Science.gov

Sample records for dough sponges

  1. Sponge

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-11-15

    Sponge provides a web interface to Pulp (http://pulpproject.org/) that implements a particular workflow as described in the paper “Staging Package Deployment via Repository Management” (http://www.usenix.org/events/lisa11/tech/full_papers/Pierre.pdf). Namely, it implements a process for intensive management of software repositories to apply more deterministic updates to clients of those repositories.

  2. Rheology of Model Dough Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Kiran; Lele, Smita; Lele, Ashish

    2008-07-01

    Dough is generally considered a viscoelastic material, and its elasticity is attributed to the hydrated gluten matrix. Since starch is a major constituent of flour (˜70 wt% on dry basis) we may expect it to contribute to dough rheology in a non-trivial manner. Considering dough to belong to the generic class of soft solid materials, we use the Strain-Rate Frequency Superposition (SRFS) technique to study rheology of various model dough compositions in which the starch/gluten ratio is systematically varied from 100/0 to 0/100. We find that for compositions containing 0-25% gluten the SRFS superposition principle works well, while for compositions containing greater than 25% gluten the quality of SRFS mastercurves deteriorates gradually. Thus we propose that starch particles contribute substantially to the rheology of dough containing up to 25% gluten.

  3. Relationship of Dough Extensibility to Dough Strength in a Spring Wheat Cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A negative relationship between dough strength and dough extensibility would pose a problem for breeding hard wheats, as both dough strength and dough extensibility are desirable. We derived 77 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from a cross between hard red spring wheat cultivars McNeal and Thatcher. M...

  4. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control - over the counter; Contraceptives - over the counter ... include irritation and allergic reactions. VAGINAL SPONGE Vaginal contraceptive sponges are soft sponges covered with a spermicide. ...

  5. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  6. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-22

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  7. Use of glucose oxidase to improve refrigerated dough quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products including bread, rolls, pastries and pizza crust and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to e...

  8. Sponge coring apparatus with reinforced sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Park, A.; Wilson, B. T.

    1985-03-05

    A well coring apparatus includes an outer barrel and an inner barrel. A hollow sponge is disposed along a liner for insertion into the inner barrel. The sponge is operable to absorb subterranean fluid from a well core. A plurality of reinforcing members are disposed on the inner surface of the liner to prevent movement of the sponge with respect thereto. A plurality of orifices are disposed in the surface of the liner to allow gas and/or fluid to escape from the interior thereof when the subterranean fluid contained within the core bleeds into the sponge.

  9. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004003.htm Vaginal sponge and spermicides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spermicides and vaginal sponges are two over-the-counter birth control methods ...

  10. Breadmaking with zein-starch dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of maize prolamins (zein) and starch form a cohesive, extensible, viscoelastic dough when mixed above zein's glass transition temperature, e.g. at 35-40 degrees Celsius. Although this phenomenon has long been known, it has not yet been successfully used for gluten-free breadmaking. We fou...

  11. Ethanol at levels produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wheat dough fermentation has a strong impact on dough properties.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Rezaei, Mohammad N; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-09-24

    Yeast's role in bread making is primarily the fermentative production of carbon dioxide to leaven the dough. Fermentation also impacts dough matrix rheology, thereby affecting the quality of the end product. Surprisingly, the role of ethanol, the other yeast primary metabolite, has been ill studied in this context. Therefore, this study aims to assess the potential impact of ethanol on yeastless dough extensibility and spread and gluten agglomeration at concentrations at which it is produced in fermenting dough, i.e., up to 60 mmol per 100 g of flour. Reduced dough extensibility and dough spread were observed upon incorporation of ethanol in the dough formula, and were more pronounced for a weak than for a strong flour. Uniaxial and biaxial extension tests showed up to 50% decrease in dough extensibility and a dough strength increase of up to 18% for 60 mmol of ethanol/100 g of flour. Ethanol enhanced gluten agglomeration of a weak flour. Sequential extraction of flour in increasing ethanol concentrations showed that better gluten-solvent interaction is a possible explanation for the changed dough behavior. PMID:25174613

  12. Refrigerated dough quality of hard red spring wheat: Effect of genotype and environment on dough syruping and arabinoxylan production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are the main non-starch polysaccharides found in wheat flour. Structural changes of AXs in refrigerated dough are linked to deleterious effects on refrigerated dough quality during storage. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of cultivar and growing environmen...

  13. Addition of glucose oxidase for the improvement of refrigerated dough quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to evaluate glucose oxidase as an additive to refri...

  14. Measuring Technique of Bubble Size Distributions in Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Tsuta, Mizuki

    A novel technique to recognize bubbles in bread dough and analyze their size distribution was developed by using a Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS). Samples were taken from the final stage of the mixing process of bread dough which generally consists of four distinctive stages. Also, to investigate the effect of freeze preservation on the size distribution of bubbles, comparisons were made between fresh dough and the dough that had been freeze preserved at .30°C for three months. Bubbles in the dough samples were identified in the images of MSIPS as defocusing spots due to the difference in focal distance created by vacant spaces. In case of the fresh dough, a total of 910 bubbles were recognized and their maximum diameter ranged from 0.4 to 70.5μm with an average of 11.1μm. On the other hand, a total of 1,195 bubbles were recognized from the freeze-preserved sample, and the maximum diameter ranged from 0.9 to 32.7μm with an average of 6.7μm. Small bubbles with maximum diameters less than 10μm comprised approximately 59% and 78% of total bubbles for fresh and freeze-preserved dough samples, respectively. The results indicated that the bubble size of frozen dough is smaller than that of unfrozen one. The proposed method can provide a novel tool to investigate the effects of mixing and preservation treatments on the size, morphology and distribution of bubbles in bread dough.

  15. The retained surgical sponge.

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, C W; Friedman, S; Spurling, K P; Slowick, T; Kaiser, H A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. A review was performed to investigate the frequency of occurrence and outcome of patients who have retained surgical sponges. METHODS. Closed case records from the files of the Medical Professional Mutual Insurance Company (ProMutual, Boston, MA) involving a claim of retained surgical sponges were reviewed for a 7-year period. RESULTS. Retained sponges occurred in 40 patients, comprising 48% of all closed claims for retained foreign bodies. A falsely correct sponge count after an abdominal procedure was documented in 76% of these claims. Ten percent of claims involved vaginal deliveries and minor non-body cavity procedures, for which no sponge count was performed. Total indemnity payments were $2,072,319, and defense costs were $572,079. In three cases, the surgeon was deemed responsible by the court despite the nursing staff's admitting liability and evidence presented that the surgeon complied completely with the standard of care. A wide range of indemnity payments was made despite a remarkable similarity of outcome in the patients studied. CONCLUSIONS. Despite the rarity of the reporting of a retained surgical sponge, this occurrence appears to be encountered more commonly than generally is appreciated. Operating teams should ensure that sponges be counted for all vaginal and any incisional procedures at risk for retaining a sponge. In addition, the surgeon should not unquestioningly accept correct count reports, but should develop the habit of performing a brief but thorough routine postprocedure wound/body cavity exploration before wound closure. The strikingly similar outcome for most patients would argue for a standardized indemnity payment being made without the need for adversarial legal procedures. PMID:8678622

  16. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  17. Global conservation status of sponges.

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Cárdenas, César A; Bennett, Holly

    2015-02-01

    Sponges are important for maintaining ecosystem function and integrity of marine and freshwater benthic communities worldwide. Despite this, there has been no assessment of their current global conservation status. We assessed their status, accounting for the distribution of research effort; patterns of temporal variation in sponge populations and assemblages; the number of sponges on threatened species lists; and the impact of environmental pressures. Sponge research effort has been variable; marine sponges in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean and freshwater sponges in Europe and North America have received the most attention. Although sponge abundance has increased in some locations since 1990, these were typically on coral reefs, in response to declines in other benthic organisms, and restricted to a few species. Few data were available on temporal trends in freshwater sponge abundance. Despite over 8500 described sponge species, only 20 are on threatened species lists, and all are marine species from the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Of the 202 studies identified, the effects of temperature, suspended sediment, substratum loss, and microbial pathogens have been studied the most intensively for marine sponges, although responses appear to be variable. There were 20 studies examining environmental impacts on freshwater sponges, and most of these were on temperature and heavy metal contamination. We found that most sponges do not appear to be threatened globally. However, little information is available for most species and more data are needed on the impacts of anthropogenic-related pressures. This is a critical information gap in understanding sponge conservation status. PMID:25599574

  18. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  19. Cryptochrome in Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Heinz C.; Markl, Julia S.; Grebenjuk, Vlad A.; Korzhev, Michael; Steffen, Renate; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Sponges (phylum: Porifera) react to external light or mechanical signals with contractile or metabolic reactions and are devoid of any nervous or muscular system. Furthermore, elements of a photoreception/phototransduction system exist in those animals. Recently, a cryptochrome-based photoreceptor system has been discovered in the demosponge. The assumption that in sponges the siliceous skeleton acts as a substitution for the lack of a nervous system and allows light signals to be transmitted through its glass fiber network is supported by the findings that the first spicules are efficient light waveguides and the second sponges have the enzymatic machinery for the generation of light. Now, we have identified/cloned in Suberites domuncula two additional potential molecules of the sponge cryptochrome photoreception system, the guanine nucleotide-binding protein β subunit, related to β-transducin, and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)–interacting protein. Cryptochrome and NOSIP are light-inducible genes. The studies show that the NOS inhibitor L-NMMA impairs both morphogenesis and motility of the cells. Finally, we report that the function of primmorphs to produce reactive nitrogen species can be abolished by a NOS inhibitor. We propose that the sponge cryptochrome-based photoreception system, through which photon signals are converted into radicals, is coupled to the NOS apparatus. PMID:23920109

  20. The contribution of glutenin macropolymer depolymerization to the deterioration of frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lee, Tung-Ching; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2016-11-15

    Depolymerization of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) widely exists in the frozen dough with little effort in elucidating its effects on steamed bread quality. To clarify this, GMP was fractionated from wheat flour and reconstituted to yeast and chemical leavened dough (YLD/CLD). Results showed that with supplementary GMP fraction, depolymerization degree was alleviated in frozen dough. The bread quality loss from freezing was partially counteracted along with better preserved GMP content. Both of dough elasticity and gas retention capability were enhanced in GMP-enriched frozen dough. Gassing power in frozen YLD decreased while remained constant in CLD. Addition of GMP did not affect the gassing power, which allowed interpreting the improved bread qualities from the enhanced dough elasticity and gas retention capability. Based on the improved facts of frozen steamed bread dough quality with additional GMP fractions, this study revealed the pivotal role of GMP depolymerization on the frozen steamed bread dough quality. PMID:27283603

  1. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  2. Water dynamics in fresh and frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Simon M; Huang, Victor T; Reid, David S; Winger, Ray J

    2012-01-01

    Water is an integral part of wheat flour dough-the amount, physical state, and location of water are crucial to the formation of a dough that will hold gas and produce an open, aerated crumb structure in the final product. This has been understood for centuries by craft bakers, who were highly attuned to the "feel" of dough in their hands. In the 20th century, empirical instruments were invented that simulated part of the breadmaking process, and their limited predictive capacity made them valuable quality control tools. During the latter decades of the 20th century the cost and availability of advanced instrumental methods for characterizing foods improved dramatically, and facilitated a "fundamental science" approach to food research. The physicochemical mechanisms by which water exerts such a strong influence on the character of dough are now better understood. This review contrasts the empirical and fundamental view points, and summarizes recent knowledge about the roles of water in the manufacture of fresh and frozen yeasted dough. PMID:22369259

  3. Refrigerated dough quality: effect of environment and genotypes of hard red spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Simsek, S; Whitney, K L; Ohm, J B; Anderson, J; Mergoum, M

    2011-01-01

    Refrigerated dough products use wheat flour as their primary ingredient, so the quality and chemical composition of the flour determine the quality of the final product. Six varieties of hard red spring wheat, grown in 3 locations in Minnesota, U.S.A., were evaluated for use in refrigerated dough products. Total arabinoxylan percentages in the flours ranged from 0.97 to 1.54. Xylanase activity of the flour was measured and ranged from 0.20 to 0.84 mU/g. An important factor in the suitability for refrigerated dough is the syruping during storage. A large amount of variability in dough syruping was observed among the varieties and locations when the extent of dough syruping was measured over a period of 10 d. The mean dough syruping on day 10 ranged from 2.05% to 14.83%. Despite the significant interaction effect of genotype and environment, 2 varieties, Glenn and Oklee, had lower dough syrup formation with greater stability across growing locations and storage days than other varieties. Practical Application: Refrigerated dough production is one of the fastest growing segments of the ready-to-use food industry. Well-formulated and processed refrigerated doughs are practical to consume and should stay fresh during extended periods of storage; thus, maintenance of dough quality during refrigeration is critical. This study was designed to perform the research on genotypic and environmental effects on variations in dough syruping during refrigeration storage of doughs from hard red spring wheats. PMID:21535707

  4. Rheological Changes in Refrigerated Dough During Storage in Relation to Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated dough is a flour-based, unbaked product that is stored between 4-7 ºC. The aim of this work was to study the rheological properties of refrigerated dough during storage and determine their correlations with dough proteins. Rheological properties were determined using texture analyzer an...

  5. The Sponge Hologenome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host’s phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of “holobiont” research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge’s phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont. PMID:27103626

  6. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association of Kidney Patients National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Medullary Sponge Kidney Page Content On this page: What is Medullary ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions white sponge nevus white sponge nevus Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  8. Structural analysis of gluten-free doughs by fractional rheological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek; Owczarz, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the effects of various components of tested gluten-free doughs, such as corn starch, amaranth flour, pea protein isolate, and cellulose in the form of plantain fibers on rheological properties of such doughs. The rheological properties of gluten-free doughs were assessed by using the rheological fractional standard linear solid model (FSLSM). Parameter analysis of the Maxwell-Wiechert fractional derivative rheological model allows to state that gluten-free doughs present a typical behavior of viscoelastic quasi-solid bodies. We obtained the contribution dependence of each component used in preparations of gluten-free doughs (either hard-gel or soft-gel structure). The complicate analysis of the mechanical structure of gluten-free dough was done by applying the FSLSM to explain quite precisely the effects of individual ingredients of the dough on its rheological properties.

  9. Raw Dough's a Raw Deal and Could Make You Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... even though there are websites devoted to “flour crafts,” don’t give your kids raw dough or ... care or kindergarten, a common pastime may be art using “play” clay that is homemade from raw ...

  10. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800{degrees} C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800{degrees} C to below about 300{degrees} C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300{degrees} C.

  11. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  16. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  17. Organoleptic Analysis of Doughs Fermented with Yeasts From A Nigerian Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Certain Commercial Yeasts.

    PubMed

    I, Dayo-Owoyemi; B, Boboye; Fa, Akinyosoye

    2008-01-01

    Yeasts isolated from a freshly tapped palm wine obtained from Akure, Nigeria were identified as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum lactis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Each of the isolates was used to ferment wheat flour dough and baked. Sensory analysis of the doughs was carried out using leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae performed best in leavening the dough while Debaryomyces hansenii produced doughs with the best taste and aroma. Appearances of the doughs made with all the isolated yeasts did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from that of the dough that lacked yeast. PMID:19088921

  18. Organoleptic Analysis of Doughs Fermented with Yeasts From A Nigerian Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Certain Commercial Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    B, Boboye; I, Dayo-Owoyemi; F. A, Akinyosoye

    2008-01-01

    Yeasts isolated from a freshly tapped palm wine obtained from Akure, Nigeria were identified as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum lactis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Each of the isolates was used to ferment wheat flour dough and baked. Sensory analysis of the doughs was carried out on leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae performed best in leavening the dough while Debaryomyces hansenii produced doughs with the best taste and aroma. Appearances of the doughs made with all the isolated yeasts did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from that of the dough that lacked yeast. PMID:19088921

  19. Microbial diversity of marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, U; Fieseler, L; Wehrl, M; Gernert, C; Steinert, M; Hacker, J; Horn, M

    2003-01-01

    The recent application of molecular microbial ecology tools to sponge-microbe associations has revealed a glimpse into the biodiversity of these microbial communities, that is considered just 'the tip of the iceberg'. This chapter provides an overview over these new findings with regard to identity, diversity and distribution patterns of sponge-associated microbial consortia. The sponges Aplysina aerophoba (Verongida), Rhopaloeides odorabile (Dicytoceratida) and Theonella swinhoei (Lithistida) were chosen as model systems for this review because they have been subject to both, cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. A discussion of the microbial assemblages of Halichondriapanicea is presented in the accompanying chapter by Imhoff and Stöhr. Considering that a large fraction of sponge-associated microbes is not yet amenable to cultivation, an emphasis has been placed on the techniques centering around the 16S rRNA gene. A section has been included that covers the potential of sponge microbial communities for drug discovery. Finally, a 'sponge-microbe interaction model' is presented that summarizes our current understanding of the processes that might have shaped the community structure of the microbial assemblages within sponges. PMID:15825640

  20. A combination of two lactic acid bacteria improves the hydrolysis of gliadin during wheat dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Carla Luciana; Dallagnol, Andrea; Rollán, Graciela; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    The evaluation of gliadin hydrolysis during dough fermentation by using two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 775 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CRL 792, as pooled cell suspension (LAB) or cell free extract (CFE) was undertaken. The CFE pool produced a greater (121%) increase in amino acid concentration than the LAB pool (70-80%). These results were correlated with the decrease (76,100 and 64,300 ppm) in the gliadin concentration of doughs supplemented with CFE and LAB, respectively, compared to control doughs. The use of LAB peptidases seemed to be a viable technologic alternative to reduce the gliadin concentration in wheat dough without using living bacteria as starter. PMID:22986210

  1. Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

    2014-04-01

    Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2 )= 0.671) and damaged starch (R (2 )= 0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts. PMID:23744117

  2. Towards a Simple Constitutive Model for Bread Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Roger I.

    2008-07-01

    Wheat flour dough is an example of a soft solid material consisting of a gluten (rubbery) network with starch particles as a filler. The volume fraction of the starch filler is high-typically 60%. A computer-friendly constitutive model has been lacking for this type of material and here we report on progress towards finding such a model. The model must describe the response to small strains, simple shearing starting from rest, simple elongation, biaxial straining, recoil and various other transient flows. A viscoelastic Lodge-type model involving a damage function. which depends on strain from an initial reference state fits the given data well, and it is also able to predict the thickness at exit from dough sheeting, which has been a long-standing unsolved puzzle. The model also shows an apparent rate-dependent yield stress, although no explicit yield stress is built into the model. This behaviour agrees with the early (1934) observations of Schofield and Scott Blair on dough recoil after unloading.

  3. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  4. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage. PMID:17243698

  5. Rheological and sensory behaviour of rice flour dough: effect of selected additives in relation to dough flattening.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Yash; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The handling of rice flour doughs in terms of sheeting, flattening and rolling is difficult due to the absence of gluten forming proteins; scope exists to improve these characteristics by incorporating appropriate additives during the preparation of rice doughs. Different levels of additives such as whey protein concentrate (WPC) (0-10 %), xanthan gum (0-5 %), sucrose (0-20 %) and salt (0-2 %) have been incorporated, and the rheological (small-deformation oscillation) as well as sensory characteristics have been determined, in addition to microstructural observations and finding inter-relationships. The second order polynomial can adequately explain the rheological parameters like storage modulus, loss modulus and complex viscosity (R = 0.863-0.889, p ≤ 0.01) while it is poor for phase angle (R = 0.659, p ≤ 0.01). Among these additives, xanthan gum imparts the strongest effect (significant at p ≤ 0.01) followed by whey protein concentrate. The effects of these additives are predominantly linear though quadratic effects are also significant in several cases. A cohesive microstructure with improved binding occurs with a high level (7.5 %) of WPC. It is concluded that a judicious selection of additives in appropriate levels can develop rice doughs that possess the desirable handling properties leading to preparation of products. PMID:26243905

  6. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  7. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  8. A Rapid Small-Scale Method to Evaluate Dough Viscoelastic Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough viscoelastic properties are of special interest to bakers and wheat breeders. Dough extensibility (DE) and resistance to extension (RE) influence each step of the baking process as well as product end-use quality, and thus are important quality factors to consider in wheat breeding programs. T...

  9. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  10. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph exper...

  11. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  12. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph experi...

  13. Recipe for Working Together: Gen. Colin Powell and the Baker's Dough Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a baker's-dough mural that would become a permanent part of the community and relates a visit made to the Sacramento (California) Boys & Girls Club by General Colin Powell. Discusses Powell's part in creating the mural. Includes the steps for how to make a Baker's-dough mural. (CMK)

  14. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  15. Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on the frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Tao, Han; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on frozen steamed bread dough quality was investigated in terms of the bread characteristics, ice crystallization, yeast activity as well as the gluten molecular weight distribution and glutenin macropolymer content in the present study. Results showed that water extractable arabinoxylan significantly improved bread characteristics during the 60-day frozen storage. Less water was crystallized in the water extractable arabinoxylan dough during storage, which could explain the alleviated yeast activity loss. For all the frozen dough samples, more soluble high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-688,000) and low molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-16,000) proteins were derived from glutenin macropolymer depolymerization. Nevertheless, water extractable arabinoxylan dough developed higher glutenin macropolymer content with lowered level of soluble low molecular weight proteins throughout the storage. This study suggested water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran had great potential to be served as an effective frozen steamed bread dough improver. PMID:26830568

  16. Impact of wheat flour-associated endoxylanases on arabinoxylan in dough after mixing and resting.

    PubMed

    Dornez, Emmie; Gebruers, Kurt; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2007-08-22

    The impact of varying levels of endoxylanase activity in wheat flour on arabinoxylan (AX) in mixed and rested dough was studied using eight industrially milled wheat flour fractions with varying endoxylanase activity levels. Analysis of the levels of reducing end xylose (RX) and solubilized AX (S-AX) formed during mixing and resting and their correlation with the endoxylanase activity in the flour milling fractions showed that solubilization of AX during the mixing phase is mainly due to mechanical forces, while solubilization of AX during resting is caused by endoxylanase activity. Moreover, solubilization of AX during the dough resting phase is more outspoken than that during the mixing phase. Besides endoxylanase activity, there were significant xylosidase and arabinofuranosidase activities during the dough resting phase. The results indicate that wheat flour-associated endoxylanases can alter part of the AX in dough, thereby changing their functionality in bread making and potentially affecting dough and end product properties. PMID:17661495

  17. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. PMID:27451167

  18. Effect of mixing time on the structural characteristics of noodle dough under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Yanan; Zhang, Yingquan; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Xuju; Wei, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    The structural characteristics of noodle dough under different vacuum mixing times were investigated using three flour samples by texture profile analysis (TPA), SEM, FTIR micro-imaging, and by measuring the glutenin macropolymer and free -SH content. The sheeted dough mixed for 8 min presented better textural properties and a more compact and even microstructure. Insufficient mixing resulted in an uneven distribution and an inadequately developed gluten network, especially for weak-gluten flour (Jimai 22). Excessive mixing was detrimental to the developed dough network and decreased the uniformity of component spatial distribution. Furthermore, excessive mixing led to a decrease in GMP content as well as the increase in free -SH content. Flours with different protein characteristics behaved differently. The TPA, microstructure and free -SH content of dough of Zhengmai 366 was less affected by mixing time than that of Jimai 22, suggesting that strong-gluten flour has better noodle dough mixing tolerance. PMID:26041200

  19. Martian 'Kitchen Sponge'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. It shows a tiny 1 kilometer by 1 kilometer (0.62 x 0.62 mile) area of the martian north polar residual ice cap as it appears in summertime.

    The surface looks somewhat like that of a kitchen sponge--it is flat on top and has many closely-spaced pits of no more than 2 meters (5.5 ft) depth. The upper, flat surface in this image has a medium-gray tone, while the pit interiors are darker gray. Each pit is generally 10 to 20 meters (33-66 feet) across. The pits probably form as water ice sublimes--going directly from solid to vapor--during the martian northern summer seasons. The pits probably develop over thousands of years. This texture is very different from what is seen in the south polar cap, where considerably larger and more circular depressions are found to resemble slices of swiss cheese rather than a kitchen sponge.

    This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during northern summer on March 8, 1999. It was one of the very last 'calibration' images taken before the start of the Mapping Phase of the MGS mission, and its goal was to determine whether the MOC was properly focused. The crisp appearance of the edges of the pits confirmed that the instrument was focused and ready for its 1-Mars Year mapping mission. The scene is located near 86.9oN, 207.5oW, and has a resolution of about 1.4 meters (4 ft, 7 in) per pixel.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  20. Effect of sterilization on contaminated sponges.

    PubMed

    Kuritani, R H; McDonald, N J; Sydiskis, R J

    1993-02-01

    Sponges are routinely used as a storage medium for endodontic files during clinical practice; however, very little research has been done to determine the effectiveness of sterilization procedures for these contaminated sponges. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the efficacy of chemical vapor sterilizers (chemiclaves), steam pressure sterilizers (autoclaves), and dry heat sterilizers on laboratory contaminated sponges. Four different types of sponges were used in this study: a black, relatively nonporous sponge; a red, semiporous stationary sponge; a blue, endodontic sponge, and a yellow, common household sponge. Natural sponges were eliminated from the study, because their large pore size made them unsuitable as a storage medium for endodontic instruments. The sponges were divided into three groups: chemiclave, autoclave, and dry heat. Five samples of each sponge type were impregnated with biological indicating strips containing spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Each sponge was subjected to 25 cycles of sterilization. The spore strip indicator was inserted into the sponges at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cycles. The spore strip was cultivated in trypticase soy broth medium solution at 55 +/- 1 degree C for 7 days. At 7 days the culture vials were read for turbidity; its presence indicating a positive culture. The samples that were subjected to chemiclaving demonstrated positive cultures of 0.00%, 0.00%, and 30.00% and those to autoclaving 3.33%, 0.00%, and 0.00% positive cultures for the black, red, and blue sponge types, respectively. None of the sponges survived dry heat sterilization. The O-Cell-O sponges become unusable when subjected to all of the sterilization methods used in this study. PMID:8509738

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - DYNAPHORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that has selective affinity for dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. The Forager™ Sponge technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy me...

  2. Effective disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic foodborne bacteria can be disseminated in households through the use of contaminated sponges. Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on sponges were evaluated. Sponges were incubated in a suspension of ground beef and tryptic soy broth to develop bact...

  3. Advances in the production of sponge biomass Aplysina aerophoba--a model sponge for ex situ sponge biomass production.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Rudolf; Vitello, Marco P; Leitermann, Frank; Syldatk, Christoph

    2006-06-25

    Sponges are a promising source of organic compounds of potential interest regarding industrial and medical applications. For detailed studies on such compounds, large amounts of sponge biomass are required. Obtaining that is at present extremely difficult because most sponges are relatively rare in nature and their mass cultivation in the laboratory has not yet been accomplished. In this study the possibility of culturing Aplysina aerophoba fragments in laboratory was examined. While a substantial biomass increase was not yet observed, we achieved fragmented sponge tissue to develop into a functional sponge as a first success. PMID:16697067

  4. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. PMID:25403947

  5. Precambrian sponges with cellular structures

    PubMed

    Li; Chen; Hua

    1998-02-01

    Sponge remains have been identified in the Early Vendian Doushantuo phosphate deposit in central Guizhou (South China), which has an age of approximately 580 million years ago. Their skeletons consist of siliceous, monaxonal spicules. All are referred to as the Porifera, class Demospongiae. Preserved soft tissues include the epidermis, porocytes, amoebocytes, sclerocytes, and spongocoel. Among thousands of metazoan embryos is a parenchymella-type of sponge larvae having a shoe-shaped morphology and dense peripheral flagella. The presence of possible amphiblastula larva suggests that the calcareous sponges may have an extended history in the Late Precambrian. The fauna indicates that animals lived 40 to 50 million years before the Cambrian Explosion. PMID:9452391

  6. Hydrocolloid interaction with water, protein, and starch in wheat dough.

    PubMed

    Linlaud, Natalia; Ferrer, Evelina; Puppo, María Cecilia; Ferrero, Cristina

    2011-01-26

    Interaction of hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, locust bean gum, guar gum, and high-methoxyl pectin) with macrocomponents of dough (water, starch, and protein) was evaluated by different techniques. (1)H spin-spin NMR relaxation assays were applied to study the mobility of the gluten-hydrocolloid-water matrix, and the amount of freezable water was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Starch gelatinization parameters (T, enthalpy) were also analyzed by DSC. The influence of additives on the protein matrix was studied by Fourier transform (FT) Raman assays; analysis of the extracted gliadins and glutenins was performed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A significantly higher molecular mobility was found in matrices containing xanthan gum, whereas pectin led to the lowest molecular mobility. Freezable water showed a trend of increasing in the presence of hydrocolloids, particularly under conditions of water restriction. Starch gelatinization final temperature was decreased when hydrocolloids were added in the presence of enough water. In general, FT-Raman and SDS-PAGE indicated that hydrocolloid addition promoted a more disordered and labile network, particularly in the case of pectin addition. On the other hand, results obtained for dough with guar gum would indicate a good compatibility between this hydrocolloid and the gluten network. PMID:21175189

  7. The systematics of carnivorous sponges.

    PubMed

    Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Vacelet, Jean; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Borchiellini, Carole; Kelly, Michelle; Ríos, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges are characterized by their unique method of capturing mesoplanktonic prey coupled with the complete or partial reduction of the aquiferous system characteristic of the phylum Porifera. Current systematics place the vast majority of carnivorous sponges within Cladorhizidae, with certain species assigned to Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae. Morphological characters have not been able to show whether this classification is evolutionary accurate, and whether carnivory has evolved once or in several lineages. In the present paper we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the carnivorous sponges, interpret these results in conjunction with morphological characters, and propose a revised classification of the group. Molecular phylogenies were inferred using 18S rDNA and a combined dataset of partial 28S rDNA, COI and ALG11 sequences. The results recovered carnivorous sponges as a clade closely related to the families Mycalidae and Guitarridae, showing family Cladorhizidae to be monophyletic and also including carnivorous species currently placed in other families. The genus Lycopodina is resurrected for species currently placed in the paraphyletic subgenus Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) featuring forceps spicules and lacking sigmas or sigmancistras. The genera Chondrocladia and Cladorhiza are found to be monophyletic. However, results indicate that the subgenus Chondrocladia is polyphyletic with respect to the subgenera Meliiderma and Symmetrocladia. Euchelipluma, formerly Guitarridae, is retained, but transferred to Cladorhizidae. The four known carnivorous species currently in Esperiopsis are transferred to Abyssocladia. Neocladia is a junior homonym and is here renamed Koltunicladia. Our results provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that carnivory in sponges has evolved only once. While spicule characters mostly reflect monophyletic groups at the generic level, differences between genera represent evolution within family

  8. Critical assessment of the formation of hydrogen peroxide in dough by fermenting yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of bread dough leads to strengthening of the dough matrix. This effect has previously been ascribed to the action of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by yeast in dough. In this study, we re-evaluate the production of H2O2 by yeast in dough and aqueous fermentation broth. Results show that the previously reported high levels of H2O2 in fermenting dough were most probably due to the lack of specificity of the potassium dichromate/acetic acid-based method used. Using the chemiluminescent HyPerBlu assay, no yeast H2O2 production could be detected in fermented dough or broth. Even though the formation of low levels of H2O2 cannot be ruled out due to the presence of catalase in flour and the fast reaction of H2O2 with gluten proteins, our results suggest that the changes in dough matrix rheological properties upon fermentation are not due to production of H2O2 by yeast. PMID:25172698

  9. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, D.; Page, J. H.; Strybulevych, A.; Peressini, D.; Scanlon, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz - 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  10. Bacteria associated with an encrusting sponge (Terpios hoshinota) and the corals partially covered by the sponge.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sen-Lin; Hong, Mei-Jhu; Liao, Ming-Hui; Jane, Wann-Neng; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Chen, Chung-Bin; Chen, Chaolun A

    2011-05-01

    Terpios hoshinota, a dark encrusting sponge, is known to be a competitor for space in coral reef environments, and facilitates the death of corals. Although numerous cyanobacteria have been detected in the sponge, little is known of the sponge-associated bacterial community. This study examined the sponge-associated bacterial community and the difference between the bacterial communities in the sponge and the coral partially covered by the sponge by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of samples isolated from the sponge covering the corals Favia complanata, Isopora palifera, Millepora sp., Montipora efflorescens and Porites lutea. The sponge-associated bacterial community was mainly (61-98%) composed of cyanobacteria, with approximately 15% of these alphaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria, although the proportions varied in different sponge samples. The dominant cyanobacteria group was an isolated group closely related to Prochloron sp. The comparison of the bacterial communities isolated from sponge-free and the sponge-covered P. lutea showed that covering by the sponge caused changes in the coral-associated bacterial communities, with the presence of bacteria similar to those detected in black-band disease, suggesting the sponge might benefit from the presence of bacteria associated with unhealthy coral, particularly in the parts of the coral closest to the margin of the sponge. PMID:21265978

  11. Characterization Of Sponge-Associated Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, K. L.; Weisz, J.; Lindquist, N.

    2004-12-01

    To more fully understand the endosymbiotic relationship between sponges and microorganisms, it is necessary to characterize the microbial communities of the sponges. In this study, DNA was extracted from each of three individual sponges from four sponge species collected in a shallow mangrove cut in Florida Bay near Key Largo, Florida. A fragment of the 16S rRNA gene from sponge-associated bacteria was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resulting PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which separates DNA fragments based on their sequence differences. Some 16S sequences appeared to be shared by each of the four sponge species, while other fragments found in only particular species likely represent unique bacterial strains that play a role in sponge nutrition.

  12. Sputter Deposition of Metallic Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-01-18

    Metallic films are grown with a sponge-like morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous porosity on the sub-micron scale. The stabilization of the metallic sponge is directly correlated with a limited range for the sputter deposition parameters of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This sponge-like morphology augments the features as generally understood in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings are deposited with working gas pressures up to 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1100 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross-section with scanning electron microscopy. The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) for the deposition processing under which the metallic sponges are produced appear universal for many metals, as for example, including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  13. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    PubMed

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission. PMID:19066625

  14. Summary Statistics for Fun Dough Data Acquired at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a Play Dough{trademark}-like product, Fun Dough{trademark}, designated as PD. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2100 LMHU{sub D} at 100kVp to a low of about 1100 LMHU{sub D} at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 1% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 3.9 to 4.6. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 8.5. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the Fun Dough{trademark} in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. Still, layers can plainly be seen in the reconstructed images, indicating that the bulk density of the material in the container is affected by voids and bubbles. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b

  15. Rheological and functional properties of composite sweet potato - wheat dough as affected by transglutaminase and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ndayishimiye, Jean Bernard; Huang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yong-Zheng; Letsididi, Rebaone; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Tang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Effect of transglutaminase (TGM) and ascorbic acid (AA) on composite sweet potato - wheat dough functional and rheological properties was studied. Partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour at the level of 20 % significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced glutenin, gliadin, dough stability, protein weakening, storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mixolab revealed that both TGM and AA treated dough had stability and protein weakening closed to wheat dough (control), with TGM treated dough having the highest values. TGM Introduced new cross-link bonds as shown by the change of amino acid concentration, leading to an increase in storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″), with G' being higher at all levels of TGM concentration. The opposite was observed for composite dough treated with AA as measured by controlled - stress rheometer. TGM treatment increased glutenin and gliadin content. Compared with the control, dough treated with AA exhibited high molecular weight of polymers than TGM treated dough. The results indicate that the TGM and AA modification of the mixolab and dynamic rheological characteristics (G' and G″) dependent on the changes of GMP, glutenin, gliadin and protein weakening in the composite dough. TGM and AA treatment could improve functional and rheological properties of sweet potato - wheat dough to levels that might be achieved with normal wheat bread. However, it's extremely important to optimize the concentrations of both additives to obtain the optimum response. PMID:27162397

  16. Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera)

    PubMed Central

    Van Soest, Rob W. M.; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dohrmann, Martin; Erpenbeck, Dirk; De Voogd, Nicole J.; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Vanhoorne, Bart; Kelly, Michelle; Hooper, John N. A.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP) and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD), we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a description of the structure of our main source of data for this paper, the WPD. From this we extracted numbers of all ‘known’ sponges to date: the number of valid Recent sponges is established at 8,553, with the vast majority, 83%, belonging to the class Demospongiae. We also mapped for the first time the species richness of a comprehensive set of marine ecoregions of the world, data also extracted from the WPD. Perhaps not surprisingly, these distributions appear to show a strong bias towards collection and taxonomy efforts. Only when species richness is accumulated into large marine realms does a pattern emerge that is also recognized in many other marine animal groups: high numbers in tropical regions, lesser numbers in the colder parts of the world oceans. Preliminary similarity analysis of a matrix of species and marine ecoregions extracted from the WPD failed to yield a consistent hierarchical pattern of ecoregions into marine provinces. Global sponge diversity information is mostly generated in regional projects and resources: results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious. We also review information on invasive sponges that might well have some influence on distribution patterns of the future. PMID:22558119

  17. The crystalline sponge method updated

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Manabu; Khutia, Anupam; Xing, Hongzhu; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method). In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore–solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents) therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy) is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with R int = 0.0279 and R 1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [R int = 0.0421, R 1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons) = −0.0071 (11)] represents the

  18. The crystalline sponge method updated.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Manabu; Khutia, Anupam; Xing, Hongzhu; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method). In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore-solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents) therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy) is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with R int = 0.0279 and R 1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [R int = 0.0421, R 1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons) = -0.0071 (11)] represents the

  19. Global diversity of sponges (Porifera).

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Vacelet, Jean; Dohrmann, Martin; Erpenbeck, Dirk; De Voogd, Nicole J; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Vanhoorne, Bart; Kelly, Michelle; Hooper, John N A

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of a single unified classification, the Systema Porifera (SP) and subsequent development of an online species database, the World Porifera Database (WPD), we are now equipped to provide a first comprehensive picture of the global biodiversity of the Porifera. An introductory overview of the four classes of the Porifera is followed by a description of the structure of our main source of data for this paper, the WPD. From this we extracted numbers of all 'known' sponges to date: the number of valid Recent sponges is established at 8,553, with the vast majority, 83%, belonging to the class Demospongiae. We also mapped for the first time the species richness of a comprehensive set of marine ecoregions of the world, data also extracted from the WPD. Perhaps not surprisingly, these distributions appear to show a strong bias towards collection and taxonomy efforts. Only when species richness is accumulated into large marine realms does a pattern emerge that is also recognized in many other marine animal groups: high numbers in tropical regions, lesser numbers in the colder parts of the world oceans. Preliminary similarity analysis of a matrix of species and marine ecoregions extracted from the WPD failed to yield a consistent hierarchical pattern of ecoregions into marine provinces. Global sponge diversity information is mostly generated in regional projects and resources: results obtained demonstrate that regional approaches to analytical biogeography are at present more likely to achieve insights into the biogeographic history of sponges than a global perspective, which appears currently too ambitious. We also review information on invasive sponges that might well have some influence on distribution patterns of the future. PMID:22558119

  20. Bread dough rheology: Computing with a damage function model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Roger I.; Qi, Fuzhong; Dai, Shaocong

    2015-01-01

    We describe an improved damage function model for bread dough rheology. The model has relatively few parameters, all of which can easily be found from simple experiments. Small deformations in the linear region are described by a gel-like power-law memory function. A set of large non-reversing deformations - stress relaxation after a step of shear, steady shearing and elongation beginning from rest, and biaxial stretching, is used to test the model. With the introduction of a revised strain measure which includes a Mooney-Rivlin term, all of these motions can be well described by the damage function described in previous papers. For reversing step strains, larger amplitude oscillatory shearing and recoil reasonable predictions have been found. The numerical methods used are discussed and we give some examples.

  1. The contribution of glutathione to the destabilizing effect of yeast on wheat dough.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, C; Albrecht, A; Herrmann, J; Strobl, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

    2015-04-15

    Any factor which impairs the development of the gluten network affects the gas retention capacity and the overall baking performance. This study aimed to examine why rising yeast concentrations (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) decrease the dough elasticity in an asymptotic manner. Since in 27 commercial fresh and dry yeasts up to 81 mg glutathione (GSH) per 1g dry sample were found. Through the addition of reduced GSH in dough without yeast, the extent of dough weakening was analysed. Indeed rheological measurements confirmed that yeast-equivalent levels of GSH had a softening effect and during 3h fermentation the weakening coefficient increased from 0.3% to 20.4% in a Rheofermentometer. The present results indicate that free -SH compounds, as represented by GSH, considerably contribute to the softening of dough through dead yeast cells. PMID:25466019

  2. Effect of microencapsulated fat powders on rheological characteristics of biscuit dough and quality of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M L; Chetana, R; Reddy, S Yella

    2014-12-01

    The effect of microencapsulated fat powders on the rheological characteristics and quality of biscuits were studied and compared with the control native fat normally used in the biscuit industry. Commercial bakery fat was encapsulated using sodium caseinate or skimmed milk powder (SMP) and the fat content in the powders was in the range of 73 - 78 % for sodium caseinate, whereas it ranged between 57.5 and 61 % with SMP and the sugar content was in the range of 9.8 - 17.5 %. The rheological characteristics indicated that with high sodium caseinate and SMP, the doughs were more elastic. The TPA analysis showed that with increasing the casein content in the fat powder, the dough hardness increased, and the doughs were less cohesive. The quality of biscuits was comparable with lower amount of encapsulating agents. Powders with lower amount of agents had comparable benefits on the rheological characteristics of the dough and biscuit quality. PMID:25477670

  3. Fractionation and reconstitution experiments provide insight into the role of wheat starch in frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Ali, Barkat; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    The wheat dough was subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 0, 3, 7, and 10 cycles and fractionated into non-gluten proteins and starch. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed changes in molecular mass distribution occurred for the extracted non-gluten proteins. As for the residual starch, it reflected a loss of chemical components such as amylose, proteins and lipids induced by freezing treatment. X-ray diffraction revealed increased crystallinity in separated starch as the freezing cycle was repeated. Rapid visco-analyser exhibited different pasting behaviors on starch pellets, especially on the breakdown and setback viscosities. In the reconstituted dough, an increase was observed in storage and loss modulus, corresponding to the presence of freezing/thawing-treated starches, which was changed as a result of higher water absorption. These results extended the knowledge of starch granules in dough deterioration upon freezing process and might contribute to the better understanding of frozen dough quality loss. PMID:26213014

  4. Effects of yeast, carboxymethylcellulose, yoghurt, transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase on mixing properties of oat dough.

    PubMed

    Nitcheu Ngemakwe, Patrick Hermaan; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Jideani, Victoria

    2015-10-01

    The effects of yeast, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), plain yoghurt (YG), transglutaminase (TG) and cyclodextrinase (CG) on the mixing properties of oat dough were investigated through the use of DoughLab. A 2(5-2)fractional factorial design resolution III with yeast (1.25, 3.25 %), CMC (1, 2 %), YG (10.75, 33.75 %), TG (0.5, 1.5 %) and CG (10, 40 μl) as independent variables was implemented. The parameters measured were water absorption, arrival time, stability, energy at peak, peak resistance, development time, departure time, softening and bandwith at peak. CMC significantly (p < 0.05) increased stability, energy at peak, development and departure times, but significantly (p < 0.05) decreased water absorption, peak resistance, softening and bandwidth at peak. TG signficantly increased water absorption, peak resistance and softening, but significantly decreased energy and development time. YG significantly (p < 0.05) decreased all the parameters measured, with the exception of softening, which was significantly increased. In contrast, yeast and cyclodextrinase did not significantly affect the oat dough during mixing. Principal component analysis indicated that 85.5 % of the variation in the data could be explained by two components. Component 1 explaining 52.3 % of the variation loaded highly on dough strength (stability and departure time). Component 2 contributing 33.2 % of the variation loaded on dough resistance (water absorption and peak resistance). CMC significantly increased dough strength while yoghurt reduced it significantly. TG significantly (p < 0.05) increased the resistance of the dough to mixing while CMC and yoghurt reduced it significantly (p < 0.05). Hence, CMC, TG and yoghurt are ingredients of choice when modifying oat dough mixing properties. PMID:26396372

  5. Effects of transgene-encoded high-molecular weight glutenin proteins in wheat flour blends and sponge and dough baking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HMW glutenin subunits are the most important determinants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread-making quality, and subunit composition explains a large percentage of the variability observed between genotypes. Experiments were designed to elevate expression of a key native HMW glutenin subunit (1D...

  6. Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Paco

    2016-04-01

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research. PMID:27091193

  7. Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-15

    Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology. PMID:24423552

  8. Summary Statistics for Homemade ?Play Dough? -- Data Acquired at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Martz, A; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a homemade Play Dough{trademark}-like material, designated as PDA. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2700 LMHU{sub D} 100kVp to a low of about 1200 LMHUD at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 10% to 15% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 6.0 to 7.4. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the detailed chemical composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 10. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the homemade 'Play Dough' in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b) their digital gradient images. (A digital gradient image of a given image was obtained by taking the absolute value of the difference between the initial image

  9. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati R.; Kneisel, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area.

  10. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.; Kneisel, P.

    1995-12-26

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area. 4 figs.

  11. Effective household disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on kitchen sponges were evaluated. Sponges were soaked in 10 percent bleach for 3 min, lemon juice (pH 2.9) or deionized water for 1 min; placed in a microwave oven for 1 min; or placed in a dishwasher operating with a dryi...

  12. Oscillatory shearing behavior of rocket leaves powder incorporated dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almusallam, Abdulwahab Salem; Ahmed, Jasim; Nahar, Shamsun; Chacko, Siby

    2016-05-01

    Dough blended with rocket leaves powder was subjected to small and large amplitude oscillatory shears. Small amplitude oscillatory shear data were fitted to a discrete relaxation model of elastic solids and to a critical gel model. The small amplitude relaxation spectrum was thereafter used to calculate the LAOS predictions of various large deformation models. The LAOS theoretical calculations using the Phan-Thien model showed good agreement with the first harmonic stress data, and only qualitative agreement with the third and the fifth harmonic stress values. Lissajous curves showed dissimilarity in shape between the experimental data and Phan-Thien model. The network model of Sim et al. (2003). Did not have the butterfly shape displayed in the Phan-Thien model, but it provided a worse fit to stress harmonics than the Phan-Thien model. An improved damage function was proposed, where time effect on network damage was taken into consideration, and fits to stress harmonics and to Lissajous stress-strain curves were significantly improved.

  13. Rheological properties, oxidative stability, and tocopherol content during storage of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg: comparison with hen egg.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, T

    2010-05-01

    Eggs from Silky fowl and White Leghorn hens were used to prepare fried dough. The rheological properties, lipid oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol content of fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were compared with dough made with hen egg. The fried dough was stored in a glass bottle at 50 degrees C in the dark for 12 d. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed little change in hardness and adhesion for 12 d at 50 degrees C. However, in the fried dough made with hen egg, hardness increased drastically and adhesion decreased. The fried dough made with Silky fowl egg showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides during 12 d in storage at 50 degrees C. In contrast, the fried dough made with hen egg showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides during the 12-d storage. The lowest concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal was observed in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg, whereas the concentration of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal in fried dough made with hen egg was significantly increased. Total tocopherols in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg were degraded 23.3 mg/100 g of fried dough by the end of the experimental period at 50 degrees C. In contrast, total tocopherols in the fried dough made with hen egg were degraded 40 mg/100 g of fried dough. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids decreased and the hydroperoxide content increased with storage time. The unsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio and hydroperoxide and tocopherol contents were lower in fried dough made with Silky fowl egg than in that made with hen egg, indicating decreased lipid oxidation. The present experiment suggests that the use of Silky fowl egg could improve the rheological properties, oxidative stability, and trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and tocopherol contents of fried dough. PMID:20371854

  14. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam. PMID:25892788

  15. Ingredient Functionality in Multilayered Dough-margarine Systems and the Resultant Pastry Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Nand; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-10-01

    Pastry products are produced from heterogeneous multilayered dough systems. The main ingredients are flour, water, fat and sugar for puff pastry, and the same plus yeast for fermented pastry. Key aspects in pastry production are (i) building laminated dough containing alternating layers of dough and bakery fat and (ii) maintaining this multilayered structure during processing to allow for steam entrapment for proper dough lift during baking. Although most authors agree on the importance of gluten and fat for maintaining the integrity of the different layers, detailed studies on their specific function are lacking. The exact mechanism of steam entrapment during dough lift and the relative contribution of water set free from the fat phase during baking also remain unclear. This review brings together current knowledge on pastry products and the factors determining (intermediate) product quality. Its focus is on flour constituents, fat, water, and (where applicable) yeast during the different production stages of pastry products. Future research needs are addressed as the knowledge on biochemical and physical changes occurring in flour constituents and other ingredients during pastry production and their effect on product quality is currently inadequate. PMID:26177127

  16. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strybulevych, A.; Leroy, V.; Shum, A. L.; Koksel, H. F.; Scanlon, M. G.; Page, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  17. Enhanced leavening properties of baker's yeast by reducing sucrase activity in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Lin, Xue; Feng, Bing; Liu, Xiao-Er; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Jia; Pi, Li; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Leavening ability in sweet dough is required for the commercial applications of baker's yeast. This property depends on many factors, such as glycolytic activity, sucrase activity, and osmotolerance. This study explored the importance of sucrase level on the leavening ability of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Furthermore, the baker's yeast strains with varying sucrase activities were constructed by deleting SUC2, which encodes sucrase or replacing the SUC2 promoter with the VPS8/TEF1 promoter. The results verify that the sucrase activity negatively affects the leavening ability of baker's yeast strains under high-sucrose conditions. Based on a certain level of osmotolerance, sucrase level plays a significant role in the fermentation performance of baker's yeast, and appropriate sucrase activity is an important determinant for the leavening property of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Therefore, modification on sucrase activity is an effective method for improving the leavening properties of baker's yeast in sweet dough. This finding provides guidance for the breeding of industrial baker's yeast strains for sweet dough leavening. The transformants BS1 with deleted SUC2 genetic background provided decreased sucrase activity (a decrease of 39.3 %) and exhibited enhanced leavening property (an increase of 12.4 %). Such a strain could be useful for industrial applications. PMID:27041690

  18. A Method of Visualizing Three-Dimensional Distribution of Yeast in Bread Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Shiraga, Seizaburou; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Takeya, Koji; Endo, Shigeru

    A novel technique was developed to monitor the change in three-dimensional (3D) distribution of yeast in frozen bread dough samples in accordance with the progress of mixing process. Application of a surface engineering technology allowed the identification of yeast in bread dough by bonding EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) to the surface of yeast cells. The fluorescent yeast (a biomarker) was recognized as bright spots at the wavelength of 520 nm. A Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS) with a fluorescence microscope was utilized to acquire cross-sectional images of frozen dough samples sliced at intervals of 1 μm. A set of successive two-dimensional images was reconstructed to analyze 3D distribution of yeast. Samples were taken from each of four normal mixing stages (i.e., pick up, clean up, development, and final stages) and also from over mixing stage. In the pick up stage yeast distribution was uneven with local areas of dense yeast. As the mixing progressed from clean up to final stages, the yeast became more evenly distributed throughout the dough sample. However, the uniformity in yeast distribution was lost in the over mixing stage possibly due to the breakdown of gluten structure within the dough sample.

  19. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so...

  1. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so...

  2. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so...

  3. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so...

  4. Effect of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in raw cookie dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cookie dough can be contaminated by raw ingredients, mishandling, package contamination, etc. Considering the recent outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 with commercial raw cookie dough, the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive in the raw cookie dough production and processing environments, it raised conce...

  5. Effect of Genotype and Environment on the Refrigerated Dough Quality and Arabinoxylan Content of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are the main non-starch polysaccharides found in wheat flour. Structural changes of AXs in refrigerated dough are linked to deleterious effects on refrigerated dough quality during storage. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on dou...

  6. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. PMID:26920275

  7. Activity of carbohydrate oxidases as influenced by wheat flour dough components.

    PubMed

    Degrand, L; Rakotozafy, L; Nicolas, J

    2015-08-15

    The carbohydrate oxidase (COXMn) from Microdochium nivale may well have desired functionalities as a dough and bread improver, similarly to Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOX). COXMn catalyses the oxidation of various monosaccharides as well as maltooligosaccharides for which the best activity is obtained towards the maltooligosaccharides of polymerisation degrees 3 and 4. For the same activity towards glucose under air saturation, we show that COXMn exhibits a similar efficiency towards maltose as GOX towards glucose whatever the oxygen supply. Assays with COXMn show that no competition exists between carbohydrates naturally present in the wheat flour. We show that reaction products (d-glucono-δ-lactone and hydrogen peroxide) and the wheat flour dough component, ferulic acid, have no noticeable specific effect on the COXMn activity. The demonstrated differences in kinetics between COXMn and GOX allow predicting of differences in the functional behaviours of those enzymes during wheat flour dough formation. PMID:25794758

  8. Effect of inulin on rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free dough.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Lesław; Witczak, Teresa; Ziobro, Rafał; Korus, Jarosław; Cieślik, Ewa; Witczak, Mariusz

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of inulins with varying degree of polymerization on rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free starch-based dough. The share of inulin reduced the values of consistency coefficient, as well as storage and loss moduli, and increased creep compliance. Inulin preparation with the highest average degree of polymerization had the strongest impact on viscoelastic properties of the obtained dough. The presence of inulin also caused a significant decrease of viscosity upon pasting, and an increase of gelatinization temperatures TOg, TP1g, TP2g, and TEg. Addition of inulin had no effect on gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), while it strongly reduced the enthalpies of retrograded amylopectin after storage. Water binding properties of inulin seem to be the key factor, responsible for modification of dough properties, because they influence solvent availability for other constituents of such system. PMID:24751052

  9. Moisture distribution during conventional or electrical resistance oven baking of bread dough and subsequent storage.

    PubMed

    Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-07-01

    Electrical resistance oven (ERO) baking processes bread dough with little temperature gradient in the baking dough. Heating of the dough by means of an ERO is based on the principles of Joule's first law and Ohm's law. This study compared the changes in moisture distribution and physical changes in starch of breads conventionally baked or using an ERO. The moisture contents in fresh ERO breads are generally lower than those in conventional breads. During storage of conventionally baked breads, water migrates from the crumb to the crust and moisture contents decrease throughout the bread crumb. Evidently, less moisture redistribution occurs in ERO breads. Also, the protons of ERO bread constituents were less mobile than their counterparts in conventional bread. Starch retrogradation occurs to similar extents in conventional and ERO bread. As a result, the changes in proton mobility cannot be attributed to differences in levels of retrograded starch and seem to be primarily determined by the overall lower moisture content. PMID:24949810

  10. Activated chemical defense in aplysina sponges revisited.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Carsten; Ebel, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Sponges of the genus Aplysina accumulate brominated isoxazoline alkaloids in concentrations that sometimes exceed 10% of their dry weight. We previously reported a decrease in concentrations of these compounds and a concomitant increase in concentrations of the monocyclic nitrogenous compounds aeroplysinin-1 and dienone in Aplysina aerophoba following injury of the sponge tissue. Further investigations indicated a wound-induced enzymatic cleavage of the former compounds into the latter, and demonstrated that these reactions also occur in other Aplysina sponges. A recent study on Caribbean Aplysina species, however, introduced doubt regarding the presence of a wound-induced bioconversion in sponges of this genus. This discrepancy motivated us to reinvestigate carefully the fate of brominated alkaloids in A. aerophoba and in other Aplysina sponges following mechanical injury. As a result of this study we conclude that (1) tissue damage induces a bioconversion of isoxazoline alkaloids into aeroplysinin-1 and dienone in Aplysina sponges, (2) this reaction is likely catalyzed by enzymes, and (3) it may be ecologically relevant as the bioconversion products possibly protect the wounded sponge tissue from invasion of bacterial pathogens. PMID:16525873

  11. Diversity of fungal isolates from three Hawaiian marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanzi; Wang, Guangyi

    2009-01-01

    Sponges harbor diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. However, the nature of sponge-fungal association and diversity of sponge-derived fungi have barely been addressed. In this study, the cultivation-dependent approach was applied to study fungal diversity in the Hawaiian sponges Gelliodes fibrosa, Haliclona caerulea, and Mycale armata. The cultivated fungal isolates were representatives of 8 taxonomic orders, belonging to at least 25 genera of Ascomycota and 1 of Basidiomycota. A portion of these isolates (n=15, 17%) were closely affiliated with fungal isolates isolated from other marine habitats; the rest of the isolates had affiliation with terrestrial fungal strains. Cultivated fungal isolates were classified into 3 groups: 'sponge-generalists'-found in all sponge species, 'sponge-associates'-found in more than one sponge species, and 'sponge-specialists'-found only in one sponge species. Individuals of G. fibrosa collected at two different locations shared the same group of 'sponge-specialists'. Also, representatives of 15 genera were identified for the first time in marine sponges. Large-scale phylogenetic analysis of sponge-derived fungi may provide critical information to distinguish between 'resident fungi' and 'transient fungi' in sponges as it has been done in other marine microbial groups. This is the first report of the host specificity analysis of culturable fungal communities in marine sponges. PMID:17681460

  12. Assessing the complex sponge microbiota: core, variable and species-specific bacterial communities in marine sponges

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Susanne; Tsai, Peter; Bell, James; Fromont, Jane; Ilan, Micha; Lindquist, Niels; Perez, Thierry; Rodrigo, Allen; Schupp, Peter J; Vacelet, Jean; Webster, Nicole; Hentschel, Ute; Taylor, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Marine sponges are well known for their associations with highly diverse, yet very specific and often highly similar microbiota. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacterial sub-populations in relation to sponge phylogeny and sampling sites and to define the core bacterial community. 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was applied to 32 sponge species from eight locations around the world's oceans, thereby generating 2567 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at the 97% sequence similarity level) in total and up to 364 different OTUs per sponge species. The taxonomic richness detected in this study comprised 25 bacterial phyla with Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Poribacteria being most diverse in sponges. Among these phyla were nine candidate phyla, six of them found for the first time in sponges. Similarity comparison of bacterial communities revealed no correlation with host phylogeny but a tropical sub-population in that tropical sponges have more similar bacterial communities to each other than to subtropical sponges. A minimal core bacterial community consisting of very few OTUs (97%, 95% and 90%) was found. These microbes have a global distribution and are probably acquired via environmental transmission. In contrast, a large species-specific bacterial community was detected, which is represented by OTUs present in only a single sponge species. The species-specific bacterial community is probably mainly vertically transmitted. It is proposed that different sponges contain different bacterial species, however, these bacteria are still closely related to each other explaining the observed similarity of bacterial communities in sponges in this and previous studies. This global analysis represents the most comprehensive study of bacterial symbionts in sponges to date and provides novel insights into the complex structure of these unique associations. PMID:21993395

  13. Superoxide radical production by sponges Sycon sp.

    PubMed

    Peskin, A V; Labas, Y A; Tikhonov, A N

    1998-08-28

    Using the catechol Tiron as an O2-. scavenger, we showed that sea sponges (Sycon sp.) produce superoxide radicals in sea water at a high rate without any stimuli added. The rate of O2-. outflow from sponges to their water surroundings reaches a value of 0.5 nmol/min per sponge at pH 6.5. The generation of O2-. was inhibited by Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and restored by the addition of KCN. We also confirmed the abiotic production of O2-. in sea water, detected earlier with a different method by Petasne and Zika [Nature 325 (1987) 516-518]. PMID:9738478

  14. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  15. Chemical, rheological and mechanical evaluation of maize dough and tortillas in blends with cassava and malanga flour.

    PubMed

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Parra-Pérez, Joaquin; Betancur-Ancona, David; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Solorza-Feria, Javier

    2015-07-01

    Masa or dough from nixtamalized maize with cassava (Cf) and malanga flour (Mf) addition at 20, 30 and 40 % (w/w) were prepared making seven treatments. The produced masas or doughs were subjected to chemical analysis, rheological and mechanical tests. Tortillas were manufactured from these doughs and mechanical tests were undertaken. Doughs from tubers had less protein and lipid content but higher nitrogen free extract than the control. All doughs presented weak viscoelastic gel-like behavior, with those of Mf behaving mainly as viscous systems. Doughs with Cf showed lower decrease in both the elastic (G') and viscous (G") moduli than those with Mf. The adhesiveness and cohesiveness of doughs with Mf showed a higher reduction of maximum force than those with Cf. Tortillas with Cf were more elastic with higher tensile strength than those with Mf. Using Cf as partial substitution of maize might lower production costs, but Mf is not particularly suitable as maize substitute in tortilla production. Tortillas with 40 % (w/w) cassava flour, presented the highest preference on a sensory test. PMID:26139904

  16. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples. PMID:25977050

  17. Structural characterization of proteins in wheat flour doughs enriched with intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour.

    PubMed

    Marti, Alessandra; Bock, Jayne E; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Ismail, Baraem; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2016-03-01

    The high protein and fiber content of intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) - together with its interesting agronomic traits and environment-related benefits - make this perennial crop attractive also for human consumption. Structural characteristics of the proteins in IWG/hard wheat flour (HWF) doughs (at IWG:HWF ratios of 0:100, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0) - including aggregate formation, thiols availability, and secondary structure changes during dough mixing - were investigated. Proteins in IWG-doughs had higher solubility and thiol content - as function of IWG content - suggesting that protein network was mostly based on non-covalent interactions. While 50% IWG-enrichment gave an increase in random structures, enrichment at ⩾75% resulted in a decrease in β-sheets with an increase in random structures, indicating a decrease in structural order. The observed differences in protein molecular configuration and interactions in HWF compared to IWG doughs necessitate further investigation to establish their impact on the quality of IWG-enriched bread. PMID:26471645

  18. Implications of non-covalent interactions in zein-starch dough and bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major limitation in the production of wheat-free breads is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Breads made from non-wheat flours such as rice, maize, and sorghum must be made from thick batters and are of lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic dough f...

  19. Predicting hot-press wheat tortilla quality using flour, dough and gluten properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective, faster and efficient way of screening wheat samples suitable for tortilla production is needed. This research aimed to develop prediction models for tortilla quality (diameter, specific volume, color and texture parameters) using grain, flour and dough properties of 16 wheat flours...

  20. Effects of Transglutaminase on the Rheological and Mixolab Thermomechanical Characteristics of Oat Dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the effect of cryo-protectors on water mobility in frozen dough and bread during storage, transverse relaxation (T2) of protons was measured inside the magnet of a pulsed, low field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) instrument. Using NMR, the three-component model was found to repres...

  1. Extensigraph Dough Preparation Based on Protein Content and 10-g Mixograph for Limited Sample Size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brabender extensigraph is one of several empirical rheological instruments used to determine dough extension characteristics to predict end-product qualities of wheat flour. The extensigraph method (AACCI 54-10) utilizes 450 g flour and a 50-g farinograph to estimate optimal mix time and water a...

  2. Modified dough preparation for Alveograph analysis with limited flour sample size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics, such as resistance-to-extension and extensibility, obtained by alveograph testing are important traits for determination of wheat and flour quality. A challenging issue that faces wheat breeding programs and some wheat-research projects is the relatively large flou...

  3. Improved viscoelastic zein-starch doughs for leavened gluten-free breads: Their rheology and microstructure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by protein sequences in wheat, rye and barley. Permitted gluten-free grains include rice, maize and sorghum. Traditional gluten-free breads are made from soft, batter-like doughs based on these gluten-free grains, and are often of very poor quali...

  4. Effect of some essential oils on rheological properties of wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2009-03-01

    The effects of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), majorana (Origanum vulgare L.), sage (Salvia triloba L), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), pickling herb (Echinophora tenuifolia L.) and laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils on extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour doughs were determined. Also, some chemical properties (moisture content, ash content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value and falling number) were established. The results show that resistance to extension, maximum resistance, ratio number (minimum) and ratio number (maximum) values were increased by S. hortensis oil addition during the proving time. Extensibility values of S. hortensis, O. vulgare and S. triloba at 90 min of proving time were found lower that than those of other proving times (except S. triloba at 135 min). According to the extensograph results, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils allowed higher extensibility and energy, and lower resistance to extension and maximum resistance (Brabender Unit Line). The farinograph water absorption (500 farinograph units) varied from 63.6 to 64.7. The development time of dough with rosemary oil was the same as the control group. Stabilities of dough with savory sater, majorana and sage oil were found lower that those of both control and other oils. As a result, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils had an advantage on the extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour dough. PMID:18608558

  5. Modification of Extensigraph Dough Preparation Method Developed for Wheat Breeding Lines and Commercial Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics - resistance to extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits for the milling and baking industries, and for new wheat varietal selection in wheat breeding programs. Current available techniques or test methods, such as the AACCI extens...

  6. Effect of hydrocolloids on selected properties of gluten-free dough and bread.

    PubMed

    Sabanis, D; Tzia, C

    2011-08-01

    Addition of hydrocolloids (H/C) in gluten-free (GF) bread formulation is necessary in order to act as polymeric substances that should mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten and increase the dough's gas-retaining ability. The properties of H/C vary depending on their origin and chemical structure. Addition of H/C (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan, κ-carrageenan and guar gum) of different origins at 1%, 1.5% and 2% (w/w) in GF formulations based on corn starch and rice flour was carried out to investigate the effects on dough rheology and bread quality. The consistency, viscosity and thermal properties of doughs were evaluated. According to results, 1% and 1.5% addition of H/C (except from xanthan) contributed to bread with higher loaf volume and better color compared to control GF bread as well as to increased shelf life due to its moisture-absorption ability. Sensory evaluation by a trained panel revealed a preference for bread containing 1.5% HPMC because of its loaf volume, appearance and firmness characteristics. The micrographs of the dough showed a continuous matrix between starch and HPMC obtaining a more aerated structure. PMID:21917639

  7. A Modified Alveograph Method for Dough Evaluation of Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics, such as resistance-to-extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits evaluated in wheat-based food industries and wheat breeding programs. However, small sample size, rapid testing time, and large sample throughput are necessary in breed...

  8. A Modified Extensigraph Method for Evaluating Dough Properties of Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modified extensigraph method reduced sample quantity to 100 g from 300 g and testing time by half with easy dough preparation compared to the AACC standard extensigraph method, which challenges wheat breeding programs where the sample size is small and evaluations of large numbers of samples are d...

  9. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation. PMID:26580148

  10. Ensiling characteristics of whole-crop small grains harvested at milk and dough stages.

    PubMed

    Bergen, W G; Byrem, T M; Grant, A L

    1991-04-01

    Dynamics of the ensiling process and final quality of whole-crop wheat, oats, and barley harvested at the milk and the dough stage of maturity were studied using 2.2-liter laboratory silos. An ensiling period of 64 d was used. Silage DM was higher (P less than .05) at the dough than at the milk stage on d 0 and 64. Silage total N content was not different (P greater than .05) among small grain species or stages of maturity either at harvest or 64 d after ensiling. Overall, buffering capacity (BC) on d 0 was greater (P less than .05) in oats and barley than in wheat silages. Small grains had a greater (P less than .05) BC when harvested in the milk stage than when harvested in the dough stage. In all silages, pH had declined (P less than .01) by d 64, when it ranged from 3.8 to 4.1. During the ensiling period, lactic acid concentrations increased (P less than .01) and ranged from 6 to 11% of DM by 64 d of ensiling. Water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content was greater (P less than .01) in milk- than in dough-stage silages for each small grain species and declined (P less than .05) during the ensiling period. The WSC decline during ensiling was greater (P less than .01) for milk-stage than for dough-stage harvested forage. Water-soluble N increased during ensiling (P less than .01) and increased 100 to 200% by d 64 for all silages. Ammonia N increased during the 64-d ensiling period but never exceeded .2% of DM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1649160

  11. Environmental Shaping of Sponge Associated Archaeal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Aline S.; Batista, Daniela; Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Martins, Orlando B.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Background Archaea are ubiquitous symbionts of marine sponges but their ecological roles and the influence of environmental factors on these associations are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the diversity and composition of archaea associated with seawater and with the sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila, Paraleucilla magna and Petromica citrina in two distinct environments: Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the nearby Cagarras Archipelago. For this we used metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene libraries. Hymeniacidon heliophila was more abundant inside the bay, while P. magna was more abundant outside and P. citrina was only recorded at the Cagarras Archipelago. Principal Component Analysis plots (PCA) generated using pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the archaeal community structure of inner bay seawater and sponges was different from that of coastal Cagarras Archipelago. Rarefaction analyses showed that inner bay archaeaoplankton were more diverse than those from the Cagarras Archipelago. Only members of Crenarchaeota were found in sponge libraries, while in seawater both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were observed. Although most amoA archaeal genes detected in this study seem to be novel, some clones were affiliated to known ammonia oxidizers such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum. Conclusion/Significance The composition and diversity of archaeal communities associated with pollution-tolerant sponge species can change in a range of few kilometers, probably influenced by eutrophication. The presence of archaeal amoA genes in Porifera suggests that Archaea are involved in the nitrogen cycle within the sponge holobiont, possibly increasing its resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The higher diversity of Crenarchaeota in the polluted area suggests that some marine sponges are able to change the composition of their associated

  12. Seasonal variation of Fatty acids and stable carbon isotopes in sponges as indicators for nutrition: biomarkers in sponges identified.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marieke; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Boschker, Henricus T S; Marco, Houtekamer; Martens, Dirk; Wijffels, Rene H

    2015-02-01

    To get a better understanding of sponge feeding biology and efficiencies, the fatty acid (FA) composition and (13)C natural abundance of sponges and of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from surrounding seawater was studied in different seasons at three locations. Haliclona oculata and Haliclona xena from the Oosterschelde, the Netherlands, Halichondria panicea and H. xena from Lake Veere, the Netherlands, and Aplysina aerophoba and Dysidea avara from the Mediterranean, Spain, were studied. Several FA biomarkers for different algal groups, bacteria and sponge biomass were identified in all sponges. The FA concentration variation in sponges was related to changes in fatty acid concentration in SPM. Stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ(13)C) in sponge specific FAs showed very limited seasonal variation at all sites. Algal FAs in sponges were mainly acquired from the SPM through active filtration in all seasons. At the two sites in the Netherlands only in May (spring), the sponge specific FAs had similar δ(13)C ratios as algal FAs, suggesting that sponges were mainly growing during spring and probably summer. During autumn and winter, they were still actively filtering, but the food collected during this period had little effect on sponge δ(13)C values suggesting limited incorporation of filtered material into the sponge body. The sponge A. aerophoba relied mostly on the symbiotic bacteria. In conclusion, fatty acid composition in combination with stable carbon isotope analysis can be used to analyze the food source of sponges. PMID:25107690

  13. Influence of Psyllium, sugar beet fibre and water on gluten-free dough properties and bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Mariotti, Manuela

    2013-11-01

    Celiac patients generally have a low intake of protein and fibre attributed to their gluten-free (GF) diet. To satisfy the increasing demand for healthier products, this research focused on the effects of the supplementation of Psyllium (P) and sugar beet fibre (SB) on the mixing and leavening behaviour of gluten-free doughs. Four doughs, having different consistencies that made them suitable to be poured into moulds or to be shaped, and their corresponding breads were evaluated. The results obtained suggested that a lower consistency is preferred to assure good dough performances during leavening, in particular when ingredients having a high water affinity are included into the recipe. Both P and SB improved the workability of the doughs, but P played a central role on GF bread development, thanks to its film forming ability, and evidenced a more effective antistaling effect, thanks to its high water binding capacity. PMID:24053854

  14. Studies on effect of oat and cheese incorporation on sensory and textural quality of short-dough type biscuit.

    PubMed

    Swapna, K S; Rao, K Jayaraj

    2016-03-01

    In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25-27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese. PMID:27570275

  15. A saccharide-based crystalline sponge for hydrophilic guests.

    PubMed

    Ning, Guo-Hong; Matsumura, Kazuki; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-05-19

    A coordination network composed of a mannose-based organic ligand and a sodium ion, 'sugar sponge', was synthesized for the crystalline sponge analysis of hydrophilic compounds. Owing to multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions, hydrophilic guests are firmly trapped in the 1-dimensional channel. The sugar sponge was utilized to analyze the structures of flexible alcohol and absolute configurations of chiral epoxides. PMID:27157794

  16. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  17. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  18. Solvent disperser for removing oil from sponge core

    SciTech Connect

    Di Foggio, R.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes method for dispersing solvent for use in determining the oil saturation of an earth formation by means of sponge coring, comprising: (a) receiving solvent dripping downwardly, and (b) conducting the received solvent by means of capillary action to an application zone located and dimensioned for passing such solvent to the sponge in a sponge core barrel.

  19. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  20. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  1. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  2. Oil/water separation performances of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sponges.

    PubMed

    Ke, Qingping; Jin, Yangxin; Jiang, Peng; Yu, Jian

    2014-11-11

    Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sponges were fabricated by immersion in an ethanol solution of octadecyltrichlorosilane. The resulting coating strongly adheres to the sponges after curing at 45 °C for 24 h. Absorption capacities of 42-68 times the polymerized octadecylsiloxane sponge weight were obtained for toluene, light petroleum, and methylsilicone oil. These adsorption capacities were maintained after 50 cycles. PMID:25340643

  3. Development of in vivo sponge cultures: particle feeding by the tropical sponge Pseudosuberites aff. andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Osinga, R; Kleijn, R; Groenendijk, E; Niesink, P; Tramper, J; Wijffels, R H

    2001-11-01

    The rate of food particle uptake of the tropical sponge Pseudosuberites aff. andrewsi was studied in relation to particle concentrations and particle size. A range of different concentrations of either the marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta (approximately 5-8 microm) or the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (approximately 1 microm) was supplied to the sponges. D. tertiolecta had a pronounced effect on the filtration activity of the sponges: at concentrations higher than approximately 4 x 10(5) cells/cm(3), the filtration rates dropped dramatically. Such a clear effect was not found for Synechococcus sp. The results further showed that the maximal amount of food (when expressed in organic carbon) that can be taken up per cubic centimeter of sponge volume per unit of time should in principle be sufficient to enable growth (irrespective of the food particle type). At the maximal food particle concentration that did not affect the filtration rates, the uptake of organic carbon is already highly in excess of the amount of organic carbon that the sponges need to cope with their respiratory demand. Based on these findings, a series of growth experiments was carried out in which the sponges were subjected to a constant concentration of different types of food particles (Synechococcus sp. and the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis sp). Although initial growth was sometimes observed, continuous growth at a constant rate could not be obtained. It is concluded that qualitative aspects of feeding rather than quantitative aspects are the key to successful in vivo sponge culture. PMID:14961327

  4. Impact of Wheat Bran Hydration Properties As Affected by Toasting and Degree of Milling on Optimal Dough Development in Bread Making.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Bogaerts, Silke; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-05-11

    The impact of the hydration capacity and hydration rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking, and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate, which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by the presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of nonmilled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting. PMID:27092966

  5. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Friederike; Røy, Hans; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute; Pfannkuchen, Martin; Brümmer, Franz; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba specimens with Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes (tip diameters 18-30 μm). Total oxygen consumption rates of whole sponges were measured in closed chambers. These rates were used to back-calculate the oxygen distribution in a finite-element model. Combining direct measurements with calculations of diffusive flux and modeling revealed that the tissue of non-pumping sponges turns anoxic within 15 min, with the exception of a 1 mm surface layer where oxygen intrudes due to molecular diffusion over the sponge surface. Molecular diffusion is the only transport mechanism for oxygen into non-pumping sponges, which allows total oxygen consumption rates of 6-12 μmol cm(-3) sponge day(-1). Sponges of different sizes had similar diffusional uptake rates, which is explained by their similar surface/volume ratios. In pumping sponges, oxygen consumption rates were between 22 and 37 μmol cm(-3) sponge day(-1), and the entire tissue was oxygenated. Combining different approaches of direct oxygen measurement in living sponges with a dynamic model, we can show that tissue anoxia is a direct function of the pumping behavior. The sponge-microbe system of A. aerophoba thus has the possibility to switch actively between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism by stopping the water flow for more than 15 min. These periods of anoxia will greatly influence physiological variety and activity of the sponge microbes. Detailed knowledge about the varying chemical microenvironments in sponges will help to develop protocols to cultivate sponge-associated microbial lineages and improve our understanding of the sponge-microbe-system. PMID:24391232

  6. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  7. Properties of Bread Dough with Added Fiber Polysaccharides and Phenolic Antioxidants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-01-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking. PMID:21535512

  8. Effect of freezing and frozen storage of doughs on bread quality.

    PubMed

    Ribotta, P D; León, A E; Añón, M C

    2001-02-01

    The effects of freezing and storage in frozen conditions on bread quality, crumb properties, and aggregative behavior of glutenins were analyzed. The effect of different additives on bread quality was also studied. The results obtained showed that freezing and storage at -18 degrees C decreased the bread quality. Samples stored in frozen conditions supplemented with diacetyl-tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides, gluten, and guar gum produced breads of greater volume and more open crumb structure than those prepared with the base formulation (without additives). All additives analyzed increased the proof time. Crumb firmness increased with dough frozen storage and bread aging time at 4 degrees C. A decrease in the amount of glutenin subunits of high molecular mass was observed by electrophoresis analysis of the SDS-soluble proteins aggregates extracted from the frozen dough. This result suggested that the protein matrix of bread underwent depolymerization during storage in frozen conditions. PMID:11262049

  9. Polycyclic Guanidine Alkaloids from Poecilosclerida Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Sfecci, Estelle; Lacour, Thierry; Amade, Philippe; Mehiri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Sessile marine sponges provide an abundance of unique and diversified scaffolds. In particular, marine guanidine alkaloids display a very wide range of biological applications. A large number of cyclic guanidine alkaloids, including crambines, crambescins, crambescidins, batzelladines or netamins have been isolated from Poecilosclerida marine sponges. In this review, we will explore the chemodiversity of tri- and pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids. NMR and MS data tools will also be provided, and an overview of the wide range of bioactivities of crambescidins and batzelladines derivatives will be given. PMID:27070629

  10. Policy for prevention of a retained sponge after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Garry, David J; Asanjarani, Sandra; Geiss, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policies for sponge count are not routine practice in most labor and delivery rooms. Ignored or hidden retained vaginal foreign bodies has potentially significant health care morbidity. Case. This was a case of a retained vaginal sponge following an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery. Delivery room policy resulted in the discovery of the sponge on X-ray when an incorrect sponge count occurred and physical exam did not find the sponge. Conclusion. This emphasizes the use of protocols to enhance patient safety and prevent medical error. PMID:22312370

  11. Policy for Prevention of a Retained Sponge after Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Garry, David J.; Asanjarani, Sandra; Geiss, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policies for sponge count are not routine practice in most labor and delivery rooms. Ignored or hidden retained vaginal foreign bodies has potentially significant health care morbidity. Case. This was a case of a retained vaginal sponge following an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery. Delivery room policy resulted in the discovery of the sponge on X-ray when an incorrect sponge count occurred and physical exam did not find the sponge. Conclusion. This emphasizes the use of protocols to enhance patient safety and prevent medical error. PMID:22312370

  12. The physiology and molecular biology of sponge tissues.

    PubMed

    Leys, Sally P; Hill, April

    2012-01-01

    Sponges have become the focus of studies on molecular evolution and the evolution of animal body plans due to their ancient branching point in the metazoan lineage. Whereas our former understanding of sponge function was largely based on a morphological perspective, the recent availability of the first full genome of a sponge (Amphimedon queenslandica), and of the transcriptomes of other sponges, provides a new way of understanding sponges by their molecular components. This wealth of genetic information not only confirms some long-held ideas about sponge form and function but also poses new puzzles. For example, the Amphimedon sponge genome tells us that sponges possess a repertoire of genes involved in control of cell proliferation and in regulation of development. In vitro expression studies with genes involved in stem cell maintenance confirm that archaeocytes are the main stem cell population and are able to differentiate into many cell types in the sponge including pinacocytes and choanocytes. Therefore, the diverse roles of archaeocytes imply differential gene expression within a single cell ontogenetically, and gene expression is likely also different in different species; but what triggers cells to enter one pathway and not another and how each archaeocyte cell type can be identified based on this gene knowledge are new challenges. Whereas molecular data provide a powerful new tool for interpreting sponge form and function, because sponges are suspension feeders, their body plan and physiology are very much dependent on their physical environment, and in particular on flow. Therefore, in order to integrate new knowledge of molecular data into a better understanding the sponge body plan, it is important to use an organismal approach. In this chapter, we give an account of sponge body organization as it relates to the physiology of the sponge in light of new molecular data. We focus, in particular, on the structure of sponge tissues and review descriptive as

  13. Characterisation of a Talaromyces emersonii thermostable enzyme cocktail with applications in wheat dough rheology.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Ryan, Liam A M; Murray, Patrick G; Arendt, Elke K; Tuohy, Maria G

    2011-07-10

    In this paper, we report new sequence data for secreted thermostable fungal enzymes from the un-sequenced xylanolytic filamentous fungus Talaromyces emersonii and reveal novel insights on the potential role of enzymes relevant as wheat dough improvers. The presence of known and de novo enzyme sequences were confirmed through NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS and resultant peptide sequences were identified using SWISS PROT databases. The de novo protein sequences were assigned identity based on homology to known fungal proteins. Other proteins were assigned function based on the limited T. emersonii genome coverage. This approach allowed the identification of enzymes with relevance as wheat dough improvers. Rheological examination of wheat dough and wheat flour components treated with the thermostable fungal enzyme cocktail revealed structural alterations that can be extrapolated to the baking process. Thermoactive amylolytic, xylanolytic, glucanolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities were observed. Previously characterized T. emersonii enzymes present included; β-glucosidase, xylan-1,4-β-xyloxidase, acetylxylan esterase, acid trehalase, avenacinase, cellobiohydrolase and endo-glucanase. De novo sequence analysis confirmed peptides as being; α-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, endo-arabinase, endo-glucanase, exo-β-1,3-glucanase, glucanase/cellulase, endopeptidase and lipase/acylhydrolase. Rheology tests using wheat dough and fractioned wheat flour components in conjunction with T. emersonii enzymes show the role of these novel biocatalysts in altering properties of wheat substrates. Enzyme treated wheat flour fractions showed the effects of particular enzymes on appropriate substrates. This proteomic approach combined with rheological characterization is the first such report to the authors' knowledge. PMID:22112414

  14. Dough performance, quality and shelf life of flat bread supplemented with fractions of germinated date seed.

    PubMed

    Hejri-Zarifi, Sudiyeh; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraei, Zahra; Pourfarzad, Amir; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2014-12-01

    Germinated palm date seeds were milled into two fractions: germ and residue. Dough rheological characteristics, baking (specific volume and sensory evaluation), and textural properties (at first day and during storage for 5 days) were determined in Barbari flat bread. Germ and residue fractions were incorporated at various levels ranged in 0.5-3 g/100 g of wheat flour. Water absorption, arrival time and gelatination temperature were decreased by germ fraction but accompanied by an increasing effect on the mixing tolerance index and degree of softening in most levels. Although improvement in dough stability was monitored but specific volume of bread was not affected by both fractions. Texture analysis of bread samples during 5 days of storage indicated that both fractions of germinated date seeds were able to diminish bread staling. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among dough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data. PMID:25477644

  15. Functional genomic analysis of commercial baker's yeast during initial stages of model dough-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fumiko; Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shima, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Gene expression profiles of baker's yeast during initial dough-fermentation were investigated using liquid fermentation (LF) media to obtain insights at the molecular level into rapid adaptation mechanisms of baker's yeast. Results showed that onset of fermentation caused drastic changes in gene expression profiles within 15 min. Genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were down-regulated and genes involved in glycolysis were up-regulated, indicating a metabolic shift from respiration to fermentation. Genes involved in ethanol production (PDC genes and ADH1), in glycerol synthesis (GPD1 and HOR2), and in low-affinity hexose transporters (HXT1 and HXT3) were up-regulated at the beginning of model dough-fermentation. Among genes up-regulated at 15 min, several genes classified as transcription were down-regulated within 30 min. These down-regulated genes are involved in messenger RNA splicing and ribosomal protein biogenesis and in transcriptional regulator (SRB8, MIG1). In contrast, genes involved in amino acid metabolism and in vitamin metabolism, such as arginine biosynthesis, riboflavin biosynthesis, and thiamin biosynthesis, were subsequently up-regulated after 30 min. Interestingly, the genes involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway were also subsequently up-regulated. Our study presents the first overall description of the transcriptional response of baker's yeast during dough-fermentation, and will thus help clarify genomic responses to various stresses during commercial fermentation processes. PMID:16943074

  16. An evaluation of sterilization of endodontic instruments in artificial sponges.

    PubMed

    Vélez, A E; Thomas, D D; del Río, C E

    1998-01-01

    The ability to sterilize endodontic files inserted into synthetic sponges was tested. Sponges were subjected to 5 cycles of either dry heat (Driclave) or steam under pressure (autoclave) sterilization. Sterilization was corroborated by microbiological tests. The sponges and files were pre-sterilized separately using steam under pressure. One hundred eighty files contaminated with Bacillus stearothermophilus spores (experimental and positive control) and 60 noncontaminated files (negative control), were inserted into 60 sponges. After each cycle, each file and a portion of sponge surrounding the file were transferred aseptically to tubes containing trypticase soy broth culture medium for bacteriological analysis. None of the tubes containing files and portions of sponges that were subjected to autoclave grew Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Two of 60 (3.33%) of the tubes that were subjected to sterilization by Driclave demonstrated bacterial growth. Although the sponges tolerated the dry heat cycles well physically, sterilization was achieved in only 96.67% of the cases. PMID:9487869

  17. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:25575352

  18. Rheology of Rice Flour Dough with Gum Arabic: Small and Large-Deformation Studies, Sensory Assessment and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shanthilal, J; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The absence of gluten protein makes the rice flour doughs difficult to handle when flattened/sheeted products are to be prepared. The rheological, sensory and microstructural changes in rice flour doughs having gum Arabic (0% to 5%, w/w) and moisture contents (44% to 50%) were studied for improving the dough handling characteristics. Rheological parameters like storage modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) decreased with an increase in moisture content while loss angle (δ) increased. A power-law type equation was suitable to relate angular frequency (ω) with G', G", and η* (0.814 ≤ r ≤ 0.999, P ≤ 0.01). An increase in gum and moisture contents increased δ from 6.9° to 15.5° but decreased the energy required for compression/flattening. The 6-element spring-dashpot model was suitable (r ≥ 0.991, P ≤ 0.01) for creep curves. The sensory panel had the opinion that dough with a low to moderate hardness between 3 and 4, and stickiness of ≤ 3.5 was suitable for the purpose of flattening in relation to the preparation of sheeted/flattened products; the appropriate condition for dough formulation was with the moisture and gum contents of 47.0% to 47.9% and 1.55% to 2.25%, respectively to offer the desirability index between 0.50 and 0.52. The microstructure of the rice flour dough in the absence of gum Arabic appeared to possess loosely bound flour particles. The presence of gum provided a coating on flour particles to yield dough having good cohesive microstructure. PMID:26248962

  19. Origin of Metazoa: sponges as living fossils.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E

    1998-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the phylum Porifera (sponges) is at the base of the kingdom Metazoa. During the past few years not only rDNA sequences but--and this was a major advance--even cDNAs/genes have been isolated and characterized from sponges, especially from the marine demosponge Geodia cydonium, which code for proteins. The analyses of their deduced amino acid sequences allowed a molecular biological approach to solve the problem of monophyly of Metazoa. Molecules of the extracellular matrix/basal lamina, with the integrin receptor, fibronectin, and galectin as prominent examples, cell-surface receptors (tyrosine kinase receptor), elements of sensory systems (crystallin, metabotropic glutamate receptor), and homologs/modules of an immune system (immunoglobulin like molecules, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich, and short consensus repeats, rhesus system) classify the Porifera as true Metazoa. As living fossils, provided with simple, primordial molecules allowing cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion as well as processes of signal transduction as known in a more complex manner from higher Metazoa, they also show peculiarities not known in other metazoan phyla. Tissues of sponges are rich in telomerase activity, suggesting a high plasticity in the determination of cell lineages. It is concluded that molecular biological studies with sponges as model will not only help to understand the evolution of Protoctista to Metazoa but also the complex, hierarchial regulatory network of cells in higher Metazoa. PMID:9484707

  20. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. PMID:21116410

  1. Coexpression of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1 and Puroindoline Improves Dough Mixing Properties in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  2. Sponge-Associated Microorganisms: Evolution, Ecology, and Biotechnological Potential†

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael W.; Radax, Regina; Steger, Doris; Wagner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. In some cases, these microbial associates comprise as much as 40% of the sponge volume and can contribute significantly to host metabolism (e.g., via photosynthesis or nitrogen fixation). We review in detail the diversity of microbes associated with sponges, including extensive 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses which support the previously suggested existence of a sponge-specific microbiota. These analyses provide a suitable vantage point from which to consider the potential evolutionary and ecological ramifications of these widespread, sponge-specific microorganisms. Subsequently, we examine the ecology of sponge-microbe associations, including the establishment and maintenance of these sometimes intimate partnerships, the varied nature of the interactions (ranging from mutualism to host-pathogen relationships), and the broad-scale patterns of symbiont distribution. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sponge-microbe associations is mirrored by their enormous biotechnological potential: marine sponges are among the animal kingdom's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, and in at least some cases, the compounds are of microbial rather than sponge origin. We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations. PMID:17554047

  3. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  4. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  5. Removal of surface lipids improves the functionality of commercial zein in viscoelastic zein-starch dough for gluten-free breadmaking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize prolamin (zein), together with starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sugar, salt, yeast and water can form wheat-like cohesive, extensible, viscoelastic dough when mixed above room temperature (e.g. 40 °C). This dough is capable of holding gas. However, it is excessively extensible, and when ...

  6. Modeling the Distribution of Geodia Sponges and Sponge Grounds in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Knudby, Anders; Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds provide structurally complex habitat for fish and invertebrates and enhance local biodiversity. They are also vulnerable to bottom-contact fisheries and prime candidates for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem designation and related conservation action. This study uses species distribution modeling, based on presence and absence observations of Geodia spp. and sponge grounds derived from research trawl catches, as well as spatially continuous data on the physical and biological ocean environment derived from satellite data and oceanographic models, to model the distribution of Geodia sponges and sponge grounds in the Northwest Atlantic. Most models produce excellent fits with validation data although fits are reduced when models are extrapolated to new areas, especially when oceanographic regimes differ between areas. Depth and minimum bottom salinity were important predictors in most models, and a Geodia spp. minimum bottom salinity tolerance threshold in the 34.3-34.8 psu range was hypothesized on the basis of model structure. The models indicated two currently unsampled regions within the study area, the deeper parts of Baffin Bay and the Newfoundland and Labrador slopes, where future sponge grounds are most likely to be found. PMID:24324768

  7. Effect of fat types on the structural and textural properties of dough and semi-sweet biscuit.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Hasmadi; Hill, Sandra E

    2014-09-01

    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples. PMID:25190856

  8. Complex nitrogen cycling in the sponge Geodia barretti.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Friederike; Radax, Regina; Woebken, Dagmar; Holtappels, Moritz; Lavik, Gaute; Rapp, Hans Tore; Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Schleper, Christa; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2009-09-01

    Marine sponges constitute major parts of coral reefs and deep-water communities. They often harbour high amounts of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse microbes, which are so far poorly characterized. Many of these sponges regulate their internal oxygen concentration by modulating their ventilation behaviour providing a suitable habitat for both aerobic and anaerobic microbes. In the present study, both aerobic (nitrification) and anaerobic (denitrification, anammox) microbial processes of the nitrogen cycle were quantified in the sponge Geodia barretti and possible involved microbes were identified by molecular techniques. Nitrification rates of 566 nmol N cm(-3) sponge day(-1) were obtained when monitoring the production of nitrite and nitrate. In support of this finding, ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (crenarchaeotes) were found by amplification of the amoA gene, and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira were detected based on rRNA gene analyses. Incubation experiments with stable isotopes ((15)NO(3)(-) and (15)NH(4)(+)) revealed denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) rates of 92 nmol N cm(-3) sponge day(-1) and 3 nmol N cm(-3) sponge day(-1) respectively. Accordingly, sequences closely related to 'Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii' and 'Candidatus Scalindua brodae' were detected in 16S rRNA gene libraries. The amplification of the nirS gene revealed the presence of denitrifiers, likely belonging to the Betaproteobacteria. This is the first proof of anammox and denitrification in the same animal host, and the first proof of anammox and denitrification in sponges. The close and complex interactions of aerobic, anaerobic, autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial processes are fuelled by metabolic waste products of the sponge host, and enable efficient utilization and recirculation of nutrients within the sponge-microbe system. Since denitrification and anammox remove inorganic nitrogen from the environment, sponges may function as

  9. Sponge-rhodolith interactions in a subtropical estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Enrique; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    The interactions between sponges and red macroalgae have been widely documented in tropical and subtropical environments worldwide, and many of them have been documented as mutualistic associations. Sponges, however, have also been frequently described as part of the associated fauna of rhodolith habitats (aggregations of free-living non-geniculated coralline macroalgae). Nonetheless, the types of interaction they establish as well as the role of sponges in these habitats remain unknown. In this study, the associations between sponges and rhodoliths were investigated in an estuarine ecosystem of the Mexican Pacific based on qualitative and quantitative data. A total of 13 sponge species were identified in five newly discovered rhodolith beds dominated by the non-geniculate coralline macroalga Lithophyllum margaritae. The sponge assemblages were strongly restricted to rhodolith habitats. The best predictor of sponge abundance (from 5.1 to 51.7 ind m-2) and species richness (from 2.6 to 6.1 sponge species m-2) was the rhodolith density rather than other population descriptors assessed (e.g., average size, branch density and sphericity). The identified sponges included a variety of forms: massive (46 %), encrusting (23 %), excavating (15 %), cushion-shape (8 %) and digitate (8 %). Moreover, more than 50 % of sponge species recorded (mainly massive and encrusting forms) were frequently found overgrowing and binding rhodoliths. Halichondria cf. semitubulosa and Mycale cecilia were the most common binding agents; these species bind an average of 3.1 and 6.6 rhodoliths per sponge individual, respectively. These findings reveal the importance of rhodoliths as habitat forming species, since these seaweed beds notably increased the substrate complexity in soft bottom environments. In addition, the relatively high abundance of sponges and their capability to bind rhodoliths suggest that these associated organisms could have an important contribution to rhodolith bed stability.

  10. Bacterial uptake by the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    PubMed

    Wehrl, Markus; Steinert, Michael; Hentschel, Ute

    2007-02-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are filter feeders that take up microorganisms from seawater and digest them by phagocytosis. At the same time, many sponges are known to harbor massive consortia of symbiotic microorganisms, which are phylogenetically distinct from those in seawater, within the mesohyl matrix. In the present study, feeding experiments were performed to investigate whether phylogenetically different bacterial isolates, hereafter termed "food bacteria," microbial seawater consortia, and sponge symbiont consortia are taken up and processed differently by the host sponge. Aplysina aerophoba retained high numbers of bacterial isolates and microbial seawater consortia with rates of up to 2.76 x 10(6) bacteria (g sponge wet weight)(-1) h(-1), whereas the retention of sponge symbionts was lower by nearly two orders of magnitude [5.37 x 10(4) bacteria (g sponge wet weight)(-1) h(-1)]. In order to visualize the processing of a food bacterium within sponge tissues, the green fluorescent protein-labeled Vibrio strain MMW1, which had originally been isolated from A. aerophoba, was constructed. Incubation of this strain with A. aerophoba and subsequent visualization in tissue cryosections showed its presence in the choanocytes and/or endopinacocytes lining the canals but, unlike latex beads, not in deeper regions of the mesohyl, which suggests digestion of the bacteria upon contact with the host. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed on the incubation seawater to monitor the changes in phylogenetic composition after incubation of the sponge with either seawater or sponge symbiont consortia. However, the DGGE experiment provided no evidence for selective processing of individual lineages by the host sponge. In conclusion, this study extends early studies by Wilkinson et al. (Proc R Soc London B 220:519-528, 1984) that sponges, here A. aerophoba, are able to differentiate between food bacteria and their own bacterial symbionts. PMID:17265004

  11. Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (phylum Porifera).

    PubMed

    Wörheide, G; Dohrmann, M; Erpenbeck, D; Larroux, C; Maldonado, M; Voigt, O; Borchiellini, C; Lavrov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse taxon of benthic aquatic animals of great ecological, commercial, and biopharmaceutical importance. They are arguably the earliest-branching metazoan taxon, and therefore, they have great significance in the reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. Yet, the phylogeny and systematics of sponges are to some extent still unresolved, and there is an on-going debate about the exact branching pattern of their main clades and their relationships to the other non-bilaterian animals. Here, we review the current state of the deep phylogeny of sponges. Several studies have suggested that sponges are paraphyletic. However, based on recent phylogenomic analyses, we suggest that the phylum Porifera could well be monophyletic, in accordance with cladistic analyses based on morphology. This finding has many implications for the evolutionary interpretation of early animal traits and sponge development. We further review the contribution that mitochondrial genes and genomes have made to sponge phylogenetics and explore the current state of the molecular phylogenies of the four main sponge lineages (Classes), that is, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Calcarea, and Homoscleromorpha, in detail. While classical systematic systems are largely congruent with molecular phylogenies in the class Hexactinellida and in certain parts of Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha, the high degree of incongruence in the class Calcarea still represents a challenge. We highlight future areas of research to fill existing gaps in our knowledge. By reviewing sponge development in an evolutionary and phylogenetic context, we support previous suggestions that sponge larvae share traits and complexity with eumetazoans and that the simple sedentary adult lifestyle of sponges probably reflects some degree of secondary simplification. In summary, while deep sponge phylogenetics has made many advances in the past years, considerable efforts are still required to achieve a

  12. Tactile texture and friction of soft sponge surfaces.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Makoto; Imai, Yumi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the tactile texture and frictional properties of five soft sponges with various cell sizes. The frictional forces were measured by a friction meter containing a contact probe with human-finger-like geometry and mechanical properties. When the subjects touched these sponges with their fingers, hard-textured sponges were deemed unpleasant. This tactile feeling changed with friction factors including friction coefficients, their temporal patterns, as well as mechanical and shape factors. These findings provide useful information on how to control the tactile textures of various sponges. PMID:25884490

  13. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  14. Marine Sponges as a Drug Treasure.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Akhter, Najeeb; Batool, Sundas; Hassan, Syed Shams Ul

    2016-07-01

    Marine sponges have been considered as a drug treasure house with respect to great potential regarding their secondary metabolites. Most of the studies have been conducted on sponge's derived compounds to examine its pharmacological properties. Such compounds proved to have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antitumor, immunosuppressive, and cardiovascular activity. Although, the mode of action of many compounds by which they interfere with human pathogenesis have not been clear till now, in this review not only the capability of the medicinal substances have been examined in vitro and in vivo against serious pathogenic microbes but, the mode of actions of medicinal compounds were explained with diagrammatic illustrations. This knowledge is one of the basic components to be known especially for transforming medicinal molecules to medicines. Sponges produce a different kind of chemical substances with numerous carbon skeletons, which have been found to be the main component interfering with human pathogenesis at different sites. The fact that different diseases have the capability to fight at different sites inside the body can increase the chances to produce targeted medicines. PMID:27350338

  15. The Sponge Implant Model of Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Silvia Passos; Ferreira, Mônica Alves Neves Diniz

    2016-01-01

    The host response observed after the application of an appropriate stimulus, such as mechanical injury or injection of neoplastic or normal tissue implants, has allowed the cataloging of a number of molecules and cells involved in the vascularization of normal repair or neoplastic tissue. Implantation of sponge matrices has been adopted as a model for the accurate quantification of angiogenic and fibrogenic responses, as they may occur during wound healing, in vivo. Such implants are particularly useful because they offer scope for modulating the environment within which angiogenesis occurs. Sponge implantation model has been optimized and adapted to characterize essential components and their roles in blood vessels formation in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. As a direct consequence of advances in genetic manipulation, mouse models (i.e., knockouts, SCID, nude) have provided resources to delineate the mechanisms regulating the healing associated with implants. Here we outline the usefulness of the sponge implant model of angiogenesis and detailed description of the methodology. PMID:27172965

  16. Optimization of biodegradable sponges as controlled release drug matrices. I. Effect of moisture level on chitosan sponge mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2004-04-01

    Cross-linked chitosan sponges as controlled release drug carrier systems were developed. Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting analgesic, was used as a model drug. The sponges were prepared by freeze-drying 1.25% and 2.5% (w/w) high and low M.wt. chitosan solutions, respectively, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The hardness of the prepared sponges was a function of glutaraldehyde concentration and volume where the optimum concentration that offered accepted sponge consistency was 5%. Below or above 5%, very soft or very hard and brittle sponges were obtained, respectively. The determined drug content in the prepared sponges was uniform and did not deviate markedly from the calculated amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the internal structures of the sponges. The SEM photos revealed that cross-linked high M.wt. chitosan sponges have larger size surface pores that form connections (channels) with the interior of the sponge than cross-linked low M.wt. ones. Moreover, crystals of the incorporated Tramadol hydrochloride were detected on the lamellae and within pores in both chitosan sponges. Differences in pore size and dissolution medium uptake capacity were crucial factors for the more delayed drug release from cross-linked low M.wt. chitosan sponges over high M.wt. ones at pH 7.4. Kinetic analysis of the release data using linear regression followed the Higuchi diffusion model over 12 hours. Setting storage conditions at room temperature under 80-92% relative humidity resulted in soft, elastic, and compressible sponges. PMID:15132179

  17. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, Marie L; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L Vega; Lopez, Jose V

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  18. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    PubMed Central

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  19. Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These

  20. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. PMID:26686115

  1. Effect of raw material characteristics on the properties of fried rice-blackgram dough.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sila; Narasimha, H V

    2008-09-01

    The dough, comprising a mixture of rice and blackgram, is shaped in a forming extruder followed by deep frying to obtain a crisp snack. Although it is a popular product in several oriental countries, the details of the role of raw materials and processing conditions are not known. Two different flour mixes obtained from rice and blackgram were studied to investigate the influence of the raw material on product characteristics. Fine particles in one flour mix (70 microm) had a high water-holding capacity (1.7 g/g) and gave product with low fat content (approximately 16%), but had an undesirable hard texture coupled with a floury mouth feel. On the contrary, coarse particles (113 microm) in another flour mix with a low water-holding capacity (1.5 g/g) produced a snack with higher fat content (26-30%) with a desirable crisp texture. Addition of fat and the use of coarse flour can avoid bursting of the product during frying, which is a common problem associated with frying of such products while using fine flour. A mechanism for frying rice-blackgram dough strands has been proposed. PMID:19086242

  2. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC. PMID:26616955

  3. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough’s airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system’s bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  4. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality. PMID:25829594

  5. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan

    PubMed Central

    Leys, Sally P.; Yahel, Gitai; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Shavit, Uri; Reiswig, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes) to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be <1% of its total metabolism implying there is little adaptive value to reducing the cost of pumping by using “passive” flow induced by the ambient current. We quantified the pumping activity and respiration of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus at a 150 m deep reef in situ and in a flow flume; we also modeled the glass sponge filtration system from measurements of the aquiferous system. Excurrent flow from the sponge osculum measured in situ and in the flume were positively correlated (r>0.75) with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges. PMID:22180779

  6. The Dimension of the Pore Space in Sponges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, L. H. F.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm[superscript -3] was 2.948 [plus or minus] 0.008. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars. PMID:26154741

  8. DYNAPHORE, INC. FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. The Developer states that the technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy metals f...

  9. Keratin sponge/hydrogel part 1. fabrication and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogel products formed by either the oxidation or reduction of U.S. domestic fine- or coarse-grade wool exhibited distinctively different topologies and molecular weights of 6- 8 kDa and 40-60 kDa, each with unique macro-porous structure and microstructural behaviors. The sponge/ ...

  10. Chemistry of verongida sponges. 9.1 secondary metabolite composition of the caribbean sponge aplysina cauliformis

    PubMed

    Ciminiello; Dell'Aversano; Fattorusso; Magno; Pansini

    1999-04-01

    A detailed analysis of the secondary metabolites of the sponge Aplysina cauliformis has been performed. Eight compounds were identified, two of which (13 and 14) are new bromotyrosine derivatives whose structures were determinated from spectroscopic evidence, including 2D NMR. The new compounds were analyzed for cytotoxic activity, and compound 14 was shown to inhibit mammalian protein synthesis and cell proliferation. PMID:10217716

  11. Stably Expressed D Genome-derived HMW Glutenin Subunit Genes Transformed Into Different Durum Wheat Genotypes Change Dough Mixing Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glutenin subunits 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 are encoded by chromosome 1D and associated with higher dough strength in hexaploid bread wheats. In order to study the effects of their expression in different durum wheat genotypes, four cultivars commonly grown in the Mediterranean area were co-transformed, vi...

  12. Extension of the QuEChERS Method for Pesticide Residues in Cereals to Flaxseeds, Peanuts, and Doughs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method was evaluated for the determination of pesticide residues in flaxseeds, doughs, and peanuts using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) for analysis. A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method, which was previously optimized f...

  13. Investigating the Effect of Dough Preparation Using Hot Water and Pre-Geleatinized Starch on Tortilla Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the traditional ways to make “Lao Bing”, a Chinese tortilla-like flatbread, is to mix dough in which one-half of the added water is heated up to 60~80 degrees Celsius. The product is preferred due to its softness, but the reason for this increased softness is unknown. Our hypothesis is that a...

  14. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  15. Use of a pressuremeter to measure the kinetics of carbon dioxide evolution in chemically leavened wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Guillermo G; Scanlon, Martin G; Sapirstein, Harry D; Page, John H

    2008-11-12

    Among a number of impediments to a wider use of chemical leavening agents in bakery applications is the lack of standardized instrumentation capable of providing information on the rates of CO2 production from chemical leaveners in a format that is meaningful to both the technologist (i.e., the dough rate of reaction or DRR) and the researcher (e.g., in terms of fundamental unitskmol CO2 per kg of dough per s). This paper presents an original methodology to carry out the DRR test using a commercial pressuremeter, the Gassmart apparatus, and to model the kinetics of CO2 evolution of chemically leavened dough. Lean formula doughs were leavened at 27 and 39 degrees C with four chemical leavening systems containing sodium bicarbonate and one of four leavening acids, sodium acid pyrophosphate 40 (SAPP), adipic acid (ADA), potassium acid tartrate (KAT), and glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Chemical kinetics theory was used to gain an insight into the reaction mechanisms responsible for the evolution of carbon dioxide from the leaveners. A first-order reaction kinetics model was found to be suitable for describing the neutralizing properties of GDL and ADA leavening systems, whereas a first-order reaction kinetics model for irreversible parallel reactions better described the leavening properties of the acidic salts KAT and SAPP. PMID:18841986

  16. Role of N-terminal domain of HMW 1Dx5 in the functional and structural properties of wheat dough.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing Jing; Liu, Guang; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Song, Guo-Sheng; Hou, Yi; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2016-12-15

    Effects of N-terminal domain of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dx5 (1Dx5-N) on functional and structural properties of wheat dough were determined by farinographic and rheological analysis, size exclusion chromatography, non-reducing/reducing SDS-PAGE, total free sulfhydryl determination, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that 1Dx5-N improved the quality of dough with the increased water absorption, dough stability time, elastic and viscous modulus, and the decreased degree of softening, loss tangent. These improvements could be attributed to the formation of the macro-molecular weight aggregates and massive protein networks, which were favored by 1Dx5-N through disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Additionally, 1Dx5-N drove the transition of α-helix and random coil conformations to β-sheet and β-turn conformations, further demonstrating the formation of HMW-GS polymers and the enhancement of dough strength. Moreover, all the positive effects of 1Dx5-N were reinforced by edible salt NaCl. PMID:27451235

  17. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  18. Impact of the substitution of rice bran on rheological properties of dough and in the new product development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich co-product of the rice milling industries. The impact of adding 2-20% rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological behavior of the dough was investigated using the instruments, Farinograph, Consistograph, and Alveograph. The changes in physico-chemical properties were fo...

  19. Direct Oil Recovery from Saturated Carbon Nanotube Sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiying; Xue, Yahui; Zou, Mingchu; Zhang, Dongxiao; Cao, Anyuan; Duan, Huiling

    2016-05-18

    Oil adsorption by porous materials is a major strategy for water purification and industrial spill cleanup; it is of great interest if the adsorbed oil can be safely recovered from those porous media. Here, direct oil recovery from fully saturated bulk carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges by displacing oil with water in controlled manner is shown. Surfactant-assisted electrocapillary imbibition is adopted to drive aqueous electrolyte into the sponge and extrude organic oil out continuously at low potentials (up to -1.2 V). More than 95 wt % of oil adsorbed within the sponge can be recovered, via a single electrocapillary process. Recovery of different oils with a wide range of viscosities is demonstrated, and the remaining CNT sponge can be reused with similar recovery capacity. A direct and efficient method is provided to recover oil from CNT sponges by water imbibition, which has many potential environmental and energy applications. PMID:27120687

  20. Carbon conversion and metabolic rate in two marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, M; van Rijswijk, P; Martens, D; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T A; Middelburg, J J; Wijffels, R H

    2011-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of two marine sponges, Haliclona oculata and Dysidea avara, has been studied using a (13)C isotope pulse-chase approach. The sponges were fed (13)C-labeled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) for 8 h and they took up between 75 and 85%. At different times, sponges were sampled for total (13)C enrichment, and fatty acid (FA) composition and (13)C enrichment. Algal biomarkers present in the sponges were highly labeled after feeding but their labeling levels decreased until none was left 10 days after enrichment. The sponge-specific FAs incorporated (13)C label already during the first day and the amount of (13)C label inside these FAs kept increasing until 3 weeks after labeling. The algal-derived carbon captured by the sponges during the 8-h feeding period was thus partly respired and partly metabolized during the weeks following. Apparently, sponges are able to capture enough food during short periods to sustain longer-term metabolism. The change of carbon metabolic rate of fatty acid synthesis due to mechanical damage of sponge tissue was studied by feeding sponges with (13)C isotope-labeled diatom (Pheaodactylum tricornutum) either after or before damaging and tracing back the (13)C content in the damaged and healthy tissue. The filtration and respiration in both sponges responded quickly to damage. The rate of respiration in H. oculata reduced immediately after damage, but returned to its initial level after 6 h. The (13)C data revealed that H. oculata has a higher metabolic rate in the tips where growth occurs compared to the rest of the tissue and that the metabolic rate is increased after damage of the tissue. For D. avara, no differences were found between damaged and non-damaged tissue. However, the filtration rate decreased directly after damage. PMID:24489407

  1. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as...

  6. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  7. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  8. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  9. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  10. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  11. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  12. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  13. Cytotoxic Terpene Quinones from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Gordaliza, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The 1,4-benzoquinone moiety is a common structural feature in a large number of compounds that have received considerable attention owing to their broad spectrum of biological activities. The cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties of many natural sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones from sponges of the order Dictyoceratida, such as avarol, avarone, illimaquinone, nakijiquinone and bolinaquinone, offer promising opportunities for the development of new antitumor agents. The present review summarizes the structure and cytotoxicity of natural terpenequinones/hydroquinones and their bioactive analogues and derivatives. PMID:21339953

  14. Silica Synthesis by Sponges: Unanticipated Molecular Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, D. E.; Weaver, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanic diatoms, sponges and other organisms synthesize gigatons per year of silica from silicic acid, ultimately obtained from the weathering of rock. This biogenic silica exhibits a remarkable diversity of structures, many of which reveal a precision of nanoarchitectural control that exceeds the capabilities of human engineering. In contrast to the conditions of anthropogenic and industrial manufacture, the biological synthesis of silica occurs under mild physiological conditions of low temperatures and pressures and near-neutral pH. In addition to the differentiation between biological and abiotic processes governing silica formation, the biomolecular mechanisms controlling synthesis of these materials may offer insights for the development of new, environmentally benign routes for synthesis of nanostructurally controlled silicas and high-performance polysiloxane composites. We found that the needle-like silica spicules made by the marine sponge, Tethya aurantia, each contain an occluded axial filament of protein composed predominantly of repeating assemblies of three similar subunits we named "silicateins." To our surprise, analysis of the purified protein subunits and the cloned silicatein DNAs revealed that the silicateins are highly homologous to a family of hydrolytic enzymes. As predicted from this finding, we discovered that the silicatein filaments are more than simple, passive templates; they actively catalyze and spatially direct polycondensation to form silica, (as well as the phenyl- and methyl-silsesquioxane) from the corresponding silicon alkoxides at neutral pH and low temperature. Catalytic activity also is exhibited by the silicatein subunits obtained by disaggregation of the protein filaments and those produced from recombinant DNA templates cloned in bacteria. This catalytic activity accelerates the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the silicon alkoxide precursors. Genetic engineering, used to produce variants of the silicatein molecule with

  15. Origin of Metazoa: Sponges as Living Fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Werner E. G.

    1998-01-01

    , which code for proteins. The analyses of their deduced amino acid sequences allowed a molecular biological approach to solve the problem of monophyly of Metazoa. Molecules of the extracellular matrix/basal lamina, with the integrin receptor, fibronectin, and galectin as prominent examples, cell-surface receptors (tyrosine kinase receptor), elements of sensory systems (crystallin, metabotropic glutamate receptor), and homologs/modules of an immune system (immunoglobulin like molecules, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich, and short consensus repeats, rhesus system) classify the Porifera as true Metazoa. As living fossils, provided with simple, primordial molecules allowing cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion as well as processes of signal transduction as known in a more complex manner from higher Metazoa, they also show peculiarities not known in other metazoan phyla. Tissues of sponges are rich in telomerase activity, suggesting a high plasticity in the determination of cell lineages. It is concluded that molecular biological studies with sponges as model will not only help to understand the evolution of Protoctista to Metazoa but also the complex, hierarchial regulatory network of cells in higher Metazoa.

  16. Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry. PMID:26672719

  17. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays. PMID:21339959

  18. Marine Sponges as a Drug Treasure

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Akhter, Najeeb; Batool, Sundas; Hassan, Syed Shams ul

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges have been considered as a drug treasure house with respect to great potential regarding their secondary metabolites. Most of the studies have been conducted on sponge’s derived compounds to examine its pharmacological properties. Such compounds proved to have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antitumor, immunosuppressive, and cardiovascular activity. Although, the mode of action of many compounds by which they interfere with human pathogenesis have not been clear till now, in this review not only the capability of the medicinal substances have been examined in vitro and in vivo against serious pathogenic microbes but, the mode of actions of medicinal compounds were explained with diagrammatic illustrations. This knowledge is one of the basic components to be known especially for transforming medicinal molecules to medicines. Sponges produce a different kind of chemical substances with numerous carbon skeletons, which have been found to be the main component interfering with human pathogenesis at different sites. The fact that different diseases have the capability to fight at different sites inside the body can increase the chances to produce targeted medicines. PMID:27350338

  19. Reproductive patterns in three species of large coral reef sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Wilfried F.

    1988-05-01

    The type and frequency of reproduction of three common sponge species was monitored histologically and by direct field observations of spawning events over 2 successive years at the reefs of Curaçao. Ircinia strobilina showed year round reproductive activity by the production of spermatic cysts in varying intensities in a major part of the population. Production of oocytes and larvae were only observed in the period from September through April, indicating an actual breeding season of 8 months a year. The sexes in this viviparous sponge seem to be separate, but protandry cannot be ruled out. Less than 10% of the sponge tissue was found to consist of reproductive elements. Neofibularia nolitangere is a gonochoristic oviparous sponge with a short annual breeding season of 2 months, in which two successive, highly predictable, short spawning periods occurred synchronously for the whole population. Up to half of the sponge tissue was transformed to reproductive elements. Agelas clathrodes showed low reproductive activity. Field observation suggests that this sponge is an oviparous hermaphrodite, probably annually releasing male and female gametes synchronously in a varying number of individuals of its population during a short breeding period. The variation in reproductive patterns in this small group of large massive coral reef sponges spans a range similar to that found in the morphologically highly variable group of stony corals and illustrates their ecological differentiation on the reef.

  20. In vitro testing of Today vaginal contraceptive sponge with bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hammill, H A; Ford, L C; Suzuki, F; Mickus, K; Yip, D; Finegold, S

    1986-01-01

    In vitro methods were used to test Today vaginal contraceptive sponges for sterility, contamination by handling, and inhibition of bacterial growth. Also tested was an in vitro vaginal model surrounded by growth medium that continually seeded the dialysis tubing with nutrient in an attempt to replicate vaginal secretions. A goal of this research was to investigate manufacturer claims of hostility of the sponge in the presence of Staph aureus. Sponges added in a sterile manner to brain-heart infusion broth produced no growth under aerobic or anaerobic conditions when no organisms were added. However, the experiments that involved contamination of the sponges by hadling in a nonsterile fashion resulted in 10.8 colony forming units of Staph epidermidis and Staph aureus, coagulese negative. In the in vitro vaginal model, 16 hours after an inoculum of Staph aureus colony forming units was placed on a sponge, 3.5 x 10.10 colony forming units were cultured and there was a similar profusion of E coli sludge. These results fail to confirm claims of hostility of the vaginal sponge to the bacteria tested. There is concern that the technique recommended by the manufacturer involves adding water and then inserting the sponge with 1 hand and leaving it in place for 24 hours. This procedure may facilitate the enhancement of vaginitis and perhaps pelvic inflammatory disease. PMID:12341136

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Robert W.; Díaz, M. Cristina; de Voogd, Nicole J.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mobley, Andrew S.; LaPietra, Jessica; Cope, Kevin; McKenna, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. Conclusions/Significance This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity. PMID:20502643

  2. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed. PMID:27144573

  3. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed. PMID:27144573

  4. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-01

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates. PMID:23677340

  5. Preparation and properties of dough-modeling compound/fly ash/reclaim powder composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.L.

    2007-12-15

    A novel composite was prepared with reclaim powder (RP) matrix, dough-modeling compound (DMC) reinforcement and fly ash (FA) filler in this article. The compatibility and crosslinking construction of the FA/RP composites were respectively, studied by the polarizing microscope and IR, the optimal formulation and experimental process were determined by measuring the mechanical properties such as shore A hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, wear resistance and the thermal stability. The results showed that DMC/FA/RP composites exhibited extremely high mechanical and thermal properties when the mass ratio of the DMC/FA/RP composites was 45/25/100, and the cure condition is at 145 {sup o}C for 30 min under 9 MPa.

  6. Compositional Changes and Baking Performance of Rye Dough As Affected by Microbial Transglutaminase and Xylanase.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Isabel; Döring, Clemens; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Doughs supplemented with endoxylanase (XYL) and varying amounts of microbial transglutaminase (TG) were analyzed by sequential protein extraction, quantitation of protein fractions and protein types, and determination of water-extractable arabinoxylans. With increasing TG activity, the concentration of prolamins and glutelins decreased and increased, respectively, and the prolamin-to-glutelin ratio strongly declined. The overall amount of extractable protein decreased with increasing TG level showing that cross-linking by TG provided high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The decrease of the high-molecular-weight arabinoxylan fraction and the concurrent increase of the medium-molecular-weight fraction confirmed the degradation of arabinoxylans by XYL. However, XYL addition did not lead to significant improved cross-linking of rye proteins by TG. Volume and crumb hardness measurements of bread showed increased protein connectivity induced by XYL and TG. Significant positive effects on the final bread quality were especially obtained by XYL addition. PMID:27349134

  7. Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan Manuel; Saladino, Federica; Mañes, Jordi; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Meca, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI. PMID:27222027

  8. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies on Rutin-Rich Tartary Buckwheat Dough in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Noda, Takahiro; Ishiguro, Koji

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the toxicity of rutin-rich dough from the Tartary buckwheat variety 'Manten-Kirari,' acute and subacute toxicity studies (10,000 and 5,000 mg/kg flour, respectively) were performed using rats. In the acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group was not significantly different when compared with that of the control group. On pathologico-anatomic observation, no unusual symptoms were observed in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group when compared with the control group. In the subacute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight and food intake in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated and common buckwheat groups were not significantly different when compared with the control group. However, some investigated properties, such as urine protein and serum albumin, were significantly different in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups when compared with the control group. However, these changes were not caused by toxicity, but by transient changes. On pathologico-anatomic observation, some abnormalities were observed in the liver, kidneys, heart, lung, bronchi and pituitary gland in some rats. However, the incidental rates in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups did not differ when compared to controls. Therefore, these abnormalities may be caused by natural generation. Based on these results, we concluded that dough at a dose of 5,000 mg flour/kg is at a non effect level. PMID:26052149

  9. Depth-related alkaloid variation in Mediterranean Aplysina sponges.

    PubMed

    Putz, Annika; Kloeppel, Anne; Pfannkuchen, Martin; Brümmer, Franz; Proksch, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Total amounts and patterns of bromoisoxazoline alkaloids of Aplysina sponges from Croatia (Mediterranean Sea) were analyzed along an underwater slope ranging from 1.8 to 38.5 m. Total amounts of alkaloids varied from sample to sample and showed no correlation with depth. In contrast, striking differences of alkaloid patterns were found between sponges from shallow sites (1.8-11.8 m) and those collected from deeper sites (11.8-38.5 m). Sponges from shallow depths consistently exhibited alkaloid patterns typical for Aplysina aerophoba with aerophobin-2 (2) and isofistularin-3 (3) as main constituents. Sponges from deeper sites (below 11.8 m) resembled Aplysina cavernicola with aerothionin (4) and aplysinamisin-1 (1) as major compounds. The typical A. cavernicola pigment 3,4-dihydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (6), however, could not be detected in A. aerophoba sponges but was replaced by the A. aerophoba pigment uranidine (5) which appeared to be present in all sponge samples analyzed. During transplantation experiments sponges from sites below 30 m featuring the A. cavernicola chemotype of bromoisoxazoline alkaloids were translocated to shallower habitats (10 m). The alkaloid patterns in transplanted sponges were found to be stable over a period of 12 months and unaffected by this change in depth. In a further experiment, clones of Aplysina sponges from shallow depths of 5-6 m resembling the A. aerophoba chemotype were either kept in situ under natural light conditions or artificially shaded by excluding photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Neither 4 nor 1 were detected in artificially shaded sponges over an observation period of 12 months. In summary, two chemically distinct types of Aplysina sponges were discovered in this study that proved to be remarkably stable with regard to the bromoisoxazoline patterns and unaffected either by changing the light conditions or depth. It is not clear presently whether the Aplysina sponges collected from depths < 11.8 m

  10. Three-Dimensional Porous Sponges from Collagen Biowastes.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Meiyazhagan; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Tharangattu Narayanan, Narayanan; Anumary, Ayyappan; Sruthi, Radhakrishnan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Vajtai, Robert; Mani, Sendurai A; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-06-15

    Three-dimensional, functional, and porous scaffolds can find applications in a variety of fields. Here we report the synthesis of hierarchical and interconnected porous sponges using a simple freeze-drying technique, employing collagen extracted from animal skin wastes and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The ultralightweight, high-surface-area sponges exhibit excellent mechanical stability and enhanced absorption of organic contaminants such as oils and dye molecules. Additionally, these biocomposite sponges display significant cellular biocompatibility, which opens new prospects in biomedical uses. The approach highlights innovative ways of transforming biowastes into advanced hybrid materials using simple and scalable synthesis techniques. PMID:27219483

  11. Contribution of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the glyoxylate shunt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to succinic acid production during dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Aslankoohi, Elham; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-07-01

    Succinic acid produced by yeast during bread dough fermentation can significantly affect the rheological properties of the dough. By introducing mutations in the model S288C yeast strain, we show that the oxidative pathway of the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt contribute significantly to succinic acid production during dough fermentation. More specifically, deletion of ACO1 and double deletion of ACO1 and ICL1 resulted in a 36 and 77% decrease in succinic acid levels in fermented dough, respectively. Similarly, double deletion of IDH1 and IDP1 decreased succinic acid production by 85%, while also affecting the fermentation rate. By contrast, double deletion of SDH1 and SDH2 resulted in a two-fold higher succinic acid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Deletion of fumarate reductase activity (FRD1 and OSM1) in the reductive pathway of the TCA cycle did not affect the fermentation rate and succinic acid production. The changes in the levels of succinic acid produced by mutants Δidh1Δidp1 (low level) and Δsdh1Δsdh2 (high level) in fermented dough only resulted in small pH differences, reflecting the buffering capacity of dough at a pH of around 5.1. Moreover, Rheofermentometer analysis using these mutants revealed no difference in maximum dough height and gas retention capacity with the dough prepared with S288C. The impact of the changed succinic acid profile on the organoleptic or antimicrobial properties of bread remains to be demonstrated. PMID:25828707

  12. Managing and sharing the escalating number of sponge "unknowns": the SpongeMaps project.

    PubMed

    Hooper, J N A; Hall, K A; Ekins, M; Erpenbeck, D; Wörheide, G; Jolley-Rogers, G

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary collections of sponges in the Indo-west Pacific have escalated substantially due to pharmaceutical discovery, national bioregional planning, and compliance with international conventions on the seabed and its marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdictions. These partially processed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) collections now vastly outweigh the expertise available to make them better "known" via complete taxonomy, yet for many bioregions they represent the most significant body of currently available knowledge. Increasing numbers of cryptic species, previously undetected morphologically, are now being discovered by molecular and chemical analyses. The uncoordinated and fragmented nature of many previous collections, however, means that knowledge and expertise gained from a particular project are often lost to future projects without a biodiversity informatics legacy. Integrating these diverse data (GIS; OTUs; images; molecular, chemical, and other datasets) required a two-way iterative process so far unavailable for sponges with existing biodiversity informatics tools. SpongeMaps arose from the initial need for online collaboration to integrate morphometric data with molecular barcodes, including the Porifera Tree of Life (PorTol) project. It provides interrogation of existing data to better process new collections; capacity to create new OTUs; publication of online pages for individual species, so as to interpret GIS and other data for online biodiversity databases and services; and automatic links to external datasets for taxonomic hierarchy, specimen GIS and mapping, DNA sequence data, chemical structures, and images. PMID:23652200

  13. Aplyzanzine A, a new dibromotyrosine derivative from a Verongida sponge.

    PubMed

    Evan, T; Rudi, A; Ilan, M; Kashman, Y

    2001-02-01

    Aplyzanzine A (1), a novel bisdibromotyrosine derivative, has been isolated from the Indo-Pacific sponge Aplysina sp. Its structure was elucidated mainly on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic data. PMID:11430007

  14. Calafianin, a bromotyrosine derivative from the marine sponge Aplysina gerardogreeni.

    PubMed

    Encarnación, R D; Sandoval, E; Malmstrøm, J; Christophersen, C

    2000-06-01

    Calafianin (1) and two known compounds, aerothionin and (3, 5-dibromo-2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid, were isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina gerardogreeni. The structure of 1 was determined by NMR analysis and mass spectrometry. PMID:10869226

  15. New and extraordinary Early Cambrian sponge spicule assemblage from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi-Guang; Pratt, Brian R.

    1994-01-01

    The fossil record of siliceous sponges, compared with that of other skeleton- secreting Metazoa, is poorly known, based as it is on disarticulated spicules and sporadically preserved body fossils. Abundant spicules recovered from Lower Cambrian strata in Shaanxi, China, essentially double the known morphological diversity of siliceous sponges for that interval of geologic time. These fossils, along with a comparable coeval fauna from South Australia, have a remarkably modern aspect, thereby demonstrating that the principal siliceous sponge groups and styles of body architecture were established quickly in the earliest Phanerozoic as part of the Cambrian "explosion" and that they inhabited a variety of low-energy, relatively deep water settings. The similarity of spicule shape and variation to that of younger assemblages reflects a conservative architecture for the siliceous sponges.

  16. Protonated Melamine Sponge for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Liang-Ting

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic protonated melamine sponge for effective separation of water-rich immiscible oil/water mixtures with extremely high separation efficiency. This protonated melamine sponge exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 12 h without any increase in the oil content in filtrate. Moreover, our compressed protonated melamine sponge could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high separation efficiencies. The high performance of this protonated melamine sponge and its efficient, energy- and cost-effective preparation suggest that it has great potential for use in practical applications. PMID:26399444

  17. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B; Erwin, Patrick M; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W; Thacker, Robert W; Montoya, Jose M; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host-microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  18. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R.; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B.; Erwin, Patrick M.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J.; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W.; Thacker, Robert W.; Montoya, Jose M.; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host–microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  19. Protonated Melamine Sponge for Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Liang-Ting

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic protonated melamine sponge for effective separation of water-rich immiscible oil/water mixtures with extremely high separation efficiency. This protonated melamine sponge exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 12 h without any increase in the oil content in filtrate. Moreover, our compressed protonated melamine sponge could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high separation efficiencies. The high performance of this protonated melamine sponge and its efficient, energy- and cost-effective preparation suggest that it has great potential for use in practical applications. PMID:26399444

  20. Protonated Melamine Sponge for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Liang-Ting

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated a superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic protonated melamine sponge for effective separation of water-rich immiscible oil/water mixtures with extremely high separation efficiency. This protonated melamine sponge exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 12 h without any increase in the oil content in filtrate. Moreover, our compressed protonated melamine sponge could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high separation efficiencies. The high performance of this protonated melamine sponge and its efficient, energy- and cost-effective preparation suggest that it has great potential for use in practical applications.

  1. DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface voters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  2. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  3. Elastic, Conductive, Polymeric Hydrogels and Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yun; He, Weina; Cao, Tai; Guo, Haitao; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen; Shao, Ziqiang; Cui, Yulin; Zhang, Xuetong

    2014-01-01

    As a result of inherent rigidity of the conjugated macromolecular chains resulted from the delocalized π-electron system along the polymer backbone, it has been a huge challenge to make conducting polymer hydrogels elastic by far. Herein elastic and conductive polypyrrole hydrogels with only conducting polymer as the continuous phase have been simply synthesized in the indispensable conditions of 1) mixed solvent, 2) deficient oxidant, and 3) monthly secondary growth. The elastic mechanism and oxidative polymerization mechanism on the resulting PPy hydrogels have been discussed. The resulting hydrogels show some novel properties, e.g., shape memory elasticity, fast functionalization with various guest objects, and fast removal of organic infectants from aqueous solutions, all of which cannot be observed from traditional non-elastic conducting polymer counterparts. What's more, light-weight, elastic, and conductive organic sponges with excellent stress-sensing behavior have been successfully achieved via using the resulting polypyrrole hydrogels as precursors. PMID:25052015

  4. Meroterpenoids from a Tropical Dysidea sp. Sponge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kwon; Woo, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Cho, Eunji; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-11-25

    Six new meroterpenoids (1-6), along with arenarol (7), a known rearranged drimane sesquiterpene hydroquinone, were isolated from a Dysidea sp. sponge collected from the Federated States of Micronesia. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analysis, compound 1 was determined to be the cyclic ether derivative of 7, whereas 2 and 3 were assigned as the corresponding sesquiterpene quinones containing taurine-derived substituents. Compounds 4-6 possess a novel tetracyclic skeleton formed by a direct linkage between the quinone and sesquiterpene moieties. The configurations of these new compounds were assigned on the basis of combined NOESY and ECD analysis. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26551342

  5. Elastic, Conductive, Polymeric Hydrogels and Sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yun; He, Weina; Cao, Tai; Guo, Haitao; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen; Shao, Ziqiang; Cui, Yulin; Zhang, Xuetong

    2014-07-01

    As a result of inherent rigidity of the conjugated macromolecular chains resulted from the delocalized π-electron system along the polymer backbone, it has been a huge challenge to make conducting polymer hydrogels elastic by far. Herein elastic and conductive polypyrrole hydrogels with only conducting polymer as the continuous phase have been simply synthesized in the indispensable conditions of 1) mixed solvent, 2) deficient oxidant, and 3) monthly secondary growth. The elastic mechanism and oxidative polymerization mechanism on the resulting PPy hydrogels have been discussed. The resulting hydrogels show some novel properties, e.g., shape memory elasticity, fast functionalization with various guest objects, and fast removal of organic infectants from aqueous solutions, all of which cannot be observed from traditional non-elastic conducting polymer counterparts. What's more, light-weight, elastic, and conductive organic sponges with excellent stress-sensing behavior have been successfully achieved via using the resulting polypyrrole hydrogels as precursors.

  6. Sustainable production of bioactive compounds from sponges: primmorphs as bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H C; Brümmer, F; Fattorusso, E; Aiello, A; Menna, M; de Rosa, S; Batel, R; Müller, W E G

    2003-01-01

    Sponges [phylum Porifera] are a rich source for the isolation of biologically active and pharmacologically valuable compounds with a high potential to become effective drugs for therapeutic use. However, until now, only one compound has been introduced into clinics because of the limited amounts of starting material available for extraction. To overcome this serious problem in line with the rules for a sustainable use of marine resources, the following routes can be pursued; first, chemical synthesis, second, cultivation of sponges in the sea (mariculture), third, growth of sponge specimens in a bioreactor, and fourth, cultivation of sponge cells in vitro in a bioreactor. The main efforts to follow the latter strategy have been undertaken with the marine sponge Suberites domuncula. This species produces compounds that affect neuronal cells, such as quinolinic acid, a well-known neurotoxin, and phospholipids. A sponge cell culture was established after finding that single sponge cells require cell-cell contact in order to retain their telomerase activity, one prerequisite for continuous cell proliferation. The sponge cell culture system, the primmorphs, comprises proliferating cells that have the potency to differentiate. While improving the medium it was found that, besides growth factors, certain ions (e.g. silicate and iron) are essential. In the presence of silicate several genes required for the formation of the extracellular matrix are expressed (silicatein, collagen and myotrophin). Fe3+ is essential for the synthesis of the spicules, and causes an increased expression of the ferritin-, septin- and scavenger receptor genes. Furthermore, high water current is required for growth and canal formation in the primmorphs. The primmorph system has already been successfully used for the production of pharmacologically useful, bioactive compounds, such as avarol or (2'-5')oligoadenylates. Future strategies to improve the sponge cell culture are discussed; these

  7. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products. PMID:23993603

  8. Molecular biodiversity. Case study: Porifera (sponges).

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Brümmer, Franz; Batel, Renato; Müller, Isabel M; Schröder, Heinz C

    2003-03-01

    Biological diversity--or biodiversity--is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms. The biodiversity we see today is the fruit of billions of years of evolution, shaped by natural processes and, increasingly, by the influence of humans. It forms the web of life of which we are an integral part and upon which we so fully depend. The research on molecular biodiversity tries to lay the scientific foundation of a rational conservation policy that has its roots in various disciplines including systematics/taxonomy (species richness), present day ecology (diversity of ecological systems), and functional genetics (genetic diversity). The results of ongoing genome analyses (genome projects and expressed sequence tag projects) and the achievements of molecular evolution may allow us not only to quantitate the diversity of the present biota but also to extrapolate to their diversification in the future. A link between biodiversity and genomics/molecular evolution will create a platform which we hope may facilitate a sustainable management of organismic life and ensure its exploitation for human benefit. In the present review we outline possible strategies, using the Porifera (sponges) as a prominent example. On the basis of solid taxonomy and ecological data, the high value of this phylum for human application becomes obvious, especially with regard to the field of chemical ecology and the desire to find novel potential drugs for clinical use. In addition, the benefit of trying to make sense of molecular biodiversity using sponges as an example can be seen in the fact that the study of these animals, which are "living fossils", gives us a good insight into the history of our planet, especially with respect to the evolution of Metazoa. PMID:12649752

  9. Genomics of "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarium", a Cyanobacterial Sponge Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, Beate M.; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-21

    Marine sponges (Porifera): ancient metazoans of ecological importance, that produce bioactive secondary metabolites and interact with various microorganisms including cyanobacteria1: Marine Synechococcus spp.: cyanobacteria, important contributors to the global carbon cycle and major primary producers in the oceans2 Ca. S. spongiarum: an ecotype of this genus, widespread and abundant symbiont of various marine sponges around the world3, e.g. Aplysina aerophoba

  10. Epidermabrasion for acne: the polyester fiber web sponge.

    PubMed

    Durr, N P; Orentreich, N

    1976-03-01

    Physical-mechanical exfoliation with the nonwoven polyester fiber web sponge is an effective adjunct to the treatment of comedonal and pustular acne. Precisely controlled epidermabrasion is achieved by varying pressure, velocity, duration and frequency of use. Side effects are negligible and patient acceptance is high. Effectiveness is not dependent upon erythema and scaling since the web sponge mechanically removes keratin excrescences and trapped hairs in pilosebaceous ducts. PMID:138554