphocytes, but induce micronuclei to a higher extent than SWCNTs. When applied on fibroblasts, amide functionalized SWCNTs also induce gamma H2AX foci, 3.18-fold higher than the control. The cellular effects of MWCNTs display the broad spectrum of clastogenic properties seen as the highest incidence of induced lymphocyte micronuclei and anaphase bridges among nuclei in binucleated cells. Surprisingly, the incidence of induced gamma H2AX foci was not as high as was expected by the micronucleus test, which indicates that MWCNTs act as clastogen and aneugen agents simultaneously. Biological endpoints investigated in this study indicate a close relationship between the electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes and observed genotoxicity. PMID:19946169

  3. Double-strand break-induced mitotic intrachromosomal recombination in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, F.; Fortunato, E.A.; Subramani, S.

    1996-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HO gene and MATa cutting site were used to introduce site-specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) within intrachromosomal recombination substrates in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The recombination substrates consisted of nontandem direct repeats of ade6 heteroalleles. DSB induction stimulated the frequency of recombinants 2000-fold. The spectrum of DSB-induced recombinants depended on whether the DSB was introduced within one of the ade6 repeats or in intervening unique DNA. When the DSB was introduced within unique DNA, over 99.8% of the recombinants lacked the intervening DNA but retained one copy of ade6 that was wild type or either one of the heteroalleles. When the DSB was located in duplicated DNA, 77% of the recombinants were similar to the deletion types described above, but the single ade6 copy was either wild type or exclusively that of the uncut repeat. The remaining 23% of the induced recombinants were gene convertants with two copies of ade6 and the intervening sequences; the ade6 heteroallele in which the DSB was induced was the recipient of genetic information. Half-sectored colonies were isolated, analyzed and interpreted as evidence of heteroduplex DNA formation. The results are discussed in terms of current models for recombination. 81 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Homozygous mutation of MTPAP causes cellular radiosensitivity and persistent DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N T; Nakamura, K; Paila, U; Woo, J; Brown, C; Wright, J A; Teraoka, S N; Haghayegh, S; McCurdy, D; Schneider, M; Hu, H; Quinlan, A R; Gatti, R A; Concannon, P

    2014-01-01

    The study of rare human syndromes characterized by radiosensitivity has been instrumental in identifying novel proteins and pathways involved in DNA damage responses to ionizing radiation. In the present study, a mutation in mitochondrial poly-A-polymerase (MTPAP), not previously recognized for its role in the DNA damage response, was identified by exome sequencing and subsequently associated with cellular radiosensitivity. Cell lines derived from two patients with the homozygous MTPAP missense mutation were radiosensitive, and this radiosensitivity could be abrogated by transfection of wild-type mtPAP cDNA into mtPAP-deficient cell lines. Further analysis of the cellular phenotype revealed delayed DNA repair, increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased cell death after irradiation (IR). Pre-IR treatment of cells with the potent anti-oxidants, α-lipoic acid and n-acetylcysteine, was sufficient to abrogate the DNA repair and clonogenic survival defects. Our results firmly establish that mutation of the MTPAP gene results in a cellular phenotype of increased DNA damage, reduced repair kinetics, increased cell death by apoptosis, and reduced clonogenic survival after exposure to ionizing radiation, suggesting a pathogenesis that involves the disruption of ROS homeostasis. PMID:24651433

  5. Sulforaphane induces DNA double strand breaks predominantly repaired by homologous recombination pathway in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Yu, Dong; Kubota, Nobuo; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Anzai, Kazunori

    2008-12-12

    Cytotoxicity and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were studied in HeLa cells treated with sulforaphane (SFN), a well-known chemo-preventive agent. Cell survival was impaired by SFN in a concentration and treatment time-dependent manner. Both constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) and {gamma}-H2AX assay unambiguously indicated formation of DSBs by SFN, reflecting the cell survival data. These DSBs were predominantly processed by homologous recombination repair (HRR), judging from the SFN concentration-dependent manner of Rad51 foci formation. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs, a key non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) protein, was not observed by SFN treatment, suggesting that NHEJ may not be involved in DSBs induced by this chemical. G2/M arrest by SFN, a typical response for cells exposed to ionizing radiation was also observed. Our new data indicate the clear induction of DSBs by SFN and a useful anti-tumor aspect of SFN through the induction of DNA DSBs.

  6. PML nuclear body disruption impairs DNA double-strand break sensing and repair in APL.

    PubMed

    di Masi, A; Cilli, D; Berardinelli, F; Talarico, A; Pallavicini, I; Pennisi, R; Leone, S; Antoccia, A; Noguera, N I; Lo-Coco, F; Ascenzi, P; Minucci, S; Nervi, C

    2016-01-01

    Proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair localize within the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), whose disruption is at the root of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) pathogenesis. All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment induces PML-RARα degradation, restores PML-NB functions, and causes terminal cell differentiation of APL blasts. However, the precise role of the APL-associated PML-RARα oncoprotein and PML-NB integrity in the DSB response in APL leukemogenesis and tumor suppression is still lacking. Primary leukemia blasts isolated from APL patients showed high phosphorylation levels of H2AX (γ-H2AX), an initial DSBs sensor. By addressing the consequences of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSB response in primary APL blasts and RA-responsive and -resistant myeloid cell lines carrying endogenous or ectopically expressed PML-RARα, before and after treatment with RA, we found that the disruption of PML-NBs is associated with delayed DSB response, as revealed by the impaired kinetic of disappearance of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci and activation of ATM and of its substrates H2AX, NBN, and CHK2. The disruption of PML-NB integrity by PML-RARα also affects the IR-induced DSB response in a preleukemic mouse model of APL in vivo. We propose the oncoprotein-dependent PML-NB disruption and DDR impairment as relevant early events in APL tumorigenesis. PMID:27468685

  7. DNA double-strand breaks induced along the trajectory of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, I. C.; Niu, H.; Chen, C. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Hsu, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    It is well-known that the DNA damage caused by charged particles considerably differs from damage due to electromagnetic radiation. In the case of irradiation by charged particles the DNA lesions are more complex and clustered. Such clustered damage is presumed difficult to be repaired, and is potentially lethal. In this study, we utilize a 90°-scattering system and related imaging techniques to investigate the accumulation of γ-H2AX along the trajectory of charged particles. By immunostaining the γ-H2AX protein, optical images of corresponding double strand breaks were observed using a high resolution confocal microscope. We demonstrate the difference in the accumulation of γ-H2AX from irradiation by 1 MeV protons and that of 150 keV X-rays. The acquired images were arranged and reconstructed into a 3D image using ImageJ software. We discovered that the γ-H2AX foci, following irradiation by protons, have a tendency to extend in the beam direction, while those from X-ray irradiation tend to be smaller and more randomly distributed. These results can be explained by the physical model of energy deposition.

  8. High LET - induced H2AX phosphorylation at sites of DNA double strand breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, N.; Cucinotta, F.; Wu, H.

    Within cell nuclei, traversing charged heavy ion particles lead to the accumulation of proteins related to DNA lesions and repair along the ion trajectories. Irradiation using a standard geometric setup with the beam path perpendicular to the cell monolayer generates discrete foci of several proteins known to localize at sites of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). One such molecule is the histone protein H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which gets rapidly phosphorylated in response to ionizing radiation. Here we present data obtained with a modified irradiation geometry characterized by a beam path parallel to a monolayer of human fibroblast cells. This new irradiation geometry leads to the formation of gamma-H2AX aggregates in the shape of streaks stretching over several micrometers in the x/y plane, thus enabling the analysis of the fluorescence distributions along the particle trajectories. Qualitative analysis of these distributions presented insights into the DNA repair kinetics along the primary track structure and visualization of possible chromatin movement. We also present evidence of colocalization of gamma-H2AX with several other proteins in responses to ionizing radiation exposure. Analysis of gamma-H2AX has the potential to provide useful information on human cell responses to high LET radiation after exposure to space-like radiation.

  9. DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Telomeres Play Important Roles in Trypanosoma brucei Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human-infecting microbial pathogens all face a serious problem of elimination by the host immune response. Antigenic variation is an effective immune evasion mechanism where the pathogen regularly switches its major surface antigen. In many cases, the major surface antigen is encoded by genes from the same gene family, and its expression is strictly monoallelic. Among pathogens that undergo antigenic variation, Trypanosoma brucei (a kinetoplastid), which causes human African trypanosomiasis, Plasmodium falciparum (an apicomplexan), which causes malaria, Pneumocystis jirovecii (a fungus), which causes pneumonia, and Borrelia burgdorferi (a bacterium), which causes Lyme disease, also express their major surface antigens from loci next to the telomere. Except for Plasmodium, DNA recombination-mediated gene conversion is a major pathway for surface antigen switching in these pathogens. In the last decade, more sophisticated molecular and genetic tools have been developed in T. brucei, and our knowledge of functions of DNA recombination in antigenic variation has been greatly advanced. VSG is the major surface antigen in T. brucei. In subtelomeric VSG expression sites (ESs), VSG genes invariably are flanked by a long stretch of upstream 70-bp repeats. Recent studies have shown that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), particularly those in 70-bp repeats in the active ES, are a natural potent trigger for antigenic variation in T. brucei. In addition, telomere proteins can influence VSG switching by reducing the DSB amount at subtelomeric regions. These findings will be summarized and their implications will be discussed in this review. PMID:25576484

  10. Properties of natural double-strand-break sites at a recombination hotspot in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Stuart J; Halley, George R; Jones, Alex J; Malone, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses three questions about the properties of recombination hotspots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: How much DNA is required for double-strand-break (DSB) site recognition? Do naturally occurring DSB sites compete with each other in meiotic recombination? What role does the sequence located at the sites of DSBs play? In S. cerevisiae, the HIS2 meiotic recombination hotspot displays a high level of gene conversion, a 3'-to-5' conversion gradient, and two DSB sites located approximately 550 bp apart. Previous studies of hotspots, including HIS2, suggest that global chromosome structure plays a significant role in recombination activity, raising the question of how much DNA is sufficient for hotspot activity. We find that 11.5 kbp of the HIS2 region is sufficient to partially restore gene conversion and both DSBs when moved to another yeast chromosome. Using a variety of different constructs, studies of hotspots have indicated that DSB sites compete with one another for DSB formation. The two naturally occurring DSBs at HIS2 afforded us the opportunity to examine whether or not competition occurs between these native DSB sites. Small deletions of DNA at each DSB site affect only that site; analyses of these deletions show no competition occurring in cis or in trans, indicating that DSB formation at each site at HIS2 is independent. These small deletions significantly affect the frequency of DSB formation at the sites, indicating that the DNA sequence located at a DSB site can play an important role in recombination initiation. PMID:14504220

  11. Assembly and function of DNA double-strand break repair foci in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2010-12-10

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most cytotoxic types of DNA damage, which if left unrepaired can lead to mutations or gross chromosomal aberrations, and promote the onset of diseases associated with genomic instability such as cancer. One of the most discernible hallmarks of the cellular response to DSBs is the accumulation and local concentration of a plethora of DNA damage signaling and repair proteins in the vicinity of the lesion, initiated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of H2AX (γ-H2AX) and culminating in the generation of distinct nuclear compartments, so-called Ionizing Radiation-Induced Foci (IRIF). The assembly of proteins at the DSB-flanking chromatin occurs in a highly ordered and strictly hierarchical fashion. To a large extent, this is achieved by regulation of protein-protein interactions triggered by a variety of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, and acetylation. Over the last decade, insight into the identity of proteins residing in IRIF and the molecular underpinnings of their retention at these structures has been vastly expanded. Despite such advances, however, our understanding of the biological relevance of such DNA repair foci still remains limited. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries on the mechanisms that govern the formation of IRIF, and discuss the implications of such findings in light of our understanding of the physiological importance of these structures. PMID:21035408

  12. Writers, Readers, and Erasers of Histone Ubiquitylation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Smeenk, Godelieve; Mailand, Niels

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose faulty repair may alter the content and organization of cellular genomes. To counteract this threat, numerous signaling and repair proteins are recruited hierarchically to the chromatin areas surrounding DSBs to facilitate accurate lesion repair and restoration of genome integrity. In vertebrate cells, ubiquitin-dependent modifications of histones adjacent to DSBs by RNF8, RNF168, and other ubiquitin ligases have a key role in promoting the assembly of repair protein complexes, serving as direct recruitment platforms for a range of genome caretaker proteins and their associated factors. These DNA damage-induced chromatin ubiquitylation marks provide an essential component of a histone code for DSB repair that is controlled by multifaceted regulatory circuits, underscoring its importance for genome stability maintenance. In this review, we provide a comprehensive account of how DSB-induced histone ubiquitylation is sensed, decoded and modulated by an elaborate array of repair factors and regulators. We discuss how these mechanisms impact DSB repair pathway choice and functionality for optimal protection of genome integrity, as well as cell and organismal fitness. PMID:27446204

  13. Immunofluorescent Detection of DNA Double Strand Breaks induced by High-LET Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Desai, Nirav

    2004-01-01

    Within cell nuclei, traversing charged heavy ion particles lead to the accumulation of proteins related to DNA lesions and repair along the ion trajectories. Irradiation using a standard geometric setup with the beam path perpendicular to the cell monolayer generates discrete foci of several proteins known to localize at sites of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). One such molecule is the histone protein H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which gets rapidly phosphorylated in response to ionizing radiation. Here we present data obtained with a modified irradiation geometry characterized by a beam path parallel to a monolayer of human fibroblast cells. This new irradiation geometry leads to the formation of gamma-H2AX aggregates in the shape of streaks stretching over several micrometers in the x/y plane, thus enabling the analysis of the fluorescence distributions along the particle trajectories. Qualitative analysis of these distributions presented insights into the DNA repair kinetics along the primary track structure and visualization of possible chromatin movement. We also present evidence of colocalization of gamma-H2AX with several other proteins in responses to ionizing radiation exposure. Analysis of gamma-H2AX has the potential to provide useful information on human cell responses to high LET radiation after exposure to space-like radiation.

  14. RNF4 regulates DNA double-strand break repair in a cell cycle-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Li, Xu; Stark, Jeremy M; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Ann, David K

    2016-03-18

    Both RNF4 and KAP1 play critical roles in the response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but the functional interplay of RNF4 and KAP1 in regulating DNA damage response remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated the recruitment and degradation of KAP1 by RNF4 require the phosphorylation of Ser824 (pS824) and SUMOylation of KAP1. In this report, we show the retention of DSB-induced pS824-KAP1 foci and RNF4 abundance are inversely correlated as cell cycle progresses. Following irradiation, pS824-KAP1 foci predominantly appear in the cyclin A (-) cells, whereas RNF4 level is suppressed in the G0-/G1-phases and then accumulates during S-/G2-phases. Notably, 53BP1 foci, but not BRCA1 foci, co-exist with pS824-KAP1 foci. Depletion of KAP1 yields opposite effect on the dynamics of 53BP1 and BRCA1 loading, favoring homologous recombination repair. In addition, we identify p97 is present in the RNF4-KAP1 interacting complex and the inhibition of p97 renders MCF7 breast cancer cells relatively more sensitive to DNA damage. Collectively, these findings suggest that combined effect of dynamic recruitment of RNF4 to KAP1 regulates the relative occupancy of 53BP1 and BRCA1 at DSB sites to direct DSB repair in a cell cycle-dependent manner. PMID:26766492

  15. RNF4 is required for DNA double-strand break repair in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vyas, R; Kumar, R; Clermont, F; Helfricht, A; Kalev, P; Sotiropoulou, P; Hendriks, I A; Radaelli, E; Hochepied, T; Blanpain, C; Sablina, A; van Attikum, H; Olsen, J V; Jochemsen, A G; Vertegaal, A C O; Marine, J-C

    2013-03-01

    Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) cause genetic instability that leads to malignant transformation or cell death. Cells respond to DSBs with the ordered recruitment of signaling and repair proteins to the sites of DNA lesions. Coordinated protein SUMOylation and ubiquitylation have crucial roles in regulating the dynamic assembly of protein complexes at these sites. However, how SUMOylation influences protein ubiquitylation at DSBs is poorly understood. We show herein that Rnf4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets SUMO-modified proteins, accumulates in DSB repair foci and is required for both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining repair. To establish a link between Rnf4 and the DNA damage response (DDR) in vivo, we generated an Rnf4 allelic series in mice. We show that Rnf4-deficiency causes persistent ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and signaling, and that Rnf4-deficient cells and mice exhibit increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, we show that Rnf4 targets SUMOylated MDC1 and SUMOylated BRCA1, and is required for the loading of Rad51, an enzyme required for HR repair, onto sites of DNA damage. Similarly to inactivating mutations in other key regulators of HR repair, Rnf4 deficiency leads to age-dependent impairment in spermatogenesis. These findings identify Rnf4 as a critical component of the DDR in vivo and support the possibility that Rnf4 controls protein localization at DNA damage sites by integrating SUMOylation and ubiquitylation events. PMID:23197296

  16. Identification of DNA double strand breaks at chromosome boundaries along the track of particle irradiation.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Atsuko; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Sekine, Ryota; Oike, Takahiro; Sato, Hiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Held, Kathryn D; Nakano, Takashi; Shibata, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations arise from misrejoining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) between loci located on two chromosomes. One current model suggests that spatial proximity of potential chromosomal translocation partners influences translocation probability. Ionizing radiation (IR) is a potent inducer of translocations. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that particle irradiation more frequently causes translocations compared with X-ray irradiation. This observation has led to the hypothesis that the high frequency of translocations after particle irradiation may be due to the formation of DSBs at chromosome boundaries along the particle track, because such DSBs can be misrejoined between distinct chromosomes. In this study, we simultaneously visualized the site of IR-induced DSBs and chromosome position by combining Immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Importantly, the frequency of γH2AX foci at the chromosome boundary of chromosome 1 after carbon-ion irradiation was >4-fold higher than that after X-ray irradiation. This observation is consistent with the idea that particle irradiation generates DSBs at the boundaries of two chromosomes along the track. Further, we showed that resolution of γH2AX foci at chromosome boundaries is prevented by inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity, indicating that the DSB repair is NHEJ-dependent. Finally, we found that γH2AX foci at chromosome boundaries after carbon-ion irradiation contain DSBs undergoing DNA-end resection, which promotes repair utilizing microhomology mediated end-joining during translocation. Taken together, our study suggests that the frequency of DSB formation at chromosome boundaries is associated with the incidence of chromosomal translocations, supporting the notion that the spatial proximity between breaks is an important factor in translocation formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27113385

  17. Rejoining of gamma-radiation-induced single-strand breaks in plasmid DNA by human cell extracts: Dependence on the concentration of the hydroxyl radical scavenger, Tris

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgkins, P.S.; Fairman, M.P.; O`Neill, P.

    1996-01-01

    The rejoining of single-strand breaks induced by {gamma} irradiation in plasmid DNA under different scavenging conditions is described using human cell extracts. As the scavenging capacity of the irradiated solution increases from 1.5 X 10{sup 7} to 3 X 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} using Tris-HCl as a scavenger, the ratio of single- to double-strand breaks is reduced from {approx}70:1 to 40:1. After irradiation, a proportion of DNA molecules have no initial strand breaks but contain damage that is converted to strand breaks when incubated either at 37{degrees}C or in the presence of cellular extract. Repair of damage by the extracts is dependent upon the scavenging capacity of the irradiated solution. Optimal rejoining is observed when the scavenging capacity is <1.5 X 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}, and results in the repair of some initial strand breaks. As the scavenging capacity increases to 3 X 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} the proportion of breaks repaired is significantly reduced. The relative increase in the yield of double-strand breaks and reduced repairability of single-strand breaks at a scavenging capacity of 3 X 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} is consistent with the concept that the severity of damage increases upon increasing the scavenger concentration. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Lack of dependence on p53 for DNA double strand break repair of episomal vectors in human lymphoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohli, M.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene has been shown to be involved in a variety of repair processes, and recent findings have suggested that p53 may be involved in DNA double strand break repair in irradiated cells. The role of p53 in DNA double strand break repair, however, has not been fully investigated. In this study, we have constructed a novel Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based shuttle vector, designated as pZEBNA, to explore the influence of p53 on DNA strand break repair in human lymphoblasts, since EBV-based vectors do not inactivate the p53 pathway. We have compared plasmid survival of irradiated, restriction enzyme linearized, and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIP)-treated pZEBNA with a Simian virus 40 (SV40)-based shuttle vector, pZ189, in TK6 (wild-type p53) and WTK1 (mutant p53) lymphoblasts and determined that p53 does not modulate DNA double strand break repair in these cell lines. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Homology Requirements for Double-Strand Break-Mediated Recombination in a Phage λ-Td Intron Model System

    PubMed Central

    Parker, M. M.; Court, D. A.; Preiter, K.; Belfort, M.

    1996-01-01

    Many group I introns encode endonucleases that promote intron homing by initiating a double-strand break-mediated homologous recombination event. A td intron-phage λ model system was developed to analyze exon homology effects on intron homing and determine the role of the λ 5'-3' exonuclease complex (Redαβ) in the repair event. Efficient intron homing depended on exon lengths in the 35- to 50-bp range, although homing levels remained significantly elevated above nonbreak-mediated recombination with as little as 10 bp of flanking homology. Although precise intron insertion was demonstrated with extremely limiting exon homology, the complete absence of one exon produced illegitimate events on the side of heterology. Interestingly, intron inheritance was unaffected by the presence of extensive heterology at the double-strand break in wild-type λ, provided that sufficient homology between donor and recipient was present distal to the heterologous sequences. However, these events involving heterologous ends were absolutely dependent on an intact Red exonuclease system. Together these results indicate that heterologous sequences can participate in double-strand break-mediated repair and imply that intron transposition to heteroallelic sites might occur at break sites within regions of limited or no homology. PMID:8807281

  20. The homologous chromosome is an effective template for the repair of mitotic DNA double-strand breaks in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yikang S; Golic, Kent G

    2003-01-01

    In recombinational DNA double-strand break repair a homologous template for gene conversion may be located at several different genomic positions: on the homologous chromosome in diploid organisms, on the sister chromatid after DNA replication, or at an ectopic position. The use of the homologous chromosome in mitotic gene conversion is thought to be limited in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells. In contrast, by studying the repair of double-strand breaks generated by the I-SceI rare-cutting endonuclease, we find that the homologous chromosome is frequently used in Drosophila melanogaster, which we suggest is attributable to somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes in mitotic cells of Drosophila. We also find that Drosophila mitotic cells of the germ line, like yeast, employ the homologous recombinational repair pathway more often than imperfect nonhomologous end joining. PMID:14704169

  1. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  2. The PBAF chromatin remodeling complex represses transcription and promotes rapid repair at DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Kakarougkas, Andreas; Downs, Jessica A; Jeggo, Penny A

    2015-01-01

    Transcription in the vicinity of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is suppressed via a process involving ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM) and H2AK119 ubiquitylation.1 We discuss recent findings that components of the Polybromo and Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1)-associated factor (PBAF) remodeling complex and the polycomb repressive complex (PRC1/2) are also required.2 Failure to activate transcriptional suppression impedes a rapid DSB repair process. PMID:27308404

  3. AAV-Mediated Gene Editing via Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the ability to edit the mammalian genome was inhibited by the inherent low efficiency of homologous recombination (HR; approximately <1 in a million events) and the inability to deliver DNA efficiently to dividing and non-dividing cells/tissue. Despite these limitations, creative selections designed over 20 years ago, clearly demonstrated the powerful implications of gene knock-in and knockout technology for the genetic engineering of mice (Doetschman et al. Nat 330(6148): 576–578, 1987; Thomas and Capecchi. Cell 51(3): 503–512, 1987). The development and application of recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (rAAV) have helped to overcome both of the initial limitations regarding DNA delivery and the frequency of HR. Considering DNA delivery, rAAV infects non-dividing and dividing cultured cells as well as most tissues in mouse and larger animal models (including humans). At the DNA editing level, rAAV genomes have been reported to increase the frequency of HR several orders of magnitude by serving as the repair substrate (Russell and Hirata. Nat Genet 18(4): 325–330, 1998). However, reports on the ability of rAAV genomes to stimulate HR, compared to plasmid DNA and oligonucleotides, are variable, and many labs have found it necessary to augment the frequency of rAAV-induced HR using site-specific endonucleases (Ellis et al. Gene Ther, 2012; Hirsch et al. Gene Ther 17(9): 1175–1180, 2010; Porteus et al. Mol Cell Biol 23(10): 3558–3565, 2003; Radecke et al. Mol Ther 14(6): 798–808, 2006). In this protocol, we describe a method to perform rAAV-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair for precise genetic engineering in human cells. PMID:24557911

  4. Tying the loose ends together in DNA double strand break repair with 53BP1.

    PubMed

    Adams, Melissa M; Carpenter, Phillip B

    2006-01-01

    To maintain genomic stability and ensure the fidelity of chromosomal transmission, cells respond to various forms of genotoxic stress, including DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), through the activation of DNA damage response signaling networks. In response to DSBs as induced by ionizing radiation (IR), during DNA replication, or through immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements in B cells of lymphoid origin, the phosphatidyl inositol-like kinase (PIK) kinases ATM (mutated in ataxia telangiectasia), ATR (ATM and Rad3-related kinase), and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activate signaling pathways that lead to DSB repair. DSBs are repaired by either of two major, non-mutually exclusive pathways: homologous recombination (HR) that utilizes an undamaged sister chromatid template (or homologous chromosome) and non- homologous end joining (NHEJ), an error prone mechanism that processes and joins broken DNA ends through the coordinated effort of a small set of ubiquitous factors (DNA-PKcs, Ku70, Ku80, artemis, Xrcc4/DNA lig IV, and XLF/Cernunnos). The PIK kinases phosphorylate a variety of effector substrates that propagate the DNA damage signal, ultimately resulting in various biological outputs that influence cell cycle arrest, transcription, DNA repair, and apoptosis. A variety of data has revealed a critical role for p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) in the cellular response to DSBs including various aspects of p53 function. Importantly, 53BP1 plays a major role in suppressing translocations, particularly in B and T cells. This report will review past experiments and current knowledge regarding the role of 53BP1 in the DNA damage response. PMID:16945145

  5. The tight linkage between DNA replication and double-strand break repair in bacteriophage T4

    PubMed Central

    George, James W.; Stohr, Bradley A.; Tomso, Daniel J.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.

    2001-01-01

    Double-strand break (DSB) repair and DNA replication are tightly linked in the life cycle of bacteriophage T4. Indeed, the major mode of phage DNA replication depends on recombination proteins and can be stimulated by DSBs. DSB-stimulated DNA replication is dramatically demonstrated when T4 infects cells carrying two plasmids that share homology. A DSB on one plasmid triggered extensive replication of the second plasmid, providing a useful model for T4 recombination-dependent replication (RDR). This system also provides a view of DSB repair in T4-infected cells and revealed that the DSB repair products had been replicated in their entirety by the T4 replication machinery. We analyzed the detailed structure of these products, which do not fit the simple predictions of any of three models for DSB repair. We also present evidence that the T4 RDR system functions to restart stalled or inactivated replication forks. First, we review experiments involving antitumor drug-stabilized topoisomerase cleavage complexes. The results suggest that forks blocked at cleavage complexes are resolved by recombinational repair, likely involving RDR. Second, we show here that the presence of a T4 replication origin on one plasmid substantially stimulated recombination events between it and a homologous second plasmid that did not contain a T4 origin. Furthermore, replication of the second plasmid was increased when the first plasmid contained the T4 origin. Our interpretation is that origin-initiated forks become inactivated at some frequency during replication of the first plasmid and are then restarted via RDR on the second plasmid. PMID:11459966

  6. DNA Double Strand Break Response and Limited Repair Capacity in Mouse Elongated Spermatids

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Emad A.; Scherthan, Harry; de Rooij, Dirk G.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatids are extremely sensitive to genotoxic exposures since during spermiogenesis only error-prone non homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathways are available. Hence, genomic damage may accumulate in sperm and be transmitted to the zygote. Indirect, delayed DNA fragmentation and lesions associated with apoptotic-like processes have been observed during spermatid elongation, 27 days after irradiation. The proliferating spermatogonia and early meiotic prophase cells have been suggested to retain a memory of a radiation insult leading later to this delayed fragmentation. Here, we used meiotic spread preparations to localize phosphorylate histone H2 variant (γ-H2AX) foci marking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in elongated spermatids. This technique enabled us to determine the background level of DSB foci in elongated spermatids of RAD54/RAD54B double knockout (dko) mice, severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice, and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor (DPQ)-treated mice to compare them with the appropriate wild type controls. The repair kinetics data and the protein expression patterns observed indicate that the conventional NHEJ repair pathway is not available for elongated spermatids to repair the programmed and the IR-induced DSBs, reflecting the limited repair capacity of these cells. However, although elongated spermatids express the proteins of the alternative NHEJ, PARP1-inhibition had no effect on the repair kinetics after IR, suggesting that DNA damage may be passed onto sperm. Finally, our genetic mutant analysis suggests that an incomplete or defective meiotic recombinational repair of Spo11-induced DSBs may lead to a carry-over of the DSB damage or induce a delayed nuclear fragmentation during the sensitive programmed chromatin remodeling occurring in elongated spermatids. PMID:26694360

  7. The Transcriptional Response to DNA-Double-Strand Breaks in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Whitaker, John W; Cuming, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    The model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens is unique among plants in supporting the generation of mutant alleles by facile homologous recombination-mediated gene targeting (GT). Reasoning that targeted transgene integration occurs through the capture of transforming DNA by the homology-dependent pathway for DNA double-strand break (DNA-DSB) repair, we analysed the genome-wide transcriptomic response to bleomycin-induced DNA damage and generated mutants in candidate DNA repair genes. Massively parallel (Illumina) cDNA sequencing identified potential participants in gene targeting. Transcripts encoding DNA repair proteins active in multiple repair pathways were significantly up-regulated. These included Rad51, CtIP, DNA ligase 1, Replication protein A and ATR in homology-dependent repair, Xrcc4, DNA ligase 4, Ku70 and Ku80 in non-homologous end-joining and Rad1, Tebichi/polymerase theta, PARP in microhomology-mediated end-joining. Differentially regulated cell-cycle components included up-regulated Rad9 and Hus1 DNA-damage-related checkpoint proteins and down-regulated D-type cyclins and B-type CDKs, commensurate with the imposition of a checkpoint at G2 of the cell cycle characteristic of homology-dependent DNA-DSB repair. Candidate genes, including ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling helicases associated with repair and recombination, were knocked out and analysed for growth defects, hypersensitivity to DNA damage and reduced GT efficiency. Targeted knockout of PpCtIP, a cell-cycle activated mediator of homology-dependent DSB resection, resulted in bleomycin-hypersensitivity and greatly reduced GT efficiency. PMID:27537368

  8. Deregulation of DNA double-strand break repair in multiple myeloma: implications for genome stability.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Ana B; San Miguel, Jesús; Gutierrez, Norma C

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by frequent chromosome abnormalities. However, the molecular basis for this genome instability remains unknown. Since both impaired and hyperactive double strand break (DSB) repair pathways can result in DNA rearrangements, we investigated the functionality of DSB repair in MM cells. Repair kinetics of ionizing-radiation (IR)-induced DSBs was similar in MM and normal control lymphoblastoid cell lines, as revealed by the comet assay. However, four out of seven MM cell lines analyzed exhibited a subset of persistent DSBs, marked by γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci that elicited a prolonged G2/M DNA damage checkpoint activation and hypersensitivity to IR, especially in the presence of checkpoint inhibitors. An analysis of the proteins involved in DSB repair in MM cells revealed upregulation of DNA-PKcs, Artemis and XRCC4, that participate in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), and Rad51, involved in homologous recombination (HR). Accordingly, activity of both NHEJ and HR were elevated in MM cells compared to controls, as determined by in vivo functional assays. Interestingly, levels of proteins involved in a highly mutagenic, translocation-promoting, alternative NHEJ subpathway (Alt-NHEJ) were also increased in all MM cell lines, with the Alt-NHEJ protein DNA ligase IIIα, also overexpressed in several plasma cell samples isolated from MM patients. Overactivation of the Alt-NHEJ pathway was revealed in MM cells by larger deletions and higher sequence microhomology at repair junctions, which were reduced by chemical inhibition of the pathway. Taken together, our results uncover a deregulated DSB repair in MM that might underlie the characteristic genome instability of the disease, and could be therapeutically exploited. PMID:25790254

  9. Preferential Repair of DNA Double-strand Break at the Active Gene in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Priyasri; Sen, Rwik; Pandita, Tej K.; Bhaumik, Sukesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated transcription-coupled nucleotide/base excision repair. We report here for the first time that DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is also coupled to transcription. We generated a yeast strain by introducing a homing (Ho) endonuclease cut site followed by a nucleotide sequence for multiple Myc epitopes at the 3′ end of the coding sequence of a highly active gene, ADH1. This yeast strain also contains the Ho cut site at the nearly silent or poorly active mating type α (MATα) locus and expresses Ho endonuclease under the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. Using this strain, DSBs were generated at the ADH1 and MATα loci in galactose-containing growth medium that induced HO expression. Subsequently, yeast cells were transferred to dextrose-containing growth medium to stop HO expression, and the DSB repair was monitored at the ADH1 and MATα loci by PCR, using the primer pairs flanking the Ho cut sites. Our results revealed a faster DSB repair at the highly active ADH1 than that at the nearly silent MATα locus, hence implicating a transcription-coupled DSB repair at the active gene in vivo. Subsequently, we extended this study to another gene, PHO5 (carrying the Ho cut site at its coding sequence), under transcriptionally active and inactive growth conditions. We found a fast DSB repair at the active PHO5 gene in comparison to its inactive state. Collectively, our results demonstrate a preferential DSB repair at the active gene, thus supporting transcription-coupled DSB repair in living cells. PMID:22910905

  10. Mechanisms of double-strand-break repair during gene targeting in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, P; Baker, M D

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanism of double-strand-break (DSB) repair during gene targeting at the chromosomal immunoglobulin mu-locus in a murine hybridoma was examined. The gene-targeting assay utilized specially designed insertion vectors genetically marked in the region of homology to the chromosomal mu-locus by six diagnostic restriction enzyme site markers. The restriction enzyme markers permitted the contribution of vector-borne and chromosomal mu-sequences in the recombinant product to be determined. The use of the insertion vectors in conjunction with a plating procedure in which individual integrative homologous recombination events were retained for analysis revealed several important features about the mammalian DSB repair process:The presence of the markers within the region of shared homology did not affect the efficiency of gene targeting.In the majority of recombinants, the vector-borne marker proximal to the DSB was absent, being replaced with the corresponding chromosomal restriction enzyme site. This result is consistent with either formation and repair of a vector-borne gap or an "end" bias in mismatch repair of heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) that favored the chromosomal sequence. Formation of hDNA was frequently associated with gene targeting and, in most cases, began approximately 645 bp from the DSB and could encompass a distance of at least 1469 bp.The hDNA was efficiently repaired prior to DNA replication.The repair of adjacent mismatches in hDNA occurred predominantly on the same strand, suggesting the involvement of a long-patch repair mechanism. PMID:10049929

  11. The Transcriptional Response to DNA-Double-Strand Breaks in Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Whitaker, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens is unique among plants in supporting the generation of mutant alleles by facile homologous recombination-mediated gene targeting (GT). Reasoning that targeted transgene integration occurs through the capture of transforming DNA by the homology-dependent pathway for DNA double-strand break (DNA-DSB) repair, we analysed the genome-wide transcriptomic response to bleomycin-induced DNA damage and generated mutants in candidate DNA repair genes. Massively parallel (Illumina) cDNA sequencing identified potential participants in gene targeting. Transcripts encoding DNA repair proteins active in multiple repair pathways were significantly up-regulated. These included Rad51, CtIP, DNA ligase 1, Replication protein A and ATR in homology-dependent repair, Xrcc4, DNA ligase 4, Ku70 and Ku80 in non-homologous end-joining and Rad1, Tebichi/polymerase theta, PARP in microhomology-mediated end-joining. Differentially regulated cell-cycle components included up-regulated Rad9 and Hus1 DNA-damage-related checkpoint proteins and down-regulated D-type cyclins and B-type CDKs, commensurate with the imposition of a checkpoint at G2 of the cell cycle characteristic of homology-dependent DNA-DSB repair. Candidate genes, including ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling helicases associated with repair and recombination, were knocked out and analysed for growth defects, hypersensitivity to DNA damage and reduced GT efficiency. Targeted knockout of PpCtIP, a cell-cycle activated mediator of homology-dependent DSB resection, resulted in bleomycin-hypersensitivity and greatly reduced GT efficiency. PMID:27537368

  12. Nucleolin mediates nucleosome disruption critical for DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Michael; Derheimer, Frederick A; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Kastan, Michael B

    2013-10-15

    Recruitment of DNA repair factors and modulation of chromatin structure at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a complex and highly orchestrated process. We developed a system that can induce DSBs rapidly at defined endogenous sites in mammalian genomes and enables direct assessment of repair and monitoring of protein recruitment, egress, and modification at DSBs. The tight regulation of the system also permits assessments of relative kinetics and dependencies of events associated with cellular responses to DNA breakage. Distinct advantages of this system over focus formation/disappearance assays for assessing DSB repair are demonstrated. Using ChIP, we found that nucleosomes are partially disassembled around DSBs during nonhomologous end-joining repair in G1-arrested mammalian cells, characterized by a transient loss of the H2A/H2B histone dimer. Nucleolin, a protein with histone chaperone activity, interacts with RAD50 via its arginine-glycine rich domain and is recruited to DSBs rapidly in an MRE11-NBS1-RAD50 complex-dependent manner. Down-regulation of nucleolin abrogates the nucleosome disruption, the recruitment of repair factors, and the repair of the DSB, demonstrating the functional importance of nucleosome disruption in DSB repair and identifying a chromatin-remodeling protein required for the process. Interestingly, the nucleosome disruption that occurs during DSB repair in cycling cells differs in that both H2A/H2B and H3/H4 histone dimers are removed. This complete nucleosome disruption is also dependent on nucleolin and is required for recruitment of replication protein A to DSBs, a marker of DSB processing that is a requisite for homologous recombination repair. PMID:24082117

  13. BRUCE regulates DNA double-strand break response by promoting USP8 deubiquitination of BRIT1

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Chunmin; Che, Lixiao; Ren, Jinyu; Pandita, Raj K.; Lu, Jing; Li, Kaiyi; Pandita, Tej K.; Du, Chunying

    2015-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is crucial for genomic integrity. BRIT1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene C terminus-repeat inhibitor of human telomerase repeat transcriptase expression), a tumor suppressor and early DDR factor, is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by phosphorylated H2A histone family, member X (γ-H2AX), where it promotes chromatin relaxation by recruiting the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI–SNF) chromatin remodeler to facilitate DDR. However, regulation of BRIT1 recruitment is not fully understood. The baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR)-containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (BRUCE) is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP). Here, we report a non-IAP function of BRUCE in the regulation of the BRIT1–SWI–SNF DSB-response pathway and genomic stability. We demonstrate that BRIT1 is K63 ubiquitinated in unstimulated cells and that deubiquitination of BRIT1 is a prerequisite for its recruitment to DSB sites by γ-H2AX. We show mechanistically that BRUCE acts as a scaffold, bridging the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) and BRIT1 in a complex to coordinate USP8-catalyzed deubiquitination of BRIT1. Loss of BRUCE or USP8 impairs BRIT1 deubiquitination, BRIT1 binding with γ-H2AX, the formation of BRIT1 DNA damage foci, and chromatin relaxation. Moreover, BRUCE-depleted cells display reduced homologous recombination repair, and BRUCE-mutant mice exhibit repair defects and genomic instability. These findings identify BRUCE and USP8 as two hitherto uncharacterized critical DDR regulators and uncover a deubiquitination regulation of BRIT1 assembly at damaged chromatin for efficient DDR and genomic stability. PMID:25733871

  14. Deficiency in the response to DNA double-strand breaks in mouse early preimplantation embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, Masashi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi; Nagata, Masao; Aoki, Fugaku . E-mail: aokif@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-06-29

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are caused by various environmental stresses, such as ionizing radiation and DNA-damaging agents. When DSBs occur, cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms function to stop the cell cycle until all DSBs are repaired; the phosphorylation of H2AX plays an important role in this process. Mouse preimplantation-stage embryos are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation, and X-irradiated mouse zygotes are arrested at the G2 phase of the first cell cycle. To investigate the mechanisms responding to DNA damage at G2 in mouse preimplantation embryos, we examined G2/M checkpoint and DNA repair mechanisms in these embryos. Most of the one- and two-cell embryos in which DSBs had been induced by {gamma}-irradiation underwent a delay in cleavage and ceased development before the blastocyst stage. In these embryos, phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) was not detected in the one- or two-cell stages by immunocytochemistry, although it was detected after the two-cell stage during preimplantation development. These results suggest that the G2/M checkpoint and DNA repair mechanisms have insufficient function in one- and two-cell embryos, causing hypersensitivity to {gamma}-irradiation. In addition, phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein and DNA protein kinase catalytic subunits, which phosphorylate H2AX, were detected in the embryos at one- and two-cell stages, as well as at other preimplantation stages, suggesting that the absence of {gamma}-H2AX in one- and two-cell embryos depends on some factor(s) other than these kinases.

  15. Mycobacteria exploit three genetically distinct DNA double-strand break repair pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Barkan, Daniel; Redelman-Sidi, Gil; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on their DNA repair pathways to resist genomic damage inflicted by the host. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are especially threatening to bacterial viability. DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR) requires nucleases that resect DSB ends and a strand exchange protein that facilitates homology search. RecBCD and RecA perform these functions in E. coli and constitute the major pathway of error free DSB repair. Mycobacteria, including the human pathogen M. tuberculosis, elaborate an additional error-prone pathway of DSB repair via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) catalyzed by Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD). Little is known about the relative contributions of HR and NHEJ to mycobacterial chromosome repair, the factors that dictate pathway choice, or the existence of additional DSB repair pathways. Here we demonstrate that Mycobacterium smegmatis has three DSB repair pathway options: HR, NHEJ, and a novel mechanism of single-strand annealing (SSA). Inactivation of NHEJ or SSA is compensated by elevated HR. We find that mycobacterial RecBCD does not participate in HR or confer resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), but is required for the RecA-independent SSA pathway. In contrast, the mycobacterial helicase-nuclease AdnAB participates in the RecA-dependent HR pathway, and is a major determinant of resistance to IR and oxidative DNA damage. These findings reveal distinctive features of mycobacterial DSB repair, most notably the dedication of the RecBCD and AdnAB helicase-nuclease machines to distinct repair pathways. PMID:21219454

  16. Biased Gene Conversion in Rhizobium etli Is Caused by Preferential Double-Strand Breaks on One of the Recombining Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Cuna, Fares Osam; Castellanos, Mildred

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gene conversion, the nonreciprocal transfer of information during homologous recombination, is the main process that maintains identity between members of multigene families. Gene conversion in the nitrogenase (nifH) multigene family of Rhizobium etli was analyzed by using a two-plasmid system, where each plasmid carried a copy of nifH. One of the nifH copies was modified, creating restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) spaced along the gene. Once the modified plasmid was introduced into R. etli, selection was done for cointegration with a resident plasmid lacking the RFLPs. Most of the cointegrate molecules harbor gene conversion events, biased toward a gain of RFLPs. This bias may be explained under the double-strand break repair model by proposing that the nifH gene lacking the RFLPs suffers a DNA double-strand break, so the incoming plasmid functions as a template for repairing the homolog on the resident plasmid. To support this proposal, we cloned an SceI site into the nifH homolog that had the RFLPs used for scoring gene conversion. In vivo expression of the meganuclease I-SceI allowed the generation of a double-strand break on this homolog. Upon introduction of this modified plasmid into an R. etli strain lacking I-SceI, biased gene conversion still favored the retention of markers on the incoming plasmid. In contrast, when the recipient strain ectopically expressed I-SceI, a dramatic reversal in gene conversion bias was seen, favoring the preservation of resident sequences. These results show that biased gene conversion is caused by preferential double-strand breaks on one of the recombining homologs. IMPORTANCE In this work, we analyzed gene conversion by using a system that entails horizontal gene transfer followed by homologous recombination in the recipient cell. Most gene conversion events are biased toward the acquisition of the incoming sequences, ranging in size from 120 bp to 800 bp. This bias is due to preferential cutting of

  17. Non-random distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by particle irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobrich, M.; Cooper, P. K.; Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in mammalian cells is dependent on the spatial distribution of energy deposition from the ionizing radiation. For high LET particle radiations the primary ionization sites occur in a correlated manner along the track of the particles, while for X-rays these sites are much more randomly distributed throughout the volume of the cell. It can therefore be expected that the distribution of dsbs linearly along the DNA molecule also varies with the type of radiation and the ionization density. Using pulsed-field gel and conventional gel techniques, we measured the size distribution of DNA molecules from irradiated human fibroblasts in the total range of 0.1 kbp-10 Mbp for X-rays and high LET particles (N ions, 97 keV/microns and Fe ions, 150 keV/microns). On a mega base pair scale we applied conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques such as measurement of the fraction of DNA released from the well (FAR) and measurement of breakage within a specific NotI restriction fragment (hybridization assay). The induction rate for widely spaced breaks was found to decrease with LET. However, when the entire distribution of radiation-induced fragments was analysed, we detected an excess of fragments with sizes below about 200 kbp for the particles compared with X-irradiation. X-rays are thus more effective than high LET radiations in producing large DNA fragments but less effective in the production of smaller fragments. We determined the total induction rate of dsbs for the three radiations based on a quantitative analysis of all the measured radiation-induced fragments and found that the high LET particles were more efficient than X-rays at inducing dsbs, indicating an increasing total efficiency with LET. Conventional assays that are based only on the measurement of large fragments are therefore misleading when determining total dsb induction rates of high LET particles. The possible biological significance of this non

  18. Use of a small palindrome genetic marker to investigate mechanisms of double-strand-break repair in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Baker, M D

    2000-01-01

    We examined mechanisms of mammalian homologous recombination using a gene targeting assay in which the vector-borne region of homology to the chromosome bore small palindrome insertions that frequently escape mismatch repair when encompassed within heteroduplex DNA (hDNA). Our assay permitted the product(s) of each independent recombination event to be recovered for molecular analysis. The results revealed the following: (i) vector-borne double-strand break (DSB) processing usually did not yield a large double-strand gap (DSG); (ii) in 43% of the recombinants, the results were consistent with crossover at or near the DSB; and (iii) in the remaining recombinants, hDNA was an intermediate. The sectored (mixed) genotypes observed in 38% of the recombinants provided direct evidence for involvement of hDNA, while indirect evidence was obtained from the patterns of mismatch repair (MMR). Individual hDNA tracts were either long or short and asymmetric or symmetric on the one side of the DSB examined. Clonal analysis of the sectored recombinants revealed how vector-borne and chromosomal markers were linked in each strand of individual hDNA intermediates. As expected, vector-borne and chromosomal markers usually resided on opposite strands. However, in one recombinant, they were linked on the same strand. The results are discussed with particular reference to the double-strand-break repair (DSBR) model of recombination. PMID:10757769

  19. Depletion of Histone Demethylase Jarid1A Resulting in Histone Hyperacetylation and Radiation Sensitivity Does Not Affect DNA Double-Strand Break Repair.

    PubMed

    Penterling, Corina; Drexler, Guido A; Böhland, Claudia; Stamp, Ramona; Wilke, Christina; Braselmann, Herbert; Caldwell, Randolph B; Reindl, Judith; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Siebenwirth, Christian; Mansour, Wael Y; Borgmann, Kerstin; Dollinger, Günther; Unger, Kristian; Friedl, Anna A

    2016-01-01

    Histone demethylases have recently gained interest as potential targets in cancer treatment and several histone demethylases have been implicated in the DNA damage response. We investigated the effects of siRNA-mediated depletion of histone demethylase Jarid1A (KDM5A, RBP2), which demethylates transcription activating tri- and dimethylated lysine 4 at histone H3 (H3K4me3/me2), on growth characteristics and cellular response to radiation in several cancer cell lines. In unirradiated cells Jarid1A depletion lead to histone hyperacetylation while not affecting cell growth. In irradiated cells, depletion of Jarid1A significantly increased cellular radiosensitivity. Unexpectedly, the hyperacetylation phenotype did not lead to disturbed accumulation of DNA damage response and repair factors 53BP1, BRCA1, or Rad51 at damage sites, nor did it influence resolution of radiation-induced foci or rejoining of reporter constructs. We conclude that the radiation sensitivity observed following depletion of Jarid1A is not caused by a deficiency in repair of DNA double-strand breaks. PMID:27253695

  20. Repair of a minimal DNA double-strand break by NHEJ requires DNA-PKcs and is controlled by the ATM/ATR checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Kühne, Christian; Tjörnhammar, Marie-Louise; Pongor, Sándor; Banks, Lawrence; Simoncsits, András

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian cells primarily rejoin DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. The joining of the broken DNA ends appears directly without template and accuracy is ensured by the NHEJ factors that are under ATM/ATR regulated checkpoint control. In the current study we report the engineering of a mono-specific DNA damaging agent. This was used to study the molecular requirements for the repair of the least complex DSB in vivo. Single-chain PvuII restriction enzymes fused to protein delivery sequences transduce cells efficiently and induce blunt end DSBs in vivo. We demonstrate that beside XRCC4/LigaseIV and KU, the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is also essential for the joining of this low complex DSB in vivo. The appearance of blunt end 3′-hydroxyl and 5′-phosphate DNA DSBs induces a significantly higher frequency of anaphase bridges in cells that do not contain functional DNA-PKcs, suggesting an absolute requirement for DNA-PKcs in the control of chromosomal stability during end joining. Moreover, these minimal blunt end DSBs are sufficient to induce a p53 and ATM/ATR checkpoint function. PMID:14654698

  1. Depletion of Histone Demethylase Jarid1A Resulting in Histone Hyperacetylation and Radiation Sensitivity Does Not Affect DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Penterling, Corina; Drexler, Guido A.; Böhland, Claudia; Stamp, Ramona; Wilke, Christina; Braselmann, Herbert; Caldwell, Randolph B.; Reindl, Judith; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Siebenwirth, Christian; Mansour, Wael Y.; Borgmann, Kerstin; Dollinger, Günther; Unger, Kristian; Friedl, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Histone demethylases have recently gained interest as potential targets in cancer treatment and several histone demethylases have been implicated in the DNA damage response. We investigated the effects of siRNA-mediated depletion of histone demethylase Jarid1A (KDM5A, RBP2), which demethylates transcription activating tri- and dimethylated lysine 4 at histone H3 (H3K4me3/me2), on growth characteristics and cellular response to radiation in several cancer cell lines. In unirradiated cells Jarid1A depletion lead to histone hyperacetylation while not affecting cell growth. In irradiated cells, depletion of Jarid1A significantly increased cellular radiosensitivity. Unexpectedly, the hyperacetylation phenotype did not lead to disturbed accumulation of DNA damage response and repair factors 53BP1, BRCA1, or Rad51 at damage sites, nor did it influence resolution of radiation-induced foci or rejoining of reporter constructs. We conclude that the radiation sensitivity observed following depletion of Jarid1A is not caused by a deficiency in repair of DNA double-strand breaks. PMID:27253695

  2. DNA double-strand break repair: a theoretical framework and its application

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.; Chapman, S. Jon

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed as a result of genotoxic insults, such as exogenous ionizing radiation, and are among the most serious types of DNA damage. One of the earliest molecular responses following DSB formation is the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, giving rise to γH2AX. Many copies of γH2AX are generated at DSBs and can be detected in vitro as foci using well-established immuno-histochemical methods. It has previously been shown that anti-γH2AX antibodies, modified by the addition of the cell-penetrating peptide TAT and a fluorescent or radionuclide label, can be used to visualize and quantify DSBs in vivo. Moreover, when labelled with a high amount of the short-range, Auger electron-emitting radioisotope, 111In, the amount of DNA damage within a cell can be increased, leading to cell death. In this report, we develop a mathematical model that describes how molecular processes at individual sites of DNA damage give rise to quantifiable foci. Equations that describe stochastic mean behaviours at individual DSB sites are derived and parametrized using population-scale, time-series measurements from two different cancer cell lines. The model is used to examine two case studies in which the introduction of an antibody (anti-γH2AX-TAT) that targets a key component in the DSB repair pathway influences system behaviour. We investigate: (i) how the interaction between anti-γH2AX-TAT and γH2AX effects the kinetics of H2AX phosphorylation and DSB repair and (ii) model behaviour when the anti-γH2AX antibody is labelled with Auger electron-emitting 111In and can thus instigate additional DNA damage. This work supports the conclusion that DSB kinetics are largely unaffected by the introduction of the anti-γH2AX antibody, a result that has been validated experimentally, and hence the hypothesis that the use of anti-γH2AX antibody to quantify DSBs does not violate the image tracer principle. Moreover, it provides a novel model of DNA damage

  3. The Contribution of Alu Elements to Mutagenic DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Streva, Vincent A.; DeFreece, Cecily B.; Hedges, Dale J.; Deininger, Prescott L.

    2015-01-01

    Alu elements make up the largest family of human mobile elements, numbering 1.1 million copies and comprising 11% of the human genome. As a consequence of evolution and genetic drift, Alu elements of various sequence divergence exist throughout the human genome. Alu/Alu recombination has been shown to cause approximately 0.5% of new human genetic diseases and contribute to extensive genomic structural variation. To begin understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to these rearrangements in mammalian cells, we constructed Alu/Alu recombination reporter cell lines containing Alu elements ranging in sequence divergence from 0%-30% that allow detection of both Alu/Alu recombination and large non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) deletions that range from 1.0 to 1.9 kb in size. Introduction of as little as 0.7% sequence divergence between Alu elements resulted in a significant reduction in recombination, which indicates even small degrees of sequence divergence reduce the efficiency of homology-directed DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Further reduction in recombination was observed in a sequence divergence-dependent manner for diverged Alu/Alu recombination constructs with up to 10% sequence divergence. With greater levels of sequence divergence (15%-30%), we observed a significant increase in DSB repair due to a shift from Alu/Alu recombination to variable-length NHEJ which removes sequence between the two Alu elements. This increase in NHEJ deletions depends on the presence of Alu sequence homeology (similar but not identical sequences). Analysis of recombination products revealed that Alu/Alu recombination junctions occur more frequently in the first 100 bp of the Alu element within our reporter assay, just as they do in genomic Alu/Alu recombination events. This is the first extensive study characterizing the influence of Alu element sequence divergence on DNA repair, which will inform predictions regarding the effect of Alu element sequence divergence on both

  4. Single-strand breaks in double-stranded DNA irradiated in anoxic solution: Contribution of tert-butanol radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Udovicic, L.; Mark, F.; Bothe, E.

    1996-08-01

    Yields of single-strand breaks induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma} or pulse irradiation in double-stranded calf thymus DNA have been measured in N{sub 2}O-saturated aqueous solution as a function of the concentration of tert-butanol. The yields were found to be dependent on dose rate. The experimental data were analyzed using a theoretical model based on non-homogeneous scavenging kinetics. It is concluded from this analysis after {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation in the absence of oxygen, aside from breaks caused by hydroxyl radicals, additional breaks occur which are initiated by hydrogen atoms and secondary radicals of tert-butanol. The efficiency of hydrogen atoms in causing single-strand breaks in double-stranded calf thymus DNA was determined to be 2.3%, while the rate constant for the reaction of tert-butanol radicals with DNA and their efficiency in causing single-strand breaks was determined to be 4.1 x 10{sup 3} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 2%, respectively. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Conversion of Topoisomerase I Cleavage Complexes on the Leading Strand of Ribosomal DNA into 5′-Phosphorylated DNA Double-Strand Breaks by Replication Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Strumberg, Dirk; Pilon, André A.; Smith, Melanie; Hickey, Robert; Malkas, Linda; Pommier, Yves

    2000-01-01

    Topoisomerase I cleavage complexes can be induced by a variety of DNA damages and by the anticancer drug camptothecin. We have developed a ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR) assay to analyze replication-mediated DNA double-strand breaks induced by topoisomerase I cleavage complexes in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells at the nucleotide level. We found that conversion of topoisomerase I cleavage complexes into replication-mediated DNA double-strand breaks was only detectable on the leading strand for DNA synthesis, which suggests an asymmetry in the way that topoisomerase I cleavage complexes are metabolized on the two arms of a replication fork. Extension by Taq DNA polymerase was not required for ligation to the LM-PCR primer, indicating that the 3′ DNA ends are extended by DNA polymerase in vivo closely to the 5′ ends of the topoisomerase I cleavage complexes. These findings suggest that the replication-mediated DNA double-strand breaks generated at topoisomerase I cleavage sites are produced by replication runoff. We also found that the 5′ ends of these DNA double-strand breaks are phosphorylated in vivo, which suggests that a DNA 5′ kinase activity acts on the double-strand ends generated by replication runoff. The replication-mediated DNA double-strand breaks were rapidly reversible after cessation of the topoisomerase I cleavage complexes, suggesting the existence of efficient repair pathways for removal of topoisomerase I-DNA covalent adducts in ribosomal DNA. PMID:10805740

  6. Analysis of DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Cytotoxicity after 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Isolated Human Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Reddig, Annika; Fatahi, Mahsa; Friebe, Björn; Guttek, Karina; Hartig, Roland; Godenschweger, Frank; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Ricke, Jens; Reinhold, Dirk; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The global use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is constantly growing and the field strengths increasing. Yet, only little data about harmful biological effects caused by MRI exposure are available and published research analyzing the impact of MRI on DNA integrity reported controversial results. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of 7 T ultra-high-field MRI on isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hence, unstimulated mononuclear blood cells were exposed to 7 T static magnetic field alone or in combination with maximum permissible imaging gradients and radiofrequency pulses as well as to ionizing radiation during computed tomography and γ-ray exposure. DNA double-strand breaks were quantified by flow cytometry and automated microscopy analysis of immunofluorescence stained γH2AX. Cytotoxicity was studied by CellTiter-Blue viability assay and [3H]-thymidine proliferation assay. Exposure of unstimulated mononuclear blood cells to 7 T static magnetic field alone or combined with varying gradient magnetic fields and pulsed radiofrequency fields did not induce DNA double-strand breaks, whereas irradiation with X- and γ-rays led to a dose-dependent induction of γH2AX foci. The viability assay revealed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in metabolic activity only among samples exposed to γ-radiation. Further, there was no evidence for altered proliferation response after cells were exposed to 7 T MRI or low doses of ionizing radiation (≤ 0.2 Gy). These findings confirm the acceptance of MRI as a safe non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool, but whether MRI can induce other types of DNA lesions or DNA double-strand breaks during altered conditions still needs to be investigated. PMID:26176601

  7. Analysis of DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Cytotoxicity after 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Isolated Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Guttek, Karina; Hartig, Roland; Godenschweger, Frank; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Ricke, Jens; Reinhold, Dirk; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The global use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is constantly growing and the field strengths increasing. Yet, only little data about harmful biological effects caused by MRI exposure are available and published research analyzing the impact of MRI on DNA integrity reported controversial results. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of 7 T ultra-high-field MRI on isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hence, unstimulated mononuclear blood cells were exposed to 7 T static magnetic field alone or in combination with maximum permissible imaging gradients and radiofrequency pulses as well as to ionizing radiation during computed tomography and γ-ray exposure. DNA double-strand breaks were quantified by flow cytometry and automated microscopy analysis of immunofluorescence stained γH2AX. Cytotoxicity was studied by CellTiter-Blue viability assay and [3H]-thymidine proliferation assay. Exposure of unstimulated mononuclear blood cells to 7 T static magnetic field alone or combined with varying gradient magnetic fields and pulsed radiofrequency fields did not induce DNA double-strand breaks, whereas irradiation with X- and γ-rays led to a dose-dependent induction of γH2AX foci. The viability assay revealed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in metabolic activity only among samples exposed to γ-radiation. Further, there was no evidence for altered proliferation response after cells were exposed to 7 T MRI or low doses of ionizing radiation (≤ 0.2 Gy). These findings confirm the acceptance of MRI as a safe non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool, but whether MRI can induce other types of DNA lesions or DNA double-strand breaks during altered conditions still needs to be investigated. PMID:26176601

  8. Detection and Repair of Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Double Strand Breaks: New Developments in Nonhomologous End Joining

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chen; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2013-07-01

    DNA damage can occur as a result of endogenous metabolic reactions and replication stress or from exogenous sources such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. DNA double strand breaks are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage, and defects in their repair can result in genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. The major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs in human cells is nonhomologous end joining. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism of nonhomologous end joining, as well as new findings on its component proteins and regulation.

  9. Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad32 protein: a phosphoprotein with an essential phosphoesterase motif required for repair of DNA double strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; Tavassoli, M; Watts, F Z

    1998-12-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad32 protein is required for repair of DNA double strand breaks, minichromosome stability and meiotic recombination. We show here that the Rad32 protein is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner and during meiosis. The phosphorylation is not dependent on the checkpoint protein Rad3. Analysis of a partially purified protein preparation indicates that Rad32 is likely to act in a complex. Characterisation of the rad32-1 mutation and site-directed mutagenesis indicate that three aspartate residues in the conserved phosphoesterase motifs are important for both mitotic and meiotic functions, namely response to UV and ionising radiation and spore viability. PMID:9826747

  10. Comparison of repair of DNA double-strand breaks in identical sequences in primary human fibroblast and immortal hamster-human hybrid cells harboring a single copy of human chromosome 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouladi, B.; Waldren, C. A.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We have optimized a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay that measures induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in specific regions of the genome (Lobrich et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 12050-12054, 1995). The increased sensitivity resulting from these improvements makes it possible to analyze the size distribution of broken DNA molecules immediately after the introduction of DSBs and after repair incubation. This analysis shows that the distribution of broken DNA pieces after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is consistent with the distribution expected from randomly induced DSBs. It is apparent from the distribution of rejoined DNA pieces after repair incubation that DNA ends continue to rejoin between 3 and 24 h postirradiation and that some of these rejoining events are in fact misrejoining events, since novel restriction fragments both larger and smaller than the original fragment are generated after repair. This improved assay was also used to study the kinetics of DSB rejoining and the extent of misrejoining in identical DNA sequences in human GM38 cells and human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells containing a single human chromosome 11. Despite the numerous differences between these cells, which include species and tissue of origin, levels of TP53, expression of telomerase, and the presence or absence of a homologous chromosome for the restriction fragments examined, the kinetics of rejoining of radiation-induced DSBs and the extent of misrejoining were similar in the two cell lines when studied in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, DSBs were removed from the single-copy human chromosome in the hamster A(L) cells with similar kinetics and misrejoining frequency as at a locus on this hybrid's CHO chromosomes.

  11. Analysis of gene repair tracts from Cas9/gRNA double-stranded breaks in the human CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Jennifer A; Lee, Ciaran M; Scallan, Martina F; Harrison, Patrick T

    2016-01-01

    To maximise the efficiency of template-dependent gene editing, most studies describe programmable and/or RNA-guided endonucleases that make a double-stranded break at, or close to, the target sequence to be modified. The rationale for this design strategy is that most gene repair tracts will be very short. Here, we describe a CRISPR Cas9/gRNA selection-free strategy which uses deep sequencing to characterise repair tracts from a donor plasmid containing seven nucleotide differences across a 216 bp target region in the human CFTR gene. We found that 90% of the template-dependent repair tracts were >100 bp in length with equal numbers of uni-directional and bi-directional repair tracts. The occurrence of long repair tracts suggests that a single gRNA could be used with variants of the same template to create or correct specific mutations within a 200 bp range, the size of ~80% of human exons. The selection-free strategy used here also allowed detection of non-homologous end joining events in many of the homology-directed repair tracts. This indicates a need to modify the donor, possibly by silent changes in the PAM sequence, to prevent creation of a second double-stranded break in an allele that has already been correctly edited by homology-directed repair. PMID:27557525

  12. Analysis of gene repair tracts from Cas9/gRNA double-stranded breaks in the human CFTR gene

    PubMed Central

    Hollywood, Jennifer A.; Lee, Ciaran M.; Scallan, Martina F.; Harrison, Patrick T.

    2016-01-01

    To maximise the efficiency of template-dependent gene editing, most studies describe programmable and/or RNA-guided endonucleases that make a double-stranded break at, or close to, the target sequence to be modified. The rationale for this design strategy is that most gene repair tracts will be very short. Here, we describe a CRISPR Cas9/gRNA selection-free strategy which uses deep sequencing to characterise repair tracts from a donor plasmid containing seven nucleotide differences across a 216 bp target region in the human CFTR gene. We found that 90% of the template-dependent repair tracts were >100 bp in length with equal numbers of uni-directional and bi-directional repair tracts. The occurrence of long repair tracts suggests that a single gRNA could be used with variants of the same template to create or correct specific mutations within a 200 bp range, the size of ~80% of human exons. The selection-free strategy used here also allowed detection of non-homologous end joining events in many of the homology-directed repair tracts. This indicates a need to modify the donor, possibly by silent changes in the PAM sequence, to prevent creation of a second double-stranded break in an allele that has already been correctly edited by homology-directed repair. PMID:27557525

  13. A 140-Bp-Long Palindromic Sequence Induces Double-Strand Breaks during Meiosis in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nag, D. K.; Kurst, A.

    1997-01-01

    Palindromic sequences have the potential to form hairpin or cruciform structures, which are putative substrates for several nucleases and mismatch repair enzymes. A genetic method was developed to detect such structures in vivo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this method we previously showed that short hairpin structures are poorly repaired by the mismatch repair system in S. cerevisiae. We show here that mismatches, when present in the stem of the hairpin structure, are not processed by the repair machinery, suggesting that they are treated differently than those in the interstrand base-paired duplex DNA. A 140-bp-long palindromic sequence, on the contrary, acts as a meiotic recombination hotspot by generating a site for a double-strand break, an initiator of meiotic recombination. We suggest that long palindromic sequences undergo cruciform extrusion more readily than short ones. This cruciform structure then acts as a substrate for structure-specific nucleases resulting in the formation of a double-strand break during meiosis in yeast. In addition, we show that residual repair of the short hairpin structure occurs in an MSH2-independent pathway. PMID:9215890

  14. Yields of single-strand breaks in double-stranded calf thymus DNA irradiated in aqueous solution in the presence of oxygen and scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Udovicic, Lj.; Mark, F.; Bothe, E.

    1994-11-01

    Yields of radiation-induced single-strand breaks in double-stranded calf thymus DNA have been measured as a function of OH scavenger concentration in N{sub 2}O/O{sub 2}-saturated aqueous solution. The experimental data are well represented by a theoretical model based on non-homogeneous reaction kinetics, without the need to adjust any parameter. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical data is taken as evidence that, in the presence of oxygen, the main effect of added scavengers with respect to the formation of single-strand breaks in double-stranded DNA is OH radical scavenging. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. DNA double-strand breaks induced in normal human cells during the repair of ultraviolet light damage.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, M O; Taylor, V I

    1981-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed in normal human IMR-90 cells during repair incubation after 100 and 300 J.m-2 of ultraviolet light. By contrast, no DSBs are formed after exposure to ultraviolet light in human XPA cells (from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A), which are unable to excise pyrimidine dimers. The DSBs are not due to immediate cell death, because all the cells excluded trypan blue at the time of assay and because XPA cells, which are much more sensitive to ultraviolet light than are IMR-90 cells, did not form DSBs after exposure to ultraviolet light. The DSBs do not appear to be due to either DNA synthesis or cellular single-strand endonucleases. We suggest that repair-induced DSBs would be potent lesions that might lead to cytotoxicity, chromosome aberrations, deletion mutations, and perhaps cellular transformation. PMID:6267601

  16. Significant Correlation of Species Longevity with DNA Double Strand Break-Recognition but not with Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzini, Antonello; Johnson, F. Brad; Oliver, Anthony; Tresini, Maria; Smith, Jasmine S.; Hdeib, Mona; Sell, Christian; Cristofalo, Vincent J.; Stamato, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The identification of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the wide differences in species lifespan remains one of the major unsolved problems of the biology of aging. We measured the capacity of nuclear protein to recognize DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and telomere length of skin fibroblasts derived from mammalian species that exhibit wide differences in longevity. Our results indicate DNA DSB recognition increases exponentially with longevity. Further, an analysis of the level of Ku80 protein in human, cow, and mouse suggests that Ku levels vary dramatically between species and these levels are strongly correlated with longevity. In contrast mean telomere length appears to decrease with increasing longevity of the species, although not significantly. These findings suggest that an enhanced ability to bind to DNA-ends may be important for longevity. A number of possible roles for increased levels of Ku and DNA-PKcs are discussed. PMID:19896964

  17. PAXX, a paralog of XRCC4 and XLF, interacts with Ku to promote DNA double-strand break repair**

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Julia; Jhujh, Satpal; Mehmood, Shahid; Tamura, Naoka; Travers, Jon; Wu, Qian; Draviam, Viji M.; Robinson, Carol V.; Blundell, Tom L.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    XRCC4 and XLF are two structurally-related proteins that function in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we identify human PAXX (PAralog of XRCC4 and XLF; also called C9orf142) as a new XRCC4-superfamily member, and show that its crystal structure resembles that of XRCC4. PAXX interacts directly with the DSB-repair protein Ku and is recruited to DNA-damage sites in cells. Using RNA interference and CRISPR-Cas9 to generate PAXX−/− cells, we demonstrate that PAXX functions with XRCC4 and XLF to mediate DSB repair and cell survival in response to DSB-inducing agents. Finally, we reveal that PAXX promotes Ku-dependent DNA ligation in vitro, and assembly of core non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors on damaged chromatin in cells. These findings identify PAXX as a new component of the NHEJ machinery. PMID:25574025

  18. Modelling of crowded polymers elucidate effects of double-strand breaks in topological domains of bacterial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dorier, Julien; Stasiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of pairs of long polymeric chains confined in microscopic cylinders, we investigate consequences of double-strand DNA breaks occurring in independent topological domains, such as these constituting bacterial chromosomes. Our simulations show a transition between segregated and mixed state upon linearization of one of the modelled topological domains. Our results explain how chromosomal organization into topological domains can fulfil two opposite conditions: (i) effectively repulse various loops from each other thus promoting chromosome separation and (ii) permit local DNA intermingling when one or more loops are broken and need to be repaired in a process that requires homology search between broken ends and their homologous sequences in closely positioned sister chromatid. PMID:23742906

  19. Sibling rivalry: competition between Pol X family members in V(D)J recombination and general double strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A; Ramsden, Dale A

    2004-08-01

    The nonhomologous end-joining pathway is a major means for repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all mitotic cell types. This repair pathway is also the only efficient means for resolving DSB intermediates in V(D)J recombination, a lymphocyte-specific genome rearrangement required for assembly of antigen receptors. A role for polymerases in end-joining has been well established. They are a major factor in determining the character of repair junctions but, in contrast to 'core' end-joining factors, typically appear to have a subtle impact on the efficiency of end-joining. Recent work implicates several members of the Pol X family in end-joining and suggests surprising complexity in the control of how these different polymerases are employed in this pathway. PMID:15242403

  20. The TopoVIB-Like protein family is required for meiotic DNA double-strand break formation.

    PubMed

    Robert, T; Nore, A; Brun, C; Maffre, C; Crimi, B; Bourbon, H-M; de Massy, B

    2016-02-26

    Meiotic recombination is induced by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by SPO11, the ortholog of subunit A of TopoVI DNA topoisomerase (TopoVIA). TopoVI activity requires the interaction between A and B subunits. We identified a conserved family of plant and animal proteins [the TOPOVIB-Like (TOPOVIBL) family] that share strong structural similarity to the TopoVIB subunit of TopoVI DNA topoisomerase. We further characterize the meiotic recombination proteins Rec102 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Rec6 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), and MEI-P22 (Drosophila melanogaster) as homologs to the transducer domain of TopoVIB. We demonstrate that the mouse TOPOVIBL protein interacts and forms a complex with SPO11 and is required for meiotic DSB formation. We conclude that meiotic DSBs are catalyzed by a complex involving SPO11 and TOPOVIBL. PMID:26917764

  1. Application of laser-accelerated protons to the demonstration of DNA double-strand breaks in human cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, A.; Sato, K.; Nishikino, M.; Mori, M.; Teshima, T.; Numasaki, H.; Murakami, M.; Demizu, Y.; Akagi, S.; Nagayama, S.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ikegami, M.; Tampo, M.; Sakaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Daito, I.; Oishi, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Sasao, H.; Wakai, D.; Bolton, P. R.; Daido, H.

    2009-05-01

    We report the demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human cancer cells. In vitro (living) A549 cells are irradiated with quasimonoenergetic proton bunches of 0.8-2.4 MeV with a single bunch duration of 15 ns. Irradiation with the proton dose of 20 Gy results in a distinct formation of γ-H2AX foci as an indicator of DNA double-strand breaks generated in the cancer cells. This is a pioneering result that points to future investigations of the radiobiological effects of laser-driven ion beams. Unique high-current and short-bunch features make laser-driven proton bunches an excitation source for time-resolved determination of radical yields.

  2. Application of laser-accelerated protons to the demonstration of DNA double-strand breaks in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yogo, A.; Nishikino, M.; Mori, M.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ikegami, M.; Tampo, M.; Sakaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Daito, I.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Bolton, P. R.

    2009-05-04

    We report the demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human cancer cells. In vitro (living) A549 cells are irradiated with quasimonoenergetic proton bunches of 0.8-2.4 MeV with a single bunch duration of 15 ns. Irradiation with the proton dose of 20 Gy results in a distinct formation of {gamma}-H2AX foci as an indicator of DNA double-strand breaks generated in the cancer cells. This is a pioneering result that points to future investigations of the radiobiological effects of laser-driven ion beams. Unique high-current and short-bunch features make laser-driven proton bunches an excitation source for time-resolved determination of radical yields.

  3. Controlled induction of DNA double-strand breaks in the mouse liver induces features of tissue ageing

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryan R.; Milholland, Brandon; de Bruin, Alain; Curran, Samuel; Laberge, Remi-Martin; van Steeg, Harry; Campisi, Judith; Maslov, Alexander Y.; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage has been implicated in ageing, but direct evidence for a causal relationship is lacking, owing to the difficulty of inducing defined DNA lesions in cells and tissues without simultaneously damaging other biomolecules and cellular structures. Here we directly test whether highly toxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) alone can drive an ageing phenotype using an adenovirus-based system based on tetracycline-controlled expression of the SacI restriction enzyme. We deliver the adenovirus to mice and compare molecular and cellular end points in the liver with normally aged animals. Treated, 3-month-old mice display many, but not all signs of normal liver ageing as early as 1 month after treatment, including ageing pathologies, markers of senescence, fused mitochondria and alterations in gene expression profiles. These results, showing that DSBs alone can cause distinct ageing phenotypes in mouse liver, provide new insights in the role of DNA damage as a driver of tissue ageing. PMID:25858675

  4. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo. PMID:26114388

  5. Superresolution light microscopy shows nanostructure of carbon ion radiation-induced DNA double-strand break repair foci.

    PubMed

    Lopez Perez, Ramon; Best, Gerrit; Nicolay, Nils H; Greubel, Christoph; Rossberger, Sabrina; Reindl, Judith; Dollinger, Günther; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Cremer, Christoph; Huber, Peter E

    2016-08-01

    Carbon ion radiation is a promising new form of radiotherapy for cancer, but the central question about the biologic effects of charged particle radiation is yet incompletely understood. Key to this question is the understanding of the interaction of ions with DNA in the cell's nucleus. Induction and repair of DNA lesions including double-strand breaks (DSBs) are decisive for the cell. Several DSB repair markers have been used to investigate these processes microscopically, but the limited resolution of conventional microscopy is insufficient to provide structural insights. We have applied superresolution microscopy to overcome these limitations and analyze the fine structure of DSB repair foci. We found that the conventionally detected foci of the widely used DSB marker γH2AX (Ø 700-1000 nm) were composed of elongated subfoci with a size of ∼100 nm consisting of even smaller subfocus elements (Ø 40-60 nm). The structural organization of the subfoci suggests that they could represent the local chromatin structure of elementary DSB repair units at the DSB damage sites. Subfocus clusters may indicate induction of densely spaced DSBs, which are thought to be associated with the high biologic effectiveness of carbon ions. Superresolution microscopy might emerge as a powerful tool to improve our knowledge of interactions of ionizing radiation with cells.-Lopez Perez, R., Best, G., Nicolay, N. H., Greubel, C., Rossberger, S., Reindl, J., Dollinger, G., Weber, K.-J., Cremer, C., Huber, P. E. Superresolution light microscopy shows nanostructure of carbon ion radiation-induced DNA double-strand break repair foci. PMID:27166088

  6. TiO2 nanoparticles induce DNA double strand breaks and cell cycle arrest in human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Kansara, Krupa; Patel, Pal; Shah, Darshini; Shukla, Ritesh K; Singh, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have the second highest global annual production (∼3000 tons) among the metal-containing NPs. These NPs are used as photocatalysts for bacterial disinfection, and in various other consumer products including sunscreen, food packaging, therapeutics, biosensors, surface cleaning agents, and others. Humans are exposed to these NPs during synthesis (laboratory), manufacture (industry), and use (consumer products, devices, medicines, etc.), as well as through environmental exposures (disposal). Hence, there is great concern regarding the health effects caused by exposure to NPs and, in particular, to TiO2 NPs. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs in A549 cells was examined, focusing on their potential to induce ROS, different types of DNA damage, and cell cycle arrest. We show that TiO2 NPs can induce DNA damage and a corresponding increase in micronucleus frequency, as evident from the comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays. We demonstrate that DNA damage may be attributed to increased oxidative stress and ROS generation. Furthermore, genomic and proteomic analyses showed increased expression of ATM, P53, and CdC-2 and decreased expression of ATR, H2AX, and Cyclin B1 in A549 cells, suggesting induction of DNA double strand breaks. The occurrence of double strand breaks was correlated with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Overall, the results indicate the potential for genotoxicity following exposure to these TiO2 NPs, suggesting that use should be carefully monitored. PMID:25524809

  7. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo. PMID:26114388

  8. Mre11 ATLD17/18 mutation retains Tel1/ATM activity but blocks DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Limbo, Oliver; Moiani, Davide; Kertokalio, Aryandi; Wyman, Claire; Tainer, John A; Russell, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 or MRN) binds double-strand breaks where it interacts with CtIP/Ctp1/Sae2 and ATM/Tel1 to preserve genome stability through its functions in homology-directed repair, checkpoint signaling and telomere maintenance. Here, we combine biochemical, structural and in vivo functional studies to uncover key properties of Mre11-W243R, a mutation identified in two pediatric cancer patients with enhanced ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder. Purified human Mre11-W243R retains nuclease and DNA binding activities in vitro. X-ray crystallography of Pyrococcus furiosus Mre11 indicates that an analogous mutation leaves the overall Mre11 three-dimensional structure and nuclease sites intact but disorders surface loops expected to regulate DNA and Rad50 interactions. The equivalent W248R allele in fission yeast allows Mre11 to form an MRN complex that efficiently binds double-strand breaks, activates Tel1/ATM and maintains telomeres; yet, it causes hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and collapsed replication forks, increased Rad52 foci, defective Chk1 signaling and meiotic failure. W248R differs from other ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder analog alleles by the reduced stability of its interaction with Rad50 in cell lysates. Collective results suggest a separation-of-function mutation that disturbs interactions amongst the MRN subunits and Ctp1 required for DNA end processing in vivo but maintains interactions sufficient for Tel1/ATM checkpoint and telomere maintenance functions. PMID:23080121

  9. DNA-DSB in CHO-K1 cells induced by heavy-ions: Break rejoining and residual damage (GSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taucher-Scholz, G.; Heilmann, J.; Becher, G.; Kraft, G.

    1994-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB's) are the critical lesions involved in cellular effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, the evaluation of DSB induction in mammalian cells after heavy ion irradiation is an essential task for the assessment of high-LET radiation risk in space. Of particular interest has been the question of how the biological efficiency for the cellular inactivation endpoint relates to the initial lesions (DSBs) at varying LETs. For cell killing, an increased Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) has been determined for highLET radiation around 100-200 keV/mu m. At higher LET, the RBE's decrease again to values below one for the very heavy particles. At GSI, DSB-induction was measured in CHO-K1 cells following irradiation with accelerated particles covering a wide LET range. The electrophoretic elution of fragmented DNA out of agarose plugs in a constant electrical field was applied for the detection of DSB's. The fraction of DNA retained was determined considering the relative intensities of ethidium bromide fluorescence in the well and in the gel lane. Dose-effect curves were established, from which the RBE for DSB induction was calculated at a fraction of 0.7 of DNA retained In summary, these rejoining studies are in line with an enhanced severity of the DNA DSB's at higher LET's, resulting in a decreased repairability of the induced lesions. However, no information concerning the fidelity of strand breaks rejoining is provided in these studies. To assess correct rejoining of DNA fragments an experimental system involving individual DNA hybridization bands has been set up. In preliminary experiments Sal I generated DNA fragments of 0.9 Mbp were irradiated with xrays and incubated for repair However, restitution of the original signals was not observed, probably due to the high radiation dose necessary for breakage of a fragment of this size. A banding pattern with NotI hybridization signals in a higher MW range (3Mbp) has been obtained by varying

  10. 53BP1, BRCA1, and the Choice between Recombination and End Joining at DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When DNA double-strand breaks occur, the cell cycle stage has a major influence on the choice of the repair pathway employed. Specifically, nonhomologous end joining is the predominant mechanism used in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, while homologous recombination becomes fully activated in S phase. Studies over the past 2 decades have revealed that the aberrant joining of replication-associated breaks leads to catastrophic genome rearrangements, revealing an important role of DNA break repair pathway choice in the preservation of genome integrity. 53BP1, first identified as a DNA damage checkpoint protein, and BRCA1, a well-known breast cancer tumor suppressor, are at the center of this choice. Research on how these proteins function at the DNA break site has advanced rapidly in the recent past. Here, we review what is known regarding how the repair pathway choice is made, including the mechanisms that govern the recruitment of each critical factor, and how the cell transitions from end joining in G1 to homologous recombination in S/G2. PMID:24469398

  11. Requirement for the Kinase Activity of Human DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit in DNA Strand Break Rejoining

    PubMed Central

    Kurimasa, Akihiro; Kumano, Satoshi; Boubnov, Nikolai V.; Story, Michael D.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Peterson, Scott R.; Chen, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an enormous, 470-kDa protein serine/threonine kinase that has homology with members of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase superfamily. This protein contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by assembling broken ends of DNA molecules in combination with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. It may also serve as a molecular scaffold for recruiting DNA repair factors to DNA strand breaks. This study attempts to better define the role of protein kinase activity in the repair of DNA DSBs. We constructed a contiguous 14-kb human DNA-PKcs cDNA and demonstrated that it can complement the DNA DSB repair defects of two mutant cell lines known to be deficient in DNA-PKcs (M059J and V3). We then created deletion and site-directed mutations within the conserved PI 3-kinase domain of the DNA-PKcs gene to test the importance of protein kinase activity for DSB rejoining. These DNA-PKcs mutant constructs are able to express the protein but fail to complement the DNA DSB or V(D)J recombination defects of DNA-PKcs mutant cells. These results indicate that the protein kinase activity of DNA-PKcs is essential for the rejoining of DNA DSBs in mammalian cells. We have also determined a model structure for the DNA-PKcs kinase domain based on comparisons to the crystallographic structure of a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. This structure gives some insight into which amino acid residues are crucial for the kinase activity in DNA-PKcs. PMID:10207111

  12. The cytotoxicity of (–)-lomaiviticin A arises from induction of double-strand breaks in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Colis, Laureen C.; Woo, Christina M.; Hegan, Denise C.; Li, Zhenwu; Glazer, Peter M.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolite (–)-lomaiviticin A, which contains two diazotetrahydrobenzo[b]fluorene (diazofluorene) functional groups, inhibits the growth of cultured human cancer cells at nanomolar–picomolar concentrations; however, the mechanism responsible for the potent cytotoxicity of this natural product is not known. Here we report that (–)-lomaiviticin A nicks and cleaves plasmid DNA by an ROS- and iron-independent pathway and that the potent cytotoxicity of (–)-lomaiviticin A arises from induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs). In a plasmid cleavage assay, the ratio of single-strand breaks (ssbs) to dsbs is 5.3±0.6:1. Labeling studies suggest this cleavage occurs via a radical pathway. The structurally related isolates (–)-lomaiviticin C and (–)-kinamycin C, which contain one diazofluorene, are demonstrated to be much less effective DNA cleavage agents, thereby providing an explanation for the enhanced cytotoxicity of (–)-lomaiviticin A compared to other members of this family. PMID:24848236

  13. Distinct roles for SWR1 and INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes at chromosomal double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    van Attikum, Haico; Fritsch, Olivier; Gasser, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    INO80 and SWR1 are two closely related ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes that share several subunits. Ino80 was reported to be recruited to the HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break (DSB) at the budding yeast mating-type locus, MAT. We find Swr1 similarly recruited in a manner dependent on the phosphorylation of H2A (γH2AX). This is not unique to cleavage at MAT; both Swr1 and Ino80 bind near an induced DSB on chromosome XV. Whereas Swr1 incorporates the histone variant H2A.Z into chromatin at promoters, H2A.Z levels do not increase at DSBs. Instead, H2A.Z, γH2AX and core histones are coordinately removed near the break in an INO80-dependent, but SWR1-independent, manner. Mutations in INO80-specific subunits Arp8 or Nhp10 impair the binding of Mre11 nuclease, yKu80 and ATR-related Mec1 kinase at the DSB, resulting in defective end-processing and checkpoint activation. In contrast, Mre11 binding, end-resection and checkpoint activation were normal in the swr1 strain, but yKu80 loading and error-free end-joining were impaired. Thus, these two related chromatin remodelers have distinct roles in DSB repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:17762868

  14. Induction and repair of zinc-finger nuclease-targeted double-strand breaks in Caenorhabditis elegans somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Jason; Davis, M. Wayne; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Carroll, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases are chimeric proteins consisting of engineered zinc-finger DNA-binding motifs attached to an endonuclease domain. These proteins can induce site-specific DNA double-strand breaks in genomic DNA, which are then substrates for cellular repair mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that engineered zinc-finger nucleases function effectively in somatic cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Although gene-conversion events were indistinguishable from uncut DNA in our assay, nonhomologous end joining resulted in mutations at the target site. A synthetic target on an extrachromosomal array was targeted with a previously characterized nuclease, and an endogenous genomic sequence was targeted with a pair of specifically designed nucleases. In both cases, ≈20% of the target sites were mutated after induction of the corresponding nucleases. Alterations in the extrachromosomal targets were largely products of end-filling and blunt ligation. By contrast, alterations in the chromosomal target were mostly deletions. We interpret these differences to reflect the abundance of homologous templates present in the extrachromosomal arrays versus the paucity of such templates for repair of chromosomal breaks. In addition, we find evidence for the involvement of error-prone DNA synthesis in both homologous and nonhomologous pathways of repair. DNA ligase IV is required for efficient end joining, particularly of blunt ends. In its absence, a secondary end-joining pathway relies more heavily on microhomologies in producing deletions. PMID:17060623

  15. The scaffold protein WRAP53β orchestrates the ubiquitin response critical for DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Sofia; Rassoolzadeh, Hanif; Hedström, Elisabeth; Coucoravas, Christos; Julner, Alexander; Goldstein, Michael; Imreh, Gabriela; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Kastan, Michael B.; Helleday, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The WD40 domain-containing protein WRAP53β (WD40 encoding RNA antisense to p53; also referred to as WDR79/TCAB1) controls trafficking of splicing factors and the telomerase enzyme to Cajal bodies, and its functional loss has been linked to carcinogenesis, premature aging, and neurodegeneration. Here, we identify WRAP53β as an essential regulator of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. WRAP53β rapidly localizes to DSBs in an ATM-, H2AX-, and MDC1-dependent manner. We show that WRAP53β targets the E3 ligase RNF8 to DNA lesions by facilitating the interaction between RNF8 and its upstream partner, MDC1, in response to DNA damage. Simultaneous binding of MDC1 and RNF8 to the highly conserved WD40 scaffold domain of WRAP53β facilitates their interaction and accumulation of RNF8 at DSBs. In this manner, WRAP53β controls proper ubiquitylation at DNA damage sites and the downstream assembly of 53BP1, BRCA1, and RAD51. Furthermore, we reveal that knockdown of WRAP53β impairs DSB repair by both homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), causes accumulation of spontaneous DNA breaks, and delays recovery from radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Our findings establish WRAP53β as a novel regulator of DSB repair by providing a scaffold for DNA repair factors. PMID:25512560

  16. A kinetic model of single-strand annealing for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Taleei, Reza; Weinfeld, Michael; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2011-02-01

    Ionising radiation induces different types of DNA damage, including single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks (DSB) and base damages. DSB are considered to be the most critical lesion to be repaired. The three main competitive pathways in the repair of DSB are non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR) and single-strand annealing (SSA). SSA is a non-conservative repair pathway requiring direct repeat sequences for the repair process. In this work, a biochemical kinetic model is presented to describe the SSA repair pathway. The model consists of a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing the steps in the repair pathway. The reaction rates were estimated by comparing the model results with the experimental data for chicken DT40 cells exposed to 20 Gy of X-rays. The model successfully predicts the repair of the DT40 cells with the reaction rates derived from the 20-Gy X-ray experiment. The experimental data and the kinetic model show fast and slow DSB repair components. The half time and fractions of the slow and the fast components of the repair were compared for the model and the experiments. Mathematical and computational modelling in biology has played an important role in predicting biological mechanisms and stimulating future experimentation. The present model of SSA adds to the modelling of NHEJ and HR to provide a more complete description of DSB repair pathways. PMID:21183536

  17. The roles of REV3 and RAD57 in double-strand-break-repair-induced mutagenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, Alison J; Shafer, Brenda K; McGill, Carolyn B; Strathern, Jeffrey N

    2002-01-01

    The DNA synthesis associated with recombinational repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) has a lower fidelity than normal replicative DNA synthesis. Here, we use an inverted-repeat substrate to monitor the fidelity of repair of a site-specific DSB. DSB induction made by the HO endonuclease stimulates recombination >5000-fold and is associated with a >1000-fold increase in mutagenesis of an adjacent gene. We demonstrate that most break-repair-induced mutations (BRIMs) are point mutations and have a higher proportion of frameshifts than do spontaneous mutations of the same substrate. Although the REV3 translesion DNA polymerase is not required for recombination, it introduces approximately 75% of the BRIMs and approximately 90% of the base substitution mutations. Recombinational repair of the DSB is strongly dependent upon genes of the RAD52 epistasis group; however, the residual recombinants present in rad57 mutants are associated with a 5- to 20-fold increase in BRIMs. The spectrum of mutations in rad57 mutants is similar to that seen in the wild-type strain and is similarly affected by REV3. We also find that REV3 is required for the repair of MMS-induced lesions when recombinational repair is compromised. Our data suggest that Rad55p/Rad57p help limit the generation of substrates that require pol zeta during recombination. PMID:12454056

  18. Multiple heterologies increase mitotic double-strand break-induced allelic gene conversion tract lengths in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, J A; Sweetser, D B; Clikeman, J A; Khalsa, G J; Wheeler, S L

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous and double-strand break (DSB)-induced allelic recombination in yeast was investigated in crosses between ura3 heteroalleles inactivated by an HO site and a +1 frameshift mutation, with flanking markers defining a 3.4-kbp interval. In some crosses, nine additional phenotypically silent RFLP mutations were present at approximately 100-bp intervals. Increasing heterology from 0.2 to 1% in this interval reduced spontaneous, but not DSB-induced, recombination. For DSB-induced events, 75% were continuous tract gene conversions without a crossover in this interval; discontinuous tracts and conversions associated with a crossover each comprised approximately 7% of events, and 10% also converted markers in unbroken alleles. Loss of heterozygosity was seen for all markers centromere distal to the HO site in 50% of products; such loss could reflect gene conversion, break-induced replication, chromosome loss, or G2 crossovers. Using telomere-marked strains we determined that nearly all allelic DSB repair occurs by gene conversion. We further show that most allelic conversion results from mismatch repair of heteroduplex DNA. Interestingly, markers shared between the sparsely and densely marked interval converted at higher rates in the densely marked interval. Thus, the extra markers increased gene conversion tract lengths, which may reflect mismatch repair-induced recombination, or a shift from restoration- to conversion-type repair. PMID:10511547

  19. Chemotherapeutic Compounds Targeting the DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathways: The Good, the Bad, and the Promising

    PubMed Central

    Jekimovs, Christian; Bolderson, Emma; Suraweera, Amila; Adams, Mark; O’Byrne, Kenneth J.; Richard, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a critical cellular mechanism that exists to ensure genomic stability. DNA DSBs are the most deleterious type of insult to a cell’s genetic material and can lead to genomic instability, apoptosis, or senescence. Incorrectly repaired DNA DSBs have the potential to produce chromosomal translocations and genomic instability, potentially leading to cancer. The prevalence of DNA DSBs in cancer due to unregulated growth and errors in repair opens up a potential therapeutic window in the treatment of cancers. The cellular response to DNA DSBs is comprised of two pathways to ensure DNA breaks are repaired: homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining. Identifying chemotherapeutic compounds targeting proteins involved in these DNA repair pathways has shown promise as a cancer therapy for patients, either as a monotherapy or in combination with genotoxic drugs. From the beginning, there have been a number of chemotherapeutic compounds that have yielded successful responses in the clinic, a number that have failed (CGK-733 and iniparib), and a number of promising targets for future studies identified. This review looks in detail at how the cell responds to these DNA DSBs and investigates the chemotherapeutic avenues that have been and are currently being explored to target this repair process. PMID:24795863

  20. UVA-induced DNA double-strand breaks result from the repair of clustered oxidative DNA damages

    PubMed Central

    Greinert, R.; Volkmer, B.; Henning, S.; Breitbart, E. W.; Greulich, K. O.; Cardoso, M. C.; Rapp, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    UVA (320–400 nm) represents the main spectral component of solar UV radiation, induces pre-mutagenic DNA lesions and is classified as Class I carcinogen. Recently, discussion arose whether UVA induces DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs). Only few reports link the induction of dsbs to UVA exposure and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the Comet-assay and γH2AX as markers for dsb formation, we demonstrate the dose-dependent dsb induction by UVA in G1-synchronized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and primary human skin fibroblasts. The number of γH2AX foci increases when a UVA dose is applied in fractions (split dose), with a 2-h recovery period between fractions. The presence of the anti-oxidant Naringin reduces dsb formation significantly. Using an FPG-modified Comet-assay as well as warm and cold repair incubation, we show that dsbs arise partially during repair of bi-stranded, oxidative, clustered DNA lesions. We also demonstrate that on stretched chromatin fibres, 8-oxo-G and abasic sites occur in clusters. This suggests a replication-independent formation of UVA-induced dsbs through clustered single-strand breaks via locally generated reactive oxygen species. Since UVA is the main component of solar UV exposure and is used for artificial UV exposure, our results shine new light on the aetiology of skin cancer. PMID:22941639

  1. Distinct genetic control of homologous recombination repair of Cas9-induced double-strand breaks, nicks and paired nicks

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Lianne E.M.; Prakash, Rohit; Chen, Chun-Chin; Vanoli, Fabio; Cavallo, Francesca; Zhang, Yu; Jasin, Maria; Krawczyk, Przemek M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are known to be powerful inducers of homologous recombination (HR), but single-strand breaks (nicks) have also been shown to trigger HR. Both DSB- and nick-induced HR (nickHR) are exploited in advanced genome-engineering approaches based on the bacterial RNA-guided nuclease Cas9. However, the mechanisms of nickHR are largely unexplored. Here, we applied Cas9 nickases to study nickHR in mammalian cells. We find that nickHR is unaffected by inhibition of major damage signaling kinases and that it is not suppressed by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) components, arguing that nick processing does not require a DSB intermediate to trigger HR. Relative to a single nick, nicking both strands enhances HR, consistent with a DSB intermediate, even when nicks are induced up to ∼1kb apart. Accordingly, HR and NHEJ compete for repair of these paired nicks, but, surprisingly, only when 5' overhangs or blunt ends can be generated. Our study advances the understanding of molecular mechanisms driving nick and paired-nick repair in mammalian cells and clarify phenomena associated with Cas9-mediated genome editing. PMID:27001513

  2. Assays for DNA double-strand break repair by microhomology-based end-joining repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Mermod, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions. The main pathways responsible for repairing these breaks in eukaryotic cells are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, a third group of still poorly characterized DSB repair pathways, collectively termed microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), relies on short homologies for the end-joining process. Here, we constructed GFP reporter assays to characterize and distinguish MMEJ variant pathways, namely the simple MMEJ and the DNA synthesis-dependent (SD)-MMEJ mechanisms. Transfection of these assay vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and characterization of the repaired DNA sequences indicated that while simple MMEJ is able to mediate relatively efficient DSB repair if longer microhomologies are present, the majority of DSBs were repaired using the highly error-prone SD-MMEJ pathway. To validate the involvement of DNA synthesis in the repair process, siRNA knock-down of different genes proposed to play a role in MMEJ were performed, revealing that the knock-down of DNA polymerase θ inhibited DNA end resection and repair through simple MMEJ, thus favoring the other repair pathway. Overall, we conclude that this approach provides a convenient assay to study MMEJ-related DNA repair pathways. PMID:26657630

  3. Activation of Telomerase by Ionizing Radiation: Differential Response to the Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Abrogation of Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, by LY294002, or by Wortmannin

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhof, Dirk Zwicker, Felix; Kuepper, Jan-Heiner; Debus, Juergen; Weber, Klaus-Josef

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Telomerase activity represents a radiation-inducible function, which may be targeted by a double-strand break (DSB)-activated signal transduction pathway. Therefore, the effects of DNA-PK inhibitors (Wortmannin and LY294002) on telomerase upregulation after irradiation were studied. In addition, the role of trans-dominant inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which strongly reduces DSB rejoining, was assessed in comparison with 3-aminobenzamide. Methods and Materials: COM3 rodent cells carry a construct for the dexamethasone-inducible overexpression of the DNA-binding domain of PARP1 and exhibit greatly impaired DSB rejoining after irradiation. Telomerase activity was measured using polymerase chain reaction ELISA 1 h after irradiation with doses up to 10 Gy. Phosphorylation status of PKB/Akt and of PKC{alpha}/{beta}{sub II} was assessed by western blotting. Results: No telomerase upregulation was detectable for irradiated cells with undisturbed DSB rejoining. In contrast, incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone yielded pronounced radiation induction of telomerase activity that could be suppressed by Wortmannin. 3-Aminobenzamide not only was unable to induce telomerase activity but also suppressed telomerase upregulation upon incubation with LY294002 or dexamethasone. Phospho-PKB was detectable independent of irradiation or dexamethasone pretreatment, but was undetectable upon incubations with LY294002 or Wortmannin, whereas phospho-PKC rested detectable. Conclusions: Telomerase activation postirradiation was triggered by different treatments that interfere with DNA DSB processing. This telomerase upregulation, however, was not reflected by the phosporylation status of the putative mediators of TERT activation, PKB and PKC. Although an involvement of PKB in TERT activation is not supported by the present findings, a respective role of PKC isoforms other than {alpha}/{beta}{sub II} cannot be ruled out.

  4. Somatic cell mutations caused by 365 nm LED-UVA due to DNA double-strand breaks through oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xing; Ide, Naohiro; Higashi, Sho-Ichi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe

    2014-09-01

    Evidence is accumulating indicating that UVA (320-400 nm ultraviolet light) plays an important role in photo-carcinogenesis. UVA is thought to produce reactive oxygen species in irradiated cells through photo-activation of inherent photosensitizers, and was recently reported to cause DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in exposed cells. We have investigated the involvement of UVA in mutations and DNA damage in somatic cells using Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Using the Okazaki Large Spectrograph, we previously observed that longer wavelength UVA (>330 nm) was more mutagenic in post-replication repair-deficient D. melanogaster (mei-41) than in the nucleotide excision repair-deficient strain (mei-9). LED-light has recently been developed as a high-dose-rate UVA source. LED-UVA light (365 nm) was also more mutagenic in mei-41 than in mei-9. The mei-41 gene was shown to be an orthologue of the human ATR gene, which is involved in the repair of DSBs through phosphorylation of histone H2AX. In order to estimate the extent to which oxidative damage contributes to mutation, we established a new D. melanogaster strain (urate-null mutant) that is sensitive to oxidative damage and has a marker to detect somatic cell mutations. When somatic cell mutations were examined using this strain, LED-UVA was mutagenic in the urate-null strain at doses that were non-mutagenic in the urate-positive strain. In an effort to investigate the generation of DSBs, we examined the presence of phosphorylated histone H2AvD (H2AX D. melanogaster homologue). At high doses of LED-UVA (>800 kJ m(-2)), levels of phosphorylated H2AvD (γ-H2AvD) increased significantly in the urate-null strain. Moreover, the level of γ-H2AvD increased in the excision repair-deficient strain but not in the ATR-deficient strain following UVA-irradiation. These results supported the notion that the generation of γ-H2AvD was mediated by the function of the mei-41 gene. It was reported that ATR functions on DSB repair in D

  5. Production of single- and double-strand breaks in plasmid DNA by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Hamelin, C.

    1985-02-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy were used to determine the type of lesions produced in DNA by ozone. This strong oxidizing agent was found to relax, linearize, then degrade native plasmid (pAT153) DNA molecules in solution. Ozone, like ionizing radiation, thus produced DNA breakage. To ascertain this point, wild-type and radiosensitive strains of Escherichia coli were transfected with control or ozonated plasmid DNA, and the host cells were selected for antibiotic resistance. A significant reduction in the transforming ability of pAT153 was observed following ozonation. Mutants deficient in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks yielded less ampicillin- or tetracycline-resistant clones than repair-proficient strains. In E. coli, the same gene products are probably involved in the repair of both radiation- and ozone-induced DNA breaks.

  6. Reduced contribution of thermally-labile sugar lesions to DNA double-strand break formation after exposure to neutrons.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra K; Wu, Wenqi; Stuschke, Martin; Bockisch, Andreas; Iliakis, George

    2012-12-01

    In cells exposed to ionizing radiation, double-strand breaks (DSBs) form within clustered damage sites from lesions disrupting the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. It is commonly assumed that DSBs form promptly and are immediately detected and processed by the cellular DNA damage response apparatus. However, DSBs also form by delayed chemical conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions (TLSL) to breaks. We recently reported that conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions to breaks occurs in cells maintained at physiological temperatures. Here, we investigate the influence of radiation quality on the formation of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs. We show that, although the yields of total DSBs are very similar after exposure to neutrons and X rays, the yields of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs from neutrons are decreased in comparison to that from X rays. Thus, the yields of prompt DSBs for neutrons are greater than for X rays. Notably, after neutron irradiation the decreased yield of thermally-labile sugar lesion dependent DSBs is strongly cell line dependent, likely reflecting subtle differences in DNA organization. We propose that the higher ionization density of neutrons generates with higher probability prompt DSBs within ionization clusters and renders the ensuing chemical evolution of thermally-labile sugar lesions inconsequential to DNA integrity. Modification of thermally-labile sugar lesion evolution may define novel radiation protection strategies aiming at decreasing DSB formation by chemically preserving thermally-labile sugar lesions until other DSB contributing lesions within the clustered damage site are removed by non-DSB repair pathways. PMID:23088767

  7. Thrombospondin-1 might be a therapeutic target to suppress RB cells by regulating the DNA double-strand breaks repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Ying; Wu, Nandan; Xu, Lijun; Zhang, Jing; Ge, Jian; Yu, Keming; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) arises from the retina, and its growth usually occurs under the retina and toward the vitreous. Ideal therapy should aim to inhibit the tumor and protect neural cells, increasing the patient's life span and quality of life. Previous studies have demonstrated that Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is associated with neurogenesis, neovascularization and tumorigenesis. However, at present, the bioactivity of TSP-1 in retinoblastoma has not been defined. Herein, we demonstrated that TSP-1 was silenced in RB cell lines and clinical tumor samples. HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), could notably transcriptionally up-regulate TSP-1 in RB cells, WERI-Rb1 cells and Y79 cells. Moreover, we found human recombinant TSP-1 (hTSP-1) could significantly inhibit the cell viability of RB cells both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, hTSP-1 could significantly induce the expression of γ-H2AX, a well-characterized in situ marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in RB cells. The DNA NHEJ pathway in WERI-Rb1 cells could be significantly inhibited by hTSP-1. A mutation in Rb1 might be involved in the hTSP-1-medicated γ-H2AX increasing in WERI-Rb1 cells. Furthermore, hTSP-1 could inhibit RB cells while promoting retinal neurocyte survival in the neuronal and retinoblastoma cell co-culture system. As such, TSP-1 may become a therapeutic target for treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:26756218

  8. The Axial Element Protein DESYNAPTIC2 Mediates Meiotic Double-Strand Break Formation and Synaptonemal Complex Assembly in Maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ding Hua; Kao, Yu-Hsin; Ku, Jia-Chi; Lin, Chien-Yu; Meeley, Robert; Jan, Ya-Shiun; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel

    2015-09-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine via repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are formed in the context of chromatin loops, which are anchored to the proteinaceous axial element (AE). The AE later serves as a framework to assemble the synaptonemal complex (SC) that provides a transient but tight connection between homologous chromosomes. Here, we showed that DESYNAPTIC2 (DSY2), a coiled-coil protein, mediates DSB formation and is directly involved in SC assembly in maize (Zea mays). The dsy2 mutant exhibits homologous pairing defects, leading to sterility. Analyses revealed that DSB formation and the number of RADIATION SENSITIVE51 (RAD51) foci are largely reduced, and synapsis is completely abolished in dsy2 meiocytes. Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy showed that DSY2 is located on the AE and forms a distinct alternating pattern with the HORMA-domain protein ASYNAPTIC1 (ASY1). In the dsy2 mutant, localization of ASY1 is affected, and loading of the central element ZIPPER1 (ZYP1) is disrupted. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments further demonstrated that ZYP1 interacts with DSY2 but does not interact with ASY1. Therefore, DSY2, an AE protein, not only mediates DSB formation but also bridges the AE and central element of SC during meiosis. PMID:26296964

  9. 5-Fluorouracil sensitizes colorectal tumor cells towards double stranded DNA breaks by interfering with homologous recombination repair

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Upadhyayula Sai; Dyczkowski, Jerzy; Beißbarth, Tim; Gaedcke, Jochen; Mansour, Wael Y.; Borgmann, Kerstin; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the rectum are treated by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. This involves a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and double stranded DNA-break (DSB)-inducing radiotherapy. Here we explored how 5-FU cooperates with DSB-induction to achieve sustainable DNA damage in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. After DSB induction by neocarzinostatin, phosphorylated histone 2AX (γ-H2AX) rapidly accumulated but then largely vanished within a few hours. In contrast, when CRC cells were pre-treated with 5-FU, gammaH2AX remained for at least 24 hours. GFP-reporter assays revealed that 5-FU decreases the efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) repair. However, 5-FU did not prevent the initial steps of HR repair, such as the accumulation of RPA and Rad51 at nuclear foci. Thus, we propose that 5-FU interferes with the continuation of HR repair, e. g. the synthesis of new DNA strands. Two key mediators of HR, Rad51 and BRCA2, were found upregulated in CRC biopsies as compared to normal mucosa. Inhibition of HR by targeting Rad51 enhanced DNA damage upon DSB-inducing treatment, outlining an alternative way of enhancing therapeutic efficacy. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that interfering with HR represents a key mechanism to enhance the efficacy when treating CRC with DNA-damaging therapy. PMID:25909291

  10. RhoB Promotes γH2AX Dephosphorylation and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mamouni, Kenza; Cristini, Agnese; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Monferran, Sylvie; Lemarié, Anthony; Faye, Jean-Charles; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other Rho GTPases, RhoB is rapidly induced by DNA damage, and its expression level decreases during cancer progression. Because inefficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can lead to cancer, we investigated whether camptothecin, an anticancer drug that produces DSBs, induces RhoB expression and examined its role in the camptothecin-induced DNA damage response. We show that in camptothecin-treated cells, DSBs induce RhoB expression by a mechanism that depends notably on Chk2 and its substrate HuR, which binds to RhoB mRNA and protects it against degradation. RhoB-deficient cells fail to dephosphorylate γH2AX following camptothecin removal and show reduced efficiency of DSB repair by homologous recombination. These cells also show decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a phosphatase for γH2AX and other DNA damage and repair proteins. Thus, we propose that DSBs activate a Chk2-HuR-RhoB pathway that promotes PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of γH2AX and DSB repair. Finally, we show that RhoB-deficient cells accumulate endogenous γH2AX and chromosomal abnormalities, suggesting that RhoB loss increases DSB-mediated genomic instability and tumor progression. PMID:24912678

  11. Sae2 Function at DNA Double-Strand Breaks Is Bypassed by Dampening Tel1 or Rad53 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gnugnoli, Marco; Menin, Luca; Clerici, Michela; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The MRX complex together with Sae2 initiates resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that triggers homologous recombination. The absence of Sae2 not only impairs DSB resection, but also causes prolonged MRX binding at the DSBs that leads to persistent Tel1- and Rad53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation and cell cycle arrest. Whether this enhanced checkpoint signaling contributes to the DNA damage sensitivity and/or the resection defect of sae2Δ cells is not known. By performing a genetic screen, we identify rad53 and tel1 mutant alleles that suppress both the DNA damage hypersensitivity and the resection defect of sae2Δ cells through an Sgs1-Dna2-dependent mechanism. These suppression events do not involve escaping the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. Rather, defective Rad53 or Tel1 signaling bypasses Sae2 function at DSBs by decreasing the amount of Rad9 bound at DSBs. As a consequence, reduced Rad9 association to DNA ends relieves inhibition of Sgs1-Dna2 activity, which can then compensate for the lack of Sae2 in DSB resection and DNA damage resistance. We propose that persistent Tel1 and Rad53 checkpoint signaling in cells lacking Sae2 increases the association of Rad9 at DSBs, which in turn inhibits DSB resection by limiting the activity of the Sgs1-Dna2 resection machinery. PMID:26584331

  12. Hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks in human rDNA units are produced in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Gorbacheva, Maria A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Grischenko, Irina V; Fedoseeva, Daria M; Sosin, Dmitri V; Kravatsky, Yuri V; Kretova, Olga V

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are tightly linked with transcription patterns and cancer genomics(1,2). There are nine hot spots of DSBs located in human rDNA units(3-6). Here we describe that the profiles of these hot spots coincide with the profiles of γ-H2AX or H2AX, strongly suggesting a high level of in vivo breakage inside rDNA genes. The data were confirmed by microscopic observation of the largest γ-H2AX foci inside nucleoli in interphase chromosomes. In metaphase chromosomes, we observed that only some portion of rDNA clusters possess γ-H2AX foci and that all γ-H2AX foci co-localize with UBF-1 binding sites, which strongly suggests that only active rDNA units possess the hot spots of DSBs. Both γ-H2AX and UBF-1 are epigenetically inherited and thus indicate the rDNA units that were active in the previous cell cycle. These results have implications for diverse fields, including epigenetics and cancer genomics. PMID:27160357

  13. Microhomology-mediated end joining is the principal mediator of double-strand break repair during mitochondrial DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tadi, Satish Kumar; Sebastian, Robin; Dahal, Sumedha; Babu, Ravi K.; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are associated with various mitochondrial disorders. The deletions identified in humans are flanked by short, directly repeated mitochondrial DNA sequences; however, the mechanism of such DNA rearrangements has yet to be elucidated. In contrast to nuclear DNA (nDNA), mtDNA is more exposed to oxidative damage, which may result in double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although DSB repair in nDNA is well studied, repair mechanisms in mitochondria are not characterized. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms of DSB repair in mitochondria using in vitro and ex vivo assays. Whereas classical NHEJ (C-NHEJ) is undetectable, microhomology-mediated alternative NHEJ efficiently repairs DSBs in mitochondria. Of interest, robust microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) was observed with DNA substrates bearing 5-, 8-, 10-, 13-, 16-, 19-, and 22-nt microhomology. Furthermore, MMEJ efficiency was enhanced with an increase in the length of homology. Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and protein inhibition assays suggest the involvement of CtIP, FEN1, MRE11, and PARP1 in mitochondrial MMEJ. Knockdown studies, in conjunction with other experiments, demonstrated that DNA ligase III, but not ligase IV or ligase I, is primarily responsible for the final sealing of DSBs during mitochondrial MMEJ. These observations highlight the central role of MMEJ in maintenance of mammalian mitochondrial genome integrity and is likely relevant for deletions observed in many human mitochondrial disorders. PMID:26609070

  14. Enrichment of Cdk1-cyclins at DNA double-strand breaks stimulates Fun30 phosphorylation and DNA end resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuefeng; Niu, Hengyao; Yu, Yang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Shuangyi; Zhou, Jianjie; Papusha, Alma; Cui, Dandan; Pan, Xuewen; Kwon, Youngho; Sung, Patrick; Ira, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic types of DNA lesion challenging genome integrity. The activity of cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 is essential for DSB repair by homologous recombination and for DNA damage signaling. Here we identify the Fun30 chromatin remodeler as a new target of Cdk1. Fun30 is phosphorylated by Cdk1 on Serine 28 to stimulate its functions in DNA damage response including resection of DSB ends. Importantly, Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Fun30-S28 increases upon DNA damage and requires the recruitment of Fun30 to DSBs, suggesting that phosphorylation increases in situ at the DNA damage. Consistently, we find that Cdk1 and multiple cyclins become highly enriched at DSBs and that the recruitment of Cdk1 and cyclins Clb2 and Clb5 ensures optimal Fun30 phosphorylation and checkpoint activation. We propose that the enrichment of Cdk1-cyclin complexes at DSBs serves as a mechanism for enhanced targeting and modulating of the activity of DNA damage response proteins. PMID:26801641

  15. Repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks by non-homologous end-joining.

    PubMed

    Mahaney, Brandi L; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2009-02-01

    DNA DSBs (double-strand breaks) are considered the most cytotoxic type of DNA lesion. They can be introduced by external sources such as IR (ionizing radiation), by chemotherapeutic drugs such as topoisomerase poisons and by normal biological processes such as V(D)J recombination. If left unrepaired, DSBs can cause cell death. If misrepaired, DSBs may lead to chromosomal translocations and genomic instability. One of the major pathways for the repair of IR-induced DSBs in mammalian cells is NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). The main proteins required for NHEJ in mammalian cells are the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80 heterodimer), DNA-PKcs [the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)], Artemis, XRCC4 (X-ray-complementing Chinese hamster gene 4), DNA ligase IV and XLF (XRCC4-like factor; also called Cernunnos). Additional proteins, including DNA polymerases mu and lambda, PNK (polynucleotide kinase) and WRN (Werner's Syndrome helicase), may also play a role. In the present review, we will discuss our current understanding of the mechanism of NHEJ in mammalian cells and discuss the roles of DNA-PKcs and DNA-PK-mediated phosphorylation in NHEJ. PMID:19133841

  16. Depletion of tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 activity enhances etoposide-mediated double-strand break formation and cell killing.

    PubMed

    Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Dutta, Arijit; Mallisetty, Apurva; Mathew, Jeena; Minas, Tsion; Kraus, Christina; Dhopeshwarkar, Priyanka; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Mitra, Sankar; Üren, Aykut; Adhikari, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    DNA topoisomerase 2 (Top2) poisons, including common anticancer drugs etoposide and doxorubicin kill cancer cells by stabilizing covalent Top2-tyrosyl-DNA 5'-phosphodiester adducts and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Proteolytic degradation of the covalently attached Top2 leaves a 5'-tyrosylated blocked termini which is removed by tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2), prior to DSB repair through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Thus, TDP2 confers resistance of tumor cells to Top2-poisons by repairing such covalent DNA-protein adducts, and its pharmacological inhibition could enhance the efficacy of Top2-poisons. We discovered NSC111041, a selective inhibitor of TDP2, by optimizing a high throughput screening (HTS) assay for TDP2's 5'-tyrosyl phosphodiesterase activity and subsequent validation studies. We found that NSC111041 inhibits TDP2's binding to DNA without getting intercalated into DNA and enhanced etoposide's cytotoxicity synergistically in TDP2-expressing cells but not in TDP2 depleted cells. Furthermore, NSC111041 enhanced formation of etoposide-induced γ-H2AX foci presumably by affecting DSB repair. Immuno-histochemical analysis showed higher TDP2 expression in a sub-set of different type of tumor tissues. These findings underscore the feasibility of clinical use of suitable TDP2 inhibitors in adjuvant therapy with Top2-poisons for a sub-set of cancer patients with high TDP2 expression. PMID:27235629

  17. Novel Smad proteins localize to IR-induced double-strand breaks: interplay between TGFβ and ATM pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Saha, Janapriya; Hada, Megumi; Anderson, Jennifer A.; Pluth, Janice M.; O’Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular damage from ionizing radiation (IR) is in part due to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species, which activate DNA damage response (DDR) and cytokine signaling pathways, including the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and transforming growth factor (TGF)β/Smad pathways. Using classic double-strand breaks (DSBs) markers, we studied the roles of Smad proteins in DDR and the crosstalk between TGFβ and ATM pathways. We observed co-localization of phospho-Smad2 (pSmad2) and Smad7 with DSB repair proteins following low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. The decays of both foci were similar to that of γH2AX foci. Irradiation with high LET particles induced pSmad2 and Smad7 foci tracks indicating the particle trajectory through cells. pSmad2 foci were absent in S phase cells, while Smad7 foci were present in all phases of cell cycle. pSmad2 (but not Smad7) foci were completely abolished when ATM was depleted or inactivated. In contrast, a TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFβR1) inhibitor abrogated Smad7, but not pSmad2 foci at DSBs sites. In summary, we suggest that Smad2 and Smad7 contribute to IR-induced DSB signaling in an ATM or TGFβR1-dependent manner, respectively. PMID:23221633

  18. Post-irradiation chemical processing of DNA damage generates double-strand breaks in cells already engaged in repair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra K.; Wang, Minli; Staudt, Christian; Iliakis, George

    2011-01-01

    In cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), double-strand breaks (DSBs) form within clustered-damage sites from lesions disrupting the DNA sugar–phosphate backbone. It is commonly assumed that these DSBs form promptly and are immediately detected and processed by the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) apparatus. This assumption is questioned by the observation that after irradiation of naked DNA, a fraction of DSBs forms minutes to hours after exposure as a result of temperature dependent, chemical processing of labile sugar lesions. Excess DSBs also form when IR-exposed cells are processed at 50°C, but have been hitherto considered method-related artifact. Thus, it remains unknown whether DSBs actually develop in cells after IR exposure from chemically labile damage. Here, we show that irradiation of ‘naked’ or chromatin-organized mammalian DNA produces lesions, which evolve to DSBs and add to those promptly induced, after 8–24 h in vitro incubation at 37°C or 50°C. The conversion is more efficient in chromatin-associated DNA, completed within 1 h in cells and delayed in a reducing environment. We conclude that IR generates sugar lesions within clustered-damage sites contributing to DSB formation only after chemical processing, which occurs efficiently at 37°C. This subset of delayed DSBs may challenge DDR, may affect the perceived repair kinetics and requires further characterization. PMID:21745815

  19. XLS (c9orf142) is a new component of mammalian DNA double-stranded break repair.

    PubMed

    Craxton, A; Somers, J; Munnur, D; Jukes-Jones, R; Cain, K; Malewicz, M

    2015-06-01

    Repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells primarily occurs by the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, which requires seven core proteins (Ku70/Ku86, DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit), Artemis, XRCC4-like factor (XLF), XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV). Here we show using combined affinity purification and mass spectrometry that DNA-PKcs co-purifies with all known core NHEJ factors. Furthermore, we have identified a novel evolutionary conserved protein associated with DNA-PKcs-c9orf142. Computer-based modelling of c9orf142 predicted a structure very similar to XRCC4, hence we have named c9orf142-XLS (XRCC4-like small protein). Depletion of c9orf142/XLS in cells impaired DSB repair consistent with a defect in NHEJ. Furthermore, c9orf142/XLS interacted with other core NHEJ factors. These results demonstrate the existence of a new component of the NHEJ DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:25941166

  20. XLS (c9orf142) is a new component of mammalian DNA double-stranded break repair

    PubMed Central

    Craxton, A; Somers, J; Munnur, D; Jukes-Jones, R; Cain, K; Malewicz, M

    2015-01-01

    Repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells primarily occurs by the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, which requires seven core proteins (Ku70/Ku86, DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit), Artemis, XRCC4-like factor (XLF), XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV). Here we show using combined affinity purification and mass spectrometry that DNA-PKcs co-purifies with all known core NHEJ factors. Furthermore, we have identified a novel evolutionary conserved protein associated with DNA-PKcs—c9orf142. Computer-based modelling of c9orf142 predicted a structure very similar to XRCC4, hence we have named c9orf142—XLS (XRCC4-like small protein). Depletion of c9orf142/XLS in cells impaired DSB repair consistent with a defect in NHEJ. Furthermore, c9orf142/XLS interacted with other core NHEJ factors. These results demonstrate the existence of a new component of the NHEJ DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:25941166

  1. Recombinational repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks occurs in the absence of extensive resection.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, James W; Resnick, Michael A

    2016-01-29

    Recombinational repair provides accurate chromosomal restitution after double-strand break (DSB) induction. While all DSB recombination repair models include 5'-3' resection, there are no studies that directly assess the resection needed for repair between sister chromatids in G-2 arrested cells of random, radiation-induced 'dirty' DSBs. Using our Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis-shift approach, we determined resection at IR-DSBs in WT and mutants lacking exonuclease1 or Sgs1 helicase. Lack of either reduced resection length by half, without decreased DSB repair or survival. In the exo1Δ sgs1Δ double mutant, resection was barely detectable, yet it only took an additional hour to achieve a level of repair comparable to WT and there was only a 2-fold dose-modifying effect on survival. Results with a Dnl4 deletion strain showed that remaining repair was not due to endjoining. Thus, similar to what has been shown for a single, clean HO-induced DSB, a severe reduction in resection tract length has only a modest effect on repair of multiple, dirty DSBs in G2-arrested cells. Significantly, this study provides the first opportunity to directly relate resection length at DSBs to the capability for global recombination repair between sister chromatids. PMID:26503252

  2. MEIOTIC F-BOX Is Essential for Male Meiotic DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Yu, Junping; Zong, Jie; Lu, Pingli

    2016-01-01

    F-box proteins constitute a large superfamily in plants and play important roles in controlling many biological processes, but the roles of F-box proteins in male meiosis in plants remain unclear. Here, we identify the rice (Oryza sativa) F-box gene MEIOTIC F-BOX (MOF), which is essential for male meiotic progression. MOF belongs to the FBX subfamily and is predominantly active during leptotene to pachytene of prophase I. mof meiocytes display disrupted telomere bouquet formation, impaired pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and arrested meiocytes at late prophase I, followed by apoptosis. Although normal, programmed double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) form in mof mutants, foci of the phosphorylated histone variant γH2AX, a marker for DSBs, persist in the mutant, indicating that many of the DSBs remained unrepaired. The recruitment of Completion of meiosis I (COM1) and Radiation sensitive51C (RAD51C) to DSBs is severely compromised in mutant meiocytes, indicating that MOF is crucial for DSB end-processing and repair. Further analyses showed that MOF could physically interact with the rice SKP1-like Protein1 (OSK1), indicating that MOF functions as a component of the SCF E3 ligase to regulate meiotic progression in rice. Thus, this study reveals the essential role of an F-box protein in plant meiosis and provides helpful information for elucidating the roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system in plant meiotic progression. PMID:27436711

  3. Epigenetic Modifications and Accumulation of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Oral Lichen Planus Lesions Presenting Poor Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dillenburg, Caroline S.; Martins, Marco A.T.; Almeida, Luciana O.; Meurer, Luise; Squarize, Cristiane H.; Martins, Manoela D.; Castilho, Rogerio M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epigenetics refers to changes in cell characteristics that occur independently of modifications to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence. Alterations mediated by epigenetic mechanisms are important factors in cancer progression. Although an exciting prospect, the identification of early epigenetic markers associated with clinical outcome in premalignant and malignant disorders remains elusive. We examined alterations in chromatin acetylation in oral lichen planus (OLP) with distinct clinical behavior and compared the alterations to the levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We analyzed 42 OLP patients, who had different responses to therapy, for acetyl-histone H3 at lys9 (H3K9ac), which is associated with enhanced transcription and nuclear decondensation, and the presence of DSBs, as determined by accumulation of phosphorylated γH2AX foci. Patients with high levels of H3K9ac acetylation failed to respond to therapy or experienced disease recurrence shortly after therapy. Similar to H3K9ac, patients who responded poorly to therapy had increased accumulation of DNA DSB, indicating genomic instability. These findings suggest that histone modifications occur in OLP, and H3K9ac and γH2AX histones may serve as epigenetic markers for OLP recurrence. PMID:26222871

  4. Non-redundant Functions of ATM and DNA-PKcs in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Pierre; Choudjaye, Jonathan; Clouaire, Thomas; Bugler, Béatrix; Daburon, Virginie; Aguirrebengoa, Marion; Mangeat, Thomas; Iacovoni, Jason S.; Álvarez-Quilón, Alejandro; Cortés-Ledesma, Felipe; Legube, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Summary DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit the so-called DNA damage response (DDR), largely relying on ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), two members of the PI3K-like kinase family, whose respective functions during the sequential steps of the DDR remains controversial. Using the DIvA system (DSB inducible via AsiSI) combined with high-resolution mapping and advanced microscopy, we uncovered that both ATM and DNA-PKcs spread in cis on a confined region surrounding DSBs, independently of the pathway used for repair. However, once recruited, these kinases exhibit non-overlapping functions on end joining and γH2AX domain establishment. More specifically, we found that ATM is required to ensure the association of multiple DSBs within “repair foci.” Our results suggest that ATM acts not only on chromatin marks but also on higher-order chromatin organization to ensure repair accuracy and survival. PMID:26586426

  5. Myricetin induces apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA double-strand breaks in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, YE; XIE, QI; WU, SHAOHUA; YI, DAN; YU, YANG; LIU, SHIBING; LI, SONGYAN; LI, ZHIXIN

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying myricetin-induced cancer cell apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Certain previous studies have shown that myricetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Apoptosis, however, can also be induced by other classical pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether these two apoptotic pathways are involved in myricetin-induced cell death in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The results revealed that treatment with myricetin inhibited viability of SKOV3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Myricetin induced nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and also upregulated the protein levels of active caspase 3 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, myricetin upregulated ER stress-associated proteins, glucose-regulated protein-78 and C/EBP homologous protein in SKOV3 cells. Phosphorylation of H2AX, a marker of DNA DSBs, was revealed to be upregulated in myricetin-treated cells. The data indicated that myricetin induces DNA DSBs and ER stress, which leads to apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. PMID:26782830

  6. Molecular Process Producing Oncogene Fusion in Lung Cancer Cells by Illegitimate Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Yoshitaka; Mizukami, Tatsuji; Kohno, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive activation of oncogenes by fusion to partner genes, caused by chromosome translocation and inversion, is a critical genetic event driving lung carcinogenesis. Fusions of the tyrosine kinase genes ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1), or RET (rearranged during transfection) occur in 1%–5% of lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs) and their products constitute therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitory drugs. Interestingly, ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions occur preferentially in LADCs of never- and light-smokers, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms that cause these rearrangements are smoking-independent. In this study, using previously reported next generation LADC genome sequencing data of the breakpoint junction structures of chromosome rearrangements that cause oncogenic fusions in human cancer cells, we employed the structures of breakpoint junctions of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions in 41 LADC cases as “traces” to deduce the molecular processes of chromosome rearrangements caused by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and illegitimate joining. We found that gene fusion was produced by illegitimate repair of DSBs at unspecified sites in genomic regions of a few kb through DNA synthesis-dependent or -independent end-joining pathways, according to DSB type. This information will assist in the understanding of how oncogene fusions are generated and which etiological factors trigger them. PMID:26437441

  7. MEIOTIC F-BOX Is Essential for Male Meiotic DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Rice.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Wang, Chong; Higgins, James D; Yu, Junping; Zong, Jie; Lu, Pingli; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi

    2016-08-01

    F-box proteins constitute a large superfamily in plants and play important roles in controlling many biological processes, but the roles of F-box proteins in male meiosis in plants remain unclear. Here, we identify the rice (Oryza sativa) F-box gene MEIOTIC F-BOX (MOF), which is essential for male meiotic progression. MOF belongs to the FBX subfamily and is predominantly active during leptotene to pachytene of prophase I. mof meiocytes display disrupted telomere bouquet formation, impaired pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and arrested meiocytes at late prophase I, followed by apoptosis. Although normal, programmed double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) form in mof mutants, foci of the phosphorylated histone variant γH2AX, a marker for DSBs, persist in the mutant, indicating that many of the DSBs remained unrepaired. The recruitment of Completion of meiosis I (COM1) and Radiation sensitive51C (RAD51C) to DSBs is severely compromised in mutant meiocytes, indicating that MOF is crucial for DSB end-processing and repair. Further analyses showed that MOF could physically interact with the rice SKP1-like Protein1 (OSK1), indicating that MOF functions as a component of the SCF E3 ligase to regulate meiotic progression in rice. Thus, this study reveals the essential role of an F-box protein in plant meiosis and provides helpful information for elucidating the roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system in plant meiotic progression. PMID:27436711

  8. Polo-like kinase 1 mediates BRCA1 phosphorylation and recruitment at DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Chabalier-Taste, Corinne; Canitrot, Yvan; Calsou, Patrick; Larminat, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) caused during DNA replication and by exogenous stresses is critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. There is growing evidence that the Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) that plays a number of pivotal roles in cell proliferation can directly participate in regulation of DSB repair. In this study, we show that Plk1 regulates BRCA1, a key mediator protein required to efficiently repair DSB through homologous recombination (HR). Following induction of DSB, BRCA1 concentrates in distinctive large nuclear foci at damage sites where multiple DNA repair factors accumulate. First, we found that inhibition of Plk1 shortly before DNA damage sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation and reduces DSB repair by HR. Second, we provide evidence that BRCA1 foci formation induced by DSB is reduced when Plk1 is inhibited or depleted. Third, we identified BRCA1 as a novel Plk1 substrate and determined that Ser1164 is the major phosphorylation site for Plk1 in vitro. In cells, mutation of Plk1 sites on BRCA1 significantly delays BRCA1 foci formation following DSB, recapitulating the phenotype observed upon Plk1 inhibition. Our data then assign a key function to Plk1 in BRCA1 foci formation at DSB, emphasizing Plk1 importance in the HR repair of human cells. PMID:26745677

  9. The structure of ends determines the pathway choice and Mre11 nuclease dependency of DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shuren; Tammaro, Margaret; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The key event in the choice of repair pathways for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is the initial processing of ends. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) involves limited processing, but homology-dependent repair (HDR) requires extensive resection of the 5′ strand. How cells decide if an end is channeled to resection or NHEJ is not well understood. We hypothesize that the structure of ends is a major determinant and tested this hypothesis with model DNA substrates in Xenopus egg extracts. While ends with normal nucleotides are efficiently channeled to NHEJ, ends with damaged nucleotides or bulky adducts are channeled to resection. Resection is dependent on Mre11, but its nuclease activity is critical only for ends with 5′ bulky adducts. CtIP is absolutely required for activating the nuclease-dependent mechanism of Mre11 but not the nuclease-independent mechanism. Together, these findings suggest that the structure of ends is a major determinant for the pathway choice of DSB repair and the Mre11 nuclease dependency of resection. PMID:27084932

  10. Ligase I and ligase III mediate the DNA double-strand break ligation in alternative end-joining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangqing; Duan, Jinzhi; Shu, Sheng; Wang, Xuxiang; Gao, Linlin; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most harmful types of DNA damage, are repaired by homologous repair (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Surprisingly, in cells deficient for core classic NHEJ factors such as DNA ligase IV (Lig4), substantial end-joining activities have been observed in various situations, suggesting the existence of alternative end-joining (A-EJ) activities. Several putative A-EJ factors have been proposed, although results are mostly controversial. By using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, we generated mouse CH12F3 cell lines in which, in addition to Lig4, either Lig1 or nuclear Lig3, representing the cells containing a single DNA ligase (Lig3 or Lig1, respectively) in their nucleus, was completely ablated. Surprisingly, we found that both Lig1- and Lig3-containing complexes could efficiently catalyze A-EJ for class switching recombination (CSR) in the IgH locus and chromosomal deletions between DSBs generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in cis-chromosomes. However, only deletion of nuclear Lig3, but not Lig1, could significantly reduce the interchromosomal translocations in Lig4(-/-) cells, suggesting the unique role of Lig3 in catalyzing chromosome translocation. Additional sequence analysis of chromosome translocation junction microhomology revealed the specificity of different ligase-containing complexes. The data suggested the existence of multiple DNA ligase-containing complexes in A-EJ. PMID:26787905