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Sample records for doubly magic tin

  1. Testing the doubly magic character of tin-132

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, Bertram

    2010-08-15

    The shell model of nuclear structure predicts that nuclei with certain magic numbers of protons or neutrons will be more rigidly spherical and stable than their neighbors. The magic numbers - 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126 - are somewhat reminiscent of the atomic numbers of the noble gases, as well they should be. Just as completed shells of single-electron states convey extraordinary chemical stability, completed shells of single-neutron or single-proton states in the mean-field potential of all the other nucleons do much the same for nuclei.

  2. Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus.

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R. V. F.; Physics

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope {sup 24}O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability.

  3. On the road to doubly-magic {sup 48}Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Davi, F.; Del Moral, R.; Dufour, J. P.; Fleury, A.; Marchand, C.; Pravikoff, M. S.; Benlliure, J.; Boue, F.; Collatz, R.; Heinz, A.; Hellstroem, M.; Hu, Z.; Roeckl, E.; Shibata, M.; Suemmerer, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.

    1998-12-21

    A relativistic primary beam of {sup 58}Ni from the SIS synchrotron at GSI was used to produce proton-rich isotopes in the titanium-to-nickel region by projectile fragmention at the FRS. We report here on the first observation of the T{sub z}=-7/2 nuclei {sup 45}Fe and {sup 49}Ni. In addition, the new isotope {sup 42}Cr (T{sub z}=-3) was identified. This opens the route to the yet unobserved doubly-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ni.

  4. Doubly magic nucleus (108)(270)Hs162.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, J; Brüchle, W; Chelnokov, M; Dressler, R; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Gorshkov, V; Jäger, E; Krücken, R; Kuznetsov, A; Nagame, Y; Nebel, F; Novackova, Z; Qin, Z; Schädel, M; Schausten, B; Schimpf, E; Semchenkov, A; Thörle, P; Türler, A; Wegrzecki, M; Wierczinski, B; Yakushev, A; Yeremin, A

    2006-12-15

    Theoretical calculations predict 270Hs (Z=108, N=162) to be a doubly magic deformed nucleus, decaying mainly by alpha-particle emission. In this work, based on a rapid chemical isolation of Hs isotopes produced in the 26Mg+248Cm reaction, we observed 15 genetically linked nuclear decay chains. Four chains were attributed to the new nuclide 270Hs, which decays by alpha-particle emission with Qalpha=9.02+/-0.03 MeV to 266Sg which undergoes spontaneous fission with a half-life of 444(-148)(+444) ms. A production cross section of about 3 pb was measured for 270Hs. Thus, 270Hs is the first nucleus for which experimental nuclear decay properties have become available for comparison with theoretical predictions of the N=162 shell stability. PMID:17280272

  5. Possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-15

    The possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus, {sup 298}114{sub 184}, is investigated on the basis of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In order to synthesize this nucleus, we must generate more neutron-rich compound nuclei because of the neutron emissions from excited compound nuclei. The compound nucleus {sup 304}114 has two advantages to achieving a high survival probability. First, because of low neutron separation energy and rapid cooling, the shell correction energy recovers quickly. Secondly, owing to neutron emissions, the neutron number in the nucleus approaches that of the double closed shell and the nucleus attains a large fission barrier. Because of these two effects, the survival probability of {sup 304}114 does not decrease until the excitation energy E{sup *}=50 MeV. These properties lead to a rather high evaporation residue cross section.

  6. 'Doubly Magic' Conditions in Magic-Wavelength Trapping of Ultracold Alkali-Metal Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-07-16

    In experiments with trapped atoms, atomic energy levels are shifted by the trapping optical and magnetic fields. Regardless of this strong perturbation, precision spectroscopy may be still carried out using specially crafted, 'magic' trapping fields. Finding these conditions for particularly valuable microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms has so far remained an open challenge. Here I demonstrate that the microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms may be indeed made impervious to both trapping laser intensity and fluctuations of magnetic fields. I consider driving multiphoton transitions between the clock levels and show that these 'doubly magic' conditions are realized at special values of trapping laser wavelengths and fixed values of relatively weak magnetic fields. This finding has implications for precision measurements and quantum information processing with qubits stored in hyperfine manifolds.

  7. Neutron interaction with doubly-magic {sup 40}Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B. |

    1993-11-01

    Differential neutron elastic and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental calcium (96.94% doubly-magic {sup 40}Ca) are measured from {approx} 1.5 to 10 MeV with sufficient detail to determine their energy-averaged behavior in the highly fluctuating environment. These results, combined with values previously reported in the literature, are assessed in the contexts of optical-statistical, dispersive optical, and coupled-channels models, applicable to the energy domain 0 {yields} 30+ MeV, with particular emphasis on the lower energies where the interpretations are sensitive to the dispersion relationship and the effective mass. The interpretations define the energy dependencies of the potential parameters (resolving prior ambiguities), suggest that previous estimates of the prominent low-energy (n,p) and (n,a) reactions are too large, reasonably describe observables to at least 30 MeV, and provide a vehicle for extrapolation into the bound-state regime that gives a good description of hole- and particle-state binding energies. The resulting real-potential parameters (in contrast to many {sup 40}Ca parameters reported in the literature) are shown consistent with global trends.

  8. Nuclear structure in the neutron-rich doubly magic sup 78 Ni region

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.; Winger, J.A.; Warburton, E.K.; Gill, R.L.; Schuhmann, R.B.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Clark Univ., Worcester, MA )

    1989-01-01

    The magic numbers Z=28 and N=50 imply that very neutron-rich {sup 78}Ni, which has not yet been observed, is doubly magic. The {sup 78}Ni region was investigated by studying the N=50 isotones and neutron-rich Zn isotopes. Results on the level structure of {sup 83}As, {sup 74}Zn, and {sup 76}Zn populated in the decays of {sup 83}Ge, {sup 74}Cu, and {sup 76}Cu are presented. The parent nuclides were produced and mass separated using the TRISTAN facility on-line to the High-Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven. The systematics of the N=50 isotones and even-A Zn isotopes are discussed and compared with shell-model calculations involving active nucleons outside of a {sup 78}Ni and {sup 66}Ni core, respectively. The extent to which the {sup 78}Ni region can be considered doubly magic is assessed. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Few-valence-particle excitations around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.J.; Zhang, C.T.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    1996-11-01

    Prompt {gamma}-ray cascades in neutron-rich nuclei around doubly-magic {sup 132}Sn have been studied using a {sup 248}Cm fission source. Yrast states located in the N = 82 isotones {sup 134}Te and {sup 135}I are interpreted as valence proton and neutron particle-hole core excitations with the help of shell model calculations employing empirical nucleon-nucleon interactions from both {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb regions.

  10. Interplay between collective and single particle excitations around neutron-rich doubly-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, S.

    2016-05-01

    The excitation spectra of nuclei with one or two particles outside a doubly-magic core are expected to be dominated, at low energy, by the couplings between phonon excitations of the core and valence particles. A survey of the experimental situation is given for some nuclei lying in close proximity of neutron-rich doubly-magic systems, such as 47,49Ca, 133Sb and 210Bi. Data are obtained with various types of reactions (multinucleon transfer with heavy ions, cold neutron capture and neutron induced fission of 235U and 241Pu targets), with the employment of complex detection systems based on HPGe arrays. A comparison with theoretical calculations is also presented, in terms of large shell model calculations and of a phenomenological particle-phonon model. In the case of 133Sb, a new microscopic "hybrid" model is introduced: it is based on the coupling between core excitations (both collective and non-collective) of the doubly-magic core and the valence nucleon, using the Skyrme effective interaction in a consistent way.

  11. One-neutron removal measurement reveals 24O as a new doubly magic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, R; Nociforo, C; Prochazka, A; Aumann, T; Boutin, D; Cortina-Gil, D; Davids, B; Diakaki, M; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Gerl, J; Janik, R; Jonson, B; Kindler, B; Knöbel, R; Krücken, R; Lantz, M; Lenske, H; Litvinov, Y; Lommel, B; Mahata, K; Maierbeck, P; Musumarra, A; Nilsson, T; Otsuka, T; Perro, C; Scheidenberger, C; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Sun, B; Szarka, I; Tanihata, I; Utsuno, Y; Weick, H; Winkler, M

    2009-04-17

    The first measurement of the momentum distribution for one-neutron removal from (24)O at 920A MeV performed at GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The observed distribution has a width (FWHM) of 99 +/- 4 MeV/c in the projectile rest frame and a one-neutron removal cross section of 63 +/- 7 mb. The results are well explained with a nearly pure 2s_{1/2} neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.74 +/- 0.19 within the eikonal model. This large s-wave probability shows a spherical shell closure thereby confirming earlier suggestions that (24)O is a new doubly magic nucleus. PMID:19518623

  12. First evidence of γ collectivity close to the doubly magic core 132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, W.; Sieja, K.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Czerwiński, M.; Naïdja, H.; Nowacki, F.; Smith, A. G.; Ahmad, I.

    2016-03-01

    The 138Te and 140Xe nuclei have been reinvestigated using prompt γ -ray data from spontaneous fission of 248Cm, collected with the EUROGAM2 Ge array. γ bands have been identified in both nuclei. The γ band observed in 138Te, a nucleus with only six valence nucleons, indicates the presence of collectivity very close to the doubly magic 132Sn core. Such band is even more pronounced in 140Xe, the N = 86 isotone of 138Te. The newly observed bands are interpreted within the shell model, which reproduce well the γ collectivity at N = 86.

  13. Structure studies of nuclear systems close to the doubly-magic {sup 132}Sn using advanced {beta}{sup -}spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mach, H.; Fogelberg, B.; Jacobsson, L.; Lindroth, A.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Taylor, R. B. E.; Blomqvist, J.; Isakov, V. I.; Mezilev, K. A.

    1998-12-21

    A brief description of the OSIRIS fission product mass separator and an outline of the current program of research in the domain of nuclear structure at the doubly magic {sup 132}Sn region are given. The most recent results on the study of the single particle states in {sup 133}Sb are briefly summarized.

  14. Doubly Magic Nucleus {sub 108}{sup 270}Hs{sub 162}

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, J.; Kruecken, R.; Nebel, F.; Novackova, Z.; Tuerler, A.; Wierczinski, B.; Yakushev, A.; Bruechle, W.; Jaeger, E.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Chelnokov, M.; Gorshkov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Yeremin, A.; Dressler, R.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle, P.

    2006-12-15

    Theoretical calculations predict {sup 270}Hs (Z=108, N=162) to be a doubly magic deformed nucleus, decaying mainly by {alpha}-particle emission. In this work, based on a rapid chemical isolation of Hs isotopes produced in the {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm reaction, we observed 15 genetically linked nuclear decay chains. Four chains were attributed to the new nuclide {sup 270}Hs, which decays by {alpha}-particle emission with Q{sub {alpha}}=9.02{+-}0.03 MeV to {sup 266}Sg which undergoes spontaneous fission with a half-life of 444{sub -148}{sup +444} ms. A production cross section of about 3 pb was measured for {sup 270}Hs. Thus, {sup 270}Hs is the first nucleus for which experimental nuclear decay properties have become available for comparison with theoretical predictions of the N=162 shell stability.

  15. One-Neutron Removal Measurement Reveals {sup 24}O as a New Doubly Magic Nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, R.; Perro, C.; Nociforo, C.; Aumann, T.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Kindler, B.; Litvinov, Y.; Lommel, B.; Mahata, K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sun, B.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.; Prochazka, A.; Farinon, F.; Knoebel, R.; Boutin, D.; Lenske, H.; Cortina-Gil, D.

    2009-04-17

    The first measurement of the momentum distribution for one-neutron removal from {sup 24}O at 920A MeV performed at GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The observed distribution has a width (FWHM) of 99{+-}4 MeV/c in the projectile rest frame and a one-neutron removal cross section of 63{+-}7 mb. The results are well explained with a nearly pure 2s{sub 1/2} neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.74{+-}0.19 within the eikonal model. This large s-wave probability shows a spherical shell closure thereby confirming earlier suggestions that {sup 24}O is a new doubly magic nucleus.

  16. Atomic mass measurements of short-lived nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lunney, D.; Schwarz, S.

    2008-04-01

    Accurate atomic mass measurements of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclides around the doubly-magic 208Pb and of neutron-rich cesium isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The masses of 145,147Cs, 181,183Tl, 186Tl m, 187Tl m, 196Tl m, 205Tl, 197Pb m, 208Pb, 190-197Bi, 209,215,216Bi, 203,205,229Fr, and 214,229,230Ra were determined. The obtained relative mass uncertainty in the range of 2×10 to 2×10 is not only required for safe identification of isomeric states but also allows mapping the detailed structure of the mass surface. A mass adjustment procedure was carried out and the results included into the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The resulting separation energies are discussed and the mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic data are examined for possible correlations.

  17. Lifetime measurements using the CLARA-PRISMA setup around the {sup 48}Ca doubly-magic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gadea, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Corradi, L.; De Angelis, G.; Fioretto, E.; Grodner, E.; Mason, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Mengoni, D.; Farnea, E.; Bazzacco, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Ur, C. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Lunardi, S.; Scarlassara, F.; Dewald, A.

    2008-11-11

    The lifetimes of the first excited states of nuclei around the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ca have been determined using a novel method that combines the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method with the CLARA-PRISMA spectrometers. This is the first time such a method is applied to measure lifetimes of neutron-rich nuclei populated via a multinucleon transfer reaction. This novel method and some preliminary results on lifetimes are presented.

  18. Production of the doubly magic nucleus Sn100 in fusion and quasifission reactions via light particle and cluster emission channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2014-08-01

    The possibilities of production of the doubly magic nucleus Sn100 in complete fusion and quasifission reactions with stable and radioactive ion beams are investigated within a dinuclear system model. The excitation functions for production of the exotic nuclei 100-103Sn and 112,114Ba via xn, pxn, αxn, and 12,14Cxn emission channels are predicted for future experiments.

  19. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B.

    2009-11-01

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO 2:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl 2 precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08×10 14 lines/m 2) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2×10 14 lines/m 2), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 Ω/□) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl 2 precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  20. Measurement of (d,p) reactions near the doubly-magic ^132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Steven

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of (d,p) reactions on n-rich fission fragments yield important information on nuclear structure away from stability, and are of astrophysical interest due to the proximity to suggested r-process paths. The energies, spins and spectroscopic information of single-particle states near to shell closures are of particular importance, since they provide both an important constraint on nuclear structure models and are directly relevant to direct neutron-capture cross sections. The development of re-accelerated fission fragment beams at the HRIBF at ORNL has, for the first time, made possible the measurement of (d,p) reactions at the Coulomb barrier on nuclei around the doubly-magic ^132Sn nucleus. The ^130Sn(d,p)^131Sn, ^132Sn(d,p)^133Sn and ^ 134Te(d,p)^135Te reactions have been measured at the HRIBF at around 4.5 MeV/A utilizing deuterated plastic targets. Proton ejectiles were detected forward and backwards of θlab = 90^o using an early implementation of the Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) in conjunction with the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). Details of the experiments and the data analysis, including excitation energies and angular distributions for the states populated, will be presented. *This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  1. Observation of isoscalar multipole strengths in exotic doubly-magic 56Ni in inelastic α scattering in inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, S.; Gibelin, J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Achouri, N. L.; Akimune, H.; Bastin, B.; Boretzky, K.; Bouzomita, H.; Caamaño, M.; Càceres, L.; Damoy, S.; Delaunay, F.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Fujiwara, M.; Garg, U.; Grinyer, G. F.; Kamalou, O.; Khan, E.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Lhoutellier, G.; Libin, J. F.; Lukyanov, S.; Mazurek, K.; Najafi, M. A.; Pancin, J.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Perrot, L.; Raabe, R.; Rigollet, C.; Roger, T.; Sambi, S.; Savajols, H.; Senoville, M.; Stodel, C.; Suen, L.; Thomas, J. C.; Vandebrouck, M.; Van de Walle, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance (ISGMR) and the Isoscalar Giant Dipole Resonance (ISGDR) compression modes have been studied in the doubly-magic unstable nucleus 56Ni. They were measured by inelastic α-particle scattering in inverse kinematics at 50 MeV/u with the MAYA active target at the GANIL facility. The centroid of the ISGMR has been obtained at Ex = 19.1 ± 0.5 MeV. Evidence for the low-lying part of the ISGDR has been found at Ex = 17.4 ± 0.7 MeV. The strength distribution for the dipole mode shows similarity with the prediction from the Hartree-Fock (HF) based random-phase approximation (RPA) [1]. These measurements confirm inelastic α-particle scattering as a suitable probe for exciting the ISGMR and the ISGDR modes in radioactive isotopes in inverse kinematics.

  2. Spin-orbit and orbit-orbit strengths for the radioactive neutron-rich doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn in relativistic mean-field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Haozhao; Zhao Pengwei; Li Lulu; Meng Jie

    2011-01-15

    Relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory is applied to investigate the properties of the radioactive neutron-rich doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn and the corresponding isotopes and isotones. The two-neutron and two-proton separation energies are well reproduced by the RMF theory. In particular, the RMF results agree with the experimental single-particle spectrum in {sup 132}Sn as well as the Nilsson spin-orbit parameter C and orbit-orbit parameter D thus extracted, but remarkably differ from the traditional Nilsson parameters. Furthermore, the present results provide a guideline for the isospin dependence of the Nilsson parameters.

  3. Synthesis of the doubly magic deformed nucleus 108270Hs162 in the decay of 274Hs* formed via hot fusion reactions: Entrance-channel effects and role of magicity of 48Ca and 270Hs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyti, Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT) is used to look for all possible target-projectile (t,p) combinations forming the "cold" compound nucleus (CN) 274Hs* at the CN excitation energy E* of "hot, compact" configuration. The predicted reactions, referring to potential energy minima, include all the three reactions 248Cm + 26Mg, 238U + 36S, and 226Ra + 48Ca already used in experiments, and a few more. The optimum "cold" and "compact" (t,p) combination, corresponding to lowest interaction barrier and smallest interaction radius, is one with largest mass asymmetry, but because of the doubly magic 48Ca nucleus, the evaporation residue cross sections for the 226Ra + 48Ca reaction are shown to be further enhanced. For the decay of CN 274Hs*, synthesizing 269-271Hs via 3n-5n emission, we use the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with effects of quadrupole deformations and "hot" compact orientations included in it, which support symmetric fission, in agreement with experiments. The fusion evaporation residue cross sections σxn, for x =3, 4, and 5 neutrons emission from the above-mentioned three entrance channels, are calculated within one parameter fitting, namely, the neck length. For best fitted neck-length parameter, the roles of entrance channel and that of magic shells are analyzed. In spite of different entrance channels resulting in different evaporation residue cross sections, the neck-length parameter at a given E* is shown to be independent of the entrance channel. The role of magic shells is shown in enhancing evaporation residue cross sections, not only for the entrance channel 226Ra + 48Ca, but also for the residue 270Hs, compared to its neighboring isotopes 269,271Hs. The fusion evaporation residue cross sections for the proposed new reactions, in synthesizing CN 274Hs*, are also estimated for future new experiments.

  4. Magic numbers in the neutron-rich oxygen isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. Alex; Richter, W.A.

    2005-11-01

    The predicted and experimental properties of the new doubly magic nuclei {sup 22}O and {sup 24}O are discussed. These together with previous observations lead to a new rule for magic numbers: if there is an oscillator magic number (2, 8, 20, or 40) for one kind of nucleon, then the other kind of nucleon has a magic number for the filling of every possible (n, l, j) value.

  5. Orbital dependent pairing and the structure of the lightest isotopes of tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzywacz, Robert; Darby, Iain; Batchelder, Jon; Bingham, Carrol; Cartegni, Lucia; Gross, Carl; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Joss, David; Liddick, Sean; Nazarewicz, Witold; Page, Robert; Papenbrock, Thomas; Rajabali, Mustafa; Rotureau, Jimmy; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof; Padgett, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    The island of alpha radioactivity near doubly magic ^100Sn provides an opportunity to study properties of tin isotopes using the extreme selectivity of charge particle decay spectroscopy. In an experiment, which used the most advanced experimental spectroscopic techniques the ^109Xe->^105Te->^101Sn alpha decay chain was studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge. The majority of the alpha decay branching ratio of the ^105Te populates not the ground state but the first excited state in ^101Sn leading to the revision of the established order of single particle levels. The in-depth analysis of this result with the state-of-the-art shell model calculations lead to surprising conclusions on the role of the pairing correlations in the lightest tin isotopes.

  6. Magic Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  7. Creating Magic Squares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Betty Clayton

    1990-01-01

    One method of making magic squares using a prolongated square is illustrated. Discussed are third-order magic squares, fractional magic squares, fifth-order magic squares, decimal magic squares, and even magic squares. (CW)

  8. Magic nucleus 132Sn and its one-neutron-hole neighbor 131Sn.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Daly, P J; Zhang, C T; Grabowski, Z W; Saha, S K; Broda, R; Fornal, B; Ahmad, I; Seweryniak, D; Wiedenhöver, I; Carpenter, M P; Janssens, R V; Khoo, T L; Lauritsen, T; Lister, C J; Reiter, P; Blomqvist, J

    2001-08-01

    Prompt and delayed gamma-ray cascades in doubly magic 132Sn and its neighbor 131Sn have been studied at Gammasphere using a 248Cm fission source. Isotopic assignments of unknown gamma rays were based on coincidences with known transitions in A = 112-116 Pd fission partners. The yrast level spectra of both tin nuclei are interpreted using empirical nucleon-nucleon interactions from the 132Sn and 208Pb regions. Results include identification of the (nuf(7/2)h(-1)(11/2))9(+) aligned state in 132Sn and of extensive (nuf(7/2)h(-2)(11/2)), (nuf(7/2)d(-1)(3/2)h(-1)(11/2)) and (nuh(-1)(11/2)x3(-)) multiplets in 131Sn. The previously reported beta(-) decay of an unusual 131In high-spin isomer to levels in 131Sn is also elucidated. PMID:11497825

  9. Menu Magic!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan H.; Hickey, Bethany

    2003-01-01

    Describes the activity "Menu Magic!" that helps eighth graders review the power of adjectives. Notes that students "eat up this project" that promises to deliver the opportunity to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate while giving students the chance to work in cooperative groups. Describes and gives examples of the "Menu Magic" project. (SG)

  10. Orbital Dependent Nucleonic Pairing in the Lightest Known Isotopes of Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, Iain; Grzywacz, R.; Batchelder, J. C.; Bingham, C. R.; Cartegni, L.; Gross, Carl J; Liddick, Sean; Nazarewicz, Witold; Padgett, Stephen; Papenbrock, T.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rotureau, J.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2010-01-01

    By studying the {sup 109}Xe {yields} {sup 105}Te {yields} {sup 101}Sn superallowed {alpha}-decay chain, we observe low-lying states in {sup 101}Sn, the one-neutron system outside doubly magic {sup 100}Sn. We find that the spins of the ground state (J=7/2) and first excited state (J=5/2) in {sup 101}Sn are reversed with respect to the traditional level ordering postulated for {sup 103}Sn and the heavier tin isotopes. Through simple arguments and state-of-the-art shell-model calculations we explain this unexpected switch in terms of a transition from the single-particle regime to the collective mode in which orbital-dependent pairing correlations dominate.

  11. Informing Neutron-Capture Rates through (d,p) Reactions on Neutron-Rich Tin Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Kozub, R. L.; Ahn, S.; Allmond, J. M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K. A.; Howard, M. E.; Jones, K. L.; Liang, J. F.; Matos, M.; Nunes, F. M.; Nesaraja, C. D.; O'Malley, P. D.; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Pittman, S. T.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Schmitt, K. T.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M. S.; Titus, L.

    2014-03-01

    Level energies and spectroscopic information for neutron-rich nuclei provide important input for r-process nucleosynthesis calculations; specifically, the location and strength of single-neutron l = 1 states when calculating neutron-capture rates. Surman and collaborators have performed sensitivity studies to show that varying neutron-capture rates can significantly alter final r-process abundances. However, there are many nuclei important to the r-process that cannot be studied. Extending studies to more neutron-rich nuclei will help constrain the nuclear shell-model in extrapolating to nuclei even further from stability. The (d,p) reaction has been measured with radioactive ion beams of 126Sn and 128Sn to complete the set of (d,p) studies on even mass tin isotopes from doubly-magic 132 to stable 124Sn. Work supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  12. Magic Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    "Magic mirrors" were so named because, when they were positioned to throw a reflected patch of sunlight on a nearby wall, this area contained an outline of a design cast on the back of the (bronze) mirror. Investigations begun in the 19th century showed that this was a response to heavy localized pressures exerted on the face of the thin mirror…

  13. Mummies & Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Jeanne E.

    1989-01-01

    Covers the cultural and aesthetic significance of Egyptian mummies, as explained in an exhibition at Boston's Museum of Fine Arts. The display, "Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt," allowed for restoration work which did much to advance modern knowledge of Egyptian culture and funerary art. (LS)

  14. Matisse Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which kindergarten and first-grade students learn about Henri Matisse and his art work. Explains that the students use "Model Magic" to create Matisse style face refrigerator magnets. Discusses in detail how to create the magnets. (CMK)

  15. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  16. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  17. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  18. Shells Evolution and Core Excitations in Semi-Magic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, F.

    2007-04-01

    Recent advances in Large Shell Model calculations allow now to treat extended valence spaces and more complete descriptions of (semi-)magic nuclei can be achieved with inclusion of core excitations. The interplay between shell evolution and core excitations in semi-magic nuclei will be illustrated for tin isotopic chains in the framework of Large Shell Model calculations. pn and nn monopole relative influence will be traced back on Effective Single Particle Energies and B(E2)'s.

  19. Superlative TINs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.

    2002-01-01

    TIN is short for 'triangulated irregular network,' which is a piecewise planar model of a surface. If properly constructed, a TIN can be more than 30 times as efficient as a regular triangulation. In our project (a ground combat simulation to support U.S. Army training exercises), the TIN is used to represent the Earth's surface and is used primarily to determine whether line of sight is blocked by terrain. High efficiency requires accurate identification of ridgelines with as few triangles as possible. The work currently in progress is the implementation of a TINning process that we hope will produce superlative TINs. This presentation describes that process.

  20. MAGIC highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    The present generation of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) has greatly improved our knowledge on the Very High Energy (VHE) side of our Universe. The MAGIC IACTs operate since 2004 with one telescope and since 2009 as a two telescope stereoscopic system. I will outline a few of our latest and most relevant results: the discovery of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar at VHE, recently found to extend up to 400 GeV and along the "bridge" of the light curve, the measurement of the Crab nebula spectrum over three decades of energy, the discovery of VHE γ-ray emission from the PWN 3C 58, the very rapid emission of IC 310, in addition to dark matter studies. The results that will be described here and the planned deep observations in the next years will pave the path for the future generation of IACTs.

  1. The Versatile Magic Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gale A.

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrates the transformations that are possible to construct a variety of magic squares, including modifications to challenge students from elementary grades through algebra. Presents an example of using magic squares with students who have special needs. (YDS)

  2. Perception, Illusion, and Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a psychology course in which magical illusions were used for teaching the principles of sensation and perception. Students read psychological, philosophical, historical, and magical literature on illusion, performed a magical illusion, and analyzed the illusion in terms of the psychological principles involved. (Author/KC)

  3. Dispersive optical-model potential for protons in 100 ⩽ A ⩽ 132 even–even tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalova, O. V. Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.; Klimochkina, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    Data on single-particle energies, differential elastic-scattering cross sections, and total cross sections for proton-induced reactions on stable tin isotopes were analyzed on the basis of the dispersive optical model. Good agreement with experimental data was obtained by setting the parameters of the dispersive optical potential to values averaged over the tin isotopic chain and by assuming that the dependence of surface absorption on the neutron–proton asymmetry is close to a traditional dependence. Predictive calculations for single-particle proton spectra and total reaction cross sections were performed for the doubly magic isotopes {sup 100,132}Sn. The calculated values of the energy gap between the 1h{sub 11/2}–1g{sub 7/2} and 1g{sub 7/2}–2d{sub 5/2} states were found to be in good agreement with the results of calculations performed with allowance for the tensor component of the effective nucleon–nucleon interaction.

  4. Doubly robust survival trees.

    PubMed

    Steingrimsson, Jon Arni; Diao, Liqun; Molinaro, Annette M; Strawderman, Robert L

    2016-09-10

    Estimating a patient's mortality risk is important in making treatment decisions. Survival trees are a useful tool and employ recursive partitioning to separate patients into different risk groups. Existing 'loss based' recursive partitioning procedures that would be used in the absence of censoring have previously been extended to the setting of right censored outcomes using inverse probability censoring weighted estimators of loss functions. In this paper, we propose new 'doubly robust' extensions of these loss estimators motivated by semiparametric efficiency theory for missing data that better utilize available data. Simulations and a data analysis demonstrate strong performance of the doubly robust survival trees compared with previously used methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037609

  5. The Magic of Balanced Groups: Educational Applications of Magic Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Michael J.; Nandakumar, N. R.; Ore, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides students with many interesting observations regarding the nature of magic squares, magic rectangles, and quasi-magic squares and provides tools for teachers to group students into ability-balanced cooperative learning groups.

  6. The "Magic" String

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…

  7. The "Magic" Flask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents demonstrations that use a "magic" flask to teach elementary concepts such as the color changes of various indicators and using the scientific method to predict the sequence of color changes. Catches students' attention by using an unexpected trick or element of magic. (JRH)

  8. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

  9. Operation Magic Tricks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ronald

    This resource book contains 18 magic number tricks that spark the interest and imagination of students as they are led through a variety of mathematical computations and discoveries. Following each activity, students are asked to write about their discoveries and create their own magic tricks. A matrix of skills for all the activities and lists of…

  10. Discovering the Magic of Magic Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semanisinova, Ingrid; Trenkler, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a collection of problems that allow students to investigate magic squares and Latin squares, formulate their own conjectures about these mathematical objects, look for arguments supporting or disproving their conjectures, and finally establish and prove mathematical assertions. Each problem is completed…

  11. About Magic Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakopian, Yuri R.; Eloyan, Ani N.; Khachatryan, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of matrices, the rows and columns of which add up to identical constants (generally speaking, different for rows and columns). Some properties of these matrices, which will be called "magic rectangles" are discussed.

  12. Let's Make Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang-Jensen, Valerie

    1986-01-01

    A learning experience designed to expand primary students' knowledge of what is and is not magic is described. Included are activities involving language arts, math, art, class discussion, and motor skills. (MT)

  13. Science, Magic, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangler, David G.

    1974-01-01

    The differences which appear when a heavily scientific culture comes in contact with a culture whose basic orientation toward nature and man is of a religious, magical character are briefly investigated. (NQ)

  14. Magic and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian

    2016-05-23

    In recent years, neuroscientists have shown an increasing interest in magic. One reason for this is the parallels that can be drawn between concepts that have long been discussed in magic theory, particularly misdirection, and those that are routinely studied in cognitive neuroscience, such as attention and, as argued in this essay, different forms of memory. A second and perhaps more attractive justification for this growing interest is that magic tricks offer novel experimental approaches to cognitive neuroscience. In fact, magicians continuously demonstrate in very engaging ways one of the most basic principles of brain function - how the brain constructs a subjective reality using assumptions based on relatively little and ambiguous information. PMID:27218839

  15. [Homeopathic medicine and magic].

    PubMed

    Angutek, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    The article compares homeopathic medicine and primitive magic. The author realises formal similarities beetwen these two fields of knowledge. The primitive homeopathic magic characterised by J. G. Frazer in his The Golden Bought announces that "similar courses similar". M. Mauss and H. Hubert added to this "low" an another formula: "similar acts on similar that courses a contrary phenomenon". The last formula is an identic one with the "low" of homeopathic medicine. Moreover there is a similarity between pantheistic religion of Hahnemann and magician beliefs in the power named mana in Melanesia and Polinesia or orenda, wakan, manitou and so on, by the Indians from The North America. The amazing thing is that homeopathic chemists belive that kinetic power transforms itself into esoteric one, during preparation of homeopathic medicines.In the end of this article the author ascertains that homeopathic medicine and magic has certain paradigm in common what is opposit to racionalism of official European paradigm of thinking. PMID:19244731

  16. Manufacturing Magic and Computational Creativity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Howard; McOwan, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes techniques in computational creativity, blending mathematical modeling and psychological insight, to generate new magic tricks. The details of an explicit computational framework capable of creating new magic tricks are summarized, and evaluated against a range of contemporary theories about what constitutes a creative system. To allow further development of the proposed system we situate this approach to the generation of magic in the wider context of other areas of application in computational creativity in performance arts. We show how approaches in these domains could be incorporated to enhance future magic generation systems, and critically review possible future applications of such magic generating computers. PMID:27375533

  17. Manufacturing Magic and Computational Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Howard; McOwan, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes techniques in computational creativity, blending mathematical modeling and psychological insight, to generate new magic tricks. The details of an explicit computational framework capable of creating new magic tricks are summarized, and evaluated against a range of contemporary theories about what constitutes a creative system. To allow further development of the proposed system we situate this approach to the generation of magic in the wider context of other areas of application in computational creativity in performance arts. We show how approaches in these domains could be incorporated to enhance future magic generation systems, and critically review possible future applications of such magic generating computers. PMID:27375533

  18. The "magical" language of Mantra.

    PubMed

    Burchett, Patton E

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to illuminate the phenomenon of mantras and to critique the category of magic through an examination of mantra as magical language. Mantras have often been referred to as "magic formulas" or "spells," yet one searches the scholarly literature in vain for a worthy explanation of precisely why mantra should or should not be considered magical. This essay addresses this lack, (a) explaining how mantra's conflict with modern Western understandings of language has led scholars to conceive of mantra as magic and (b) showing just what is at stake in such characterizations. This examination of mantra will demonstrate how "magic" and related terms have consistently been used not so much to describe as to marginalize and de-authorize that to which they refer. While the issue is partly about flawed terms and categories, the question of mantra as magic ultimately leads to an unsettling confrontation with the limits of our own modern rationalist perspective. PMID:20827826

  19. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  20. Sugar Cane Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  1. Thawing Out Some Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippler, Arthur E.

    1975-01-01

    Psychiatrists have learned that delivering mental health services in a culture long dominated by magical thinking is not easy. Article discussed the problem of bringing the Eskimo into the care of the Alaska Psychiatric Institute and contemporary society. (Editor/RK)

  2. Magic, Morals and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Warren R.

    2010-01-01

    Magic has to do with the supernatural and the unnatural. It is indifferent to natural law and science and is aloof from scientific inquiry. Its existence depends upon unquestioning faith. Granted such faith, it is extraordinarily potent. If it does not move mountains, it convinces the faithful that it can. It can damage health and perhaps, restore…

  3. Magical Ideation and Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Leonard; Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Administered the Eckblad and Chapman (1983) Magical Ideation Scale to groups of paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics and control subjects. Schizophrenics scored significantly higher than nonschizophrenic patients (mainly cases of affective disorder) and normal control subjects. Discusses theoretical and prognostic utility of this finding.…

  4. Helping, Manipulation, and Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Louise A.; Edinburg, Golda M.

    1978-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that an understanding of the primitive origins of the helping process in myth, magic, and ritual may prevent social workers from engaging in practices that negate their clients' ability to work out their own solutions to problems. (Author)

  5. New magic angle bumps and magic translation bumps

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.

    1983-10-28

    SLC beams of opposite charge can be transversely deflected in the same direction by RF fields in the accelerating cavities caused by girder tilts, coupler-asymmetries, or manufacturing errors. A symmetric deflection can be corrected by a magic angle bump if the deflection is located adjacent to one of the linac quadrupoles. However, if the deflection is located between quadrupoles, two magic angle bumps or a magic angle bump and a magic translation bump are needed for the correction. Several examples of translation bumps are included. A new magic angle bump is also presented which is longitudinally compressed and has significantly reduced particle excursions. Finally, if new correctors are added midway along the girders so that the number of correctors are doubled, then the longitudinal extent and the maximum particle excursion of these new magic bumps can be further reduced.

  6. 'Magic Angle Precession'

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-21

    An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

  7. Science meets magic: photonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, Ekmel

    2012-05-01

    The word "magic" is usually associated with movies, fiction, children stories, etc. but seldom with the natural sciences. Recent advances in metamaterials have changed this notion, in which we can now speak of "almost magical" properties that scientists could only dream about only a decade ago. In this article, we review some of the recent "almost magical" progress in the field of meta-materials.

  8. Science meets magic: photonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, Ekmel

    2012-03-01

    The word "magic" is usually associated with movies, fiction, children stories, etc. but seldom with the natural sciences. Recent advances in metamaterials have changed this notion, in which we can now speak of "almost magical" properties that scientists could only dream about only a decade ago. In this article, we review some of the recent "almost magical" progress in the field of meta-materials.

  9. States of antimony and tin atoms in lead chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bordovsky, G. A.; Nemov, S. A.; Marchenko, A. V.; Zaiceva, A. V.; Kozhokar, M. Yu.; Seregin, P. P.

    2011-04-15

    It is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy of the {sup 119}Sb({sup 119m}Sn) isotope that impurity antimony atoms in PbS, PbSe, and PbTe lattices are distributed between cation and anion sublattices. In n-type samples, the greatest part of antimony is located in the anion sublattice; in hole ones, in the cation sublattice. The tin atoms formed as a result of radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb (antisite state) are electrically inactive in the anion sub-lattice of PbS and PbSe, while, in the cation sublattice, they form donor U{sup -} centers. Electron exchange between the neutral and doubly ionized tin U{sup -} centers via the allowed band states is observed. The tin atoms formed after radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb are electrically inactive in the anion and cation sublattices of PbTe.

  10. Magical Landscapes: Two Love Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell

    2002-01-01

    Introduces two books about magic, one a collection of essays "Ex Libris: Confessions of a Common Reader," which describes the author's inherited lifelong passion for books and reading; and the other a novel, "Mangos, Bananas and Coconuts: A Cuban Love Story," which tells a story of love and magic that seems both real and surreal. (SG)

  11. Garden Gnomes: Magical or Tacky?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Garden gnomes: magical or tacky? Well, art is in the eye of the beholder, and for the author's advanced seventh-grade art class, garden gnomes are magical. Gnomes have a very long history, dating back to medieval times. A fairytale describes them as brownie-like creatures that are nocturnal helpers. In this article, the author describes how her…

  12. Old and New Magic Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Talmi, Igal

    2008-11-11

    The discovery of magic numbers led to the shell model. They indicated closure of major shells and are robust: proton magic numbers are rather independent of the occupation of neutron orbits and vice versa. Recently the magic property became less stringent and we hear a lot about the discovery of new magic numbers. These, however, indicate sub-shell closures and strongly depend on occupation numbers and hence, may be called quasi-magic numbers. Some of these have been known for many years and the mechanism for their appearance as well as disappearance, was well understood within the simple shell model. The situation will be illustrated by a few examples which demonstrate the simple features of the shell model. Will this simplicity emerge from the complex computations of nuclear many-body theory?.

  13. The doubly compactified Schwinger model

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, R.; Urrutia, L. F.; Vergara, J. D.

    1999-10-25

    In this note we summarize the exact solution of the doubly compactified Schwinger model (CSM), defined by the condition that the domain of the electromagnetic degree of freedom c=1/L{integral}{sub 0}{sup L}dxA{sub 1} is -c-bar

  14. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  15. Magical ideation and hyperacusis.

    PubMed

    Dubal, Stéphanie; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The subjective experience conferred by auditory perception has rarely been addressed outside of the studies of auditory hallucinations. The aim of this study is to describe the phenomenology of auditory experiences in individuals who endorse magical beliefs, but do not report hallucinations. We examined the relationship between subjective auditory sensitivity and a 'psychotic-like' thinking style. Hyperacusis questionnaire scores were compared between 25 high scoring participants on Chapman's magical ideation (MI) scale, 25 high scoring participants on Chapman's physical anhedonia scale and 25 control participants, pre-selected from a large student pool (n=1289). The participants who obtained high scores on the MI scale rated their auditory sensitivity higher than the two other groups. Our results indicate that, in healthy subjects, subjective auditory sensitivity is associated with MI without the mediation by anxiety commonly observed in pathological cases. We propose that hyperacusis associated to high scores of MI may be a predispositional factor to deviant auditory experiences. The relative uncoupling of perception from auditory sensory input may result in a central hypersensitivity, which could play a role in triggering off the experience of auditory hallucinations. PMID:18640670

  16. The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains two articles concerned with doubly exceptional children and gifted education. In "The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma," (Carol J. Mills and Linda E. Brody), such children do not fit into the usual categories for sorting children because their gifts and disabilities often mask each other. Suggestions are…

  17. MAGIC SHIMMING: gradient shimming with magic angle sample spinning.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Yu; Utsumi, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    A simple method to automatically shim NMR samples spinning at the magic angle is introduced based on the gradient shimming approach. The field inhomogeneity along the spinning axis is measured and automatically corrected. The combination of a normal magic angle spinning (MAS) probe, a conventional homospoil gradient, and a set of properly chosen standard room-temperature shims are used to perform the gradient shimming of samples spinning at the magic angle. The resulting (13)C NMR adamantane linewidth is less than 1 Hz (0.0078 ppm at 11.7 T). PMID:22370722

  18. MAGIC SHIMMING: Gradient shimming with magic angle sample spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Yu; Utsumi, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    A simple method to automatically shim NMR samples spinning at the magic angle is introduced based on the gradient shimming approach. The field inhomogeneity along the spinning axis is measured and automatically corrected. The combination of a normal magic angle spinning (MAS) probe, a conventional homospoil gradient, and a set of properly chosen standard room-temperature shims are used to perform the gradient shimming of samples spinning at the magic angle. The resulting 13C NMR adamantane linewidth is less than 1 Hz (0.0078 ppm at 11.7 T).

  19. Bayesian Magic in Asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinger, T.

    2015-09-01

    Only a few years ago asteroseismic observations were so rare that scientists had plenty of time to work on individual data sets. They could tune their algorithms in any possible way to squeeze out the last bit of information. Nowadays this is impossible. With missions like MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler we basically drown in new data every day. To handle this in a sufficient way statistical methods become more and more important. This is why Bayesian techniques started their triumph march across asteroseismology. I will go with you on a journey through Bayesian Magic Land, that brings us to the sea of granulation background, the forest of peakbagging, and the stony alley of model comparison.

  20. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. PMID:25490128

  1. Doubly rotated contoured quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    Sinha, B K

    2001-09-01

    Doubly rotated contoured quartz resonators are used in the design of temperature-compensated stable clocks and dual-mode sensors for simultaneous measurements of pressure and temperature. The design of these devices is facilitated by models that can predict frequency spectra associated with the three thickness modes and temperature and stress-induced frequency changes as a function of crystalline orientation. The Stevens-Tiersten technique for the analysis of the C-mode of a doubly rotated contoured quartz resonator is extended to include the other two thickness modes. Computational results for harmonic and anharmonic overtones of all three thickness modes of such resonators help in optimizing the radius of curvature of the contour and electrode shape for suppression of unwanted modes and prevention of activity dips. The temperature and stress-induced changes in thickness-mode resonator frequencies are calculated from a perturbation technique for small dynamic fields superposed on a static bias. The static bias refers to either a temperature or stress-induced static deformation of the resonator plate. Phenomenological models are also used for calculating the temperature and stress-induced changes in resonant frequencies as a function of crystalline orientation. Results for the SBTC-cut quartz plate with a spherical convex contour of 260 mm indicate that normal trapping occurs for the third (n = 3) and fifth (n = 5) harmonic of the A-mode, the fundamental (n = 1) and third (n = 3) harmonic of the B-mode, and the fundamental (n = 1) and fifth (n = 5) harmonic of the C-mode. PMID:11570746

  2. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  3. Doubly charmful baryonic B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chua, C.-K.; Tsai, S.-Y.

    2006-04-01

    There are two apparent puzzles connected with the two-body and three-body doubly charmed baryonic B decays. First, earlier calculations based on QCD sum rules or the diquark model predict B(B{sup 0}{yields}{xi}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}){approx_equal}B(B{sup 0}{yields}B{sub c}N), while experimentally the former has a rate 2 orders of magnitude larger than the latter. Second, a naive estimate of the branching ratio O(10{sup -9}) for the color-suppressed three-body decay B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K, which is highly suppressed by phase space, is too small by 5 to 6 orders of magnitude compared to the experiment. We show that the great suppression for the {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K production can be alleviated provided that there exists a narrow hidden charm bound state with a mass near the {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} threshold. This new state that couples strongly to the charmed baryon pair can be searched for in B decays and in pp collisions by studying the mass spectrum of D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)} or {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}. The doubly charmful decay B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} has a configuration more favorable than the singly charmful one such as B{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}p since no hard gluon is needed to produce the energetic {xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} pair in the former decay, while two hard gluons are needed for the latter process. Assuming that a soft qq quark pair is produced through the {sigma} and {pi} meson exchanges in the configuration for B{yields}{xi}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}, it is found that its branching ratio is of order 10{sup -3}, in agreement with the experiment.

  4. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The “magic” that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers. PMID:26486514

  5. Interstellar Travel without 'Magic'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, G.

    The possibility of interstellar space travel has become a popular subject. Distances of light years are an entirely new realm for human space travel. New means of propulsion are needed. Speculation about propulsion has included "magic", space warps, faster-than-light travel, known physics such as antimatter for which no practical implementation is known and also physics for which current research offers at least a hint of implementation, i.e. fusion. Performance estimates are presented for the latter and used to create vehicle concepts. Fusion propulsion will mean travel times of hundreds of years, so we adopt the "space colony" concepts of O'Neill as a ship design that could support a small civilization indefinitely; this provides the technical means. Economic reasoning is presented, arguing that development and production of "space colony" habitats for relief of Earth's population, with addition of fusion engines, will lead to vessels that can go interstellar. Scenarios are presented and a speculative estimate of a timetable is given.

  6. Abject Magic: Reasoning Madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" Trilogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Troy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of magic and madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" trilogy (2005-2007). Throughout the series, magic is constructed as an abject and disabling force that threatens to disable magic-wielders, either through madness or death. Despite being represented as a ubiquitous force, the…

  7. Hollow tin/chromium whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Vianco, Paul T.; Li, James C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Tin whiskers have been an engineering challenge for over five decades. The mechanism has not been agreed upon thus far. This experiment aimed to identify a mechanism by applying compressive stresses to a tin film evaporated on silicon substrate with an adhesion layer of chromium in between. A phenomenon was observed in which hollow whiskers grew inside depleted areas. Using focused ion beam, the hollow whiskers were found to contain both tin and chromium. At the bottom of the depleted areas, thin tin/tin oxide film remained over the chromium layer. It indicates that tin transport occurred along the interface between tin and chromium layers.

  8. Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HD

    This section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.

    This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

  9. Finding All Solutions to the Magic Hexagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason; Karabegov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a systematic approach is given for solving a magic star puzzle that usually is accomplished by trial and error or "brute force." A connection is made to the symmetries of a cube, thus the name Magic Hexahedron.

  10. The magic nature of (132)Sn explored through the single-particle states of (133)Sn.

    PubMed

    Jones, K L; Adekola, A S; Bardayan, D W; Blackmon, J C; Chae, K Y; Chipps, K A; Cizewski, J A; Erikson, L; Harlin, C; Hatarik, R; Kapler, R; Kozub, R L; Liang, J F; Livesay, R; Ma, Z; Moazen, B H; Nesaraja, C D; Nunes, F M; Pain, S D; Patterson, N P; Shapira, D; Shriner, J F; Smith, M S; Swan, T P; Thomas, J S

    2010-05-27

    Atomic nuclei have a shell structure in which nuclei with 'magic numbers' of neutrons and protons are analogous to the noble gases in atomic physics. Only ten nuclei with the standard magic numbers of both neutrons and protons have so far been observed. The nuclear shell model is founded on the precept that neutrons and protons can move as independent particles in orbitals with discrete quantum numbers, subject to a mean field generated by all the other nucleons. Knowledge of the properties of single-particle states outside nuclear shell closures in exotic nuclei is important for a fundamental understanding of nuclear structure and nucleosynthesis (for example the r-process, which is responsible for the production of about half of the heavy elements). However, as a result of their short lifetimes, there is a paucity of knowledge about the nature of single-particle states outside exotic doubly magic nuclei. Here we measure the single-particle character of the levels in (133)Sn that lie outside the double shell closure present at the short-lived nucleus (132)Sn. We use an inverse kinematics technique that involves the transfer of a single nucleon to the nucleus. The purity of the measured single-particle states clearly illustrates the magic nature of (132)Sn. PMID:20505723

  11. The magic nature of 132Sn explored through the single-particle states of 133Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L.; Adekola, Aderemi S; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Cizewski, J. A.; Erikson, Luke; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Kapler, R.; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Nunes, F. M.; Pain, S. D.; Patterson, N. P.; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.

    2010-05-01

    Atomic nuclei have a shell structure1 in which nuclei with magic numbers of neutrons and protons are analogous to the noble gases in atomic physics. Only ten nuclei with the standard magic numbers of both neutrons and protons have so far been observed. The nuclear shell model is founded on the precept that neutrons and protons can move as independent particles in orbitals with discrete quantum numbers, subject to a mean field generated by all the other nucleons. Knowledge of the properties of single-particle states outside nuclear shell closures in exotic nuclei is important2 5 for a fundamental understanding of nuclear structure and nucleosynthesis (for example the r-process, which is responsible for the production of about half of the heavy elements). However, as a result of their short lifetimes, there is a paucity of knowledge about the nature of single-particle states outside exotic doubly magic nuclei. Here we measure the single-particle character of the levels in 133Sn that lies outside the double shell closure present at the short-lived nucleus 132Sn. We use an inverse kinematics technique that involves the transfer of a single nucleon to the nucleus. The purity of the measured single-particle states clearly illustrates the magic nature of 132Sn.

  12. Probing the N =32 Shell Closure below the Magic Proton Number Z =20 : Mass Measurements of the Exotic Isotopes K,5352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbusch, M.; Ascher, P.; Atanasov, D.; Barbieri, C.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Cipollone, A.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Navrátil, P.; Neidherr, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Somà, V.; Stanja, J.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    The recently confirmed neutron-shell closure at N =32 has been investigated for the first time below the magic proton number Z =20 with mass measurements of the exotic isotopes K,5352 , the latter being the shortest-lived nuclide investigated at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The resulting two-neutron separation energies reveal a 3 MeV shell gap at N =32 , slightly lower than for 52Ca, highlighting the doubly magic nature of this nuclide. Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and ab initio Gorkov-Green function calculations are challenged by the new measurements but reproduce qualitatively the observed shell effect.

  13. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  14. Magical attachment: Children in magical relations with hospital clowns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to achieve a theoretical understanding of several different-age children's experiences of magic relations with hospital clowns in the context of medical care, and to do so using psychological theory and a child perspective. The method used was qualitative and focused on nine children. The results showed that age was important to consider in better understanding how the children experienced the relation with the hospital clowns, how they described the magical aspects of the encounter and how they viewed the importance of clown encounters to their own well-being. The present theoretical interpretation characterized the encounter with hospital clowns as a magical safe area, an intermediate area between fantasy and reality. The discussion presented a line of reasoning concerning a magical attachment between the child and the hospital clowns, stating that this attachment: a) comprised a temporary relation; b) gave anonymity; c) entailed reversed roles; and d) created an emotional experience of boundary-transcending opportunities. PMID:22371813

  15. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  16. Magic and the School Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruill, David A.; Poidevant, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses philosophy used to build student interest in various lesson topics taught to guidance groups. Presents three magic activities complete with lesson plans: How to Change Big Problems into Little Ones and How to Keep Little Problems from Getting Bigger; Teaching Friendship Skills and Becoming Aware of Your Feelings; and What Does Your…

  17. GRB neutrino search with MAGIC

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Julia K.; Rhode, Wolfgang; Gaug, Markus

    2008-05-22

    The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope was designed for the detection of photon sources > or approx. 50 GeV. The measurement of highly-inclined air showers renders possible the search for high-energy neutrinos, too. Only neutrinos can traverse the Earth without interaction, and therefore, events close to the horizon can be identified as neutrino-induced rather than photon-induced or hadronic events. In this paper, Swift-XRT-detected GRBs with given spectral information are used in order to calculate the potential neutrino energy spectrum from prompt and afterglow emission for each individual GRB. The event rate in MAGIC is estimated assuming that the GRB happens within the field of view of MAGIC. A sample of 568 long GRBs as detected by BATSE is used to compare the detection rates with 163 Swift-detected bursts. BATSE has properties similar to the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board of GLAST. Therefore the estimated rates give an estimate for the possibilities of neutrino detection with MAGIC from GLAST-triggered bursts.

  18. Magic star puzzle for educational mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yee Siang; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2013-04-01

    One of the interesting fields in recreational mathematics is the magic number arrangement. There are different kinds of arrays in the arrangement for a group of numbers. In particular, one of the arrays in magic number arrangement is called magic star. In fact, magic star involves combinatorics that contributes to geometrical analysis and number theory. Hence, magic star is suitable to be introduced as educational mathematics to cultivate interest in different area of mathematics. To obtain the solutions of normal magic stars of order six, the possible sets of numbers for every line in a magic star have been considered. Previously, the calculation for obtaining the solutions has been done manually which is time-consuming. Therefore, a programming code to generate all the fundamental solutions for normal magic star of order six without including the properties of rotation and reflection has been done. In this puzzle, a magic star puzzle is created by using Matlab software, which enables a user to verify the entries for the cells of magic star of order six. Moreover, it is also user-friendly as it provides interactive commands on the inputs given by the user, which enables the user to detect the incorrect inputs. In addition, user can also choose to view all the fundamental solutions as generated by the programming code.

  19. Mineral of the month: tin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Tin was one of the first metals discovered by humans and, like most metals, tin is rarely used by itself. Most tin is used as a protective coating or as an alloy with other metals in a diverse range of commercial and defense applications.

  20. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  1. Towards a science of magic.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Gustav; Amlani, Alym A; Rensink, Ronald A

    2008-09-01

    It is argued here that cognitive science currently neglects an important source of insight into the human mind: the effects created by magicians. Over the centuries, magicians have learned how to perform acts that are perceived as defying the laws of nature, and that induce a strong sense of wonder. This article argues that the time has come to examine the scientific bases behind such phenomena, and to create a science of magic linked to relevant areas of cognitive science. Concrete examples are taken from three areas of magic: the ability to control attention, to distort perception, and to influence choice. It is shown how such knowledge can help develop new tools and indicate new avenues of research into human perception and cognition. PMID:18693130

  2. Secrets of the Chinese magic mirror replica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Yip, Din-yan

    2001-03-01

    We examine the structure of five Chinese magic mirror replicas using a special imaging technique developed by the authors. All mirrors are found to have a two-layered structure. The reflecting surface that gives rise to a projected magic pattern on the screen is hidden under a polished half-reflecting top layer. An alternative method of making the magic mirror using ancient technology has been proposed. Finally, we suggest a simple method of reconstructing a mirror replica in the laboratory.

  3. Revelation of Double Magicity in N = Z Nuclei in the RP-Process Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M. M.; Sharma, J. K.

    2010-04-30

    In rapid-proton capture (rp-process), N = Z nuclei above Ni are understood to act as waiting-point nuclei. The N = Z nuclei {sup 68}Se, {sup 72}Kr, {sup 76}Sr and {sup 80}Zr among others are known to give rise to a large-energy x-ray flux and peaks in abundances of these nuclei synthesized in the astrophysical rp-process. Investigating the experimental isotope shifts in Kr isotopes near the proton drip-line within the framework of the deformed Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory, we have discovered that N = Z rp-process nuclei {sup 68}Se, {sup 72}Kr, {sup 76}Sr and {sup 80}Zr exhibit large shell gap both at the proton and neutron numbers in the deformed space with the consequence that pairing correlations for protons and neutrons vanish. This lends a doubly magic character to these nuclei. A significant number of nuclei in this region are also shown to exhibit neutron magicity at N = 34, 36, 38, and 40 in the deformed space. A unique case of concomitance of the double magicity and the shape-coexistence is found for {sup 68}Se.

  4. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance: Efficient dipolar recovery in magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, N. C.; Bildsøe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Levitt, M. H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe an efficient method for the recovery of homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions in magic-angle spinning NMR. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance (2Q-HORROR) is established by fulfilling the condition ωr=2ω1, where ωr is the sample rotation frequency and ω1 is the nutation frequency around an applied resonant radio frequency (rf) field. This resonance can be used for double-quantum filtering and measurement of homonuclear dipolar interactions in the presence of magic-angle spinning. The spin dynamics depend only weakly on crystallite orientation allowing good performance for powder samples. Chemical shift effects are suppressed to zeroth order. The method is demonstrated for singly and doubly 13C labeled L-alanine.

  5. Decays of doubly charmed meson molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, R.; Nagahiro, H.; Hosaka, A.

    2016-01-01

    If the X(3872), Y(3940) and X(4160) are D*D ¯+c .c ., D*D ¯* and DS*D¯S* molecules, respectively, there should be doubly charmed mesons (D(*)D(*)). In this talk we predict two states with JP = 1+ in the charm = 2 sector, one DD* state around 3850 MeV, other D*D* state with mass around 3970 MeV, and other two similar states in the (charm = 2; strangeness = sector. Besides that, we evaluate the decay widths of doubly charm mesons D*D*(1+), into DDπ and DDγ. These decays are mediated by anomalous couplings D*D* - DD*, with the subsequent decay of D* into Dπ or Dγ.

  6. Entropy production of doubly stochastic quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Stilck França, Daniel; Wolf, Michael M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the entropy increase of quantum systems evolving under primitive, doubly stochastic Markovian noise and thus converging to the maximally mixed state. This entropy increase can be quantified by a logarithmic-Sobolev constant of the Liouvillian generating the noise. We prove a universal lower bound on this constant that stays invariant under taking tensor-powers. Our methods involve a new comparison method to relate logarithmic-Sobolev constants of different Liouvillians and a technique to compute logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities of Liouvillians with eigenvectors forming a projective representation of a finite abelian group. Our bounds improve upon similar results established before and as an application we prove an upper bound on continuous-time quantum capacities. In the last part of this work we study entropy production estimates of discrete-time doubly stochastic quantum channels by extending the framework of discrete-time logarithmic-Sobolev inequalities to the quantum case.

  7. Filtering Characteristics of Doubly Sinusoidal Periodic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tian-Lin; Chen, Ping

    2006-03-01

    Dispersion and filtering characteristics of doubly sinusoidal periodic (DSP) medium is investigated. Based on its feature different from singly sinusoidal periodic medium, a novel dual-band filter model is realized and measured. The results show that even a single unit cell of DSP medium can provide rather good filtering performance. And the filter is of perfect compatibility with regular waveguide and substrate integrated waveguide technology.

  8. Three-charge doubly rotating black ring

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.

    2010-02-15

    Using the recently proposed new solution generating technique, we construct the charged version of the Pomeranski-Senkov doubly rotating black ring in the U(1){sup 3} five-dimensional supergravity. For arbitrary values of charges the solution is unbalanced, but the Dirac-Misner string is removed when two of the charges are set to zero. In this particular case our solution can be uplifted to some solutions of six-dimensional vacuum gravity.

  9. On the Magic Square and Inverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzaidi, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    In this note, we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix without using the usual methods for finding the inverse of a matrix. Also we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix whose entries are also matrices. By using these ideas, we can construct large matrices whose…

  10. The Role of Statistics in Management Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Technology and magic both represent the human will to power - to dominate nature and ultimately humans. In a technological civilization, magic imitates technology. Modern management often entails psychological techniques (the human relations approach) and organizational techniques (the scientific approach). The heart of the latter is statistical…

  11. Algebra Magic Tricks: Algecadabra! Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ronald

    This resource book contains 20 magic tricks based on the properties of whole numbers that are intended to spark the interest and imagination of students. Following each activity, students are asked to write about their discoveries and to create their own magic tricks. A matrix of skills for all the activities and lists of the materials required…

  12. Algebra Magic Tricks: Algecadabra! Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ronald

    This resource book contains 15 magic tricks based on the properties of whole numbers that are intended to spark the interest and imagination of students. Following each activity, students are asked to write about their discoveries and to create their own magic tricks. A matrix of skills for all the activities and lists of the materials required…

  13. Using Magic Words to Teach Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that uses subordinating conjunctions and prepositions as "magic words." After a lesson or unit of study, students write content specific sentences using the "magic" conjunctions and prepositions. This activity serves as a unit review, helps with concept formation, and increases writing skills. (MJP)

  14. The magic of social thought.

    PubMed

    Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2014-10-01

    Studying social thinking provides a promising field of investigation for the constitution of common knowledge in communication and action of historically and culturally situated groups. Its genealogy helps the understanding of the symbolic efficacy of social practices and their own operating collective logic. The English translation of a short version of Serge Moscovici's article on the new magical thinking allows a wider audience to gain access, for the first time, to a text that perfectly illustrates the currentness and relevance of the social psychology of knowledge. PMID:25288162

  15. On the Power of Reusable Magic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jonas

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we study reusable magic states. These states are a subset of the standard magic states. Once distilled, reusable magic states can be used repeatedly to apply some unitary U. Given this property, reusable magic states have the potential to greatly lower qubit and gate overhead in fault-tolerant quantum computation. While these states have some potential for lowering overhead, we provide a strong argument for their limited computational power. Specifically, we show that if reusable magic states can be used to apply non-Clifford unitaries, then we can exploit them to efficiently simulate poly-sized quantum circuits on a classical computer. JTA was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Grant 0829944. JTA was supported in part by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  16. The Southeast Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Rajah, S. S.; Askury, A. K.; Putthapiban, P.; Djaswadi, S.

    1995-07-01

    The Southeast Asian Tin Belt is a north-south elongate zone 2800 km long and 400 km wide, extending from Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand to Peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian Tin Islands. Altogether 9.6 million tonnes of tin, equivalent to 54% of the world's tin production is derived from this region. Most of the granitoids in the region can be grouped geographically into elongate provinces or belts, based on petrographic and geochronological features. - The Main Range Granitoid Province in western Peninsular Malaysia, southern Peninsular Thailand and central Thailand is almost entirely made up of biotite granite (184-230 Ma). Tin deposits associated with these granites contributed 55% of the historic tin production of Southeast Asia. - The Northern Granitoid Province in northern Thailand (0.1% of tin production) also has dominant biotite granite (200-269 Ma) but it is distinguished by abundant post-intrusion deformation. - The Eastern Granitoid Province extends from eastern Peninsular Malaysia to eastern Thailand. The Malaysian part is subdivided into the East Coast Belt (220-263 Ma), Boundary Range Belt (197-257 Ma) and Central Belt (79-219 Ma). The granitoids cover a wide compositional range from biotite granite to hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite and diorite-gabbro. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite in the East Coast Belt (3% of tin production). The granitoids in the other areas of the Eastern Granitoid Province are barren. - The Western Granitoid Province (22-149 Ma) in northern Peninsular Thailand, western Thailand and Burma has biotite granite and hornblende-biotite granite/granodiorite. Tin deposits are associated with biotite granite, which probably is the dominant phase (14% of tin production). The granitoids of the Indonesian Tin Islands (193-251 Ma) do not permit grouping into geographically distinct units. Main Range-type and Eastern Province-type plutons occur next to each other. Most of the tin deposits are associated with Main

  17. Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

  18. Mirroring Doubly Excited Resonances in Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Canton-Rogan, S. E.; Wills, A. A.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Wiedenhoeft, M.; Nayandin, O.; Liu, Chien-Nan; Berrah, N.

    2000-10-09

    New features are revealed in the low-energy photoionization spectrum of Ar by critically combining high photon resolution and differential photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. Two LS -forbidden doubly excited resonances are seen in the 3p{sup -1}{sub 3/2,1/2} partial cross sections which exhibit mirroring profiles, resulting in complete cancellation in the total photoionization cross section, as was predicted by Liu and Starace [Phys.Rev.A 59, R1731 (1999)]. These results demonstrate that a new class of weakly spin-orbit induced, mirroring resonances should be observable in partial, but not in total, collisional cross sections involving atoms, molecules, and solids in general.

  19. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  20. Magic wavelengths for terahertz clock transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaoji; Xu Xia; Chen Xuzong; Chen Jingbiao

    2010-01-15

    Magic wavelengths for laser trapping of boson isotopes of alkaline-earth metal atoms Sr, Ca, and Mg are investigated while considering terahertz clock transitions between the {sup 3}P{sub 0}, {sup 3}P{sub 1}, and {sup 3}P{sub 2} metastable triplet states. Our calculation shows that magic wavelengths for laser trapping do exist. This result is important because those metastable states have already been used to make accurate clocks in the terahertz frequency domain. Detailed discussions for magic wavelengths for terahertz clock transitions are given in this article.

  1. The magic of relay mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Edward A.; Washburn, Donald C.

    2004-09-01

    Laser weapon systems would be significantly enhanced with the addition of high altitude or space-borne relay mirrors. Such mirrors, operating alone with a directed energy source, or many in a series fashion, can be shown to effectively move the laser source to the last, so-called fighting mirror. This "magically" reduces the range to target and offers to enhance the performance of directed energy systems like the Airborne Laser and even ground-based or ship-based lasers. Recent development of high altitude airships will be shown to provide stationary positions for such relay mirrors thereby enabling many new and important applications for laser weapons. The technical challenges to achieve this capability are discussed.

  2. Insurance, risk, and magical thinking.

    PubMed

    Tykocinski, Orit E

    2008-10-01

    The possession of an insurance policy may not only affect the severity of a potential loss but also its perceived probability. Intuitively, people may feel that if they are insured nothing bad is likely to happen, but if they do not have insurance they are at greater peril. In Experiment 1, respondents who were reminded of their medical insurance felt they were less likely to suffer health problems in the future compared to people who were not reminded of their medical insurance. In Experiment 2a, participants who were unable to purchase travel insurance judged the probability of travel-related calamities higher compared to those who were insured. These results were replicated in Experiment 3a in a simulation of car accident insurance. The findings are explained in terms of intuitive magical thinking, specifically, the negative affective consequences of "tempting fate" and the sense of safety afforded by the notion of "being covered." PMID:18612038

  3. On magic numbers for super- and ultraheavy systems and hypothetical spherical double-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Ellithi, A. Y.; Adel, A.; Anwer, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Based on the calculations of the shell and the residual pairing correction energies in the framework of Strutinsky's approach, we evaluated the proton and neutron magic numbers in the range 72 ≤ Z ≤ 282 and 96 ≤ N ≤ 540. New magic numbers and new islands of stability lie in a range defined by Green's formula and the two-neutrons drip lines are presented. Our calculations reproduced known spherical double-magic nuclei and present evidences on new spherical double-magic nuclei in super- and ultraheavy regions.

  4. Designing and modeling doubly porous polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, H.-B.; Le Droumaguet, B.; Monchiet, V.; Grande, D.

    2015-07-01

    Doubly porous organic materials based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) are synthetized through the use of two distinct types of porogen templates, namely a macroporogen and a nanoporogen. Two complementary strategies are implemented by using either sodium chloride particles or fused poly(methyl methacrylate) beads as macroporogens, in conjunction with ethanol as a porogenic solvent. The porogen removal respectively allows for the generation of either non-interconnected or interconnected macropores with an average diameter of about 100-200 μm and nanopores with sizes lying within the 100 nm order of magnitude, as evidenced by mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Nitrogen sorption measurements evidence the formation of materials with rather high specific surface areas, i.e. higher than 140 m2.g-1. This paper also addresses the development of numerical tools for computing the permeability of such doubly porous materials. Due to the coexistence of well separated scales between nanopores and macropores, a consecutive double homogenization approach is proposed. A nanoscopic scale and a mesoscopic scale are introduced, and the flow is evaluated by means of the Finite Element Method to determine the macroscopic permeability. At the nanoscopic scale, the flow is described by the Stokes equations with an adherence condition at the solid surface. At the mesoscopic scale, the flow obeys the Stokes equations in the macropores and the Darcy equation in the permeable polymer in order to account for the presence of the nanopores.

  5. [Magical and religious healing in Byzantium].

    PubMed

    Józsa, László

    2010-01-01

    Religious and magical ways of healing have been known and practiced since the very beginning of human history. In the present article, the Byzantine philosophical, cultural, historical and "methodological" aspects of this way of healing are discussed. The article outlines the development of magic healing in Byzantium from the 4th to the 15th century. During this period magical therapy included the cult of patron saints--listed by the author--and pleading for divine intervention as well. The activity of "anargyroi" and the use of magical objects and amulets is also discussed in detail. Exorcism was also a part of religious therapy both against psychical and somatical diseases. In early Christianity, and especially in Byzantium the devil or other demons were also supposed to cause various somatical or psychical illnesses by "intrusion" or "internalisation," i.e. by possession or obsession of their victims. PMID:21661260

  6. Recent Results from the MAGIC Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, Rudolf K.

    2005-02-21

    Some recent results are shown, obtained during the commissioning period of the MAGIC telescope. They demonstrate that the telescope is now approaching a performance level suitable for physics observations.

  7. Clinching First Place: Calculating the Magic Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan in which students apply their mathematical intuition to determine win-loss possibilities of teams in a sports league and develop a formula for calculating the magic number for clinching first place. (YDS)

  8. Ground and excited states of doubly open-shell nuclei from ab initio valence-space Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroberg, S. R.; Hergert, H.; Holt, J. D.; Bogner, S. K.; Schwenk, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present ab initio predictions for ground and excited states of doubly open-shell fluorine and neon isotopes based on chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions. We use the in-medium similarity renormalization group to derive mass-dependent s d valence-space Hamiltonians. The experimental ground-state energies are reproduced through neutron number N =14 , beyond which a new targeted normal-ordering procedure improves agreement with data and large-space multireference calculations. For spectroscopy, we focus on neutron-rich F-2623 and Ne-2624 isotopes near N =14 ,16 magic numbers. In all cases we find agreement with experiment and established phenomenology. Moreover, yrast states are well described in 20Ne and 24Mg, providing a path toward an ab initio description of deformation in the medium-mass region.

  9. The magic angle: a solved mystery.

    PubMed

    Jouffrey, B; Schattschneider, P; Hébert, C

    2004-12-01

    We resolve the long-standing mysterious discrepancy between the experimental magic angle in EELS--approximately 2theta(E)--and the quantum mechanical prediction of approximately 4theta(E). A relativistic approach surpassing the usually applied kinematic correction yields a magic angle close to the experimental value. The reason is that the relativistic correction of the inelastic scattering cross section in anisotropic systems is significantly higher than in isotropic ones. PMID:15556701

  10. Working wonders? investigating insight with magic tricks.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We propose a new approach to differentiate between insight and noninsight problem solving, by introducing magic tricks as problem solving domain. We argue that magic tricks are ideally suited to investigate representational change, the key mechanism that yields sudden insight into the solution of a problem, because in order to gain insight into the magicians' secret method, observers must overcome implicit constraints and thus change their problem representation. In Experiment 1, 50 participants were exposed to 34 different magic tricks, asking them to find out how the trick was accomplished. Upon solving a trick, participants indicated if they had reached the solution either with or without insight. Insight was reported in 41.1% of solutions. The new task domain revealed differences in solution accuracy, time course and solution confidence with insight solutions being more likely to be true, reached earlier, and obtaining higher confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, we explored which role self-imposed constraints actually play in magic tricks. 62 participants were presented with 12 magic tricks. One group received verbal cues, providing solution relevant information without giving the solution away. The control group received no informative cue. Experiment 2 showed that participants' constraints were suggestible to verbal cues, resulting in higher solution rates. Thus, magic tricks provide more detailed information about the differences between insightful and noninsightful problem solving, and the underlying mechanisms that are necessary to have an insight. PMID:24300080

  11. Evidence for a new nuclear 'magic number' from the level structure of 54Ca.

    PubMed

    Steppenbeck, D; Takeuchi, S; Aoi, N; Doornenbal, P; Matsushita, M; Wang, H; Baba, H; Fukuda, N; Go, S; Honma, M; Lee, J; Matsui, K; Michimasa, S; Motobayashi, T; Nishimura, D; Otsuka, T; Sakurai, H; Shiga, Y; Söderström, P-A; Sumikama, T; Suzuki, H; Taniuchi, R; Utsuno, Y; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Yoneda, K

    2013-10-10

    Atomic nuclei are finite quantum systems composed of two distinct types of fermion--protons and neutrons. In a manner similar to that of electrons orbiting in an atom, protons and neutrons in a nucleus form shell structures. In the case of stable, naturally occurring nuclei, large energy gaps exist between shells that fill completely when the proton or neutron number is equal to 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 or 126 (ref. 1). Away from stability, however, these so-called 'magic numbers' are known to evolve in systems with a large imbalance of protons and neutrons. Although some of the standard shell closures can disappear, new ones are known to appear. Studies aiming to identify and understand such behaviour are of major importance in the field of experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Here we report a spectroscopic study of the neutron-rich nucleus (54)Ca (a bound system composed of 20 protons and 34 neutrons) using proton knockout reactions involving fast radioactive projectiles. The results highlight the doubly magic nature of (54)Ca and provide direct experimental evidence for the onset of a sizable subshell closure at neutron number 34 in isotopes far from stability. PMID:24108051

  12. Entropy and the Magic Flute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morowitz, Harold J.

    1996-10-01

    Harold Morowitz has long been highly regarded both as an eminent scientist and as an accomplished science writer. The essays in The Wine of Life , his first collection, were hailed by C.P. Snow as "some of the wisest, wittiest and best informed I have ever read," and Carl Sagan called them "a delight to read." In later volumes he established a reputation for a wide-ranging intellect, an ability to see unexpected connections and draw striking parallels, and a talent for communicating scientific ideas with optimism and wit. With Entropy and the Magic Flute , Morowitz once again offers an appealing mix of brief reflections on everything from litmus paper to the hippopotamus to the sociology of Palo Alto coffee shops. Many of these pieces are appreciations of scientists that Morowitz holds in high regard, while others focus on health issues, such as America's obsession with cheese toppings. There is also a fascinating piece on the American Type Culture Collection, a zoo or warehouse for microbes that houses some 11,800 strains of bacteria, and over 3,000 specimens of protozoa, algae, plasmids, and oncogenes. Here then are over forty light, graceful essays in which one of our wisest experimental biologists comments on issues of science, technology, society, philosophy, and the arts.

  13. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

    1996-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Recent Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Radioactive Tin Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K. L.; Ahn, S.; Allmond, J. M.; Ayres, A.; Bardayan, D. W.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Bey, A.; Bingham, C.; Cartegni, L.; Cerizza, G.; Chae, K. Y.; Cizewski, J. A.; Gade, A.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garcia-Ruiz, R. F.; Grzywacz, R.; Howard, M. E.; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J. F.; Manning, B.; Matoš, M.; McDaniel, S.; Miller, D.; Nesaraja, C. D.; O'Malley, P. D.; Padgett, S.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, D. C.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Schmitt, K. T.; Shore, A.; Smith, M. S.; Stracener, D. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Tostevin, J.; Varner, R. L.; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.; Winkler, R.

    2015-01-01

    Direct reaction techniques are powerful tools to study the single-particle nature of nuclei. Performing direct reactions on short-lived nuclei requires radioactive ion beams produced either via fragmentation or the Isotope Separation OnLine (ISOL) method. Some of the most interesting regions to study with direct reactions are close to the magic numbers where changes in shell structure can be tracked. These changes can impact the final abundances of explosive nucleosynthesis. The structure of the chain of tin isotopes is strongly influenced by the Z = 50 proton shell closure, as well as the neutron shell closures lying in the neutron-rich, N = 82, and neutron-deficient, N = 50, regions. Here, we present two examples of direct reactions on exotic tin isotopes. The first uses a one-neutron transfer reaction and a low-energy reaccelerated ISOL beam to study states in Sn-131 from across the N = 82 shell closure. The second example utilizes a one-neutron knockout reaction on fragmentation beams of neutron-deficient Sn-106,108Sn. In conclusion, In both cases, measurements of γ rays in coincidence with charged particles proved to be invaluable.

  15. Recent Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Radioactive Tin Beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jones, K. L.; Ahn, S.; Allmond, J. M.; Ayres, A.; Bardayan, D. W.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Bey, A.; Bingham, C.; et al

    2015-01-01

    Direct reaction techniques are powerful tools to study the single-particle nature of nuclei. Performing direct reactions on short-lived nuclei requires radioactive ion beams produced either via fragmentation or the Isotope Separation OnLine (ISOL) method. Some of the most interesting regions to study with direct reactions are close to the magic numbers where changes in shell structure can be tracked. These changes can impact the final abundances of explosive nucleosynthesis. The structure of the chain of tin isotopes is strongly influenced by the Z = 50 proton shell closure, as well as the neutron shell closures lying in the neutron-rich, Nmore » = 82, and neutron-deficient, N = 50, regions. Here, we present two examples of direct reactions on exotic tin isotopes. The first uses a one-neutron transfer reaction and a low-energy reaccelerated ISOL beam to study states in Sn-131 from across the N = 82 shell closure. The second example utilizes a one-neutron knockout reaction on fragmentation beams of neutron-deficient Sn-106,108Sn. In conclusion, In both cases, measurements of γ rays in coincidence with charged particles proved to be invaluable.« less

  16. Stability of superheavy nuclei produced in actinide-based complete fusion reactions: Evidence for the next magic proton number at Z{>=}120

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Sargsyan, V. V.

    2009-05-15

    Using the experimental evaporation residue cross sections in the {sup 48}Ca-induced complete fusion reactions and the complete fusion cross sections calculated within the dinuclear system model, the survival probabilities of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z=112-116 and 118 in the xn-evaporation channels are extracted. The effects of angular momentum and deformations of colliding nuclei are taken into account. The obtained dependence of the survival probability on Z indicates the next doubly magic nucleus beyond {sup 208}Pb at Z{>=}120.

  17. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Banerjee, S.; Jackson, M.; Solheid, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is a multi-user facility to establish and maintain a state-of-the-art relational database and digital archive for rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to make such data generally available and to provide an information technology infrastructure for these and other research-oriented databases run by the international community. As its name implies, MagIC will not be restricted to paleomagnetic or rock magnetic data only, although MagIC will focus on these kinds of information during its setup phase. MagIC will be hosted under EarthRef.org at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/ where two "integrated" web portals will be developed, one for paleomagnetism (currently functional as a prototype that can be explored via the http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/ link) and one for rock magnetism. The MagIC database will store all measurements and their derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and their intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). Ultimately, this database will allow researchers to study "on the internet" and to download important data sets that display paleo-secular variations in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field over geological time, or that display magnetic data in typical Zijderveld, hysteresis/FORC and various magnetization/remanence diagrams. The MagIC database is completely integrated in the EarthRef.org relational database structure and thus benefits significantly from already-existing common database components, such as the EarthRef Reference Database (ERR) and Address Book (ERAB). The ERR allows researchers to find complete sets of literature resources as used in GERM (Geochemical Earth Reference Model), REM (Reference Earth Model) and MagIC. The ERAB contains addresses for all contributors to the EarthRef.org databases, and also for those who participated in data collection, archiving and

  18. A Simple Parameterization of 3 x 3 Magic Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkler, Gotz; Schmidt, Karsten; Trenkler, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    In this article a new parameterization of magic squares of order three is presented. This parameterization permits an easy computation of their inverses, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and adjoints. Some attention is paid to the Luoshu, one of the oldest magic squares.

  19. Origins of magic: review of genetic and epigenetic effects

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence for a genetic basis to magic. Design Literature review. Setting Harry Potter novels of J K Rowling. Participants Muggles, witches, wizards, and squibs. Interventions Limited. Main outcome measures Family and twin studies, magical ability, and specific magical skills. Results Magic shows strong evidence of heritability, with familial aggregation and concordance in twins. Evidence suggests magical ability to be a quantitative trait. Specific magical skills, notably being able to speak to snakes, predict the future, and change hair colour, all seem heritable. Conclusions A multilocus model with a dominant gene for magic might exist, controlled epistatically by one or more loci, possibly recessive in nature. Magical enhancers regulating gene expressionmay be involved, combined with mutations at specific genes implicated in speech and hair colour such as FOXP2 and MCR1. PMID:18156238

  20. The Moore-Penrose Inverse of Block Magic Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakopian, Y. R.; Eloyan, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    As is known, a semi-magic square is an "n x n" matrix having the sum of entries in each row and each column equal to a constant. This note generalizes this notion and introduce a special class of block matrices called "block magic rectangles." It is proved that the Moore-Penrose inverse of a block magic rectangle is also a block magic rectangle.

  1. Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastin, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills eight one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

  2. Doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions: solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jenny; Chan, Po Shan; Sun, Caiming; Wing Ho, Choi; Tam, Wing Yim

    2010-04-01

    We have fabricated doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions using a double-exposure two-beam interference from two light sources with different wavelengths. The doubly slanted layers, with different spacings and overlapping with each other, are fabricated such that they are slanted in opposite directions making a 30° angle with the holographic plate. The doubly slanted layer structures exhibit photonic stop bands corresponding to the two layered structures. More importantly, diffracted light beams from the slanted layers travel in different directions and emerge, through internal reflections, at the opposite edges of the gelatin plate. The doubly slanted layer structures could be used as solar concentrators such that sunlight is separated into different components and steered directly to photovoltaics with the corresponding wavelength sensitivities to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  3. Signatures of doubly-charged Higgsinos at colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Demir, D. A.; Frank, M.; Turan, I.; Huitu, K.; Rai, S. K.

    2008-11-23

    Several supersymmetric models with extended gauge structures predict light doubly-charged Higgsinos. Their distinctive signature at the large hadron collider is highlighted by studying its production and decay characteristics.

  4. Color fluxes in the production of doubly heavy baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, S. P.

    2007-04-15

    The production of doubly heavy baryons in hadron-hadron collisions is considered. A method is proposed for decomposing the respective differential cross section into parts associated with contributions of various color-flux configurations.

  5. Atmospheric monitoring in MAGIC and data corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruck, Christian; Gaug, Markus

    2015-03-01

    A method for analyzing returns of a custom-made "micro"-LIDAR system, operated alongside the two MAGIC telescopes is presented. This method allows for calculating the transmission through the atmospheric boundary layer as well as thin cloud layers. This is achieved by applying exponential fits to regions of the back-scattering signal that are dominated by Rayleigh scattering. Making this real-time transmission information available for the MAGIC data stream allows to apply atmospheric corrections later on in the analysis. Such corrections allow for extending the effective observation time of MAGIC by including data taken under adverse atmospheric conditions. In the future they will help reducing the systematic uncertainties of energy and flux.

  6. Au40: A Large Tetrahedral Magic Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Deen; Walter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    40 is a magic number for tetrahedral symmetry predicted in both nuclear physics and the electronic jellium model. We show that Au{sub 40} could be such a magic cluster from density functional theory-based basin hopping for global minimization. The putative global minimum found for Au{sub 40} has a twisted pyramid structure, reminiscent of the famous tetrahedral Au{sub 20}, and a sizable HOMO-LUMO gap of 0.69 eV, indicating its molecular nature. Analysis of the electronic states reveals that the gap is related to shell closings of the metallic electrons in a tetrahedrally distorted effective potential.

  7. Au40: A large tetrahedral magic cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, De-En; Walter, Michael

    2011-11-01

    40 is a magic number for tetrahedral symmetry predicted in both nuclear physics and the electronic jellium model. We show that Au40 could be such a a magic cluster from density functional theory-based basin hopping for global minimization. The putative global minimum found for Au40 has a twisted pyramid structure, reminiscent of the famous tetrahedral Au20, and a sizable HOMO-LUMO gap of 0.69 eV, indicating its molecular nature. Analysis of the electronic states reveals that the gap is related to shell closings of the metallic electrons in a tetrahedrally distorted effective potential.

  8. The Reflecting Surface of the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Galante, N.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Pepato, A.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Scalzotto, V.; Tonello, N.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    ˇ The MAGIC Collab oration is starting to operate the Cerenkov telescope with the largest reflecting surface, in order to lower the energy threshold well ˇ below 100 GeV. The MAGIC (Ma jor Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cerenkov) telescope has a 17 m diameter parab olic surface F/1, consisting of 956 spherical aluminium mirrors (50 × 50 cm2 each). In this contribution, we describe the technology adopted to produce metallic mirrors and the methods used to measure the optical quality in terms of: reflectivity, radius of curvature, spot dimension and geometry.

  9. Aromaticity of the doubly charged [8]circulenes.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V; Valiev, Rashid R; Karaush, Nataliya N; Sundholm, Dage; Minaev, Boris F

    2016-04-01

    Magnetically induced current densities and current pathways have been calculated for a series of fully annelated dicationic and dianionic tetraphenylenes, which are also named [8]circulenes. The gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method has been employed for calculating the current density susceptibilities. The aromatic character and current pathways are deduced from the calculated current density susceptibilities showing that the neutral [8]circulenes have two concentric pathways with aromatic and antiaromatic character, respectively. The inner octatetraene core (the hub) is found to sustain a paratropic (antiaromatic) ring current, whereas the ring current along the outer part of the macrocycle (the rim) is diatropic (aromatic). The neutral [8]circulenes can be considered nonaromatic, because the sum of the ring-current strengths of the hub and the rim almost vanishes. The aromatic character of the doubly charged [8]circulenes is completely different: the dianionic [8]circulenes and the OC-, CH-, CH2-, SiH-, GeH-, SiH2-, and GeH2-containing dicationic species sustain net diatropic ring currents i.e., they are aromatic, whereas the O-, S-, Se-, NH-, PH- and AsH-containing dicationic [8]circulenes are strongly antiaromatic. The present study also shows that GIMIC calculations on the [8]circulenes provide more accurate information about the aromatic character than that obtained using local indices such as nuclear-independent chemical shifts (NICSs) and (1)H NMR chemical shifts. PMID:26964752

  10. Tinning/Trimming Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

  11. It's Not Magic! Research on Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the differences between novices and experts in subject areas ranging from physics to poetry. Yet research on developing expertise has found no "magic bullet" in becoming an expert and has concluded that innate talent plays a less prominent role than previously imagined. Various studies…

  12. Where Is the Magic Out There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Judy

    2002-01-01

    The Magic Suitcase provides workshops for young children and teachers across Ontario, using their own schoolyards to explore the wonders of nature and science. Literature is used to explain concepts and make the experience memorable. Workshops are also train teachers to integrate the outdoors into their regular program. Nine picture books used in…

  13. Magic, Morals and Health: Plus 40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Valois, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    In the article "Magic, Morals and Health" the reader is treated to Dr. Warren Johnson's thoughts about health and society, and the role of health educators. If one stays with Dr. Johnson's train of thought, one will find Dr. Johnson is concerned that: (1) A large segment of society tends to base at least some of their beliefs about health on…

  14. The Magic of Mini-Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Mary A.

    2006-01-01

    Making magic in the classroom or library media center is as simple as imitating what choreographers do. Just as they demonstrate and teach a dance routine a few steps at a time before asking the performers to put all the steps together for a presentation, many teachers find that breaking a unit of study into several parts, or mini-lessons, is a…

  15. The Magic Moment: Creating Color Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartges, Dan

    2009-01-01

    If there is a truly magic moment in art class, it must be when a student--of any age--attains a working knowledge of color's core principles. At that point, she or he becomes able to consistently create color harmony in any painting, regardless of the subject matter. From then on, that student gains greater confidence, can paint better pictures…

  16. What Is So Magic about Harry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cole; Nelson, Brooke

    2000-01-01

    Presents the comments of an 11-year-old and his mother regarding what is so magical about the Harry Potter series of books. Notes the child enjoyed the fantasy aspects and the animals in the books; and the mother appreciates the sheer fun of reading the books and that the characters show sensitivity and caring for each other. (RS)

  17. Promoting Reasoning through the Magic V Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.; Widjaja, Wanty; Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning in mathematics plays a critical role in developing mathematical understandings. In this article, Bragg, Loong, Widjaja, Vale & Herbert explore an adaptation of the Magic V Task and how it was used in several classrooms to promote and develop reasoning skills.

  18. Constraints on Children's Judgments of Magical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Browne, Cheryl A.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    In 3 studies we addressed the operation of constraints on children's causal judgments. Our primary focus was whether children's beliefs about magical causality, specifically wishing, are constrained by features that govern the attribution of ordinary causality. In Experiment 1, children witnessed situations in which a confederate's wish appeared…

  19. Imagination and the Magic of Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "The Bookmark" presents 20 articles focusing on the theme that libraries foster imagination. The articles are: (1) "Imagination and the Magic of Libraries" (Elizabeth S. Manion); (2) "Powerful Partners--Discovery and Democracy, An Interview with Cynthia Jenkins" (Anne E. Simon); (3) "Fostering Imagination in Children" (Susan Lehr);…

  20. Math in Your Classroom: Math Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics truly is magical, especially for students with strong number sense and algebra skills. This paper describes a variety of mathematical surprises that will capture students' interest and motivate exploration of mathematical ideas. While the tricks themselves are fascinating, push students to think about the reasons why these stunning…

  1. Word Magic: Poetry as a Shared Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVitty, Walter, Ed.

    Written by teachers and poets, this book offers insights into the nature of poetry and the ways in which children can be taught to enjoy reading and writing poetry. The book contains the following articles: "Poetry and the Magic of Words," by Colin Thiele; "Poetry and the Child," by Charles Causley; "A Verse Along the Way," by Max Fatchen; "The…

  2. Shell corrections, magic numbers, and mean field

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu.

    2007-02-15

    It is shown that the positions of deep local minima of shell corrections associated with magic numbers in the region of superheavy nuclei depend on the parameters of the central and spin-orbit mean-field potentials. The accuracy of nuclear-mass predictions made within various models for superheavy nuclei is analyzed.

  3. ORNL's magic bullets: On target for health

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, J.

    1993-01-01

    Magic bullets. That's how we've come to know a group of chemical compounds that have an uncanny ability to home in on particular targets within the body. Their [open quotes]magic[close quotes] is provided by chemically attached radioactive isotopes, labels made of small quantities or radioactive material that enable physicians to obtain detailed images of internal organs, deliver doses of radiation to specific destinations, and trace the movement of medications - all without picking up a scalpel. In recent years, a barrage of magic bullets has been fired from laboratories around the country, but because of their long and involved development process, relatively few have been tested in human patients, - fewer still have found commercial applications. Despite these odds, the researchers of ORNL's Nuclear Medicine Group have gained reputations as sharpshooters, thanks to four new magic bullets now in clinical testing - a radiolabeled antibody that targets colon cancer cells, a test agent for pancreas problems, and imaging agents for monitoring blood flow in the heart and detecting early signs of heart disease. A fifth agent that promises to help track the changes in brain chemistry resulting from Alzheimer's and related diseases is undergoing preclinical studies.

  4. 48 CFR 204.7202-3 - TINs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TINs. 204.7202-3 Section... OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Identification 204.7202-3 TINs. Requirements for use of TINs are in FAR subpart 4.9....

  5. Identification of the 0+ proton pairing vibration state in the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb by particle spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, A.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; von Brentano, P.

    2015-04-01

    Among about 150 levels below Ex=5.86 MeV in 208Pb listed by the Nuclear Data Sheets as of 2007, most levels were recently identified as particle-hole states. All natural parity states excited by the 208Pb(α ,α') reaction are identified, two of them are newly identified. The state at Ex=5667 keV is identified as the 0+ proton pairing vibration state. Based on the analysis of data from the Pb 206 ,207 ,208 (d ,p ) ,208Pb(d ,d') , and 208Pb(p ,p') reactions obtained with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph of the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium at Garching (Germany) at scattering angles 15° ≤Θ ≤138° and bombarding energies Ed=22 ,24 MeV and 14.8

  6. Coexistence of spherical states with deformed and superdeformed bands in doubly magic {sup 40}Ca: A shell-model challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.

    2007-05-15

    Large-scale shell-model calculations, with dimensions reaching 10{sup 9}, are carried out to describe the recently observed deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) bands based on the first and second excited 0{sup +} states of {sup 40}Ca at 3.35 and 5.21 MeV, respectively. A valence space comprising two major oscillator shells, sd and pf, can accommodate most of the relevant degrees of freedom of this problem. The ND band is dominated by configurations with four particles promoted to the pf shell (4p-4h in short). The SD band by 8p-8h configurations. The ground state of {sup 40}Ca is strongly correlated, but the closed shell still amounts to 65%. The energies of the bands are very well reproduced by the calculations. The out-band transitions connecting the SD band with other states are very small and depend on the details of the mixing among the different np-nh configurations; in spite of that, the calculation describes them reasonably. For the in-band transition probabilities along the SD band, we predict a fairly constant transition quadrupole moment Q{sub 0}(t){approx}170 e fm{sup 2} up to J=10 that decreases toward the higher spins. We submit also that the J=8 states of the deformed and superdeformed bands are maximally mixed.

  7. Discovery of {sup 109}Xe and {sup 105}Te: Superallowed {alpha} Decay near Doubly Magic {sup 100}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Liddick, S. N.; Batchelder, J. C.; Grzywacz, R.; Bingham, C. R.; Mazzocchi, C.; Drafta, G.; Tantawy, M. N.; Page, R. D.; Darby, I. G.; Joss, D. T.; Thomson, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Gross, C. J.; Goodin, C.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Li, K.; Hecht, A. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Korgul, A.

    2006-08-25

    Two new {alpha} emitters {sup 109}Xe and {sup 105}Te were identified through the observation of the {sup 109}Xe{yields}{sup 105}Te{yields}{sup 101}Sn {alpha}-decay chain. The {sup 109}Xe nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 54}Fe({sup 58}Ni,3n){sup 109}Xe and studied using the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Two transitions at E{sub {alpha}}=4062{+-}7 keV and E{sub {alpha}}=3918{+-}9 keV were interpreted as the l=2 and l=0 transitions from the 7/2{sup +} ground state in {sup 109}Xe (T{sub 1/2}=13{+-}2 ms) to the 5/2{sup +} ground state and a 7/2{sup +} excited state, located at 150{+-}13 keV in {sup 105}Te. The observation of the subsequent decay of {sup 105}Te marks the discovery of the lightest known {alpha}-decaying nucleus. The measured transition energy E{sub {alpha}}=4703{+-}5 keV and half-life T{sub 1/2}=620{+-}70 ns were used to determine the reduced {alpha}-decay width {delta}{sup 2}. The ratio {delta}{sub {sup 105}Te}{sup 2}/{delta}{sub {sup 213}Po}{sup 2} of {approx}3 indicates a superallowed character of the {alpha} emission from {sup 105}Te.

  8. Quantification of Entanglement Entropies for Doubly Excited States in Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we study the quantum entanglement for doubly excited resonance states in helium by using highly correlated Hylleraas type functions to represent such states of the two-electron system. The doubly-excited resonance states are determined by calculation of density of resonance states under the framework of the stabilization method. The spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement measures for the low-lying doubly excited 2 s 2, 2 s3 s, and 2 p 2 1 S e states are carried out. Once a resonance state wave function is obtained, the linear entropy and von Neumann entropy for such a state are quantified using the Schmidt-Slater decomposition method. To check the consistence, linear entropy is also determined by solving analytically the needed four-electron (12-dimensional) integrals.

  9. Magical thinking and memory: distinctiveness effect for tv commercials with magical content.

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene; Mathews, Jayne

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether memorizing advertised products of television advertisements with magical effects (i.e., talking animals, inanimate objects which turn into humans, objects that appear from thin air or instantly turn into other objects) is easier than memorizing products of advertisements without such effects, by testing immediate and delayed retention. Adolescents and adults viewed two films containing television advertisements and were asked to recall and recognize the films' characters, events, and advertised products. Film 1 included magical effects, but Film 2 did not. On a free-recall test, no differences in the number of items recalled were noted for the two films. On the immediate recognition test, adolescents, but not adults, showed significantly better recognition for the magical than the nonmagical film. When this test was repeated two weeks later, results were reversed: adults, but not adolescents, recognized a significantly larger number of items from the magical film than the nonmagical one. These results are interpreted to accentuate the role of magical thinking in cognitive processes. PMID:22238845

  10. A mathematical model for the doubly fed wound rotor generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor machine used as a constant frequency generator is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to derive a consistent set of circuit equations which produce constant stator frequency and constant stator voltage. Starting with instantaneous circuit equations, the necessary rotor voltages and currents are derived. The model, thus obtained, is assumed to be valid, since the resulting relationships between mechanical power and active volt-amperes agrees with the results of others. In addition, the model allows for a new interpretation of the power flow in the doubly-fed generator.

  11. MAGIC: Model and Graphic Information Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    MAGIC is a software tool capable of converting highly detailed 3D models from an open, standard format, VRML 2.0/97, into the proprietary DTS file format used by the Torque Game Engine from GarageGames. MAGIC is used to convert 3D simulations from authoritative sources into the data needed to run the simulations in NASA's Distributed Observer Network. The Distributed Observer Network (DON) is a simulation presentation tool built by NASA to facilitate the simulation sharing requirements of the Data Presentation and Visualization effort within the Constellation Program. DON is built on top of the Torque Game Engine (TGE) and has chosen TGE's Dynamix Three Space (DTS) file format to represent 3D objects within simulations.

  12. Dynamic polarizabilities and magic wavelengths for dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2011-03-15

    We theoretically study dynamic scalar polarizabilities of the ground and select long-lived excited states of dysprosium, a highly magnetic atom recently laser cooled and trapped. We demonstrate that there is a set of magic wavelengths of the unpolarized lattice laser field for each pair of states, which includes the ground state and one of these excited states. At these wavelengths, the energy shift due to laser field is the same for both states, which can be useful for resolved sideband cooling on narrow transitions and precision spectroscopy. We present an analytical formula that, near resonances, allows for the determination of approximate values of the magic wavelengths without calculating the dynamic polarizabilities of the excited states.

  13. Magical arts: the poetics of play.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that links between play and magic in British Object Relations point to the persistence of aesthetic concerns within psychoanalysis. Magical thinking is present in British Object Relations psychoanalysis from its beginnings in Klein's play technique and early aesthetic writings, surfacing elsewhere in Susan Isaac's educational experiments and her theories of metaphor. Marion Milner's clinical account of the overlapping areas of illusion and symbol-formation in a boy's war-games link the primitive rituals of Frazer's "The Golden Bough" with her patient's creativity. In Winnicott's concept of the transitional object, the theory of play achieves its apotheosis as a diffusive theory of culture or "private madness," and as a paradigm for psychoanalysis itself. Tracing the non-positivistic, mystical, and poetical elements in British Object Relations underlines the extent to which aesthetics is not just entangled with psychoanalysis, but constitutive of it in its mid-twentieth century manifestations. PMID:21874676

  14. Oriental magic mirrors and the Laplacian image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern embossed on the back of an oriental magic mirror appears in the patch of light projected onto a screen from its apparently featureless reflecting surface. In reality, the embossed pattern is reproduced in low relief on the front, and analysis shows that the projected image results from pre-focal ray deviation. In this interesting regime of geometrical optics, the image intensity is given simply by the Laplacian of the height function of the relief. For patterns consisting of steps, this predicts a characteristic effect, confirmed by observation: the image of each step exhibits a bright line on the low side and a dark line on the high side. Laplacian-image analysis of a magic-mirror image indicates that steps on the reflecting surface are about 400 nm high and laterally smoothed by about 0.5 mm.

  15. Small codes for magic state distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark; Dawkins, Hillary

    2016-03-01

    Magic state distillation is a critical component in leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Relatively little is known, however, about how to construct a magic state distillation routine or, more specifically, which stabilizer codes are suitable for the task. While transversality of a non-Clifford gate within a code often leads to efficient distillation routines, it appears to not be a necessary condition. Here we have examined a number of small stabilizer codes and highlight a handful of which displaying interesting, albeit inefficient, distillation behaviour. Many of these distill noisy states right up to the boundary of the known undististillable region, while some distill toward non-stabilizer states that have not previously been considered.

  16. Watching films with magical content facilitates creativity in children.

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene; Hysted, Claire; Jones, Nicola

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the possible link between magical thinking and creativity in preschool children. In Exp. 1, 4- and 6-yr.-old children were shown a film with either a magical or nonmagical theme. Results indicated that the mean scores of children shown the magical film was significantly higher than that of children watching the nonmagical film on the majority of subsequent creativity tests for both age groups. This trend was also found for 6-yr.-olds' drawings of impossible items. In Exp. 2, Exp. 1 was replicated successfully with 6- and 8-yr.-old children. Exposing children to a film with a magical theme did not affect their beliefs about magic. The results were interpreted to accentuate the role of magical thinking in children's cognitive development. Classroom implications of the results were also discussed. PMID:21058605

  17. Investigation on Qiong yao shen shu (Qiongyao's Magical Book).

    PubMed

    Huang, L

    1999-01-01

    Written in about the period of late Yuan to early Ming dynasties, Qiongyao's Magical Book is attributed to a Taoist who was also conversant with acupunture art. By investigation, it is found that there are, at least, three books carrying the same title of Qiongyao's Magical Book, including a 3 volume Qiongyao's Magical Book now lost; a 3 - volume Qiongyao's Magical Book of Discovery (also called The Acupuncture Classic of Qiongyao the Immortal printed in the Ming dynasty, which is entirely different from the previous one and is an apocrypha; and a 4 - volume Qiongyao's Magical Book printed in the Qing dynasty also called Qiongyao's Great Collections of Magical Books wiich is a mixture of authentic and apocryphal texts in which 2 medical books irrelevant to the original are attached to the end of volume 3, with supplements by later writers intermingled in other volumes. PMID:11623790

  18. Collaboration in the Magic Tree House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Jane; Minser, Sabrina; Presser, Helen Burkart

    2008-01-01

    The Magic Tree House series is a collection of books by Mary Pope Osborne, each built around a time and place of high interest to young children, with an underlying story that makes children want to read the next book in the series to find out what is going to happen. Here, the authors describe the development of a two-week reading program for…

  19. [Suicide under the influence of "magic mushrooms"].

    PubMed

    Müller, Katja; Püschel, Klaus; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed. PMID:23878898

  20. Immunoconjugates: Magic Bullets for Cancer Therapy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passeri, Daniel R.; Spiegel, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Conjugating cytotoxic agents to antibodies allows for site-specific delivery of the agent to tumor cells and should provide increased efficacy and reduced non-specific toxicity. These site-specific cytotoxic agents are known as immunoconjugates or 'magic bullets' and have demonstrated great promise as therapeutic agents for cancer and other diseases. The historical developments and future potential of this new approach to cancer therapy are reviewed.

  1. Pulsar observations with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidalgo, David

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of spectra of gamma-ray pulsars exhibit an exponential cut-off at a few GeV, as seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board of the Fermi satellite. Due to this cut-off, current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) with an energy threshold as low as 30 GeV, struggle to detect pulsars. So far, emission above 50 GeV has been confirmed only for the Crab and Vela pulsars. In the case of the former, the spectrum even extends up to about 1 TeV firmly revealing a second emission component. To further understand the emission mechanism of gamma-ray pulsars, the MAGIC collaboration continues the search of pulsars above 50 GeV. In this talk we report on recent results on the Crab and Geminga Pulsar obtained with the MAGIC telescopes, including the analysis of data taken with a new trigger system lowering the energy threshold of the MAGIC telescopes.

  2. Blazar Observations with the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneiske, T. M.; Mannheim, K.

    The MAGIC Telescope will be able to detect gamma gay sources down to energies of 30GeV. Therefore a large number of sources will be seen, especially blazars. 30 GeV is also the upper energy limit of EGRET. Therefore it is possible to extrapolate a spectrum of an EGRET source without a complicated model. We make first predictions about the detectability of EGRET blazars calculating the minimum observation time for the MAGIC Telescope. Blazars are often located at high redshifts and their spectra should show some cut-offs at high energies due to pair production processes with low energy background photons. We developed a background radiation model using recent results of optical to infrared data and included this absorption effect in our calculation about the observability. We found that the shape of the spectrum and the intergalactic absorption does not make a big difference for a simple detection of the source. The observation time is only dependent on the flux near the energy threshold of the telescope (30 GeV) and the zenith angle of the blazar. The results are showing that MAGIC will be able to detect more than 50% of the EGRET sources even at high redshift and therefore it will be a good tool for multi-wavelength campaigns.

  3. Mathematical Construction of Magic Squares Utilizing Base-N Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas D.

    2006-01-01

    Magic squares have been of interest as a source of recreation for over 4,500 years. A magic square consists of a square array of n[squared] positive and distinct integers arranged so that the sum of any column, row, or main diagonal is the same. In particular, an array of consecutive integers from 1 to n[squared] forming an nxn magic square is…

  4. Compact Magic-T using microstrip-slotline transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Doiron, Terence (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The design of a compact low-loss Magic-T is described. The planar Magic-T incorporates a compact microstrip-slotline tee junction and small microstrip-slotline transition area to reduce slotline radiation. The Magic-T produces broadband in-phase and out-of-phase power combiner/divider responses, has low in-band insertion loss, and small in-band phase and amplitude imbalance.

  5. The application of psychoanalytic principles to the study of "magic".

    PubMed

    Rudan, Vlasta; Tripković, Mara; Vidas, Mercedes

    2003-06-01

    In this paper Freud's work on animism and magic is elaborated. Those two subjects are presented mainly in his work "Totem and Taboo" (1913). The true motives, which lead primitive man to practice magic are, according to Freud, human whishes and his immense belief in their power. Importance attached to wishes and to the will has been extended from them to all those psychical acts, which are subjected to will. A general overvaluation has thus come about of all mental processes. Things become less important than ideas of things. Relations, which hold between the ideas of things, are equally hold between the things. The principle of governing magic or the technique of animistic way of thinking is one of the 'omnipotence of thoughts'. The overvaluation of psychic acts could be brought into relation with narcissism and megalomania, a belief in the thaumaturgic force of words and a technique for dealing with the external world--'magic'--which appears to be a logical application of these grandiose premises. Recent psychoanalytic authors dealing with the problem of magic emphasize that magic survived culturally to the present days and even in adults who are otherwise intellectually and scientifically 'modern'. Their explanations for that derive from Ferenczi's and especially Róheim's work that pointed out that magic facilitates adaptive and realistically effective endeavors. Balter pointed out that magic employs ego functioning, and conversely ego functioning includes magic. PMID:12974171

  6. The MAGIC meteoric smoke particle sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Jonas; Giovane, Frank; Waldemarsson, Tomas; Gumbel, Jörg; Blum, Jürgen; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Marlin, Layne; Moser, John; Siskind, David E.; Jansson, Kjell; Saunders, Russell W.; Summers, Michael E.; Reissaus, Philipp; Stegman, Jacek; Plane, John M. C.; Horányi, Mihály

    2014-10-01

    Between a few tons to several hundred tons of meteoric material enters the Earth's atmosphere each day, and most of this material is ablated and vaporized in the 70-120 km altitude region. The subsequent chemical conversion, re-condensation and coagulation of this evaporated material are thought to form nanometre sized meteoric smoke particles (MSPs). These smoke particles are then subject to further coagulation, sedimentation and global transport by the mesospheric circulation. MSPs have been proposed as a key player in the formation and evolution of ice particle layers around the mesopause region, i.e. noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). MSPs have also been implicated in mesospheric heterogeneous chemistry to influence the mesospheric odd oxygen/odd hydrogen (Ox/HOx) chemistry, to play an important role in the mesospheric charge balance, and to be a significant component of stratospheric aerosol and enhance the depletion of O3. Despite their apparent importance, little is known about the properties of MSPs and none of the hypotheses can be verified without direct evidence of the existence, altitude and size distribution, shape and elemental composition. The aim of the MAGIC project (Mesospheric Aerosol - Genesis, Interaction and Composition) was to develop an instrument and analysis techniques to sample for the first time MSPs in the mesosphere and return them to the ground for detailed analysis in the laboratory. MAGIC meteoric smoke particle samplers have been flown on several sounding rocket payloads between 2005 and 2011. Several of these flights concerned non-summer mesosphere conditions when pure MSP populations can be expected. Other flights concerned high latitude summer conditions when MSPs are expected to be contained in ice particles in the upper mesosphere. In this paper we present the MAGIC project and describe the MAGIC MSP sampler, the measurement procedure and laboratory analysis. We also present the attempts to

  7. From ion channels to complex networks: magic bullet versus magic shotgun approaches to anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matt T; Pathmanathan, Jay; Cash, Sydney S

    2009-03-01

    Medical management and drug development for epilepsy emphasizes increasing pharmacological specificity to improve efficacy while minimizing side effects. However, growing evidence supports potential benefits of "magic shotgun" over "magic bullet" approaches to treatment of complex disease processes. We discuss experimental and theoretical evidence suggesting that seizures may be more amenable to a multi-target rather than a high-specificity approach, including evidence that individual anticonvulsants directly modulate a variety ion channel targets, the most direct determinants of neuronal excitability. Although the relevance of this promiscuity remains untested, it may contribute to anticonvulsant efficacy and should therefore be considered in drug development strategies and in therapeutic decision making. PMID:19046822

  8. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  9. Doubly Lopsided Models From SUSY SU(N)

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S. M.

    2008-11-23

    It is shown that the doubly lopsided mass matrices, which are known to give realistic patterns of quark and lepton masses and mixings, arise naturally in the context of supersymmetric grand unified models based on SU(N) with N>5. An SU(7) model is presented as an illustration.

  10. Understanding tin plasmas in vacuum: A new approach to tin whisker risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, M. S.; Eng, G.

    2007-11-15

    This study examines the mechanisms governing sustained tin plasma formation in vacuum. The authors have experimentally demonstrated that sustained tin plasmas can form in vacuum at dc power supply voltages as low as 4 V, and present a qualitative model for the observed voltage and current signatures associated with tin plasma formation. Engineering estimates were developed to help quantify tin whisker risk as a function of power supply voltage. Implications for space applications are also discussed.

  11. What's Magic about Magic Numbers? Chunking and Data Compression in Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathy, Fabien; Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Short term memory is famously limited in capacity to Miller's (1956) magic number 7 plus or minus 2--or, in many more recent studies, about 4 plus or minus 1 "chunks" of information. But the definition of "chunk" in this context has never been clear, referring only to a set of items that are treated collectively as a single unit. We propose a new…

  12. Magical Realist Pathways into and under the Psychotherapeutic Imaginary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    My experience of people's life stories from my work as a narrative therapist consistently destabilised distinctions between imagined/magical and real experiences. I came to realise that the day-to-day magical realist juxtapositions I came upon were encounters with people's daily lives, as lived, that have remained unacknowledged within the…

  13. Magic Arts Counseling: The Tricks of Illusion as Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Magic arts counseling is defined as a nontraditional, experiential curriculum utilized for promoting student growth. Applicable research and the history of using magic with students provide the rationale for its employment in educational programming. In an effort to systematically explore its benefits several educational factors and key elements…

  14. New magic nuclei and neutron-proton pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Boboshin, I. N.

    2008-07-15

    Special features of new magic nuclei and their connection with the shell structure are considered. The mechanism of neutron-proton pairing is proposed as a basis for the formation of new magic nuclei. A law of nucleon pairing is introduced. Spin-parity values are explained for a number of odd-odd nuclei.

  15. Glamour and Spelling: Reclaiming Magical Thinking in the Composition Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Julia

    It is a good thing to demolish "magical thinking" if it refers to the view of language for which words have fixed, inevitable meanings. Words are often deprived of their meanings and reduced to verbal noises, producing involuntary responses like knee-reflexes. Various critics have discussed and written about the magical aspects of language,…

  16. Peter Elbow, Kenneth Burke, and the Idea of Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that the works of Peter Elbow and Kenneth Burke are valuable reference points because they problematize fundamental assumptions within the field of composition that pluralism and factional perspectives typically elide. Describes Elbow's rhetorical magic and shows how magic illuminates Burke's effort. Wonders whether Elbow and Burke…

  17. The Magical Classroom: Exploring Science, Language, and Perception with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Michael J.

    The science of magic is the subject of this book which also examines how to help children experience and describe the world, how to experiment and ask questions about it, and how to make decisions about what is true and what is not. Background information about the relationship between magic and science and the nature of effects and illusions are…

  18. Pulling Words Out of a Hat: Magic in ESL Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenberg, Randi D.

    Magic motivates students to talk, and stimulates the affective domain. While watching magic, many people imagine how the effect is accomplished or how they might perform the trick if they were performing. This can be extended into an English lesson by using phrases such as, "If I were a magician, I could..." Total physical response activities take…

  19. [Further Distinctions between Magic, Reality, Religion, and Fiction. Commentaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Pascal; Taylor, Marjorie; Harris, Paul L.; Chandler, Michael; Johnson, Carl N.

    1997-01-01

    Contains the following commentaries: "Further Distinctions between Magic, Reality, Religion, and Fiction"; "The Role of Creative Control and Culture in Children's Fantasy/Reality Judgments"; "The Last of the Magicians? Children, Scientists, and the Invocation of Hidden Causal Powers"; "Rescuing Magical Thinking from the Jaws of Social…

  20. Emotional salience, emotional awareness, peculiar beliefs, and magical thinking.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Howard; Boden, M Tyler; Baker, John P

    2009-04-01

    Two studies with college student participants (Ns = 271 and 185) tested whether peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with (a) the emotional salience of the stimuli about which individuals may have peculiar beliefs or magical thinking, (b) attention to emotion, and (c) clarity of emotion. Study 1 examined belief that a baseball team was cursed. Study 2 measured magical thinking using a procedure developed by P. Rozin and C. Nemeroff (2002). In both studies, peculiar beliefs and magical thinking were associated with Salience x Attention x Clarity interactions. Among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were highly emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with increased peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. In contrast, among individuals for whom the objects of the belief-magical thinking were not emotionally salient and who had high levels of attention to emotion, higher levels of emotional clarity were associated with diminished peculiar beliefs-magical thinking. PMID:19348532

  1. Technologies of stage magic: Simulation and dissimulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wally

    2015-06-01

    The craft of stage magic is presented in this article as a site to study the interplay of people and technology. The focus is on conjuring in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a time when magicians eagerly appropriated new optical, mechanical and electrical technologies into their acts. Also at this time, a modern style of conjuring emerged, characterized by minimal apparatus and a natural manner of performance. Applying Lucy Suchman's perspective of human-machine reconfigurations, conjuring in this modern style is interpreted as an early form of simulation, coupled with techniques of dissimulation. Magicians simulated the presence of supernational agency for public audiences, while dissimulating the underlying methods and mechanisms. Dissimulation implies that the secret inner workings of apparatus were not simply concealed but were rendered absent. This, in turn, obscured the production of supernatural effects in the translation of agencies within an assembly of performers, assistants, apparatus, apparatus-builders, and so on. How this was achieved is investigated through an analysis of key instructional texts written by and for magicians working in the modern style. Techniques of dissimulation are identified in the design of apparatus for three stage illusions, and in the new naturalness of the performer's manner. To explore the significance of this picture of stage magic, and its reliance on techniques of dissimulation, a parallel is drawn between conjuring and recent performances of computerized life forms, especially those of social robotics. The paper concludes by considering what is revealed about the production of agency in stage magic's peculiar human-machine assemblies. PMID:26477195

  2. Observation of GRBs with the MAGIC Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Galante, Nicola; Garczarczyk, Markus; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Bastieri, Denis; Gaug, Markus; Scapin, Valeria; La Barbera, Antonino

    2009-05-25

    After three years since the beginning of operation, the MAGIC telescope could observe several GRB events in the prompt and early afterglow phase. Thanks to its innovative design, the telescope could promptly react to incoming GCN alerts and rapidly slew to the burst coordinates within a typical delay of 50 seconds, performing observations with an energy threshold spanning from 80 to 200 GeV. The observations did not reveal any {gamma}-ray emission. The computed upper limits are compatible with a power law extrapolation, where intrinsic fluxes are evaluated taking into account the attenuation due to the scattering with the Extragalactic Background Light.

  3. Normoxic polymer gels: are they magic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M. N.; Bonnett, D. E.; Horsfield, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years there has been considerable interest in the use of polymer gels to measure complex dose distributions in radiotherapy. Despite considerable advantages they are still not widely used in clinical situations. This is due primarily to the difficulty in manufacture, particularly the need to exclude oxygen both from the gel and the manufacturing process, the limited number of suitable phantom materials and the need for easy access to an MRI facility. The purpose of this paper is to report on an investigation of the basic properties of MAGIC gels namely: linearity of response, effects of temperature and stability.

  4. Magic Angle Spinning NMR of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Caitlin; Lu, Manman; Suiter, Christopher L.; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Viruses, relatively simple pathogens, are able to replicate in many living organisms and to adapt to various environments. Conventional atomic-resolution structural biology techniques, X-ray crystallography and solution NMR spectroscopy provided abundant information on the structures of individual proteins and nucleic acids comprising viruses; however, viral assemblies are not amenable to analysis by these techniques because of their large size, insolubility, and inherent lack of long-range order. In this article, we review the recent advances in magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy that enabled atomic-resolution analysis of structure and dynamics of large viral systems and give examples of several exciting case studies. PMID:25919197

  5. SNLSimMagic v 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-10-21

    This software is an iOS (Apple) Augmented Reality (AR) application that runs on the iPhone and iPad. It is designed to scan in a photograph or graphic and “play” an associated video. This release, SNLSimMagic, was built using Wikitude Augmented Reality (AR) software development kit (SDK) integrated into Apple iOS SDK application and the Cordova libraries. These codes enable the generation of runtime targets using cloud recognition and developer-defined target features which are then accessedmore » by means of a custom application.« less

  6. SNLSimMagic v 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-21

    This software is an iOS (Apple) Augmented Reality (AR) application that runs on the iPhone and iPad. It is designed to scan in a photograph or graphic and “play” an associated video. This release, SNLSimMagic, was built using Wikitude Augmented Reality (AR) software development kit (SDK) integrated into Apple iOS SDK application and the Cordova libraries. These codes enable the generation of runtime targets using cloud recognition and developer-defined target features which are then accessed by means of a custom application.

  7. ALADIN - a Magic Lamp for the Elderly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Edith; Kempter, Guido

    Like Aladdin in the medieval oriental folk-tale, the assistive lighting system developed by ALADIN (Ambient Lighting Assistance for an Ageing Population), a research project co-financed by the European Commission, is expected to bring enchantment to people's lives. But this will not be achieved by magic and genies, but by exploiting our knowledge about the impact of lighting. adaptive lighting can contribute considerably to sound sleep and a regular sleep-wake cycle regulated by people's 'inner clock'. This tends to deteriorate with ageing, but is essential to preserve and enhance comfort and wellbeing. And this is the main goal of the assistive ALADIN lighting system.

  8. SEPARATION OF TIN FROM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Kattner, W.T.

    1959-08-11

    A process is described for recovering tin from bronze comprising melting the bronze; slowly cooling the melted metal to from 280 to 240 deg C whereby eta- phase bronze crystallizes; separating the eta-bronze crystals from the liquid metal by mechanical means; melting the separated crystals; slowly cooling the melted eta-crystals to a temperature from 520 to 420 deg C whereby crystals of epsilonbronze precipitate; removing said epsilon-crystals from the remaining molten metal; and reintroducing the remaining molten metal into the process for eta-crystallization.

  9. Measurement of Magic Wavelengths for the ^{40}Ca^{+} Clock Transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Huang, Yao; Bian, Wu; Shao, Hu; Guan, Hua; Tang, Yong-Bo; Li, Cheng-Bin; Mitroy, J; Gao, Ke-Lin

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the existence of magic wavelengths and determine the ratio of oscillator strengths for a single trapped ion. For the first time, two magic wavelengths near 396 nm for the ^{40}Ca^{+} clock transition are measured simultaneously with high precision. By tuning the applied laser to an intermediate wavelength between transitions 4s_{1/2}→4p_{1/2} and 4s_{1/2}→4p_{3/2}, the sensitivity of the clock transition Stark shift to the oscillator strengths is greatly enhanced. Furthermore, with the measured magic wavelengths, we determine the ratio of the oscillator strengths with a deviation of less than 0.5%. Our experimental method may be applied to measure magic wavelengths for other ion clock transitions. Promisingly, the measurement of these magic wavelengths paves the way to building all-optical trapped ion clocks. PMID:26196619

  10. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries. PMID:26093469

  11. Sorption of tin on human teeth.

    PubMed

    Helal, A A; Alian, Gh A; Madbouly, H A

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of tin ions on human teeth from water and other drinks has been studied by the radioactive tracer technique using the isotope 113Sn (T(1/2) = 115.1 d) as a tracer. The tooth holds a minimum amount of tin from coffee and a maximum amount is held from water and from tea with sugar. The same technique was also used to study the desorption of tin already taken up on the teeth. It has been found that sorbed tin is hardly desorbed from the teeth specimens. The high uptake of tin on human teeth from various drinks showed that teeth act as a natural sieve holding trace elements. PMID:11768790

  12. Nucleation and growth of tin whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jing; Vianco, Paul T.; Zhang, Bei; Li, James C. M.

    2011-06-01

    Pure tin film of one micron thick was evaporated onto a silicon substrate with chromium and nickel underlayers. The tinned silicon disk was bent by applying a dead load at the center and supported below around the edge to apply biaxial compressive stresses to the tin layer. After 180 C vacuum annealing for 1,2,4,6, and 8 weeks, tin whiskers/hillocks grew. A quantitative method revealed that the overall growth rate decreased with time with a tendency for saturation. A review of the literature showed in general, tin whisker growth has a nucleation period, a growth period and a period of saturation, very similar to recrystallization or phase transformation. In fact we found our data fit Avrami equation very well. This equation shows that the nucleation period was the first week.

  13. Grzegorz Rozenberg: A Magical Scientist and Brother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomaa, Arto

    This is a personal description of Grzegorz Rozenberg. There is something magical in the fact that one man, Grzegorz, has been able to obtain so many and such good results in so numerous and diverse areas of science. This is why I have called him a “magical scientist.” He is also a very interdisciplinary scientist. In some sense this is due to his educational background. His first degree was in electronics engineering, the second a master’s in computer science, and the third a Ph.D. in mathematics. However, in the case of Grzegorz, the main drive for new disciplines comes from his tireless search for new challenges in basic science, rather than following known tracks. Starting with fundamental automata and language theory, he soon extended his realm to biologically motivated developmental languages, and further to concurrency, Petri nets, and graph grammars. During the past decade, his main focus has been on natural computing, a term coined by Grzegorz himself to mean either computing taking place in nature or human-designed computing inspired by nature.

  14. Sympathetic magic in contamination-related OCD.

    PubMed

    Tolin, David F; Worhunsky, Patrick; Maltby, Nicholas

    2004-06-01

    We examined whether patients with contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are characterized by sympathetic magic beliefs (i.e., an irrational understanding of how contagion is transmitted). We asked OCD patients (OCs), non-anxious control participants (NACs), and anxious control participants (ACs) to identify a "contaminated" object and rate its degree of contamination on a 0-100 scale. Next, we touched a clean pencil to the object, and participants rated the degree to which the pencil was contaminated. A second pencil was touched to the first pencil and was then rated. This process was continued for 12 pencils (12 degrees of removal from the original object). The same process was repeated using threat-non-relevant stimuli. Results indicated that for threat-relevant stimuli, OCs seemed to perceive a "chain of contagion" in which successive degrees of removal from the original object were not rated as less contaminated. In contrast, NACs and ACs quickly identified the pencils as not contaminated, suggesting that they recognize the contamination as degrading across objects. This difference was not seen using threat-nonrelevant stimuli. We also found that ratings of looming vulnerability (a belief that the contamination is spreading, approaching, or escalating in threat value) mediated the relationship between diagnostic group and the chain of contagion. We suggest that this process may be consistent with the sympathetic magic and disease-avoidance models of disgust, and that disgust may be a fruitful area for exploration in the study of OCD. PMID:15210379

  15. Advances/applications of MAGIC and SOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Gary; Ludeking, Larry; Nguyen, Khanh; Smithe, David; Goplen, Bruce

    1993-12-01

    MAGIC and SOS have been applied to investigate a variety of accelerator-related devices. Examples include high brightness electron guns, beam-RF interactions in klystrons, cold-test modes in an RFQ and in RF sources, and a high-quality, flexible, electron gun with operating modes appropriate for gyrotrons, peniotrons, and other RF sources. Algorithmic improvements for PIC have been developed and added to MAGIC and SOS to facilitate these modeling efforts. Two new field algorithms allow improved control of computational numerical noise and selective control of harmonic modes in RF cavities. An axial filter in SOS accelerates simulations in cylindrical coordinates. The recent addition of an export/import feature now allows long devices to be modeled in sections. Interfaces have been added to receive electromagnetic field information from the Poisson group of codes and from EGUN and to send beam information to PARMELA for subsequent tracing of bunches through beam optics. Post-processors compute and display beam properties including geometric, normalized, and slice emittances, and phase-space parameters, and video. VMS, UNIX, and DOS versions are supported, with migration underway toward windows environments.

  16. Powder-XRD and (14) N magic angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy of some metal nitrides.

    PubMed

    Kempgens, Pierre; Britton, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Some metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN, InN, GaN, Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 ) have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (14) N magic angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 , no (14) N NMR signal was observed. Low speed (νr  = 2 kHz for TiN, ZrN, and GaN; νr  = 1 kHz for InN) and 'high speed' (νr  = 15 kHz for TiN; νr  = 5 kHz for ZrN; νr  = 10 kHz for InN and GaN) MAS NMR experiments were performed. For TiN, ZrN, InN, and GaN, powder-XRD was used to identify the phases present in each sample. The number of peaks observed for each sample in their (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectrum matches perfectly well with the number of nitrogen-containing phases identified by powder-XRD. The (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectra are symmetric and dominated by the quadrupolar interaction. The envelopes of the spinning sidebands manifold are Lorentzian, and it is concluded that there is a distribution of the quadrupolar coupling constants Qcc 's arising from structural defects in the compounds studied. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26687421

  17. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  18. Stereodivergent catalytic doubly diastereoselective nitroaldol reactions using heterobimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Kato, Yuko; Handa, Shinya; Aoyama, Naohiro; Nagawa, Keita; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2008-06-01

    Stereodivergent construction of three contiguous stereocenters in catalytic doubly diastereoselective nitroaldol reactions of alpha-chiral aldehydes with nitroacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal using two types of heterobimetallic catalysts is described. A La-Li-BINOL (LLB) catalyst afforded anti,syn-nitroaldol products in >20:1-14:1 selectivity, and a Pd/La/Schiff base catalyst afforded complimentary syn,syn-nitroaldol products in 10:1-5:1 selectivity. PMID:18465868

  19. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts. PMID:26552990

  20. Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Md. Iftekhar; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Doubly curved nanofiber-reinforced optically transparent composites with low thermal expansion of 15 ppm/k are prepared by hot pressing vacuum-filtered Pickering emulsions of hydrophobic acrylic resin monomer, hydrophilic chitin nanofibers and water. The coalescence of acrylic monomer droplets in the emulsion is prevented by the chitin nanofibers network. This transparent composite has 3D shape moldability, making it attractive for optical precision parts.

  1. Doubly-charged ions in the planetary ionospheres: a review.

    PubMed

    Thissen, Roland; Witasse, Olivier; Dutuit, Odile; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Gronoff, Guillaume; Lilensten, Jean

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the current knowledge on the doubly-charged atomic and molecular positive ions in the planetary atmospheres of the Solar System. It is focused on the terrestrial planets which have a dense atmosphere of N(2) or CO(2), i.e. Venus, the Earth and Mars, but also includes Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, which has a dense atmosphere composed mainly of N(2) and a few percent of methane. Given the composition of these neutral atmospheres, the following species are considered: C(++), N(++), O(++), CH(4)(++), CO(++), N(2)(++), NO(++), O(2)(++), Ar(++) and CO(2)(++). We first discuss the status of their detection in the atmospheres of planets. Then, we provide a comprehensive review of their complex and original photochemistry, production and loss processes. Synthesis tables are provided for those ions, while a discussion on individual species is also provided. Methods for detecting doubly-charged ions in planetary atmospheres are presented, namely with mass-spectrometry, remote sensing and fine plasma density measurements. A section covers some original applications, like the possible effect of the presence of doubly-charged ions on the escape of an atmosphere, which is a key topic of ongoing planetary exploration, related to the evolution of a planet. The results of models, displayed in a comparative way for Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, are discussed, as they can predict the presence of doubly-charged ions and will certainly trigger new investigations. Finally we give our view concerning next steps, challenges and needs for future studies, hoping that new scientific results will be achieved in the coming years and feed the necessary interdisciplinary exchanges amongst different scientific communities. PMID:21931881

  2. Transient model of a doubly excited reluctance motor

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Liang, F.; Lipo, T.A. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    A transient machine model of a doubly fed reluctance motor is derived by means of winding function and d-q transformation theory. The machine consists of a double wound stator having four and eight pole sets. The rotor is equipped with six poles. The machine, related to the Hunt motor, has a synchronous speed of a twelve pole machine. Comparison of simulated to tested results indicates that the higher harmonics in the motor inductances are important for predicting current waveform.

  3. Seeing Is Believing: Children's Explanations of Commonplace, Magical, and Extraordinary Transformations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Karl S.; Hickling, Anne K.

    1994-01-01

    Children's magical explanations and beliefs were investigated in two studies. Found that many four-year olds view magic as a plausible mechanism, yet reserve magical explanations for certain real world events that violate their causal expectations. Parents and culture at large may at first actively support magical beliefs whereas peers and schools…

  4. Magic in the Classroom: Using Conjuring To Teach Selectivity and General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, C. Jay

    Communication teachers can use magic in the classroom to teach the selective nature of the communication process and principles of general semantics. Since magic "works" due to perceptual limitations, selective perception can be illustrated through various magic effects. Magical effects where the secret is apparent to everyone in the class except…

  5. Doubly sensitivity-enhanced 3D TOCSY-HSQC.

    PubMed

    Wijmenga, S S; van Mierlo, C P; Steensma, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, strategies for double sensitivity enhancement in heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR experiments were introduced (Krishnamurthy, V.V. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B106, 170-177; Sattler et al. (1995) J. Biomol. NMR, 6, 11-22; Sattler et al. (1995) J. Magn. Reson., B108, 235-242). Since a sensitivity enhancement of a factor 2(1/2) can be achieved for each indirect dimension, nD spectra can theoretically be enhanced up to a factor of 2(((n-1)/2)). We propose and analyze a doubly enhanced three-dimensional TOCSY-HSQC sequence. The application of the doubly enhanced three-dimensional {(15)N, (1)H} TOCSY-HSQC sequence is shown for uniformly (13)C-/(15)N- and (15)N-labeled samples of the relatively large Azotobacter vinelandii flavodoxin II (179 amino acids). The main factors that contribute to the final signal-to-noise enhancement have been systematically investigated. The sensitivity enhancement obtained for the doubly enhanced TOCSY-HSQC pulse sequence as compared to the standard (unenhanced) version is close to the theoretically expected factor of two. PMID:20686884

  6. Magic in the machine: a computational magician's assistant.

    PubMed

    Williams, Howard; McOwan, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A human magician blends science, psychology, and performance to create a magical effect. In this paper we explore what can be achieved when that human intelligence is replaced or assisted by machine intelligence. Magical effects are all in some form based on hidden mathematical, scientific, or psychological principles; often the parameters controlling these underpinning techniques are hard for a magician to blend to maximize the magical effect required. The complexity is often caused by interacting and often conflicting physical and psychological constraints that need to be optimally balanced. Normally this tuning is done by trial and error, combined with human intuitions. Here we focus on applying Artificial Intelligence methods to the creation and optimization of magic tricks exploiting mathematical principles. We use experimentally derived data about particular perceptual and cognitive features, combined with a model of the underlying mathematical process to provide a psychologically valid metric to allow optimization of magical impact. In the paper we introduce our optimization methodology and describe how it can be flexibly applied to a range of different types of mathematics based tricks. We also provide two case studies as exemplars of the methodology at work: a magical jigsaw, and a mind reading card trick effect. We evaluate each trick created through testing in laboratory and public performances, and further demonstrate the real world efficacy of our approach for professional performers through sales of the tricks in a reputable magic shop in London. PMID:25452736

  7. Magic in the machine: a computational magician's assistant

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Howard; McOwan, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    A human magician blends science, psychology, and performance to create a magical effect. In this paper we explore what can be achieved when that human intelligence is replaced or assisted by machine intelligence. Magical effects are all in some form based on hidden mathematical, scientific, or psychological principles; often the parameters controlling these underpinning techniques are hard for a magician to blend to maximize the magical effect required. The complexity is often caused by interacting and often conflicting physical and psychological constraints that need to be optimally balanced. Normally this tuning is done by trial and error, combined with human intuitions. Here we focus on applying Artificial Intelligence methods to the creation and optimization of magic tricks exploiting mathematical principles. We use experimentally derived data about particular perceptual and cognitive features, combined with a model of the underlying mathematical process to provide a psychologically valid metric to allow optimization of magical impact. In the paper we introduce our optimization methodology and describe how it can be flexibly applied to a range of different types of mathematics based tricks. We also provide two case studies as exemplars of the methodology at work: a magical jigsaw, and a mind reading card trick effect. We evaluate each trick created through testing in laboratory and public performances, and further demonstrate the real world efficacy of our approach for professional performers through sales of the tricks in a reputable magic shop in London. PMID:25452736

  8. Platelet Composite Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-11-01

    Reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  9. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results formore » several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.« less

  10. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  11. Quark-Gluon Plasma Model and Origin of Magic Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghahramany, N.; Ghanaatian, M.; Hooshmand, M.

    2008-04-21

    Using Boltzman distribution in a quark-gluon plasma sample it is possible to obtain all existing magic numbers and their extensions without applying the spin and spin-orbit couplings. In this model it is assumed that in a quark-gluon thermodynamic plasma, quarks have no interactions and they are trying to form nucleons. Considering a lattice for a central quark and the surrounding quarks, using a statistical approach to find the maximum number of microstates, the origin of magic numbers is explained and a new magic number is obtained.

  12. Therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients.

  13. Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

  14. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  15. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  16. The Data Acquisition of the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, F.; Coarasa, J. A.; Stiehler, R.; Volkov, S.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The data acquisition system of the MAGIC telescope processes the Cherenkov signals registered in the high resolution camera consisting of 577 PMTs. The analog signals are transmitted via optical fibers to the electronics hut where they are stretched, split into high and low gain channels and digitized with 300 MHz 8 bit Flash ADCs. The digital data is read out by a multipro cessor PC which saves it to a RAID system and a tap e library. The system has been designed to process data at a rate of 20 MBytes/sec which is required by the maximum envisaged trigger rate of 1 kHz. Tests of the complete readout chain show that the achieved dynamic range is more than 1000.

  17. MAGIC Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Garczarczyk, M.; Becerra-Gonzalez, J.; Gaug, M.; Antonelli, A.; Carosi, A.; La Barbera, A.; Spiro, S.; Bastieri, D.; Covino, S.; Dominguez, A.; Longo, F.; Scapin, V.

    2010-10-15

    MAGIC is built to perform observations of prompt and early afterglow emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) above 25 GeV. The instrument is designed to have the lowest possible energy threshold among the ground based {gamma}-ray detectors and the fastest reaction time to alerts distributed over the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN). The MAGIC-I telescope observed 57 GRBs during the first six years. In no cases Very High Energy (VHE){gamma}-ray emission above the threshold energy could be detected. The telescope has undergone several major improvements in sensitivity and repositioning performance. The biggest improvement in sensitivity was achieved with the installation of the second MAGIC-II telescope. Since more than one year both telescopes are observing in stereo mode. MAGIC are the only telescopes fast and sensitive enough to extend the observational energy range of satellite detectors, while GRB prompt and early afterglow emission is still ongoing.

  18. Beyond magic bullets: true innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Vaibhav A; Mohwinckel, Marco; Pisano, Gary; Yang, Michael; Manji, Husseini K

    2013-02-01

    The time has come to move beyond product-focused 'magic bullet' therapeutic development strategies towards models that can also incorporate devices, tools and services to provide integrated health-care solutions. PMID:23370233

  19. Maximum nonlocality and minimum uncertainty using magic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We prove that magic states from the Clifford hierarchy give optimal solutions for tasks involving nonlocality and entropic uncertainty with respect to Pauli measurements. For both the nonlocality and uncertainty tasks, stabilizer states are the worst possible pure states, so our solutions have an operational interpretation as being highly nonstabilizer. The optimal strategy for a qudit version of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game in prime dimensions is achieved by measuring maximally entangled states that are isomorphic to single-qudit magic states. These magic states have an appealingly simple form, and our proof shows that they are "balanced" with respect to all but one of the mutually unbiased stabilizer bases. Of all equatorial qudit states, magic states minimize the average entropic uncertainties for collision entropy and also, for small prime dimensions, min-entropy, a fact that may have implications for cryptography.

  20. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody

    2013-04-01

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ɛ→0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(ɛ2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin=0.01 to ɛout in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/ɛout)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

  1. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  2. MAGIC: A Tool for Combining, Interpolating, and Processing Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Transients in the solar coronal magnetic field are ultimately the source of space weather. Models which seek to track the evolution of the coronal field require magnetogram images to be used as boundary conditions. These magnetograms are obtained by numerous instruments with different cadences and resolutions. A tool is required which allows modelers to fmd all available data and use them to craft accurate and physically consistent boundary conditions for their models. We have developed a software tool, MAGIC (MAGnetogram Interpolation and Composition), to perform exactly this function. MAGIC can manage the acquisition of magneto gram data, cast it into a source-independent format, and then perform the necessary spatial and temporal interpolation to provide magnetic field values as requested onto model-defined grids. MAGIC has the ability to patch magneto grams from different sources together providing a more complete picture of the Sun's field than is possible from single magneto grams. In doing this, care must be taken so as not to introduce nonphysical current densities along the seam between magnetograms. We have designed a method which minimizes these spurious current densities. MAGIC also includes a number of post-processing tools which can provide additional information to models. For example, MAGIC includes an interface to the DA VE4VM tool which derives surface flow velocities from the time evolution of surface magnetic field. MAGIC has been developed as an application of the KAMELEON data formatting toolkit which has been developed by the CCMC.

  3. Doubly anchored nematic polymer brushes: Shear, field effects, and quasipiezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.; Williams, D. R. M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear behavior of a doubly anchored brush of liquid-crystalline polymers immersed in a nematic solvent is investigated. In such a brush the grafted polymers bridge two plates. Remarkably, the Franck nematic elasticity in this system can dominate the shear modulus. In the presence of a field the system undergoes a Fréedericksz transition modified by the bridging polymers. In particular: (i) the polymeric elasticity affects the critical field Ec; (ii) the shear modulus vanishes as the field approaches Ec; and (iii) the nematic distortion couples to a shear strain. The system exhibits quasipiezoelectricity, which is nonlinear and is not associated with any inverse effect.

  4. Center mode of a doubly resonant optical periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-07-01

    An optical periodic structure with a single spatial resonance exhibits a stopband. When a second spatial resonance very close to the first one is added, the resulting doubly resonant structure exhibits a Gaussian enveloped, high quality factor transmission state right at the center of the original stopband. Using a slowly varying envelope approximation, we describe the optical characteristics of this transmission state analytically. The transmission state exists despite an optical structure of low refractive index contrast, and has potential applications in nano-optics, and photonics.

  5. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLillo, T.K.; Pfaltzgraff, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  6. Children's and adults' reactions to magical and ordinary suggestion: are suggestibility and magical thinking psychologically close relatives?

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene

    2007-11-01

    In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-year-old children and adults were asked to imagine various types of objects. The experimenter then attempted to change the image of those objects in participants' minds by either suggesting that the objects may change against the participants' will, or by asking participants to change the objects as a favor to the experimenter. Two types of suggestive causation were employed: Magical-suggestion (a magic spell was cast with the aim of changing the imagined objects) and ordinary-suggestion (participants were told that the objects in their minds could alter against their will). Ordinary-suggestion was as effective as magical-suggestion in changing the participants' imagined objects. For adults, a direct request for compliance produced a stronger effect than did magical suggestion. This effect was not found in children. In Experiment 2, the two types of suggestion were tested on an alternative type of imagined objects. Adult participants were asked to imagine their futures. It was then proposed that (a) a magic spell could be cast on their futures with the aim of changing them either for the worse or for the better (magical-suggestion), or (b) changing a numerical pattern on a computer screen could change their futures (ordinary-suggestion). All participants denied that changing a numerical pattern on a computer screen could affect their lives, yet in their actions they demonstrated an element of belief in this possibility. As in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 ordinary suggestion was as effective as magical suggestion. The hypothesis of an historic contiguity between magical causality and ordinary suggestion is discussed. PMID:17931466

  7. Taming Tin(IV) Polyazides.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rory; Davis, Martin F; Fazakerley, Mathew; Portius, Peter

    2015-12-14

    The first charge-neutral Lewis base adducts of tin(IV) tetraazide, [Sn(N3)4(bpy)], [Sn(N3)4(phen)] and [Sn(N3)4(py)2], and the salt bis{bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium} hexa(azido)stannate [(PPN)2Sn(N3)6] (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; py = pyridine; PPN = N(PPh3)2) have been prepared using covalent or ionic azide-transfer reagents and ligand-exchange reactions. The azides were isolated on the 0.3 to 1 g scale and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies, microanalytical and thermal methods and their molecular structures determined by single-crystal XRD. All complexes have a distorted octahedral Sn[N]6 coordination geometry and possess greater thermal stability than their Si and Ge homologues. The nitrogen content of the adducts of up to 44% exceed any Sn(IV) compound known hitherto. PMID:26767331

  8. Magic - Marine Arm Gpci Investigation of Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E. R.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Albrecht, B. A.; Bland, G.; Flagg, C. N.; Klein, S. A.; Kollias, P.; Mace, G. G.; Reynolds, M.; Schwartz, S. E.; Siebesma, P.; Teixeira, J.; Wood, R.; Zhang, M.

    2012-12-01

    MAGIC, the Marine ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program) GPCI Investigation of Clouds, will deploy the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship M/V Spirit traversing the route between Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI from October, 2012 through September, 2013 (except from a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this time AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs), one in January, 2013 and one in July, 2013 during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made. Clouds remain a major source of uncertainty in climate projections. In this context, subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds play a key role in cloud-climate feedbacks that are not well understood yet play a large role in biases both in seasonal coupled model forecasts and annual mean climate forecasts. In particular, current climate models do not accurately represent the transition from the stratocumulus (Sc) regime, with its high albedo and large impact on the global radiative balance of Earth, to shallow trade-wind cumulus (Cu), which play a fundamental role in global surface evaporation and also albedo. Climate models do not yet adequately parameterize the small-scale physical processes associated with turbulence, convection, and radiation in these clouds. Part of this inability results from lack of accurate data on these clouds and the conditions responsible for their properties, including aerosol properties, radiation, and atmospheric and oceanographic conditions. The primary objectives of MAGIC are to improve the representation of the Sc-to-Cu transition in climate models by characterizing the essential properties of this transition, and to produce the observed

  9. An Investigation into Zinc Diffusion and Tin Whisker Growth for Electroplated Tin Deposits on Brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Mark A.; Wilcox, Geoffrey D.; Higginson, Rebecca L.; Heath, Richard J.; Liu, Changqing

    2014-04-01

    It is widely documented that whisker growth is more rapid for tin deposits on brass compared with deposits produced on other substrate materials, such as copper. As a result, studies investigating the effect of process variables on tin whisker formation are often conducted on brass substrates to take advantage of the increased whisker growth rates. Although it has been understood since the 1960s that the increased whisker growth results from zinc diffusion, to date there has not been any detailed analysis of the zinc/zinc oxide distribution at the surface of the tin deposit. Using a commercial bright tin electroplating bath, the formation of zinc oxide at the surface of tin deposits on brass has been investigated. Analyses show that zinc oxide is present on the surface of the deposit within 1 day of electroplating. During storage at room temperature, a network of zinc oxide is formed at the surface grain boundaries, the extent of which increases with time. The critical role that zinc surface diffusion plays in whisker growth for tin deposits on brass has been demonstrated by electrochemical oxidation of the tin shortly after electroplating. This develops a tin oxide film that is thicker than the native air-formed oxide and subsequently serves as a diffusion barrier to zinc surface diffusion, thereby mitigating whisker growth.

  10. Spectroscopy of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanath, M.; Edwards, Robert G.; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael

    2015-05-06

    This study presents the ground and excited state spectra of doubly charmed baryons from lattice QCD with dynamical quark fields. Calculations are performed on anisotropic lattices of size 16³ × 128, with inverse spacing in temporal direction at⁻¹=5.67(4) GeV and with a pion mass of about 390 MeV. A large set of baryonic operators that respect the symmetries of the lattice yet which retain a memory of their continuum analogues are used. These operators transform as irreducible representations of SU(3)F symmetry for flavor, SU(4) symmetry for Dirac spins of quarks and O(3) for spatial symmetry. The distillation method is utilized to generate baryon correlation functions which are analyzed using the variational fitting method to extract excited states. The lattice spectra obtained have baryonic states with well-defined total spins up to 7/2 and the pattern of low-lying states does not support the diquark picture for doubly charmed baryons. On the contrary the calculated spectra are remarkably similar to the expectations from models with an SU(6)×O(3) symmetry. Various spin-dependent energy splittings between the extracted states are also evaluated.