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Sample records for doubly labeled water

  1. Validation of doubly labeled water method using a ruminant

    SciTech Connect

    Fancy, S.G.; Blanchard, J.M.; Holleman, D.F.; Kokjer, K.J.; White, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    CO/sub 2/ production (CDP, ml CO/sub 2/ . g-1 . h-1) by captive caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) was measured using the doubly labeled water method (/sup 3/H/sub 2/O and H2(18)O) and compared with CO/sub 2/ expiration rates (VCO/sub 2/), adjusted for CO/sub 2/ losses in CH4 and urine, as determined by open-circuit respirometry. CDP calculated from samples of blood or urine from a reindeer in winter was 1-3% higher than the adjusted VCO/sub 2/. Differences between values derived by the two methods of 5-20% were found in summer trials with caribou. None of these differences were statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Differences in summer could in part be explained by the net deposition of /sup 3/H, 18O, and unlabeled CO/sub 2/ in antlers and other growing tissues. Total body water volumes calculated from /sup 3/H/sub 2/O dilution were up to 15% higher than those calculated from H/sub 2/(18)O dilution. The doubly labeled water method appears to be a reasonably accurate method for measuring CDP by caribou and reindeer in winter when growth rates are low, but the method may overestimate CDP by rapidly growing and/or fattening animals.

  2. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  3. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  4. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  5. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN.

  6. Energy expenditure in space flight (doubly labelled water method) (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Expenditure in Space Flight (ESS) experiment is to demonstrate and evaluate the doubly labeled water method of measuring the energy expended by crew members during approximately 7 days in microgravity. The doubly labeled water technique determines carbon dioxide production which is then used to calculate energy expenditure. The method relies on the equilibrium between oxygen in respiratory carbon dioxide and oxygen in body water. Because of this equilibrium, the kinetic of water turnover and respiration are interdependent. Under normal conditions, man contains small but significant amounts of deuterium and oxygen 18. Deuterium is eliminated from the body as water while oxygen 18 is eliminated as water and carbon dioxide. The difference in the turnover rates in the two isotopes is proportional to the carbon dioxide production. Deliberately enriching the total body water with both of these isotopes allows the isotope turnovers to be accurately measured in urine, plasma, or saliva samples. The samples are taken to the laboratory for analysis using an ion-ratio spectrometer.

  7. The role of technology in the past and future development of the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2005-12-01

    The doubly labelled water method is an isotope-based technique that is used to measure the energy demands of free-living animals and humans. It is based on the observation that, in the body, the oxygen in carbon dioxide is in complete isotope exchange equilibrium with the oxygen in body water. Hence, a label of isotopic oxygen in body water is eliminated by both respiratory CO(2) and water turnover, whereas a similarly introduced label of deuterium is eliminated only by water flux. The difference in isotope fluxes therefore permits estimation of CO(2) production, which is correlated to energy demands. The doubly labelled water method has been advanced predominantly by technological advances in mass spectrometry. Although it was first described in the 1950s, it was only used on small animals and in low numbers because the costs of the isotopes were a primary constraint. However, advances in mass spectrometry precision and accuracy in the 1980s made it possible to reduce the quantities of isotope used, and hence apply the method on humans, although still in small numbers. The advent of continuous flow inlets in the 1990s made possible the processing of samples in much larger numbers and the sample sizes of studies have expanded. Ironically, however, the technique is now under treat because of technological advances in another area (positron emission tomography), which has generated an enormous demand for (18)O and pushed up the price of isotopes. A continuation of this trend might drive prices to levels where sustained application of the method in human studies is questionable. Replacing determination of isotope enrichments currently performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with determinations made by stable isotope infrared laser spectrometry may be a technological advance that will get us out of this problem. PMID:16543189

  8. Natural abundance deuterium and 18-oxygen effects on the precision of the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, M. A.; Schoeller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The doubly labeled water method for measuring total energy expenditure is subject to error from natural variations in the background 2H and 18O in body water. There is disagreement as to whether the variations in background abundances of the two stable isotopes covary and what relative doses of 2H and 18O minimize the impact of variation on the precision of the method. We have performed two studies to investigate the amount and covariance of the background variations. These were a study of urine collected weekly from eight subjects who remained in the Madison, WI locale for 6 wk and frequent urine samples from 14 subjects during round-trip travel to a locale > or = 500 miles from Madison, WI. Background variation in excess of analytical error was detected in six of the eight nontravelers, and covariance was demonstrated in four subjects. Background variation was detected in all 14 travelers, and covariance was demonstrated in 11 subjects. The median slopes of the regression lines of delta2H vs. delta18O were 6 and 7, respectively. Modeling indicated that 2H and 18O doses yielding a 6:1 ratio of final enrichments should minimize this error introduced to the doubly labeled water method.

  9. Doubly labeled water method: in vivo oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Leitch, C.A.; Brown, C.

    1986-12-01

    The accuracy and precision of the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure are influenced by isotope fractionation during evaporative water loss and CO/sub 2/ excretion. To characterize in vivo isotope fractionation, we collected and isotopically analyzed physiological fluids and gases. Breath and transcutaneous water vapor were isotopically fractionated. The degree of fractionation indicated that the former was fractionated under equilibrium control at 37/sup 0/C, and the latter was kinetically fractionated. Sweat and urine were unfractionated. By use of isotopic balance models, the fraction of water lost via fractionating routes was estimated from the isotopic abundances of body water, local drinking water, and dietary solids. Fractionated water loss averaged 23% (SD = 10%) of water turnover, which agreed with our previous estimates based on metabolic rate, but there was a systematic difference between the results based on O/sub 2/ and hydrogen. Corrections for isotopic fractionation of water lost in breath and (nonsweat) transcutaneous loss should be made when using labeled water to measure water turnover or CO/sub 2/ production.

  10. Validation of doubly labeled water method for energy expenditure in postsurgical infants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.J.H.; Winthrop, A.L.; Schoeller, D.A.; Swyer, P.R.; Filler, R.M.; Smith, J.M.; Heim, T.

    1986-03-05

    To validate the doubly labeled water method (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O) in infants without concurrent water balance, carbon dioxide production rate (rCO/sub 2/) and energy expenditure (EE) were measured for 5 or 6 days by /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O and periodic open circuit respiratory gas exchange in 5 infants (mean age: 5.3 wk, range 1-14 wk). Following abdominal surgery (mean = 10.3 d, range 7-18 d), infants were maintained on constant oral or parenteral nutrition 4 d prior to and during the study. This avoided changes in baseline isotopic enrichment of body water diet induced changes in relative isotopic abundance of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O could introduce significant errors in rCO/sub 2/. For /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sub 1//sup 8/O, they assumed insensible water loss would be proportional to respiration volume and body surface area and hence rCO/sub 2/. This calculated insensible loss averaged 18% of water turnover. EE was calculated using measured respiratory quotients (m) and dietary intake (i) data. In 6 blinded studies with 5 infants, rCO/sub 2/ = 34.2 L/d (range 27.3-48.0), EE = 191 kcal/d (133-266) and EE/sub i/ = 197 kcal/d (138-281). Percent differences (+/- SD) from respiratory gas exchange were -1.1 +/- 5.8, -1.1 +/- 5.8, and 1.4 +/- 5.2, respectively. These findings demonstrate the validity of the doubly labeled water method for determining energy expenditure without concurrent water balance studies.

  11. Measurement of CO2 production by the doubly labeled water technique.

    PubMed

    Speakman, J R; Racey, P A

    1986-09-01

    Recent applications of the doubly labeled water technique to the study of human metabolism have employed multiple sampling of body water over protracted periods, rather than the more traditional method of taking only an initial and final sample for isotopic analysis. In addition fractional turnovers of the body pools have been estimated by fitting curves to the sequential log-converted isotope enrichment against time. By manipulation of data collected in the field in a study of metabolism of vespertilionid bats, it is shown the curve-fitting technique results in an accurate estimate of CO2 production only when the rate of CO2 production is constant. Biologically realistic nonsteady-state conditions result in errors in estimates of CO2 production of up to 30%. In conditions where CO2 production is known to be temporally variable, the more traditional two-sample method may provide a more accurate estimate of CO2 production. PMID:3093452

  12. Foraging flights of the white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus): Radiotracking and doubly-labelled water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pennycuick, C.J.; Shaffner, F.C.; Fuller, M.R.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Sternberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiotracking transmitters were fitted to White-tailed Tropicbirds nesting at Culebra, Puerto Rico. Foragers were located by light aircraft out to 89 km SSW of the nesting colony, over a deep-water foraging area south of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and west of St Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Two birds were followed out to 176 km NNW from the colony, over the Puerto Rico Trench, but these did not subsequently return. Foragers carrying radio transmitters performed similarly to those without, in terms of duration of absence from the colony, and mass of food brought for the chick. However, measuremetns of energy consumption by the doubly labelled water method indicated that birds with transmitters consumed significantly more energy than those without.

  13. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Ravussin, E.; Schutz, Y.; Acheson, K.J.; Baertschi, P.; Jequier, E.

    1986-05-01

    To further validate the doubly labeled water method for measurement of CO/sub 2/ production and energy expenditure in humans, we compared it with near-continuous respiratory gas exchange in nine healthy young adult males. Subjects were housed in a respiratory chamber for 4 days. Each received /sup 2/H/sub 2/(18)O at either a low (n = 6) or a moderate (n = 3) isotope dose. Low and moderate doses produced initial /sup 2/H enrichments of 5 and 10 X 10(-3) atom percent excess, respectively, and initial 18O enrichments of 2 and 2.5 X 10(-2) atom percent excess, respectively. Total body water was calculated from isotope dilution in saliva collected at 4 and 5 h after the dose. CO/sub 2/ production was calculated by the two-point method using the isotopic enrichments of urines collected just before each subject entered and left the chamber. Isotope enrichments relative to predose samples were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. At low isotope dose, doubly labeled water overestimated average daily energy expenditure by 8 +/- 9% (SD) (range -7 to 22%). At moderate dose the difference was reduced to +4 +/- 5% (range 0-9%). The isotope elimination curves for /sup 2/H and 18O from serial urines collected from one of the subjects showed expected diurnal variations but were otherwise quite smooth. The overestimate may be due to approximations in the corrections for isotope fractionation and isotope dilution. An alternative approach to the corrections is presented that reduces the overestimate to 1%.

  14. Objective and subjective measurement of energy expenditure in older adults: A doubly-labeled water study

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Miguel Andres; Kim, Youngwon; Franke, Warren D.; Stewart, Jeanne M.; Welk, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Objective and subjective measurement instruments have been used to estimate energy expenditure as alternatives to the doubly labeled water (DLW) methodology, but their relative validity for older adults remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to validate an objective monitor (Sense Wear Mini Armband) and a self-report instrument (7-Day Physical Activity Recall) relative to the doubly-labeled water (DLW) under free-living conditions in older adults. Subjects/Methods Twenty-nine older adults (60–78 yrs) each wore the Mini for 14 consecutive days, and completed two 7D-PARs after each week. For each measurement method, activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as total energy expenditure (TEE) – measured resting metabolic rate –diet induced thermogenesis (10% of TEE). TEE and AEE from the Mini and 7D-PAR were each compared to values from the DLW. Results Equivalence testing indicated that estimates of TEE from the Mini and the 7D-PAR were statistically equivalent to those measured with DLW; however, differences were evident for estimates of AEE. The Mini had smaller mean absolute percent error for TEE (8.0%) and AEE (28.4%) than the 7D-PAR (13.8% and 84.5%, respectively) and less systematic bias in the estimates. Conclusions The Mini and 7D-PAR provided reasonably valid estimates of TEE but large errors in estimating AEE. The Mini and 7D-PAR have the potential to accurately estimate TEE for older adults. PMID:25351651

  15. Evaluation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during changing nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.J.; Winthrop, A.L.; Schoeller, D.A.; Filler, R.M.; Swyer, P.R.; Smith, J.; Heim, T.

    1988-05-01

    Change in abundance of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O in dietary water during a doubly labeled water energy period may introduce error into the calculated carbon dioxide production rate (RCO/sub 2/). To examine the accuracy of /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O during changing nutritional regimens, we compared /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O and periodic open-circuit respiratory gas exchange (RGE) in postsurgical infants who were changing from parenteral to alternative parenteral and/or oral nutrition. The two methods were compared before and after correction for shifts in isotopic abundance of the infant water pools during the energy-expenditure period. Baseline corrections were predicted using the difference between abundances of the initial body water and final nutrient solutions. Before isotopic correction, /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O underestimated RCO/sub 2/ in eight subjects by 11.8 +/- 20.1% (mean +/- SD). After correction, agreement between the two methods improved; the underestimate was then -8.7 +/- 12.9%. To obtain maximum precision of /sup 2/H/sub 2/(/sup 18/)O, subjects should be maintained on the same nutritional regimen before and during the study unless valid correction formulae are used.

  16. A review of seabird energetics using the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott A

    2011-03-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method has been essential for understanding animal energetics of free-ranging individuals. The first published studies on free-ranging seabirds were conducted on penguins in the early 1980s. Since then, nearly 50 seabird species with representatives from each major taxonomic order have been studied using DLW. Although the basic methodology has not changed, there are at least nine different equations, varying with respect to assumptions on fractionation and the total body water pool, to estimate field metabolic rate (FMR) from isotopic water turnover. In this review, I show that FMR can vary by as much as 45% depending on the equation used to calculate CO(2) production in five albatross species. Energy budgets derived from DLW measurements are critical tools for understanding patterns of energy use and allocation in seabirds. However, they depend on accurate and representative measurements of FMR, so analyses that include greater partitioning of activity specific FMR yield more realistic cost estimates. I also show how the combined use of DLW and biologging methods can 1) provide greater clarity for explaining observed variation in FMR measurements within a species and 2) allow FMRs to be viewed in a wider physiological, behavioral, or ecological context. Finally, I update existing allometric equations with new FMR data. These updates reaffirm that albatrosses have the lowest at-sea FMRs per equivalent body mass and that individuals of other seabird orders have FMRs ranging between 1.39 and 2.24 times higher than albatrosses. PMID:20656049

  17. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    SciTech Connect

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2.

  18. Applicability of the doubly labelled water method to the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Masaki; Ito, Motohiro; Yoda, Ken; Niizuma, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Summary The doubly labelled water (DLW) method is an isotope-based technique that is used to measure the metabolic rates of free-living animals. We validated the DLW method for measuring metabolic rates in five rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) compared with simultaneous measurements using the respirometric method. We calculated the CO2 production rate of four auklets (mean initial body mass: 552 g±36 s.d.) injected with DLW, using the one- and two-pool models. The metabolic rate during the 24-h measurements in a respirometric chamber for resting auklets averaged 16.30±1.66 kJ h−1 (n = 4). The metabolic rates determined using the one- and two-pool models in the DLW method for the same period as the respirometric measurement averaged 16.61±2.13 kJ h−1 (n = 4) and 16.16±2.10 kJ h−1 (n = 4), respectively. The mean absolute percent error between the DLW and respirometric methods was 8.04% using the one-pool model and was slightly better than that with the two-pool model. The differences in value between the DLW and respirometric methods are probably due to oxygen isotope turnover, which eliminated only 10–14% of the initial enrichment excess. PMID:23213394

  19. Using Doubly-Labeled Water to Measure Energy Expenditure in an Important Small Ectotherm Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Matthew D.W.; Selman, Colin; Speakman, John R.; Partridge, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Energy expenditure is a key variable in the study of ageing, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism that has been used to make step changes in our understanding of the ageing process. Standard methods for measurement of energy expenditure involve placing individuals in metabolic chambers where their oxygen consumption and CO2 production can be quantified. These measurements require separating individuals from any social context, and may only poorly reflect the environment in which the animals normally live. The doubly-labeled water (DLW) method is an isotope-based technique for measuring energy expenditure which overcomes these problems. However, technical challenges mean that the smallest animals this method has been previously applied to weighed 50–200 mg. We overcame these technical challenges to measure energy demands in Drosophila weighing 0.78 mg. Mass-specific energy expenditure varied between 43 and 65 mW·g−1. These estimates are considerably higher than estimates using indirect calorimetry of Drosophila in small metabolic chambers (around 18 mW·g−1). The methodology we have established extends downwards by three orders of magnitude the size of animals that can be measured using DLW. This approach may be of considerable value in future ageing research attempting to understand the genetic and genomic basis of ageing. PMID:25269676

  20. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes. PMID:20967672

  1. Dilution space ratio of 2H and 18O of doubly labeled water method in humans.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Racine, Natalie M; Shriver, Timothy C; Schoeller, Dale A

    2016-06-01

    Variation of the dilution space ratio (Nd/No) between deuterium ((2)H) and oxygen-18 ((18)O) impacts the calculation of total energy expenditure (TEE) by doubly labeled water (DLW). Our aim was to examine the physiological and methodological sources of variation of Nd/No in humans. We analyzed data from 2,297 humans (0.25-89 yr old). This included the variables Nd/No, total body water, TEE, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (%fat). To differentiate between physiologic and methodologic sources of variation, the urine samples from 54 subjects were divided and blinded and analyzed separately, and repeated DLW dosing was performed in an additional 55 participants after 6 mo. Sex, BMI, and %fat did not significantly affect Nd/No, for which the interindividual SD was 0.017. The measurement error from the duplicate urine sample sets was 0.010, and intraindividual SD of Nd/No in repeats experiments was 0.013. An additional SD of 0.008 was contributed by calibration of the DLW dose water. The variation of measured Nd/No in humans was distributed within a small range and measurement error accounted for 68% of this variation. There was no evidence that Nd/No differed with respect to sex, BMI, and age between 1 and 80 yr, and thus use of a constant value is suggested to minimize the effect of stable isotope analysis error on calculation of TEE in the DLW studies in humans. Based on a review of 103 publications, the average dilution space ratio is 1.036 for individuals between 1 and 80 yr of age. PMID:26989221

  2. Methane production in ruminants: Its effect on the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Midwood, A.J.; Haggarty, P.; McGaw, B.A.; Robinson, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) technique for measuring CO2 production (rCO2) in free-living animals requires an assessment of the elimination of both 2H and 18O from the body over a long period of time. To calculate rCO2, it is necessary to calculate water turnover (rH2O) from the 2H flux rate. In ruminant animals, the accuracy of this calculation is affected by the loss of 2H in methane. We have quantified the effect of methane production (rCH4) on the 2H flux rate, determined in four sheep given 2H2O. The methane produced was depleted in 2H relative to the urine. A relationship between the enrichment of the methane and urine was established. The ratio of urine to methane enrichment was found on average to be 0.6536, and this value was unaffected by the level of rCH4 but showed some dependence on the absolute concentration of 2H in urine. For this reason, the ratio value obtained from four sheep not given 2H2O was different, a mean of 0.6886 was measured, this ratio was unaffected by changes in the diet supplied to the animals. Computer modeling was used to illustrate the dependence of the isotopically derived value for rCO2 on not only rCH4 but also the magnitude of rCO2 itself. The effect of rCH4 on the DLW method can be predicted from the observed ratio of rCO2 to rCH4 and the value of 0.6536 obtained for the ratio of methane to urine enrichment. With the use of data from several studies at this Institute, a limited range of 10 to 20 was found for rCO2/rCH4 in animals fed at or above maintenance.

  3. Special Considerations for Measuring Energy Expenditure with Doubly Labeled Water under Atypical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Surabhi; Racine, Natalie; Shriver, Tim; Schoeller, Dale A

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased interest in understanding the factors that influence human total energy expenditure (TEE). This in turn has increased interest in the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, a technique for measurement of total energy expenditure in free-living humans. The increasing use of this method is attributed to its portability, objectivity, minimal invasiveness, high accuracy and good precision. Although a relatively standard protocol for the method has emerged, the new generation of users often is unfamiliar with rationale behind aspects of the protocol as well as the approaches to avoid or correct for in situations that are not covered by the standard protocol procedure. The primary uncommon situations like introduction of isotopically different diet and fluids with or without geographical relocation, seasonal and temperature variations, activity level of participants etc. during or prior to the DLW measurements can lead to shift in baseline abundance of 2H and 18O or tracer elimination, resulting in moderate to large errors in the measured TEE. These unique situations call for special modifications to the conventional protocol to minimize errors. The objective of the present review was to assemble a list of frequently asked questions and the issues they represent, and then examine the available literature to describe and explain the modifications to the standard DLW protocol to maintain the method’s accuracy. This discussion of DLW protocol modification can be an excellent resource for investigators who intend to use this measurement technique for interesting and uncommon study designs. PMID:26962472

  4. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores. PMID:11208938

  5. The Doubly Labeled Water Method Produces Highly Reproducible Longitudinal Results in Nutrition Studies12

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W.; Roberts, Susan B.; Racette, Susan B.; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne M.; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri V.; Clarke, Lucinda L.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method using 2 protocols developed and implemented in a multicenter clinical trial—the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE). To document the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method, 2 protocols, 1 based on repeated analysis of dose dilutions over the course of the clinical trial (dose-dilution protocol) and 1 based on repeated but blinded analysis of randomly selected DLW studies (test-retest protocol), were carried out. The dose-dilution protocol showed that the theoretical fractional turnover rates for 2H and 18O and the difference between the 2 fractional turnover rates were reproducible to within 1% and 5%, respectively, over 4.5 y. The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparisons of the results generated from 50 test-retest DLW studies showed that the fractional turnover rates and isotope dilution spaces for 2H and 18O, and total energy expenditure, were highly reproducible over 2.4 y. Our results show that the DLW method is reproducible in longitudinal studies and confirm the validity of this method to measure energy expenditure, define energy intake prescriptions, and monitor adherence and body composition changes over the period of 2.5–4.4 y. The 2 protocols can be adopted by other laboratories to document the longitudinal reproducibility of their measurements to ensure the long-term outcomes of interest are meaningful biologically. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193. PMID:24523488

  6. Validation of the doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) method for measuring water flux and energy metabolism in tenebrionid beetles

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) has been used to determine water flux and energy metabolism in a variety of vertebrates. This study examines the applicability of this technique to arthropods. The theory of the technique depends upon the assumption that doubly-labeled water introduced into the animal's body water equilibrates with water and carbon dioxide by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Tritium (/sup 3/H) is lost from the animal only with water while oxygen-18 is lost with both water and carbon dioxide. The difference bwtween the rates of loss of the two isotopes is proportional to CO/sub 2/ loss rate. Validation of the use of tritiated water for measuring water flux was accomplished by comparing gravimetric measurements of water gain with flux rates determined by loss of tritiated water. At room humidity, an overestimate for influx calculated from labeled water calculations was found, averaging 12 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/. Comparison of CO/sub 2/ loss rate determined isotopically with rates of CO/sub 2/ loss determined by standard metabolic rates also yielded overestimates for the isotopic technique, overestimates ranging between 20 and 30%. The relevance of this for studies using labeled water for studying water fluxes and free metabolism of free-ranging arthropods is discussed.

  7. Use of an automated chromium reduction system for hydrogen isotope ratio analysis of physiological fluids applied to doubly labeled water analysis.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, D A; Colligan, A S; Shriver, T; Avak, H; Bartok-Olson, C

    2000-09-01

    The doubly labeled water method is commonly used to measure total energy expenditure in free-living subjects. The method, however, requires accurate and precise deuterium abundance determinations, which can be laborious. The aim of this study was to evaluate a fully automated, high-throughput, chromium reduction technique for the measurement of deuterium abundances in physiological fluids. The chromium technique was compared with an off-line zinc bomb reduction technique and also subjected to test-retest analysis. Analysis of international water standards demonstrated that the chromium technique was accurate and had a within-day precision of <1 per thousand. Addition of organic matter to water samples demonstrated that the technique was sensitive to interference at levels between 2 and 5 g l(-1). Physiological samples could be analyzed without this interference, plasma by 10000 Da exclusion filtration, saliva by sedimentation and urine by decolorizing with carbon black. Chromium reduction of urine specimens from doubly labeled water studies indicated no bias relative to zinc reduction with a mean difference in calculated energy expenditure of -0.2 +/- 3.9%. Blinded reanalysis of urine specimens from a second doubly labeled water study demonstrated a test-retest coefficient of variation of 4%. The chromium reduction method was found to be a rapid, accurate and precise method for the analysis of urine specimens from doubly labeled water. PMID:11006607

  8. Estimating free-living human energy expenditure: Practical aspects of the doubly labeled water method and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Kazuko, Ishikawa-Takata; Kim, Eunkyung; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy and noninvasive nature of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method makes it ideal for the study of human energy metabolism in free-living conditions. However, the DLW method is not always practical in many developing and Asian countries because of the high costs of isotopes and equipment for isotope analysis as well as the expertise required for analysis. This review provides information about the theoretical background and practical aspects of the DLW method, including optimal dose, basic protocols of two- and multiple-point approaches, experimental procedures, and isotopic analysis. We also introduce applications of DLW data, such as determining the equations of estimated energy requirement and validation studies of energy intake. PMID:24944767

  9. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, M.B.; Prentice, A.M.; Coward, W.A.; Ceesay, S.M.; Strain, J.J.; McKenna, P.G.; Nevin, G.B.; Barker, M.E.; Hickey, R.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.

  11. A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery [W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile] from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is [(98 x FFM + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)], kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children. PMID:2497436

  12. Predicting free-living energy expenditure using a miniaturized ear-worn sensor: an evaluation against doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Bouarfa, Loubna; Atallah, Louis; Kwasnicki, Richard Mark; Pettitt, Claire; Frost, Gary; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-02-01

    Accurate estimation of daily total energy expenditure (EE)is a prerequisite for assisted weight management and assessing certain health conditions. The use of wearable sensors for predicting free-living EE is challenged by consistent sensor placement, user compliance, and estimation methods used. This paper examines whether a single ear-worn accelerometer can be used for EE estimation under free-living conditions.An EE prediction model as first derived and validated in a controlled setting using healthy subjects involving different physical activities. Ten different activities were assessed showing a tenfold cross validation error of 0.24. Furthermore, the EE prediction model shows a mean absolute deviation(MAD) below 1.2 metabolic equivalent of tasks. The same model was applied to a free-living setting with a different population for further validation. The results were compared against those derived from doubly labeled water. In free-living settings, the predicted daily EE has a correlation of 0.74, p 0.008, and a MAD of 272 kcal day. These results demonstrate that laboratory-derived prediction models can be used to predict EE under free-living conditions [corrected]. PMID:24108707

  13. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  14. Energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water method in Bolivian Aymara living in a high altitude agropastoral community.

    PubMed

    Kashiwazaki, H; Dejima, Y; Orias-Rivera, J; Coward, W A

    1995-11-01

    Using the doubly labeled water method (DLW), we determined total energy expenditure (TEE) under free-living conditions in 23 rural Bolivian Aymara (males and females aged 4-65), natives of a small, high-altitude (4000-4100 m), rural agropastoral community in the Andes mountains. In the adults (18-65 y of age), mean TEEs for males and females were 11.1 +/- 1.8 MJ/24 h (range: 9.3-14.1) and 9.8 +/- 0.9 MJ/24 h (8.8-11.3). Non basal energy expenditure expressed as TEE relative to basal energy expenditure (TEE:RMR) and as the difference between TEE and RMR per unit of weight [(TEE-RMR)/wt] showed no significant sex differences. TEE:RMR in the adults (2.00 +/- 0.21) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of adolescents and children (1.67 +/- 0.25), but the mean (TEE-RMR)/wt values were similar in children, adolescents, and adults. Significantly high RMR:FFM values in children and adolescents, reflecting a curvilinear relation of RMR and FFM, have enlarged the differences in TEE:RMR by age groups. When compared with other DLW studies for free-living nonobese adults, the RMR of adult Aymara subjects normalized by the ratio method (RMR:FFM) and by the regression-based method (RMR adjusted with FFM as the covariate) was not significantly different from that observed in subjects living in low altitudes. As compared to FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) recommendations, activity levels were classified as heavy for the adult females and moderate-heavy for the adult males. Energy requirements for maintaining everyday tasks in the Andean people are much higher than expected from the previous studies on food consumption. PMID:7572734

  15. Estimation of Free-Living Energy Expenditure by Heart Rate and Movement Sensing: A Doubly-Labelled Water Study

    PubMed Central

    Brage, Søren; Westgate, Kate; Franks, Paul W.; Stegle, Oliver; Wright, Antony; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important for the study of energy balance and metabolic disorders. Combined heart rate (HR) and acceleration (ACC) sensing may increase precision of physical activity EE (PAEE) which is the most variable component of total EE (TEE). Objective To evaluate estimates of EE using ACC and HR data with or without individual calibration against doubly-labelled water (DLW) estimates of EE. Design 23 women and 23 men (22–55 yrs, 48–104 kg, 8–46%body fat) underwent 45-min resting EE (REE) measurement and completed a 20-min treadmill test, an 8-min step test, and a 3-min walk test for individual calibration. ACC and HR were monitored and TEE measured over 14 days using DLW. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaire. PAEE (TEE ÷ REE ÷ DIT) and TEE were compared to estimates from ACC and HR using bias, root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation statistics. Results Mean(SD) measured PAEE and TEE were 66(25) kJ·day-1·kg-1, and 12(2.6) MJ·day-1, respectively. Estimated PAEE from ACC was 54(15) kJ·day-1·kg-1 (p<0.001), with RMSE 24 kJ·day-1·kg-1 and correlation r = 0.52. PAEE estimated from HR and ACC+HR with treadmill calibration were 67(42) and 69(25) kJ·day-1·kg-1 (bias non-significant), with RMSE 34 and 20 kJ·day-1·kg-1 and correlations r = 0.58 and r = 0.67, respectively. Similar results were obtained with step-calibrated and walk-calibrated models, whereas non-calibrated models were less precise (RMSE: 37 and 24 kJ·day-1·kg-1, r = 0.40 and r = 0.55). TEE models also had high validity, with biases <5%, and correlations r = 0.71 (ACC), r = 0.66–0.76 (HR), and r = 0.76–0.83 (ACC+HR). Conclusions Both accelerometry and heart rate may be used to estimate EE in adult European men and women, with improved precision if combined and if heart rate is individually calibrated. PMID:26349056

  16. Energy expenditure in underweight free-living adults: impact of energy supplementation as determined by doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Riumallo, J.A.; Schoeller, D.; Barrera, G.; Gattas, V.; Uauy, R.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of energy supplementation was evaluated in six underweight adults under free-living conditions. Customary energy intake (EI) over 4 wk and estimated body composition were defined. Then for 12 wk subjects were fed their customary EI under controlled conditions to assure stable energy reserve. Finally, intake was increased by a mean of 720 kcal/d for 8 wk adjusted to increase body fat from 9 to 18%. Body weight (means +/- SD) increased from 55.2 +/- 3.4 to 57.0 +/- 4.2 kg. Body fat gain was highly variable ranging from 0.6 to 3.8 kg. Energy expenditure (EE) by the factorial and doubly labeled water methods did not change. Fat storage accounted for 66% of the supplemental energy; 237 kcal/d remained unaccounted for. EE by the factorial method, which uses indirect calorimetry or isotopic measurements, were highly correlated (r = 0.8; p less than 0.01). Under the conditions of this study EI does not affect EE. The labeled water method permits the evaluation of energy expenditure in free-living conditions.

  17. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  18. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  19. Energy costs of surgery as measured by the doubly labeled water (/sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, W.M.; Nusbaum, M.; Stein, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Energy expenditure before and after surgery was determined in seven patients by the doubly labeled water (/sup 2/H/sub 2//sup 18/O) method (DLW). The values were compared with values obtained by respiratory gas exchange by means of a metabolic measuring cart (MMC). Patients were maintained on total parenteral nutrition before and after trauma. The principal finding was an increase in the rate of CO/sub 2/ production of 11.9 +/- 5.0% after surgery. This corresponds to a 267 +/- increase in energy expenditure (p less than 0.05). No trauma-associated change in energy expenditure was found with the MMC. The correlation of preoperative values from MMC and DLW was not statistically significant (r = 0.25), nor was the correlation of MMC and the Harris-Benedict equation, but the correlation of DLW with Harris-Benedict equation was statistically significant (r = 0.73, p less than 0.05). We suggest that the discrepancy is because the DLW method measures the cumulative energy expenditure over a period, whereas the MMC gives a spot measurement.

  20. High levels of isotope elimination improve precision and allow individual-based measurements of metabolic rates in animals using the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Masaki; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Maki; Oda, Emiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Oka, Nariko; Yoda, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Doubly labeled water (DLW) can be used to measure energy expenditure in free-ranging animals, but questions have been raised about its accuracy in different species or contexts. We investigated whether differences in the extent of isotope elimination affects the precision and accuracy of the DLW method, which can vary according to the experimental design or metabolic rate of the species. Estimated total energy expenditure by the DLW method (TEEdlw) was compared with actual total energy expenditure simultaneously measured via respirometry (TEEresp) in streaked shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas, a pelagic seabird. Subjects were divided into three groups with different experimental conditions: at rest on the ground for 24 h (Group A) or for 48 h (Group B), and at rest on the water for 24 h (Group C). TEEdlw in Group A matched TEEresp, whereas there was an overestimation of TEEdlw in both Groups B and C compared with TEEresp. However, compared with Group A, TEEdlw in Groups B and C had reduced the isotopic analytical variability and thus higher precision. The best regression model (TEEdlw = 1.37 TEEresp − 14.12) showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.82) between TEEdlw and TEEresp and allows a correction factor for field metabolic rates in streaked shearwaters. Our results demonstrate that the commonly made assumption that the DLW method is not appropriate for individual-based estimates may be incorrect in certain circumstances. Although a correction factor may be necessary when using the DLW method to estimate metabolic rate, greater levels of isotope eliminations provides DLW estimates with high precision, which can adequately represent relative individual estimates. Nevertheless, the DLW method, should be used with caution when characterizing interspecies difference of energy expenditures. PMID:26611463

  1. Validation of Cross-Sectional Time Series and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Models for the Prediction of Energy Expenditure in Children and Adolescents Using Doubly Labeled Water12

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Wong, William W.; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Vohra, Firoz A.; Zakeri, Issa F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant characteristics, heart rate (HR), and accelerometer counts (AC) for prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h total EE (TEE), against a 7-d doubly labeled water (DLW) method in children and adolescents. Our secondary aim was to demonstrate the utility of CSTS and MARS to predict awake EE, sleep EE, and activity EE (AEE) from 7-d HR and AC records, because these shorter periods are not verifiable by DLW, which provides an estimate of the individual's mean TEE over a 7-d interval. CSTS and MARS models were validated in 60 normal-weight and overweight participants (ages 5–18 y). The Actiheart monitor was used to simultaneously measure HR and AC. For prediction of TEE, mean absolute errors were 10.7 ± 307 kcal/d and 18.7 ± 252 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively, relative to DLW. Corresponding root mean square error values were 305 and 251 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the predicted values were in good agreement with the DLW-derived TEE values. Validation of CSTS and MARS models based on participant characteristics, HR monitoring, and accelerometry for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h TEE, against the DLW method indicated no systematic bias and acceptable limits of agreement for pediatric groups and individuals under free-living conditions. PMID:20573939

  2. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Wong, William W; Adolph, Anne L; Puyau, Maurice R; Vohra, Firoz A; Zakeri, Issa F

    2010-08-01

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant characteristics, heart rate (HR), and accelerometer counts (AC) for prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h total EE (TEE), against a 7-d doubly labeled water (DLW) method in children and adolescents. Our secondary aim was to demonstrate the utility of CSTS and MARS to predict awake EE, sleep EE, and activity EE (AEE) from 7-d HR and AC records, because these shorter periods are not verifiable by DLW, which provides an estimate of the individual's mean TEE over a 7-d interval. CSTS and MARS models were validated in 60 normal-weight and overweight participants (ages 5-18 y). The Actiheart monitor was used to simultaneously measure HR and AC. For prediction of TEE, mean absolute errors were 10.7 +/- 307 kcal/d and 18.7 +/- 252 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively, relative to DLW. Corresponding root mean square error values were 305 and 251 kcal/d for CSTS and MARS models, respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the predicted values were in good agreement with the DLW-derived TEE values. Validation of CSTS and MARS models based on participant characteristics, HR monitoring, and accelerometry for the prediction of minute-by-minute EE, and hence 24-h TEE, against the DLW method indicated no systematic bias and acceptable limits of agreement for pediatric groups and individuals under free-living conditions. PMID:20573939

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc eating in a shorebird. I. Foraging and processing costs estimated by the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; van Gils, Jan A; Achterkamp, Bart; Visser, G Henk

    2003-10-01

    Although the energy costs of foraging and food processing in vertebrates may be considerable, they have rarely been quantified separately. Here we present estimates for both cost factors based on a series of trials with a shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus, fed natural and artificial prey types under naturalistic but fully controlled indoor aviary conditions. During eight 1-day trials we successfully manipulated the extent to which the five red knots were (1) actively probing and walking (i.e. foraging) and (2) actually ingesting prey (i.e. processing food) that was (3) either hard-shelled or not (i.e. crushing). Energy expenditures, estimated by the doubly labelled water (DLW) method, calibrated for use in this particular condition, varied between 1.5 and 4 W. A hierarchical analysis of variance indicated that the crushing of hard-shelled prey entailed no extra cost. We arrived at the following breakdown of cost components under the thermoneutral conditions of the experiment: a cost of active rest/maintenance of 1.665 W, an additional cost of foraging of 0.602 W and an additional digestive processing cost of 1.082 W. These cost levels are all well within the range of expectation and are consistent with the results of a separate outdoor aviary experiment in which the thermostatic costs needed separate estimation. On the basis of the cost and performance functions of gizzards of different mass, it was shown that under the conditions of this experiment the red knots expended the bare minimum for a balanced budget, maintaining the smallest possible gizzard. Under field conditions a larger gizzard would be required. PMID:12939368

  4. Metabolic power of European starlings Sturnus vulgaris during flight in a wind tunnel, estimated from heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water and mask respirometry.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Möller, U; Rayner, J M V; Jackson, D M; Nachtigall, W; Speakman, J R

    2004-11-01

    It is technically demanding to measure the energetic cost of animal flight. Each of the previously available techniques has some disadvantage as well advantages. We compared measurements of the energetic cost of flight in a wind tunnel by four European starlings Sturnus vulgaris made using three independent techniques: heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water (DLW) and mask respirometry. We based our heat transfer model on thermal images of the surface temperature of the birds and air flow past the body and wings calculated from wing beat kinematics. Metabolic power was not sensitive to uncertainty in the value of efficiency when estimated from heat transfer modelling. A change in the assumed value of whole animal efficiency from 0.19 to 0.07 (the range of estimates in previous studies) only altered metabolic power predicted from heat transfer modelling by 13%. The same change in the assumed value of efficiency would cause a 2.7-fold change in metabolic power if it were predicted from mechanical power. Metabolic power did not differ significantly between measurements made using the three techniques when we assumed an efficiency in the range 0.11-0.19, although the DLW results appeared to form a U-shaped power-speed curve while the heat transfer model and respirometry results increased linearly with speed. This is the first time that techniques for determining metabolic power have been compared using data from the same birds flying under the same conditions. Our data provide reassurance that all the techniques produce similar results and suggest that heat transfer modelling may be a useful method for estimating metabolic rate. PMID:15531650

  5. Comparison of energy intake in toddlers assessed by food frequency questionnaire and total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L; Truby, Helen; Morgan, Philip J; Wright, Ian M R; Davies, Peter S W; Callister, Robin

    2013-03-01

    The ability of parents to accurately report energy intake in toddlers has rarely been validated using the gold-standard doubly labeled water (DLW) method to assess total energy expenditure (TEE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of toddler energy intake (EI), estimated using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by parent report compared with a weighed food record (WFR) and TEE measured by DLW. Twelve toddlers had TEE assessed over 10 days using DLW. Usual energy intake was estimated by the primary caregiver, using standard toddler portions in ACAES-FFQ and a 4-day WFR and daily EI (in kilocalories) derived using national nutrient databases. Accuracy of reporting was calculated from absolute (EI-TEE) and percentage (EI/TEE×100) differences between EI and TEE and Pearson correlations and limits of agreement from Bland-Altman plots. Toddlers (n=12, 7 boys) had a mean age of 3.2±0.5 years, body mass index 16.2±0.9 kg, body mass index z score 0.1±0.8, EI from ACAES-FFQ 1,183±281kcal/day, and WFR 1,179±278 kcal/day and DLW TEE 1,251±149 kcal/day. The mean difference and limits of agreement (±2 standard deviations) compared with DLW was -68 (-623, 488) kcal/day for the FFQ and for the WFR -72 (-499, 354) kcal/day. Although both a semiquantitative FFQ and WFR can adequately estimate toddler energy intake at the group level in this population, toddler-specific portion size estimates should be assigned to foods listed in the FFQ. Choice of method is likely to depend on practical issues, including cost and burden. PMID:23317500

  6. Comparison of physical activity energy expenditure in Japanese adolescents assessed by EW4800P triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ito, Chinatsu

    2013-10-01

    The present study compared the accuracy of triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring physical activity (PA) in Japanese adolescents. A total of sixty adolescents aged 12-15 years were analysed. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over 7 d by the DLW method and with an EW4800P triaxial accelerometer (Panasonic Corporation). The measured (RMR)(m) and predicted RMR (RMR(p)) were 5·7 (SD 0·9) and 6·0 (SD 1·0) MJ/d, respectively. TEE measured by the DLW method and accelerometry using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 11·0 (SD 2·6), 10·3 (SD 1·9), and 10·7 (SD 2·1) MJ/d, respectively. The PA levels (PAL) measured by the DLW method using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 1·97 (SD 0·31) and 1·94 (SD 0·31) in subjects who exercised, and 1·85 (SD 0·27) and 1·74 (SD 0·29) in subjects who did not exercise. The percentage of body fat correlated significantly with the percentage difference between RMR(m) v. RMR(p), TEE, PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and PAL using RMR(p), and PAL using RMR(m) assessed by the DLW method and accelerometry. The present data showed that while accelerometry estimated TEE accurately, it did not provide the precise measurement of PAEE and PAL. The error in accelerometry was attributed to the prediction error of RMR and assessment in exercise. PMID:23544366

  7. Walking as a Contributor to Physical Activity in Healthy Older Adults: 2 Week Longitudinal Study Using Accelerometry and the Doubly Labeled Water Method

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is recommended to promote healthy aging. Defining the importance of activities such as walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity might provide indications for interventions. Objective To describe the importance of walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity in older adults. Methods The study included 42 healthy subjects aged between 51 and 84 years (mean body mass index 25.6 kg/m2 [SD 2.6]). Physical activity, walking, and nonwalking activity were monitored with an accelerometer for 2 weeks. Physical activity was quantified by accelerometer-derived activity counts. An algorithm based on template matching and signal power was developed to classify activity counts into nonwalking counts, short walk counts, and long walk counts. Additionally, in a subgroup of 31 subjects energy expenditure was measured using doubly labeled water to derive physical activity level (PAL). Results Subjects had a mean PAL of 1.84 (SD 0.19, range 1.43-2.36). About 20% of the activity time (21% [SD 8]) was spent walking, which accounted for about 40% of the total counts (43% [SD 11]). Short bouts composed 83% (SD 9) of walking time, providing 81% (SD 11) of walking counts. A stepwise regression model to predict PAL included nonwalking counts and short walk counts, explaining 58% of the variance of PAL (standard error of the estimate=0.12). Walking activities produced more counts per minute than nonwalking activities (P<.001). Long walks produced more counts per minute than short walks (P=.001). Nonwalking counts were independent of walking counts (r=−.05, P=.38). Conclusions Walking activities are a major contributor to physical activity in older adults. Walking activities occur at higher intensities than nonwalking activities, which might prevent individuals from engaging in more walking activity. Finally, subjects who engage in more walking activities do not tend to compensate by limiting nonwalking activities. Trial Registration

  8. Wearable cameras can reduce dietary under-reporting: doubly labelled water validation of a camera-assisted 24 h recall.

    PubMed

    Gemming, Luke; Rush, Elaine; Maddison, Ralph; Doherty, Aiden; Gant, Nicholas; Utter, Jennifer; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary research has suggested that wearable cameras may reduce under-reporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of a wearable camera-assisted 24 h dietary recall against the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed over 15 d using the DLW protocol among forty adults (n 20 males, age 35 (sd 17) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2 and n 20 females, age 28 (sd 7) years, BMI 22 (sd 2) kg/m2). EI was assessed using three multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls (MP24) on days 2-4, 8-10 and 13-15. On the days before each nutrition assessment, participants wore an automated wearable camera (SenseCam (SC)) in free-living conditions. The wearable camera images were viewed by the participants following the completion of the dietary recall, and their changes in self-reported intakes were recorded (MP24+SC). TEE and EI assessed by the MP24 and MP24+SC methods were compared. Among men, the MP24 and MP24+SC measures underestimated TEE by 17 and 9 %, respectively (P< 0·001 and P= 0·02). Among women, these measures underestimated TEE by 13 and 7 %, respectively (P< 0·001 and P= 0·004). The assistance of the wearable camera (MP24+SC) reduced the magnitude of under-reporting by 8 % for men and 6 % for women compared with the MP24 alone (P< 0·001 and P< 0·001). The increase in EI was predominantly from the addition of 265 unreported foods (often snacks) as revealed by the participants during the image review. Wearable cameras enhance the accuracy of self-report by providing passive and objective information regarding dietary intake. High-definition image sensors and increased imaging frequency may improve the accuracy further. PMID:25430667

  9. Synthesis of γ-Phosphate-Labeled and Doubly Labeled Adenosine Triphosphate Analogs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Welter, Moritz; Marx, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the synthesis of γ-phosphate-labeled and doubly labeled adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogs and their characterization using the phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus adamanteus (snake venom phosphodiesterase; SVPD). In the key step of the synthesis, ATP or an ATP analog, bearing a linker containing a trifluoroacetamide group attached to the nucleoside, are modified with an azide-containing linker at the terminal phosphate using an alkylation reaction. Subsequently, different labels are introduced to the linkers by transformation of one functional group to an amine and coupling to an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Specifically, the Staudinger reaction of the azide is employed as a straightforward means to obtain an amine in the presence of various labels. Furthermore, the fluorescence characteristics of a fluorogenic, doubly labeled ATP analog are investigated following enzymatic cleavage by SVPD. PMID:25754889

  10. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  11. Doubly deuterium-labeled patchouli alcohol from cyclization of singly labeled [2-(2)H(1)]farnesyl diphosphate catalyzed by recombinant patchoulol synthase.

    PubMed

    Faraldos, Juan A; Wu, Shuiqin; Chappell, Joe; Coates, Robert M

    2010-03-10

    Incubations of isotopically pure [2-(2)H(1)](E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate with recombinant patchoulol synthase (PTS) from Pogostemon cablin afforded a 65:35 mixture of monodeuterated and dideuterated patchoulols as well as numerous sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Extensive NMR analyses ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H homodecoupling NMR, HMQC, and (2)H NMR) of the labeled patchoulol mixture and comparisons of the spectra with those of unlabeled alcohol led to the conclusion that the deuterium label was located at positions (patchoulol numbering system) C5 (both isotopomers, ca. 100%) and C12 (minor isotopomer, 30-35%), that is, an approximately 2:1 mixture of [5-(2)H(1)]- and [5,12-(2)H(2)]-patchoulols. Low-resolution FIMS analyses and isotope ratio calculations further corroborated the composition of the mixture as mainly one singly deuterated and one doubly deuterated patchoulol. From a mechanistic point of view, the formation of [5,12-(2)H(2)]patchoulol is rationalized through the intermediacy of an unknown exocyclic [7,10:1,5]patchoul-4(12)-ene (15-d(1)), which could incorporate a deuteron at the C-12 position on the pathway to doubly labeled patchoulol. The corresponding depletion of deuterium content observed in the hydrocarbon coproducts, beta-patchoulene and alpha-guaiene (55% d(0)), identified the source of the excess label found in patchoulol-d(2). Comparison of the PTS amino acid sequence with those of other sesquiterpene synthases, and examination of an active site model, suggested that re-orientation of leucine 410 side chain in PTS might facilitate the creation of a 2-pocket active site where the observed deuteron transfers could occur. The retention of deuterium at C5 in the labeled patchoulol and its absence at C4 rule out an alternative mechanism involving two consecutive 1,2-hydride shifts and appears to confirm the previously proposed occurrence of a 1,3-hydride shift across the 5-membered ring. A new, semisystematic nomenclature is presented for the purpose

  12. Pulse Dipolar ESR of Doubly Labeled Mini TAR DNA and Its Annealing to Mini TAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Borbat, Peter P.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Myers, William K.; Freed, Jack H.; Scholes, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance in the form of double electron electron resonance was applied to strategically placed, site-specifically attached pairs of nitroxide spin labels to monitor changes in the mini TAR DNA stem-loop structure brought on by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7. The biophysical structural evidence was at Ångstrom-level resolution under solution conditions not amenable to crystallography or NMR. In the absence of complementary TAR RNA, double labels located in both the upper and the lower stem of mini TAR DNA showed in the presence of NCp7 a broadened distance distribution between the points of attachment, and there was evidence for several conformers. Next, when equimolar amounts of mini TAR DNA and complementary mini TAR RNA were present, NCp7 enhanced the annealing of their stem-loop structures to form duplex DNA-RNA. When duplex TAR DNA-TAR RNA formed, double labels initially located 27.5 Å apart at the 3′- and 5′-termini of the 27-base mini TAR DNA relocated to opposite ends of a 27 bp RNA-DNA duplex with 76.5 Å between labels, a distance which was consistent with the distance between the two labels in a thermally annealed 27-bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex. Different sets of double labels initially located 26–27 Å apart in the mini TAR DNA upper stem, appropriately altered their interlabel distance to ∼35 Å when a 27 bp TAR DNA-TAR RNA duplex formed, where the formation was caused either through NCp7-induced annealing or by thermal annealing. In summary, clear structural evidence was obtained for the fraying and destabilization brought on by NCp7 in its biochemical function as an annealing agent and for the detailed structural change from stem-loop to duplex RNA-DNA when complementary RNA was present. PMID:25692594

  13. Structural Changes of a Doubly Spin-Labeled Chemically Driven Molecular Shuttle Probed by PELDOR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Paola; Bleve, Valentina; Mezzina, Elisabetta; Schäfer, Christian; Ragazzon, Giulio; Albertini, Marco; Carbonera, Donatella; Credi, Alberto; Di Valentin, Marilena; Lucarini, Marco

    2016-06-20

    Gaining detailed information on the structural rearrangements associated with stimuli-induced molecular movements is of utmost importance for understanding the operation of molecular machines. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) was employed to monitor the geometrical changes arising upon chemical switching of a [2]rotaxane that behaves as an acid-base-controlled molecular shuttle. To this aim, the rotaxane was endowed with stable nitroxide radical units in both the ring and axle components. The combination of PELDOR data and molecular dynamic calculations indicates that in the investigated rotaxane, the ring displacement along the axle, caused by the addition of a base, does not alter significantly the distance between the nitroxide labels, but it is accompanied by a profound change in the geometry adopted by the macrocycle. PMID:27123774

  14. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): A study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Elka R.; Roy, Aritro S.; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Borbat, Petr P.; Earle, Keith A.; Scholes, Charles P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (⩽100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions.

  15. Effect of freezing conditions on distances and their distributions derived from Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER): a study of doubly-spin-labeled T4 lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Elka R; Roy, Aritro S; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Borbat, Petr P; Earle, Keith A; Scholes, Charles P; Freed, Jack H

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy, DEER and DQC, require frozen samples. An important issue in the biological application of this technique is how the freezing rate and concentration of cryoprotectant could possibly affect the conformation of biomacromolecule and/or spin-label. We studied in detail the effect of these experimental variables on the distance distributions obtained by DEER from a series of doubly spin-labeled T4 lysozyme mutants. We found that the rate of sample freezing affects mainly the ensemble of spin-label rotamers, but the distance maxima remain essentially unchanged. This suggests that proteins frozen in a regular manner in liquid nitrogen faithfully maintain the distance-dependent structural properties in solution. We compared the results from rapidly freeze-quenched (≤100 μs) samples to those from commonly shock-frozen (slow freeze, 1 s or longer) samples. For all the mutants studied we obtained inter-spin distance distributions, which were broader for rapidly frozen samples than for slowly frozen ones. We infer that rapid freezing trapped a larger ensemble of spin label rotamers; whereas, on the time-scale of slower freezing the protein and spin-label achieve a population showing fewer low-energy conformers. We used glycerol as a cryoprotectant in concentrations of 10% and 30% by weight. With 10% glycerol and slow freezing, we observed an increased slope of background signals, which in DEER is related to increased local spin concentration, in this case due to insufficient solvent vitrification, and therefore protein aggregation. This effect was considerably suppressed in slowly frozen samples containing 30% glycerol and rapidly frozen samples containing 10% glycerol. The assignment of bimodal distributions to tether rotamers as opposed to protein conformations is aided by comparing results using MTSL and 4-Bromo MTSL spin-labels. The latter usually produce narrower distance distributions. PMID:22341208

  16. Fragmentation of doubly-protonated peptide ion populations labeled by H/D exchange with CD3OD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Kristin A.; Kuppannan, Krishna; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2006-03-01

    Doubly-protonated bradykinin (RPPGFSPFR) and an angiotensin III analogue (RVYIFPF) were subjected to hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange with CD3OD in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. A bimodal distribution of deuterium incorporation was present for bradykinin after H/D exchange for 90 s at a CD3OD pressure of 4 × 10-7 Torr, indicating the existence of at least two distinct populations. Bradykinin ion populations corresponding to 0-2 and 5-11 deuteriums (i.e., D0, D1, D2, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, and D11) were each monoisotopically selected and fragmented via sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI) collision-induced dissociation (CID). The D0-D2 ion populations, which correspond to the slower exchanging population, consistently require lower SORI amplitude to achieve a similar precursor ion survival yield as the faster-reacting (D5-D11) populations. These results demonstrate that conformation/protonation motif has an effect on fragmentation efficiency for bradykinin. Also, the partitioning of the deuterium atoms into fragment ions suggests that the C-terminal arginine residue exchanges more rapidly than the N-terminal arginine. Total deuterium incorporation in the b1/y8 and b2/y7 ion pairs matches very closely the theoretical values for all ion populations studied, indicating that the ions of a complementary pair are likely formed during the same fragmentation event, or that no scrambling occurs upon SORI. Deuterium incorporation into the y1/a8 pseudo-ion pair does not closely match the expected theoretical values. The other peptide, doubly-protonated RVYIFPF, has a trimodal distribution of deuterium incorporation upon H/D exchange with CD3OD at a pressure of 1 × 10-7 Torr for 600 s, indicating at least three distinct ion populations. After 90 s of H/D exchange where at least two distinct populations are detected, the D0-D7 ion populations were monoisotopically selected and fragmented via SORI-CID over a range of SORI

  17. Exploration of Doubly Thermal Phase Transition Process of PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL in Water.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhangxin; Li, Youcheng; An, Zesheng; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of phase transition mechanism of thermoresponsive polymers is the basis for the rational design of smart materials with predictable properties. Linear ABC triblock terpolymer poly(di(ethylene glycol)ethyl ether acrylate)-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The doubly thermal phase transition of PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL in aqueous solution was investigated by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), turbidimetry, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The terpolymer self-assembles into micelles with PDEGA being the core-forming block during the first lower critical solution temperature (LCST) transition corresponding to PDEGA, which is followed by a second LCST transition corresponding to PVCL, resulting in the formation of micellar aggregates. The PDMA middle segment plays an important role as an isolation zone to prevent cooperative dehydration of the PDEGA and PVCL segments, and therefore, two independent LCST transitions corresponding to PDEGA and PVCL were observed. Furthermore, FT-IR with perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) and two-dimensional spectroscopy (2DCOS) was applied to elucidate the two-step phase transition mechanism of this terpolymer. It was observed that the CH, ester carbonyl, and ether groups of PDEGA change prior to the CH and amide carbonyl groups of PVCL, further supporting that the two phase transitions corresponding to PDEGA and PVCL indeed occur without mutual interferences. PMID:27299984

  18. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R. )

    1991-09-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 {plus minus} 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 {plus minus} 0.76 and 7.39 {plus minus} 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 {plus minus} 2 and 122 {plus minus} 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 {plus minus} 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs.

  19. Water soluble fluorescence quantum dot probe labeling liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Baoxing; Yang, Xianjun; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yinsong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Baiqi

    2013-11-01

    Water soluble quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared by hydrothermal method and characterized by ultraviolet irradiation, XRD, TEM, UV-Vis absorption spectrometer and fluorescence spectrometer. Then the QD-antibody-AFP probes (QD-Ab-AFP) were synthesized by chemical process and specifically labeled AFP antigen in PLC/PRF/5 liver cancer cells. The results showed that the QDs were cubic structure and had excellent optical properties. Moreover, the QD-Ab-AFP with good stability could specifically label liver cancer cells. This work provides strong foundation for further studying and developing new approach to detect liver cancer at early stage. PMID:23888351

  20. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  1. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  2. CLearance of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in vivo. II. Studies using triclinic crystals doubly labeled with 45Ca and 85Sr.

    PubMed

    McCarty, D J; Palmer, D W; James, C

    1979-10-01

    The clearance rate of isotopically labeled synthetic triclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals injection into rabbit joints was estimated by serial counting. Kinetic analysis using a four compartment model showed that half of the injected dose was cleared from 4 rabbit knee joints in 19.1 +/- 0.42 (SEM) days. Profound hypomagnesemia, produced in 2 rabbits with a low magnesium diet, did not affect the rate of crystal clearance detectably. Lavage of joints with solutions known to promote CPPD crystal solubility failed to remove detectable radioactivity. The previous finding of CPPD crystals in synovial phagocytes by electron microscopy, together with the finding of nuclide activity in the synovium and the failure to remove such activity by joint lavage, suggests that endocytosis by synovial cells is an important, effective mechanism controlling the synovial fluid concentration of crystals in patients with CPPD crystal deposition disease. PMID:226098

  3. Kinugasa reactions in water: from green chemistry to bioorthogonal labelling.

    PubMed

    Chigrinova, Mariya; MacKenzie, Douglas A; Sherratt, Allison R; Cheung, Lawrence L W; Pezacki, John Paul; Pezacki, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Kinugasa reaction has become an efficient method for the direct synthesis of β-lactams from substituted nitrones and copper(I) acetylides. In recent years, the reaction scope has been expanded to include the use of water as the solvent, and with micelle-promoted [3+2] cycloadditions followed by rearrangement furnishing high yields of β-lactams. The high yields of stable products under aqueous conditions render the modified Kinugasa reaction amenable to metabolic labelling and bioorthogonal applications. Herein, the development of methods for use of the Kinugasa reaction in aqueous media is reviewed, with emphasis on its potential use as a bioorthogonal coupling strategy. PMID:25913933

  4. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... model's energy efficiency rating or thermal efficiency, as applicable, as determined in accordance with... CONGRESS ENERGY AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.11 Labeling for refrigerators,...

  5. Doubly robust survival trees.

    PubMed

    Steingrimsson, Jon Arni; Diao, Liqun; Molinaro, Annette M; Strawderman, Robert L

    2016-09-10

    Estimating a patient's mortality risk is important in making treatment decisions. Survival trees are a useful tool and employ recursive partitioning to separate patients into different risk groups. Existing 'loss based' recursive partitioning procedures that would be used in the absence of censoring have previously been extended to the setting of right censored outcomes using inverse probability censoring weighted estimators of loss functions. In this paper, we propose new 'doubly robust' extensions of these loss estimators motivated by semiparametric efficiency theory for missing data that better utilize available data. Simulations and a data analysis demonstrate strong performance of the doubly robust survival trees compared with previously used methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037609

  6. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  7. Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus.

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R. V. F.; Physics

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope {sup 24}O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability.

  8. Visualizing Water Molecules in Transmembrane Proteins Using Radiolytic Labeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Gupta, S; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2010-01-01

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of 'ordered' waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  9. Protease- and Acid-catalyzed Labeling Workflows Employing 18O-enriched Water

    PubMed Central

    Klingler, Diana; Hardt, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes are essential tools in biological mass spectrometry. Historically, 18O-stable isotopes have been extensively used to study the catalytic mechanisms of proteolytic enzymes1-3. With the advent of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, the enzymatically-catalyzed incorporation of 18O-atoms from stable isotopically enriched water has become a popular method to quantitatively compare protein expression levels (reviewed by Fenselau and Yao4, Miyagi and Rao5 and Ye et al.6). 18O-labeling constitutes a simple and low-cost alternative to chemical (e.g. iTRAQ, ICAT) and metabolic (e.g. SILAC) labeling techniques7. Depending on the protease utilized, 18O-labeling can result in the incorporation of up to two 18O-atoms in the C-terminal carboxyl group of the cleavage product3. The labeling reaction can be subdivided into two independent processes, the peptide bond cleavage and the carboxyl oxygen exchange reaction8. In our PALeO (protease-assisted labeling employing 18O-enriched water) adaptation of enzymatic 18O-labeling, we utilized 50% 18O-enriched water to yield distinctive isotope signatures. In combination with high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS), the characteristic isotope envelopes can be used to identify cleavage products with a high level of specificity. We previously have used the PALeO-methodology to detect and characterize endogenous proteases9 and monitor proteolytic reactions10-11. Since PALeO encodes the very essence of the proteolytic cleavage reaction, the experimental setup is simple and biochemical enrichment steps of cleavage products can be circumvented. The PALeO-method can easily be extended to (i) time course experiments that monitor the dynamics of proteolytic cleavage reactions and (ii) the analysis of proteolysis in complex biological samples that represent physiological conditions. PALeO-TimeCourse experiments help identifying rate-limiting processing

  10. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air conditioners and pool heaters must contain the model's energy efficiency rating or thermal... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  11. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air conditioners and pool heaters must contain the model's energy efficiency rating or thermal... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  12. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water heaters, room air conditioners, and pool heaters. 305.11 Section 305.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING...

  13. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant cha...

  14. Doubly sensitivity-enhanced 3D TOCSY-HSQC.

    PubMed

    Wijmenga, S S; van Mierlo, C P; Steensma, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, strategies for double sensitivity enhancement in heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR experiments were introduced (Krishnamurthy, V.V. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B106, 170-177; Sattler et al. (1995) J. Biomol. NMR, 6, 11-22; Sattler et al. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B108, 235-242). Since a sensitivity enhancement of a factor 2(1/2) can be achieved for each indirect dimension, nD spectra can theoretically be enhanced up to a factor of 2(((n-1)/2)). We propose and analyze a doubly enhanced three-dimensional TOCSY-HSQC sequence. The application of the doubly enhanced three-dimensional {(15)N, (1)H} TOCSY-HSQC sequence is shown for uniformly (13)C-/(15)N- and (15)N-labeled samples of the relatively large Azotobacter vinelandii flavodoxin II (179 amino acids). The main factors that contribute to the final signal-to-noise enhancement have been systematically investigated. The sensitivity enhancement obtained for the doubly enhanced TOCSY-HSQC pulse sequence as compared to the standard (unenhanced) version is close to the theoretically expected factor of two. PMID:20686884

  15. Measurement of vascular water transport in human subjects using time-resolved pulsed arterial spin labelling.

    PubMed

    Bibic, Adnan; Knutsson, Linda; Schmidt, Anders; Henningsson, Erik; Månsson, Sven; Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Åkeson, Jonas; Gunther, Matthias; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Wirestam, Ronnie

    2015-08-01

    Most approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) data analysis aim to provide a quantitative measure of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study, however, focuses on the measurement of the transfer time of blood water through the capillaries to the parenchyma (referred to as the capillary transfer time, CTT) as an alternative parameter to characterise the haemodynamics of the system. The method employed is based on a non-compartmental model, and no measurements need to be added to a common time-resolved ASL experiment. Brownian motion of labelled spins in a potential was described by a one-dimensional general Langevin equation as the starting point, and as a Fokker-Planck differential equation for the averaged distribution of labelled spins at the end point, which takes into account the effects of flow and dispersion of labelled water by the pseudorandom nature of the microvasculature and the transcapillary permeability. Multi-inversion time (multi-TI) ASL data were acquired in 14 healthy subjects on two occasions in a test-retest design, using a pulsed ASL sequence and three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (3D-GRASE) readout. Based on an error analysis to predict the size of a region of interest (ROI) required to obtain reasonably precise parameter estimates, data were analysed in two relatively large ROIs, i.e. the occipital lobe (OC) and the insular cortex (IC). The average values of CTT in OC were 260 ± 60 ms in the first experiment and 270 ± 60 ms in the second experiment. The corresponding IC values were 460 ± 130 ms and 420 ± 139 ms, respectively. Information related to the water transfer time may be important for diagnostics and follow-up of cerebral conditions or diseases characterised by a disrupted blood-brain barrier or disturbed capillary blood flow. PMID:26147641

  16. The doubly compactified Schwinger model

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, R.; Urrutia, L. F.; Vergara, J. D.

    1999-10-25

    In this note we summarize the exact solution of the doubly compactified Schwinger model (CSM), defined by the condition that the domain of the electromagnetic degree of freedom c=1/L{integral}{sub 0}{sup L}dxA{sub 1} is -c-bar

  17. The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains two articles concerned with doubly exceptional children and gifted education. In "The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma," (Carol J. Mills and Linda E. Brody), such children do not fit into the usual categories for sorting children because their gifts and disabilities often mask each other. Suggestions are…

  18. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts. PMID:26552990

  19. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts.

  20. Multispot, label-free biodetection at a phantom plastic-water interface.

    PubMed

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Salina, Matteo; Cerbino, Roberto; Bassi, Mattia; Prosperi, Davide; Ceccarello, Erica; Damin, Francesco; Sola, Laura; Rusnati, Marco; Chiari, Marcella; Chini, Bice; Bellini, Tommaso; Buscaglia, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing and quantifying specific biomolecules in aqueous samples are constantly needed in research and diagnostic laboratories. As the typical detection procedures are rather lengthy and involve the use of labeled secondary antibodies or other agents to provide a signal, efforts have been made over the last 10 y to develop alternative label-free methods that enable direct detection. We propose and demonstrate an extremely simple, low-cost, label-free biodetector based on measuring the intensity of light reflected by the interface between a fluid sample and an amorphous fluoropolymer substrate having a refractive index very close to that of water and hosting various antibodies immobilized in spots. Under these index-matching conditions, the amount of light reflected by the interface allows straightforward quantification of the amount of antigen binding to each spot. Using antibodies targeting heterologous immunoglobulins and antigens commonly used as markers for diagnoses of hepatitis B and HIV, we demonstrate the limit of detection of a few picograms per square millimeter of surface-bound molecules. We also show that direct and real-time access to the amount of binding molecules allows the precise extrapolation of adhesion rates, from which the concentrations of antigens in solution can be estimated down to fractions of nanograms per milliliter. PMID:23696673

  1. Doubly rotated contoured quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    Sinha, B K

    2001-09-01

    Doubly rotated contoured quartz resonators are used in the design of temperature-compensated stable clocks and dual-mode sensors for simultaneous measurements of pressure and temperature. The design of these devices is facilitated by models that can predict frequency spectra associated with the three thickness modes and temperature and stress-induced frequency changes as a function of crystalline orientation. The Stevens-Tiersten technique for the analysis of the C-mode of a doubly rotated contoured quartz resonator is extended to include the other two thickness modes. Computational results for harmonic and anharmonic overtones of all three thickness modes of such resonators help in optimizing the radius of curvature of the contour and electrode shape for suppression of unwanted modes and prevention of activity dips. The temperature and stress-induced changes in thickness-mode resonator frequencies are calculated from a perturbation technique for small dynamic fields superposed on a static bias. The static bias refers to either a temperature or stress-induced static deformation of the resonator plate. Phenomenological models are also used for calculating the temperature and stress-induced changes in resonant frequencies as a function of crystalline orientation. Results for the SBTC-cut quartz plate with a spherical convex contour of 260 mm indicate that normal trapping occurs for the third (n = 3) and fifth (n = 5) harmonic of the A-mode, the fundamental (n = 1) and third (n = 3) harmonic of the B-mode, and the fundamental (n = 1) and fifth (n = 5) harmonic of the C-mode. PMID:11570746

  2. Liquid state DNP for water accessibility measurements on spin-labeled membrane proteins at physiological temperatures.

    PubMed

    Doll, Andrin; Bordignon, Enrica; Joseph, Benesh; Tschaggelar, René; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate the application of continuous wave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 0.35 T for site-specific water accessibility studies on spin-labeled membrane proteins at concentrations in the 10-100 μM range. The DNP effects at such low concentrations are weak and the experimentally achievable dynamic nuclear polarizations can be below the equilibrium polarization. This sensitivity problem is solved with an optimized home-built DNP probe head consisting of a dielectric microwave resonator and a saddle coil as close as possible to the sample. The performance of the probe head is demonstrated with both a modified pulsed EPR spectrometer and a dedicated CW EPR spectrometer equipped with a commercial NMR console. In comparison to a commercial pulsed ENDOR resonator, the home-built resonator has an FID detection sensitivity improvement of 2.15 and an electron spin excitation field improvement of 1.2. The reproducibility of the DNP results is tested on the water soluble maltose binding protein MalE of the ABC maltose importer, where we determine a net standard deviation of 9% in the primary DNP data in the concentration range between 10 and 100 μM. DNP parameters are measured in a spin-labeled membrane protein, namely the vitamin B(12) importer BtuCD in both detergent-solubilized and reconstituted states. The data obtained in different nucleotide states in the presence and absence of binding protein BtuF reveal the applicability of this technique to qualitatively extract water accessibility changes between different conformations by the ratio of primary DNP parameters ϵ. The ϵ-ratio unveils the physiologically relevant transmembrane communication in the transporter in terms of changes in water accessibility at the cytoplasmic gate of the protein induced by both BtuF binding at the periplasmic region of the transporter and ATP binding at the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. PMID:22820007

  3. Liquid state DNP for water accessibility measurements on spin-labeled membrane proteins at physiological temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Andrin; Bordignon, Enrica; Joseph, Benesh; Tschaggelar, René; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate the application of continuous wave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 0.35 T for site-specific water accessibility studies on spin-labeled membrane proteins at concentrations in the 10-100 μM range. The DNP effects at such low concentrations are weak and the experimentally achievable dynamic nuclear polarizations can be below the equilibrium polarization. This sensitivity problem is solved with an optimized home-built DNP probe head consisting of a dielectric microwave resonator and a saddle coil as close as possible to the sample. The performance of the probe head is demonstrated with both a modified pulsed EPR spectrometer and a dedicated CW EPR spectrometer equipped with a commercial NMR console. In comparison to a commercial pulsed ENDOR resonator, the home-built resonator has an FID detection sensitivity improvement of 2.15 and an electron spin excitation field improvement of 1.2. The reproducibility of the DNP results is tested on the water soluble maltose binding protein MalE of the ABC maltose importer, where we determine a net standard deviation of 9% in the primary DNP data in the concentration range between 10 and 100 μM. DNP parameters are measured in a spin-labeled membrane protein, namely the vitamin B12 importer BtuCD in both detergent-solubilized and reconstituted states. The data obtained in different nucleotide states in the presence and absence of binding protein BtuF reveal the applicability of this technique to qualitatively extract water accessibility changes between different conformations by the ratio of primary DNP parameters ɛ. The ɛ-ratio unveils the physiologically relevant transmembrane communication in the transporter in terms of changes in water accessibility at the cytoplasmic gate of the protein induced by both BtuF binding at the periplasmic region of the transporter and ATP binding at the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains.

  4. Analysis of Hydrogen Isotopic Exchange: Lava Creek Tuff Ash and Isotopically Labeled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. M.; Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Nolan, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nolan and Bindeman (2013) placed secondarily hydrated ash from the 7.7 ka eruption of Mt. Mazama (δD=-149‰, 2.3wt% H2Ot) in isotopically labeled water (+650 ‰ δD, +56 ‰ δ18O) and observed that the H2Ot and δ18O values remained constant, but the δD values of ash increased with the surrounding water at 20, 40 and 70 °C. We expand on this work by conducting a similar experiment with ash from the 640 ka Lava Creek Tuff (LCT, δD of -128 ‰; 2.1 wt.% H2Ot) eruption of Yellowstone to see if significantly older glass (with a hypothesized gel layer on the surface shielding the interior from alteration) produces the same results. We have experiments running at 70, 24, and 5 °C, and periodically remove ~1.5 mg of glass to measure the δD (‰) and H2Ot (wt.%) of water extracted from the glass on a TC/EA MAT 253 continuous flow system. After 600 hours, the δD of the samples left at 5 and 24 °C remains at -128 ‰, but increased 8‰ for the 70 °C run series. However, there is no measurable change in wt.% of H2Ot, indicating that hydrogen exchange is not dictated by the addition of water. We are measuring and will report further progress of isotope exchange. We also plan to analyze the water in the LCT glass for δ18O (‰) to see if, as is the case for the Mt. Mazama glass, the δ18O (‰) remains constant. We also analyzed Mt. Mazama glass from the Nolan and Bindeman (2013) experiments that have now been sitting in isotopically labeled water at room temperature for ~5 years. The water concentration is still unchanged (2.3 wt.% H2Ot), and the δD of the water in the glass is now -111 ‰, causing an increase of 38 ‰. Our preliminary results show that exchange of hydrogen isotopes of hydrated glass is not limited by the age of the glass, and that the testing of hydrogen isotopes of secondarily hydrated glass, regardless of age, may not be a reliable paleoclimate indicator.

  5. Doubly charmful baryonic B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chua, C.-K.; Tsai, S.-Y.

    2006-04-01

    There are two apparent puzzles connected with the two-body and three-body doubly charmed baryonic B decays. First, earlier calculations based on QCD sum rules or the diquark model predict B(B{sup 0}{yields}{xi}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}){approx_equal}B(B{sup 0}{yields}B{sub c}N), while experimentally the former has a rate 2 orders of magnitude larger than the latter. Second, a naive estimate of the branching ratio O(10{sup -9}) for the color-suppressed three-body decay B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K, which is highly suppressed by phase space, is too small by 5 to 6 orders of magnitude compared to the experiment. We show that the great suppression for the {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K production can be alleviated provided that there exists a narrow hidden charm bound state with a mass near the {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} threshold. This new state that couples strongly to the charmed baryon pair can be searched for in B decays and in pp collisions by studying the mass spectrum of D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)} or {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}. The doubly charmful decay B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} has a configuration more favorable than the singly charmful one such as B{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}p since no hard gluon is needed to produce the energetic {xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} pair in the former decay, while two hard gluons are needed for the latter process. Assuming that a soft qq quark pair is produced through the {sigma} and {pi} meson exchanges in the configuration for B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}, it is found that its branching ratio is of order 10{sup -3}, in agreement with the experiment.

  6. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Fluorescent labelling of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and its application for residues analysis in surface water.

    PubMed

    Prutthiwanasan, Brompoj; Phechkrajang, Chutima; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Sensitivity enhancement for residue analysis of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in surface water was performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (LC-FD). Labelling of both drugs were studied with fluorescent probes (e.g. Nile blue perchlorate (NBP) and 4- (N,N-Dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-(N-chloroformylmethyl-N-methylamino)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-COCl). Factors affecting the derivatization (e.g. stoichiometric ratios, reaction time and base catalysts) were optimized. The derivatization was achieved in 15min using a stoichiometric ratio between the substrate and DBD-COCl of 1:3, whereas NBP gave unsatisfactory results. Separation of the derivatives by LC was achieved (resolution (RS) > 1.8) on a C8 column using a mobile phase consisting of 50mM formic acid and acetonitrile (ACN) (68:32% v/v) in 20min. The method was linear (r(2) > 0.99) in a range of 200-2,000µg/L, precise (%RSD < 9.17) and accurate (%recovery of 102.5-122.2%) for the determination of the derivatives. The uses of fluoroquinolone molecularly imprinted polymer in conjunction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbents demonstrated an efficient procedure for sample pre-concentration and clean-up for water sample resulting in the improved percent recovery. Applications of the proposed method was shown in surface water samples in Thailand. PMID:27474281

  8. Co-Permeability of 3H-Labeled Water and 14C-Labeled Organic Acids across Isolated Plant Cuticles1

    PubMed Central

    Niederl, Sabine; Kirsch, Thomas; Riederer, Markus; Schreiber, Lukas

    1998-01-01

    Penetration of 3H-labeled water (3H2O) and the 14C-labeled organic acids benzoic acid ([14C]BA), salicylic acid ([14C]SA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([14C]2,4-D) were measured simultaneously in isolated cuticular membranes of Prunus laurocerasus L., Ginkgo biloba L., and Juglans regia L. For each of the three pairs of compounds (3H2O/[14C]BA, 3H2O/[14C]SA, and 3H2O/[14C]2,4-D) rates of cuticular water penetration were highly correlated with the rates of penetration of the organic acids. Therefore, water and organic acids penetrated the cuticles by the same routes. With the combination 3H2O/[14C]BA, co-permeability was measured with isolated cuticles of nine other plant species. Permeances of 3H2O of all 12 investigated species were highly correlated with the permeances of [14C]BA (r2 = 0.95). Thus, cuticular transpiration can be predicted from BA permeance. The application of this experimental method, together with the established prediction equation, offers the opportunity to answer several important questions about cuticular transport physiology in future investigations.

  9. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  10. Enrichment of H(2)(17)O from tap water, characterization of the enriched water, and properties of several (17)O-labeled compounds.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Brinda; Lewis, Andrew R; Plettner, Erika

    2011-01-01

    A low-abundance form of water, H(2)(17)O, was enriched from 0.04% to ∼90% by slow evaporation and fractional distillation of tap water. The density and refractive index for H(2)(17)O are reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of (16)O- and (17)O-1-hexanols and their trimethyl silyl ethers and of (16)O- and (17)O-hexamethyl disiloxanes was used to determine the percentage of (17)O enrichment in the H(2)(17)O. Furthermore, the chemical shifts of labeled and nonlabeled water dissolved in CDCl(3) differed sufficiently that we could verify the enrichment of H(2)(17)O. (17)O hexanol was synthesized by the reaction of iodohexane with Na(17)OH. (17)O-Labeled trimethylsilanol and (17)O-labeled hexamethyldisiloxane were prepared by the reaction of H(2)(17)O with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). To generate standards for (17)O NMR, H(2)(17)O(2), and (17)O camphor were prepared. H(2)(17)O was electrolyzed to form (17)O-labeled hydrogen peroxide which was quantified using two colorimetric assays. (17)O-Labeled camphor was prepared by exchanging the ketone oxygen of camphor using H(2)(17)O. The (17)O-labeled compounds were characterized using (17)O, (1)H, and (13)C NMR and GC-MS. While we were characterizing the labeled camphor, we also detected an unexpected oxygen exchange reaction of primary alcohols, catalyzed by electrophilic ketones such as camphor. The reaction is a displacement of the alcohol OH group by water. This is an example of the usefulness of (17)O NMR in the study of a reaction mechanism that has not been noticed previously. PMID:21128590

  11. Room-Temperature Distance Measurements of Immobilized Spin-Labeled Protein by DEER/PELDOR

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Virginia; Swanson, Michael A.; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Stein, Richard A.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Rajca, Andrzej; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide spin labels are used for double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements of distances between sites in biomolecules. Rotation of gem-dimethyls in commonly used nitroxides causes spin echo dephasing times (Tm) to be too short to perform DEER measurements at temperatures between ∼80 and 295 K, even in immobilized samples. A spirocyclohexyl spin label has been prepared that has longer Tm between 80 and 295 K in immobilized samples than conventional labels. Two of the spirocyclohexyl labels were attached to sites on T4 lysozyme introduced by site-directed spin labeling. Interspin distances up to ∼4 nm were measured by DEER at temperatures up to 160 K in water/glycerol glasses. In a glassy trehalose matrix the Tm for the doubly labeled T4 lysozyme was long enough to measure an interspin distance of 3.2 nm at 295 K, which could not be measured for the same protein labeled with the conventional 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-(methyl)methanethio-sulfonate label. PMID:25762332

  12. (Bio)degradation of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms - A stable isotope co-labeling approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Seiwert, Bettina; Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja; Schäffer, Andreas; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Yang, Qi; Nowak, Karolina M

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are frequently detected in water and sediments. Up to date, there are no comprehensive studies on the fate of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms according to OECD 308 guideline. Stable isotope co-labeled (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate was used to determine the turnover mass balance, formation of metabolites, and formation of residues over a period of 80 days. In the water-sediment system, 56% of the initial (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents was ultimately mineralized, whereas the mineralization in the water system (without sediment) was low, reaching only 2% of (13)C-glyphosate equivalents. This finding demonstrates the key role of sediments in its degradation. Glyphosate was detected below detection limit in the water compartment on day 40, but could still be detected in the sediments, ultimately reaching 5% of (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate equivalents. A rapid increase in (13)C(15)N-AMPA was noted after 10 days, and these transformation products ultimately constituted 26% of the (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents and 79% of the (15)N-glyphosate equivalents. In total, 10% of the (13)C label and 12% of the (15)N label were incorporated into amino acids, indicating no risk bearing biogenic residue formation from (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate. Initially, glyphosate was biodegraded via the sarcosine pathway related to microbial growth, as shown by co-labeled (13)C(15)N-glycine and biogenic residue formation. Later, degradation via AMPA dominated under starvation conditions, as shown by the contents of (13)C-glycine. The presented data provide the first evidence of the speciation of the non-extractable residues as well as the utilization of glyphosate as a carbon and nitrogen source in the water-sediment system. This study also highlights the contribution of both the sarcosine and the AMPA degradation pathways under these conditions. PMID:27140906

  13. Direct label-free electrochemical detection of proteins using the polarized oil/water interface.

    PubMed

    Osakai, Toshiyuki; Yuguchi, Yukiko; Gohara, Emi; Katano, Hajime

    2010-07-01

    Voltammetric behaviors of various globular proteins, including cytochrome c, ribonuclease A, lysozyme, albumin, myoglobin, and alpha-lactalbumin, were studied at the polarized 1,2-dichloroethane/water (DCE/W) interface in the presence of four different anionic surfactants, that is, dinonylnaphthalenesulfonate (DNNS), bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT; AOT), bis(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoroheptyl)sulfosuccinate (BDFHS), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (BEHP). When the W phase was acidic (pH = approximately 3.4), the surfactants (except for BEHP) added to DCE facilitated the adsorption of the above proteins to the DCE/W interface and gave a well-developed voltammetric wave due to the adsorption/desorption of the proteins. This voltammetric wave, which we here call "protein wave", is promising for direct label-free electrochemical detection of proteins. The current for the adsorption of a protein to the interface showed a linear dependence on the protein concentration in the presence of excess surfactant. The foot potential at which the protein wave appeared in cyclic voltammetry showed different values depending on the natures of the protein and surfactant. Multivariate analysis for the foot potentials determined for different proteins with different surfactants revealed that the protein selectivity should depend on the charged, polar, and nonpolar surface areas of a protein molecule. On the basis of these voltammetric studies, it was shown in principle that online electrochemical separation/determination of proteins could be performed using a two-step oil/water-type flow-cell system. PMID:20462245

  14. A Novel Method for Relative Quantitation of N-Glycans by Isotopic Labeling Using 18O-Water

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shujuan; Orlando, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Quantitation is an essential aspect of comprehensive glycomics study. Here, a novel isotopic-labeling method is described for N-glycan quantitation using 18O-water. The incorporation of the 18O-labeling into the reducing end of N-glycans is simply and efficiently achieved during peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase F release. This process provides a 2-Da mass difference compared with the N-glycans released in 16O-water. A mathematical calculation method was also developed to determine the 18O/16O ratios from isotopic peaks. Application of this method to several standard glycoprotein mixtures and human serum demonstrated that this method can facilitate the relative quantitation of N-glycans over a linear dynamic range of two orders, with high accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:25365792

  15. Doubly Heavy Baryons, Heavy Quark-DiQuark Symmetry and NRQCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Fleming; Thomas Mehen

    2005-09-27

    In the heavy quark limit, properties of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons are related by heavy quark-diquark symmetry. This problem is reanalyzed in the framework of Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD). We introduce a novel method for deriving Potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) Lagrangians for composite fields from vNRQCD, which contains quarks and antiquarks as explicit degrees of freedom and maintains manifest power counting in the velocity via a label formalism. A Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to eliminate four quark interactions in vNRQCD and then quarks and antiquarks are integrated out to get effective Lagrangians for composite fields. This method is used to rederive Lagrangians for the Q\\bar Q and QQ sectors of pNRQCD and give a correct derivation of the O(1/m_Q) prediction for the hyperfine splitting of doubly heavy baryons.

  16. Label-Free Fluctuation Spectroscopy Based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering from Bulk Water Molecules.

    PubMed

    Rabasovic, M D; Sisamakis, E; Wennmalm, S; Widengren, J

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) and molecules can be analyzed by inverse fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (iFCS) as they pass through an open detection volume, displacing fractions of the fluorescence-emitting solution in which they are dissolved. iFCS does not require the NPs or molecules to be labeled. However, fluorophores in μm-mm concentrations are needed for the solution signal. Here, we instead use coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) from plain water molecules as the signal from the solution. By this fully label-free approach, termed inverse CARS-based correlation spectroscopy (iCARS-CS), NPs that are a few tenths of nm in diameter and at pM concentrations can be analyzed, and their absolute volumes/concentrations can be determined. Likewise, lipid vesicles can be analyzed as they diffuse/flow through the detection volume by using CARS fluctuations from the surrounding water molecules. iCARS-CS could likely offer a broadly applicable, label-free characterization technique of, for example, NPs, small lipid exosomes, or microparticles in biomolecular diagnostics and screening, and can also utilize CARS signals from biologically relevant media other than water. PMID:26819085

  17. Decays of doubly charmed meson molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, R.; Nagahiro, H.; Hosaka, A.

    2016-01-01

    If the X(3872), Y(3940) and X(4160) are D*D ¯+c .c ., D*D ¯* and DS*D¯S* molecules, respectively, there should be doubly charmed mesons (D(*)D(*)). In this talk we predict two states with JP = 1+ in the charm = 2 sector, one DD* state around 3850 MeV, other D*D* state with mass around 3970 MeV, and other two similar states in the (charm = 2; strangeness = sector. Besides that, we evaluate the decay widths of doubly charm mesons D*D*(1+), into DDπ and DDγ. These decays are mediated by anomalous couplings D*D* - DD*, with the subsequent decay of D* into Dπ or Dγ.

  18. Entropy production of doubly stochastic quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Stilck França, Daniel; Wolf, Michael M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the entropy increase of quantum systems evolving under primitive, doubly stochastic Markovian noise and thus converging to the maximally mixed state. This entropy increase can be quantified by a logarithmic-Sobolev constant of the Liouvillian generating the noise. We prove a universal lower bound on this constant that stays invariant under taking tensor-powers. Our methods involve a new comparison method to relate logarithmic-Sobolev constants of different Liouvillians and a technique to compute logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities of Liouvillians with eigenvectors forming a projective representation of a finite abelian group. Our bounds improve upon similar results established before and as an application we prove an upper bound on continuous-time quantum capacities. In the last part of this work we study entropy production estimates of discrete-time doubly stochastic quantum channels by extending the framework of discrete-time logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities to the quantum case.

  19. Filtering Characteristics of Doubly Sinusoidal Periodic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tian-Lin; Chen, Ping

    2006-03-01

    Dispersion and filtering characteristics of doubly sinusoidal periodic (DSP) medium is investigated. Based on its feature different from singly sinusoidal periodic medium, a novel dual-band filter model is realized and measured. The results show that even a single unit cell of DSP medium can provide rather good filtering performance. And the filter is of perfect compatibility with regular waveguide and substrate integrated waveguide technology.

  20. Three-charge doubly rotating black ring

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.

    2010-02-15

    Using the recently proposed new solution generating technique, we construct the charged version of the Pomeranski-Senkov doubly rotating black ring in the U(1){sup 3} five-dimensional supergravity. For arbitrary values of charges the solution is unbalanced, but the Dirac-Misner string is removed when two of the charges are set to zero. In this particular case our solution can be uplifted to some solutions of six-dimensional vacuum gravity.

  1. Preparation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 with high labeling yield in boiling water bath: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    A new formulation for preparation of (99m)Tc-labeled tropane derivative, (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. Preparation of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was attained previously by a formulation in which vial has to be autoclaved at 121 °C for 30 min. It is highly desirable to further improve the preparation method by developing a simplified one vial formulation which will be labeled in boiling water bath (95 °C) for 15 min and a high labeling yield will be achieved. A formulation contained 10 μg of TRODAT-1, 20 μg tricine, 40 μg SnCl2 and 20mg manitol was prepared. Labeling was performed at 95 °C for 15 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of radioconjugate was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 °C up to 24h. (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was prepared with a radiochemical purity of more than 95% and specific activity of 64.3 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies of this new formulation in rats revealed similar regional brain distribution as compared with those obtained with the previous preparation in which brain uptake was high in striatum and striatum to cerebellum ratio was high. Requiring no autoclave facility for labeling, this new formulation will significantly improve the using feasibility of this radiopharmaceutical in clinic. PMID:24607434

  2. Tracing nitrogenous disinfection byproducts after medium pressure UV water treatment by stable isotope labeling and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Annemieke; Martijn, Bram J; Vughs, Dennis; Baken, Kirsten A; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-04-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides) in (drinking) water treatment. Studies indicate that medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 treatment leads to a positive response in Ames mutagenicity tests, which is then removed after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. The formed potentially mutagenic substances were hitherto not identified and may result from the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic material (NOM). In this study we present an innovative approach to trace the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of MP UV water treatment, based on stable isotope labeled nitrate combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. It was shown that after MP UV treatment of artificial water containing NOM and nitrate, multiple nitrogen containing substances were formed. In total 84 N-DBPs were detected at individual concentrations between 1 to 135 ng/L bentazon-d6 equivalents, with a summed concentration of 1.2 μg/L bentazon-d6 equivalents. The chemical structures of three byproducts were confirmed. Screening for the 84 N-DBPs in water samples from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant based on MP UV/H2O2 treatment showed that 22 of the N-DBPs found in artificial water were also detected in real water samples. PMID:25760315

  3. Biological investigation of 131I-labeled new water soluble Ru(II) polypyridyl complex.

    PubMed

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Yildirim, Yeliz; Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma; Ocal, Jale; Icli, Siddik

    2008-02-01

    New [Ru(L1)(dcbpy)(NCS)2] complex was synthesized in a one-pot reaction starting from [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2, where the ligands (dcbpy=4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine, L1=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine-11-ylcarbonyl)-sodium) are introduced sequentially. The resulting complex was characterized by IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. The complex was labeled with I-131. Biodistribution study of the complex was carried out using 131I-labeled [Ru(L1)(dcbpy)(NCS)2] complex. The biodistribution study performed with albino Wistar male rats has shown that the complex has high uptake in the lung, small intestine, fat, and spleen. PMID:17913501

  4. Mirroring Doubly Excited Resonances in Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Canton-Rogan, S. E.; Wills, A. A.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Wiedenhoeft, M.; Nayandin, O.; Liu, Chien-Nan; Berrah, N.

    2000-10-09

    New features are revealed in the low-energy photoionization spectrum of Ar by critically combining high photon resolution and differential photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. Two LS -forbidden doubly excited resonances are seen in the 3p{sup -1}{sub 3/2,1/2} partial cross sections which exhibit mirroring profiles, resulting in complete cancellation in the total photoionization cross section, as was predicted by Liu and Starace [Phys.Rev.A 59, R1731 (1999)]. These results demonstrate that a new class of weakly spin-orbit induced, mirroring resonances should be observable in partial, but not in total, collisional cross sections involving atoms, molecules, and solids in general.

  5. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other

  6. 16 CFR 305.11 - Labeling for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES..., clothes washers, and water heaters must contain the model's estimated annual energy consumption as...-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water heaters, room air conditioners, and pool...

  7. Designing and modeling doubly porous polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, H.-B.; Le Droumaguet, B.; Monchiet, V.; Grande, D.

    2015-07-01

    Doubly porous organic materials based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) are synthetized through the use of two distinct types of porogen templates, namely a macroporogen and a nanoporogen. Two complementary strategies are implemented by using either sodium chloride particles or fused poly(methyl methacrylate) beads as macroporogens, in conjunction with ethanol as a porogenic solvent. The porogen removal respectively allows for the generation of either non-interconnected or interconnected macropores with an average diameter of about 100-200 μm and nanopores with sizes lying within the 100 nm order of magnitude, as evidenced by mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Nitrogen sorption measurements evidence the formation of materials with rather high specific surface areas, i.e. higher than 140 m2.g-1. This paper also addresses the development of numerical tools for computing the permeability of such doubly porous materials. Due to the coexistence of well separated scales between nanopores and macropores, a consecutive double homogenization approach is proposed. A nanoscopic scale and a mesoscopic scale are introduced, and the flow is evaluated by means of the Finite Element Method to determine the macroscopic permeability. At the nanoscopic scale, the flow is described by the Stokes equations with an adherence condition at the solid surface. At the mesoscopic scale, the flow obeys the Stokes equations in the macropores and the Darcy equation in the permeable polymer in order to account for the presence of the nanopores.

  8. A label-free turn-on fluorescence probe for rapidly distinguishing cysteine over glutathione in water solution.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liqiang; Kong, Zhineng; Shen, Wei; Du, Wenqi; Zhou, Yan; Qi, Zhengjian

    2016-05-01

    A novel label-free fluorescent chemodosimeter (C1) was synthesized, based on coumarin and N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-β-alanine, for the selective detection of cysteine (Cys) over glutathione (GSH), which involved a click reaction of Cys to CN of a Schiff base. The probe C1 featured a fast response (about 3 min), emission in the visible region, and high selectivity. Addition of Cys in HEPES-NaOH solution (pH 7.4) to C1 in water resulted in the appearance of a new emission peak at 445 nm, in company with remarkable enhancement of fluorescence intensity, while other amino acids did not induce any significant fluorescence change. Meanwhile, the addition reaction of Cys to C1 elicited 90.8-fold fluorescence intensity enhancement, which resulted in a change of emission color from orange to blue. PMID:26869082

  9. Heavy water and (15) N labelling with NanoSIMS analysis reveals growth rate-dependent metabolic heterogeneity in chemostats.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Sebastian H; McGlynn, Shawn E; Green-Saxena, Abigail; Guan, Yunbin; Newman, Dianne K; Orphan, Victoria J

    2015-07-01

    To measure single-cell microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns in environmental systems, we employ a new technique using stable isotope labelling of microbial populations with heavy water (a passive tracer) and (15) N ammonium in combination with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry. We demonstrate simultaneous NanoSIMS analysis of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen at high spatial and mass resolution, and report calibration data linking single-cell isotopic compositions to the corresponding bulk isotopic equivalents for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results show that heavy water is capable of quantifying in situ single-cell microbial activities ranging from generational time scales of minutes to years, with only light isotopic incorporation (∼0.1 atom % (2) H). Applying this approach to study the rates of fatty acid biosynthesis by single cells of S. aureus growing at different rates in chemostat culture (∼6 h, 1 day and 2 week generation times), we observe the greatest anabolic activity diversity in the slowest growing populations. By using heavy water to constrain cellular growth activity, we can further infer the relative contributions of ammonium versus amino acid assimilation to the cellular nitrogen pool. The approach described here can be applied to disentangle individual cell activities even in nutritionally complex environments. PMID:25655651

  10. Heavy water and 15N labeling with NanoSIMS analysis reveals growth-rate dependent metabolic heterogeneity in chemostats

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Shawn E.; Green-Saxena, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    To measure single cell microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns in environmental systems, we employ a new technique using stable isotope labeling of microbial populations with heavy water (a passive tracer) and 15N ammonium in combination with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry. We demonstrate simultaneous NanoSIMS analysis of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen at high spatial and mass resolution, and report calibration data linking single cell isotopic compositions to the corresponding bulk isotopic equivalents for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results show that heavy water is capable of quantifying in situ single cell microbial activities ranging from generational time scales of minutes to years, with only light isotopic incorporation (∼0.1 atom % 2H). Applying this approach to study the rates of fatty acid biosynthesis by single cells of S. aureus growing at different rates in chemostat culture (∼6 hours, 1 day and 2 week generation times), we observe the greatest anabolic activity diversity in the slowest growing populations. By using heavy water to constrain cellular growth activity, we can further infer the relative contributions of ammonium vs. amino acid assimilation to the cellular nitrogen pool. The approach described here can be applied to disentangle individual cell activities even in nutritionally complex environments. PMID:25655651

  11. Comparison of cerebral blood flow measurement with [15O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fan, Audrey P; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cerebral blood flow provides critical information to understand normal brain physiology as well as to identify and manage patients with neurological disorders. To date, the reference standard for cerebral blood flow measurements is considered to be positron emission tomography using injection of the [(15)O]-water radiotracer. Although [(15)O]-water has been used to study brain perfusion under normal and pathological conditions, it is not widely used in clinical settings due to the need for an on-site cyclotron, the invasive nature of arterial blood sampling, and experimental complexity. As an alternative, arterial spin labeling is a promising magnetic resonance imaging technique that magnetically labels arterial blood as it flows into the brain to map cerebral blood flow. As arterial spin labeling becomes more widely adopted in research and clinical settings, efforts have sought to standardize the method and validate its cerebral blood flow values against positron emission tomography-based cerebral blood flow measurements. The purpose of this work is to critically review studies that performed both [(15)O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling to measure brain perfusion, with the aim of better understanding the accuracy and reproducibility of arterial spin labeling relative to the positron emission tomography reference standard. PMID:26945019

  12. Use of isotopically labeled fertilizer to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate and transport of a single N fertilizer application through plants, soil, runoff, and the unsaturated and saturated zones was determined for four years at a field site under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) management. Claypan soils, which underlie the site, were hypothesized to restrict the movement of agrichemicals from the soil surface to ground water. However, N fertilizer moved rapidly through preferential flow paths in the soil and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Most N transport occurred during the fall and winter when crops were not available to use excess N. Forty months after application, 33 percent of the fertilizer had been removed by grain harvests, 30 percent had been transpired to the atmosphere, and 33 percent had migrated to ground water. Although runoff volumes were 50 percent greater than infiltration, less than 2 percent of the fertilizer was lost to runoff. Small measured denitrification rates and large measured dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water favor the long-term stability of NO3-1 in ground water. Successive fertilizer applications, in areas that lack the ability to moderate N concentrations through consumptive N reactions, risk the potential of N-saturated ecosystems.

  13. Experimental investigation of rates and mechanisms of isotope exchange (O, H) between volcanic ash and isotopically-labeled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Gary S.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2013-06-01

    The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in hydrous minerals and volcanic glass are routinely used as paleo-proxies to infer the isotopic values of meteoric waters and thus paleo-climatic conditions. We report a series of long-term exposure experiments of distal 7700 BP Mt. Mazama ash (-149‰ δ2H, +7‰ δ18O, 3.8 wt.% H2O) with isotopically-labeled water (+650‰ δ2H, +56‰ δ18O). Experiments were done at 70, 40 and 20 °C, and ranged in duration from 1 to 14454 h (˜20 months), to evaluate the rates of deuterium and 18O exchange, and investigate the relative role of exchange and diffusion. We also investigate the effect of drying on H2Otot and δ2H in native and reacted ash that can be used in defining the protocols for natural sample preparation. We employ Thermal Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TCEA) mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis and a KBr pellet technique with infrared spectroscopy to measure the evolution of δ2H, total water, and OH water peaks in the course of exposure experiments, and in varying lengths of vacuum drying. Time series experiments aided by infrared measurements demonstrate the following new results: (i) It wasobserved that from 5 to >100‰ δ2H increases with time, with faster deuterium exchange at higher temperatures. Times at 15% of theoretical "full δ2H exchange" are: 15.8 years at 20 °C, 5.2 years at 40 °C, and 0.4 years at 70 °C. (ii) Even at extended exposure durations experiments show no net increase in water weight percent nor in δ18O in ash; water released from ash rapidly by thermal decomposition is not enriched in δ18O. This observation clearly suggests that it is hydrogen exchange, and not water addition or oxygen exchange that characterizes the process. (iii) Our time series drying, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-KBr and Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) analyses collectively suggest a simple mechanistic view that there are three kinds of "water" in ash: water (mostly H2O) that is less strongly bonded

  14. Signatures of doubly-charged Higgsinos at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Demir, D. A.; Frank, M.; Turan, I.; Huitu, K.; Rai, S. K.

    2008-11-23

    Several supersymmetric models with extended gauge structures predict light doubly-charged Higgsinos. Their distinctive signature at the large hadron collider is highlighted by studying its production and decay characteristics.

  15. Doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions: solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jenny; Chan, Po Shan; Sun, Caiming; Wing Ho, Choi; Tam, Wing Yim

    2010-04-01

    We have fabricated doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions using a double-exposure two-beam interference from two light sources with different wavelengths. The doubly slanted layers, with different spacings and overlapping with each other, are fabricated such that they are slanted in opposite directions making a 30° angle with the holographic plate. The doubly slanted layer structures exhibit photonic stop bands corresponding to the two layered structures. More importantly, diffracted light beams from the slanted layers travel in different directions and emerge, through internal reflections, at the opposite edges of the gelatin plate. The doubly slanted layer structures could be used as solar concentrators such that sunlight is separated into different components and steered directly to photovoltaics with the corresponding wavelength sensitivities to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  16. Color fluxes in the production of doubly heavy baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, S. P.

    2007-04-15

    The production of doubly heavy baryons in hadron-hadron collisions is considered. A method is proposed for decomposing the respective differential cross section into parts associated with contributions of various color-flux configurations.

  17. Deuterium labeling of soil water movement in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Gaj, Marcel; Koeniger, Paul; Hamutoko, Josefina; Uugulu, Shoopi; Wanke, Heike; Lohe, Christoph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Billib, Max

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater recharge estimations in semi-arid areas are challenging, especially in developing countries such as large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, where data is generally scarce. Due to high heterogeneity in soil characteristics, vegetation and land use as well as spatially and temporally highly variable rainfall, precise site studies are necessary in order to characterize processes and quantify groundwater recharge rates. The stable isotope deuterium, 2H has been shown to be particularly suitable for such investigations. In this study, a field experiment using deuterium as an artificial tracer (2H2O, 70% deuterated water) was conducted to characterize movement of water during and after a synthetic rain event. The study was carried out in the framework of the project SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management) in the Niipele catchment of the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia at two locations differing in both soil and vegetation type: A forest site dominated by terminalia sericea, baikiaea plurijuga, burkea africana and acacia erioloba with deep pure sand soil and a shrub-/woodland site characterized by smaller burkea africana, borchemia discolor and acacia erioloba on a dark loamy sand soil underlain by a thick layer of calcrete. At both locations, soils were first saturated to trigger typical rainy season conditions and avoid immediate evaporation of the deuterated water. Subsequently, 500 ml of 2H2O was applied homogenously over a 0.25 m2 test plot at 25 cm depth. Finally, a 10 mm artificial rain event was applied onto the plot. Soil samples were collected every 10 cm to a maximum depth of 2.5 m with an Eijkelkamp hand auger after 1, 2, and 5 (respective 10) days. From these, soil water is extracted in the laboratory and subsequently analyzed for deuterium concentrations using a Picarro L2120-i cavity-ringdown (CRD) water vapor analyzer after vaporization. Additionally, grain size distribution, water content

  18. Using 2H labeling with neutron radiography for the study of solid polymer electrolyte water transport properties.

    PubMed

    Boillat, P; Oberholzer, P; Seyfang, B C; Kästner, A; Perego, R; Scherer, G G; Lehmann, E H; Wokaun, A

    2011-06-15

    A method combining (2)H labeling of different sources of H atoms (hydrogen, water vapor) with neutron imaging for the analysis of transport parameters in the bulk and at the interfaces of Nafion polymer electrolyte membranes is proposed. The use of different isotope compositions in the steady state allows evaluation of the relation between bulk and interface transport parameters, but relies on literature data for evaluating absolute values. By using transients of isotope composition, absolute values of these parameters including the self-diffusion coefficient of H can be extracted, making this method an attractive alternative to self-diffusion measurements using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), allowing measurements in precisely controlled conditions in real fuel cell structures. First measurements were realized on samples with and without electrodes and we report values of the self-diffusion coefficient of the same order of magnitude as values measured using NMR, although with slightly higher numbers. In our particular case, lower interfacial exchange rates for water transport were observed for samples with an electrode. PMID:21613688

  19. Application of a Label-Free Immunosensor for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp Cultivation Water.

    PubMed

    Waiyapoka, Thanyaporn; Deachamag, Panchalika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Bunsanong, Nittaya; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Loyprasert-Thananimit, Suchera

    2015-10-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen affecting the shrimp industry worldwide. In a preliminary study, WSSV binding protein (WBP) was specifically bound to the VP26 protein of WSSV. Therefore, we have developed the label-free affinity immunosensor using the WBP together with anti-GST-VP26 for quantitative detection of WSSV in shrimp pond water. When the biological molecules were immobilized on a gold electrode to form a self-assembled monolayer, it was then used to detect WSSV using a flow injection system with optimized conditions. Binding between the different copies of WSSV and the immobilized biological molecules was detected by an impedance change (ΔZ″) in real time. The sensitivity of the developed immunosensor was in the linear range of 1.6 × 10(1)-1.6 × 10(6) copies/μl. The system was highly sensitive for the analysis of WSSV as shown by the lack of impedance change when using yellow head virus (YHV). The developed immunosensor could be reused up to 37 times (relative standard deviation (RSD), 3.24 %) with a good reproducibility of residual activity (80-110 %). The immunosensor was simple to operate, reliable, reproducible, and could be applied for the detection and quantification of WSSV in water during shrimp cultivation. PMID:26255303

  20. High Field Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Investigation of (15)N-Labeled Rosette Nanotubes: Hydrogen Bond Network and Channel-Bound Water.

    PubMed

    Fenniri, Hicham; Tikhomirov, Grigory A; Brouwer, Darren H; Bouatra, Souhaila; El Bakkari, Mounir; Yan, Zhimin; Cho, Jae-Young; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2016-05-18

    (15)N-labeled rosette nanotubes were synthesized and investigated using high-field solid-state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and electron microscopy. The results established the H-bond network involved in the self-assembly of the nanostructure as well as bound water molecules in the nanotube's channel. PMID:27141817

  1. A deuterium-based labeling technique for the investigation of rooting depths, water uptake dynamics and unsaturated zone water transport in semiarid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, M.; Koeniger, P.; Gaj, M.; Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.; Himmelsbach, T.

    2016-02-01

    Non- or minimum-invasive methods for the quantification of rooting depths of plants are rare, in particular in (semi-)arid regions; yet, this information is crucial for the parameterization of SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer) models and understanding of processes within the hydrological cycle. We present a technique utilizing the stable isotope deuterium (2H) applied as artificial tracer to investigate the vertical extent of the root zone, characterize water uptake dynamics of trees and shrubs at different depths and monitor transport of water through the unsaturated zone of dry environments. One liter of 35% deuterated water (2H2O) was punctually applied at several depths (0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, 2.5 m and 4 m) at six different plots at a natural forested site in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB), Namibia/Angola. Subsequently, uptake of the tracer was monitored by collecting plant samples (xylem and transpired water) up to seven days after tracer injection. Soil profiles at the plots were taken after the campaign and again after six months in order to evaluate the transport and distribution of 2H within the unsaturated zone. Of 162 plant samples taken, 31 samples showed clear signals of artificially introduced 2H, of which all originate from the plots labeled up to 2 m depth. No artificially injected 2H was found in plants when tracer application occurred deeper than 2 m. Results further indicate a sharing of water resources between the investigated shrubs and trees in the upper 1 m whilst tree roots seem to have better access to deeper layers of the unsaturated zone. The soil profiles taken after six months reveal elevated 2H-concentrations from depths as great as 4 m up to 1 m below surface indicating upward transport of water vapor. Purely diffuse transport towards the soil surface yielded an estimated 0.4 mm over the dry season. Results are of particular significance for a more precise parameterization of SVAT models and the formulation of water balances in

  2. Performance optimization for doubly-fed generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Shibashis

    A variable speed generation (VSG) system converts energy from a variable resource such as wind or water flow into variable rotational mechanical energy of a turbine or a similar device that converts translational kinetic energy into rotational mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy by an electrical generator. Presently available and proposed generators include systems based mainly on dc machines, synchronous and induction machine technology as well as reluctance machines. While extracting more energy from the resource, most proposed VSG systems suffer a cost disadvantage due to the required rating of the power electronic interface. This cost penalty may eventually render the additional energy capture meaningless. Thus, reducing the cost of the power electronic hardware is essential for VSG systems to achieve viable and competitive $/kWh ratios when compared to fossil fuel-based generating systems. A variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system and controller are proposed that utilize a doubly-fed machine (DFM) as the energy conversion device. The system includes a power converter that provides the current excitation for the control winding of the DFM. Both the magnitude and frequency of the excitation is determined by an adaptive model-based controller which maximizes the power flow from the mechanical turbine to the electrical grid and reduces the generator losses by maintaining the maximum efficiency point throughout the mechanical input power range. The proposed strategy has been experimentally verified in controlled laboratory conditions for a proof-of-concept brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) system of 1500 Watts power rating. Issues relating to power converter development and its incorporation in the system have been investigated. The controller and circuit design of a four quadrant, AC/AC power converter is presented and a novel sensorless current controller for the active rectifier stage is presented in detail

  3. Aromaticity of the doubly charged [8]circulenes.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V; Valiev, Rashid R; Karaush, Nataliya N; Sundholm, Dage; Minaev, Boris F

    2016-04-01

    Magnetically induced current densities and current pathways have been calculated for a series of fully annelated dicationic and dianionic tetraphenylenes, which are also named [8]circulenes. The gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method has been employed for calculating the current density susceptibilities. The aromatic character and current pathways are deduced from the calculated current density susceptibilities showing that the neutral [8]circulenes have two concentric pathways with aromatic and antiaromatic character, respectively. The inner octatetraene core (the hub) is found to sustain a paratropic (antiaromatic) ring current, whereas the ring current along the outer part of the macrocycle (the rim) is diatropic (aromatic). The neutral [8]circulenes can be considered nonaromatic, because the sum of the ring-current strengths of the hub and the rim almost vanishes. The aromatic character of the doubly charged [8]circulenes is completely different: the dianionic [8]circulenes and the OC-, CH-, CH2-, SiH-, GeH-, SiH2-, and GeH2-containing dicationic species sustain net diatropic ring currents i.e., they are aromatic, whereas the O-, S-, Se-, NH-, PH- and AsH-containing dicationic [8]circulenes are strongly antiaromatic. The present study also shows that GIMIC calculations on the [8]circulenes provide more accurate information about the aromatic character than that obtained using local indices such as nuclear-independent chemical shifts (NICSs) and (1)H NMR chemical shifts. PMID:26964752

  4. [Estimation of milk production in the nursing mare by labeling the body water of the foal].

    PubMed

    Doreau, M; Dussap, G

    1980-01-01

    Female milk production was related to offspring water turnover, estimated by a tracer method (fig. 1). After deuterium oxide was injected into the blood of the offspring, we measured the decrease of its concentration in time. Milk intake was calculated by equations taking into account the weight gain of the offspring. The reliability of this method was checked in 28 bottle-fed lambs with known milk intake; the correlation between the actual intakes and our estimates was 0.98 with an error means of 5.6 p. 100. The error on the mean of 28 lambs was 0.5 p. 100 (table 1). The milk production of 6 heavy brood mares, estimated during the first week of lactation, varied from 12 to 20 kg per day between animals (table 2). This method did not interfere with the mother-offspring relationship nor with the usual suckling conditions; it can be used advantageously during the onset of lactation in species whose offspring suck frequently. PMID:6296942

  5. Metabolic fate of the (14)C-labeled herbicide clodinafop-propargyl in a sediment-water system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Weitzel, Pascal; Schäffer, Andreas; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic fate of (14)C-phenyl-labeled herbicide clodinafop-propargyl ((14)C-CfP) was studied for 28 days in lab assays using a sediment-water system derived from a German location. Mineralization was 5.21% of applied (14)C after 28 days exhibiting a distinct lag phase until day 14 of incubation. Portions of radioactivity remaining in water phases decreased at moderate rate to 18.48% after 28 days; 62.46% were still detected in water after 14 days. Soxhlet extraction of the sediment using acetonitrile released 35.56% of applied (14)C with day 28, while 33.99% remained as non-extractable residues. A remarkable increase of bound (14)C was observed between 14 and 28 days correlating with the distinct increase of mineralization. No correlation was found throughout incubation with microbial activity of the sediment as determined by dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. Dissolved oxygen and pH value of water phases remained almost constant for 28 days. Analyses of Soxhlet extracts of the sediment and ethyl acetate extracts of water phases by radio-TLC and radio-HPLC revealed that CfP was rapidly cleaved to free acid clodinafop (Cf), which was further (bio-) transformed. DT50 values (based on radio-HPLC) were below 1 day (CfP) and slightly above 28 days (Cf). Further metabolites were not detected. Fractionation of humic and non-humic components of the sediment demonstrated that CfP's non-extractable residues were predominantly associated with fulvic acids up to 14 days of incubation (3.36%), whereas after 28 days, the majority of radioactivity was found in the humin/mineral fraction (13.30% of applied (14)C). Due to high-performance size-exclusion chromatography of the fulvic acids fraction derived from assays incubated for 28 days, this portion of (14)C was firmly, possibly covalently bound to fulvic acids and did not consist of CfP or Cf. Using an isolation strategy comprising preincubation of sediment with CfP and mineralization of (14)C-CfP as criterion, a microorganism

  6. Changes in cerebral blood flow during steady-state cycling exercise: a study using oxygen-15-labeled water with PET.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Mikio; Nariai, Tadashi; Ishii, Kenji; Sakata, Muneyuki; Oda, Keiichi; Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) during dynamic exercise has never been examined quantitatively using positron emission tomography (PET). This study investigated changes in CBF that occur over the course of a moderate, steady-state cycling exercise. Global and regional CBF (gCBF and rCBF, respectively) were measured using oxygen-15-labeled water (H(2)(15)O) and PET in 10 healthy human subjects at rest (Rest), at the onset of exercise (Ex1) and at a later phase in the exercise (Ex2). At Ex1, gCBF was significantly (P<0.01) higher (27.9%) than at Rest, and rCBF was significantly higher than at Rest in the sensorimotor cortex for the bilateral legs (M1(Leg) and S1(Leg)), supplementary motor area (SMA), cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, and left insular cortex, with relative increases ranging from 37.6% to 70.5%. At Ex2, gCBF did not differ from Rest, and rCBF was significantly higher (25.9% to 39.7%) than at Rest in only the M1(Leg), S1(Leg), and vermis. The areas showing increased rCBF at Ex1 were consistent with the central command network and the anatomic pathway for interoceptive stimuli. Our results suggest that CBF increases at Ex1 in parallel with cardiovascular responses then recovers to the resting level as the steady-state exercise continues. PMID:24301294

  7. Quantification of Entanglement Entropies for Doubly Excited States in Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we study the quantum entanglement for doubly excited resonance states in helium by using highly correlated Hylleraas type functions to represent such states of the two-electron system. The doubly-excited resonance states are determined by calculation of density of resonance states under the framework of the stabilization method. The spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement measures for the low-lying doubly excited 2 s 2, 2 s3 s, and 2 p 2 1 S e states are carried out. Once a resonance state wave function is obtained, the linear entropy and von Neumann entropy for such a state are quantified using the Schmidt-Slater decomposition method. To check the consistence, linear entropy is also determined by solving analytically the needed four-electron (12-dimensional) integrals.

  8. A mathematical model for the doubly fed wound rotor generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor machine used as a constant frequency generator is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to derive a consistent set of circuit equations which produce constant stator frequency and constant stator voltage. Starting with instantaneous circuit equations, the necessary rotor voltages and currents are derived. The model, thus obtained, is assumed to be valid, since the resulting relationships between mechanical power and active volt-amperes agrees with the results of others. In addition, the model allows for a new interpretation of the power flow in the doubly-fed generator.

  9. Measurement of the uptake of a 14C-labelled fluorescent whitening agent by fish from water and through a model food chain.

    PubMed

    Feron, J P; Hitz, H R

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory technique is described which simulates the uptake of a fluorescent whitening agent by fish directly from the water and indirectly through a model food chain. The use of radioactive labelled material enables the direct and indirect uptake and possible accumulation of the compounds to be measured quantitatively. The results are expressed as concentration factors. Between ecological and toxicological data a safety relationship is established. PMID:1064532

  10. Multi-Isotope Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Combining Heavy Water 2H with 15N Labeling As Complementary Tracers for Metabolic Heterogeneity at the Single-Cell Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, S.; McGlynn, S.; Cowley, E.; Green, A.; Newman, D. K.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic rates of microbial communities constitute a key physiological parameter for understanding the in situ growth constraints for life in any environment. Isotope labeling techniques provide a powerful approach for measuring such biological activity, due to the use of isotopically enriched substrate tracers whose incorporation into biological materials can be detected with high sensitivity by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) combined with stable isotope labeling provides a unique tool for studying the spatiometabolic activity of microbial populations at the single cell level in order to assess both community structure and population diversity. However, assessing the distribution and range of microbial activity in complex environmental systems with slow-growing organisms, diverse carbon and nitrogen sources, or heterotrophic subpopulations poses a tremendous technical challenge because the introduction of isotopically labeled substrates frequently changes the nutrient availability and can inflate or bias measures of activity. Here, we present the use of hydrogen isotope labeling with deuterated water as an important new addition to the isotopic toolkit and apply it for the determination of single cell microbial activities by NanoSIMS imaging. This tool provides a labeling technique that minimally alters any aquatic chemical environment, can be administered with strong labels even in minimal addition (natural background is very low), is an equally universal substrate for all forms of life even in complex, carbon and nitrogen saturated systems, and can be combined with other isotopic tracers. The combination of heavy water labeling with the most commonly used NanoSIMS tracer, 15N, is technically challenging but opens up a powerful new set of multi-tracer experiments for the study of microbial activity in complex communities. We present the first truly simultaneous single cell triple isotope system

  11. Syntheses of halogen derivatives of L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine labeled with hydrogen isotopes.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Małgorzata; Pałka, Katarzyna; Winnicka, Elżbieta; Kańska, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Halogenated, labeled with tritium and doubly with deuterium and tritium, derivatives of L-tryptophan, i.e. 5'-bromo-[2-(3)H]-, 5'-bromo-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 5'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-5'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 6'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-, 6'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-L-tryptophan, as well as, L-tyrosine, i.e. 3'-fluoro-[2-(3)H]-, 3'-fluoro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-, 3'-chloro-[2-(3)H]-, and 3'-chloro-[2-(2)H/(3)H]-L-tyrosine, and also L-phenylalanine, i.e. 2'-fluoro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, 2'-fluoro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3) H]-, 2'-chloro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, 2'-chloro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3)H]-, 4'-chloro-[(3S)-(3)H]-, and 4'-chloro-[(3S)-(2)H/(3)H]-L-phenylalanine were synthesized using enzymatic methods. Isotopomers of L-tryptophan were synthesized by coupling of halogenated indoles with S-methyl-L-cysteine carried out in deuteriated or tritiated incubation media. Labeled halogenated derivatives of L-tyrosine were obtained by the enzymatically supported exchange between halogenated L-tyrosine and isotopic water. Labeled halogenated isotopologues of L-Phe were synthesized by the enzymatic addition of ammonia to halogenated cinnamic acid. As a source of hydrogen tritiated water (HTO) and heavy water (D2O) with addition of HTO were used. PMID:26586485

  12. Doubly Lopsided Models From SUSY SU(N)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S. M.

    2008-11-23

    It is shown that the doubly lopsided mass matrices, which are known to give realistic patterns of quark and lepton masses and mixings, arise naturally in the context of supersymmetric grand unified models based on SU(N) with N>5. An SU(7) model is presented as an illustration.

  13. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  14. Theoretical and experimental evidence of non-symmetric doubly localized rogue waves

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingsong; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Yongshuai; Chabchoub, Amin

    2014-01-01

    We present determinant expressions for vector rogue wave (RW) solutions of the Manakov system, a two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. As a special case, we generate a family of exact and non-symmetric RW solutions of the NLS equation up to third order, localized in both space and time. The derived non-symmetric doubly localized second-order solution is generated experimentally in a water wave flume for deep-water conditions. Experimental results, confirming the characteristic non-symmetric pattern of the solution, are in very good agreement with theory as well as with numerical simulations, based on the modified NLS equation, known to model accurately the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets in deep water. PMID:25383023

  15. Peroral administration of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine in drinking water is not a reliable method for labeling proliferating S-phase cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Ševc, Juraj; Matiašová, Anna; Smoleková, Ivana; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Mikeš, Jaromír; Tomášová, Lenka; Kútna, Viera; Daxnerová, Zuzana; Fedoročko, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, peroral (p.o.) administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) dissolved in drinking water is a widely used method for labeling newly formed cells over a prolonged time-period. Despite the broad applicability of this method, the pharmacokinetics of BrdU in rats or mice after p.o. administration remains unknown. Moreover, the p.o. route of administration may be limited by the relatively low amount of BrdU consumed over 24h and the characteristic drinking pattern of rats, with water intake being observed predominantly during the dark phase. Therefore, we investigated the reliability of staining proliferating S-phase cells with BrdU after p.o. administration (1mg/ml) to rats using both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor cells co-cultivated with sera from experimental animals exposed to BrdU dissolved in drinking water or 25% orange juice revealed that the concentration of BrdU in the blood sera of rats throughout the day was below the detection limits of our assay. Ingested BrdU was only sufficient to label approximately 4.2±0.3% (water) or 4.2±0.3% (25% juice) of all S-phase cells. Analysis of data from in vivo conditions indicates that only 7.6±3.3% or 15.5±2.3% of all S-phase cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was labeled in animals administered drinking water containing BrdU during the light and dark phases of the day. In addition, the intensity of BrdU-positive nuclei in animals receiving p.o. administration of BrdU was significantly lower than in control animals intraperitoneally injected with BrdU. Our data indicate that the conventional approach of p.o. administration of BrdU in the drinking water to rats provides strongly inaccurate information about the number of proliferating cells in target tissues. Therefore other administration routes, such as osmotic mini pumps, should be considered for labeling of proliferating cells over a prolonged time-period. PMID:26045061

  16. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  17. Ionization Efficiency of Doubly Charged Ions Formed from Polyprotic Acids in Electrospray Negative Mode.

    PubMed

    Liigand, Piia; Kaupmees, Karl; Kruve, Anneli

    2016-07-01

    The ability of polyprotic acids to give doubly charged ions in negative mode electrospray was studied and related to physicochemical properties of the acids via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). It was discovered that the compound has to be strongly acidic (low pK a1 and pK a2) and to have high hydrophobicity (logP ow) to become multiply charged. Ability to give multiply charged ions in ESI/MS cannot be directly predicted from the solution phase acidities. Therefore, for the first time, a quantitative model to predict the charge state of the analyte in ESI/MS is proposed and validated for small anions. Also, a model to predict ionization efficiencies of these analytes was developed. Results indicate that acidity of the analyte, its octanol-water partition coefficient, and charge delocalization are important factors that influence ionization efficiencies as well as charge states of the analytes. The pH of the solvent was also found to be an important factor influencing the ionization efficiency of doubly charged ions. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27044024

  18. Ionization Efficiency of Doubly Charged Ions Formed from Polyprotic Acids in Electrospray Negative Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liigand, Piia; Kaupmees, Karl; Kruve, Anneli

    2016-07-01

    The ability of polyprotic acids to give doubly charged ions in negative mode electrospray was studied and related to physicochemical properties of the acids via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). It was discovered that the compound has to be strongly acidic (low p K a1 and p K a2) and to have high hydrophobicity (log P ow) to become multiply charged. Ability to give multiply charged ions in ESI/MS cannot be directly predicted from the solution phase acidities. Therefore, for the first time, a quantitative model to predict the charge state of the analyte in ESI/MS is proposed and validated for small anions. Also, a model to predict ionization efficiencies of these analytes was developed. Results indicate that acidity of the analyte, its octanol-water partition coefficient, and charge delocalization are important factors that influence ionization efficiencies as well as charge states of the analytes. The pH of the solvent was also found to be an important factor influencing the ionization efficiency of doubly charged ions.

  19. Extraction of water labeled with oxygen 15 during single-capillary transit. Influence of blood pressure, osmolarity, and blood-brain barrier damage

    SciTech Connect

    Go, K.G.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Paans, A.M.; Vaalburg, W.; Woldring, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    By external detection, the influence of arterial blood pressure (BP), osmolarity, and cold-induced blood-brain barrier damage was assessed on the extraction of water labeled with oxygen 15 during single-capillary transit in the rat. There was an inverse relation between arterial BP and extraction that was attributable to the influence of arterial BP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the relation between CBF and extraction. Neither arterial BP nor osmolarity of the injected bolus had any direct effect on extraction of water 15O, signifying that the diffusional exchange component (determined by blood flow) of extraction greatly surpasses the convection flow contribution by hydrostatic or osmotic forces. Damage to the blood-brain barrier did not change its permeability to water.

  20. Grid-connected in-stream hydroelectric generation based on the doubly fed induction machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenberg, Timothy J.

    Within the United States, there is a growing demand for new environmentally friendly power generation. This has led to a surge in wind turbine development. Unfortunately, wind is not a stable prime mover, but water is. Why not apply the advances made for wind to in-stream hydroelectric generation? One important advancement is the creation of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM). This thesis covers the application of a gearless DFIM topology for hydrokinetic generation. After providing background, this thesis presents many of the options available for the mechanical portion of the design. A mechanical turbine is then specified. Next, a method is presented for designing a DFIM including the actual design for this application. In Chapter 4, a simulation model of the system is presented, complete with a control system that maximizes power generation based on water speed. This section then goes on to present simulation results demonstrating proper operation.

  1. Field measurement of seepage and evapotranspiration rate for a soil under plant cover: A comparison of soil water balance and tritium labeling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, K.; Strebel, O.; Renger, M.

    1980-08-01

    Vertical water flux at 90 cm depth and evapotranspiration were measured in a loess Parabraunerde soil profile, under spring wheat and sugar beets, respectively, during a time period of nearly 21 months. Two field methods were compared: the HTO-tracer method (labeling soil water at a depth of 60 cm followed by core sampling) and the soil water balance method (measuring soil water suction and water content as a function of depth and time). Outside the vegetation season the results of the two methods agreed well, but not during the vegetation season. The reason is that the reference soil compartment, with its reference depth of 90 cm, lies within the root zone and the HTO-method does not correctly reflect the water flux through the roots and the water withdrawal by the roots from this reference compartment. It is shown, that after correcting the HTO-values for these root-activity-dependent effects, a good agreement between the two methods was found also during periods with root activity. Investigations with the HTO-method lead to inaccurate results if the reference depth or the median value of the tracer distribution lie within the zone of active roots.

  2. Doubly-charged ions in the planetary ionospheres: a review.

    PubMed

    Thissen, Roland; Witasse, Olivier; Dutuit, Odile; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Gronoff, Guillaume; Lilensten, Jean

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the current knowledge on the doubly-charged atomic and molecular positive ions in the planetary atmospheres of the Solar System. It is focused on the terrestrial planets which have a dense atmosphere of N(2) or CO(2), i.e. Venus, the Earth and Mars, but also includes Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, which has a dense atmosphere composed mainly of N(2) and a few percent of methane. Given the composition of these neutral atmospheres, the following species are considered: C(++), N(++), O(++), CH(4)(++), CO(++), N(2)(++), NO(++), O(2)(++), Ar(++) and CO(2)(++). We first discuss the status of their detection in the atmospheres of planets. Then, we provide a comprehensive review of their complex and original photochemistry, production and loss processes. Synthesis tables are provided for those ions, while a discussion on individual species is also provided. Methods for detecting doubly-charged ions in planetary atmospheres are presented, namely with mass-spectrometry, remote sensing and fine plasma density measurements. A section covers some original applications, like the possible effect of the presence of doubly-charged ions on the escape of an atmosphere, which is a key topic of ongoing planetary exploration, related to the evolution of a planet. The results of models, displayed in a comparative way for Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, are discussed, as they can predict the presence of doubly-charged ions and will certainly trigger new investigations. Finally we give our view concerning next steps, challenges and needs for future studies, hoping that new scientific results will be achieved in the coming years and feed the necessary interdisciplinary exchanges amongst different scientific communities. PMID:21931881

  3. Stereodivergent catalytic doubly diastereoselective nitroaldol reactions using heterobimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Kato, Yuko; Handa, Shinya; Aoyama, Naohiro; Nagawa, Keita; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2008-06-01

    Stereodivergent construction of three contiguous stereocenters in catalytic doubly diastereoselective nitroaldol reactions of alpha-chiral aldehydes with nitroacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal using two types of heterobimetallic catalysts is described. A La-Li-BINOL (LLB) catalyst afforded anti,syn-nitroaldol products in >20:1-14:1 selectivity, and a Pd/La/Schiff base catalyst afforded complimentary syn,syn-nitroaldol products in 10:1-5:1 selectivity. PMID:18465868

  4. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  5. Transient model of a doubly excited reluctance motor

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Liang, F.; Lipo, T.A. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    A transient machine model of a doubly fed reluctance motor is derived by means of winding function and d-q transformation theory. The machine consists of a double wound stator having four and eight pole sets. The rotor is equipped with six poles. The machine, related to the Hunt motor, has a synchronous speed of a twelve pole machine. Comparison of simulated to tested results indicates that the higher harmonics in the motor inductances are important for predicting current waveform.

  6. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  7. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  8. Characterization of biodegradation intermediates of nonionic surfactants by MALDI-MS. 2. Oxidative biodegradation profiles of uniform octylphenol polyethoxylate in 18O-labeled water.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroaki; Shibata, Atsushi; Wang, Yang; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the biodegradation intermediates of octylphenol octaethoxylate (OP(8)EO) by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The biodegradation test study was carried out in a pure culture (Pseudomonas putida S-5) under aerobic conditions using OP(8)EO as the sole carbon source and (18)O-labeled water as an incubation medium. In the MALDI-MS spectra of biodegraded samples, a series of OP(n)EO molecules with n = 2-8 EO units and their corresponding carboxylic acid products (OP(n)EC) were observed. The use of purified OP(8)EO enabled one to distinguish the shortened OPEO molecules as biodegradation intermediates. Furthermore, the formation of OP(8)EC (the oxidized product of OP(8)EO) supported the notion that terminal oxidation is a step in the biodegradation process. When biodegradation study was carried out in (18)O-labeled water, incorporation of (18)O atoms into the carboxyl group was observed for OPEC, while no incorporation was observed for the shortened OPEO products. These results could provide some rationale to the biodegradation mechanism of alkylphenol polyethoxylates. PMID:12523845

  9. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  10. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  11. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad; Sylvestre, Michel

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear picture of the fate of polychlorinated

  12. Doubly anchored nematic polymer brushes: Shear, field effects, and quasipiezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.; Williams, D. R. M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear behavior of a doubly anchored brush of liquid-crystalline polymers immersed in a nematic solvent is investigated. In such a brush the grafted polymers bridge two plates. Remarkably, the Franck nematic elasticity in this system can dominate the shear modulus. In the presence of a field the system undergoes a Fréedericksz transition modified by the bridging polymers. In particular: (i) the polymeric elasticity affects the critical field Ec; (ii) the shear modulus vanishes as the field approaches Ec; and (iii) the nematic distortion couples to a shear strain. The system exhibits quasipiezoelectricity, which is nonlinear and is not associated with any inverse effect.

  13. Center mode of a doubly resonant optical periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-07-01

    An optical periodic structure with a single spatial resonance exhibits a stopband. When a second spatial resonance very close to the first one is added, the resulting doubly resonant structure exhibits a Gaussian enveloped, high quality factor transmission state right at the center of the original stopband. Using a slowly varying envelope approximation, we describe the optical characteristics of this transmission state analytically. The transmission state exists despite an optical structure of low refractive index contrast, and has potential applications in nano-optics, and photonics.

  14. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLillo, T.K.; Pfaltzgraff, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  15. On the road to doubly-magic {sup 48}Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Davi, F.; Del Moral, R.; Dufour, J. P.; Fleury, A.; Marchand, C.; Pravikoff, M. S.; Benlliure, J.; Boue, F.; Collatz, R.; Heinz, A.; Hellstroem, M.; Hu, Z.; Roeckl, E.; Shibata, M.; Suemmerer, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.

    1998-12-21

    A relativistic primary beam of {sup 58}Ni from the SIS synchrotron at GSI was used to produce proton-rich isotopes in the titanium-to-nickel region by projectile fragmention at the FRS. We report here on the first observation of the T{sub z}=-7/2 nuclei {sup 45}Fe and {sup 49}Ni. In addition, the new isotope {sup 42}Cr (T{sub z}=-3) was identified. This opens the route to the yet unobserved doubly-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ni.

  16. Spectroscopy of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael

    2015-05-06

    This study presents the ground and excited state spectra of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD with dynamical quark fields. Calculations are performed on anisotropic lattices of size 16³ × 128, with inverse spacing in temporal direction at⁻¹=5.67(4) GeV and with a pion mass of about 390 MeV. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice yet which retain a memory of their continuum analogues are used. These operators transform as irreducible representations of SU(3)F symmetry for flavor, SU(4) symmetry for Dirac spins of quarks and O(3) for spatial symmetry. The distillation method is utilized to generate baryon correlation functions which are analyzed using the variational fitting method to extract excited states. The lattice spectra obtained have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the pattern of low-lying states does not support the diquark picture for doubly charmed baryons. On the contrary the calculated spectra are remarkably similar to the expectations from models with an SU(6)×O(3) symmetry. Various spin-dependent energy splittings between the extracted states are also evaluated.

  17. Wave packet dynamics in doubly excited states of He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Johannes; Nagele, Stefan; Persson, Emil; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Schneider, Barry

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a method for the ab initio simulation of the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with helium atoms. We expand the two-electron Schr"odinger equation in coupled spherical harmonics and perform direct time integration utilizing either the Arnoldi-Lanczos or the Leapfrog method. The spatial discretization is performed in an FEDVR basis [1]. This allows for a numerically accurate description while possessing desirable computational features, e.g. a block-diagonal form of the kinetic energy matrix. We will present results on electron-electron correlation and wave packet dynamics in He. By using a suitable combination of attosecond XUV/EUV pulses, we prepare a wave packet in the doubly excited states of helium. The motion of this wave packet can be observed by using a probe pulse to induce ionization. We aim for a detailed understanding of the process by a careful study of the ionized electrons, e.g. by investigating doubly differential momentum spectra. [enumi] *B. I. Schneider and L. A. Collins. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1551.

  18. Nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded doubly curved shallow shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, F.; Amabili, M.; Karagiozis, K.; Bakhtiari-Nejad, F.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear forced vibrations of FGM doubly curved shallow shells with a rectangular base are investigated. Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory is used and the shell is assumed to be simply supported with movable edges. The equations of motion are reduced using the Galerkin method to a system of infinite nonlinear ordinary differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Using the multiple scales method, primary and subharmonic resonance responses of FGM shells are fully discussed and the effect of volume fraction exponent on the internal resonance conditions, softening/hardening behavior and bifurcations of the shallow shell when the excitation frequency is (i) near the fundamental frequency and (ii) near two times the fundamental frequency is shown. Moreover, using a code based on arclength continuation method, a bifurcation analysis is carried out for a special case with two-to-one internal resonance between the first and second doubly symmetric modes with respect to the panel's center ( ω13≈2 ω11). Bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré maps are obtained through direct time integration of the equations of motion and chaotic regions are shown by calculating Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension.

  19. Spectroscopy of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael; Hadron Spectrum Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We present the ground and excited state spectra of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD with dynamical quark fields. Calculations are performed on anisotropic lattices of size 1 63×128 , with inverse spacing in temporal direction at-1=5.67 (4 ) GeV and with a pion mass of about 390 MeV. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice yet which retain a memory of their continuum analogues are used. These operators transform as irreducible representations of SU(3 ) F symmetry for flavor, SU(4) symmetry for Dirac spins of quarks and O(3) for spatial symmetry. The distillation method is utilized to generate baryon correlation functions which are analyzed using the variational fitting method to extract excited states. The lattice spectra obtained have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7 /2 and the pattern of low-lying states does not support the diquark picture for doubly charmed baryons. On the contrary the calculated spectra are remarkably similar to the expectations from models with an SU (6 )×O (3 ) symmetry. Various spin-dependent energy splittings between the extracted states are also evaluated.

  20. Validation of the labeled bicarbonate technique for measurement of short-term energy expenditure in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Speakman, J R; Thomson, S C

    1997-12-01

    The energy expenditure of free-living animals has been studied extensively by the doubly-labeled water (DLW) technique. This method provides a reasonably accurate estimate of daily energy needs. However, there is considerable interest in the energy demands of animals over much shorter timescales, for which the DLW technique is less useful. We examined the possibility of measuring the expenditure of small animals over these shorter timescales from the washout kinetics of a bolus dose of 13C labeled bicarbonate. The study involved 19 laboratory mice which were injected either i.p. or s.c. with 0.2 ml of 13C labeled bicarbonate in water. Mice were placed in a standard respirometry system, maintained at different temperatures to precipitate a 3 fold variation in metabolism. Samples of breath were collected from the chamber into vacutainers at one minute intervals for approximately 40 minutes to an hour. Samples were analyzed by admission to a mass spectrometer (VG Optima) via a GC interface which identified and admitted the CO2 peak. The log converted isotope elimination was linear (r2 > 98% in all cases) indicating a single pool was involved. We evaluated the pool size from a dilution series of the injectate in equilibrium with CO2 gas. Conventional compartmental analysis produced an estimate which on average across the 19 individuals provided a reasonable estimate of the CO2 production. Individual estimates were however imprecise and the overall correlation between isotope and calorimeter estimates had an r2 of only 15%. Reasons for this discrepancy are unclear. Nevertheless an empirical model, using the elimination gradient, pool size and route of isotope administration as predictors explained 86% of the variation in CO2 production. Elimination of a bolus dose of 13C labeled bicarbonate provides a useful tool for estimating the energy metabolism of mice over intervals between 15 and 40 minutes. PMID:9467215

  1. New effects in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers from fluorescently labelled phospholipids and their possible use for water quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, G. R.; Geshev, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary water contamination poses significant challenges to the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors used for its detection and monitoring. Currently only lab tests can detect these contaminants and by the time this happens the contaminated water has entered the city water supply system. Fluorescent chromophore NitroBenzoxaDiazole (NBD) is very suitable and had been successfully used in biosensor applications due to its high sensitivity to close proximity polarity of the medium. Over the years we have discovered 3 new effects in NBD- labelled phospholipids which can significantly improve the performance of biosensors. The phospholipid matrix provides flexible biocompatible environment for immobilization of selectively reacting enzymes, microorganisms, DNA, immunoagents, whole cells. Use of single layer (3.1 nm thickness) films at the air-water interface (Langmuir films) or deposited on solid support as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film gives fast response times for real time monitoring (no slow diffusion processes) and precise molecule ordering and orientation. The first new effect was fluorescence self-quenching in Langmuir and LB films. In the liquid phase films exhibit normal fluorescence. Upon transition to solid phase fluorescence intensity is almost completely self-quenched and fluorescence lifetimes in the nanosecond region decrease 2 times. This is easily measured. Usually large heavy metal atoms quench fluorescence. We observed the opposite new effect when LB film is deposited in the solid phase from a subphase containing heavy metals. The third new effect is the obtaining of nanosized cylinders with bilayer thickness, which remain stable at least for months, when LB monolayer is deposited in the phase coexistence region at thermodynamic equilibrium. This greatly increases reacting surface and sensitivity of possible sensors. Almost all possible optical experimental methods were used for this research. This includes polarized ATR FTIR and polarized UV

  2. Dosimetry of intravenously administered oxygen-15 labelled water in man: a model based on experimental human data from 21 subjects.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Tong, C; Lammertsma, A A; Butler, K R; Schnorr, L; Watson, J D; Ramsay, S; Clark, J C; Jones, T

    1994-10-01

    Models based on uniform distribution of tracer in total body water underestimate the absorbed dose from H2(15)O because of the short half-life (2.04 min) of 15O, which leads to non-uniform distribution of absorbed dose and also complicates the direct measurement of organ retention curves. However, organ absorbed doses can be predicted by the present kinetic model based on the convolution technique. The measured time course of arterial H2(15)O concentration following intravenous administration represents the input function to organs. The impulse response of a given organ is its transit time function determined by blood flow and the partition of water between tissue and blood. Values of these two parameters were taken from the literature. Integrals of the arterial input function and organ transit time functions were used to derive integrals of organ retention functions (organ residence times). The latter were used with absorbed dose calculation software (MIRDOSE-2) to obtain estimates for 24 organs. From the mean values of organ absorbed doses, the effective dose equivalent (EDE) and effective dose (ED) were calculated. From measurements on 21 subjects, the average value for both EDE and ED was calculated to be 1.2 microSv.MBq-1 compared with a value of about 0.5 microSv.MBq-1 predicted by uniform water distribution models. Based on the human data, a method of approximating H2(15)O absorbed dose values from body surface area is described. PMID:7828623

  3. Optomechanical Enhancement of Doubly Resonant 2D Optical Nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fei; Ren, Mingliang; Reed, Jason C; Zhu, Hai; Hou, Jiechang; Naylor, Carl H; Johnson, A T Charlie; Agarwal, Ritesh; Cubukcu, Ertugrul

    2016-03-01

    Emerging two-dimensional semiconductor materials possess a giant second order nonlinear response due to excitonic effects while the monolayer thickness of such active materials limits their use in practical nonlinear devices. Here, we report 3300 times optomechanical enhancement of second harmonic generation from a MoS2 monolayer in a doubly resonant on-chip optical cavity. We achieve this by engineering the nonlinear light-matter interaction in a microelectro-mechanical system enabled optical frequency doubling device based on an electrostatically tunable Fabry-Perot microresonator. Our versatile optomechanical approach will pave the way for next generation efficient on-chip tunable light sources, sensors, and systems based on molecularly thin materials. PMID:26854706

  4. Doubly robust estimation of the local average treatment effect curve

    PubMed Central

    Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; Rotnitzky, Andrea; Robins, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We consider estimation of the causal effect of a binary treatment on an outcome, conditionally on covariates, from observational studies or natural experiments in which there is a binary instrument for treatment. We describe a doubly robust, locally efficient estimator of the parameters indexing a model for the local average treatment effect conditionally on covariates V when randomization of the instrument is only true conditionally on a high dimensional vector of covariates X, possibly bigger than V. We discuss the surprising result that inference is identical to inference for the parameters of a model for an additive treatment effect on the treated conditionally on V that assumes no treatment–instrument interaction. We illustrate our methods with the estimation of the local average effect of participating in 401(k) retirement programs on savings by using data from the US Census Bureau's 1991 Survey of Income and Program Participation. PMID:25663814

  5. Doubly Sparse Relevance Vector Machine for Continuous Facial Behavior Estimation.

    PubMed

    Kaltwang, Sebastian; Todorovic, Sinisa; Pantic, Maja

    2016-09-01

    Certain inner feelings and physiological states like pain are subjective states that cannot be directly measured, but can be estimated from spontaneous facial expressions. Since they are typically characterized by subtle movements of facial parts, analysis of the facial details is required. To this end, we formulate a new regression method for continuous estimation of the intensity of facial behavior interpretation, called Doubly Sparse Relevance Vector Machine (DSRVM). DSRVM enforces double sparsity by jointly selecting the most relevant training examples (a.k.a. relevance vectors) and the most important kernels associated with facial parts relevant for interpretation of observed facial expressions. This advances prior work on multi-kernel learning, where sparsity of relevant kernels is typically ignored. Empirical evaluation on challenging Shoulder Pain videos, and the benchmark DISFA and SEMAINE datasets demonstrate that DSRVM outperforms competing approaches with a multi-fold reduction of running times in training and testing. PMID:26595911

  6. Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.

  7. Nonsnaking doubly diffusive convectons and the twist instability

    SciTech Connect

    Beaume, Cédric Knobloch, Edgar; Bergeon, Alain

    2013-11-15

    Doubly diffusive convection in a three-dimensional horizontally extended domain with a square cross section in the vertical is considered. The fluid motion is driven by horizontal temperature and concentration differences in the transverse direction. When the buoyancy ratio N = −1 and the Rayleigh number is increased the conduction state loses stability to a subcritical, almost two-dimensional roll structure localized in the longitudinal direction. This structure exhibits abrupt growth in length near a particular value of the Rayleigh number but does not snake. Prior to this filling transition the structure becomes unstable to a secondary twist instability generating a pair of stationary, spatially localized zigzag states. In contrast to the primary branch these states snake as they grow in extent and eventually fill the whole domain. The origin of the twist instability and the properties of the resulting localized structures are investigated for both periodic and no-slip boundary conditions in the extended direction.

  8. Triple differential cross sections of magnesium in doubly symmetric geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Y. Sun; X, Y. Miao; Xiang-Fu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A dynamically screened three-Coulomb-wave (DS3C) method is applied to study the single ionization of magnesium by electron impact. Triple differential cross sections (TDCS) are calculated in doubly symmetric geometry at incident energies of 13.65, 17.65, 22.65, 27.65, 37.65, 47.65, 57.65, and 67.65 eV. Comparisons are made with experimental data and theoretical predictions from a three-Coulomb-wave function (3C) approach and distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). The overall agreement between the predictions of the DS3C model and the DWBA approach with the experimental data is satisfactory. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274215).

  9. Time-resolved doubly bent crystal x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, M.P.; Wilke, M.D.; Blake, R.L.; Vaninetti, J.; Gray, N.T.; Nedrow, P.T.

    1988-08-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is an essential tool in high-temperature plasma research. We describe a time-resolved x-ray spectrometer suitable for measuring spectra in harsh environments common to many very high-energy density laboratory plasma sources. The spectrometer consisted of a doubly curved Si(111) crystal diffraction element, a WL-1201 (ZnO:Ga) phosphor, a coherent fiber-optic array, and two visible streak cameras. The spectrometer design described here has a minimum time resolution of 1.3 ns with 2.8-eV spectral resolution over a 200-eV-wide bandpass in the 6--7-keV region of the spectrum. Complete system spectral throughput calibrations were done at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron (CHESS). Details of the design and calibration results are presented.

  10. Time-resolved doubly bent crystal x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, M.P.; Wilke, M.D.; Blake, R.L.; Vaninetti, J.; Gray, N.T.; Nedrow, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is an essential tool in high temperature plasma research. We describe a time-resolved x-ray spectrometer suitable for measuring spectra in harsh environments common to many very high energy density laboratory plasma sources. The spectrometer consisted of a doubly curved Si(111) crystal diffraction element, a WL-1201 (ZnO:Ga) phosphor, a coherent fiber optic array, and two visible streak cameras. The spectrometer design described here has a minimum time resolution of 1.3 ns with 2.8 eV spectral resolution over a 200 eV wide bandpass in the 6-7 keV region of the spectrum. Complete system spectral throughput calibrations were done at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron (CHESS). Details of the design and calibration results are presented. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-15

    The possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus, {sup 298}114{sub 184}, is investigated on the basis of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In order to synthesize this nucleus, we must generate more neutron-rich compound nuclei because of the neutron emissions from excited compound nuclei. The compound nucleus {sup 304}114 has two advantages to achieving a high survival probability. First, because of low neutron separation energy and rapid cooling, the shell correction energy recovers quickly. Secondly, owing to neutron emissions, the neutron number in the nucleus approaches that of the double closed shell and the nucleus attains a large fission barrier. Because of these two effects, the survival probability of {sup 304}114 does not decrease until the excitation energy E{sup *}=50 MeV. These properties lead to a rather high evaporation residue cross section.

  12. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  13. Doubly magic nucleus (108)(270)Hs162.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, J; Brüchle, W; Chelnokov, M; Dressler, R; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Gorshkov, V; Jäger, E; Krücken, R; Kuznetsov, A; Nagame, Y; Nebel, F; Novackova, Z; Qin, Z; Schädel, M; Schausten, B; Schimpf, E; Semchenkov, A; Thörle, P; Türler, A; Wegrzecki, M; Wierczinski, B; Yakushev, A; Yeremin, A

    2006-12-15

    Theoretical calculations predict 270Hs (Z=108, N=162) to be a doubly magic deformed nucleus, decaying mainly by alpha-particle emission. In this work, based on a rapid chemical isolation of Hs isotopes produced in the 26Mg+248Cm reaction, we observed 15 genetically linked nuclear decay chains. Four chains were attributed to the new nuclide 270Hs, which decays by alpha-particle emission with Qalpha=9.02+/-0.03 MeV to 266Sg which undergoes spontaneous fission with a half-life of 444(-148)(+444) ms. A production cross section of about 3 pb was measured for 270Hs. Thus, 270Hs is the first nucleus for which experimental nuclear decay properties have become available for comparison with theoretical predictions of the N=162 shell stability. PMID:17280272

  14. Doubly charged Higgs from e- γ scattering in the 3-3-1 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza Montalvo, J. E.; Ramírez Ulloa, G. H.; Tonasse, M. D.

    2012-11-01

    We studied the production and signatures of doubly charged Higgs bosons in the process γe -→ H -- E +, where E + is a heavy lepton, at the e - e + International Linear Collider (ILC) and CERN Linear Collider (CLIC). The intermediate photons are given by the Weizsäcker-Williams and laser-backscattering distributions. We found that significant signatures are obtained by bremsstrahlung and backward Compton scattering of laser. A clear signal can be obtained for doubly charged Higgs bosons, doubly charged gauge bosons and heavy leptons.

  15. Doubly heavy baryons and quark-diquark symmetry in quenched and partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2006-07-17

    We extend the chiral Lagrangian with heavy quark-diquark symmetry to quenched and partially quenched theories. These theories are used to derive formulae for the chiral extrapolation of masses and hyperfine splittings of doubly heavy baryons in lattice QCD simulations. A quark-diquark symmetry prediction for the hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons is rather insensitive to chiral corrections in both quenched and partially quenched QCD. Extrapolation formulae for the doubly heavy baryon electromagnetic transition moments are also determined for the partially quenched theory.

  16. Doubly charged CO2 clusters formed by ionization of doped helium nanodroplets☆

    PubMed Central

    Daxner, Matthias; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Helium nanodroplets are doped with carbon dioxide and ionized by electrons. Doubly charged cluster ions are, for the first time, identified based on their characteristic patterns of isotopologues. Thanks to the high mass resolution, large dynamic range, and a novel method to eliminate contributions from singly charged ions from the mass spectra, we are able to observe doubly charged cluster ions that are smaller than the ones reported in the past. The likely mechanism by which doubly charged ions are formed in doped helium droplets is discussed. PMID:25844051

  17. Label-Free Fluorescence Assay of S1 Nuclease and Hydroxyl Radicals Based on Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and WS₂ Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Li, Junting; Zhao, Qi; Tang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new method for detecting S1 nuclease and hydroxyl radicals based on the use of water-soluble conjugated poly[9,9-bis(6,6-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-fluorene)-2,7-ylenevinylene-co-alt-2,5-dicyano-1,4-phenylene)] (PFVCN) and tungsten disulfide (WS₂) nanosheets. Cationic PFVCN is used as a signal reporter, and single-layer WS₂ is used as a quencher with a negatively charged surface. The ssDNA forms complexes with PFVCN due to much stronger electrostatic interactions between cationic PFVCN and anionic ssDNA, whereas PFVCN emits yellow fluorescence. When ssDNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease or hydroxyl radicals into small fragments, the interactions between the fragmented DNA and PFVCN become weaker, resulting in PFVCN being adsorbed on the surface of WS₂ and the fluorescence being quenched through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The new method based on PFVCN and WS₂ can sense S1 nuclease with a low detection limit of 5 × 10(-6) U/mL. Additionally, this method is cost-effective by using affordable WS₂ as an energy acceptor without the need for dye-labeled ssDNA. Furthermore, the method provides a new platform for the nuclease assay and reactive oxygen species, and provides promising applications for drug screening. PMID:27304956

  18. Label-Free Fluorescence Assay of S1 Nuclease and Hydroxyl Radicals Based on Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers and WS2 Nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junting; Zhao, Qi; Tang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new method for detecting S1 nuclease and hydroxyl radicals based on the use of water-soluble conjugated poly[9,9-bis(6,6-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)-fluorene)-2,7-ylenevinylene-co-alt-2,5-dicyano-1,4-phenylene)] (PFVCN) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets. Cationic PFVCN is used as a signal reporter, and single-layer WS2 is used as a quencher with a negatively charged surface. The ssDNA forms complexes with PFVCN due to much stronger electrostatic interactions between cationic PFVCN and anionic ssDNA, whereas PFVCN emits yellow fluorescence. When ssDNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease or hydroxyl radicals into small fragments, the interactions between the fragmented DNA and PFVCN become weaker, resulting in PFVCN being adsorbed on the surface of WS2 and the fluorescence being quenched through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The new method based on PFVCN and WS2 can sense S1 nuclease with a low detection limit of 5 × 10−6 U/mL. Additionally, this method is cost-effective by using affordable WS2 as an energy acceptor without the need for dye-labeled ssDNA. Furthermore, the method provides a new platform for the nuclease assay and reactive oxygen species, and provides promising applications for drug screening. PMID:27304956

  19. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  20. Electronic Structure Description of a Doubly Oxidized Bimetallic Cobalt Complex with Proradical Ligands.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ryan M; Hazin, Khatera; Thompson, John R; Savard, Didier; Prosser, Kathleen E; Storr, Tim

    2016-01-19

    The geometric and electronic structure of a doubly oxidized bimetallic Co complex containing two redox-active salen moieties connected via a 1,2-phenylene linker was investigated and compared to an oxidized monomeric analogue. Both complexes, namely, CoL(1) and Co2L(2), are oxidized to the mono- and dications, respectively, with AgSbF6 and characterized by X-ray crystallography for the monomer and by vis-NIR (NIR = near-infrared) spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations for both the monomer and dimer. Both complexes exhibit a water molecule coordinated in the apical position upon oxidation. [CoL(1)-H2O](+) displays a broad NIR band at 8500 cm(-1) (8400 M(-1) cm(-1)), which is consistent with recent reports on oxidized Co salen complexes (Kochem, A. et al., Inorg. Chem., 2012, 51, 10557-10571 and Kurahashi, T. et al., Inorg. Chem., 2013, 52, 3908-3919). DFT calculations predict a triplet ground state with significant ligand and metal contributions to the singularly occupied molecular orbitals. The majority (∼75%) of the total spin density is localized on the metal, highlighting both high-spin Co(III) and Co(II)L(•) character in the electronic ground state. Further oxidation of CoL(1) to the dication affords a low-spin Co(III) phenoxyl radical species. The NIR features for [Co2L(2)-2H2O](2+) at 8600 cm(-1) (17 800 M(-1) cm(-1)) are doubly intense in comparison to [CoL(1)-H2O](+) owing to the description of [Co2L(2)-2H2O](2+) as two non-interacting oxidized Co salen complexes bound via the central phenylene linker. Interestingly, TD-DFT calculations predict two electronic transitions that are 353 cm(-1) apart. The NIR spectrum of the analogous Ni complex, [Ni2L(2)](2+), exhibits two intense transitions (4890 cm(-1)/26 500 M(-1) cm(-1) and 4200 cm(-1)/21 200 M(-1) cm(-1)) due to exciton coupling in the excited state. Only

  1. Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

  2. Observation of doubly excited levels in lithiumlike and beryliumlike titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Harris, C. L.; Wong, K.; Chen, M.

    2002-10-01

    The satellite spectrum of heliumlike titanium has been studied using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap, EBIT II and a high resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer in von Hámos geometry. We initially ionize the titanium atoms to the heliumlike charge state, and then select an electron beam energy that overlaps the excitation energy for the KLM series of resonances. This allows us to populate doubly excited levels in lithiumlike TiXX as well as beryliumlike TiXIX by dielectronic remombination. We observe spectra of x-ray photons emitted at 90^rc to the electron beam. We have also calculated the photon energies, excitation energies, and resonance strengths of these resonances using an MCDF theory, and we find good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results. We gratefully acknwoledge support by the U. S. Office of Basic Energy Science, Chemical Sciences Division, and the LLNL Research Collaborations Program for HBCU's. This work was performed under the auspices of U. S. Department of Energy by Morehouse under contract No. DE-FG02-98ER14877, and by LLNL under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  3. Signal of doubly charged Higgs at e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, L. T.; Huong, D. T.; Long, H. N.; Hung, H. T.; Thao, N. H.

    2015-11-01

    The masses and signals of the production of doubly charged Higgses (DCH) in the framework of the supersymmetric reduced minimal 3-3-1 model are investigated. In the DCH sector, we prove that there always exists a region of the parameter space where the mass of the lightest DCH is of the order of O(100) GeV even when all other new particles are very heavy. The lightest DCH mainly decays to two same-sign leptons while the dominant decay channels of the heavy DCHs are those decaying to heavy particles. We analyze each production cross section for e^+e^- ⇒ H^{++} H^{-} as a function of a few kinematic variables, which are useful to discuss the creation of DCHs in e^+e^- colliders as an indicator of new physics beyond the Standard Model. A numerical study shows that the cross sections for creating the lightest DCH can reach values of a few pb. The other two DCHs are too heavy, beyond the observable range of experiments. The lightest DCH may be detected by the International Linear Collider or the Compact Linear Collider by searching for its decay to a same-sign charged lepton pair.

  4. Neutron interaction with doubly-magic {sup 40}Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B. |

    1993-11-01

    Differential neutron elastic and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental calcium (96.94% doubly-magic {sup 40}Ca) are measured from {approx} 1.5 to 10 MeV with sufficient detail to determine their energy-averaged behavior in the highly fluctuating environment. These results, combined with values previously reported in the literature, are assessed in the contexts of optical-statistical, dispersive optical, and coupled-channels models, applicable to the energy domain 0 {yields} 30+ MeV, with particular emphasis on the lower energies where the interpretations are sensitive to the dispersion relationship and the effective mass. The interpretations define the energy dependencies of the potential parameters (resolving prior ambiguities), suggest that previous estimates of the prominent low-energy (n,p) and (n,a) reactions are too large, reasonably describe observables to at least 30 MeV, and provide a vehicle for extrapolation into the bound-state regime that gives a good description of hole- and particle-state binding energies. The resulting real-potential parameters (in contrast to many {sup 40}Ca parameters reported in the literature) are shown consistent with global trends.

  5. New advanced control methods for doubly salient permanent magnet motor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaabjerg, F.; Christensen, L.; Rasmussen, P.O.; Oestergaard, L.; Pedersen, P.

    1995-12-31

    High performance and high efficiency in adjustable speed drives are needed and new motor constructions are world wide investigated and analyzed. This paper deals with advanced control of a recently developed Doubly Salient Permanent Magnet (DSPM) motor. The construction of the DSPM motor is shown and a dynamical model of the motor is used for simulations. As supply to the DSPM motor, a power converter with a split capacitor is used to reduce the number of devices, and a basic control method for this converter is explained. This control method will cause an unequal voltage distribution across the capacitors because the motor is asymmetrical and a decrease in efficiency and a poorer dynamic performance are the results. To minimize the problems with the unequal load of the capacitors in the converter, a new charge control strategy is developed. The efficiency of the motor can also be improved by using a power minimizing scheme based on changing the turn-on and turn-off angles of the current. The two different strategies are implemented in an adjustable-speed drive, and it is concluded that both control strategies improve the performance of the drive.

  6. Doubly robust methods for handling confounding by cluster.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Johan; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Pawitan, Yudi; Sjölander, Arvid

    2016-04-01

    In clustered designs such as family studies, the exposure-outcome association is usually confounded by both cluster-constant and cluster-varying confounders. The influence of cluster-constant confounders can be eliminated by studying the exposure-outcome association within (conditional on) clusters, but additional regression modeling is usually required to control for observed cluster-varying confounders. A problem is that the working regression model may be misspecified, in which case the estimated within-cluster association may be biased. To reduce sensitivity to model misspecification we propose to augment the standard working model for the outcome with an auxiliary working model for the exposure. We derive a doubly robust conditional generalized estimating equation (DRCGEE) estimator for the within-cluster association. This estimator combines the two models in such a way that it is consistent if either model is correct, not necessarily both. Thus, the DRCGEE estimator gives the researcher two chances instead of only one to make valid inference on the within-cluster association. We have implemented the estimator in an R package and we use it to examine the association between smoking during pregnancy and cognitive abilities in offspring, in a sample of siblings. PMID:26508769

  7. Fragmentation network of doubly charged methionine: Interpretation using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Ha, D T; Yamazaki, K; Wang, Y; Alcamí, M; Maeda, S; Kono, H; Martín, F; Kukk, E

    2016-09-01

    The fragmentation of doubly charged gas-phase methionine (HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3) is systematically studied using the self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. We applied graph theory to analyze the large number of the calculated MD trajectories, which appears to be a highly effective and convenient means of extracting versatile information from the large data. The present theoretical results strongly concur with the earlier studied experimental ones. Essentially, the dication dissociates into acidic group CO2H and basic group C4NSH10. The former may carry a single or no charge and stays intact in most cases, whereas the latter may hold either a single or a double charge and tends to dissociate into smaller fragments. The decay of the basic group is observed to follow the Arrhenius law. The dissociation pathways to CO2H and C4NSH10 and subsequent fragmentations are also supported by ab initio calculations. PMID:27608997

  8. Fast estimation of sparse doubly spread acoustic channels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Jun; Xu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of doubly spread underwater acoustic channels is addressed. By exploiting the sparsity in the delay-Doppler domain, this paper proposes a fast projected gradient method (FPGM) that can handle complex-valued data for estimating the delay-Doppler spread function of a time-varying channel. The proposed FPGM formulates the sparse channel estimation as a complex-valued convex optimization using an [script-l](1)-norm constraint. Conventional approaches to complex-valued optimization split the complex variables into their real and imaginary parts; this doubles the dimension compared with the original problem and may break the special data structure. Unlike the conventional methods, the proposed method directly handles the complex variables as a whole without splitting them into real numbers; hence the dimension will not increase. By exploiting the block Toeplitz-like structure of the coefficient matrix, the computational complexity of the FPGM is reduced to O(LNlogN), where L is the dimension of the Doppler shift and N is the signal length. Simulation results verify the accuracy and efficiency of the FPGM, indicating that is robust to parameter selection and is orders-of-magnitude faster than standard convex optimization algorithms. The Kauai experimental data processing results are also provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:22280593

  9. Analysis of thickness modes of contoured doubly rotated, quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    EerNisse, E P

    2001-09-01

    It is the intent of this work to provide a working resource for calculating all three mode families of a doubly rotated, contoured quartz resonator. It is shown that the theoretical development of Stevens and Tiersten [1] can be used for this purpose. Their approach uses a transformation of the mechanical displacement vector to the eigenvector triad of the pure thickness solution. The solution methodology here reorganizes the transformation matrix Q in their formulation to calculate the other two mode families. Calculations compare well with experimental results for the three mode families of an SC-cut crystal and an FC-cut crystal and with published calculations for the SBTC-cut mode family with major displacement along the x3 blank axis. The key constants for the SC-cut are presented for workers to use in the future. In addition, the equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived for the two additional mode families using assumptions parallel to those used by Stevens and Tiersten [1]. Calculations with these equations are presented for completeness to support the present conclusions by showing the equivalence of either simply reorganizing the Q matrix or using separate equations for each of the three mode families. PMID:11570760

  10. Research on seismic survey design for doubly complex areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hu; Yin, Cheng; Wu, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Pan, Shu-Lin

    2012-06-01

    The complex geological conditions in doubly complex areas tend to result in difficult surface survey operations and poor target layer imaging in the subsurface which has a great impact on seismic data quality. In this paper, we propose an optimal crooked line survey method for decreasing the surface survey operational difficulties and improving the sub-layer event continuity. The method concentrates on the surface shooting conditions, first, selecting the proper shot positions based on the specific surface topographic features to reduce the shot difficulties and then optimizing the receiver positioning to meet the prerequisite that the subsurface reflection points remain in a straight line. Using this method cannot only lower the shooting difficulty of rough surface condition areas but also overcome the subsurface reflection point bending problem appearing in the traditional crooked line survey method. On the other hand, we use local infill shooting rather than conventional overall infill shooting to improve sublayer event continuity and uniformity with lower survey operation cost. A model has been calculated and processed with the proposed optimal crooked line survey and local infill shooting design method workflow and the results show that this new method can work for seismic surveys in double complex areas.

  11. 33 CFR 181.19 - Construction of labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... labels. (a) Each label must be made of material that can withstand exposure to water, oil, salt spray, direct sunlight, heat, cold, and wear expected in normal use of the boat or item of associated...

  12. 33 CFR 181.19 - Construction of labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... labels. (a) Each label must be made of material that can withstand exposure to water, oil, salt spray, direct sunlight, heat, cold, and wear expected in normal use of the boat or item of associated...

  13. Structural Heterogeneity of Doubly-Charged Peptide b-Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yiqun; O'Connor, Peter B.; Lin, Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Performing collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) in tandem has shown great promise in providing comprehensive sequence information that was otherwise unobtainable by using either fragmentation method alone or in duet. However, the general applicability of this MS3 approach in peptide sequencing may be undermined by the formation of non-direct sequence ions, as sometimes observed under CAD, particularly when multiple stages of CAD are involved. In this study, varied-sized doubly-charged b-ions from three tachykinin peptides were investigated by ECD. Sequence scrambling was observed in ECD of all b-ions from neurokinin A (HKTDSFVGLM-NH2), suggesting the presence of N- and C-termini linked macro-cyclic conformers. On the contrary, none of the b-ions from eledoisin (pEPSKDAFIGLM-NH2) produced non-direct sequence ions under ECD, as it does not contain a free N-terminal amino group. ECD of several b-ions from Substance P (RPKPQQFFGLM-NH2) showed series of cm-Lys fragment ions which suggested that the macro-cyclic structure may also be formed by connecting the C-terminal carbonyl group and the ɛ-amino group of the lysine side chain. Theoretical investigation of selected Substance P b-ions revealed several low energy conformers, including both linear oxazolones and macro-ring structures, in corroboration with the experimental observation. This study showed that a b-ion may exist as a mixture of several forms, with their propensities influenced by its N-terminus, length, and certain side-chain groups. Further, the presence of several macro-cyclic structures may result in erroneous sequence assignment when the combined CAD and ECD methods are used in peptide sequencing.

  14. The Torsional Spectrum of Doubly Deuterated Methanol CHD_2OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndao, M.; Coudert, L. H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Barros, J.; Margulès, L.; Manceron, Laurent; Roy, P.

    2014-06-01

    Although the torsional spectrum of several isotopic species of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 was analyzed some time ago, it is recently, and only for the monodeuterated species CH_2DOH, that such an analysis was extended to the case of an asymmetrical methyl group. In this talk, based on a Fourier transform high-resolution spectrum recorded in the 20 to 670 wn region, the first analysis of the torsional spectrum of doubly deuterated methanol CHD_2OH will be presented. The Q branch of many torsional subbands could be observed and their assignment was initiated using a theoretical torsion-rotation spectrum computed with an approach accounting for the torsion-rotation Coriolis coupling and for the dependence of the generalized inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. 46 torsional subbands were thus assigned. For 28 of them, their rotational structure could be assigned and fitted using an effective Hamiltonian expressed as a J(J+1) expansion; and for 2 of them microwave transitions within the lower torsional level could also be included in the analysis. In several cases these analysis revealed that the torsional levels are strongly perturbed. In the talk, the torsional parameters retrieved in the analysis of the torsional subband centers will be discussed. The results of the analysis of the rotational structure of the torsional subbands will be presented and we will also try to understand the nature of the perturbations. At last, preliminary results about the analysis of the microwave spectrum will be presented. El Hilali, Coudert, Konov, and Klee, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 194309 Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 256 (2009) 204 Quade, Liu, Mukhopadhyay, and Su, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 192 (1998) 378 Pearson, Yu, and Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 280 (2012) 119

  15. Simultaneous marginal survival estimators when doubly censored data is present.

    PubMed

    Julià, Olga; Gómez, Guadalupe

    2011-07-01

    A doubly censoring scheme occurs when the lifetimes T being measured,from a well-known time origin, are exactly observed within a window [L, R] of observational time and are otherwise censored either from above (right-censored observations)or below (left-censored observations). Sample data consists on the pairs (U, δ)where U = min{R, max{T, L}} and δ indicates whether T is exactly observed (δ = 0),right-censored (δ = 1) or left-censored (δ = −1). We are interested in the estimation of the marginal behaviour of the three random variables T, L and R based on the observed pairs (U, δ).We propose new nonparametric simultaneous marginal estimators Ŝ(T) , Ŝ(L) and Ŝ(R) for the survival functions of T, L and R, respectively, by means of an inverse-probability-of-censoring approach. The proposed estimators Ŝ(T) , Ŝ(L) and Ŝ(R) are not computationally intensive, generalize the empirical survival estimator and reduce to the Kaplan-Meier estimator in the absence of left-censored data. Furthermore,Ŝ(T) is equivalent to a self-consistent estimator, is uniformly strongly consistent and asymptotically normal. The method is illustrated with data from a cohort of drug users recruited in a detoxification program in Badalona (Spain). For these data we estimate the survival function for the elapsed time from starting IV-drugs to AIDS diagnosis, as well as the potential follow-up time. A simulation study is discussed to assess the performance of the three survival estimators for moderate sample sizes and different censoring levels. PMID:20886370

  16. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-loop neutrino mass model with doubly charged particles from isodoublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Yagyu, Kei

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new type of a three-loop induced neutrino mass model with dark matter candidates which are required for the neutrino mass generation. The smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained without introducing super heavy particles, namely, much heavier than a TeV scale and quite small couplings as compared to the gauge couplings. We find that as a bonus, the anomaly of the muon anomalous magnetic moment can simultaneously be explained by loop effects of new particles. In our model, there are doubly charged scalar bosons and leptons from isospin doublet fields which give characteristic collider signatures. In particular, the doubly charged scalar bosons can decay into the same-sign dilepton with its chirality of both right-handed or left- and right-handed. This can be a smoking gun signature to identify our model and be useful to distinguish other models with doubly charged scalar bosons at collider experiments.

  18. Incorporation of a Doubly Functionalized Synthetic Amino Acid into Proteins for Creating Chemical and Light-Induced Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Matsuda, Takayoshi; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Hohsaka, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2016-01-20

    Z-Lysine (ZLys) is a lysine derivative with a benzyloxycarbonyl group linked to the ε-nitrogen. It has been genetically encoded with the UAG stop codon, using the pair of an engineered variant of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and tRNA(Pyl). In the present study, we designed a novel Z-lysine derivative (AmAzZLys), which is doubly functionalized with amino and azido substituents at the meta positions of the benzyl moiety, and demonstrated its applicability for creating protein conjugates. AmAzZLys was incorporated into proteins in Escherichia coli, by using the ZLys-specific PylRS variant. AmAzZLys was then site-specifically incorporated into a camelid single-domain antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A one-pot reaction demonstrated that the phenyl amine and azide were efficiently linked to the 5 kDa polyethylene glycol and a fluorescent probe, respectively, through specific bio-orthogonal chemistry. The antibody was then tested for the ability to form a photo-cross-link between its phenylazide moiety and the antigen, while the amino group on the same ring was used for chemical labeling. When incorporated at a selected position in the antibody and exposed to 365 nm light, AmAzZLys formed a covalent bond with the EGFR ectodomain, with the phenylamine moiety labeled fluorescently prior to the reaction. The present results illuminated the versatility of the ZLys scaffold, which can accommodate multiple reactive groups useful for protein conjugation. PMID:26625213

  19. Model of the anisotropic behavior of doubly oriented and non-oriented materials using coenergy: Application to a large generator

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, M.; Pera, T.; Marechal, Y.

    1995-05-01

    The anisotropic and nonlinear behavior of doubly oriented and non-oriented sheets are modeled using the coenergy density. These models have been implemented in a finite element computation. A large generator has been modeled and the advantages of doubly oriented sheets compared to the conventional non-oriented ones are shown.

  20. Dynamic stability of a doubly quantized vortex in a three-dimensional condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundh, Emil; Nilsen, Halvor M.

    2006-12-01

    The Bogoliubov equations are solved for a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate containing a doubly quantized vortex, trapped in a harmonic potential. Complex frequencies, signifying dynamical instability, are found for certain ranges of parameter values. The existence of alternating windows of stability and instability, respectively, is explained qualitatively and quantitatively using variational calculus and direct numerical solutions. It is seen that the windows of stability disappear in the limit of a cigar-shaped condensate, which is consistent with recent experimental results on the lifetime of a doubly quantized vortex in that regime.

  1. Dynamic stability of a doubly quantized vortex in a three-dimensional condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Lundh, Emil; Nilsen, Halvor M.

    2006-12-15

    The Bogoliubov equations are solved for a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate containing a doubly quantized vortex, trapped in a harmonic potential. Complex frequencies, signifying dynamical instability, are found for certain ranges of parameter values. The existence of alternating windows of stability and instability, respectively, is explained qualitatively and quantitatively using variational calculus and direct numerical solutions. It is seen that the windows of stability disappear in the limit of a cigar-shaped condensate, which is consistent with recent experimental results on the lifetime of a doubly quantized vortex in that regime.

  2. Doubly Connected V-States for the Generalized Surface Quasi-Geostrophic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Hoz, Francisco; Hassainia, Zineb; Hmidi, Taoufik

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of doubly connected V-states for the generalized SQG equations with α ∈]0, 1[. They can be described by countable branches bifurcating from the annulus at some explicit "eigenvalues" related to Bessel functions of the first kind. Contrary to Euler equations Hmidi et al. (Doubly connected V-states for the planar Euler equations, arXiv:1409.7096, 2015), we find V-states rotating with positive and negative angular velocities. At the end of the paper we discuss some numerical experiments concerning the limiting V-states.

  3. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch...

  4. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch...

  5. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch...

  6. Field metabolism and water flux of carolina chickadees during breeding and nonbreeding seasons: A test of the "peak-demand" and "reallocation" hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Williams, J.B.; Grubb, T.C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the "peak-demand" and "reallocation" hypotheses of seasonal energy expenditure which predict, respectively, that energy expenditure is greatest during the breeding season or varies little seasonally. We tested these predictions by utilizing the doubly labeled water technique to estimate energy expenditure and water flux of Carolina Chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) in both the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Similar to Weathers et al. (1999), we did not find support for either of these hypotheses, finding instead that energy expenditure was greater during the nonbreeding season. The fact that our study site was at the northern edge of the species' range, where winters are severe, may have influenced this result. Comparisons with other parid studies were equivocal because body size was an important factor in explaining seasonal energetics, and only the larger species have been examined during the breeding season.

  7. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ)...

  8. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ)...

  9. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ)...

  10. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ)...

  11. Synthesis of a water-soluble analog of 6-methyl-3-N-alkyl catechol labeled with carbon 13: NMR approach to the reactivity of poison ivy/oak sensitizers toward proteins.

    PubMed

    Goetz, G; Meschkat, E; Lepoittevin, J P

    1999-04-19

    A 13-C labeled water soluble derivative of alkylcatechol was synthesized and reacted with human serum albumin in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 in air to allow a slow oxidation of the catechol into orthoquinone. The formation of several adducts was evidenced by a combination of 13C and 1H-13C correlation NMR. Although some adducts could result from a classical o-quinone formation - Michael type addition, our results suggest that a second pathway, involving a direct reaction of a carbon centered radical with proteins could be an important mechanism in the formation of modified proteins. PMID:10328301

  12. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  13. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  14. Measuring doubly 13C-substituted ethane by mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clog, M.; Ling, C.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Ethane (C2H6) is present in non-negligible amounts in most natural gas reservoirs and is used to produce ethylene for petrochemical industries. It is one of the by-products of lipid metabolism and is the arguably simplest molecule that can manifest multiple 13C substitutions. There are several plausible controls on the relative abundances of 13C2H6 in natural gases: thermodynamically controlled homogeneous isotope exchange reactions analogous to those behind carbonate clumped isotope thermometry; inheritance from larger biomolecules that under thermal degradation to produce natural gas; mixing of natural gases that differ markedly in bulk isotopic composition; or combinations of these and/or other, less expected fractionations. There is little basis for predicting which of these will dominate in natural samples. Here, we focus on an analytical techniques that will provide the avenue for exploring these phenomena. The method is based on high-resolution gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry, using the Thermo 253-Ultra (a new prototype mass spectrometer). This instrument achieves the mass resolution (M/Δ M) up to 27,000, permitting separation of the isobaric interferences of potential contaminants and isotopologues of an analtye or its fragments which share a cardinal mass. We present techniques to analyze several isotopologues of molecular and fragment ions of C2H6. The critical isobaric separations for our purposes include: discrimination of 13C2H6 from 13C12CDH5 at mass 32 and separation of the 13CH3 fragment from 12CH4 at mass 16, both requiring at least a mass resolution of 20000 to make an adequate measurement. Other obvious interferences are either cleanly separated (e.g., O2, O) or accounted for by peak-stripping (CH3OH on mass 32 and NH2 on mass 16). We focus on a set of measurements which constrain: the doubly-substituted isotopologue, 13C2H6, and the 13CH3/12CH3 ratio of the methyl fragment, which constrains the bulk δ 13C. Similar methods can be

  15. Energetics of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolytes: Singly and Doubly doped Ceria Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukkilic, Salih

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have potential to convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy with high efficiency, with only water vapor as a by-product. However, the requirement of extremely high operating temperatures (~1000 °C) limits the use of SOFCs to only in large scale stationary applications. In order to make SOFCs a viable energy solution, enormous effort has been focused on lowering the operating temperatures below 700 °C. A low temperature operation would reduce manufacturing costs by slowing component degradation, lessening thermal mismatch problems, and sharply reducing costs of operation. In order to optimize SOFC applications, it is critical to understand the thermodynamic stabilities of electrolytes since they directly influence device stability, sustainability and performance. Rare-earth doped ceria electrolytes have emerged as promising materials for SOFC applications due to their high ionic conductivity at the intermediate temperatures (500--700 °C). However there is a fundamental lack of understanding regarding their structure, thermodynamic stability and properties. Therefore, the enthalpies of formation from constituent oxides and ionic conductivities were determined to investigate a relationship between the stability, composition, structural defects and ionic conductivity in rare earth doped ceria systems. For singly doped ceria electrolytes, we investigated the solid solution phase of bulk Ce1-xLnxO2-0.5x where Ln = Sm and Nd (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) and analyzed their enthalpies of formation, mixing and association, and bulk ionic conductivities while considering cation size mismatch and defect associations. It was shown that for ambient temperatures in the dilute dopant region, the positive heat of formation reaches a maximum as the system becomes increasingly less stable due to size mismatch. In concentrated region, stabilization to a certain solubility limit was observed probably due to the defect association of trivalent cations

  16. Production of doubly heavy-flavored hadrons at e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu-Chang; Chang, Chao-Hsi; Pan, Zan

    2016-02-01

    Production of the doubly heavy-flavored hadrons (Bc meson, doubly heavy baryons Ξc c , Ξb c , Ξb b , their excited states, and antiparticles of them as well) at e+e- colliders is investigated under two different approaches: LO (leading-order QCD complete calculation) and LL (leading-logarithm fragmentation calculation). The results for the production obtained by the LO and LL approaches, including the angle distributions of the produced hadrons with unpolarized and polarized incoming beams, the behaviors on the energy fraction of the produced doubly heavy-flavored hadron, and comparisons of results between the two approaches, are presented in tables and figures. Thus, characteristics of the production and uncertainties of the approaches are shown precisely, and it is concluded that only if the colliders run at the energies around the Z pole (which may be called the Z factories) and the luminosity of the colliders is as high as possible is the study of the doubly heavy-flavored hadrons completely accessible.

  17. Measurement of doubly differential electron distributions induced by atomic collisions: Apparatus and related instrumental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, G.; Suárez, S.; Fregenal, D.; Focke, P.; Meckbach, W.

    1996-05-01

    We describe the experimental setup at Centro Atómico Bariloche for the measurement of doubly differential electron distributions, in energy and angle of emission, induced by atomic collisions. We present detailed information about the performance of the equipment including a discussion of instrumental effects that could have affected the measured spectra.

  18. Periodic orbits in the doubly synchronous binary asteroid systems and their applications in space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Pingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the periodic motion of a particle in the doubly synchronous binary asteroid systems. Two typical doubly synchronous systems, 809 Lundia and 3169 Ostro, are discussed in detail. Under the Roche figure assumption, the two bodies of doubly synchronous system can be modeled as two triaxial ellipsoids. The Ivory's theorem is used to derive the gravitational potential of the system. Then, a global numerical method, which combines grid searching and differential correction, is developed for systematically searching periodic orbits in the doubly synchronous systems. A total of 30 and 28 families of periodic orbits around Lundia and Ostro are found, respectively. Furthermore, on the basis of the analysis of morphology, stabilities and invariant manifolds, the potential applications of these periodic orbit families are studied. Several quasi-circular orbit families with low instability index are found to be suitable for the observation of the two typical binary systems. The invariant manifolds of some periodic orbits near the equilibrium points can provide the fuel-free trajectories to achieve the ballistic landing to the surface of the asteroids and transfer between the binary asteroids.

  19. Production of doubly charmed baryons at energy {radical}s=10.58 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V.V.; Likhoded, A.K.; Shevlyagin, M.V.

    1995-06-01

    The cross section for the production of doubly charmed baryons at a B-factory is estimated on the basis of perturbative QCD calculations of the cross sections for cc-diquark production and of the quark-hadron duality. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  20. A tristable [2]rotaxane that is doubly gated by foldamer and azobenzene kinetic barriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Kun; Xu, Zi-Yue; Zhang, Yun-Chang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhan-Ting

    2016-06-14

    A hydrogen bonded foldamer unit and an azobenzene unit have been incorporated into the linear component of a tristable [2]rotaxane to give rise to a doubly gated switching system tuned by the folding-defolding of the foldamer unit and the photo-initiated trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene unit. PMID:27203526

  1. Assessment of the amount of body water in the Red Knot (Calidris canutus): an evaluation of the principle of isotope dilution with 2H, (17)O, and (18)O as measured with laser spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kerstel, Erik R T; Piersma, Theunis; Piersma, Theunis A J; Gessaman, James A; Gessaman, G Jim; Dekinga, Anne; Meijer, Harro A J; Visser, G Henk

    2006-03-01

    We have used the isotope dilution technique to study changes in the body composition of a migratory shorebird species (Red Knot, Calidris canutus) through an assessment of the amount of body water in it. Birds were quantitatively injected with a dose of water with elevated concentrations of 2H, (17)O, and (18)O. Thereafter, blood samples were taken and distilled. The resulting water samples were analysed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (for 2H and (18)O only) and a stable isotope ratio infrared laser spectrometry (2H, (17)O, and (18)O) to yield estimates of the amount of body water in the birds, which in turn could be correlated to the amount of body fat. Here, we validate laser spectrometry against mass spectrometry and show that all three isotopes may be used for body water determinations. This opens the way to the extension of the doubly labelled water method, used for the determination of energy expenditure, to a triply labelled water method, incorporating an evaporative water loss correction on a subject-by-subject basis or, alternatively, the reduction of the analytical errors by statistically combining the (17)O and (18)O measurements. PMID:16500750

  2. Search for doubly charged Higgs bosons through vector boson fusion at the LHC and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambhaniya, G.; Chakrabortty, J.; Gluza, J.; Jeliński, T.; Szafron, R.

    2015-07-01

    Production and decays of doubly charged Higgs bosons at the LHC and future hadron colliders triggered by a vector boson fusion mechanism are discussed in the context of the minimal left-right symmetric model. Our analysis is based on the Higgs boson mass spectrum compatible with available constraints which include flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) effects and vacuum stability of the scalar potential. Though the parity breaking scale vR is large (˜ few TeV) and scalar masses which contribute to FCNC effects are even larger, a consistent Higgs boson mass spectrum still allows us to keep doubly charged scalar masses below 1 TeV which is an interesting situation for LHC and future circular collider (FCC). We have shown that the allowed Higgs boson mass spectrum constrains the splittings (MH1±±-MH1± ), closing the possibility of H1±±→W1±H1± decays. Assuming that doubly charged Higgs bosons decay predominantly into a pair of same-sign charged leptons through the process p p →H1/2 ±±H1/2 ∓∓j j →ℓ±ℓ±ℓ∓ℓ∓j j , we find that for the LHC operating at √{s }=14 TeV with an integrated luminosity at the level of 3000 fb-1 (HL-LHC), there is practically no chance to detect such particles at the reasonable significance level through this channel. However, at 33 TeV HE-LHC and (or) 100 TeV FCC-hh, a wide region opens up for exploring the doubly charged Higgs boson mass spectrum. In FCC-hh, the doubly charged Higgs bosons mass up to 1 TeV can be easily probed.

  3. Effect of synthetic carbon amino saccharides on the transfer of labeled mineral 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.; Gracia, I.; Fabila, L.; Urbina, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The favorable effects of fulvic acids as fertilizers are very well known and they have been used long time ago in their natural state in dead leaves. Their extraction from natural sources is rather expensive, but the production of very similar carbon amino saccharides by sugar oxidation has been industrially applied in Mexico. Good properties of this commercial product as fertilizer have been proved empirically in different crops as well as at laboratory level, by the efficient absorption of radioactive labeled mineral ions in vegetables when they are carried by this synthetic organic matter in aqueous solution. Now, its effect has been tested by filtration of radioactively labeled 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum through mice liver and kidneys. The results indicate that the filtration and diffusion of these mineral ions also improved, the same that in vegetables, in the presence of the synthetic carbon amino saccharides highly soluble in water. These results suggest the appropriateness of further research to evaluate their possible use either as a dietary complement or as auxiliaries in the treatment of liver and kidney diseases.

  4. Excitonic Heterodimer Formation in an HIV-1 Oligonucleotide Labeled with a Donor-Acceptor Pair Used for Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, Serena; Piémont, Etienne; Potier, Noelle; Dorsselaer, Alain van; Mély, Yves

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the absorbance and fluorescence properties of cTAR, the complementary DNA sequence of the transactivation response element of the HIV-1 genome, doubly end-labeled by different dyes, 5(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein (Fl) and 5(and 6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR), frequently used in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies. This oligonucleotide forms a stable stem-loop structure. The absorption spectrum of this species clearly differed from that of a doubly labeled cTAR derivative in which the terminal part of the stem is melted and from an equimolecular mixture of singly labeled species. Moreover, no significant TMR fluorescence change accompanies the dramatic Fl intensity increase when the doubly labeled native cTAR was melted by temperature or annealed with its complementary sequence. Both elements suggest the formation of an H-type ground-state heterodimer between Fl and TMR that may be described by the molecular exciton model. Moreover, time-resolved fluorescence further suggests that the nonfluorescent heterodimer is in equilibrium with a small population of partially melted species showing FRET. Based on the spectral shifts associated with heterodimer formation, an interchromophore distance of 7.7 Å was calculated. Both the excitonic signal and the Fl fluorescence were used as sensitive tools to monitor the temperature-mediated and HIV nucleocapsid protein-mediated annealing of cTAR with its complementary sequence. PMID:12524317

  5. Excitonic heterodimer formation in an HIV-1 oligonucleotide labeled with a donor-acceptor pair used for fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Serena; Piémont, Etienne; Potier, Noelle; Dorsselaer, Alain van; Mély, Yves

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the absorbance and fluorescence properties of cTAR, the complementary DNA sequence of the transactivation response element of the HIV-1 genome, doubly end-labeled by different dyes, 5(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein (Fl) and 5(and 6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR), frequently used in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies. This oligonucleotide forms a stable stem-loop structure. The absorption spectrum of this species clearly differed from that of a doubly labeled cTAR derivative in which the terminal part of the stem is melted and from an equimolecular mixture of singly labeled species. Moreover, no significant TMR fluorescence change accompanies the dramatic Fl intensity increase when the doubly labeled native cTAR was melted by temperature or annealed with its complementary sequence. Both elements suggest the formation of an H-type ground-state heterodimer between Fl and TMR that may be described by the molecular exciton model. Moreover, time-resolved fluorescence further suggests that the nonfluorescent heterodimer is in equilibrium with a small population of partially melted species showing FRET. Based on the spectral shifts associated with heterodimer formation, an interchromophore distance of 7.7 A was calculated. Both the excitonic signal and the Fl fluorescence were used as sensitive tools to monitor the temperature-mediated and HIV nucleocapsid protein-mediated annealing of cTAR with its complementary sequence. PMID:12524317

  6. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  8. Relativistic description of pair production of doubly heavy baryons in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.; Trunin, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Relativistic corrections in the pair production of S-wave doubly heavy diquarks in electron-positron annihilation were calculated on the basis of perturbative QCD and the quark model. The relativistic corrections to the wave functions for quark bound states were taken into account with the aid of the Breit potential in QCD. Relativistic effects change substantially the nonrelativistic cross sections for pair diquark production. The yield of pairs of (ccq) doubly heavy baryons at B factories was estimated.

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein-protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Benjamin J; Dzikovski, Boris G; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H; McDermott, Ann E

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces. PMID:25828256

  10. Advantages of doubly polished thin sections for the study of microfossils in volcanic rock

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, M

    2006-01-01

    Doubly polished thin sections, originally prepared for fluid inclusion studies, present great advantages in the study of microfossils in volcanic rocks. Better visibility and light conditions, variation in thickness of the thin sections and the possibility to combine fluid inclusion studies with microfossil studies lead to a wide range of advantages over ordinary thin sections. This includes the study of morphology, internal microstructures, colonies, association with the substrate that microfossils are attached to and geological and environmental context in which the microfossil once lived. When meeting the criteria of microfossil recognition the advantages of doubly polished thin sections are substantial and can be crucial in distinguishing between biogenic microfossils and abiotically formed abiomorphs. PMID:16759373

  11. Doubly fed induction generator wind turbines with fuzzy controller: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sathiyanarayanan, J S; Kumar, A Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine. PMID:25028677

  12. Photoionization dominated by doubly excited resonances for Be and its isoelectronic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.N.; Zhu, L.

    1993-05-01

    We present the photoionization cross sections the ground and a few selected bound excited states of Be using a B-spline based configuration-interaction procedure for continuum (CIC). The resonant structures dominated by the doubly excited autoionization series will be examined in detail. Our calculation has shown that the strong overlap between the 2p(n+1)s and 2pnd {sup 1}P resonances seen in the ground state photoionization spectrum is completely removed in the spectrum originated from the bound excited state. Our calculated resonant widths vary smoothly as functions of the effective quantum number v and approach approximately an {nu}{sup 3}-dependence. We will also present the variation of the doubly excited resonance structures as Z increases along the Be-isoelectronic sequence.

  13. Doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum and entanglement plateau in the S=1 bond-alternating chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Yan; Dou, Jun-Ya; Liu, Guang-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Quantum entanglement, entanglement spectrum, magnetization, and ground-state energy of the S=1 bond-alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain under magnetic field are investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. Bipartite entanglement and entanglement spectrum are found to be capable of describing all the quantum phase transitions (QPTs). A rich ground-state phase diagram, which comprises of five different phases, i.e., a singlet-dimer phase, a Haldane phase, a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) phase, a 1/2 plateau phase, and a saturated ferromagnetic phase, is determined. It is interesting that, with the appearance of magnetization plateaus, entanglement plateaus are observed simultaneously. In the Haldane phase, doubly degenerate entanglement spectra on both even and odd bonds are observed. However, in the 1/2 plateau phase, only the entanglement spectra on the even bonds are found to be doubly degenerated.

  14. Autoionizing doubly-excited states of 3Σg- symmetry of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoubi, F.; Telmini, M.; Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We report R-matrix calculations of doubly-excited 3Σg- states of molecular hydrogen corresponding to 3d˜πnℓ˜π configurations. These states form Rydberg series converging to the 3d˜π series limit. They lie in the continuum of the doubly-excited states of 3Σg- symmetry built on the 2p˜π ion core, and therefore they are autoionized. Calculations of resonance positions and widths are presented.

  15. Nuclear structure in the neutron-rich doubly magic sup 78 Ni region

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.; Winger, J.A.; Warburton, E.K.; Gill, R.L.; Schuhmann, R.B.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Clark Univ., Worcester, MA )

    1989-01-01

    The magic numbers Z=28 and N=50 imply that very neutron-rich {sup 78}Ni, which has not yet been observed, is doubly magic. The {sup 78}Ni region was investigated by studying the N=50 isotones and neutron-rich Zn isotopes. Results on the level structure of {sup 83}As, {sup 74}Zn, and {sup 76}Zn populated in the decays of {sup 83}Ge, {sup 74}Cu, and {sup 76}Cu are presented. The parent nuclides were produced and mass separated using the TRISTAN facility on-line to the High-Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven. The systematics of the N=50 isotones and even-A Zn isotopes are discussed and compared with shell-model calculations involving active nucleons outside of a {sup 78}Ni and {sup 66}Ni core, respectively. The extent to which the {sup 78}Ni region can be considered doubly magic is assessed. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines with Fuzzy Controller: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyanarayanan, J. S.; Senthil Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine. PMID:25028677

  17. Effect of skewing the rotor teeth on the performance of doubly salient permanent magnet motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, N. K.; Sekharbabu, A. R. C.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the effects of skewing the rotor teeth on the performance characteristics such as flux linkage, back emf, phase inductance, and reluctance torque of an 8/6 doubly salient permanent magnet motor using a simple method, which utilizes the results obtained from the two-dimensional finite element analysis. The optimum skewing angle is obtained as 12°-15° for the least ripple torque without much reduction in the back emf. Skewing the rotor teeth of an 8/6 doubly salient permanent magnet motor by 12°-15° will reduce the total harmonic distortion of the back emf profile to 29.69% from the original value of 44.69%. The reduction in the amplitude of the back emf in this case will be 18.79% only.

  18. Amplification and attenuation of a probe signal by doubly dressed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, S. N.; Oelsner, G.; Greenberg, Ya. S.; Macha, P.; Karpov, D. S.; Grajcar, M.; Hübner, U.; Omelyanchouk, A. N.; Il'ichev, E.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze a system composed of a qubit coupled to the electromagnetic fields in two high quality quantum oscillators. A particular realization of such a system is the superconducting qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. This doubly driven system can be described in terms of the doubly dressed qubit states. Our calculations demonstrate the possibility to change the number of photons in the resonator and the transmission of the fundamental-mode signal over a wide parameter range exploiting resonances with the dressed qubit. Experiments show that in the case of high quality resonators the dressed energy levels and corresponding resonance conditions can be probed, even for high driving amplitudes. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics can be used for the creation of quantum amplifiers or attenuators.

  19. A doubly averaging method for third body perturbations in planet equator coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwok, Johnny H.

    1992-01-01

    The first order doubly averaged potential due to third-body gravity is derived in any arbitrary coordinates. The equations of motion are nonsingular at zero eccentricity. The derivation uses a recursive method which allows easy expansion to higher order terms. Instead of using analytical quadrature to obtain the doubly averaged potential, the method presented in this paper simply eliminates the mean anomaly of the perturbed and perturbing bodies by inspection of the recursive formulation. The derivatives of the orbital elements can be numerically integrated rapidly. When a planet equator coordinate system is used, they can be added directly to the derivatives due to gravity harmonics without any coordinate transformation. The method is applied to various high altitude missions. The results are compared with a high precision numerical integration method and are found to provide excellent agreement.

  20. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B.

    2009-11-01

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO 2:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl 2 precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08×10 14 lines/m 2) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2×10 14 lines/m 2), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 Ω/□) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl 2 precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  1. A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.

  2. A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.

  3. Few-valence-particle excitations around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.J.; Zhang, C.T.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    1996-11-01

    Prompt {gamma}-ray cascades in neutron-rich nuclei around doubly-magic {sup 132}Sn have been studied using a {sup 248}Cm fission source. Yrast states located in the N = 82 isotones {sup 134}Te and {sup 135}I are interpreted as valence proton and neutron particle-hole core excitations with the help of shell model calculations employing empirical nucleon-nucleon interactions from both {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb regions.

  4. Floquet wave-based analysis of transient scattering from doubly periodic, discretely planar, perfectly conducting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan-Wei; Lu, Mingyu; Capolino, Filippo; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Michielssen, Eric

    2005-08-01

    A Floquet wave-based algorithm for solving an electric field time domain integral equation pertinent to the analysis of transient plane wave scattering from doubly periodic, discretely planar, perfect electrically conducting structures is presented. The proposed scheme accelerates the evaluation of fields generated by periodic constellations of band-limited transient currents via their expansion in time domain Floquet waves and use of blocked fast Fourier transforms. The validity and effectiveness of the resulting algorithm are demonstrated through a number of examples.

  5. Doubly excited states of the hydrogen negative ion and helium atom in astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Pinghui; Kar, Sabyasachi; Zhou, Y.

    2013-01-15

    The nonthermal effects on the doubly excited resonance states of the hydrogen negative ion and helium atom are investigated in Lorentzian astrophysical plasma environments using highly correlated Hylleraas-type wave functions in the framework of the stabilization method. Resonance parameters (resonance position and width) are reported for the first time as functions of the spectral index and plasma parameter. The screening effects are more pronounced in the stronger screening region.

  6. Coplanar doubly symmetric (e,2e) process on sodium and potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, M. K.; Chauhan, Raj Kumar; Srivastava, R.

    2006-12-15

    We have used the distorted-wave Born approximation method to analyze the recently reported (e,2e) experimental results on sodium and potassium atoms in doubly symmetric geometry at excess energies of 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 eV. Post-collision interaction is included through an angle-dependent effective charge model using two different approximations. Our theoretical results are found to qualitatively reproduce the reported experimental data.

  7. Vector control and fuzzy logic control of doubly fed variable speed drives with DSP implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Xu, L.

    1995-12-01

    Field orientation control and fuzzy logic control are designed for variable speed drive systems with a doubly fed machine in slip power recovery configuration. Laboratory implementation with a general purpose DSP (digital signal processing) system is described and experimental results are given. High performance potential of a slip power recovery system is realized with these advanced controls, while flexible reactive power control becomes possible, and compared to the ordinary variable speed drives with singly fed induction machine, power converter rating is reduced.

  8. Synthesis of multisubstituted pyrroles from doubly activated cyclopropanes using an iron-mediated oxidation domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wei; Li, Junlong; Liu, Qingfeng; Liu, Tongxin; Zhang, Guisheng

    2014-11-21

    An alternative route has been developed for the construction of multisubstituted pyrrole derivatives from readily available, doubly activated cyclopropanes and anilines using an iron-mediated oxidation domino reaction (i.e., sequential ring-opening, cyclization, and dehydrogenation reactions). This reaction uses readily available reactants and is tolerant of a broad range of substrates, with the desired products being formed in good to excellent yields. PMID:25330125

  9. Frequency-comb formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Coen, S.; Wabnitz, S.; Erkintalo, M.

    2016-04-01

    We theoretically study the generation of optical frequency combs and corresponding pulse trains in doubly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG). We find that, despite the large temporal walk-off characteristic of realistic cavity systems, the nonlinear dynamics can be accurately and efficiently modeled using a pair of coupled mean-field equations. Through rigorous stability analysis of the system's steady-state continuous-wave solutions, we demonstrate that walk-off can give rise to an unexplored regime of temporal modulation instability. Numerical simulations performed in this regime reveal rich dynamical behaviors, including the emergence of temporal patterns that correspond to coherent optical frequency combs. We also demonstrate that the two coupled equations that govern the doubly resonant cavity behavior can, under typical conditions, be reduced to a single mean-field equation akin to that describing the dynamics of singly-resonant-cavity SHG [F. Leo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 033901 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.033901]. This reduced approach allows us to derive a simple expression for the modulation instability gain, thus permitting us to acquire significant insight into the underlying physics. We anticipate that our work will have a wide impact on the study of frequency combs in emerging doubly resonant cavity SHG platforms, including quadratically nonlinear microresonators.

  10. Interplay between collective and single particle excitations around neutron-rich doubly-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, S.

    2016-05-01

    The excitation spectra of nuclei with one or two particles outside a doubly-magic core are expected to be dominated, at low energy, by the couplings between phonon excitations of the core and valence particles. A survey of the experimental situation is given for some nuclei lying in close proximity of neutron-rich doubly-magic systems, such as 47,49Ca, 133Sb and 210Bi. Data are obtained with various types of reactions (multinucleon transfer with heavy ions, cold neutron capture and neutron induced fission of 235U and 241Pu targets), with the employment of complex detection systems based on HPGe arrays. A comparison with theoretical calculations is also presented, in terms of large shell model calculations and of a phenomenological particle-phonon model. In the case of 133Sb, a new microscopic "hybrid" model is introduced: it is based on the coupling between core excitations (both collective and non-collective) of the doubly-magic core and the valence nucleon, using the Skyrme effective interaction in a consistent way.

  11. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - II. Verifications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sooyoung; Kong, Chidong; Lee, Deokjung; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-03-09

    A new methodology has been developed recently to treat resonance self-shielding in systems for which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. The theoretical development adopts equivalence theory in both micro- and macro-level heterogeneities to provide approximate analytical expressions for the shielded cross sections, which may be interpolated from a table of resonance integrals or Bondarenko factors using a modified background cross section as the interpolation parameter. This paper describes the first implementation of the theoretical equations in a reactor analysis code. In order to reduce discrepancies caused by use of the rational approximation for collision probabilities in the original derivation, a new formulation for a doubly heterogeneous Bell factor is developed in this paper to improve the accuracy of doubly heterogeneous expressions. This methodology is applied to a wide range of pin cell and assembly test problems with varying geometry parameters, material compositions, and temperatures, and the results are compared with continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations to establish the accuracy and range of applicability of the new approach. It is shown that the new doubly heterogeneous self-shielding method including the Bell factor correction gives good agreement with reference Monte Carlo results.

  12. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - II. Verifications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Choi, Sooyoung; Kong, Chidong; Lee, Deokjung; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-03-09

    A new methodology has been developed recently to treat resonance self-shielding in systems for which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. The theoretical development adopts equivalence theory in both micro- and macro-level heterogeneities to provide approximate analytical expressions for the shielded cross sections, which may be interpolated from a table of resonance integrals or Bondarenko factors using a modified background cross section as the interpolation parameter. This paper describes the first implementation of the theoretical equations in a reactor analysis code. In order to reduce discrepancies caused bymore » use of the rational approximation for collision probabilities in the original derivation, a new formulation for a doubly heterogeneous Bell factor is developed in this paper to improve the accuracy of doubly heterogeneous expressions. This methodology is applied to a wide range of pin cell and assembly test problems with varying geometry parameters, material compositions, and temperatures, and the results are compared with continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations to establish the accuracy and range of applicability of the new approach. It is shown that the new doubly heterogeneous self-shielding method including the Bell factor correction gives good agreement with reference Monte Carlo results.« less

  13. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  14. Incorporation of hydrogen atoms from deuterated water and stereospecifically deuterium-labeled nicotin amide nucleotides into fatty acids with the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthetase system.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kawaguchi, A; Okuda, S; Seyama, Y; Yamakawa, T

    1980-05-28

    The mechanism of hydrogen incorporation into fatty acids was investigated with intact Escherichia coli cells, a crude enzyme preparation and purified reductases of fatty acid synthetase system. The distributions of deuterium atoms incorporated into fatty acids from 2H2O and stereospecifically deuterium-labeled NADPH or NADH were determined by mass spectrometry. When E. coli was grown in 2H2O, almost every hydrogen atom of cellular fatty acids was incorporated from the medium. When fatty acids were synthesized from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH in the presence of a crude enzyme preparation of either E. coli or Bacillus subtilis, almost every hydrogen atom was also incorporated from the medium. In contrast to these results, purified beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier reductase directly transferred the HB hydrogen of NADPH to beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein, and purified enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase also transferred the HB hydrogen of NADPH and NADH directly to enoyl acyl carrier protein. In the crude enzyme preparation of E. coli, we found high activities which exchanged the HB hydrogen of NADPH with the deuterium of 2h2o. the conflicting results of the origin of hydrogen atoms of fatty acids mentioned above are explained by the presence of enzymes, which catalyzed the rapid exchange of NADPH with the deterium of 2H2O prior to the reaction of fatty acid synthetase. PMID:6990992

  15. Pharmacokinetic profile of rizatriptan 10-mg tablet and 10-mg orally disintegrating tablet administered with or without water in healthy subjects: an open-label, randomized, single-dose, 3-period crossover study.

    PubMed

    Swan, Suzanne K; Alcorn, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Hustad, Carolyn M; Ramsey, Karen E; Woll, Susan; Skobieranda, Franck

    2006-02-01

    This open-label, 3-period crossover study compared the plasma concentration profiles of rizatriptan tablet, orally disintegrating tablet with water (ODTc), and ODT without water (ODTs) in 24 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 45 years. At each period, subjects received a single dose of either 10-mg rizatriptan tablet, 10-mg rizatriptan ODTs, or 10-mg rizatriptan ODTc. The authors hypothesized that ODTc has a greater geometric mean AUC(0-2h) than ODTs and that ODTc has a greater geometric mean AUC(0-1h) than tablet. A secondary end point was to compare the time of occurrence of the maximum rizatriptan plasma concentration (t(max)) of each dosing method. ODTc had a statistically significantly greater geometric mean AUC(0-2h) compared with ODTs (33.84 h x ng/mL vs 18.83 h x ng/mL; P < .001). ODTc had a slightly, but not statistically significantly, greater geometric mean AUC(0-1h) compared with rizatriptan tablet (17.07 h x ng/mL vs 13.32 h x ng/mL). The median t(max) was 0.67 hours for ODTc and tablet and 1.33 hours for ODTs. ODTc showed a slightly, but not significantly, faster rate of absorption compared with tablet. ODTs with water had a faster rate of absorption than ODTc. Future studies are needed to determine whether this pharmacokinetic difference produces differential efficacy in a clinical setting. PMID:16432269

  16. Label fusion strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Duchesne, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques-STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA)-and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall. PMID:22518113

  17. OR Specimen Labeling.

    PubMed

    Zervakis Brent, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Mislabeled surgical specimens jeopardize patient safety and quality care. The purpose of this project was to determine whether labeling surgical specimens with two patient identifiers would result in an 80% reduction in specimen labeling errors within six months and a 100% reduction in errors within 12 months. Our failure mode effects analysis found that the lack of two patient identifiers per label was the most unsafe step in our specimen handling process. We piloted and implemented a new process in the OR using the Plan-Do-Check-Act conceptual framework. The audit process included collecting data and making direct observations to determine the sustainability of the process change; however, the leadership team halted the direct observation audit after four months. The total number of surgical specimen labeling errors was reduced by only 60% within six months and 62% within 12 months; therefore, the goal of the project was not met. However, OR specimen labeling errors were reduced. PMID:26849982

  18. Doubly thermo-responsive copolymers in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H H; El Ezzi, M; Mingotaud, C; Destarac, M; Marty, J-D; Lauth-de Viguerie, N

    2016-04-01

    We report the behaviour of thermoresponsive block copolymers of n-butyl acrylate and N-alkyl acrylamides in [C2mim][NTf2]. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) exhibits an upper critical solution temperature in [C2mim][NTf2] whereas poly(n-butyl acrylate) has a lower critical solution temperature. Consequently, these polymers exhibit double thermo-responsiveness correlated with the macromolecular structure. Moreover, a switching from micellar to reverse micellar structures was induced by a change in temperature. This property enables the development of reversible shuttles between ionic liquids and water. PMID:26931173

  19. Nanovehicles based Bioassay Labels

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Lin, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-04-01

    In this article, we review recent advances of our group in nanoparticle labels based bioassay. Apoferritin and silica nanoparticles have been used as nanovehicles to load large amount of markers for highly sensitive bioassay. Markers loaded apoferritin, apoferritin-templated metallic phosphate nanoparticles, and poly [guanine] coated silica nanoparticles have been prepared, characterized and used as labels for highly sensitive bioassay of protein and DNA. Dissociation and reconstitution characteristics at different pH as well as the special cavity structure of apoferritin nanovehicle provides a simple and convenient route to prepare versatile nanoparticle labels and avoid the complicated and tedious synthesis process of conventional nanoparticle labels. The optical and electrochemical characteristics of the prepared nanoparticle labels are easily controlled by loading different optical or electrochemical markers. Additionally, the use of apoferritin nanovehicle as template for synthesis of metallic phosphate nanoparticle labels offers fast route to prepare uniform-size metallic nanoparticle labels for electrochemical bioassay and avoids the traditional harsh dissolution conditions to dissolve metallic nanoparticle tags (that is, the strong-acid dissolution of quantum dots and gold nanoparticles) during the stripping analysis step. Silica nanoparticle has also been used as nanovehicle to carry thousands of poly [guanine] tracers, which was used to enhance the oxidation current of Ru(bpy)32+, resulting in enhanced sensitivity of electrochemical immunoassay. The new nanovehicle-based labels have been used for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of DNA and protein biomarkers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). The high sensitivity and selectivity make these labels a useful addition to the armory of nanoparticle-based bioassay. The new nanovehicles based labels hold great promise for multiplex protein and DNA detection and for enhancing the sensitivity

  20. A microfluidic device for label-free detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water using positive dielectrophoretic focusing, capturing, and impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myounggon; Jung, Taekeon; Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Changgeun; Woo, Kyungchul; Seol, Jae Hun; Yang, Sung

    2015-12-15

    While sensors that allow for high-throughput enumeration of microorganisms within drinking water are useful for water quality monitoring, it is particularly challenging to accurately quantify microorganisms that are present in low numbers (<100 CFU/mL) in a high-throughput manner. Negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) is typically utilized in DEP-based cell focusing methods; however, due to its low conductivity, drinking water cannot be analyzed by this approach. Here, we report a positive DEP (pDEP)-based Escherichia coli detection system that is integrated with a focusing and sensing electrode. By incorporating a passivation layer, we avoided issues with adhesion of E. coli to the electrode, and achieved efficient cell focusing under high flow rate conditions (1500 μL/h). The resulting focused E. coli cells were then trapped on the sensor electrode, resulting in changes in impedance. The proposed system was evaluated using four different E. coli populations (150-1500 CFU/mL). We successfully enumerated populations as low as 300 CFU/mL within 1 min, and the signal variation was 1.13±0.37%. The device introduced in this study provides the basis for the development of portable, highly sensitive microorganism sensors that enable rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water. PMID:26264268

  1. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to Read Drug ... read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text version of this picture. ...

  2. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  3. Noise labeling in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, Marco A. N.; Massarani, Paulo M.; de Azevedo, Jose A. J.; Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2002-11-01

    The Brazilian Silence Program, created in 1990 by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment, advocates the production and use of equipment with lower noise level. The subcommittee of Noise Labeling of the Brazilian Committee of Certification is composed of INMETRO acoustic specialists to organize and implement the Brazilian Labeling Program. This subcommittee elaborated the label form and test procedure. The noise-labeling program will first concentrate on the following household devices, both manufactured in Brazil or imported from abroad; mixers, blenders, hairdryers, refrigerators, and vacuum cleaners. The label should contain the sound-power level in dBA. INMETRO or other credited laboratories are responsible for the measurements. The ISO 4871, 3740 (1 to 5), ISO 8960, and IEC 704 (1 to 4) and also the equivalent Brazilian standards are used for the measurements, such as ABNT NBR 13910-1. The main objective of the label is to inform the consumer about the emitted noise level. The label offers the noise parameter to be used by the consumer when comparing devices, considering price, performance, and now also noise. No restriction for noise level was established.

  4. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  5. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  6. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  7. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off. PMID:21539053

  8. Doubly ionic hydrogen bond interactions within the choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P; Welton, Tom; Hunt, Patricia A

    2016-07-21

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are exemplars of systems with the ability to form neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. Herein, the pairwise interactions of the constituent components of the choline chloride-urea DES are examined. Evidence is found for a tripodal CHCl doubly ionic H-bond motif. Moreover it is found that the covalency of doubly ionic H-bonds can be greater than, or comparable with, neutral and ionic examples. In contrast to many traditional solvents, an "alphabet soup" of many different types of H-bond (OHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, OHCl, NHCl, OHNH, CHCl, CHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHOH and NHNH) can form. These H-bonds exhibit substantial flexibility in terms of number and strength. It is anticipated that H-bonding will have a significant impact on the entropy of the system and thus could play an important role in the formation of the eutectic. The 2 : 1 urea : choline-chloride eutectic point of this DES is often associated with the formation of a [Cl(urea)2](-) complexed anion. However, urea is found to form a H-bonded urea[choline](+) complexed cation that is energetically competitive with [Cl(urea)2](-). The negative charge on [Cl(urea)2](-) is found to remain localised on the chloride, moreover, the urea[choline](+) complexed cation forms the strongest H-bond studied here. Thus, there is potential to consider a urea[choline](+)·urea[Cl](-) interaction. PMID:27328990

  9. Fragmentation Patterns and Mechanisms of Singly and Doubly Protonated Peptoids Studied by Collision Induced Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jianhua; Tian, Yuan; Hossain, Ekram; Connolly, Michael D.

    2016-04-01

    Peptoids are peptide-mimicking oligomers consisting of N-alkylated glycine units. The fragmentation patterns for six singly and doubly protonated model peptoids were studied via collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The experiments were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source. Both singly and doubly protonated peptoids were found to fragment mainly at the backbone amide bonds to produce peptoid B-type N-terminal fragment ions and Y-type C-terminal fragment ions. However, the relative abundances of B- versus Y-ions were significantly different. The singly protonated peptoids fragmented by producing highly abundant Y-ions and lesser abundant B-ions. The Y-ion formation mechanism was studied through calculating the energetics of truncated peptoid fragment ions using density functional theory and by controlled experiments. The results indicated that Y-ions were likely formed by transferring a proton from the C-H bond of the N-terminal fragments to the secondary amine of the C-terminal fragments. This proton transfer is energetically favored, and is in accord with the observation of abundant Y-ions. The calculations also indicated that doubly protonated peptoids would fragment at an amide bond close to the N-terminus to yield a high abundance of low-mass B-ions and high-mass Y-ions. The results of this study provide further understanding of the mechanisms of peptoid fragmentation and, therefore, are a valuable guide for de novo sequencing of peptoid libraries synthesized via combinatorial chemistry.

  10. Mass Spectrometric Observation of Doubly Charged Alkaline-Earth Argon Ions.

    PubMed

    Hattendorf, Bodo; Gusmini, Bianca; Dorta, Ladina; Houk, Robert S; Günther, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    Doubly charged diatomic ions MAr(2+) where M=Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba have been observed by mass spectrometry with an inductively coupled plasma ion source. Abundance ratios are quite high, 0.1 % for MgAr(2+) , 0.4 % for CaAr(2+) , 0.2 % for SrAr(2+) and 0.1 % for BaAr(2+) relative to the corresponding doubly charged atomic ions M(2+) . It is assumed that these molecular ions are formed through reactions of the doubly charged metal ions with neutral argon atoms within the ion source. Bond dissociation energies (D0 ) were calculated and agree well with previously published values. The abundance ratios MAr(+) /M(+) and MAr(2+) /M(2+) generally follow the predicted bond dissociation energies with the exception of MgAr(2+) . Mg(2+) should form the strongest bond with Ar [D0 (MgAr(2+) )=124 to 130 kJ mol(-1) ] but its relative abundance is similar to that of the weakest bound BaAr(2+) (D0 =34 to 42 kJ mol(-1) ). The relative abundances of the various MAr(2+) ions are higher than those expected from an argon plasma at T=6000 K, indicating that collisions during ion extraction reduce the abundance of the MAr(2+) ions relative to the composition in the source. The corresponding singly charged MAr(+) ions are also observed but occur at about three orders of magnitude lower intensity than MAr(2+) . PMID:27252087

  11. Fragmentation Patterns and Mechanisms of Singly and Doubly Protonated Peptoids Studied by Collision Induced Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianhua; Tian, Yuan; Hossain, Ekram; Connolly, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Peptoids are peptide-mimicking oligomers consisting of N-alkylated glycine units. The fragmentation patterns for six singly and doubly protonated model peptoids were studied via collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The experiments were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source. Both singly and doubly protonated peptoids were found to fragment mainly at the backbone amide bonds to produce peptoid B-type N-terminal fragment ions and Y-type C-terminal fragment ions. However, the relative abundances of B- versus Y-ions were significantly different. The singly protonated peptoids fragmented by producing highly abundant Y-ions and lesser abundant B-ions. The Y-ion formation mechanism was studied through calculating the energetics of truncated peptoid fragment ions using density functional theory and by controlled experiments. The results indicated that Y-ions were likely formed by transferring a proton from the C-H bond of the N-terminal fragments to the secondary amine of the C-terminal fragments. This proton transfer is energetically favored, and is in accord with the observation of abundant Y-ions. The calculations also indicated that doubly protonated peptoids would fragment at an amide bond close to the N-terminus to yield a high abundance of low-mass B-ions and high-mass Y-ions. The results of this study provide further understanding of the mechanisms of peptoid fragmentation and, therefore, are a valuable guide for de novo sequencing of peptoid libraries synthesized via combinatorial chemistry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26832347

  12. 75 FR 67615 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Appliance Labeling Rule (16 CFR Part 305) which appeared in the Federal Register on October 23, 2008 (73 FR... (comparability ranges for instantaneous gas water heaters) on August 29, 2007 (72 FR 49948). The correct capacity... hour rating'' as the current Rule indicates. List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 305 Advertising,...

  13. Inulin determination for food labeling.

    PubMed

    Zuleta, A; Sambucetti, M E

    2001-10-01

    Inulin and oligofructose exhibit valuable nutritional and functional attributes, so they are used as supplements as soluble fiber or as macronutrient substitutes. As classic analytical methods for dietary fiber measurement are not effective, several specific methods have been proposed. These methods measure total fructans and are based on one or more enzymatic sample treatments and determination of released sugars. To determine inulin for labeling purposes, we developed an easy and rapid anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method following water extraction of inulin. HPLC conditions included an Aminex HPX- 87C column (Bio-Rad), deionized water at 85 degrees C as the mobile phase and a refractive index detector. The tested foods included tailor-made food products containing known amounts of inulin and commercial products (cookies, milk, ice creams, cheese, and cereal bars). The average recovery was 97%, and the coefficient of variation ranged from 1.1 to 5% in the food matrixes. The obtained results showed that this method provides an easier, faster and cheaper alternative than previous techniques for determining inulin with enough accuracy and precision for routine labeling purposes by direct determination of inulin by HPLC with refractive index detection. PMID:11599989

  14. Ultrasensitive mass sensing with nonlinear optics in a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2013-12-07

    Nanomechanical resonator makes itself as an ideal system for ultrasensitive mass sensing due to its ultralow mass and high vibrational frequency. The mass sensing principle is due to the linear relationship of the frequency-shift and mass-variation. In this work, we will propose a nonlinear optical mass sensor based on a doubly clamped suspended carbon nanotube resonator in all-optical domain. The masses of external particles (such as nitric oxide molecules) landing onto the surface of carbon nanotube can be determined directly and accurately via using the nonlinear optical spectroscopy. This mass sensing proposed here may provide a nonlinear optical measurement technique in quantum measurements and environmental science.

  15. Stabilization of the solution of a doubly nonlinear parabolic equation

    SciTech Connect

    Andriyanova, È R; Mukminov, F Kh

    2013-09-30

    The method of Galerkin approximations is employed to prove the existence of a strong global (in time) solution of a doubly nonlinear parabolic equation in an unbounded domain. The second integral identity is established for Galerkin approximations, and passing to the limit in it an estimate for the decay rate of the norm of the solution from below is obtained. The estimates characterizing the decay rate of the solution as x→∞ obtained here are used to derive an upper bound for the decay rate of the solution with respect to time; the resulting estimate is pretty close to the lower one. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  16. Generation of doubly charged vortex beam by concentrated loading of glass disks along their diameter.

    PubMed

    Skab, Ihor; Vasylkiv, Yuriy; Krupych, Oleh; Savaryn, Viktoriya; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2012-04-10

    We show that a system of glass disks compressed along their diameters enables one to induce a doubly charged vortex beam in the emergent light when the incident light is circularly polarized. Using such a disk system, one can control the efficiency of conversion of the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum by a loading force. The consideration presented here can be extended for the case of crystalline materials with high optical damage thresholds in order to induce high-power vortex beams. PMID:22505151

  17. A 1.8-m lightweight Doubly Asymmetric Equatorial Telescope Design.

    PubMed

    Meinel, A B

    1971-02-01

    A configuration applicable to large astronomical telescopes has been developed specifically for lightweight monolithic mirrors in which the primary mirror is located on the same side of the declination axis as the secondary, placing the cassegrain focus very close to the declination axis. This configuration permits both a large instrument space and a single south polar tyne, resulting in a doubly asymmetric system. It is also shown that a passive closed-system air flotation support system can be used for both lateral and back support of the primary mirror, as contrasted to more complex active systems currently in widespread use. PMID:20094434

  18. One-neutron removal measurement reveals 24O as a new doubly magic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, R; Nociforo, C; Prochazka, A; Aumann, T; Boutin, D; Cortina-Gil, D; Davids, B; Diakaki, M; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Gerl, J; Janik, R; Jonson, B; Kindler, B; Knöbel, R; Krücken, R; Lantz, M; Lenske, H; Litvinov, Y; Lommel, B; Mahata, K; Maierbeck, P; Musumarra, A; Nilsson, T; Otsuka, T; Perro, C; Scheidenberger, C; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Sun, B; Szarka, I; Tanihata, I; Utsuno, Y; Weick, H; Winkler, M

    2009-04-17

    The first measurement of the momentum distribution for one-neutron removal from (24)O at 920A MeV performed at GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The observed distribution has a width (FWHM) of 99 +/- 4 MeV/c in the projectile rest frame and a one-neutron removal cross section of 63 +/- 7 mb. The results are well explained with a nearly pure 2s_{1/2} neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.74 +/- 0.19 within the eikonal model. This large s-wave probability shows a spherical shell closure thereby confirming earlier suggestions that (24)O is a new doubly magic nucleus. PMID:19518623

  19. A NASTRAN implementation of the doubly asymptotic approximation for underwater shock response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everstine, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description is given of how the decoupling approximation known as the doubly asymptotic approximation is implemented with NASTRAN to solve shock problems for submerged structures. The general approach involves locating the nonsymmetric terms (which couple structural and fluid variables) on the right hand side of the equations. This approach results in coefficient matrices of acceptable bandwidth but degrades numerical stability, requiring a smaller time step size than would otherwise be used. It is also shown how the structure's added (virtual) mass matrix, is calculated with NASTRAN.

  20. Organocatalytic Doubly Annulative Approach to 3,4-Dihydrocoumarins Bearing a Fused Pyrrolidine Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Dorota; Albrecht, Łukasz

    2016-08-01

    A new strategy for the highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin derivatives bearing a fused pyrrolidine ring is reported. It is based on a Brønsted base catalyzed cascade reactivity between β,γ-unsaturated-α-ketophosphonates and imines (derived from various salicylaldehydes and diethyl aminomalonate). The approach can be described as a doubly annulative strategy where both the pyrrolidine moiety and the δ-lactone ring of the 3,4-dihydrocoumarin framework are constructed starting from acyclic precursors. PMID:27351069

  1. Doubly twisted Neimark-Sacker bifurcation and two coexisting two-dimensional tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a complicated bifurcation structure involving several quasiperiodic bifurcations generated in a three-coupled delayed logistic map where a doubly twisted Neimark-Sacker bifurcation causes a transition from two coexisting periodic attractors to two coexisting invariant closed circles (ICCs) corresponding to two two-dimensional tori in a vector field. Such bifurcation structures are observed in Arnol'd tongues. Lyapunov and bifurcation analyses suggest that the two coexisting ICCs and the two coexisting periodic solutions almost overlap in the two-parameter bifurcation diagram.

  2. A doubly deprotonated diimine dioximate metalloligand as a synthon for multimetallic complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Henckel, Danielle A; Lin, Yuting F; McCormick, Theresa M; Kaminsky, Werner; Cossairt, Brandi M

    2016-06-14

    An electrocatalytically active cobalt diimine monoxime monoximate complex was deprotonated by 1-methylimidazole affording a doubly deprotonated complex that serves as a versatile precursor for synthesis of a variety of multimetallic complexes with Co-Zn, -Cd, -Mn and -Ru coordination. These complexes were studied using a combination of spectroscopic, analytical and electrochemical techniques, revealing the electronic and structural parameters unique to this new class of compounds. The ability of these complexes to catalyze proton reduction was also investigated. These complexes are homogeneous electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction through reduction of [NEt3H][BPh4] in CH3CN, however decompose under extended electrolysis conditions. PMID:26600321

  3. High resolution study of the six lowest doubly excited vibrational states of PH 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, C.; Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Onopenko, G. A.; Chudinova, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    The five lowest doubly excited deformational vibrational bands ν4 + ν6, 2 ν6, ν3 + ν4, ν3 + ν6, and 2 ν3 of PH 2D have been recorded for the first time using a Bruker 120 HR interferometer with a resolution 0.0033 cm -1 and analysed. Some transitions belonging to a very weak band 2 ν4 have been also assigned. From the fit 24 and 86, respectively, diagonal and resonance interaction parameters were obtained which reproduce 1089 upper energy levels obtained from more than 4600 assigned transitions with the rms deviation of 0.00059 cm -1.

  4. Purely-long-range krypton molecules in singly and doubly excited binding potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Z. S.; Harmon, A.; Banister, J.; Norman, R.; Hoogeboom-Pot, K.; Walhout, M.

    2010-01-15

    Diatomic potentials for krypton are computed and also probed experimentally. For a probe-laser wavelength near 811 nm, several strong dipole-dipole interactions produce purely-long-range potential wells in the singly excited manifold of (s+p) potentials and in the doubly excited manifold of (p+p) and (s+d) potentials. Evidence of resonant photoassociation into bound states of these potential wells is observed in the emission of ions and ultraviolet photons from a magneto-optically trapped krypton cloud.

  5. Controlling migration of a pair of correlated particles by doubly modulated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    The resonant tunneling of correlated bosons in optical lattices is investigated in the presence of doubly modulated AC-fields. The effective hopping coefficients are density-dependent. We can make use of this property to control the migration of a pair of strongly interacting particles in one- or two-dimensional uniform lattices via properly manipulating the phases, frequencies and amplitudes of the driven fields. We design a bifurcating quantum motion of the pair in contrast to the coherent quantum walk of the correlated pair in the absence of external fields.

  6. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  7. Search for doubly charged Higgs bosons with lepton-flavor-violating decays involving tau leptons.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-09-19

    We search for pair production of doubly charged Higgs particles (H+/- +/-) followed by decays into electron-tau (etau) and muon-tau (mutau) pairs using data (350 pb(-1) collected from [over]pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV by the CDF II experiment. We search separately for cases where three or four final-state leptons are detected, and combine results for exclusive decays to left-handed etau (mutau) pairs. We set an H+/- +/- lower mass limit of 114(112) GeV/c(2) at the 95% confidence level. PMID:18851361

  8. In-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Yongchao; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, a nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) mechanism is proposed to drive the in-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. The corresponding interactions between optical resonances and rotations are investigated. This is the first in-plane rotational tuning of the PhC cavities, which benefits from the flexible design of NEMS actuators. In experiments, more than 18 linewidths of the third order TE even mode corresponding to 0.037 mrad of the shrinking angle between the two nanobeam cavities are demonstrated; this study provides one more mechanical degree of freedom for the practical optomechanical interactions.

  9. A Study of Hydrogen Generation with Doubly-Fed Adjustable Speed Wind Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji; Sugimasa, Masatoshi; Komura, Akiyoshi; Futami, Motoo; Ichinose, Masaya; Ide, Kazumasa

    This paper presents a combination system of wind power generator and hydrogen generator. In the proposed system, Doubly-Fed Synchronous Generator (DFSG) is used as an adjustable speed wind generator, and an electrolyzer is connected to its terminal for hydrogen generation, which is controlled by power electronic converters. Output power from the wind generator is smoothed and supplied to the power system as well as to the electrolyzer to generate hydrogen under a cooperative control of the wind generator and the electrolyzer. The performance of the proposed system is investigated by simulation analyses, in which simulations are performed by using PSCAD/EMTDC.

  10. A Basic Study of Wind Generator Stabilization with Doubly-Fed Asynchronous Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li; Takahashi, Rion; Nakagawa, Masaki; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji

    This paper investigates the function of DASM (Doubly-fed ASynchronous Machine) with emphasis placed on its ability to the stabilization of the power system including wind generators. P (active power) and Q (reactive power) compensation from DASM can be regulated independently through secondary-excitation controlling. Simulation results by PSCAD show that DASM can restore the wind-generator system to a normal operating condition rapidly even following severe transmission-line failures. Comparison studies have also been performed between wind turbine pitch control and proposed method.

  11. Doubly excited 3Pe resonance states of two-electron positive ions in Debye plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Zishi; Jiang, Pinghui; Kar, Sabyasachi

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the doubly excited 3Pe resonance states of two-electron positive ions Li+, Be2+, B3+, and C4+ by employing correlated exponential wave functions. In the framework of the stabilization method, we calculate two series (3pnp and 3dnd) of 3Pe resonances below the N = 3 threshold. The 3Pe resonance parameters (resonance energies and widths) are reported for the first time as a function of the screening parameter. For free-atomic cases, comparisons are made with the reported results and few resonance states are reported for the first time.

  12. Power enhancement of burst-mode UV pulses using a doubly-resonant optical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rahkman, Abdurahim; Notcutt, Mark; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-24

    We report a doubly-resonant enhancement cavity (DREC) that can realize a simultaneous enhancement of two incoming laser beams at different wavelengths and different temporal structures. The double-resonance condition is theoretically analyzed and different DREC locking methods are experimentally investigated. Simultaneous locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity to both an infrared (IR, 1064 nm) and its frequency tripled ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) pulses has been demonstrated by controlling the frequency difference between the two beams with a fiber optic frequency shifter. The DREC technique opens a new paradigm in the applications of optical cavities to power enhancement of burst-mode lasers with arbitrary macropulse width and repetition rate.

  13. Prediction of iron losses in doubly salient permanent magnet machine with rectangular current waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Minxi; Cheng, Ming

    2012-04-01

    Iron losses in doubly salient permanent magnet (DSPM) machine are difficult to predict, as the flux waveforms are complex and dc bias existed. This paper measures iron losses at no load for different rotor speeds and these measured loss data are used to calibrate the iron loss model of the DSPM machine. Then the iron losses at rated load are predicted under three phase rectangular currents exerting on the armature windings. The result shows that small increment of iron losses is in the rotor at rated load which do benefit to the rotor thermal dissipation design.

  14. Neutral resonant ionization in a H- plasma source: Potential of doubly excited **H-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen plasmas are optically dense to Lyman-α radiation, maintaining *H(n = 2) neutral atoms that may undergo neutral resonant ionization to **H-. One state, **H-(2p2 3Pe), is thought bound at 9.7 meV with a several nanosecond lifetime while all others are unbound resonances. Collision dynamics of two *H(2s) shows that an ionic pair of (p, **H-) resolves at least three long-standing collision experiments. The doubly excited anion also has a path to the unexcited ion pair whose only physical distinction is that both (p, H-) have energy of 3.7 eV.

  15. First evidence of γ collectivity close to the doubly magic core 132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, W.; Sieja, K.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Czerwiński, M.; Naïdja, H.; Nowacki, F.; Smith, A. G.; Ahmad, I.

    2016-03-01

    The 138Te and 140Xe nuclei have been reinvestigated using prompt γ -ray data from spontaneous fission of 248Cm, collected with the EUROGAM2 Ge array. γ bands have been identified in both nuclei. The γ band observed in 138Te, a nucleus with only six valence nucleons, indicates the presence of collectivity very close to the doubly magic 132Sn core. Such band is even more pronounced in 140Xe, the N = 86 isotone of 138Te. The newly observed bands are interpreted within the shell model, which reproduce well the γ collectivity at N = 86.

  16. Ultrafast spectroscopy of super high frequency mechanical modes of doubly clamped beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristow, Oliver; Merklein, Moritz; Grossmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Grebing, Jochen; Erbe, Artur; Mounier, Denis; Gusev, Vitalyi; Scheer, Elke; Dekorsy, Thomas; Barretto, Elaine C. S.

    2013-12-01

    We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to study the mechanical vibrations in the time domain of doubly clamped silicon nitride beams. Beams with two different clamping conditions are investigated. Finite element method calculations are performed to analyse the mode spectra of both structures. By calculating the strain integral on the surface of the resonators, we are able to reproduce the effect of the detection mechanism and identify all the measured modes. We show that our spectroscopy technique combined with our modelling tools allow the investigation of several different modes in the super high frequency range (3-30 GHz) and above, bringing more information about the vibration modes of nanomechanical resonators.

  17. New Measurements of Doubly Ionized Iron Group Spectra by High Resolution Fourier Transform and Grating Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R. J.; Smith, Peter L.; Nave, G.

    2006-01-01

    We report new measurements of doubly ionized iron group element spectra, important in the analysis of B-type (hot) stars whose spectra they dominate. These measurements include Co III and Cr III taken with the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer and measurements of Co III taken with the normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at NIST, below 135 nm. We report new Fe III grating spectra measurements to complement our FT spectra. Work towards transition wavelengths, energy levels and branching ratios (which, combined with lifetimes, produce oscillator strengths) for these ions is underway.

  18. Noseleaf pit in Egyptian slit-faced bat as a doubly curved reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Min; Li, Ming-Xuan; Mao, Jie; Wang, Fu-Xun

    2012-02-01

    Noseleaves in slit-faced bats have been hypothesized to affect the sonar beam. Using numerical methods, we show that the pit in the noseleaf of an Egyptian slit-faced bat has an effect on focusing the acoustic near field as well as shaping the radiation patterns and hence enhancing the directionality. The underlying physical mechanism suggested by the properties of the effect is that the pit acts as a doubly curved reflector. Thanks to the pit the beam shape is overall directional and more selectively widened at the high end of the biosonar frequency range to improve spatial coverage and detectability of targets.

  19. The doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay D+ → K+ π - π +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitala, E. M.; Amato, S.; Anjos, J. C.; Appel, J. A.; Ashery, D.; Banerjee, S.; Bediaga, I.; Blaylock, G.; Bracker, S. B.; Burchat, P. R.; Burnstein, R. A.; Carter, T.; Carvalho, H. S.; Copty, N. K.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Darling, C.; Denisenko, K.; Fernandez, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gounder, K.; Halling, A. M.; Herrera, G.; Hurvits, G.; James, C.; Kasper, P. A.; Kwan, S.; Langs, D. C.; Leslie, J.; Lundberg, B.; May Tal-Beck, S.; Meadows, B.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Milburn, R. H.; de Miranda, J. M.; Napier, A.; Nguyen, A.; d'Oliveira, A. B.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Peng, K. C.; Perera, L. P.; Purohit, M. V.; Quinn, B.; Radeztsky, S.; Rafatian, A.; Reay, N. W.; Reidy, J. J.; dos Reis, A. C.; Rubin, H. A.; Santha, A. K. S.; Santoro, A. F. S.; Schwartz, A. J.; Sheaff, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Stanton, N. R.; Stenson, K.; Summers, D. J.; Takach, S.; Thorne, K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Watanabe, S.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Wiener, J.; Witchey, N.; Wolin, E.; Yi, D.; Yoshida, S.; Zaliznyak, R.; Zhang, C.; Fermilab E791 Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    We report the observation of the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay D+ → K + π - π + in data from Fermilab charm hadroproduction experiment E791. With a signal of 59 ± 13 events we measured the ratio of the branching fraction for this mode to that of the Cabibbo-favored decay D+ → K- π + π + to be B(D + → K+ π - π +) / B( D + → K- π + π +) = (7.7 ± 1.7 ± 0.8) × 10 -3. A Dalitz plot analysis was performed to search for resonant structures.

  20. Classification of doubly wound nucleotide binding topologies using automated loop searches.

    PubMed Central

    Swindells, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    A classification is presented of doubly wound alpha/beta nucleotide binding topologies, whose binding sites are located in the cleft formed by a topological switch point. In particular, the switch point loop nearest the N-terminus is used to identify specific structural classes of binding protein. This yields seven structurally distinct loop conformations, which are subsequently used as motifs for scanning the Protein Data Bank. The searches, which are effective at identifying functional relationships within a large database of structures, reveal a remarkable and previously unnoticed similarity between the coenzyme binding sites of flavodoxin and tryptophan synthetase, even though there is no sequence or topological similarity between them. PMID:8298462

  1. Water interaction and bond strength to dentin of dye-labelled adhesive as a function of the addition of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Linda; BIM, Odair; LOPES, Adolfo Coelho de Oliveira; FRANCISCONI-DOS-RIOS, Luciana Fávaro; MAENOSONO, Rafael Massunari; D’ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the effect of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RB) for interfacial micromorphology analysis of dental composite restorations on water sorption/solubility (WS/WSL) and microtensile bond strength to dentin (µTBS) of a 3-step total etch and a 2-step self-etch adhesive system. Material and Methods The adhesives Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were mixed with 0.1 mg/mL of RB. For the WS/WSL tests, cured resin disks (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm thick) were prepared and assigned into four groups (n=10): MP, MP-RB, SE, and SE-RB. For µTBS assessment, extracted human third molars (n=40) had the flat occlusal dentin prepared and assigned into the same experimental groups (n=10). After the bonding and restoration procedures, specimens were sectioned in rectangular beams, stored in water and tested after seven days or after 12 months. The failure mode of fractured specimens was qualitatively evaluated under optical microscope (x40). Data from WS/WSL and µTBS were assessed by one-way and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results RB increased the WSL of MP and SE. On the other hand, WS of both MP and SE was not affected by the addition of RB. No significance in µTBS between MP and MP-RB for seven days or one year was observed, whereas for SE a decrease in the µTBS means occurred in both storage times. Conclusions RB should be incorporated into non-simplified DBSs with caution, as it can interfere with their physical-mechanical properties, leading to a possible misinterpretation of bonded interface. PMID:27556201

  2. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance hybrid scanner imaging of cerebral blood flow using 15O-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in newborn piglets

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Julie B; Henning, William S; Lindberg, Ulrich; Ladefoged, Claes N; Højgaard, Liselotte; Greisen, Gorm; Law, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Abnormality in cerebral blood flow (CBF) distribution can lead to hypoxic–ischemic cerebral damage in newborn infants. The aim of the study was to investigate minimally invasive approaches to measure CBF by comparing simultaneous 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and single TI pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MR) on a hybrid PET/MR in seven newborn piglets. Positron emission tomography was performed with IV injections of 20 MBq and 100 MBq 15O-water to confirm CBF reliability at low activity. Cerebral blood flow was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment-model using two input functions: an arterial input function (AIF) or an image-derived input function (IDIF). The mean global CBF (95% CI) PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL at baseline were 27 (23; 32), 34 (31; 37), and 27 (22; 32) mL/100 g per minute, respectively. At acetazolamide stimulus, PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 64 (55; 74), 76 (70; 83) and 79 (67; 92) mL/100 g per minute, respectively. At baseline, differences between PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 22% (P<0.0001) and −0.7% (P=0.9). At acetazolamide, differences between PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 19% (P=0.001) and 24% (P=0.0003). In conclusion, PET-IDIF overestimated CBF. Injected activity of 20 MBq 15O-water had acceptable concordance with 100 MBq, without compromising image quality. Single TI ASL was questionable for regional CBF measurements. Global ASL CBF and PET CBF were congruent during baseline but not during hyperperfusion. PMID:26058699

  3. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  4. Role of Coulomb repulsion in correlated-electron emission from a doubly excited state in nonsequential double ionization of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng; Guo, Wenliang; Zhou, Yueming; Wu, Zhengmao

    2016-01-01

    With the classical ensemble model, we investigate nonsequential double ionization of aligned molecules by few-cycle laser pulses at low intensity, where the two electrons finally are ionized through a transition doubly excited state induced by recollision. The correlated electron momentum distribution of parallel molecules exhibits the line-shaped structure parallel to the diagonal. Our analysis indicates that besides the ionization time difference of two electrons from the doubly excited state, the final-state e-e Coulomb repulsion plays a vital role in the formation of the line-shaped structural momentum distribution. For perpendicular molecules, due to the prominent near half-cycle ionization time difference between the two electrons from the doubly excited state, the momentum distribution shows clear anticorrelation behavior.

  5. SINR Analysis of Hexagonal Multicarrier Transmission Systems in the Presence of Insufficient Synchronization for Doubly Dispersive Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kui; Xu, Youyun; Zhang, Dongmei

    2011-07-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset) on hexagonal multicarrier transmission (HMT) systems for doubly dispersive channel. Exact SINR and demodulated symbol expressions for HMT systems in the presence of insufficient synchronization transmission conditions over doubly dispersive channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum and uniform delay power profile and uniform Doppler power spectrum are derived, respectively. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradations on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization are incurred as in traditional cyclic-prefix orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) transmission. HMT systems outperform traditional OFDM systems with respect to signal to interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) against inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI) caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive(DD) channel. The BER performance of the HMT systems using Monte Carlo simulation match with the conclusion given by the proposed exact SINR expression.

  6. Self-assembly of DNA double-double crossover complexes into high-density, doubly connected, planar structures.

    PubMed

    Reishus, Dustin; Shaw, Bilal; Brun, Yuriy; Chelyapov, Nickolas; Adleman, Leonard

    2005-12-21

    We designed a molecular complex, the double-double crossover, consisting of four DNA double helices connected by six reciprocal exchanges. Atomic force micrographs suggest that double-double crossover complexes self-assemble into high-density, doubly connected, two-dimensional, planar structures. Such structures may be suitable as substrates for the deposition of nanomaterials in the creation of high-density electrical and quantum devices. We speculate about a modified double-double crossover complex that might self-assemble into high-density, doubly connected, three-dimensional structures. PMID:16351073

  7. On Applications of Pyramid Doubly Joint Bilateral Filtering in Dense Disparity Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadpour, Arash

    2014-06-01

    Stereopsis is the basis for numerous tasks in machine vision, robotics, and 3D data acquisition and processing. In order for the subsequent algorithms to function properly, it is important that an affordable method exists that, given a pair of images taken by two cameras, can produce a representation of disparity or depth. This topic has been an active research field since the early days of work on image processing problems and rich literature is available on the topic. Joint bilateral filters have been recently proposed as a more affordable alternative to anisotropic diffusion. This class of image operators utilizes correlation in multiple modalities for purposes such as interpolation and upscaling. In this work, we develop the application of bilateral filtering for converting a large set of sparse disparity measurements into a dense disparity map. This paper develops novel methods for utilizing bilateral filters in joint, pyramid, and doubly joint settings, for purposes including missing value estimation and upscaling. We utilize images of natural and man-made scenes in order to exhibit the possibilities offered through the use of pyramid doubly joint bilateral filtering for stereopsis.

  8. Spectroscopy of doubly and triply-charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael

    2013-11-01

    We present the ground and excited state spectra of doubly and triply-charmed baryons by using lattice QCD with dynamical clover fermions. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice and are obtained after subduction from their continuum analogues are utilized. Using novel computational techniques correlation functions of these operators are generated and the variational method is exploited to extract excited states. The lattice spectra that we obtain have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the low lying states remarkably resemble the expectations of quantum numbers from SU(6) Ⓧ O(3) symmetry. Various energy splittings between the extracted states, including splittings due to hyperfine as well as spin-orbit coupling, are considered and those are also compared against similar energy splittings at other quark masses. Using those splittings for doubly-charmed baryons, and taking input of experimental Bc meson mass, we predict the mass splittings of B*c-Bc to be about 80 ± 8 MeV and mΩccb=8050±10 MeV.

  9. Abundance and Impact of Doubly Charged Polyatomic Argon Interferences in ICPMS Spectra.

    PubMed

    Hattendorf, Bodo; Gusmini, Bianca; Dorta, Ladina; Houk, Robert S; Günther, Detlef

    2016-07-19

    Doubly charged molecular ions of alkaline earth metals and argon could be identified as spectral interferences in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. These molecular ions were found to occur at abundances reaching about 10(-4) relative to the alkaline earth atomic ion abundances. They can thus substantially affect ultratrace analyses and, when present at similar concentration as the analyte elements, also isotope ratio measurements. For the case of Cu and Zn isotope ratio analyses, the same mass concentration of Sr was found to alter the measured (63)Cu/(65)Cu and (64)Zn/(66)Zn isotope ratios by -0.036‰ to -0.95‰ due to SrAr(2+), appearing at m/Q 63 and 64. BaAr(2+) can affect Sr isotope analyses, MgAr(2+) may impair S isotope ratio measurements, while CaAr(2+) may cause interference to Ca(+) isotopes. The abundances of the doubly charged molecular ions were higher than those of the corresponding singly charged species, which is in accordance with their generally higher bond dissociation energies. The relative abundances were found to depend significantly on the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) operating conditions and generally increase with increasing carrier gas flow rates or lower gas temperature of the ICP. They also increase by about an order of magnitude when a desolvated aerosol is introduced to the ICP. PMID:27306032

  10. Antitumor and biological investigation of doubly cyclometalated ruthenium(ii) organometallics derived from benzimidazolyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Palani; Jeong, Yong Joon; Park, Dae Won; Kim, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hyunuk; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2016-04-12

    In this study, we report the synthesis, anticancer and biological properties of three doubly cyclometalated phenylbenzimidazole derived ruthenium(ii) organometallics () and their corresponding three organic ligands. The structures of were fully characterized by various analytical techniques, and the meso stereoisomer of the doubly cyclometalated ruthenacycle was unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The anticancer effects of the newly synthesized compounds were tested against selected human cancer cell lines AGS (gastric carcinoma), SK-hep-1 (hepatocellular carcinoma), and HCT-15 (colorectal carcinoma). The growth inhibitory effects of ruthenacycles on cancer cells were found to be considerably more effective against the abovementioned cancer cells than the reference drug oxaliplatin. Compound exhibited a more specific effect on the AGS cells. Gene-fishing and ELISA array were performed to analyze the target genes and cytokine secretion by . As a result, a significant reduction was observed in RPS21 by . Moreover, increased the secretion of cytokines such as IFNγ in macrophages and reduced the release of cytokines such as rantes and IGF-1. These results show that could be a very good anticancer drug through the regulation of the RPS21 gene and cytokines. PMID:26974823

  11. Systematics of the deduced fission barriers for the doubly even transactinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, B.S.; Bendardaf, Y.B. )

    1992-06-01

    The systematics of the fission barrier shapes of a total of 47 doubly even actinide and transactinide nuclei have been studied using the double-humped fission barrier model. The fission barrier has been parametrized in terms of four smoothly joined parabolic segments. The penetrabilities through such double-humped fission barriers have been calculated in the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, and the various fission half-lives have been determined using the formalism given earlier by Nix and Walker. The various parameters of such fission barriers have been deduced by requiring their simultaneous consistency with the various relevant fission observables, namely, the near-barrier fission cross sections, isomeric energies and isomeric half-lives, where available, and the ground-state spontaneous fission half-lives in the region 90{le}{ital Z}{le}98, and such model calculations with some further justifiable asssumptions have been extended to the region of the still heavier nuclei with {ital Z}{ge}100. The results of our systematic study of the heights of the inner and the outer barriers of the double-humped fission barriers corresponding to such doubly even nuclei suggest that while the height of the inner barrier remains approximately constant in the entire region of such nuclei, the deduced heights of the outer barrier decrease rather sharply and continuously with the increase in the value of the fissility parameter until one reaches the element Rf ({ital Z}=104).

  12. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - I. Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Williams, Mark L.; Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung

    2015-03-04

    A new methodology has been developed to treat resonance self-shielding in doubly heterogeneous very high temperature gas-cooled reactor systems in which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. This new method first homogenizes the fuel grain and matrix materials using an analytically derived disadvantage factor from a two-region problem with equivalence theory and intermediate resonance method. This disadvantage factor accounts for spatial self-shielding effects inside each grain within the framework of an infinite array of grains. Then the homogenized fuel compact is self-shielded using a Bondarenko method to accountmore » for interactions between the fuel compact regions in the fuel lattice. In the final form of the equations for actual implementations, the double-heterogeneity effects are accounted for by simply using a modified definition of a background cross section, which includes geometry parameters and cross sections for both the grain and fuel compact regions. With the new method, the doubly heterogeneous resonance self-shielding effect can be treated easily even with legacy codes programmed only for a singly heterogeneous system by simple modifications in the background cross section for resonance integral interpolations. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the new method and a sensitivity study of double-heterogeneity parameters introduced during the derivation. The implementation of the method and verification results for various test cases are presented in the companion paper.« less

  13. The Effects of Various Design Parameters on the Free Vibration of Doubly Curved Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CUNNINGHAM, P. R.; WHITE, R. G.; AGLIETTI, G. S.

    2000-02-01

    Sandwich panels have a very high stiffness to weight ratio, which makes them particularly useful in the aerospace industry where carbon fibre reinforced plastics and lightweight honeycomb cores are being used in the construction of floor panels, fairings and intake barrel panels. In the latter case, the geometry of the panels can be considered doubly curved. This paper presents an introduction to an ongoing study investigating the dynamic response prediction of acoustically excited composite sandwich panels which have double curvature. The final objective is to assess and hopefully produce an up to date set of acoustic fatigue design guidelines for this type of structure. The free vibration of doubly curved composite honeycomb sandwich panels is investigated here, both experimentally and theoretically, the latter using a commerically available finite element package. The design and manufacture of three test panels is covered before presenting experimental results for the natural frequencies of vibration with freely supported boundary conditions. Once validated against the experimental results, the theoretical investigation is extended to study the effects of changing radii of curvature, orthotropic properties of the core, and ply orientation on the natural frequencies of vibration of rectangular panels with various boundary conditions. The results from the parameter studies show curve veering, particularly when studying the effect of changing radii and ply orientation, however, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is due to the approximation method used or occurs in the physical system.

  14. Partial cross sections of doubly excited helium below the ionization threshold I{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.H.; Puettner, R.; Poiguine, M.; Kaindl, G.; Hentges, R.; Viefhaus, J.; Becker, U.; Rost, J.M.

    2004-04-01

    Partial photoionization cross sections (PCSs), {sigma}{sub n}, leading to final ionic states of helium, He{sup +}(n), were measured at BESSY II in the region of doubly excited helium up to the ionization threshold I{sub 7} of He{sup +}. The experiments were performed with a time-of-flight (TOF) electron spectrometer and high photon resolution, {delta}E congruent with 6 meV. The results of these measurements are a most critical assessment of the decay dynamics of double-excitation resonances and agree well with those of recent eigenchannel R-matrix calculations. They also confirm the propensity rules set up for the autoionization of doubly excitated states. The mirroring behavior in the PCSs predicted recently by Liu and Starace is only partially observed. By discussing the formulas given by these authors in a more general context, the specific behavior of the PCSs of helium with respect to mirroring can be understood. The mirroring compensation properties between the 'fractional partial cross sections' {gamma}{sub P}={sigma}{sub P}/{sigma}{sub T} and {gamma}{sub Q}={sigma}{sub Q}/{sigma}{sub T}, with {sigma}{sub T}={sigma}{sub P}+{sigma}{sub Q}, are introduced and discussed.

  15. State-dependent doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm for automatic characterization of stochastic biochemical rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Min K.; Daigle, Bernie J.; Gillespie, Dan T.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years there has been substantial growth in the development of algorithms for characterizing rare events in stochastic biochemical systems. Two such algorithms, the state-dependent weighted stochastic simulation algorithm (swSSA) and the doubly weighted SSA (dwSSA) are extensions of the weighted SSA (wSSA) by H. Kuwahara and I. Mura [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 165101 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2987701. The swSSA substantially reduces estimator variance by implementing system state-dependent importance sampling (IS) parameters, but lacks an automatic parameter identification strategy. In contrast, the dwSSA provides for the automatic determination of state-independent IS parameters, thus it is inefficient for systems whose states vary widely in time. We present a novel modification of the dwSSA—the state-dependent doubly weighted SSA (sdwSSA)—that combines the strengths of the swSSA and the dwSSA without inheriting their weaknesses. The sdwSSA automatically computes state-dependent IS parameters via the multilevel cross-entropy method. We apply the method to three examples: a reversible isomerization process, a yeast polarization model, and a lac operon model. Our results demonstrate that the sdwSSA offers substantial improvements over previous methods in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

  16. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M.

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  17. Lensless coded-aperture imaging with separable Doubly-Toeplitz masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeert, Michael J.; Farm, Brian P.

    2015-02-01

    In certain imaging applications, conventional lens technology is constrained by the lack of materials which can effectively focus the radiation within a reasonable weight and volume. One solution is to use coded apertures-opaque plates perforated with multiple pinhole-like openings. If the openings are arranged in an appropriate pattern, then the images can be decoded and a clear image computed. Recently, computational imaging and the search for a means of producing programmable software-defined optics have revived interest in coded apertures. The former state-of-the-art masks, modified uniformly redundant arrays (MURAs), are effective for compact objects against uniform backgrounds, but have substantial drawbacks for extended scenes: (1) MURAs present an inherently ill-posed inversion problem that is unmanageable for large images, and (2) they are susceptible to diffraction: a diffracted MURA is no longer a MURA. We present a new class of coded apertures, separable Doubly-Toeplitz masks, which are efficiently decodable even for very large images-orders of magnitude faster than MURAs, and which remain decodable when diffracted. We implemented the masks using programmable spatial-light-modulators. Imaging experiments confirmed the effectiveness of separable Doubly-Toeplitz masks-images collected in natural light of extended outdoor scenes are rendered clearly.

  18. A New Equivalence Theory Method for Treating Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel - I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark L.; Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung

    2015-03-04

    A new methodology has been developed to treat resonance self-shielding in doubly heterogeneous very high temperature gas-cooled reactor systems in which the fuel compact region of a reactor lattice consists of small fuel grains dispersed in a graphite matrix. This new method first homogenizes the fuel grain and matrix materials using an analytically derived disadvantage factor from a two-region problem with equivalence theory and intermediate resonance method. This disadvantage factor accounts for spatial self-shielding effects inside each grain within the framework of an infinite array of grains. Then the homogenized fuel compact is self-shielded using a Bondarenko method to account for interactions between the fuel compact regions in the fuel lattice. In the final form of the equations for actual implementations, the double-heterogeneity effects are accounted for by simply using a modified definition of a background cross section, which includes geometry parameters and cross sections for both the grain and fuel compact regions. With the new method, the doubly heterogeneous resonance self-shielding effect can be treated easily even with legacy codes programmed only for a singly heterogeneous system by simple modifications in the background cross section for resonance integral interpolations. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the new method and a sensitivity study of double-heterogeneity parameters introduced during the derivation. The implementation of the method and verification results for various test cases are presented in the companion paper.

  19. General and mechanistic optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Sonia M; Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2015-04-30

    We propose a general framework for determining optimal relationships for tensile strength of doubly convex tablets under diametrical compression. This approach is based on the observation that tensile strength is directly proportional to the breaking force and inversely proportional to a non-linear function of geometric parameters and materials properties. This generalization reduces to the analytical expression commonly used for flat faced tablets, i.e., Hertz solution, and to the empirical relationship currently used in the pharmaceutical industry for convex-faced tablets, i.e., Pitt's equation. Under proper parametrization, optimal tensile strength relationship can be determined from experimental results by minimizing a figure of merit of choice. This optimization is performed under the first-order approximation that a flat faced tablet and a doubly curved tablet have the same tensile strength if they have the same relative density and are made of the same powder, under equivalent manufacturing conditions. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations and best practices for assessing the performance of optimal tensile strength relationships in general. Based on these guidelines, we identify two new models, namely the general and mechanistic models, which are effective and predictive alternatives to the tensile strength relationship currently used in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25683146

  20. Estimating residual stress, curvature and boundary compliance of doubly clamped MEMS from their vibration response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Ryan C.; Garg, Anurag; Kovacs, Andrew; Peroulis, Dimitrios; Raman, Arvind

    2013-04-01

    Structural parameters of doubly clamped microfabricated beams such as initial curvature, boundary compliance, thickness and mean residual stress are often critical to the performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and need to be estimated as a part of quality control of the microfabrication process. However, these parameters couple and influence many metrics of device response and thus are very difficult to disentangle and estimate using conventional methods such as the M-test, static mechanical tests, pull-in measurements or dynamic mechanical tests. Here we present a simple, non-destructive experimental method to extract these parameters based on the non-contact measurement of the natural frequencies of the lowest few eigenmodes of the microfabricated beam, and knowledge of Young's modulus and plan dimensions of the beam alone. The method exploits the fact that certain eigenmodes are insensitive to some of these structural parameters which enable a convenient decoupling and estimation of the parameters. As a result, the method does not require complicated finite element analysis, is insensitive to the gap height and introduces no contact wear or dielectric charging effects. Experiments are performed using laser Doppler vibrometry to measure the natural frequencies of doubly clamped, nickel, RF-MEMS capacitive switches and the method is applied to extract the residual stress, beam thickness, boundary compliance and post-release curvature.

  1. Precise orbit determination for GRACE using undifferenced or doubly differenced GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäggi, A.; Hugentobler, U.; Bock, H.; Beutler, G.

    The two GRACE satellites provide the ideal platform to study the performance of different strategies for precise orbit determination using undifferenced or doubly differenced GPS data. We use pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling techniques in a batch least-squares environment for the two GRACE satellites to outline the mutual benefits of processing doubly differenced instead of undifferenced GPS data. We either process the space baseline only, the space-ground baselines only, or both types of baselines together, and show that the fixing of the GPS double difference carrier phase ambiguities has a significant impact on the space baseline, but also on the space-ground baselines. The validation of the relative orbit positions by inter-satellite K-band observations shows precisions of better than 1 mm in the case of fixed space baseline ambiguities, precisions of a few millimeter in the case of fixed space-ground baseline ambiguities, and precisions of about 1 cm in the case of float ambiguities. We discuss the differences between the various GRACE orbit solutions in order to formulate well suited orbit determination strategies tailored to the GRACE configuration. Satellite laser ranging observations indicate that accuracies between 2 cm and 2.5 cm are achieved.

  2. Conversions of bound muons: Lepton flavor violation from doubly charged scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geib, Tanja; Merle, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    We present the first detailed computation of the conversion of a bound muon into an electron mediated by a doubly charged S U (2 ) singlet scalar. Although such particles are not too exotic, up to now their contribution to μ -e conversion is unknown. We close this gap by presenting a detailed calculation, which will allow the reader not only to fully comprehend the discussion but also to generalize our results to similar cases if needed. We furthermore compare the predictions, for both the general case and an example model featuring a neutrino mass at two-loop level, to current experimental data and future sensitivities. We show that, depending on the explicit values of the couplings as well as on the actual future limits on the branching ratio, μ -e conversion may potentially yield a lower limit on the doubly charged singlet scalar mass, which is stronger than what could be obtained by colliders. Our results considerably strengthen the case for low-energy lepton flavor violation searches being a very valuable addition to collider experiments.

  3. New Atomic Data for Doubly Ionized Iron Group Atoms by High Resolution UV Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Thorne, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    Currently available laboratory spectroscopic data of doubly ionized iron-group element were obtained about 50 years ago using spectrographs of modest dispersion, photographic plates, and eye estimates of intensities. The accuracy of the older wavelength data is about 10 mAngstroms at best, whereas wavelengths are now needed to an accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) (0.2 to 2 mAngstroms at 2000 Angstroms). The Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy group at Imperial College, London, and collaborators at the Harvard College Observatory have used a unique VUV FT spectrometer in a program focussed on improving knowledge of spectra of many neutral and singly and doubly ionized, astrophysically important, iron group elements. Spectra of Fe II and Fe III have been recorded at UV and VUV wavelengths with signal-to-noise ratios of several hundred for the stronger lines. Wavelengths and energy levels for Fe III are an order of magnitude more accurate than previous work; analysis is close to completion. f-values for Fe II have been published.

  4. Spectral Label Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina

    2012-01-01

    We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers advantages for datasets with high variability, making the segmentation less prone to registration errors. We achieve the integration by letting the weights of the graph Laplacian depend on image data, as well as atlas-based label priors. The extracted contours are converted to regions, arranged in a hierarchy depending on the strength of the separating boundary. Finally, we construct the segmentation by a region-wise, instead of voxel-wise, voting, increasing the robustness. Our experiments on cardiac MRI show a clear improvement over majority voting and intensity-weighted label fusion. PMID:23286157

  5. Labeled drawing of Jupiter showing its core and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Labeled drawing of Jupiter identifies fluid molecular hydrogen, transition zone, fluid metallic hydrogen, and possible core and the composition of its atmosphere - cloud tops - aerosols, ammonia crystals, ammonium hydrosulfide clouds, ice crystal clouds, and water droplets.

  6. Spin labeling EPR.

    PubMed

    Klare, Johann P; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has emerged as an efficient tool to elucidate the structure and conformational dynamics of biomolecules under native-like conditions. This article summarizes the basics as well as recent progress of site-directed spin labeling. Continuous wave EPR spectra analyses and pulse EPR techniques are reviewed with special emphasis on applications to the sensory rhodopsin-transducer complex mediating the photophobic response of the halophilic archaeum Natronomonas pharaonis and the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. PMID:19728138

  7. Flight performance energetics and water turnovers of Tippler Pigeons with a harness and doorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, James A.; Workman, Gar W.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a birda??s mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Plight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO, production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measurements precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  8. Flight performance, energetics and water turnover of tippler pigeons with a harness and dorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  9. Labeling the Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, William

    The report describes research on the effects of labeling children from minority groups as retarded and includes a review of a system of multiculturalistic pluralistic assessment (SOMPA), an instrument for evaluating the abilities and potentialities of children based on different aspects of performance. Listed among findings of the Riverside study,…

  10. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  11. 40 CFR 1045.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obscures the engine label, we require them to add a duplicate label on the vessel (see 40 CFR 1068.105); in... as described in 40 CFR 1068.45. You may omit this information from the label if there is not enough... limited to fresh water, state: “THIS ENGINE IS NOT INTENDED FOR USE IN SALTWATER.” (d) You may...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.135 - How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... obscures the engine label, we require them to add a duplicate label on the vessel (see 40 CFR 1068.105); in... as described in 40 CFR 1068.45. You may omit this information from the label if there is not enough... limited to fresh water, state: “THIS ENGINE IS NOT INTENDED FOR USE IN SALTWATER.” (d) You may...

  13. Series of doubly excited states 3Se of Li+ below the N = 2 threshold of Li2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    2010-01-01

    We use a numerical procedure developed earlier, based on the Harris-Nesbet variational calculation of phase shifts for elastic scattering of electron from Li2+ (Gien 2003 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 36 2291), to determine the series of doubly excited states 3Se of Li+ at energies below the N = 2 threshold of Li2+. Our results of position and width for the low-lying doubly excited states are to be compared with those obtained by other research groups employing various different numerical methods for their calculations. This work provides a new set of higher lying doubly excited state resonances 3Se of Li+ to be compared with those determined with a completely different numerical method by Chung and Lin (1998 At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables 69 101). In addition, we are also able to determine five more of these doubly excited states, 3Se(2,11a), 3Se(2,12a), 3Se(2,10b), 3Se(2,11b) and 3Se(2,12b), which lie very close to the N = 2 excitation threshold of Li2+. We discuss the results of our work in comparison with those of other research groups, stressing the significant accuracy of our method and its relevant research perspective. Research work supported by the NSERC of Canada.

  14. Theoretical and experimental quantification of doubly and singly differential cross sections for electron-induced ionization of isolated tetrahydrofuran molecules

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele A.; Bug, Marion U.; Baek, Woon Y.; Weck, Philippe F.

    2014-07-29

    Electron-induced ionization of the commonly used surrogate of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone, namely, the tetrahydrofuran molecule, is here theoretically described within the 1st Born approximation by means of quantum-mechanical approach. Comparisons between theory and recent experiments are reported in terms of doubly and singly differential cross sections.

  15. Theoretical and experimental quantification of doubly and singly differential cross sections for electron-induced ionization of isolated tetrahydrofuran molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele A.; Bug, Marion U.; Baek, Woon Y.; Weck, Philippe F.

    2014-07-29

    Electron-induced ionization of the commonly used surrogate of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone, namely, the tetrahydrofuran molecule, is here theoretically described within the 1st Born approximation by means of quantum-mechanical approach. Comparisons between theory and recent experiments are reported in terms of doubly and singly differential cross sections.

  16. Structure studies of nuclear systems close to the doubly-magic {sup 132}Sn using advanced {beta}{sup -}spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mach, H.; Fogelberg, B.; Jacobsson, L.; Lindroth, A.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Taylor, R. B. E.; Blomqvist, J.; Isakov, V. I.; Mezilev, K. A.

    1998-12-21

    A brief description of the OSIRIS fission product mass separator and an outline of the current program of research in the domain of nuclear structure at the doubly magic {sup 132}Sn region are given. The most recent results on the study of the single particle states in {sup 133}Sb are briefly summarized.

  17. Spectroscopic study and astronomical detection of doubly 13C-substituted ethyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Garrod, R. T.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We have performed a spectral line survey called Exploring Molecular Complexity with ALMA (EMoCA) toward Sagittarius B2(N) between 84.1 and 114.4 GHz with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in its Cycles 0 and 1. Line intensities of the main isotopic species of ethyl cyanide and its singly 13C-substituted isotopomers observed toward the hot molecular core Sagittarius B2(N2) suggest that the doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers should also be detectable. Aims: We want to determine the spectroscopic parameters of all three doubly 13C-substituted isotopologues of ethyl cyanide to search for them in our ALMA data. Methods: We investigated the laboratory rotational spectra of the three species between 150 GHz and 990 GHz. We searched for emission lines produced by these species in the ALMA spectrum of Sagittarius B2(N2). We modeled their emission and the emission of the 12C and singly 13C-substituted isotopologues assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. Results: We identified more than 5000 rotational transitions, pertaining to more than 3500 different transition frequencies, in the laboratory for each of the three doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers. The quantum numbers reach J ≈ 115 and Ka ≈ 35, resulting in accurate spectroscopic parameters and accurate rest frequency calculations beyond 1000 GHz for strong to moderately weak transitions of either isotopomer. All three species are unambiguously detected in our ALMA data. The 12C/13C column density ratio of the isotopomers with one 13C atom to those with two 13C atoms is about 25. Conclusions: Ethyl cyanide is the second molecule after methyl cyanide for which isotopologues containing two 13C atoms have been securely detected in the interstellar medium. The model of our ethyl cyanide data suggests that we should be able to detect vibrational satellites of the main species up to at least ν19 = 1 at ~1130 K and up to ν13 + ν21 = 2 at ~600 K for the isotopologues with one 13C atom in

  18. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shopping Tips Food Safety Common Questions Learn More Water Printer-friendly It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, ...

  19. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  20. 99m tc labeled liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.W.; Timmons, J.H.; Rudolph, A.S.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a method of preparing stable gamma-emitting radionuclide-labeled alkyleneamine oxime, the incubating being for a period of time sufficient to form labeled liposome-encapsulated protein.

  1. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  2. Doubly-robust dynamic treatment regimen estimation via weighted least squares.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Michael P; Moodie, Erica E M

    2015-09-01

    Personalized medicine is a rapidly expanding area of health research wherein patient level information is used to inform their treatment. Dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) are a means of formalizing the sequence of treatment decisions that characterize personalized management plans. Identifying the DTR which optimizes expected patient outcome is of obvious interest and numerous methods have been proposed for this purpose. We present a new approach which builds on two established methods: Q-learning and G-estimation, offering the doubly robust property of the latter but with ease of implementation much more akin to the former. We outline the underlying theory, provide simulation studies that demonstrate the double-robustness and efficiency properties of our approach, and illustrate its use on data from the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial. PMID:25854539

  3. Observation of doubly spin-polarized deuterium by electron-spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkoda, I.; Reynolds, M.W.; Cline, R.W.; Hardy, W.N.

    1986-09-08

    We have studied spin-polarized deuterium, Darrow-down, in the temperature range 0.3 to 0.7 K in a field of 40 kG using electron-spin resonance at 114 GHz. The intrinsic rates for recombination of two D atoms to form D/sub 2/ on the surface of l-/sup 4/He have been measured for both the ortho and para channels. The two rates are approximately equal and when extrapolated to zero field are 1600 times greater than the rates for H/sub 2/ formation. Doubly spin-polarized deuterium, Darrow-downX, has been observed for the first time, with nuclear-spin purities >0.98 and sample lifetimes as long as 1 h.

  4. Long-range spoof surface plasmons on the doubly corrugated metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, symmetric spoof surface plasmon (SSP) mode on the doubly corrugated metal surfaces is indentified as long-range spoof surface plasmon (LRSSP) because of its extreme low propagation loss and symmetric dominant field profile so as short-range SSP (SRSSP) for anti-symmetric mode. Based on theoretical calculation and numerical simulation of finite integration method, symmetric and anti-symmetric SSP modes with various gap sizes between these two identical corrugated metal surfaces are investigated in terahertz (THz) regime and good agreement is realized. Besides, the low loss superiority of LRSSP diminishes along with the increased gap size. This work opens up new avenues to utilize this long-range surface mode in far-infrared, THz or lower frequency band and can find many potential applications such as low-loss waveguide, filters and novel electronic sources.

  5. One-Neutron Removal Measurement Reveals {sup 24}O as a New Doubly Magic Nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, R.; Perro, C.; Nociforo, C.; Aumann, T.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Kindler, B.; Litvinov, Y.; Lommel, B.; Mahata, K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sun, B.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.; Prochazka, A.; Farinon, F.; Knoebel, R.; Boutin, D.; Lenske, H.; Cortina-Gil, D.

    2009-04-17

    The first measurement of the momentum distribution for one-neutron removal from {sup 24}O at 920A MeV performed at GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The observed distribution has a width (FWHM) of 99{+-}4 MeV/c in the projectile rest frame and a one-neutron removal cross section of 63{+-}7 mb. The results are well explained with a nearly pure 2s{sub 1/2} neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.74{+-}0.19 within the eikonal model. This large s-wave probability shows a spherical shell closure thereby confirming earlier suggestions that {sup 24}O is a new doubly magic nucleus.

  6. Atomic mass measurements of short-lived nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lunney, D.; Schwarz, S.

    2008-04-01

    Accurate atomic mass measurements of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb and of neutron-rich cesium isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The masses of 145,147Cs, 181,183Tl, 186Tl m, 187Tl m, 196Tl m, 205Tl, 197Pb m, 208Pb, 190-197Bi, 209,215,216Bi, 203,205,229Fr, and 214,229,230Ra were determined. The obtained relative mass uncertainty in the range of 2×10 to 2×10 is not only required for safe identification of isomeric states but also allows mapping the detailed structure of the mass surface. A mass adjustment procedure was carried out and the results included into the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The resulting separation energies are discussed and the mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic data are examined for possible correlations.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of GaN nanowire doubly clamped resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliakkal, Carina B.; Mathew, John P.; Hatui, Nirupam; Rahman, A. Azizur; Deshmukh, Mandar M.; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2015-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) have been intensely researched as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic device applications; however, the mechanical properties of GaN nanostructures have not been explored in detail. The rigidity, thermal stability, and piezoelectric properties of GaN make it an interesting candidate for nano-electromechanical systems. We have fabricated doubly clamped GaN NW electromechanical resonators on sapphire using electron beam lithography and estimated the Young's modulus of GaN from resonance frequency measurements. For wires of triangular cross section with side ˜90 nm, we obtained values for the Young's modulus to be about 218 and 691 GPa, which are of the same order of magnitude as the values reported for bulk GaN. We also discuss the role of residual strain in the nanowire on the resonant frequency and the orientation dependence of the Young's modulus in wurtzite crystals.

  8. GENXICC2.1: An improved version of GENXICC for hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2013-03-01

    We present an improved version of GENXICC, which is a generator for hadronic production of the doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb and has been introduced by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu [Comput. Phys. Commun. 177 (2007) 467; Comput. Phys. Commun. 181 (2010) 1144]. In comparison with the previous GENXICC versions, we update the program in order to generate the unweighted baryon events more effectively under various simulation environments, whose distributions are now generated according to the probability proportional to the integrand. One Les Houches Event (LHE) common block has been added to produce a standard LHE data file that contains useful information of the doubly heavy baryon and its accompanying partons. Such LHE data can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation, especially, the color-flow problem can be solved with PYTHIA8.0. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYTitle of program: GENXICC2.1 Program obtained from: CPC Program Library Reference to original program: GENXICC Reference in CPC: Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 467 (2007); Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 1144 (2010) Does the new version supersede the old program: No Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating systems: LINUX Programming language used: FORTRAN 77/90 Memory required to execute with typical data: About 2.0 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: About 2 MB, including PYTHIA6.4 Distribution format: .tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Hadronic production of doubly heavy baryons Ξcc, Ξbc and Ξbb. Method of solution: The upgraded version with a proper interface to PYTHIA can generate full production and decay events, either weighted or unweighted, conveniently and effectively. Especially, the unweighted events are generated by using an improved hit-and-miss approach. Reasons for new version: Responding to the feedback from users of CMS and LHCb groups at the Large Hadron Collider, and based on

  9. Numerical simulations of the Single-mode, Doubly-shocked Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkhanis, Varad; Ramaprabhu, Praveen

    2014-11-01

    We describe results from numerical simulations of a single-mode, doubly-shocked material interface between gases of different densities. The time interval between the shocks was varied to observe interfacial growth due to Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability initialized with different amplitudes. The simulations were performed with low and high density ratio fluids (A = 0.15 and A = -0.99), where the latter case is relevant to ejecta formation. We compare the growth rates from our simulations after the first and second shocks with linear, nonlinear and ejecta models. In the heavy to light configuration (A = -0.99), we observe two consecutive phase inversions following each shock. We have also investigated the effect of variations in the initial interface perturbation to include sine, chevron, sawtooth, and square-wave form, and find our results to be of relevance to machined target experiments.

  10. Investigation of the thermo-optic effect in doubly coupled photonic crystal split-beam nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Tao, Jifang; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Guangya; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-07-01

    We design and experimentally demonstrate doubly coupled photonic crystal split-beam nanocavities. The thermal response of the coupled nanocavities is characterized by controlling the device temperature: the resonant wavelengths of the odd mode (1557.28 nm) and even mode (1567.18 nm) are both redshifted linearly from 17.4 °C to 46.5 °C. The tuning ratio of the two modes is measured to be 97.4%, implying that they respond almost the same to temperature changes. Therefore, changes of the wavelength difference between this pair of modes can be applied to effectively decouple the thermo-optic effect from the optomechanical effect without on-chip temperature self-referencing. Additionally, the topmost quality-factor approaches 28 300 throughout the thermal tuning. The proposed structure paves the way for studying purely optomechanical actuations.

  11. Particle swarm optimization for discrete-time inverse optimal control of a doubly fed induction generator.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cruz, Riemann; Sanchez, Edgar N; Ornelas-Tellez, Fernando; Loukianov, Alexander G; Harley, Ronald G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO) for a discrete-time inverse optimal control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). For the inverse optimal scheme, a control Lyapunov function (CLF) is proposed to obtain an inverse optimal control law in order to achieve trajectory tracking. A posteriori, it is established that this control law minimizes a meaningful cost function. The CLFs depend on matrix selection in order to achieve the control objectives; this matrix is determined by two mechanisms: initially, fixed parameters are proposed for this matrix by a trial-and-error method and then by using the PSO algorithm. The inverse optimal control scheme is illustrated via simulations for the DFIG, including the comparison between both mechanisms. PMID:24273145

  12. NASTRAN implementation of an isoparametric doubly-curved quadrilateral shell element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potvin, A. B.; Leick, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A quadrilateral shell element, CQUAD4, was added to level 15.5 and subsequently to level 16.0 of NASTRAN. The element exhibited doubly curved surfaces and used biquadratic interpolation functions. Reduced integration techniques were used to improve the performance of the element in thin shell problems. The creation of several new bulk data items is discussed, along with a special module, GPNORM, to process SHLNORM bulk data cards. In addition to the theoretical basis for the element stiffness matrix, consistent mass and load matrices are presented. Several potential sources of degenerate behavior of the element were investigated. Guidelines for proper use of the element were suggested. Performance of the element on several widely published classical examples was demonstrated. The results showed a significant improvement over presently available NASTRAN shell elements for even the coarsest meshes. Potential applications to two classes of practical problems are discussed.

  13. Search for doubly charged Higgs bosons with lepton-flavour-violating decays involving tau leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.

    2007-12-01

    The authors search for pair production of doubly charged Higgs particles (H{sup {+-}{+-}}) followed by decays into electron-tau (e{tau}) and muon-tau ({mu}{tau}) pairs using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 350 pb{sup -1} collected from {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV by the CDF II experiment. They search separately for cases where three or four final-state leptons are detected, and then combine the results into limits for each exclusive flavor decay mode of the H{sup {+-}{+-}}. Assuming 100% branching ratios of the H{sup {+-}{+-}} to left-handed e{tau} ({mu}{tau}) pairs, they set an H{sup {+-}{+-}} lower mass limit of 114 (112) GeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level (C.L.).

  14. Observation of the Doubly Strange b Baryon {omega}{sub b}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Komissarov, E. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Merekov, Y. P.; Rozhdestvenski, A.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Vertogradova, Y.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Hossain, S.; Jain, S.; Rominsky, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Strauss, M.; Abolins, M.

    2008-12-05

    We report the observation of the doubly strange b baryon {omega}{sub b}{sup -} in the decay channel {omega}{sub b}{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}{omega}{sup -}, with J/{psi}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and {omega}{sup -}{yields}{lambda}K{sup -}{yields}(p{pi}{sup -})K{sup -}, in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. Using approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we observe 17.8{+-}4.9(stat){+-}0.8(syst) {omega}{sub b}{sup -} signal events at a mass of 6.165{+-}0.010(stat){+-}0.013(syst) GeV. The significance of the observed signal is 5.4{sigma}, corresponding to a probability of 6.7x10{sup -8} of it arising from a background fluctuation.

  15. 'Doubly Magic' Conditions in Magic-Wavelength Trapping of Ultracold Alkali-Metal Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-07-16

    In experiments with trapped atoms, atomic energy levels are shifted by the trapping optical and magnetic fields. Regardless of this strong perturbation, precision spectroscopy may be still carried out using specially crafted, 'magic' trapping fields. Finding these conditions for particularly valuable microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms has so far remained an open challenge. Here I demonstrate that the microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms may be indeed made impervious to both trapping laser intensity and fluctuations of magnetic fields. I consider driving multiphoton transitions between the clock levels and show that these 'doubly magic' conditions are realized at special values of trapping laser wavelengths and fixed values of relatively weak magnetic fields. This finding has implications for precision measurements and quantum information processing with qubits stored in hyperfine manifolds.

  16. Study of D0-D¯0 mixing and D0 doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Boix, G.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Graugès, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Casper, D.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Halley, A. W.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Marinelli, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1998-09-01

    Using a sample of four million hadronic Z events collected in ALEPH from 1991 to 1995, the decays D*+-->D0πs+, with D0 decaying to K-π+ or to K+π-, are studied. The relative branching ratio B(D0-->K+π-)/B(D0-- >K-π+) is measured to be (1.84+/-0.59(stat.)) (+/-0.34(syst.))%. The two possible contributions to the D0-->K+π- decay, doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decays and D0-D¯0 mixing, are disentangled by measuring the proper-time distribution of the reconstructed D0's. Assuming no interference between the two processes, the upper limit obtained on the mixing rate is 0.92% at 95% CL. The possible effect of interference between the two amplitudes is also assessed.

  17. Plane Stokes flow driven by capillarity on the free surfaces of a doubly-connected region

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, R.W.

    1991-01-07

    The free creeping viscous incompressible plant flow a finite region, bounded by a simple smooth closed curve and driven solely by surface tension, was analyzed previously. The shape evolution was described in terms of a time-dependent mapping function z = {Omega}({zeta},t) of the unit circle, conformal on {vert bar}{zeta}{vert bar} {le} 1. An equation giving the time evolution of the mapping, typically in parametric form, was derived. The theory is here extended to doubly-connected regions mapped from an annulus. It is found that the conjectured parametric map must satisfy three conditions. The elementary problem of the collapse of a concentric circular annulus is easily recovered, but no non-trivial flows have been discovered. The theory is used to show that confocal elliptic ring does not collapse through a sequence of confocal elliptic rings. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Photoionization study of quasibound states of doubly charged molecular nitrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellner, L.; Besnard, M. J.; Dujardin, G.; Malinovich, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Doubly charged N 22+ ions were produced by double photoionization of neutral nitrogen molecules with the synchrotron radiation from ACO as a photon source of variable energy in the 40-70 eV range. From the double photoionization spectrum the threshold energy of the stable X 1Σ g+ state was found at 43.1 ± 0.1 eV. The D 1Σ g+ → X 1Σ g+ emission observed by using a photoion-photon of fluorescence coincidence (PIFCO) experiment. The onset energy of this emitting D 1Σ u+ state at 50.5 eV, was deduced from the variation of the fluorescence efficiency as a function of the excitation photon energy. The lifetime of this emitting state was measured to be τ = 8 ± 3 ns.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of GaN nanowire doubly clamped resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Maliakkal, Carina B. Mathew, John P.; Hatui, Nirupam; Rahman, A. Azizur; Deshmukh, Mandar M.; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2015-09-21

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) have been intensely researched as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic device applications; however, the mechanical properties of GaN nanostructures have not been explored in detail. The rigidity, thermal stability, and piezoelectric properties of GaN make it an interesting candidate for nano-electromechanical systems. We have fabricated doubly clamped GaN NW electromechanical resonators on sapphire using electron beam lithography and estimated the Young's modulus of GaN from resonance frequency measurements. For wires of triangular cross section with side ∼90 nm, we obtained values for the Young's modulus to be about 218 and 691 GPa, which are of the same order of magnitude as the values reported for bulk GaN. We also discuss the role of residual strain in the nanowire on the resonant frequency and the orientation dependence of the Young's modulus in wurtzite crystals.

  20. Subwavelength acoustic focusing by surface-wave-resonance enhanced transmission in doubly negative acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M. Oudich, Mourad

    2014-11-21

    We present analytical and numerical analyses of a yet unseen lensing paradigm that is based on a solid metamaterial slab in which the wave excitation source is attached. We propose and demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited acoustic focusing induced by surface resonant states in doubly negative metamaterials. The enhancement of evanescent waves across the metamaterial slab produced by their resonant coupling to surface waves is evidenced and quantitatively determined. The effect of metamaterial parameters on surface states, transmission, and wavenumber bandwidth is clearly identified. Based on this concept consisting of a wave source attached on the metamaterial, a high resolution of λ/28.4 is obtained with the optimum effective physical parameters, opening then an exciting way to design acoustic metamaterials for ultrasonic focused imaging.

  1. Excited-state spectroscopy of singly, doubly and triply-charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael

    2014-07-01

    We present the ground and excited state spectra of singly, doubly and triply-charmed baryons by using dynamical lattice QCD. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice and are obtained after subduction from their continuum analogues are utilized. These operators transform as irreducible representations of SU(3)F symmetry for flavour, SU(4) symmetry for Dirac spins of quarks and O(3) symmetry for orbital angular momenta. Using novel computational techniques correlation functions of these operators are generated and the variational method is exploited to extract excited states. The lattice spectra that we obtain have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the low lying states remarkably resemble the expectations of quantum numbers from SU(6)ⓍO(3) symmetry.

  2. Doubly periodic instability pattern in a smectic-A liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manyuhina, O. V.; Tordini, G.; Bras, W.; Maan, J. C.; Christianen, P. C. M.

    2013-05-01

    We report the observation of a doubly periodic surface defect pattern in the liquid crystal 8CB, formed during the nematic-smectic-A phase transition. The pattern results from the antagonistic alignment of the 8CB molecules, which is homeotropic at the surface and planar in the bulk of the sample cell. Within the continuum Landau-de Gennes theory of smectic liquid crystals, we find that the long period (≈10 μm) of the pattern is given by the balance between the surface anchoring and the elastic energy of curvature wall defects. The short period (≈1 μm) we attribute to a saddle-splay distortion, leading to a nonzero Gaussian curvature and causing the curvature walls to break up.

  3. Doubly periodic instability pattern in a smectic-A liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Manyuhina, O V; Tordini, G; Bras, W; Maan, J C; Christianen, P C M

    2013-05-01

    We report the observation of a doubly periodic surface defect pattern in the liquid crystal 8CB, formed during the nematic-smectic-A phase transition. The pattern results from the antagonistic alignment of the 8CB molecules, which is homeotropic at the surface and planar in the bulk of the sample cell. Within the continuum Landau-de Gennes theory of smectic liquid crystals, we find that the long period (≈10 μm) of the pattern is given by the balance between the surface anchoring and the elastic energy of curvature wall defects. The short period (≈1 μm) we attribute to a saddle-splay distortion, leading to a nonzero Gaussian curvature and causing the curvature walls to break up. PMID:23767471

  4. Design of permanent magnets to chaoize doubly salient permanent magnet motors for electric compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, K. T.; Wang, Zheng

    2006-04-01

    This article proposes and implements a class of chaotic motors for electric compaction. The key is to develop a design approach for the permanent magnets (PMs) of doubly salient PM (DSPM) motors in such a way that chaotic motion can be naturally produced. The bifurcation diagram is employed to derive the threshold of chaoization in terms of PM flux, while the corresponding phase-plane trajectories are used to characterize the chaotic motion. A practical three-phase 12/8-pole DSPM motor is used for exemplification. The proposed chaotic motor is critically assessed for application to a vibratory soil compactor, which is proven to offer better compaction performance than its counterparts. Both computer simulation and experimental results are given to illustrate the proposed chaotic motor.

  5. Power Smoothing and MPPT for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

    Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation, and variable speed control and power factor control are executed for high efficiently for wind energy capture and high quality for power system voltage. In variable speed control, a wind speed or a generator speed is used for maximum power point tracking. However, performances of a wind generation power fluctuation due to wind speed variation have not yet investigated for those controls. The authors discuss power smoothing by those controls for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kV distribution line. The performances are verified using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for actual wind speed data and are examined from an approximate equation of wind generation power fluctuation for wind speed variation.

  6. A Vector Control for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

    Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation due to high efficiently for wind energy capture. An inverter system is required to control wind turbine speed and power factor in those generators. The inverter rating of the synchronous generator equals to generator rating. However, DFIG has the advantage that the inverter rating is about 25% to the generator rating. The paper describes a vector control of DFIG inter-connected to power line. The performance of proposed vector control is examined using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kv distribution line. The results show good dynamic responses and high accuracy to the stator active power control and the stator reactive power control.

  7. Revised and extended level scheme of the doubly-odd nucleus {sup 188}Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Jungclaus, A.; Modamio, V.; Egido, J. L.; Fernandez, M. A.; Schwengner, R.; Algora, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Lenzi, S.; Marginean, N.; Ur, C. A.; Escrig, D.; Fraile, L. M.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    High-spin states in the doubly odd Z=77 nucleus {sup 188}Ir were studied using the reaction {sup 186}W({sup 7}Li, 5n) at 59 MeV and the GASP spectrometer for {gamma}-ray detection. The level structures recently suggested to be built on the known 4.1(3) ms isomeric state of this nucleus have been considerably revised and extended and an isomer with a lifetime of 17.7(2) ns has been identified within the main decay sequence. In addition two rotational bands built on low spin states below the ms isomer have been observed for the first time. The basic features of the excitation scheme of {sup 188}Ir are discussed within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory within the Lipkin-Nogami approach with the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force.

  8. Power enhancement of burst-mode UV pulses using a doubly-resonant optical cavity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rahkman, Abdurahim; Notcutt, Mark; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-24

    We report a doubly-resonant enhancement cavity (DREC) that can realize a simultaneous enhancement of two incoming laser beams at different wavelengths and different temporal structures. The double-resonance condition is theoretically analyzed and different DREC locking methods are experimentally investigated. Simultaneous locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity to both an infrared (IR, 1064 nm) and its frequency tripled ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) pulses has been demonstrated by controlling the frequency difference between the two beams with a fiber optic frequency shifter. The DREC technique opens a new paradigm in the applications of optical cavities to power enhancement of burst-mode lasers with arbitrarymore » macropulse width and repetition rate.« less

  9. Modular invariant partition functions for the doubly extended N = 4 superconformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooguri, Hirosi; Petersen, Jens Lyng; Taormina, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Non-trivial modular properties of characters of the doubly extended N = 4 superconformal algebras Aγ, Ãγ are derived from two different points of view. First, we use realizations on Wolf spaces, in particular when one of the levels of the two commuting affine SU(2) subalgebras takes the value 2. We emphasize how these realizations involve rational torus theories, and how some specific combinations of massless characters transform under the modular group as affine SU(2) characters. Second, we show how these combinations, and generalizations thereof, emerge from a study of the explicit form of the characters when angular variables are partly restricted, but the levels are not. The two results are then combined to give stringent constraints on the modular invariant Ãγ partition functions and they give rise to a partial classification of the latter, closely related to that of affine SU(2).

  10. On varieties of doubly robust estimators under missingness not at random with a shadow variable

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Wang; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Suppose we are interested in the mean of an outcome variable missing not at random. Suppose however that one has available a fully observed shadow variable, which is associated with the outcome but independent of the missingness process conditional on covariates and the possibly unobserved outcome. Such a variable may be a proxy or a mismeasured version of the outcome and is available for all individuals. We have previously established necessary and sufficient conditions for identification of the full data law in such a setting, and have described semiparametric estimators including a doubly robust estimator of the outcome mean. Here, we propose two alternative estimators, which may be viewed as extensions of analogous methods under missingness at random, but enjoy different properties. We assess the correctness of the required working models via straightforward goodness-of-fit tests. PMID:27279671

  11. Ultrafast spectroscopy of super high frequency mechanical modes of doubly clamped beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ristow, Oliver; Merklein, Moritz; Grossmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Scheer, Elke; Dekorsy, Thomas; Barretto, Elaine C. S.; Grebing, Jochen; Erbe, Artur; Mounier, Denis; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2013-12-02

    We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to study the mechanical vibrations in the time domain of doubly clamped silicon nitride beams. Beams with two different clamping conditions are investigated. Finite element method calculations are performed to analyse the mode spectra of both structures. By calculating the strain integral on the surface of the resonators, we are able to reproduce the effect of the detection mechanism and identify all the measured modes. We show that our spectroscopy technique combined with our modelling tools allow the investigation of several different modes in the super high frequency range (3-30 GHz) and above, bringing more information about the vibration modes of nanomechanical resonators.

  12. High spin states and isomeric decays in doubly-odd 208Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Saha, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Gehlot, J.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Jnaneswari, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, B.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron deficient isotopes of francium ( Z=87, N˜121-123) as excited nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction: 197Au( 16O, xn) 213 - xFr at 100 MeV. The γ rays from the residues were observed through the high sensitivity Germanium Clover detector array INGA. The decay of the high spin states and the isomeric states of the doubly-odd 208Fr nuclei, identified from the known sequence of ground state transitions, were observed. The half-lives of the E=194(2) keV isomeric transition, known from earlier observations, was measured to be T=233(18) ns. A second isomeric transition at E=383(2) keV and T=33(7) ns was also found. The measured half-lives were compared with the corresponding single particle estimates, based on the level scheme obtained from the experiment.

  13. Production of doubly charmed tetraquarks with exotic color configurations in electron-positron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Tetsuo; Liu, Yan-Rui; Oka, Makoto; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2013-04-01

    Structure and production of doubly charmed tetraquarks Tcc (cc ubardbar) are studied from the viewpoint of color configurations. Based on the diquark correlation, the tetraquark Tcc with I (JP) = 0 (1+) is considered to be stable against strong decay. We discuss that the mixing probability of color antitriplet and sextet cc components in Tcc is suppressed by 1 / mc2, so the two configurations are separately realized in the heavy quark limit. Utilizing the nonrelativistic QCD framework, we evaluate the production cross sections of Tcc in electron-positron collisions. The momentum dependence of the cross section of color antitriplet is found to be different from that of sextet, which can be used to discriminate the color structure of the Tcc states in experimental measurements.

  14. Doubly Magic Nucleus {sub 108}{sup 270}Hs{sub 162}

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, J.; Kruecken, R.; Nebel, F.; Novackova, Z.; Tuerler, A.; Wierczinski, B.; Yakushev, A.; Bruechle, W.; Jaeger, E.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Chelnokov, M.; Gorshkov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Yeremin, A.; Dressler, R.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle, P.

    2006-12-15

    Theoretical calculations predict {sup 270}Hs (Z=108, N=162) to be a doubly magic deformed nucleus, decaying mainly by {alpha}-particle emission. In this work, based on a rapid chemical isolation of Hs isotopes produced in the {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm reaction, we observed 15 genetically linked nuclear decay chains. Four chains were attributed to the new nuclide {sup 270}Hs, which decays by {alpha}-particle emission with Q{sub {alpha}}=9.02{+-}0.03 MeV to {sup 266}Sg which undergoes spontaneous fission with a half-life of 444{sub -148}{sup +444} ms. A production cross section of about 3 pb was measured for {sup 270}Hs. Thus, {sup 270}Hs is the first nucleus for which experimental nuclear decay properties have become available for comparison with theoretical predictions of the N=162 shell stability.

  15. From doubly stochastic representations of K distributions to random walks and back again: an optics tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, O. E.

    2009-06-01

    A random walk model with a negative binomially fluctuating number of steps is considered in the case where the mean of the number fluctuations, \\bar{N} , is finite. The asymptotic behaviour of the resultant statistics in the large \\bar{N} limit is derived and shown to give the K distribution. The equivalence of this model to the hitherto unrelated doubly stochastic representation of the K distribution is also demonstrated. The convergence to the K distribution of the probability density function generated by a random walk with a finite mean number of steps is examined along with the moments, and the non-Gaussian statistics are shown to be a direct result of discreteness and bunching effects.

  16. Masses of doubly charmed baryons in the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi-Feng; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the mass corrections of the doubly charmed baryons up to N2L O in the extended-on-mass-shell (EOMS) renormalization scheme, comparing with the results of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We find that the terms from the heavy baryon approach are a subset of those obtained in the EOMS scheme. By fitting the lattice data, we can determine the parameters m ˜, α , c1 and c7 from the Lagrangian, while in the heavy baryon approach no information on c1 can be obtained from the baryons mass. Correspondingly, the masses of mΞcc and mΩcc are predicted, in the EOMS scheme, extrapolating the results from different values of the charm quark and the pion masses of the lattice QCD calculations.

  17. Electrodynamics of a generalized charged particle in doubly special relativity framework

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir; Pal, Probir

    2014-07-15

    In the present paper, dynamics of generalized charged particles are studied in the presence of external electromagnetic interactions. This particular extension of the free relativistic particle model lives in Non-Commutative κ-Minkowski space–time, compatible with Doubly Special Relativity, that is motivated to describe Quantum Gravity effects. Furthermore we have also considered the electromagnetic field to be dynamical and have derived the modified forms of Lienard–Wiechert like potentials for these extended charged particle models. In all the above cases we exploit the new and extended form of κ-Minkowski algebra where electromagnetic effects are incorporated in the lowest order, in the Dirac framework of Hamiltonian constraint analysis.

  18. Wavelength-division multiplexing of nano-optomechanical doubly clamped beam systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Vincent T K; Diao, Zhu; Freeman, Mark R; Hiebert, Wayne K

    2015-05-01

    Wavelength-division multiplexing is demonstrated for a set of two doubly clamped beams. Using a single input/output waveguide in a nanophotonic detection system, the two mechanical beams are independently addressable using different wavelength channels as determined by their respective racetrack resonator detection cavities. The two cavities slightly overlap, which also enables the mechanical frequency of both beams to be detected simultaneously with a single wavelength. Finally, to physically map which wavelength channel corresponds to which specific device, a heating laser is targeted individually on each beam to create a reversible mechanical frequency shift. This multiplexing method would allow for the simpler detection of large arrays of nanomechanical devices in a sensor system. PMID:25927755

  19. Field weakening for a doubly salient motor with stator permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liao, Y.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-03

    A device for field weakening in a doubly-salient variable reluctance motor having permanent magnets in the stator. The field weakening increases the constant power range of the motor and is accomplished by controlled movement of steel insets toward and away from the sides of the stator proximate the permanent magnets to provide a controllable by-pass flux path thereabout. Alternatively, the field weakening may be accomplished by a flux by-pass collar which may be angularly positioned around the stator to bridge the permanent magnets of the motor with discrete magnetic sections, thereby providing an alternate by-pass flux path around the permanent magnets in addition to the main air gap flux path. A third alternative means for maintaining a constant power range is accomplished by controlled axial sliding of the permanent magnets themselves into and out from the stator. 5 figs.

  20. Spoof surface plasmon modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Du, Chao-Hai; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-06-01

    Spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) have many potential applications such as imaging and sensing, communications, innovative leaky wave antenna and many other passive devices in the microwave and terahertz (THz) spectrum. The extraordinary properties of SSPs (e.g. extremely strong near field, enhanced beam–wave interaction) make them especially attractive for developing novel THz electronic sources. SSP modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces are investigated and analyzed both theoretically and numerically in this paper. The analytical SSP dispersion expressions of symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are obtained with a simplified modal field expansion method; the results are also verified by the finite integration method. Additionally, the propagation losses are also considered for real copper surfaces with a limited constant conductivity in a THz regime. It is shown that the asymptotical frequency of the symmetric mode at the Brillouin boundary decreases along with the decreased gap size between these two corrugated metal surfaces while the asymptotical frequency increases for the anti-symmetric mode. The anti-symmetric mode demonstrates larger propagation losses than the symmetric mode. Further, the losses for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes decrease when this gap size enlarges. By decreasing groove depth, the asymptotical frequency increases for both the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode, but the variation of propagation losses is more complicated. Propagation losses increase along with the increased period. Our studies on the dispersion characteristics and propagation losses of SSP modes on this doubly corrugated metallic structure with various parameters is instructive for numerous applications such as waveguides, circuitry systems with high integration, filters and powerful electronic sources in the THz regime.

  1. Radiative Rates for Forbidden Transitions in Doubly-Ionized Fe-Peak Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivet, Vanessa; Quinet, P.; Bautista, M.

    2012-05-01

    Accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly-ionized Fe-peak species (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) are of paramount importance for the analysis of the high resolution astrophysical spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources like Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula [1] and stars like Eta Carinae [2]. However, forbidden transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly-ionized iron-peak ions have been very little investigated so far and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or inexistent. We are carrying out a systematic study of the electronic structure of doubly-ionized iron-peak elements. The magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are computed using the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan [3] and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE [4]. This multi-platform approach allows for consistency checks and intercomparison and has proven very successful in the study of the complex Fe-peak species where many different effects contribute [5]. References [1] A. Mesa-Delgado et al., MNRAS 395 (2009) 855 [2] S. Johansson et al., A&A 361 (2000) 977 [3] R.D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Berkeley: Univ. California Press (1981) [4] N.R. Badnell, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 (1997) 1 [5] M. Bautista et al., ApJ 718 (2010) L189

  2. S-wave triplet doubly-excited states 3Se of Li+ below the N=2 excitation threshold of Li2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    2009-11-01

    The Harris-Nesbet variational method was considered for the determination of the series a and b of S-wave triplet doubly-excited-state resonances 3Se of Li+ below the N=2 excitation threshold of Li2+. Because of the high accuracy of our numerical method, we succeeded in determining a greatest number of these doubly-excited states below this threshold, including those lying very close to the threshold. Five of these high-lying doubly excited states were determined by us for the first time.

  3. Measurement of the spectra of doubly charged particles emitted in bombardment of lead nuclei by. cap alpha. particles with energy 3. 6 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Ad'yasevich, B.P.; Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Grigor'yan, Y.I.; Dukhanov, V.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Lebedev, A.L.; Man'ko, V.I.; Nikolaev, S.A.; Polunin, Y.P.; Tsvetkov, A.A.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the spectra of double charged particles emitted in interaction of 3.6 GeV/nucleon ..cap alpha.. particles with lead nuclei. Spectra were measured at emission angles from 10 to 95/sup 0/ in the range of secondary-particle velocities 0.37<..beta..<0.55. Angular distributions were obtained, the total cross section for emission of doubly charged particles was evaluated, and the ratios of the contributions of doubly and singly charged particles were determined. The rapidity distributions of the invariant cross sections for production of doubly charged particles reveal maxima at a rapidity yroughly-equal0.15--0.20.

  4. Probability of the two-electron mechanism of the formation of doubly charged barium ions as a function of laser radiation intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, I. I. Suran, V. V.; Bondar, D. I.

    2013-06-15

    The formation of singly and doubly charged ions upon nonlinear ionization of barium atoms is studied as a function of the frequency and intensity of a 8800-8920-cm{sup -1} IR color center laser. Barium atoms are ionized via the four-photon resonance with the strongly perturbed bound 6p{sup 21}D{sub 2} state. Doubly charged barium ions are produced by a two-electron mechanism. It is found that the probability of the formation of doubly charged ions under these conditions linearly depends on the laser radiation intensity.

  5. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... milliliters (mL) of 0.02 percent or 10 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily, then swallow. When the water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily. (b) The labeling for products marketed to health to...

  6. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milliliters (mL) of 0.02 percent or 10 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily, then swallow. When the water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily. (b) The labeling for products marketed to health to...

  7. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... milliliters (mL) of 0.02 percent or 10 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily, then swallow. When the water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily. (b) The labeling for products marketed to health to...

  8. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milliliters (mL) of 0.02 percent or 10 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily, then swallow. When the water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily. (b) The labeling for products marketed to health to...

  9. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... milliliters (mL) of 0.02 percent or 10 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily, then swallow. When the water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of 0.01 percent fluoride ion rinse daily. (b) The labeling for products marketed to health to...

  10. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  11. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  12. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  13. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  14. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  15. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must...) If installation instructions are included on the label or with the package, add this statement:...

  16. Energy and water flux during terrestrial estivation and overland movement in a freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Roe, John H; Georges, Arthur; Green, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method for studying energy and water balance in field-active animals is not feasible for freshwater animals during aquatic activities, but several species of nominally aquatic reptiles leave wetlands for several critical and extended behaviors, where they face challenges to their energy and water balance. Using DLW, we studied energy and water relations during terrestrial estivation and movements in the eastern long-necked turtle (Chelodina longicollis), a species that inhabits temporary wetlands in southeastern Australia. Water efflux rates of 14.3-19.3 mL (kg d)(-1 ) during estivation were nearly offset by influx, indicating that turtles did not maintain water balance while terrestrial, though dehydration was slow. Estivation energy expenditure declined over time to 20.0-24.6 kJ (kg d)(-1) but did not indicate substantial physiological specializations. Energy reserves are predicted to limit survival in estivation to an estimated 49-261 d (depending on body fat), which is in close agreement with observed bouts of natural estivation in this population. The energy cost and water flux rates associated with overland movement behavior ranged from 46 to 99 kJ (kg d)(-1 ) and from 21.6 to 40.6 mL (kg d)(-1), respectively, for turtles moving 23-34 m d(-1). When a wetland dries, a turtle that forgoes movement to other wetlands can save sufficient energy to fuel up to 134 d in estivation. The increasing time in estivation with travel distance gained in this energy "trade-off" fits our previous observations that more turtles estivate when longer distances must be traveled to the nearest permanent lake, whereas emigration is nearly universal when only short distances must be traversed. The DLW method shows promise for addressing questions regarding the behavioral ecology and physiology of freshwater turtles in terrestrial situations, though validation studies are needed. PMID:18717626

  17. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  18. 9 CFR 412.1 - Label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Jan. 6, 2014) § 412.1 Label approval. (a) No final label may be used on any product unless the label... for a corporation may submit only one label application for a product produced in other establishments...) The proposed label would not misrepresent the product; (ii) The use of the label would not present...

  19. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  20. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  1. A convenient and efficient purification method for chemically labeled oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jihee; Kang, Junhee; Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Younggyu

    2013-05-01

    We developed an efficient, cost-effective, and rapid purification method for chemically-labeled oligonucleotides that requires less time than conventional procedures such as ethanol precipitation or size-exclusion chromatography. Based on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of DNA and amine-reactive fluorophores, we show that n-butanol saturated with distilled water may be used to remove unreacted fluorophores by sequestering them in the organic phase, while labeled DNA remains in the aqueous phase. This phase extraction method is simple, fast, and allows for processing multiple samples simultaneously, a necessity for high-throughput labeling strategies. PMID:23662899

  2. 33 CFR 181.13 - Removal of labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of labels. 181.13 Section 181.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.13 Removal...

  3. 33 CFR 181.13 - Removal of labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of labels. 181.13 Section 181.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.13 Removal...

  4. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Syahir, Amir; Usui, Kenji; Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Kajikawa, Kotaro; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano-biological events.

  5. Label scrambling during CID of covalently labeled peptide ions.

    PubMed

    Borotto, Nicholas B; Degraan-Weber, Nicholas; Zhou, Yuping; Vachet, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Covalent labeling along with mass spectrometry is finding more use as a means of studying the higher order structure of proteins and protein complexes. Diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) is an increasingly used reagent for these labeling experiments because it is capable of modifying multiple residues at the same time. Pinpointing DEPC-labeled sites on proteins is typically needed to obtain more resolved structural information, and tandem mass spectrometry after protein proteolysis is often used for this purpose. In this work, we demonstrate that in certain instances, scrambling of the DEPC label from one residue to another can occur during collision-induced dissociation (CID) of labeled peptide ions, resulting in ambiguity in label site identity. From a preliminary study of over 30 labeled peptides, we find that scrambling occurs in about 25% of the peptides and most commonly occurs when histidine residues are labeled. Moreover, this scrambling appears to occur more readily under non-mobile proton conditions, meaning that low charge-state peptide ions are more prone to this reaction. For all peptides, we find that scrambling does not occur during electron transfer dissociation, which suggests that this dissociation technique is a safe alternative to CID for correct label site identification. PMID:25056863

  6. Quantifying the causal effects of 20mph zones on road casualties in London via doubly robust estimation.

    PubMed

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of 20mph zones on road casualties in London. Potential confounders in the key relationship of interest are included within outcome regression and propensity score models, and the models are then combined to form a doubly robust estimator. A total of 234 treated zones and 2844 potential control zones are included in the data sample. The propensity score model is used to select a viable control group which has common support in the covariate distributions. We compare the doubly robust estimates with those obtained using three other methods: inverse probability weighting, regression adjustment, and propensity score matching. The results indicate that 20mph zones have had a significant causal impact on road casualty reduction in both absolute and proportional terms. PMID:27173361

  7. A Study on Segmented Multiple-Step Forming of Doubly Curved Thick Plate by Reconfigurable Multi-Punch Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Ho; Han, Myoung Soo; Han, Jong Man

    2007-05-17

    Doubly curved thick plate forming in shipbuilding industries is currently performed by a thermal forming process, called as Line Heating by using gas flame torches. Due to the empirical manual work of it, the industries are eager for an alternative way to manufacture curved thick plates for ships. It was envisaged in this study to manufacture doubly curved thick plates by the multi-punch die forming. Experiments and finite element analyses were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the reconfigurable discrete die forming to the thick plates. Single and segmented multiple step forming procedures were considered from both forming efficiency and accuracy. Configuration of the multi-punch dies suitable for the segmented multiple step forming was also explored. As a result, Segmented multiple step forming with matched dies had a limited formability when the objective shapes become complicate, while a unmatched die configuration provided better possibility to manufacture large curved plates for ships.

  8. The Rotational Spectrum of Singly and Doubly 13C-SUBSTITUTED Dimethylether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerber, Monika; Endres, Christian P.; Lewen, Frank; Giesen, Thomas F.; Schlemmer, Stephan; Pohl, Roland; Klein, Axel

    2010-06-01

    Dimethylether (DME) is a nearly prolate asymmetric top with two internal rotors (methyl groups) which undergo periodic large amplitude motions and show a complicated torsional splitting of each rotational energy level. Due to its complex spectrum and its high abundance in hot cores such as Orion KL or Sagittarius B2 at temperatures exceeding 100 K, DME is very prominent in astronomical line surveys and contributes to spectral line confusion of such sources. The interpretation of astronomical observations therefore depends on the knowledge of accurate rest frequencies and reliable intensities. Precise predictions for the ground state of DME's main isotopologue are now available up to 2.1 THz In contrast, very little is known about 13C-substituted DME. Only a few data are available on singly 13C-substituted DME, 12CH_3O13CH_3. However, no data are available on doubly 13C-substituted DME, (13CH_3)_2O, yet. While in (13CH_3)_2O the two internal rotating methyl groups are equivalent and the splitting of rotational energy levels into four substates is comparable to the main isotopologue, singly 13C-substituted DME has two non-equivalent internal rotors resulting in torsional splitting of rotational energy levels into five substates. The purpose of our new laboratory measurements is to extend the knowledge on the astrophysically relevant species 12CH_3O13CH_3. To analyze the complicated spectrum resulting from a 13C-enriched sample of DME, containing all different 13C-substituted species as well as the main isotopologue, also precise data on doubly 13C-substituted DME are inevitable. We performed measurements in the frequency region 35-120 GHz using an all solid state spectrometer. Rotational as well as torsional parameters have been obtained for (13CH_3)_2O as well as 12CH_3O13CH_3 by fitting the assigned transitions to an effective rotational Hamiltonian introduced by Peter Groner. C. Comito et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 156, 127-167 (2005) C. P. Endres et al

  9. Static and dynamic Fourier analysis of finite cross-ply doubly curved panels using classical shallow shell theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Reaz A.; Kabir, Humayun R. H.

    Analytical solutions to the boundary value problems of static response under transverse load and free vibration of a general cross-ply doubly curved panel of rectangular planform are presented. Four classical shallow shell theories are used in the formulation, which generates a system of one fourth-order and two second-order (in terms of the transverse displacement) partial differential equations with constant coefficients.

  10. Modular properties of doubly extended N = 4 superconformal algebras and their connection to rational torus models (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Jens Lyng; Taormina, Anne

    1991-05-01

    The doubly extended N = 4 superconformal algebra, which contains all conventional extended superconformal algebras, is analyzed when one of the central extensions is set to 1. The modular transformations of the characters are derived, the relation between the characters and those of the N = 2 minimal is clarified, and in the process it is shown how rather simple extensions of the algebra based on rational torus theories, give rise to finite dimensional representations of the modular group.

  11. Production of the doubly magic nucleus Sn100 in fusion and quasifission reactions via light particle and cluster emission channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2014-08-01

    The possibilities of production of the doubly magic nucleus Sn100 in complete fusion and quasifission reactions with stable and radioactive ion beams are investigated within a dinuclear system model. The excitation functions for production of the exotic nuclei 100-103Sn and 112,114Ba via xn, pxn, αxn, and 12,14Cxn emission channels are predicted for future experiments.

  12. Doubly-Resonant Fabry-Perot Cavity for Power Enhancement of Burst-Mode Picosecond Ultraviolet Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Abudureyimu, Reheman; Huang, Chunning; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We report on a first experimental demonstration of locking a doubly-resonant Fabry-Perot cavity to burst-mode picosecond ultraviolet (UV) pulses by using a temperature controlled dispersion compensation method. This technique will eventually enable the intra cavity power enhancement of burst-mode 402.5MHz/50ps UV laser pulses with a MW level peak power required for the laser assisted H- beam stripping experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  13. Lifetime measurements using the CLARA-PRISMA setup around the {sup 48}Ca doubly-magic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gadea, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Corradi, L.; De Angelis, G.; Fioretto, E.; Grodner, E.; Mason, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Mengoni, D.; Farnea, E.; Bazzacco, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Ur, C. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Lunardi, S.; Scarlassara, F.; Dewald, A.

    2008-11-11

    The lifetimes of the first excited states of nuclei around the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ca have been determined using a novel method that combines the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method with the CLARA-PRISMA spectrometers. This is the first time such a method is applied to measure lifetimes of neutron-rich nuclei populated via a multinucleon transfer reaction. This novel method and some preliminary results on lifetimes are presented.

  14. Simple rate equation model for hypothetical doubly stimulated emission of both photons and phonons in quantum-well lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kroemer, H.

    1981-06-15

    The dissipation processes by which electrons and holes lose energy after being trapped in quantum wells might, in a sufficiently heavily pumped quantum well laser, lead to the buildup of such a high phonon population that phonon-assisted laser action by doubly stimulated emission of photons and phonons acquires a higher gain than unassisted laser action. The resulting mode switching exhibits a pronounced hysteresis with pump rate, which should be a characteristic identifying feature of phonon-assisted laser action.

  15. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein-protein interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Benjamin J; Dzikovski, Boris G.; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of 6-fold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement affect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces. PMID:25828256

  16. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  17. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    The gas-phase reactivity of doubly-charged lanthanide cations, Ln2+ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), with alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) was studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The reaction products consisted of different combinations of doubly-charged organometallic ions?adducts or species formed via metal-ion-induced hydrogen, dihydrogen, alkyl, or alkane eliminations from the hydrocarbons?and singly-charged ions that resulted from electron, hydride, or methide transfers from the hydrocarbons to the metal ions. The only lanthanide cations capable of activating the hydrocarbons to form doubly-charged organometallic ions were La2+, Ce2+, Gd2+, and Tb2+, which have ground-state or low-lying d1 electronic configurations. Lu2+, with an accessible d1 electronic configuration but a rather high electron affinity, reacted only through transfer channels. The remaining Ln2+ reacted via transfer channels or adduct formation. The different accessibilities of d1 electronic configurations and the range of electron affinities of the Ln2+ cations allowed for a detailed analysis of the trends for metal(2+) reactivity and the conditions for occurrence of bond activation, adduct formation, and electron, hydride, and methide transfers.

  18. Coupled acoustic response of two-dimensional bounded and unbounded domains using doubly-asymptotic open boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, C.; Liu, L.; Song, Ch.

    2016-04-01

    A high-order doubly-asymptotic open boundary for modelling scalar wave propagation in two-dimensional unbounded media is presented. The proposed method is capable of handling domains with arbitrary geometry by using a circular boundary to divide these into near field and far field. The original doubly-asymptotic continued-fraction approach for the far field is improved by introducing additional factor coefficients. Additionally, low-order modes are approximated by singly-asymptotic expansions only to increase the robustness of the formulation. The scaled boundary finite element method is employed to model wave propagation in the near field. Here, the frequency-dependent impedance of bounded subdomains is also expanded into a series of continued fractions. Only three to four terms per wavelength are required to obtain accurate results. The continued-fraction solutions for the bounded domain and the proposed high-order doubly-asymptotic open boundary are expressed in the time-domain as coupled ordinary differential equations, which can be solved by standard time-stepping schemes. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method, as well as its advantage over existing singly-asymptotic open boundaries.

  19. Obtaining Hartree-Fock and density functional theory doubly excited states with Car-Parrinello density matrix search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wenkel; Isborn, Christine M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2009-11-01

    The calculation of doubly excited states is one of the major problems plaguing the modern day excited state workhorse methodology of linear response time dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and density function theory (TDDFT). We have previously shown that the use of a resonantly tuned field within real-time TDHF and TDDFT is able to simultaneously excite both the α and β electrons to achieve the two-electron excited states of minimal basis H2 and HeH+ [C. M. Isborn and X. Li, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 204107 (2008)]. We now extend this method to many electron systems with the use of our Car-Parrinello density matrix search (CP-DMS) with a first-principles fictitious mass method for wave function optimization [X. Li, C. L. Moss, W. Liang, and Y. Feng, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 234115 (2009)]. Real-time TDHF/TDDFT is used during the application of the laser field perturbation, driving the electron density toward the doubly excited state. The CP-DMS method then converges the density to the nearest stationary state. We present these stationary state doubly excited state energies and properties at the HF and DFT levels for H2, HeH+, lithium hydride, ethylene, and butadiene.

  20. Attosecond XUV absorption spectroscopy of doubly excited states in helium atoms dressed by a time-delayed femtosecond infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. Q.; Ye, D. F.; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas; Fu, L. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy of doubly excited states of helium atoms by solving the time-dependent two-electron Schrödinger equation numerically based on a one-dimensional model. The helium atoms are subjected to an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse and a time-delayed infrared (IR) few-cycle laser pulse. A superposition of doubly excited states populated by the XUV pulse is identified, which interferes with the direct ionization pathway leading to Fano resonance profiles in the photoabsorption spectrum. In the presence of an IR laser, however, the Fano line profiles are strongly modified: A shifting, splitting, and broadening of the original absorption lines is observed when the XUV attosecond pulse and infrared few-cycle laser pulse overlap in time, which is in good agreement with recent experimental results. At certain time delays, we observe symmetric Lorentz, inverted Fano profiles, and even negative absorption cross sections indicating that the XUV light can be amplified during the interaction with atoms. We further prove that the above pictures are general for different doubly excited states by suitably varying the frequency of the IR field to coherently couple the corresponding states.

  1. Intracavity KTP OPO pumped by a doubly Q-switched laser with AOM and a monolayer graphene saturable abosorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Jia; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao; Chu, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    An intracavity KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) pumped by a doubly Q-switched YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a monolayer graphene saturable absorber has been realized for the first time. The average output power, the pulse duration, single pulse energy and the peak power of signal light versus incident pump power have been measured. At an incident pump power of 11.7 W and an AOM repetition rate of 10 kHz, the shortest pulse duration of 1.24 ns was obtained, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 9.5 μJ and a peak power of 7.9 kW. In comparison, the doubly IOPO (DIOPO) pumped by doubly Q-switched laser with AOM and graphene saturable absorber can generate pulses with narrower pulse width and higher peak power than the singly IOPO (SIOPO) pumped only by AOM Q-switched laser.

  2. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... limited types of labels (e.g., labels for raw, single ingredient meat and poultry products) (48 FR 11410... poultry products will take effect January 1, 2012 (75 FR 82148, Dec. 29, 2010). These mandatory features... Agency. On March 25, 1992, FSIS published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) (57 FR...

  3. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  4. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... the Agency (76 FR 75809). FSIS also proposed to combine the regulations that provide for the approval... preamble (76 FR 75814), FSIS wrote: . . . statements on labels that are defined in FSIS's regulations or... ``Product Labeling: Definition of the Term ``Natural'' and related materials (71 FR 70503, Dec. 5, 2006)...

  5. Structural Analysis and Mechanical Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid-Based Doubly Cross-Linked Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Amit K.; Hule, Rohan A.; Jiao, Tong; Teller, Sean S.; Clifton, Rodney J.; Duncan, Randall L.; Pochan, Darrin J.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2009-01-01

    We have created a new class of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel materials with HA hydrogel particles (HGPs) embedded in and covalently cross-linked to a secondary network. HA HGPs with an average diameter of ∼900 nm and narrow particle size distribution were synthesized using a refined reverse micelle polymerization technique. The average mesh size of the HGPs was estimated to be approximately 5.5 to 7.0 nm by a protein uptake experiment. Sodium periodate oxidation not only introduced aldehyde groups to the particles but also reduced the average particle size. The aldehyde groups generated were used as reactive handles for subsequent cross-linking with an HA derivative containing hydrazide groups. The resulting macroscopic gels contain two distinct hierarchical networks (doubly cross-linked networks, DXNs): one within individual particles and another among different particles. Bulk gels (BGs) formed by direct mixing of HA derivatives with mutually reactive groups were included for comparison. The hydrogel microstructures were collectively characterized by microscopy and neutron scattering techniques. Their viscoelasticity was quantified at low frequencies (0.1−10 Hz) using a controlled stress rheometer and at high frequencies (up to 200 Hz) with a home-built torsional wave apparatus. Both BGs and DXNs are stable elastic gels that become stiffer at higher frequencies. The HA-based DXN offers unique structural hierarchy and mechanical properties that are suitable for soft tissue regeneration. PMID:20046226

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Doubly 13C-substituted ethyl cyanide (Margules+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margules, L.; Belloche, A.; Muller, H. S. P.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Garrod, R. T.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-04-01

    We identified more than 5000 rotational transitions, pertaining to more than 3500 different transition frequencies, in the laboratory for each of the three doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers. The quantum numbers reach J~115 and Ka~35, resulting in accurate spectroscopic parameters and accurate rest frequency calculations beyond 1000 GHz for strong to moderately weak transitions of either isotopomer. All three species are unambiguously detected in our ALMA data. The 12C/13C column density ratio of the isotopomers with one 13C atom to those with two 13C atoms is about 25. Ethyl cyanide is the second molecule after methyl cyanide for which isotopologues containing two 13C atoms have been securely detected in the interstellar medium. The model of our ethyl cyanide data suggests that we should be able to detect vibrational satellites of the main species up to at least v19=1 at 1130K and up to v13+v21=2 at 600K for the isotopologues with one 13C atom in our present ALMA data. Such satellites may be too weak to be identified unambiguously for isotopologues with two 13C atoms. (3 data files).

  7. New Exotic Meson and Baryon Resonances from Doubly Heavy Hadronic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L

    2015-09-18

    We predict several new exotic doubly heavy hadronic resonances, inferring from the observed exotic bottomoniumlike and charmoniumlike narrow states X(3872), Z_{b}(10610), Z_{b}(10650), Z_{c}(3900), and Z_{c}(4020/4025). We interpret the binding mechanism as mostly molecularlike isospin-exchange attraction between two heavy-light mesons in a relative S-wave state. We then generalize it to other systems containing two heavy hadrons which can couple through isospin exchange. The new predicted states include resonances in meson-meson, meson-baryon, baryon-baryon, and baryon-antibaryon channels. These include those giving rise to final states involving a heavy quark Q=c,b and antiquark Q[over ¯]^{'}=c[over ¯],b[over ¯], namely, DD[over ¯]^{*}, D^{*}D[over ¯]^{*}, D^{*}B^{*}, B[over ¯]B^{*}, B[over ¯]^{*}B^{*}, Σ_{c}D[over ¯]^{*}, Σ_{c}B^{*}, Σ_{b}D[over ¯]^{*}, Σ_{b}B^{*}, Σ_{c}Σ[over ¯]_{c}, Σ_{c}Λ[over ¯]_{c}, Σ_{c}Λ[over ¯]_{b}, Σ_{b}Σ[over ¯]_{b}, Σ_{b}Λ[over ¯]_{b}, and Σ_{b}Λ[over ¯]_{c}, as well as corresponding S-wave states giving rise to QQ^{'} or Q[over ¯]Q[over ¯]^{'}. PMID:26430989

  8. Study of Low Voltage Ride Through Performance for Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirawata, Ryoya; Kai, Takaaki

    Recently, the introduction of wind power generation is increasing rapidly. The ratio of wind power generation to the capacity of a total generation is getting higher and higher. When the phase-to-phase fault occurs in the power system, the frequency of power system is lower due to disconnecting of the wind power generation with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Therefore, the power system might become unstable. This paper describes the LVRT (low voltage ride through) performance improvement scheme of the wind power generation with DFIG. The wind power generation is disconnected from the grid in case of the power system fault. It is independently in operation from the grid by controlling of the inverter equipped in the generation. After clearance of the power system fault, the wind power generation is immediately re-connected to the grid. As a result, instability in the power system disappears. The performance of LVRT is confirmed by using simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation result shows an excellent result to the three-phase short-circuit fault of the voltage dip 100%.

  9. Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction wave functions.

    PubMed

    Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick

    2015-09-14

    A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) wave functions and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting wave functions is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction wave functions, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact wave function. Due to the dependence of DOCI wave functions on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based wave functions are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation. PMID:26374017

  10. Fully Coupled Channel Approach to Doubly Strange s-Shell Hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nemura, H.; Shinmura, S.; Akaishi, Y.; Myint, Khin Swe

    2005-05-27

    We describe ab initio calculations of doubly strange, S=-2, s-shell hypernuclei ({sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H, {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 5}H, {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 5}He, and {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 6}He) as a first attempt to explore the few-body problem of the full-coupled channel scheme for these systems. The wave function includes {lambda}{lambda}, {lambda}{sigma}, N{xi}, and {sigma}{sigma} channels. Minnesota NN, D2{sup '} YN, and simulated YY potentials based on the Nijmegen hard-core model are used. Bound-state solutions of these systems are obtained. We find that a set of phenomenological B{sub 8}B{sub 8} interactions among the octet baryons in S=0,-1, and -2 sectors, which is consistent with all of the available experimental binding energies of S=0,-1, and -2 s-shell (hyper)nuclei, can predict a particle stable bound state of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H. For {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 5}H and {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 5}He, {lambda}N-{sigma}N and {xi}N-{lambda}{sigma} potentials significantly affect the net {lambda}{lambda}-N{xi} coupling, and a large {xi} probability is obtained even for a weaker {lambda}{lambda}-N{xi} potential.

  11. Presence of two mitochondrial genomes in the mytilid Perumytilus purpuratus: Phylogenetic evidence for doubly uniparental inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Jaime; Pérez, Montse; Toro, Jorge; Astorga, Marcela P.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents evidence, using sequences of ribosomal 16S and COI mtDNA, for the presence of two mitochondrial genomes in Perumytilus purpuratus. This may be considered evidence of doubly uniparental mtDNA inheritance. The presence of the two types of mitochondrial genomes differentiates females from males. The F genome was found in the somatic and gonadal tissues of females and in the somatic tissues of males; the M genome was found in the gonads and mantle of males only. For the mitochondrial 16S region, ten haplotypes were found for the F genome (nucleotide diversity 0.004), and 7 haplotypes for the M genome (nucleotide diversity 0.001), with a distance Dxy of 0.125 and divergence Kxy of 60.33%. For the COI gene 17 haplotypes were found for the F genome (nucleotide diversity 0.009), and 10 haplotypes for the M genome (nucleotide diversity 0.010), with a genetic distance Dxy of 0.184 and divergence Kxy of 99.97%. Our results report the presence of two well-differentiated, sex-specific types of mitochondrial genome (one present in the male gonad, the other in the female gonad), implying the presence of DUI in P. purpuratus. These results indicate that care must be taken in phylogenetic comparisons using mtDNA sequences of P. purpuratus without considering the sex of the individuals. PMID:26273220

  12. Presence of two mitochondrial genomes in the mytilid Perumytilus purpuratus: Phylogenetic evidence for doubly uniparental inheritance.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jaime; Pérez, Montse; Toro, Jorge; Astorga, Marcela P

    2015-05-01

    This study presents evidence, using sequences of ribosomal 16S and COI mtDNA, for the presence of two mitochondrial genomes in Perumytilus purpuratus. This may be considered evidence of doubly uniparental mtDNA inheritance. The presence of the two types of mitochondrial genomes differentiates females from males. The F genome was found in the somatic and gonadal tissues of females and in the somatic tissues of males; the M genome was found in the gonads and mantle of males only. For the mitochondrial 16S region, ten haplotypes were found for the F genome (nucleotide diversity 0.004), and 7 haplotypes for the M genome (nucleotide diversity 0.001), with a distance Dxy of 0.125 and divergence Kxy of 60.33%. For the COI gene 17 haplotypes were found for the F genome (nucleotide diversity 0.009), and 10 haplotypes for the M genome (nucleotide diversity 0.010), with a genetic distance Dxy of 0.184 and divergence Kxy of 99.97%. Our results report the presence of two well-differentiated, sex-specific types of mitochondrial genome (one present in the male gonad, the other in the female gonad), implying the presence of DUI in P. purpuratus. These results indicate that care must be taken in phylogenetic comparisons using mtDNA sequences of P. purpuratus without considering the sex of the individuals. PMID:26273220

  13. Propensity score and doubly robust methods for estimating the effect of treatment on censored cost.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaqi; Handorf, Elizabeth; Bekelman, Justin; Mitra, Nandita

    2016-05-30

    The estimation of treatment effects on medical costs is complicated by the need to account for informative censoring, skewness, and the effects of confounders. Because medical costs are often collected from observational claims data, we investigate propensity score (PS) methods such as covariate adjustment, stratification, and inverse probability weighting taking into account informative censoring of the cost outcome. We compare these more commonly used methods with doubly robust (DR) estimation. We then use a machine learning approach called super learner (SL) to choose among conventional cost models to estimate regression parameters in the DR approach and to choose among various model specifications for PS estimation. Our simulation studies show that when the PS model is correctly specified, weighting and DR perform well. When the PS model is misspecified, the combined approach of DR with SL can still provide unbiased estimates. SL is especially useful when the underlying cost distribution comes from a mixture of different distributions or when the true PS model is unknown. We apply these approaches to a cost analysis of two bladder cancer treatments, cystectomy versus bladder preservation therapy, using SEER-Medicare data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26678242

  14. Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R.; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) wave functions and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting wave functions is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction wave functions, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact wave function. Due to the dependence of DOCI wave functions on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based wave functions are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation.

  15. Measurement of (d,p) reactions near the doubly-magic ^132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Steven

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of (d,p) reactions on n-rich fission fragments yield important information on nuclear structure away from stability, and are of astrophysical interest due to the proximity to suggested r-process paths. The energies, spins and spectroscopic information of single-particle states near to shell closures are of particular importance, since they provide both an important constraint on nuclear structure models and are directly relevant to direct neutron-capture cross sections. The development of re-accelerated fission fragment beams at the HRIBF at ORNL has, for the first time, made possible the measurement of (d,p) reactions at the Coulomb barrier on nuclei around the doubly-magic ^132Sn nucleus. The ^130Sn(d,p)^131Sn, ^132Sn(d,p)^133Sn and ^ 134Te(d,p)^135Te reactions have been measured at the HRIBF at around 4.5 MeV/A utilizing deuterated plastic targets. Proton ejectiles were detected forward and backwards of θlab = 90^o using an early implementation of the Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) in conjunction with the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). Details of the experiments and the data analysis, including excitation energies and angular distributions for the states populated, will be presented. *This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  16. Structural Analysis and Mechanical Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid-Based Doubly Cross-Linked Networks.

    PubMed

    Jha, Amit K; Hule, Rohan A; Jiao, Tong; Teller, Sean S; Clifton, Rodney J; Duncan, Randall L; Pochan, Darrin J; Jia, Xinqiao

    2009-01-01

    We have created a new class of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel materials with HA hydrogel particles (HGPs) embedded in and covalently cross-linked to a secondary network. HA HGPs with an average diameter of ∼900 nm and narrow particle size distribution were synthesized using a refined reverse micelle polymerization technique. The average mesh size of the HGPs was estimated to be approximately 5.5 to 7.0 nm by a protein uptake experiment. Sodium periodate oxidation not only introduced aldehyde groups to the particles but also reduced the average particle size. The aldehyde groups generated were used as reactive handles for subsequent cross-linking with an HA derivative containing hydrazide groups. The resulting macroscopic gels contain two distinct hierarchical networks (doubly cross-linked networks, DXNs): one within individual particles and another among different particles. Bulk gels (BGs) formed by direct mixing of HA derivatives with mutually reactive groups were included for comparison. The hydrogel microstructures were collectively characterized by microscopy and neutron scattering techniques. Their viscoelasticity was quantified at low frequencies (0.1-10 Hz) using a controlled stress rheometer and at high frequencies (up to 200 Hz) with a home-built torsional wave apparatus. Both BGs and DXNs are stable elastic gels that become stiffer at higher frequencies. The HA-based DXN offers unique structural hierarchy and mechanical properties that are suitable for soft tissue regeneration. PMID:20046226

  17. Young's Modulus, Residual Stress, and Crystal Orientation of Doubly Clamped Silicon Nanowire Beams.

    PubMed

    Calahorra, Y; Shtempluck, O; Kotchetkov, V; Yaish, Y E

    2015-05-13

    Initial or residual stress plays an important role in nanoelectronics. Valley degeneracy in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is partially lifted due to built-in stresses, and consequently, electron-phonon scattering rate is reduced and device mobility and performance are improved. In this study we use a nonlinear model describing the force-deflection relationship to extract the Young's modulus, the residual stress, and the crystallographic growth orientation of SiNW beams. Measurements were performed on suspended doubly clamped SiNWs subjected to atomic force microscopy (AFM) three-point bending constraints. The nanowires comprised different growth directions and two SiO2 sheath thicknesses, and underwent different rapid thermal annealing processes. Analysis showed that rapid thermal annealing introduces compressive strains into the SiNWs and may result in buckling of the SiNWs. Furthermore, the core-shell model together with the residual stress analysis accurately describe the Young's modulus of oxide covered SiNWs and the crystal orientation of the measured nanowires. PMID:25826449

  18. Discovery of Four Doubly Imaged Quasar Lenses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Rusu, Cristian E.; Kayo, Issha; Morokuma, Tomoki

    2014-06-01

    We report the discovery of four doubly imaged quasar lenses. All the four systems are selected as lensed quasar candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. We confirm their lensing hypothesis with additional imaging and spectroscopic follow-up observations. The discovered lenses are SDSS J0743+2457 with the source redshift zs = 2.165, the lens redshift zl = 0.381, and the image separation θ = 1.''034, SDSS J1128+2402 with zs = 1.608 and θ = 0.''844, SDSS J1405+0959 with zs = 1.810, zl ≈ 0.66, and θ = 1.''978, and SDSS J1515+1511 with zs = 2.054, zl = 0.742, and θ = 1.''989. It is difficult to estimate the lens redshift of SDSS J1128+2402 from the current data. Two of the four systems (SDSS J1405+0959 and SDSS J1515+1511) are included in our final statistical lens sample to derive constraints on dark energy and the evolution of massive galaxies.

  19. Ab initio approach to effective single-particle energies in doubly closed shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguet, T.; Hagen, G.

    2012-03-01

    The present work discusses, from an ab initio standpoint, the definition, the meaning, and the usefulness of effective single-particle energies (ESPEs) in doubly closed shell nuclei. We perform coupled-cluster calculations to quantify to what extent selected closed-shell nuclei in the oxygen and calcium isotopic chains can effectively be mapped onto an effective independent-particle picture. To do so, we revisit in detail the notion of ESPEs in the context of strongly correlated many-nucleon systems and illustrate the necessity of extracting ESPEs through the diagonalization of the centroid matrix, as originally argued by Baranger. For the purpose of illustration, we analyze the impact of correlations on observable one-nucleon separation energies and nonobservable ESPEs in selected closed-shell oxygen and calcium isotopes. We then state and illustrate the nonobservability of ESPEs. Similarly to spectroscopic factors, ESPEs can indeed be modified by a redefinition of inaccessible quantities while leaving actual observables unchanged. This leads to the absolute necessity of employing consistent structure and reaction models based on the same nuclear Hamiltonian to extract the shell structure in a meaningful fashion from experimental data.

  20. Discovery of four doubly imaged quasar lenses from the Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Rusu, Cristian E.; Kayo, Issha; Morokuma, Tomoki

    2014-06-01

    We report the discovery of four doubly imaged quasar lenses. All the four systems are selected as lensed quasar candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. We confirm their lensing hypothesis with additional imaging and spectroscopic follow-up observations. The discovered lenses are SDSS J0743+2457 with the source redshift z{sub s} = 2.165, the lens redshift z{sub l} = 0.381, and the image separation θ = 1.''034, SDSS J1128+2402 with z{sub s} = 1.608 and θ = 0.''844, SDSS J1405+0959 with z{sub s} = 1.810, z{sub l} ≈ 0.66, and θ = 1.''978, and SDSS J1515+1511 with z{sub s} = 2.054, z{sub l} = 0.742, and θ = 1.''989. It is difficult to estimate the lens redshift of SDSS J1128+2402 from the current data. Two of the four systems (SDSS J1405+0959 and SDSS J1515+1511) are included in our final statistical lens sample to derive constraints on dark energy and the evolution of massive galaxies.

  1. Natural and sail-displaced doubly-symmetric Lagrange point orbits for polar coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R.

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes the use of doubly-symmetric, eight-shaped orbits in the circular restricted three-body problem for continuous coverage of the high-latitude regions of the Earth. These orbits, for a range of amplitudes, spend a large fraction of their period above either pole of the Earth. It is shown that they complement Sun-synchronous polar and highly eccentric Molniya orbits, and present a possible alternative to low thrust pole-sitter orbits. Both natural and solar-sail displaced orbits are considered. Continuation methods are described and used to generate families of these orbits. Starting from ballistic orbits, other families are created either by increasing the sail lightness number, varying the period or changing the sail attitude. Some representative orbits are then chosen to demonstrate the visibility of high-latitude regions throughout the year. A stability analysis is also performed, revealing that the orbits are unstable: it is found that for particular orbits, a solar sail can reduce their instability. A preliminary design of a linear quadratic regulator is presented as a solution to stabilize the system by using the solar sail only. Finally, invariant manifolds are exploited to identify orbits that present the opportunity of a ballistic transfer directly from low Earth orbit.

  2. Room temperature, very sensitive thermometer using a doubly clamped microelectromechanical beam resonator for bolometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Hosono, S.; Nagai, N.; Hirakawa, K.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a room temperature, all electrical driving and detecting, very sensitive thermometer structure using a microelectromechanical (MEMS) resonator for bolometer applications. We have fabricated a GaAs doubly clamped MEMS beam resonator whose oscillation can be excited and detected by the piezoelectric effect. When a heating power is applied to a NiCr film deposited on the MEMS beam surface, internal thermal stress is generated in the beam, leading to a reduction in the resonance frequency. The present device detects the shift in the resonance frequency caused by heating and works as a very sensitive thermometer. When the resonator was driven by a voltage slightly below the threshold for the nonlinear, hysteretic oscillation, the thermometer showed a voltage responsivity of about 3300 V/W, while keeping a low noise spectral density of about 60 nV/Hz1/2, demonstrating a noise equivalent power of <20 pW/Hz1/2 even at room temperature. The observed effect can be used for realizing high-sensitivity terahertz bolometers for room-temperature operation.

  3. Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, L.; Jiménez-Galán, Á.; Marante, C.; Ott, C.; Pfeifer, T.; Martín, F.

    2015-06-01

    Strong-field manipulation of autoionizing states is a crucial aspect of electronic quantum control. Recent measurements of the attosecond transient absorption spectrum (ATAS) of helium dressed by a few-cycle visible pulse [C. Ott et al., Nature (London) 516, 374 (2014), 10.1038/nature14026] provide evidence of the inversion of Fano profiles. With the support of accurate ab initio calculations that reproduce the results of the latter experiment, here we investigate the new physics that arise from ATAS when the laser intensity is increased. In particular, we show that (i) previously unnoticed signatures of the dark 2 p21S doubly excited state are observed in the experimental spectrum, (ii) inversion of Fano profiles is predicted to be periodic in the laser intensity, and (iii) the ac Stark shift of the higher terms in the s p2,n + autoionizing series exceeds the ponderomotive energy, which is the result of a genuine two-electron contribution to the polarization of the excited atom.

  4. 20 {mu}s isomeric state in doubly odd {sub 61}{sup 134}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R; Rigby, S. V.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Scholey, C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Maentyniemi, K.; Nieminen, P.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.

    2009-08-15

    Recoil-isomer tagging at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae has been used to establish the isomeric nature of a known (7{sup -}) excited state in the doubly odd nucleus {sup 134}Pm. The isomeric state was determined to have a half-life of 20(1) {mu}s and was populated from the decay of a {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} band using the {sup 92}Mo({sup 54}Fe,2{alpha}3pn) reaction at 305 and 315 MeV. The isomer decays by a 71-keV transition that provides an intermediate step in linking the established {sup 134}Pm high-spin level scheme to the lower-spin states observed from the {beta} decay of {sup 134}Sm. Electron-conversion analysis for the 71-keV {gamma}-ray transition reveals that it is of E1 character and its small reduced-transition probability suggests that {sup 134}Pm may have a nuclear shape more rigid than that of the neighboring nuclei.

  5. Microwave measurements of the tropolone-formic acid doubly hydrogen bonded dimer.

    PubMed

    Pejlovas, Aaron M; Serrato, Agapito; Lin, Wei; Kukolich, Stephen G

    2016-01-28

    The microwave spectrum was measured for the doubly hydrogen bonded dimer formed between tropolone and formic acid. The predicted symmetry of this dimer was C2v(M), and it was expected that the concerted proton tunneling motion would be observed. After measuring 25 a- and b-type rotational transitions, no splittings which could be associated with a concerted double proton tunneling motion were observed. The calculated barrier to the proton tunneling motion is near 15,000 cm(-1), which would likely make the tunneling frequencies too small to observe in the microwave spectra. The rotational and centrifugal distortion constants determined from the measured transitions were A = 2180.7186(98) MHz, B = 470.873 90(25) MHz, C = 387.689 84(22) MHz, DJ = 0.0100(14) kHz, DJK = 0.102(28) kHz, and DK = 13.2(81) kHz. The B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ calculated rotational constants were within 1% of the experimentally determined values. PMID:26827216

  6. Microwave measurements of the tropolone-formic acid doubly hydrogen bonded dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Serrato, Agapito; Lin, Wei; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    The microwave spectrum was measured for the doubly hydrogen bonded dimer formed between tropolone and formic acid. The predicted symmetry of this dimer was C2v(M), and it was expected that the concerted proton tunneling motion would be observed. After measuring 25 a- and b-type rotational transitions, no splittings which could be associated with a concerted double proton tunneling motion were observed. The calculated barrier to the proton tunneling motion is near 15 000 cm-1, which would likely make the tunneling frequencies too small to observe in the microwave spectra. The rotational and centrifugal distortion constants determined from the measured transitions were A = 2180.7186(98) MHz, B = 470.873 90(25) MHz, C = 387.689 84(22) MHz, DJ = 0.0100(14) kHz, DJK = 0.102(28) kHz, and DK = 13.2(81) kHz. The B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ calculated rotational constants were within 1% of the experimentally determined values.

  7. Rotational spectra and gas phase structure of the maleimide - Formic acid doubly hydrogen bonded dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2016-03-01

    Rotational transitions were measured for the maleimide - formic acid doubly hydrogen bonded dimer using a Flygare-Balle type pulsed-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. No splittings caused by possible concerted double proton tunneling motion were observed. Experimental rotational constants (MHz), quadrupole coupling constants (MHz), and centrifugal distortion constants (kHz) were determined for the parent and three deuterium substituted isotopologues. The values for the parent are A = 2415.0297(10), B = 784.37494(38), C = 592.44190(33), DJ = 0.0616(64), DJK = -0.118(35), DK = -1.38(15), 1.5χaa = 2.083(14), and 0.25(χbb-χcc) = 1.1565(29). The hydrogen bond lengths were determined using a nonlinear least squares structure fitting program. Rotational constants for this complex are consistent with a planar structure, with an inertial defect of Δ = -0.528 amu Å2. The B3LYP calculation yielded rotational constants within 0.1% of the experimental values.

  8. Nonlinear Control of the Doubly Fed Induction Motor with Copper Losses Minimization for Electrical Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drid, S.; Nait-Said, M.-S.; Tadjine, M.; Makouf, A.

    2008-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Recent efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric vehicles applications with minimal power losses. This paper deals with the high efficient vector control for the reduction of copper losses of the doubly fed motor. Firstly, the feedback linearization control based on Lyapunov approach is employed to design the underlying controller achieving the double fluxes orientation. The fluxes controllers are designed independently of the speed. The speed controller is designed using the Lyapunov method especially employed to the unknown load torques. The global asymptotic stability of the overall system is theoretically proven. Secondly, a new Torque Copper Losses Factor is proposed to deal with the problem of the machine copper losses. Its main function is to optimize the torque in keeping the machine saturation at an acceptable level. This leads to a reduction in machine currents and therefore their accompanied copper losses guaranteeing improved machine efficiency. The simulation results in comparative presentation confirm largely the effectiveness of the proposed DFIM control with a very interesting energy saving contribution.

  9. Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive x-ray lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengeler, B.; Tümmler, J.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.; Raven, C.

    1998-12-01

    Multiple refractive lenses with a focal length of 1 to 2 m are a new tool for focusing hard x rays to a spot size in the micrometer range. They may be used for microdiffraction, microfluorescence, and coherent imaging. The lenses may be focusing in one or two dimensions. In this article, we have calculated the transmission and the gain for linear lens arrays, for crossed linear arrays and for doubly focusing lenses with parabolic profile. It is essential to minimize the mass absorption coefficient μ/ρ by choosing low Z materials in order to optimize the transmission. The gain of the lenses can be as high as 5000 and more, i.e., the intensity in the focal spot can be 5000 times higher than that behind a pinhole of size equal to the spot size. In real lenses the gain is smaller and the focal spot is blurred by lens imperfections, by Compton scattering, and by small angle x-ray scattering (SAS). In the present investigation different low Z materials have been tested for SAS. Different linear and crossed linear lenses made of beryllium, boron nitride, pyrographite, plexiglass, polycarbonate, polyoxymethylene, Vespel, and aluminium have been tested for focal spot size, gain, and background. The maximum gain obtained up to now was 13. The focal spot size is slightly larger than the value expected from demagnification of the source size. Possibilities for improving the lens performance are discussed.

  10. Singly and Doubly Charmed $J=1/2$ Baryon Spectrum from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Liuming Liu; Lin, Huey-Wen; Orginos, Kostas; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2010-05-01

    We compute the masses of the singly and doubly charmed baryons in full QCD using the relativistic Fermilab action for the charm quark. For the light quarks we use domain-wall fermions in the valence sector and improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. We use the low-lying charmonium spectrum to tune our heavy-quark action and as a guide to understanding the discretization errors associated with the heavy quark. Our results are in good agreement with experiment within our systematicss, except for the spin-1/2 $\\Xi_{cc}$, for which we predict the isospin averaged mass to be $M_{\\Xi_{cc}} = 3665 \\pm17 \\pm14\\, {}^{+0}_{-35}$~{MeV} (here the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third an estimate of lattice discretization errors). In addition, we predict the splitting of the (isospin averaged) spin-1/2 $\\O_{cc}$ with the $\\Xi_{cc}$ to be $M_{\\O_{cc}} - M_{\\Xi_{cc}} = 98 \\pm9 \\pm22$~{MeV} (in this mass splitting, the leading discretization errors cancel). This corresponds to a prediction of $M_{\\O_{cc}} = 3763\\pm9\\pm44\\, {}^{+0}_{-35}$~{MeV}.

  11. Pathway-gene identification for pancreatic cancer survival via doubly regularized Cox regression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent global genomic analyses identified 69 gene sets and 12 core signaling pathways genetically altered in pancreatic cancer, which is a highly malignant disease. A comprehensive understanding of the genetic signatures and signaling pathways that are directly correlated to pancreatic cancer survival will help cancer researchers to develop effective multi-gene targeted, personalized therapies for the pancreatic cancer patients at different stages. A previous work that applied a LASSO penalized regression method, which only considered individual genetic effects, identified 12 genes associated with pancreatic cancer survival. Results In this work, we integrate pathway information into pancreatic cancer survival analysis. We introduce and apply a doubly regularized Cox regression model to identify both genes and signaling pathways related to pancreatic cancer survival. Conclusions Four signaling pathways, including Ion transport, immune phagocytosis, TGFβ (spermatogenesis), regulation of DNA-dependent transcription pathways, and 15 genes within the four pathways are identified and verified to be directly correlated to pancreatic cancer survival. Our findings can help cancer researchers design new strategies for the early detection and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24565114

  12. Criteria for using impulse approximation to obtain Compton scattering doubly differential cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2013-05-01

    We find that the criterion often used for predicting when impulse approximation (IA) theory yields accurate doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), namely / q <= 1 , where is the expectation value of the momentum distribution of the bound electron and q is the magnitude of the photon momentum transfer, which is much less restrictive than the assumptions on which IA theory is based ( / q << 1), is not generally dependable. We examine the IA error Δ, where Δ = (DDCSSM - DDCSRIA) / DDCSSM (DDCSSM and DDCSRIA are the peak magnitudes for S-matrix and relativistic IA derived DDCS respectively). One striking feature is that, for a given incident photon energy ωi and nuclear charge Z, Δ goes from negative to positive as the scattering angle θ increases. Further, when / q is held constant at a value less than unity, Δ changes sign at nearly the same θ for all Z. Therefore, when θ is large or small, / q << 1 is generally required in order for IA derived DDCS to be valid, while at intermediate θ, / q ~ 1 is typically sufficient, since Δ is small. The θ at which Δ changes sign increases as / q increases.

  13. Photodissociation investigation of doubly charged ethanol clusters induced by inner-shell electron ionization.

    PubMed

    Tamenori, Y; Okada, K; Tabayashi, K; Hiraya, A; Gejo, T; Honma, K

    2011-05-28

    Fragmentation of doubly charged ethanol clusters [(C(2)H(5)OH)(n)] following the O 1s ionization has been investigated by means of the photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence (PEPIPICO) method. The dominant fission channel of (C(2)H(5)OH)(n)(2+) was the formation of protonated cluster ion pairs [H(C(2)H(5)OH)(l)(+)/H(C(2)H(5)OH)(m)(+)]. The fragmentation mechanisms of these ion pairs were discussed based on the analysis of the PEPIPICO contour shape. It was clarified that the prominent fragmentation channel was a secondary decay mechanism, where neutral evaporation occurs after charge separation. On the other hand, the formation of small fragment ions was suppressed, excluding the formation of certain specific fragments (H(3)O(+), C(2)H(5)(+)/COH(+), and C(2)H(4)OH(+)). The formation of small fragment ions was suppressed due to the cooling effect caused by the neutral evaporation and the decrease in the electrostatic repulsive force caused by charge separation. PMID:21639435

  14. On the stability of Einstein static universe in doubly general relativity scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadi, M.; Heydarzade, Y.; Nozari, K.; Darabi, F.

    2015-12-01

    By presenting a relation between the average energy of the ensemble of probe photons and the energy density of the universe, in the context of gravity's rainbow or the doubly general relativity scenario, we introduce a rainbow FRW universe model. By analyzing the fixed points in the flat FRW model modified by two well-known rainbow functions, we find that the finite time singularity avoidance (i.e. Big Bang) may still remain as a problem. Then we follow the "emergent universe" scenario in which there is no beginning of time and consequently there is no Big-Bang singularity. Moreover, we study the impact of high energy quantum gravity modifications related to the gravity's rainbow on the stability conditions of an "Einstein static universe" (ESU). We find that independent of the particular rainbow function, the positive energy condition dictates a positive spatial curvature for the universe. In fact, without raising a nonphysical energy condition in the quantum gravity regimes, we can observe agreement between gravity's rainbow scenario and the basic assumption of the modern version of the "emergent universe". We show that in the absence and presence of an energy-dependent cosmological constant Λ (ɛ ), a stable Einstein static solution is available versus the homogeneous and linear scalar perturbations under the variety of the obtained conditions. Also, we explore the stability of ESU against the vector and tensor perturbations.

  15. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  16. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  17. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Standards and Labels: The Facts Labeling and Marketing Information [ Top of Page ] OVEN PREPARED: Product is fully cooked and ready to eat. [ Top of Page ] YOUNG TURKEY: Turkeys of either sex that are less than 8 months of age according to present regulations. [ Top of Page ] Last ...

  18. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  19. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content...

  20. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  1. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  2. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  3. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  4. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  5. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  6. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  7. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  8. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  9. Fluorescence anisotropy metrology of electrostatically and covalently labelled silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Philip; Karolin, Jan; Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    We compare determining the size of silica nanoparticles using the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay of dye molecules when electrostatically and covalently bound to stable silica nanoparticles. Covalent labelling is shown to offer advantages by simplifying the dye rotational kinetics and the appropriateness of various kinetic models is discussed. Silica nanoparticles produced using Stöber synthesis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) are found to be controllable between ˜3.1 and 3.8 nm radius by adjusting the relative water:TEOS concentration. Covalent labelling with fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (FITC-APS) predicts a larger particle than electrostatically labelling with rhodamine 6G. The difference is attributed to the presence of an additional depolarization mechanism to Brownian rotation of the nanoparticle and dye wobbling with electrostatic labelling in the form of dye diffusion on the surface of the nanoparticle.

  10. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  11. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  12. Isomers in three doubly odd Fr-At-Bi. alpha. -decay chains

    SciTech Connect

    Huyse, M.; Decrock, P.; Dendooven, P.; Reusen, G.; Van Duppen, P.; Wauters, J. )

    1992-10-01

    The {sup 206}Fr{r arrow}{sup 202}At{r arrow}{sup 198}Bi, {sup 204}Fr{r arrow}{sup 200}At{r arrow}{sup 196}Bi, and {sup 202}Fr{r arrow}{sup 198}At{r arrow}{sup 194}Bi {ital a}-decay chains have been studied by standard spectroscopic techniques using an on-line isotope separator. All the studied doubly odd isotopes have at least two isomers, which decay by a combination of the following decay modes: {ital a} emission, {beta}{sup +}/EC (electron capture) decay, and internal transition (IT). The internal transition, a highly retarded {ital E}3, is the {ital j}-forbidden transition between the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}){sub 10}{sup {minus}} and the ({pi}{ital h}{sub 9/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}){sub 7}{sup +} states. The {ital B}({ital E}3) values of these IT's together with their energy behavior as a function of the neutron and proton number, compared to the energy difference between the 13/2{sup +}({nu}{ital i}{sub 13/2}) and 5/2{sup {minus}}({nu}{ital f}{sub 5/2}) states in the odd-mass Pb isotones, indicate that these proton-neutron-coupled states have a rather pure shell-model character.

  13. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  14. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  15. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  16. 27 CFR 19.517 - Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... labels under an exemption from label approval. 19.517 Section 19.517 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Labeling Requirements § 19.517 Statements required on labels under an exemption from label approval. If a proprietor bottles spirits for domestic...

  17. Selective chemical labeling of proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Yao-Wen

    2016-06-28

    Over the years, there have been remarkable efforts in the development of selective protein labeling strategies. In this review, we deliver a comprehensive overview of the currently available bioorthogonal and chemoselective reactions. The ability to introduce bioorthogonal handles to proteins is essential to carry out bioorthogonal reactions for protein labeling in living systems. We therefore summarize the techniques that allow for site-specific "installation" of bioorthogonal handles into proteins. We also highlight the biological applications that have been achieved by selective chemical labeling of proteins. PMID:26940577

  18. MR tracking of SPIO-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in rats with liver fibrosis could not monitor the cells accurately.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Li, Dan; Qian, Jiesheng; Li, Zhengran; Pang, Pengfei; Shan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is effective in tracking superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats with liver fibrosis. SPIO-labeling-induced signal reduction on MR images was completely reversed within 15 days after transplantation. It is still unclear whether the signal changes in MR imaging could reflect the number of transplanted cells in the liver. In the present study, BMSCs of male rats were doubly labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and SPIO and injected intravascularly into female rats with liver fibrosis. At different time points after injection, MR imaging was performed. The distribution of SPIO particles and EGFP-positive cells was determined by Prussian blue staining and EGFP immunohistochemistry, respectively. The distribution of transplanted BMSCs in various organs was assessed by detection of the SRY gene using real-time quantitative PCR. At 15 days post transplantation, the numbers of transplanted cells were significantly decreased in the lung, kidney, spleen and muscle, but not liver and heart, in comparison with those at 7 days after transplantation. EGFP staining-positive cells were observed in the liver intralobular parenchyma, while Prussian blue staining was negative at 42 days after transplantation. Taken together, SPIO particles and EGFP-labeled BMSCs show a different tissue distribution pattern in rats with liver fibrosis after a long-term period of monitoring. SPIO-based MR imaging may not be suitable for long-term tracking of transplanted BMSCs in vivo. PMID:26153152

  19. Re-evaluation of interferences of doubly charged ions of heavy rare earth elements on Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Yang, Jin-Hui

    2014-07-01

    We re-evaluate the interference of doubly charged heavy rare earth elements during Sr isotopic analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). A series of mixed solutions of standard reference material SRM 987, rare earth elements, and Sr separated from rock reference materials are measured to assess the influence of isobaric interferences on the MC-ICP-MS analysis of Sr isotopes. After sample dissolution, conventional cation-exchange chromatography is employed for Sr purification of rock reference materials prior to MC-ICP-MS measurement. It has been demonstrated that if the natural abundances of Er and Yb are used to correct for doubly charged ion interferences on Sr, an overcorrection results. In contrast, the use of measured doubly charged ion ratios results in an accurate and precise correction of isobaric interference. This finding is confirmed by analytical results for several certified reference materials from mafic (basaltic) to felsic (granitic) silicate rocks. It is noteworthy that, because Er is more prone to doubly charged ion formation, it dominates over Yb doubly charged ions as an interference source.

  20. First Spectroscopic Studies and Detection in SgrB2 of 13C-DOUBLY Substitued Ethyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Belloche, Arnaud

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl cyanide (CH_3CH_2CN) is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium firstly detected in OMC-1 and Sgr B2 in 1977. The vibrationally excited states are enough populated under ISM conditions and could be detected. Apart from the deuterated ones, all mono-substituted isotopologues of ethyl cyanide (13C and 15N have been detected in the ISM. The detection of isotopologues in the ISM is important: it can give information about the formation process of complex organic molecules, and it is essential to clean the ISM spectra from the lines of known molecules in order to detect new ones. The 12C/13C ratio found in SgrB2: 20-30 suggests that the doubly 13C could be present in the spectral line survey recently obtained with ALMA (EMoCA), but no spectroscopic studies exist up to now. We measured and analyzed the spectra of the 13C-doubly-substitued species up to 1 THz with the Lille solid-state based spectrometer. The spectroscopic results and and the detection of the doubly 13C species in SgrB2 will be presented. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. This work was also done under ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS. Support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB 956, project B3 is acknowledged D.~R.~Johnson, et al., Astrophys.~J. 1977, 218, L370 A.~Belloche, et al., A&A 2013, 559, A47 A.M.~Daly, et al., Astrophys.~J. 2013, 768, 81 K.~Demyk, et al. A&A 2007 466, 255 Margulès, et al. A&A 2009, 493, 565 Belloche et al. 2014, Science, 345, 1584

  1. Hydrogen Bond-Assisted Supramolecular Self-Assembly of Doubly Discotic Supermolecules Based on Porphyrin and Triphenylene

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, J.; Zhu, L

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding is a powerful driving force for the supramolecular self-assembly of discotic mesogens, and molecular shape also plays an important role in such systems. To study these effects, doubly discotic supermolecules have been synthesized by linking a meso-tetraphenylporphine-4,4{prime},4{double_prime},4(triple prime)-tetracarboxylic acid (Py) core with four triphenylenes (Tp) arms via either amide or ester bonds. The spacer length between the Py core and Tp disks was C6 and C10, and the alkyl arm length in the Tp disks was C5 and C12, respectively. Compared to the ester-linked Py(Tp){sub 4} supermolecules, the amide-linked samples exhibited rich crystalline and liquid-crystalline phases, suggesting that the intracolumnar hydrogen-bonding among trans amide bonds was the primary driving force for the self-assembly. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to understand the supramolecular self-assembly of the amide-linked Py(Tp){sub 4} doubly discotic supermolecules. When the spacer length was no shorter than or similar to the triphenylene alkyl arm length, a rectangular boardlike molecular shape was adopted and thus lamellar structures were obtained. When the spacer length was much shorter than the triphenylene alkyl arms, an ellipsoidal overall molecular shape resulted, and thus a regular columnar phase was obtained. From this study, we speculated that hydrogen-bond-induced microphase separation between moieties with different electron affinities in doubly discotic supermolecules may be useful for the practical applications of organic electronics.

  2. Radiative rates for forbidden M1 and E2 transitions of astrophysical interest in doubly ionized iron-peak elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivet, V.; Quinet, P.; Bautista, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly ionized Fe-peak species (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) are of paramount importance for analyzing the high-resolution astrophysical spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources, such as Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula and stars like Eta Carinae. However, forbidden M1 and E2 transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly charged iron-peak ions have been investigated very little so far, and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or nonexistent. We attempt to fill that gap and provide transition probabilities for the most important forbidden lines of all doubly ionized iron-peak elements. Methods: We carried out a systematic study of the electronic structure of doubly ionized Fe-peak species. The magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities were computed using the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Amaldi potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE. This multiplatform approach allowed for consistency checks and intercomparison and has proven very useful in many previous works for estimating the uncertainties affecting the radiative data. Results: We present transition probabilities for the M1 and E2 forbidden lines depopulating the metastable even levels belonging to the 3dk and 3dk-14s configurations in Sc III (k = 1), Ti III (k = 2), V III (k = 3), Cr III (k = 4), Mn III (k = 5), Fe III (k = 6), Co III (k = 7), and Ni III (k = 8).

  3. Electron Capture Dissociation Studies of the Fragmentation Patterns of Doubly Protonated and Mixed Protonated-Sodiated Peptoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Zhao, Xiaoning; Robinson, David B.; Ren, Jianhua

    2014-07-01

    The fragmentation patterns of a group of doubly protonated ([P + 2H]2+) and mixed protonated-sodiated ([P + H + Na]2+) peptide-mimicking oligomers, known as peptoids, have been studied using electron capturing dissociation (ECD) tandem mass spectrometry techniques. For all the peptoids studied, the primary backbone fragmentation occurred at the N-Cα bonds. The N-terminal fragment ions, the C-ions (protonated) and the C'-ions (sodiated) were observed universally for all the peptoids regardless of the types of charge carrier. The C-terminal ions varied depending on the type of charge carrier. The doubly protonated peptoids with at least one basic residue located at a position other than the N-terminus fragmented by producing the Z•-series of ions. In addition, most doubly protonated peptoids also produced the Y-series of ions with notable abundances. The mixed protonated-sodiated peptoids fragmented by yielding the Z•'-series of ions in addition to the C'-series. Chelation between the sodium cation and the amide groups of the peptoid chain might be an important factor that could stabilize both the N-terminal and the C-terminal fragment ions. Regardless of the types of the charge carrier, one notable fragmentation for all the peptoids was the elimination of a benzylic radical from the odd-electron positive ions of the protonated peptoids ([P + 2H]•+) and the sodiated peptoids ([P + H + Na]•+). The study showed potential utility of using the ECD technique for sequencing of peptoid libraries generated by combinatorial chemistry.

  4. How to read food labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 serving. You should also pay attention to trans fats on any food label. These fats raise "bad" ... foods and desserts. Many fast food restaurants use trans fats for frying. If a food has these fats, ...

  5. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  6. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The ... Pay close attention to serving sizes. Products labeled "light" or "lite" must have 1/3 fewer calories ...

  7. Complex-Scaling Treatment for Doubly Excited Inter-Shell Resonances in H- Interacting with Screened Coulomb (Yukawa) Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Y. K.; Kar, S.

    2012-10-01

    The doubly-excited inter-shell resonance states of the hydrogen negative ion with screened Coulomb potentials are investigated in the framework of complex-scaling method. Highly correlated wave functions with terms up to 1078 in Hylleraas coordinates are used. The resonance parameters for the 2 s3 s 1 S e associated with the H ( N = 2) threshold and the 3 s4 s 1 S e state associated with the H ( N = 3) threshold for various screening strengths are reported. Comparisons are made with other available data in the literature.

  8. MEASURING COERCION TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH WITHIN A DOUBLY VULNERABLE POPULATION: INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COERCION ASSESSMENT SCALE

    PubMed Central

    Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Festinger, David S.; Croft, Jason R.; Marlowe, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite many efforts aimed to ensure that research participation is autonomous and not coerced, there exists no reliable and valid measure of perceived coercion for the doubly vulnerable population of substance-abusing offenders. The current study describes the development and initial validation of an instrument measuring perceived coercion to participate in research among substance-abusing offenders. The results indicated that a substantial number of individuals report feeling coerced to participate in the study. In addition, the instrument has adequate levels of internal consistency, a one-dimensional factor structure, and evidence of discriminative validity. This study provides initial support for the instrument’s validity and clinical utility. PMID:20235867

  9. Dinuclear Ruthenium(III)-Ruthenium(IV) Complexes, Having a Doubly Oxido-Bridged and Acetato- or Nitrato-Capped Framework.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Miyamoto, Ryo; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Nagao, Hirotaka

    2016-07-18

    Dinuclear ruthenium complexes in a mixed-valence state of Ru(III)-Ru(IV), having a doubly oxido-bridged and acetato- or nitrato-capped framework, [{Ru(III,IV)(ebpma)}2(μ-O)2(μ-L)](PF6)2 [ebpma = ethylbis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine; L = CH3COO(-) (1), NO3(-) (2)], were synthesized. In aqueous solutions, the diruthenium complex 1 showed multiple redox processes accompanied by proton transfers depending on the pH. The protonated complex of 1, which is described as 1H+, was obtained. PMID:27341408

  10. An extended doubly-adaptive quadrature method based on the combination of the Ninomiya and the FLR schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takemitsu; Hibino, Susumu; Hosoda, Yohsuke; Ninomiya, Ichizo

    2007-08-01

    An improvement is made to an automatic quadrature due to Ninomiya (J. Inf. Process. 3:162?170, 1980) of adaptive type based on the Newton?Cotes rule by incorporating a doubly-adaptive algorithm due to Favati, Lotti and Romani (ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:207?217, 1991; ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:218?232, 1991). We compare the present method in performance with some others by using various test problems including Kahaner?s ones (Computation of numerical quadrature formulas. In: Rice, J.R. (ed.) Mathematical Software, 229?259. Academic, Orlando, FL, 1971).

  11. Ion time-of-flight determinations of doubly to singly ionized mercury ion ratios from a mercury electron bombardment discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Kemp, R. F.; Hall, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    Doubly to singly charged mercury ion ratios in electron bombardment ion thruster exhaust beams have been determined as functions of bombardment discharge potential, thrust beam current, thrust beam radial position, acceleration-deceleration voltage ratio, and propellant utilization fraction. A mathematical model for two-step ionization processes has been derived, and calculated ion ratios are compared to observed ratios. Production of Hg(++) appears to result primarily from sequential ionization of Hg(+) in the discharge. Experimental and analytical results are presented, and design, construction, and operation features of an electrostatic deflection ion time-of-flight analyzer for the determination of the above-mentioned ratios are reviewed.

  12. Probing the origin of neutrino masses and mixings via doubly charged scalars: Complementarity of the intensity and the energy frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geib, Tanja; King, Stephen F.; Merle, Alexander; No, Jose Miguel; Panizzi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    We discuss how the intensity and the energy frontiers provide complementary constraints within a minimal model of neutrino mass involving just one new field beyond the Standard Model at accessible energy, namely a doubly charged scalar S++ and its antiparticle S-- . In particular, we focus on the complementarity between high-energy LHC searches and low-energy probes such as lepton flavor violation. Our setting is a prime example of how high- and low-energy physics can cross-fertilize each other.

  13. Three-point bending analysis of doubly clamped silicon nanowire beams; Young's modulus, initial stress, and crystal orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Yaish, Y. E. Calahorra, Y.; Shtempluck, O.; Kotchetkov, V.

    2015-04-28

    A non-linear model is introduced describing the force-deflection relation of doubly clamped beams, including initial stress. Several approximations for the exact model are developed and compared, revealing the importance of considering the initial stress during 3-point bending measurements analysis. A novel approximation is found to be better than others, and both the exact model and this approximation are in perfect agreement with finite element simulations. A brief experimental example of silicon nanowires is presented in which the Young's modulus, the initial stress, and the crystallographic growth orientation are extracted by 3-point bending analysis.

  14. Static quadrupole moment of high-spin isomers in the doubly-odd {sup 214}Fr nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Neyens, G.; Van Asbroeck, I.; Coussement, R.

    1995-06-01

    We have determined the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of two high-spin isomers ({ital I}=11 {h_bar} and {ital I}=32 {h_bar}) which have recently been identified in the doubly-odd {sup 214}Fr nucleus. The data have been extracted from a series of former level mixing spectroscopy (LEMS) measurements which had been performed to measure quadrupole moments of high-spin isomers in {sup 211,212,213}Fr isotopes. The quadrupole frequencies were measured in natural and enriched poly- and single-crystalline T1 at different temperatures.

  15. LabeledIn: cataloging labeled indications for human drugs.

    PubMed

    Khare, Ritu; Li, Jiao; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Drug-disease treatment relationships, i.e., which drug(s) are indicated to treat which disease(s), are among the most frequently sought information in PubMed®. Such information is useful for feeding the Google Knowledge Graph, designing computational methods to predict novel drug indications, and validating clinical information in EMRs. Given the importance and utility of this information, there have been several efforts to create repositories of drugs and their indications. However, existing resources are incomplete. Furthermore, they neither label indications in a structured way nor differentiate them by drug-specific properties such as dosage form, and thus do not support computer processing or semantic interoperability. More recently, several studies have proposed automatic methods to extract structured indications from drug descriptions; however, their performance is limited by natural language challenges in disease named entity recognition and indication selection. In response, we report LabeledIn: a human-reviewed, machine-readable and source-linked catalog of labeled indications for human drugs. More specifically, we describe our semi-automatic approach to derive LabeledIn from drug descriptions through human annotations with aids from automatic methods. As the data source, we use the drug labels (or package inserts) submitted to the FDA by drug manufacturers and made available in DailyMed. Our machine-assisted human annotation workflow comprises: (i) a grouping method to remove redundancy and identify representative drug labels to be used for human annotation, (ii) an automatic method to recognize and normalize mentions of diseases in drug labels as candidate indications, and (iii) a two-round annotation workflow for human experts to judge the pre-computed candidates and deliver the final gold standard. In this study, we focused on 250 highly accessed drugs in PubMed Health, a newly developed public web resource for consumers and clinicians on prevention

  16. Multi-focus cluster labeling.

    PubMed

    Eikvil, Line; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Holden, Marit

    2015-06-01

    Document collections resulting from searches in the biomedical literature, for instance, in PubMed, are often so large that some organization of the returned information is necessary. Clustering is an efficient tool for organizing search results. To help the user to decide how to continue the search for relevant documents, the content of each cluster can be characterized by a set of representative keywords or cluster labels. As different users may have different interests, it can be desirable with solutions that make it possible to produce labels from a selection of different topical categories. We therefore introduce the concept of multi-focus cluster labeling to give users the possibility to get an overview of the contents through labels from multiple viewpoints. The concept for multi-focus cluster labeling has been established and has been demonstrated on three different document collections. We illustrate that multi-focus visualizations can give an overview of clusters along axes that general labels are not able to convey. The approach is generic and should be applicable to any biomedical (or other) domain with any selection of foci where appropriate focus vocabularies can be established. A user evaluation also indicates that such a multi-focus concept is useful. PMID:25869415

  17. Doubly electron-attached and doubly ionised equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods with full and active-space treatments of 4-particle-2-hole and 4-hole-2-particle excitations: the role of orbital choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    We have recently developed the full and active-space doubly electron-attached (DEA) and doubly ionised (DIP) equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOMCC) methods with up to 4-particle-2-hole (4p-2h) and 4-hole-2-particle (4h-2p) excitations. By examining the low-lying singlet and triplet states of the methylene, (HFH)-, and trimethylenemethane biradicals, and a few different types of molecular orbitals (MOs) to describe the corresponding wave functions, including the restricted or restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock orbitals of the target N-electron species and their counterparts associated with the (N ∓ 2)-electron reference systems, we demonstrate that the DEA- and DIP-EOMCC approaches with the full and active-space treatments of 4p-2h and 4h-2p excitations provide high-accuracy results which are not only in perfect agreement with one another, but also practically insensitive to the choice of the underlying MO basis. This should be contrasted with the DEA- and DIP-EOMCC methods truncated at 3p-1h/3h-1p excitations, which are generally less accurate and more sensitive to the types of orbitals used in the calculations.

  18. Nickel and titanium doubly doped lanthanum strontium chromite for high temperature electrochemical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sapna; Singh, Prabhakar

    2016-02-01

    Lanthanum chromite based materials are promising candidate for use as electrochemical components in high temperature electrochemical devices. In this study, nickel and titanium doubly doped lanthanum strontium chromites are developed and the effects of nickel and titanium co-doping of the chromite perovskite La0.85Sr0.15Cr1-2yNiyTiyO3-δ (0.05 ≤ y ≤ 0.3) on the electrical conductivity, chemical stability, microstructure, density, thermal expansion and electrochemical performance are measured. Density and the electrical conductivity increases with nickel concentration whereas Sr-segregation on the surface of La0.85Sr0.15Cr1-2yNiyTiyO3-δ has been observed for y ≥ 0.2 and is associated with reduction in the electrical conductivity. For y = 0.1, La0.85Sr0.15Cr1-2yNiyTiyO3-δ shows the highest electrical conductivity in air and reducing atmosphere (PO2 ∼10-24 atm). The conductivity of La0.85Sr0.15Cr1-2yNiyTiyO3-δ (y = 0.1) in reducing atmosphere (3.58 S cm-1 at 950 °C) also remains higher than the most widely investigated compositions such as (La0.75Sr0.25)0.95Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (2.81 S cm-1) and (La0.75Sr0.25)0.95Cr0.7Fe0.3O3-δ (1.41 S cm-1). Smaller deviation in the oxygen stoichiometry is similarly observed for La0.85Sr0.15Cr0.8Ni0.1Ti0.1O3-δ (δ = 0.011) when compared to La0.75Sr0.25CrO3-δ (δ = 0.091), La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (δ = 0.175) and La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Fe0.5O3-δ (δ = 0.148) at 1000 °C and ∼10-24 atm. Highest electrochemical performance and structural/interfacial stability is obtained for new composition La0.85Sr0.15Cr0.8Ni0.1Ti0.1O3-δ (LSCNT0.1) when mixed with 8YSZ in both oxidizing and reducing atmosphere.

  19. New laboratory atomic data for neutral, singly and doubly ionised iron group elements for astrophysics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Juliet C.; Nave, Gillian; Liggins, Florence; Clear, Christian; Ruffoni, Matthew; Sansonetti, Craig

    2015-08-01

    We present new laboratory spectroscopic measurements to produce atomic data for astrophysically important species: neutral, singly and doubly ionised iron group elements.We use high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) (resolving power up to 2x106 at 200nm) to measure atomic spectra, giving accurate line wavelengths (to a few parts in 108), atomic energy levels, hyperfine structure splitting and log gfs (accurate to a few %) (Ruffoni et al this meeting). These data are vital for astrophysical spectral analyses for: line identification, spectrum synthesis, elemental abundance determinations [eg 1], and disentangling of blends etc. It is not possible to theoretically calculate these atomic data to the accuracy needed for modern astrophysics applications.At Imperial College we have a unique visible-VUV FT spectrometer with short wavelength cut-off of 135nm. We supplement FTS data at shorter wavelengths with spectra recorded on the NIST 10.7m grating spectrograph (with phosphor image or photographic plates) and at longer wavelengths in the IR we use the NIST IR FT spectrometer.An elemental spectrum may contain thousands of spectral lines from the IR to VUV. We use these wavelengths to correct known atomic energy levels, and search for new atomic levels. The result is a classified linelist and accurate atomic energy levels.We present progress on iron group element atomic energy levels and wavelengths for V I and V II [2,3], Co III [4], Cr I, Mn I and Mn II, and Ni II.This work is supported by STFC(UK), The Leverhulme Trust, The Royal Society and NASA.References[1] Bergemann M, Pickering JC & Gehren T,“NLTE analysis of Co I/Co II lines in spectra of cool stars with new laboratory hyperfine splitting constants",MNRAS 401(2) 1334 (2010)[2] Thorne AP, Pickering JC & Semeniuk J,“The spectrum and term analysis of V II”, ApJS 207,13 (2013)[3] Thorne AP, Pickering JC & Semeniuk J,“The spectrum and term analysis of V I",ApJS 192,11 (2011)[4] Smillie DG

  20. Nanoscale transport in single-walled carbon nanotubes with doubly degenerate orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarovski, Alexander

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have made these structures a popular subject of scientific research. One of the experimental techniques used to study the electronic band structure of nanotubes is low-temperature magneto-transport measurements. In this thesis, we report the results of employing this technique to study: (1) double orbital degeneracy of the quantum-mechanical energy levels in closed CNT Quantum Dots, (2) the Kondo effect at high contact transparency in the presence of level degeneracy, and (3) the influence of the superconductivity on electron transport in nanotubes. In the Coulomb blockade regime in CNT Quantum Dots, the alignment of the energy levels belonging to different orbitals is analyzed from the measured spacings between the conductance peaks. It is found that in properly fabricated individual nanotube samples a large percentage of the orbitals are doubly degenerate. The degree of the residual energy level misalignment is lower than in any of the previously published observations. We provide an explanation of how the degeneracy can be sustained in real nanotube samples. Additionally, observations of unexpected low-energy excitations at complete filling of four-electron shells are reported. In samples with relatively high tunneling barrier transparency, Kondo processes contribute to the enhancement of zero-bias conductance inside the Coulomb blockade valleys. At sufficiently low temperatures, individual single-electron conductance peaks within each four-electron shell completely merge. A new transport regime, where the different charge states are hybridized by the Kondo processes is reported. It is also found that the Kondo features at one-electron and three-electron shell occupancies behave noticeably different in a magnetic field, in violation of the electron-hole symmetry. The superconducting transition in the contacts significantly alters the properties of the nanotube; this is due to the superconducting proximity effect