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1

Hydrogen isotope effects in the dehydration of polystyrene-divinylbenzene type ion-exchange resins and the structure of electrolyte solutions. 1. Li/sup +/ form of variously cross-linked Dowex 50W resins  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen isotope effects in the dehydration of the lithium form of strong acid polystyrene-divinylbenzene type ion exchangers (Dowex 50W) of varying cross-linking (2 to 12% DVB content) have been determined by a Rayleigh distillation type technique. The single-stage separation factors, ..cap alpha.., were dependent only on n/sub w/ and were independent of resin cross-linking. At n/sub w/ approx. = 4, ..cap alpha.. was lower than ..cap alpha../sub w/, the separation factor for pure water distillation at the same temperature. In the region of n/sub w/ = 10 to 12, ..cap alpha.. was greater than ..cap alpha../sub w/ and reached a maximum value. Beyond n/sub w/ approx. = 12, ..cap alpha.. decreased gradually with n/sub w/ but remained greater than ..cap alpha../sub w/. These results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of lithium ions in the resin phase. These data indicate that the counterions in resin phase water behave like single ion solutions, provided counterion-water interactions are much greater than counterion-ionogenic group interactions. The resin network seems to influence the outermost layers (beyond the second hydration shell) of water molecules via hydrophobic interactions. 1 figure, 3 tables.

Gupta, A.R.; Nandan, D.; Sarpal, S.K.

1982-08-05

2

EFFECT OF pH ON THE ADSORPTION OF SELECTED HEAVY METAL IONS FROM CONCENTRATED CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS BY THE CHELATING RESIN DOWEX M-4195  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH on the adsorption of nickel (II), copper (II), cobalt (II), lead (II), manganese (II), and iron (III) from concentrated chloride solutions onto Dowex M-4195 is reported for the first time. This chelating resin has an unusual ability to adsorb many of these metals, most notably copper, even at very low pH. The selectivity for many of

Claudia V. Diniz; Fiona M. Doyle; Virginia S. T. Ciminelli

2002-01-01

3

Use of Cation Exchange Resins for Production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Suitable for the Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Powder Metallurgy Process  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders from three types of cation exchange resins: Dowex 50W, a strong acid, sulfonate resin; AG MP-50, a macroporous form of sulfonate resin; and Bio-Rex 70, a weak acid, carboxylic resin.

Mosley, W.C.

2001-09-17

4

Effect of polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan resinate tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on\\u000a physical properties of multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan (DMP) tablets. DMP resinates were formed by a complexation\\u000a of DMP and strong cation exchange resins, Dowex 50 W and Amberlite IRP69. The tablets consisted of the DMP resinates and direct\\u000a compression fillers, such as

Thaned Pongjanyakul; Aroonsri Priprem; Padungkwan Chitropas; Satit Puttipipatkhachorn

2005-01-01

5

An efficient ultrasound assisted approach for the impregnation of room temperature ionic liquid onto Dowex 1×8 resin matrix and its application toward the enhanced adsorption of chromium (VI).  

PubMed

The work discussed in this paper is based on the utilization of ultrasound in conjunction with an ionic liquid (Aliquat 336) impregnated Dowex 1×8 resin for the effective adsorption of chromium. Ionic liquids are known for their selectivity toward metal extraction and ultrasonic medium offers efficient energy transfer for impregnating the ionic liquid in the resin matrix. The molecular interaction between the ionic liquid impregnated resin and chromium was studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and interference of foreign ions was studied in detail. Chromium (VI) was quantitatively adsorbed in the pH range of 3.5-4, with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g(-1) in conformity with the Langmuir isotherm model. The study of thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The adsorbent could be regenerated using 1 mol L(-1) HCl-0.28 mol L(-1) ascorbic acid mixture. Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and finally the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material (BCR-715). The obtained results indicated that the ultrasonic assisted impregnation of the room temperature ionic liquid significantly enhances and improves the removal efficiency of Cr(VI). PMID:22365143

Kalidhasan, S; Kumar, A Santhana Krishna; Rajesh, Vidya; Rajesh, N

2012-02-06

6

SOME EXPERIMENTS ON THE USE OF THE CHELATING ION EXCHANGER DOWEX A-1 IN NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two preliminary experiments were performed to study the behavior of ; trivalent ions in the chelating ion exchanger Dowex A-1. The exchange between ; La and Cu in Cu saturated resins showed that the affinity of Dowex A-1 is ; slightly higher for La\\/sup 3+\\/ than for Cu\\/sup 2+\\/ under the conditions employed. ; The separation of La\\/sup 3+\\/ and

R. Christell; S. Forberg; T. Westermark

1961-01-01

7

Role of resin-copper(II) complexes containing ethanolamines in hydrogen peroxide decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Dowex-50W resins in the form of mono (mea)-, di (dea)-and tri-ethanolamine (tea)-CuII complexes have been used as potentially active catalysts for H2O2 decomposition in an aqueous medium. The rate constant (per g of dry resin) was evaluated with resins containing 2,8 and 12%\\u000a divinylbenzene (DVB) crosslinkage, over the temperature range 25–40°C. The reaction was first order with respect to [H2O2

Mohamed Y. El-Sheikh; Abdel-Fattah M. Habib; Ali H. Gemeay; Ahmed B. Zaki; Joachim Bargon

1992-01-01

8

Preparation and in vitro release of dual-drug resinates containing equivalent content dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine.  

PubMed

The dual-drug resinate containing equivalent content of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DTM) and diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) was developed and characterized. To achieve this specific resinate, a procedure of simultaneous dual-drug loading using loading solutions composed of different proportions of DTM and DPH was performed and a dual-drug loading diagram was constructed to determine the equivalent drug loading solution (ELS) and also the estimated equivalent drug content (EQC). The effects of resin crosslinkage, overall drug concentration of the loading solution, and temperature during drug loading on the values of ELS and EQC were assessed. The increased overall drug concentration from 0.25 to 1.0% w/v elevated the EQC values from 18 to 35% w/w for low crosslinked resins (Dowex 50 W x 2 and x 4), and from 18 to 27% w/w for high crosslinked resin (Dowex 50 W x 8). It also changed the values of ELS from 0.50 to 0.48 for the low crosslinked resins, and 0.50 to 0.55 for the high crosslinked resin. For the high crosslinked resin, the applied heat from 35 to 65 degrees C further increased the values of EQC from 27 to 32% w/w, and changed the values of ELS in the reverse direction from 0.55 to 0.48. However, the heat did not exert significant effects on the values of EQC and ELS for the low crosslinked resins. Different batches of dual-drug resinates prepared from the determined ELS provided the resultant resinates with equivalent contents of DTM and DPH which were very close to the estimated EQC. The drug release from the resinates was performed in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 N of KCl solutions. The increased ionic strength generally accelerated the release of both drugs except for 0.4 N KCl solution in which the drug release from the resinates of high crosslinkage was decreased. The congestion on the outward movement of drugs through the high crosslinked matrix might cause the delay of drug release. In conclusion, the release study demonstrated that the dual-drug resinate using a suitable crosslinked resin could be used for extended delivery of two combined drugs with the equivalent therapeutic dose. PMID:16638687

Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Kulvanich, Poj; Pathipvanich, Mitr

2006-04-01

9

SORPCJA Ba I Sr NA SZE?CIOCYJANO?ELAZIANIE (II) POTASOWO-NIKLOWYM, MIEDZIOWYM, KOBALTOWYM, CYNKOWYM I DOWEX50 Z ROZTWORÓW KWASU SIARKOWEGO I SOLNEGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined sorption coefficients of Ba and Sr on nickel-potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) (NiNF), cobalt-potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) (CoNF), cupric-potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) (CuNF), and on the ion exchange resin (Dowex-50) in the sulfuric and hydrochloric acid solutions. The results indicate that Ba is strongly sorbed on the investigated hexacyanofferrates and Dowex-50 from sulphuric acid while it is sorbed from the hydrochloric

B. Kubica; M. Tuteja-Krysa; R. Misiak; M. Stobi?ski; H. Godunowa; R. Fia?kowski

10

Development of a Small 50W Class Stirling Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a compact and low cost Stirling engine, a gamma type Stirling engine with simple moving-tube-type heat exchangers and a Rhombic mechanism was developed. Its target shaft power is 50 W at engine speed of 4000 rpm and mean pressure of 0.8 MPa using helium as working gas. This paper describes the outline of the engine design

Koichi HIRATA

11

Sodium Guidestar Radiometry Results from the SOR's 50W Fasor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having upgraded the 20W, 589nm fasor (frequency-addition source of optical radiation) reported at the last AMOS conference to 50W, we have since produced a sodium laser guidestar (LGS) with a V1 magnitude of 5.1 for 30W of fasor power in November 2005, when the annual peak in mesospheric sodium density occurs. This corresponds to a return flux at the top of the telescope of 7000 photons/s/cm2 through one airmass. Late in May 2006, however, a return of only 1340 ph/s/cm2 (V1=6.7) for 30 W of fasor power was obtained at the annual minimum in sodium column density. Earlier in the month, with 49 W of fasor power, the LGS was only as bright as V1=6.3 because of the minimum in column density. By measuring the LGS return flux in circular polarization from various altitudes and azimuths, we have detected the presence of the Earth's magnetic field, for the first time ever, as an enhancement in flux from the direction where the field lines are pointing at the SOR. We then give a formulation to predict the brightness of the LGS as a function of direction and time of year. The fasor, itself, is continuously tunable to as fine as 60 femtometers (6x10-6 Angstroms) across the entire sodium D2 line (FWHM ~3 GHz) and is capable of pumping either the D2a or D2b feature with linear or circular polarization. Spectral scans will be shown. While saturation is now being seen for linear polarization, we have seen little, if any, saturation for circular polarization at higher laser powers, and circular produces more than twice the return of linear because of optical pumping. We have succeeded in closing the adaptive optics loop on this very bright LGS, resolving a 0.14 arcsec binary star in June 2006.

Drummond, J.; Telle, J.; Denman, C.; Hillman, P.; Moore, G.; Novotny, S.; Fugate, R.; Eichoff, M.

12

Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing  

SciTech Connect

The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better resolve differences between the adsorption abilities of the resins and to develop estimates of uranium loading on the resins. By determining the quantity of uranium that each resin can adsorb and the time required to reach various levels of loading, resin lifetime in the treatment system can be estimated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

2010-12-01

13

Luminol chemiluminescence in unbuffered solutions with a cobalt(II)-ethanolamine complex immobilized on resin as catalyst and its application to analysis.  

PubMed

Using a heterogeneous catalyst, Co(II)-ethanolamine complex sorbed on Dowex-50W resin, the chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol in unbuffered or weakly acidic solution was studied in the presence of H2O2. The maximum luminol CL wavelength at pH 5.7 was 448 nm, 23 nm longer than that in a basic solution (pH 10.5). Three different ligands, mono-, di-, and triethanolamine, and six transition metal ions, Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn-(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III) were compared by CL measurements. The CL intensity decreased in the order mono- > di- > triethanolamine and Co(II) > Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Fe-(III) > Mn(II) > Fe(II). This heterogeneous CL system was developed as H2O2 and glucose flow-through sensors. Detection limits (S/N = 3) of H2O2 and glucose using Dowex-50W-X4-Co(II)-monoethanolamine as catalyst are 1 x 10(-7) M and 1 x 10(-6) M, respectively. On the basis of the studies of the CL, fluorescence, UV-vis and ESCA spectra and the effect of dissolved oxygen in luminol solution, a mechanism for CL emission in unbuffered solution was considered as the formation of a superoxide radical ion during the decomposition of H2O2 catalyzed by the Co(II)-ethanolamine immobilized resin. Then the superoxide radical ion acted on luminol and the CL was emitted. The applications of the proposed method to determine H2O2 in rainwater without any special pretreatment and glucose in human urine and orange juice samples give satisfactory results. PMID:11721898

Lin, J M; Shan, X; Hanaoka, S; Yamada, M

2001-11-01

14

Assessment of cadmium in aquatic sediment using dialysis samplers with ion-exchange-resin collection  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) show the potential for toxicity on the basis of their ratio. Accordingly, the authors spiked cadmium in a range for which Cd/AVS ratios were from 0.2 to 10 in the sediment with its weight about 8 kg in each batch. Dialysis samplers with a cation ion-exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X4) collection were used in a laboratory for the determination of free cadmium concentrations in pore water of the collected sediment. When equilibrium was reached among cadmium in pore water, sediment, and ion-exchange resin, cadmium exchanged onto resin phase was regenerated with 1 N hydrochloric acid (OPTIMA grade) and determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Zeeman 5000) with a graphite furnace accessory. Cadmium determined using the dialysis sampler is considered as free cadmium which is related to the metal bioavailability toward aquatic biota. The developed methodology provides a new technique for assessment of free metal in aquatic sediment systems.

Shi, B. [Kimberly-Clark Corp., Neenah, WI (United States). Environmental Technology; Allen, H.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Desnoyers, C. [ERM Program Management Co., Exton, PA (United States)

1998-05-01

15

Preparation of curium-americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading  

SciTech Connect

Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material (about 2.2 kg) for HFIR targets since 1971. The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in 1975. Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation. The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. Yields approaching 95% are routinely obtained and only one unacceptable product has been generated during routine production operations. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. The present scale of production of 150 to 250 g/y supplies the present need and is comparable with the level of other chemical process operations at TRU. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment.

Chattin, F.R.; Benker, D.E.; Lloyd, M.H.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

1980-01-01

16

Behavior of Tetravalent Plutonium with Various Ion Exchangers in Solutions Containing Nitric Acid and Oxalates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution behavior of tetravalent plutonium on the ion-exchange resins Dowex 50W-X8, Dowex 1-X8 and Dowex Chelating Resin Al-X8 in the presence of various concentrations of nitric acid and oxalate was studied. It was found that nitric acid and oxal...

E. Walter S. A. Ali

1983-01-01

17

Removal of limonin bitterness by treatment of ion exchange and adsorbent resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, the selective removal of limonin bitterness from Washington navel orange juice by batch adsorption to the Amberlite\\u000a XAD-16HP and Dowex Optipore L285 was investigated and the determination of some compositional changes that occurred with orange\\u000a juices debittering using adsorption resins were the primary focus. Amberlite XAD-16HP and Dowex Optipore L285 have been successfully\\u000a used to reduce bitterness to

Osman Kola; Cemal Kaya; Hüseyin Duran; Ali Altan

2010-01-01

18

Characterization of soil phosphorus by anion exchange resin adsorption and P 32 -equilibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Adsorption of phosphate by the anion-exchange resin Dowex-2 was investigated. The resin adsorbed small quantities of P from solution quantitatively. The rate of P-adsorption by resin agitated in solution was proportional to the P-concentration in solution, and was independent of the rate of diffusion of adsorbed P in the resin. When 1 g of soil was shaken continuously with

F. Amer; D. R. Bouldin; C. A. Black; F. R. Duke

1955-01-01

19

Behaviour of Plutonium-IV with Various Ion Exchangers in Solutions Containing Nitric Acid and Oxalates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(1) The distribution of Pu-IV on the ion exchangers Dowex 50W-X8, Dowex 1-X8, and Dowex Chelating Resin Al-X8 in the presence of various concentrations of nitric acid and oxalate were investigated. (2) The results indicate that nitric acid and oxalic acid...

E. Walter S. A. Ali

1979-01-01

20

Water mass pathways and transports over the South Scotia Ridge west of 50°W  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the ESASSI cruise carried out in January 2008, a sector of the South Scotia Ridge west of the South Orkney Islands was surveyed with a spatial resolution of 1-2 nm (1 nm?1852 m) over the continental slopes and of about 5 nm elsewhere. We use the ESASSI-08 data set to quantify the export and regional pathways of waters from the Weddell Sea into the Scotia Sea west of 50°W, where the intermediate and deep waters are characterized by being colder and fresher than those crossing the deeper gaps east of the South Orkney Islands. An inverse model initialized with ship-borne ADCP velocities is applied to temperature and salinity profiles to obtain a better estimation of the flow pattern. The model domain encloses the region between Elephant Island and 50°W, and is delimited north and south by the flanks of the ridge. The value obtained for the full-depth net transport into the Scotia Sea is 7±5 Sv (1 Sv?10 6 m 3 s -1), with heat- ('enthalpy' for a non-zero volume transport) and salt-anomaly fluxes of 14±5 TW and (0.8±0.4)×10 6 kg s -1 relative to mean property values of -0.29 °C and 34.56, respectively. The clockwise circulation within the Hesperides Trough enables the along isopycnal exchange of properties between the involved water masses and some diapycnal mixing between the deepest layers. Approximately one-third of the volume transport measured along the northern wall of the trough recirculates inside the trough. The other two-thirds are suggested to outflow into the Scotia Sea, mainly through the deepest gap west of the South Orkney Plateau.

Palmer, Margarita; Gomis, Damià; Flexas, Maria del Mar; Jordà, Gabriel; Jullion, Loic; Tsubouchi, Takamasa; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.

2012-01-01

21

Effect of Ion Exchange Resins on Composition of Milk and Its Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraeentrifugation and dialysis studies were made to determine the distribution of calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen in milk treated with ion exchange resins to remove radionuclides. In System I, milk was passed through Dowex 2-X8 (Cl:P:Cit) resin, acidified to pH 5.35 with citric acid, passed through IR-120 (Ca:Mg:K:Na) resin, and neutralized to pH 6.8 with KOH. In System II, the same

G. K. Murthy

1967-01-01

22

Separation of Sugars by Continuous Annular Chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous chromatographic separations of aqueous fructose-glucose-sucrose solutions have been investigated in a laboratory-scale continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) using calcium-exchanged Dowex 50W-X8 resin. Comparative studies have also been conduct...

A. J. Howard G. Carta C. H. Byers

1987-01-01

23

Investigation of an anion exchange resin for cleanup of a coolant used to machine nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the interaction of Dowex SBR-P, which is a strongly basic anion exchange resin, with ions found in a used machining coolant. The coolant is used in machining enriched uranium and contains uranium, chloride, nitrite, borate ions, water, and propylene glycol.

Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Tucker, H.L.; Asbury, W.L.

1986-01-01

24

Sorption of curium, berkelium, californium, and einsteinium on cation exchange resin from nitric acid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plots of the distribution coefficients of curium, berkelium, einsteinium, and californium (+3 ions) adsorbed on Dowex 50-X8 resin from nitric acid solutions are U-shaped, while plots of einsteinium (+4 ions) distribution coefficients are similar to an exponential decay curve. The +3 ions exhibit a minimum sorption at a nitric acid concentration of 6 or 7 molar. (LK)

1976-01-01

25

Strontium in Milk. I. Removal by Means of Reverse-Flow Ion Exchange Columns1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk from two Jersey cows dosed orally with strontium ~ ~nd calcium ~ was mechani- cally separated into skimnfilk and cream. These radioactive isotopes were removed from the skimmilk by use of an upward-flow ion exchange resin column. Dowex 50W-X12, Dowex 50W-X4, and Duolite C-20 were used. The calcium form of ecah resin was more effec- tive in removal of

D. G. Easterly; B. J. Demott; R. G. Cragle

1960-01-01

26

Ion-Exchange Studies in the Removal of Polybasic Acids. Anomalous Sorption Behavior of Phosphoric Acid on Weak Base Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption behavior of phosphoric acid on the weak base resins Amberlite IRA-93 and Dowex WGR-2 is reported. Studies on sorption equilibria and dynamics reveal anomalous sorption behavior as compared to sorption of strong and weak monobasic acids. A mathematical treatment is developed to correlate the experimental data on sorption dynamics. An alternative type of mechanism is also proposed based on

V. M. Bhandari; V. A. Juvekar; S. R. Patwardhan

1997-01-01

27

Kinetic study of catalytic esterification of butyric acid and n-butanol over Dowex 50Wx8-400  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic investigation for the esterification of butyric acid with n-butanol over Dowex 50Wx8-400 was conducted. The catalytic experiments were performed in a reactive distillation mode, in which the byproduct (water) is eliminated to prevent the reverse reaction from taking place. The experimental parameters are reaction temperatures (100–110°C), molar ratios of reactants (butyric acid\\/n-butanol=0.25–4) and catalyst loading (10–40g\\/L), and their

In Bum Ju; Hye-Won Lim; Wonjin Jeon; Dong Jin Suh; Myung-June Park; Young-Woong Suh

2011-01-01

28

Comparison Between the Effect of Strongly and Weakly Cationic Exchange Resins on Matrix Physical Properties and the Controlled Release of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride from Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on investigating and comparing between the effect of the strongly cationic exchange resin, Dowex 88 (Dow88),\\u000a and the weakly cationic exchange resin, Amberlite IRP64 (Am64), on the physical properties of matrices and their drug release\\u000a profiles. The matrices were prepared by direct compression of Methocel K4M (HPMC) or Ethocel 7FP (EC) polymeric matrix formers\\u000a and contained diphenhydramine

Prasert Akkaramongkolporn; Kaewnapa Wongsermsin; Praneet Opanasopit; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat

2010-01-01

29

Selective recovery of Cr and Cu in leachate from chromated copper arsenate treated wood using chelating and acidic ion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to selectively remove chromium and copper from CCA-treated wood acid leachates (initial concentrations of 447–651mg As l?1, 374–453mg Cu l?1 and 335–622mg Cr l?1) using ion exchange resins and precipitation techniques. Batch experiments revealed that the chelating resin Dowex M4195 had a high copper selectivity in the presence of chromium while the Amberlite IR120

Amélie Janin; Jean-François Blais; Guy Mercier; Patrick Drogui

2009-01-01

30

The effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex trademark HPQ, a new macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin, and on four conventional polystyrene anion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex{trademark} HPQ, a recently available macroporous copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene, and on four conventional strong-base polystyrene anion exchange resins. The polystyrene resins investigated included one gel type, Dowex{trademark} 1 {times} 4, and three macroporous resins: Dow{trademark} MSA-1, Amberlite{trademark} IRA-900, and Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK. Each resin, in 7 M nitric acid, was subjected to seven different levels of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation ranging from 100 to 1000 megarads. Irradiated resins were measured for changes in dry weight, wet volume, chloride and Pu(IV) exchange capacities, and thermal stability. In separate experiments, each resin was subjected to approximately 340 megarads of in situ alpha particles from sorbed plutonium. Resin damage from alpha particles was less than half that caused by gamma rays, which may be a consequence of different production rates of radiolytic nitrite and nitro radicals in the two systems. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin provided the greatest radiation stability, whereas Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK was the least stable of the resins tested. Thermogravimetric analyses of dry, nitrate-form resin revealed that dry Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin offered the best thermal stability for absorbed gamma doses to 370 megarads, but the worst thermal stability after exposures of 550 megarads or more. 25 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

Marsh, S.F.

1990-11-01

31

DETERMINATION OF THORIUM IN VARIOUS AQUEOUS SAMPLES BY ANION EXCHANGE. I. ADSORPTION OF THORIUM ON THE ANION EXCHANGE RESIN IN NITRIC ACID-AL OHOL MIXED SOLUTION IN THE PRESENCE OF PHOSPHATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of thorium on the anion exchanger Dowex l-X8 in various ; nitric acid-ethanol mixed solutions and effects of phosphoric acid and the ; phosphate precipitates of calcium and magnesium were studied. When phosphate is ; present, thorium is strongly adsorbed on the resin in low and high concentrations ; of nitric acid and ethanol, respectively. In general, presence of

Akaishi

1962-01-01

32

Evaluating ion exchange resin efficiency and oxidative capacity for the separation of uranium(IV) and uranium(VI)  

PubMed Central

Background Previously described methods to separate dissolved U(IV) from dissolved U(VI) under acidic anoxic conditions prior to laboratory analysis were ineffective with materials currently available commercially. Three strong anion exchange resins were examined for their efficiency in separating, recovering, and preserving both redox states during separation. Results Under oxic conditions, recovery of U(VI) from three exchange resins (Bio-Rad AG® 1x8 Poly-Prep® prefilled columns, Bio-Rad AG® 1x8 powder, and Dowex® 1x8 powder) ranged from 72% to 100% depending on the dosed mass, eluent volume, and resin selected. Dowex® 1x8 resin was the only resin found to provide 100% recovery of U(VI) with fewer than 5 bed volumes of eluent. Under anoxic conditions, all three resins oxidized U(IV) in aqueous solutions with relatively low U(IV) concentrations (<3x10-6 M). Resin-induced oxidation was observed visually using a leuco dye, safranin-o. Oxidants associated with the resin were irreversibly reduced by the addition of Ti(III). After anoxic resin pre-treatment, a series of U(IV)/U(VI) mixtures at micro-molar levels were prepared and separated using the Dowex® 1x8 resin with 100% recovery of both U(IV) and U(VI) with no resin-induced changes in oxidation state. Conclusions Currently available anion exchange resins with apparently identical physical properties were found to have significantly different recoveries for hexavalent uranium at micro-molar concentrations. A novel qualitative technique was developed to visually assess oxidative capacities of anion exchange resins under acidic anoxic conditions. A protocol was developed for pre-treatment and use of currently available anion exchange resins to achieve quantitative separation of U(IV) and U(VI) in aqueous solutions with low U(IV) concentrations. This method can be applied to future work to quantitatively assess dissolved U(IV) and U(VI) concentrations in both laboratory and field samples.

2013-01-01

33

Uranium removal from contaminated groundwater by synthetic resins.  

PubMed

Synthetic resins are shown to be effective in removing uranium from contaminated groundwater. Batch and field column tests showed that strong-base anion-exchange resins were more effective in removing uranium from both near-neutral-pH (6.5)- and high-pH (8)-low-nitrate-containing groundwaters, than metal-chelating resins, which removed more uranium from acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Y-12 S-3 Ponds area in Tennessee, USA. Dowex 1-X8 and Purolite A-520E anion-exchange resins removed more uranium from high-pH (8)-low-nitrate-containing synthetic groundwater in batch tests than metal-chelating resins. The Dowex 21K anion-exchange resin achieved a cumulative loading capacity of 49.8 mg g(-1) before breakthrough in a field column test using near-neutral-pH (6.5)-low-nitrate-containing groundwater. However, in an acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater, metal-chelating resins Diphonix and Chelex-100 removed more uranium than anion-exchange resins. In 15 m L of acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater spiked with 20 mg L(-1) uranium, the uranium concentrations ranged from 0.95 mg L(-1) at 1-h equilibrium to 0.08 mg L(-1) at 24-h equilibrium for Diphonix and 0.17 mg L(-1) at 1-h equilibrium to 0.03 mg L(-1) at 24-h equilibrium for Chelex-100. Chelex-100 removed more uranium in the first 10 min in the 100mL of acidic-(pH 5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater ( approximately 5 mg L(-1) uranium); however, after 10 min, Diphonix equaled or out-performed Chelex-100. This study presents an improved understanding of the selectivity and sorption kenetics of a range of ion-exchange resins that remove uranium from both low- and high-nitrate-containing groundwaters with varying pHs. PMID:17697694

Phillips, D H; Gu, B; Watson, D B; Parmele, C S

2007-07-14

34

Recovery of 131I from alkaline solution of n-irradiated tellurium target using a tiny Dowex-1 column.  

PubMed

A simple and inexpensive ion-exchange chromatography method for the separation of medically useful no-carrier-added (nca) iodine radionuclides from bulk amounts of irradiated tellurium dioxide (TeO(2)) target was developed and tested using (131)I. The radiochemical separation was performed using a very small Dowex-1x8 ion-exchange column. The overall radiochemical yield for the complete separation of (131)I was 92+/-1.8 (standard deviation) % (n=8). The separated nca (131)I was of high, approximately 99%, radionuclidic and radiochemical purity and did not contain detectable amounts of the target material. This method may be adopted for the radiochemical separation of other different iodine radionuclides produced from tellurium matrices through cyclotron as well as reactor irradiation. PMID:20471848

Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Saha Das, Sujata

2010-05-06

35

50W single-mode linearly polarized high peak power pulsed fiber laser with tunable ns-mus pulse durations and kHz-MHz repetition rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our recent progress in the design and fabrication of a completely monolithic linearly-polarized pulsed Yb-doped fiber laser, with >10kW peak power, tunable 2ns-0.2mus pulse duration, tunable 50kHz-50MHz repetition rate and 50W average power in a diffraction-limited, linearly polarized and stabilized 0.8nm line-width output beam operating at 1064nm. The innovative all-fiber design of the laser is desirable for deployment

V. Khitrov; B. Samson; D. Machewirth; K. Tankala

2008-01-01

36

Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.  

PubMed

One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Experiments with ketoprofen, in addition to diclofenac, suggest that polystyrene anion exchange resins can be used to selectively remove other acidic pharmaceuticals from urine. PMID:24029637

Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

2013-08-27

37

High-COMD nitridized InAlGaAs laser facets for high-reliability 50-W bar operation at 805 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 40-year-old laser diode technology underpins applications such as data storage, industrial lasers and telecommunications but still suffers from reliability and longevity issues in high power applications, most notably in pumping of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG lasers. Despite thermal advantages allowing expansion matched Au/Sn hard soldering, the main problem for InAlGaAs lasers is facet oxidation, which leads to increased absorption and COMD device failure. This article presents a novel process, which atomically seals the surface and eliminates oxidation by forming stable nitrides on the facet. Pulsed testing of 805 nm of Al>0.20InGaAs single mode devices with a protective nitride layer demonstrates stable median 1.3W COMD (30MW/cm2), after one hour of CW screening at 12.5mW/?m (50W bar power). A 200h burn-in at 12.5mW/?m (50W bar power) resulted in an initial power drop of 1-2% and a linear degradation rate of 0.1%/1000h, compared to an initial power drop of 5-18% and a degradation rate of 46%/1000h for lasers with only AR/HR-coatings. A subsequent 1000h life-test at 22.5mW/um (90W bar power) demonstrated a degradation rate of only 3%/1000h under stress test conditions due to p-side up mounting, 10°C higher ambient temperature and 57% higher operating current over typical high power bar operating power levels. The QW temperature was 53°C. No sudden device failures occurred.

Silfvenius, Christofer; Blixt, Peter; Lindstrom, Carsten; Feitisch, Alfred O.

2004-06-01

38

RESIN ATTRITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>Uranium metal is produced by the bomb reduction of UFâ with Mg. ; The slag from this reduction contains appreciable quantities of U, either in the ; metallic or the tetrafluoride form, in addition to the MgFâ. A process for ; recovering low enrichmeat U from this slag has gone into operation. A study of ; the causes of resin

G. R. Seiler; P. R. Ammann; A. B. Newey

1958-01-01

39

Resin Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the ensuing years since the last phenolic resins book was published, many new and remarkable developments have occurred\\u000a in the realm of phenolic chemistry and are given in this chapter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A critical examination of the first step or addition step (methylolation) in the preparation of resoles is described and how\\u000a it can be controlled and compared with the typical

Louis Pilato

2010-01-01

40

Tests of Two Fluorometric Assays for Gonyaulax and Aphanizomenon Toxins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to further test two assay procedures with shellfish extracts and with A. flos-aquae cells: a solution fluorometric assay and a column chromatography assay using Dowex AG-50W-X4, a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, both ...

P. W. Carter

1980-01-01

41

CATION EXCHANGE SEPARATION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MICROGRAM AMOUNTS OF RHODIUM IN URANIUM-BASE FISSIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium is extracted with 30% tributyl phosphate in carbon tetrachloride ; from a nitric acid solution of the fissium alloy which contains ursnium, ; molybdenum, ruthenium, palladium, and zirconium, and the raffinate is strongly ; fumed with perchloric acid. The solution is then passed through a Dowex 50W-X8 ; cation exchange resin. Palladium is eluted with 0.3M hydrochloric acid, and

J. O. Karttunen; H. B. Evans

1960-01-01

42

Phenolic Resin Syntactic Foams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Syntactic foams were prepared from blends of six phenolic resins and carbon microbubbles. The compressive strength of the phenolic resin foams is equivalent to the strength of foams made from a polyimide resin. Ammonia evolved during the cure diffuses rap...

H. M. McIlroy

1980-01-01

43

Decomposition of Rare Earth Loaded Resin Particles  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCR and D) program within the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is evaluating nuclear fuel cycle options, including once-through, modified open, and fully closed cycles. Each of these scenarios may utilize quite different fuel management schemes and variation in fuel types may include high thermal conductivity UO{sub 2}, thoria-based, TRISO, metal, advanced ceramic (nitride, carbide, composite, etc.), and minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels and targets. Researchers from the US, Europe, and japan are investigating methods of fabricating high-specific activity spherical particles for fuel and target applications. The capital, operating, and maintenance costs of such a fuel fabrication facility can be significant, thus fuel synthesis and fabrication processes that minimize waste and process losses, and require less footprint are desired. Investigations have been performed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) studying the impact of americium and curium on the fuel fabrication process. proof of concept was demonstrated for fabrication of MA-bearing spherical particles, however additional development will be needed for engineering scale-up. Researchers at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) and the Japan Atomic Energy Association (JAEA) have collaborated on research with ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuels using spherical particles as the ceramic component dispersed in the metal matrix. Recent work at the CEA evaluates the burning of MA in the blanket region of sodium fast reactors. There is also interest in burning MA in Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The fabrication of uranium-MA oxide pellets for a fast reactor blanket or MA-bearing fuel for CANDU reactors may benefit from a low-loss dedicated footprint for producing MA-spherical particles. One method for producing MA-bearing spherical particles is loading the actinide metal on a cation exchange resin. The AG-50W resin is made of sulfonic acid functional groups attached to a styrene divinylbenzene copolymer lattice (long chained hydrocarbon). The metal cation binds to the sulfur group, then during thermal decomposition in air the hydrocarbons will form gaseous species leaving behind a spherical metal-oxide particle. Process development for resin applications with radioactive materials is typically performed using surrogates. For americium and curium, a trivalent metal like neodymium can be used. Thermal decomposition of Nd-loaded resin in air has been studied by Hale. Process conditions were established for resin decomposition and the formation of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The intermediate product compounds were described using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and wet chemistry. Leskela and Niinisto studied the decomposition of rare earth (RE) elements and found results consistent with Hale. Picart et al. demonstrated the viability of using a resin loading process for the fabrication of uranium-actinide mixed oxide microspheres for transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor. For effective transmutation of actinides, it will be desirable to extend the in-reactor burnup and minimize the number of recycles of used actinide materials. Longer burn times increases the chance of Fuel Clad Chemical or Mechanical Interaction (FCCI, FCMI). Sulfur is suspected of contributing to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) thus it is necessary to maximize the removal of sulfur during decomposition of the resin. The present effort extends the previous work by quantifying the removal of sulfur during the decomposition process. Neodymium was selected as a surrogate for trivalent actinide metal cations. As described above Nd was dissolved in nitric acid solution then contacted with the AG-50W resin column. After washing the column, the Nd-resin particles are removed and dried. The Nd-resin, seen in Figure 1 prior to decomposition, is ready to be converted to Nd oxide microspheres.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL

2010-09-01

44

Phenolic resin syntactic foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syntactic foams were prepared from blends of six phenolic resins and carbon microbubbles. The compressive strength of the phenolic resin foams is equivalent to the strength of foams made from a polyimide resin. Ammonia evolved during the cure diffuses rapidly and is not bound by the foam.

McIlroy

1980-01-01

45

Polyester Resin Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where

L. B. Bourne; F. J. M. Milner

1963-01-01

46

Improvement of drug loading onto ion exchange resin by cyclodextrin inclusion complex.  

PubMed

Context: Ion exchange resins have ability to exchange their counter ions for ionized drug in the surrounding medium, yielding "drug resin complex." Cyclodextrin can be applied for enhancement of drug solubility and stability. Objective: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex of poorly water-soluble NSAIDs, i.e. meloxicam and piroxicam, was characterized and its novel application for improving drug loading onto an anionic exchange resin, i.e. Dowex(®) 1×2, was investigated. Methods: ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) were used for the preparation of inclusion complex with drugs in solution state at various pH. The inclusion complex was characterized by phase solubility, continuous variation, spectroscopic and electrochemistry methods. Then, the drug with and without cyclodextrin were equilibrated with resin at 1:1 and 1:2 weight ratio of drug and resin. Results and discussion: Solubility of the drugs was found to increase with increasing cyclodextrin concentration and pH. The increased solubility was explained predominantly due to the formation of inclusion complex at low pH and the increased ionization of drug at high pH. According to characterization studies, the inclusion complex was successfully formed with a 1:1 stoichiometry. The presence of cyclodextrin in the loading solution resulted in the improvement of drug loading onto resin. Conclusions: Enhancing drug loading onto ion-exchange resin via the formation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex is usable in the development of ion-exchange based drug delivery systems, which will beneficially reduce the use of harmful acidic or basic and organic chemicals. PMID:23078590

Samprasit, Wipada; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sila-On, Warisada; Opanasopit, Praneet

2012-10-19

47

Polyester Resin Hazards  

PubMed Central

Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images

Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

1963-01-01

48

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

Not Available

1982-08-12

49

Biocompatibility of composite resins  

PubMed Central

Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity.

Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

2011-01-01

50

Dilatometry on Thermoset Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple capillary and bulb mercury dilatometer designed for making specific volume measurements on thermoset resin systems during the curing reaction and as a function of temperature is described. The design, calibration, operation, data treatment and er...

A. W. Snow J. P. Armistead

1991-01-01

51

Thermally Stable Laminating Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoc...

E. A. Burns R. J. Jones R. W. Vaughan

1972-01-01

52

Fluorimetric determination of fluoride in a flow assembly integrated on-line to an open\\/closed FIA system to remove interference by solid phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple flow injection fluorimetric method for fluoride determination is proposed. The method is based on the enhanced fluorescence of quercitin–Zr(IV) complex when fluoride ion is present in the sample. An open\\/closed FIA manifold with a mini-column of Dowex 50W X8 resin was used to remove the most important interference (aluminum). The two FIA assemblies were integrated on-line to automate

M Garrido; A. G Lista; M Palomeque; B. S Fernández Band

2002-01-01

53

Immobilization of ?-amylase and amyloglucosidase onto ion-exchange resin beads and hydrolysis of natural starch at high concentration.  

PubMed

?-Amylase was immobilized on Dowex MAC-3 with 88 % yield and amyloglucosidase on Amberlite IRA-400 ion-exchange resin beads with 54 % yield by adsorption process. Immobilized enzymes were characterized to measure the kinetic parameters and optimal operational parameters. Optimum substrate concentration and temperature were higher for immobilized enzymes. The thermal stability of the enzymes enhanced after the immobilization. Immobilized enzymes were used in the hydrolysis of the natural starch at high concentration (35 % w/v). The time required for liquefaction of starch to 10 dextrose equivalent (DE) and saccharification of liquefied starch to 96 DE increased. Immobilized enzymes showed the potential for use in starch hydrolysis as done in industry. PMID:23572179

Gupta, Kapish; Jana, Asim Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Maiti, Mithu

2013-04-10

54

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-09

55

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

56

Production of petroleum polymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In other countries, petroleum polymer resins are being used successfully in large volumes. In the U.S. in 1982, for example, 128,000 tonnes of petroleum polymer resins were produced [2], much of which was used in the paint and varnish industry. In commercial production in the USSR are a dark-colored styrene-lndene resin and light-colored petroleum polymer resins of two types --

Yu. V. Dumskii; M. E. Belyakov; A. K. Suroto; G. F. Cherednikova; L. B. Grin'ko

1988-01-01

57

Powdered resin for condensate polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered resin systems have a lot to offer in the deionization of low TDS waters, as can be seen in the wide use of this process for the treatment of condensate in the electric power industry. I believe that as new ion-exchange resins are developed, we will see the powdered ion-exchange resin process adopted in other industries. At this time,

Richard Hetherington

1997-01-01

58

Epoxy resin sand consolidation rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for increasing the strength and stability of an epoxy resin-consolidated permeable mass of grains that has been weakened by a resin- degradative aqueous liquid. The mud acids, which comprise aqueous solutions of acidic materials that contain (or form) hydrofluoric acid, are particularly strong resin-degradative aqueous liquids. A consolidated permeable mass of grains that contains an epoxy

T. W. Jr. Hamby; W. T. Jr. Strickland

1972-01-01

59

CTBN Modified Epoxy Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An encapsulating resin for electronic components is evaluated for critical parameters. The encapsulant studied is a CTBN/Epoxy/DEA system. Several curatives were evaluated for use with the system, as were the effect of an antioxidant. Compared with a more...

K. E. Creed

1975-01-01

60

Resin composite contours.  

PubMed

When placing posterior composite resin restorations, clinicians often struggle to achieve good contacts. Frequently contacts that are successful are only confined to the occlusal aspect of the proximal wall. A clinical technique is discussed which achieves the correct contour as well as tight contacts. The technique is also minimally invasive and highly aesthetic. PMID:20448605

Sidelsky, H

2010-05-01

61

Batch adsorptive removal of Fe(III), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous and aqueous organic–HCl media by Dowex HYRW 2Na Polisher resin as adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the metal ions in tap, Nile, waste and sea water samples and some ores were carried out. Removal of heavy metal ions such as Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Mg(II), and Pb(II) from water and wastewater is obligatory in order to avoid water pollution. Batch shaking adsorption experiments to evaluate the performance of nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions in

Abdul-Aleem Soliman Aboul-Magd; Salwa Al-Rashed Al-Husain; Salma Ahmed Al-Zahrani

62

Recovery of 99mTc from Na2[99Mo]MoO4 solution obtained from reactor-produced (n,gamma) 99Mo using a tiny Dowex-1 column in tandem with a small alumina column.  

PubMed

A simple separation technique of (99m)Tc from Na(2)[(99)Mo]MoO(4) in sodium hydroxide solution obtained from the (98)Mo(n,gamma)(99)Mo reaction is described. Low to medium specific activity (99)Mo-molybdate solution of 7.4-18.5GBq (200-500mCi) in sodium hydroxide was passed through a tiny Dowex-1 column (25mg) to separate the (99m)Tc from the (99)Mo; subsequently the (99m)Tc was eluted from the Dowex 1 column with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) solution (1mg/5ml methylene chloride). The TBAB solution was passed through a small alumina column (1.5g) where the (99m)Tc is retained and separated from TBAB and CH(2)Cl(2). Technetium-99m from the alumina column was finally eluted with 5ml saline leaving any traces of (99)Mo on the alumina column. The separation yield was about 90% (n=10). The method has applicability for decontamination of (99g)Tc from spent (99)Mo waste solution and recovery of (99g)Tc for research use. The procedure should also be equally applicable for recovery of (188)ReO(4) from (188)WO(4) in a radioisotope laboratory. PMID:18703342

Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Das, Sujata Saha; Das, Malay K; Goomer, Naresh C

2008-07-04

63

Sodium concentration measurement during hemodialysis through ion-exchange resin and conductivity measure approach: in vitro experiments.  

PubMed

Sodium measurement during hemodialysis treatment is important to preserve the patient from clinical events related to hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some "mixed samples", i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375-17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity was measured again. On average, the difference in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. After treatment with the exchange resin, it was 14.7%, i.e., 42% lower. Similar experiments were performed with calcium chloride and magnesium chloride as confounding factors, with similar results. We also performed some experiments on actual dialysate solution during hemodialysis sessions in 15 patients, and found that the correlation between conductivity measures and sodium concentration improved after resin treatment (R=0.839 before treatment, R=0.924 after treatment, P<0.0001). We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may improve the measurement of sodium compared to conductivity measures alone, and may become a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis. PMID:23844253

Tura, Andrea; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Mambelli, Emanuele; Ravazzani, Paolo; Santoro, Antonio; Pacini, Giovanni

2013-07-02

64

Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some "mixed samples", i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375–17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ? in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis.

Tura, A.; Sbrignadello, S.; Mambelli, E.; Ravazzani, P.; Santoro, A.; Pacini, G.

2013-09-01

65

Resin composite restorative materials.  

PubMed

This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

Ilie, N; Hickel, R

2011-06-01

66

System for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2010-11-23

67

Indirect resin composites  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’

Nandini, Suresh

2010-01-01

68

ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so ; as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major ; portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and ; iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by ; treating the anion exchange resin, which

1959-01-01

69

Mechanical Retention of Resin Veneers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical retention of resin veneers is provided for by a number of means, including the use of retentive beads. Studies have been reported in which resin-gold bonds were evaluated using beads, but no known effort had been made to determine the number be...

J. W. O'Hara W. G. Richardson R. J. Leupold G. B. Pelleu

1974-01-01

70

Water Damage in Polyester Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of cracks, produced in three cured polyester resins during exposure to water has been studied by the combined techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. There are many cracks totally enclosed within the resin and it is shown that these must be attributed to pockets of high pressure produced at impurity inclusions by

K. H. G. Ashbee; F. C. Frank; R. C. Wyatt

1967-01-01

71

Phosphorous-Containing Imide Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins. These resins are derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydr...

I. K. Varma G. M. Fohlen J. A. Parker

1983-01-01

72

Production of large quantities of 90Y by ion-exchange chromatography using an organic resin and a chelating agent.  

PubMed

The performance of a system composed of an organic cation exchanger (Dowex 50Wx8) and a chelating agent (EDTA) previously described for the successful production of (90)Y via a (90)Sr/(90)Y generator is assessed under dynamic conditions. In an attempt to overcome the established limitation of ion-exchange resins for the separation of subcurie quantities of activity, (90)Y is repeatedly isolated from an 11.8-GBq (320 mCi) (90)Sr cow using a three-column tandem arrangement. The high recovery and radionuclidic purity obtained for (90)Y and the parameters of the separation (time, eluant concentration, pH and flow rate range) strongly suggest that Ci quantities of (90)Y can be handled satisfactorily by the ion-exchange method. No replacement or treatment of the cow, low waste generation and (90)Sr losses less than 0.1% after each run were observed during the present study which, in combination with the low cost of this resin, may result in an attractive alternate method for the production of large quantities of (90)Y. PMID:21055624

Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Pérez-Malo, Marylaine; Isaac-Olivé, Keila; Mukhallalati, Heyam; González, Edgar Casanova; Berdeguez, Mirta Torres; Díaz, Néstor Cornejo

2010-08-16

73

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

1997-04-08

74

Synthesis of Improved Polyester Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best re...

A. H. McLeod C. B. Delano

1979-01-01

75

Resin composition having lubricating properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a resin composition having lubricating properties, which comprises; (i) 100 parts by weight of a synthetic resin, (ii) from 0.5 to 20.0 parts by weight of an organopolysiloxane, and (iii) from 0.5 to 20.0 parts by weight of a fluorine-containing elastomer or from 0.05 to 7.0 parts by weight of an alkoxysilane, wherein at least one of

M. Morozumi; M. Egami

1988-01-01

76

Method for permanently storing radioactive ion exchanger resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is claimed for forming a hardened product containing a radioactive ion exchanger resin in a condition for permanent, noncontaminating storage, by the steps of: providing, before fixing, a mass of such ion exchanger resin saturated in water, the resin being at least one resin selected from the group consisting of spherical resins and powdered resins; mixing the resin

S. Kunze; G. Eden; R. Koster

1984-01-01

77

Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins  

SciTech Connect

Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

1999-04-01

78

Dual ambroxal and chlorpheniramine resinate as an alternative carrier in concurrent resinate administration.  

PubMed

Two classical resinates, ambroxal (AMX) resinate and chlorpheniramine (CPM) resinate, and a novel formulation of dual AMX and CPM resinate were prepared by the batch method. The dissolution behavior of the drug from the classical resinates, a mixture of two classical resinates, and the dual-drug resinate in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was examined and compared. The equilibrium of drug on to the resin and the re-exchange of the drug on to the resinate were also investigated. The drug release pattern from the resinate followed the particle diffusion process. The type of dissolution medium affected the amount of drug released from the resinate. The amount of drug released from the dual AMX and CPM resinate was not significantly different from that from the classical AMX resinate or CPM resinate (p < 0.05), but was considerably higher than that from the concurrent administration of two classical resinates (p > 0.05). These results indicated that the concurrent administration of the resinates affected drug release from the resinate, and the dual-drug resinate can be used as an alternative carrier for an ion-exchange delivery system. PMID:12685813

Akkaramongkolporn, P; Ngawhirunpat, T

2003-03-01

79

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of...The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity...technical grade. (2) Solution. Powdered resin and solvent are heated at...

2010-01-01

80

76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy...duty orders on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and...

2011-01-27

81

Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy  

PubMed Central

A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed.

Finck, Henry

1960-01-01

82

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1996-01-01

83

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1994-01-01

84

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon -caprolactam. (5) Nylon 11 resins are manufactured...by the polymerization of epsilon- caprolactam. (7) Nylon 66T resins are manufactured...to 1 ratio by weight of epsilon -caprolactam and omega -laurolactam....

2009-04-01

85

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon -caprolactam. (5) Nylon 11 resins are manufactured...by the polymerization of epsilon- caprolactam. (7) Nylon 66T resins are manufactured...to 1 ratio by weight of epsilon -caprolactam and omega -laurolactam....

2010-01-01

86

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications. Polyestercarbonate resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. The resins shall comply with either or both of the following specifications: (i) The solution...

2009-04-01

87

21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...c)(2) of this section. (1) Specification. Polycarbonate resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. (2) Extractives limitations. The polycarbonate resins to be tested shall be ground or cut...

2009-04-01

88

21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...c)(2) of this section. (1) Specification. Polycarbonate resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. (2) Extractives limitations. The polycarbonate resins to be tested shall be ground or cut...

2010-01-01

89

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications. Polyestercarbonate resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. The resins shall comply with either or both of the following specifications: (i) The solution...

2010-01-01

90

21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraph (c)(2) of this section. (1) Specification. Polycarbonate resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. (2) Extractives limitations. The polycarbonate resins to be tested shall be ground or cut into small...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specifications. Polyestercarbonate resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. The resins shall comply with either or both of the following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic...

2013-04-01

92

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device...

2013-04-01

93

Method for loading resin beds  

DOEpatents

An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

Notz, Karl J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rainey, Robert H. (Knoxville, TN); Greene, Charles W. (Knoxville, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01

94

Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage

C. C. Stauffer; P. L. Doss

1983-01-01

95

Fluid Resin Technic of Processing Denture Bases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fluid resin technic of processing acrylic resin denture bases was recently adopted for use in the dental module of the Air Transportable Hospital. The new technic, described in detail in this review, utilizes a pourable auto-curing acrylic resin for t...

C. D. Miller G. L. Hall

1968-01-01

96

Hydrogen Peroxide as a Resin Cure Accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with conventional resin adhesives was sufficiently exothermic for the heat to accelerate and improve resin cure in the hotpress. As a consequence, pressing times for medium density fibreboard, particleboard, and plywood could be reduced by up to 30% and, in some cases, better resin cure permitted a reduction in binder level. Differences in the interaction

K. M. Chapman; D. J. Jenkin

1986-01-01

97

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-30

98

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-11-18

99

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2007-08-07

100

Method development for epoxy resin analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy resin based negative photo resists are showing interesting properties which are useful for a series of applications\\u000a in electronic industries (Mark et al. in Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, Wiley, New York, 1986; Potter in Epoxide resins, Springer, New York, 1970; May and Tanka in Epoxy resin chemistry and technology, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973; Bauer in Epoxy

Sawa Nordt; Harald Pasch; Wolfgang Radke

2010-01-01

101

Powdered epoxy resin test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes several test methods which may be used to evaluate powdered epoxy resins for their potential use as integral insulation on fractional horsepower motor iron. These are the edge coverage test method, the hot plate gel time test method, the glass pellet flow test method, and the steel panel impact test method. These test methods may be of

N. Hanssen

1991-01-01

102

Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derive...

D. A. Scola

1984-01-01

103

Solventless Amine Epoxy Resin System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solventless amine-epoxy resin system is made up of (1) a binary aromatic amine mixture of 2,6-diaminopyridine and meta-phenylene diamine in a weight ratio of from about 1:4 to about 4:1; and (2) an epoxy mixture of (a) the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ...

E. J. Rhyn K. R. Foote G. S. Handler J. P. Diebold

1977-01-01

104

Chelate Polymers of Phenolic Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chelate polymers of the resin poly[3,5-(l-carboxy-2-hydroxy phenylene)ethyiene] with such bivalent ions as copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, and trivalent iron have been synthesized. They have been analyzed, and some of their properties have been determined. On the basis of these, a polymeric structure is assigned to the polychelates.

M. N. Patel; J. B. Patel

1983-01-01

105

Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin  

SciTech Connect

Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

1985-10-01

106

Fractionation of calcium and magnesium in honeys, juices and tea infusions by ion exchange and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure was proposed to study the operational fractionation of Ca and Mg in bee honeys, fruit juices and tea infusions. The protocol devised was based on the solid phase extraction of distinct metal fractions on different sorbents, namely strong acidic cation exchanger Dowex 50W x 4, weak acidic cation exchanger Diaion WT01S and strong basic anion exchange resin Dowex 1 x 4. For the evaluation of the amounts of the metal fractions distinguished, a flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used off-line prior to the determination of Ca and Mg concentrations in the effluents obtained. It was established that Ca and Mg are mostly present in the analysed samples in the form of cationic species (96-100%). The accuracy of the entire fractionation scheme and sample preparation procedures involved was verified by the performance of the recovery tests. PMID:18970707

Pohl, P; Prusisz, B

2006-01-31

107

50 W thin-disk laser with variable pulse duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laser system is based on an Yb:YAG thin-disk regenerative amplifier, which is operated in different operation modes in order to address broad spectrum of pulse durations. It is especially interesting for application development tasks, when different pulse durations can be tested to find the application optimum. For sub-picosecond pulse duration the dispersion of the regenerative amplifier output is compensated

Mikhail Larionov; Friedrich Dausinger

2011-01-01

108

US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, AZINPHOSMETHYL 50W ...  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

... SI. Jolt IC,I. .... on 1'\\01 .l{lIln 15 d.~. 01 "II "IId", ... lulln:ntr. .. .. of tIa'"fIt1 00 "" lilt wi",. , . CII"", ,,IIn'.,, ntl t" .... 111 Shill luO' " t" til' 0' t"., ?? t, ,Ullilt ? I ...

2011-04-21

109

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet ingredient whose function is to rapidly disrupt the tablet matrix on contact with gastric fluid). One of the more elegant approaches to improving palatability of ionizable drugs is the use of ion-exchange resins as taste-masking agents. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a review of scaleup of typical manufacturing processes for taste-masked products are provided. Ion-exchange resins have been extensively utilized in oral sustained-release products. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a summary of commonly occurring commercial sustained-release products are discussed. Ion-exchange resins have also been used in topical products for local application to the skin, including those where drug flux is controlled by a differential electrical current (ionotophoretic delivery). General applicability of ion-exchange resins, including ophthalmic delivery, nasal delivery, use as drugs in their own right (e.g., colestyramine, formerly referred to as cholestyramine), as well as measuring gastrointestinal transit times, are discussed. Finally, pharmaceutical monographs for ion-exchange resins are reviewed.

Elder, David P.

2005-04-01

110

ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN  

DOEpatents

A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

McLEan, D.C.

1959-03-10

111

Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins  

SciTech Connect

Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

2012-07-01

112

Tactile learning in resin foraging honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees harvest and use plant resins in a mixture called propolis to seal cracks and smooth surfaces in the nest architecture.\\u000a Resins in the nest may be important in maintaining a healthy colony due to their antimicrobial properties. This study had\\u000a two main objectives: (1) Provide initial insight on the learning capabilities of resin foraging honeybees; (2) analyze the\\u000a sensitivity

Michael Simone-Finstrom; Joel Gardner; Marla Spivak

2010-01-01

113

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet

David P. Elder

2005-01-01

114

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

NONE

1997-11-01

115

Novolak resin analogs for resist applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novolak resins, used to make typical g or i-line resists, are commonly made by condensing phenolic monomers with aldehydes. In the strictest definition of novolaks the aldehyde of choice is always formaldehyde. Under the acid catalyzed conditions generally used to make novolak the resins the carbocations formed by the protonation of the aldehydic carbonyl react with the phenolic reactant(s) to form the resins with elimination of water. Other aldehydes or low molecular weight ketones have been used on occasion to make useful analog for resist applications. Competing aldol condensations may interfere with isolation of pure polymeric resins especially in the case of ketones. Unique novolak resin analogs have been made by condensing `masked' bifunctional electrophiles with phenolic reactants under acidic conditions similar to standard novolak resin techniques. These resins were used as replacements for novolak resins and showed increased image contrast and thermal resistance. They were also used as photoactive compound backbones. Low molecular weight resins made with polyhydroxy aromatic phenolic monomers were especially useful as speed enhancing additives in thick film applications.

Wanat, Stanley F.; Jensen, Kathryn H.; Lu, Ping-Hung; McKenzie, Douglas S.

1998-06-01

116

Sand control with resin and explosive  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid resin solution remaining in the wellbore after step (c) through the perforations with a displacing fluid; and injecting a chemical solution through the perforations to cause the resin to polymerize to form a consolidated permeable matrix.

Dees, J.M.; Begnaud, W.J.; Sahr, N.L.

1992-09-08

117

Microbiological Study of Water-Softener Resins  

PubMed Central

Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb++ exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na+, Fe++, and Al+++ removed 31 to 36% and Ca++ and Cu++ removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe++, Cu++, and Al+++, whereas the Ca++ and Na++ cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca++ and Mg++ cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths.

Stamm, John M.; Engelhard, Warren E.; Parsons, James E.

1969-01-01

118

21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176.110 Food...Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components...

2013-04-01

119

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used...prescribed conditions: (a) The molecular sieve resins consist of purified dextran having an average molecular weight of 40,000,...

2010-01-01

120

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used...prescribed conditions: (a) The molecular sieve resins consist of purified dextran having an average molecular weight of 40,000,...

2009-04-01

121

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

122

40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...substance identified generically as a phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs...

2009-07-01

123

40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...substance identified generically as a phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs...

2010-07-01

124

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2013-07-01

125

Quantification of Potential Arsenic Bioavailability Using Chelating Resins in Spatially Varying Geologic Environments at the Watershed Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated concentrations of arsenic and other uranium-associated elements have been observed in surface and ground waters of the Nueces and San Antonio River watersheds, Texas. These watersheds drain the Catahoula formation which is enriched in trace elements including As, V, and U, through natural geochemical weathering over geologic time scales and intensive U mining from the 1960's to the 1980's. Mining activities have potentially impacted groundwater quality through infiltration and lateral migration of mineral-rich plumes generated by rainfall infiltration and leaching of ore bodies and spoil piles, recharge from contaminated rivers and streams, and infiltration from mine pits. The objective of this project is to quantify the potential availability of arsenic in different geologic environments at the watershed scale using chelating resins as infinite sinks. Such information has been identified as a critical need for protecting the agricultural and aquacultural resources, and the ecological quality of the Nueces Estuary system, a designated Estuary of National Significance by the U.S. Congress via the Water Quality Act of 1987. Iron-loaded resin (Dowex M4195) was exposed to spiked and equilibrated soil samples (pond sediment, river sediment, and ephemeral stream sediment) over a ninety day time period. Once removed, the resin was subjected to a 2 M NH4OH stripping procedure where the effluent was analyzed using Graphite Furnace Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry to quantify total As (average 73%\\ sorption ability and 50%\\ recovery). Additionally, the iron resins were subjected to competition studies between arsenate and phosphate and arsenate and vanadate. Preliminary results show there is little change in sorption ability as a result of the presence of the competing ion. The use of refrigeration as a means of storage showed no decreasing effect on stripping recovery of these resins over a 28 days period. Simultaneously the laboratory technique was applied to loaded resins placed in field sampling devices and exposed over a twenty-eight day period to different geologic environments (lake, river, stream, ephemeral stream, pond, and wetland). This experiment yielded a twenty-fold range in arsenic content sorbed to the resins with the wetland (2.62E-3 mmol) and river sediments (1.11E-4 mmol) representing the maximal and minimal sorption, respectively. Although these results may suggest that a higher fraction of potentially bioavailable As is present in wetland environments, stripped As concentrations will be compared to total As content in soil and water samples collected at each site to test for the influence of environmental conditions and overall concentrations on availability of this metal. Potential toxicity in different geologic environments along the watersheds is dependent on the total concentration and bioavailability of arsenic. It is important to identify those geologic environments that sequester contaminants because these systems retard contaminant transport, limit toxicity, and can act as long-term sources for the contaminant.

Lake, G.; Herbert, B. E.; Louchouarn, P.

2002-12-01

126

Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

Hallman

2001-01-01

127

In Vitro Mutagenicity Testing. I. Kermide 601 Resin, Sylgard 184 Encapsulating Resin, and Sylgard 184 Curing Agent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five compounds, Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, Sylgard 184 curing agent, benzo(a)pyrene, and acridine orange were tested for in vitro mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating ...

S. Y. Wang D. M. Smith

1978-01-01

128

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dimethylamine and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not...calcium, carbonate, chloride, hydrogen, hydroxyl, magnesium...cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in...

2013-04-01

129

Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water. PMID:17697173

Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

2007-08-01

130

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom`s Diphonix {reg_sign} resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds.

Gula, M.; Harvey, J.

1996-12-31

131

Ceramic Whisker Reinforcement of Dental Resin Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin composites currently available are not suitable for use as large stress-bearing posterior restorations involving cusps due to their tendencies toward excessive fracture and wear. The glass fillers in composites provide only limited reinforcement because of the brittleness and low strength of glass. The aim of the present study was to reinforce dental resins with ceramic single-crystalline whiskers of elongated

H. H. K. Xu; T. A. Martin; J. M. Antonucci; EC Eichmiller

1999-01-01

132

Novel process of isolating novolac resin fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical phenol/formaldehyde resin syntheses generate a broad distribution of molecular weight fragments with a wide polydispersity. A process was developed to isolate novolak resin fractions of narrow polydispersity from phenol- formaldehyde condensation products in ethyl lactate without any high temperature distillation. The characterization and the performance of these fractions in i-line photoresist composition are discussed.

Rahman, M. Dalil; Lu, Ping-Hung; Cook, Michelle M.

1997-07-01

133

Prophylaxis with resin in wood ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals may use plant compounds to defend themselves against parasites. Wood ants, Formica paralugub- ris, incorporate pieces of solidified conifer resin into their nests. This behaviour inhibits the growth of bac- teria and fungi in nest material and protects the ants against some detrimental microorganisms. Here, we studied the resin-collecting behaviour of ants under field and laboratory conditions. First, we

Gregoire Castella; Michel Chapuisat; Philippe Christe

2008-01-01

134

Epoxy resin composition having improved wetting properties  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An improved epoxy resin composition comprising an epoxy resin suitable for adhesive, potting or laminating use mixed with from about 0.1% to about less than 3% of an oxazolidine ester represented by the formula: ##EQU1## where R is an alkyl or alkenyl group of from 5 to 21 carbon atoms.

Sausaman; David K. (Terre Haute, IN)

1976-04-20

135

Fluoroaliphatic Cyanate Resins for Low Dielectric Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is a cyanate resin monomer having the formula: NCO-CH2-(CF2)n-CH2-OCN where n is an even integer from 6 to 10, inclusive. Another aspect of the invention is an essentially pure cyanate resin monomer having the formula: NCO-CH2-(CF2)n...

A. W. Snow L. J. Buckley

1996-01-01

136

Hydraulic fracturing using reinforced resin pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of fracturing subterranean formations surrounding oil wells, gas wells, and similar boreholes is presented. The method employs a propping agent which permits the fractures to be propped in a partial monolayer pattern. It has been found that fractures with surprisingly high conductivities can be obtained by use of propping agents composed of reinforced synthetic resins. Synthetic resins without

1972-01-01

137

Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin  

DOEpatents

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01

138

Adsorption of pesticides on resins.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. PMID:12617554

Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

2003-03-01

139

Continuous metal removal technique for resist resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern resists require very pure raw materials to insure highest quality images. Many methods have been developed to reduce metals in resins used to make photoresists. Extractive washing techniques and ion exchange methods have been the predominant methods used to reduce metal levels for these critical raw materials. This has been especially important for the novolak resins because of the generally poor quality of the starting materials used to make them and by the nature of the resin isolation steps traditionally used. Both of the commonly used cleaning methods are time consuming and are predominantly batch processes. Based upon techniques developed to efficiently fractionate resins, we have developed a technique for the rapid, continuous reduction of metal contaminants in film forming resin solutions by an extractive method using a double inlet liquid/liquid centrifuge.

Wanat, Stan F.; McKenzie, Douglas S.; Rahman, M. D.

2001-08-01

140

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect

Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

Not Available

1982-08-01

141

Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

2010-08-01

142

SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use.

Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S. (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., (Japan))

1990-12-01

143

Physicochemical characterisation of TMP resin and related model mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of model resin mixtures were prepared to simulate Norway spruce thermomechanical pulp (TMP) resin at different conditions, such as in winter or summer, or after lipase and\\/or steryl esterase treatments. The resin samples were analysed on their viscosity, tackiness, wettability and surface energy; properties which may be related to the deposition tendency of wood resin. During production of

Menghua Qin; Tea Hannuksela; Bjarne Holmbom

2003-01-01

144

Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on the pilot plant scale. Granular resins were incinerated mostly in the dry form, while powdered resins were incinerated in an ethanol-water mixture. Incineration converts the organic resin into inert oxide material, which can be immobilized for instance with cement. The weight of the ash was 1 to 20% and

M. Valkiainen; M. Nykyri

1982-01-01

145

Reuse system for powdered ion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reuse system has been developed for powdered ion-exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants in order to reduce their waste volume. The system consists of: 1. crud removal from resins; 2. decomposition of flocks (flocculated resins); 3. resin separation into cation and anion types; 4. regeneration of each type. The most important points in this system are items 2

K. Funabashi; T. Fukasawa; F. Kawamura; H. Yusa; M. Kikuchi; N. Sasaki; T. Yamadera

1986-01-01

146

Identification of selective ion-exchange resin for fluoride sorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defluoridation capacity (DC) of a chelating resin, namely Indion FR 10 (IND), and Ceralite IRA 400 (CER), an anion-exchange resin, were compared under various equilibrating conditions for the identification of selective sorbent. The results showed that chelating resin is more selective than an anion-exchange resin for fluoride removal. The fluoride sorption was reasonably explained using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms.

S. Meenakshi; Natrayasamy Viswanathan

2007-01-01

147

ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF A LIGNITIC RESIN (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sink-float procedure, employing a mixture of nheptane and CClâ ; as tbe separation medium, is a satisfactory means of separating the resins from ; the coal in a pure form. These resins are primarily resin acids and esters. The ; resin acids are composed of two major fractions, amber and a form of oxidized ; abietic acid. The oxidized

Tietjen

1958-01-01

148

Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage samples were obtained from nine-power stations that have either recirculating steam generators or once through steam generators. Secondary system samples were obtained from steam generator feedwater, recirculating steam generator blowdown and moisture separator drains. Analysis included ultraviolet light examination, SEM/EDX, resin quantification and infrared analysis. Data obtained from the various plants were compared and factors affecting resin leakage were summarized.

Stauffer, C.C.; Doss, P.L.

1983-04-01

149

Simple and versatile operational fractionation of Fe and Zn in dietary products by solid phase extraction on ion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and versatile protocol, based on use of solid phase extraction on strong ion exchangers and off-line detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, was devised to fractionate iron and zinc in common dietary food and beverages products, i.e., bee honeys, fruit juices and tea infusions. In the procedure proposed, cation exchanger Dowex 50Wx4 and anion exchanger Dowex 1x4 were

P. Pohl; B. Prusisz

2007-01-01

150

Removal of Trace Contaminants from Water Using New Chelating Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of cross?linked polyacrylamide (CPAAm) and incorporation of methyl thiourea (MeTU) or phenyl thiourea (PhTU) group were utilized in the preparation of two new chelating resins CPAAm?EDA?MeTU (resin I) and CPAAM?EDA?PhTU (resin II), [EDA=ethylenediamine]. The prepared resins were characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The sorption behaviors of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ions on the prepared resins were

Mohammed A. Sharaf; Said A. Sayed; Ahmed A. Younis; A. B. Farag; Hassan A. Arida

2007-01-01

151

Interlaminar Fracture Toughness in Resin Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report summarizes the objectives, accomplishments and proposed new directions of research on mode II interlaminar fracture in resin matrix composites. A mode II interlaminar fracture specimen, test and analysis method for interpreting results ...

L. W. Rehfield E. A. Armanios A. D. Reddy

1984-01-01

152

Analysis of Commercial Unsaturated Polyester Repair Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic rheological, thermal, and mechanical properties of commercially available repair putties have been determined in this study, as has the composition of these products. These products contain 33% to 40% unsaturated polyester resin, 10% to 20% styr...

C. Greer I. McAninch J. M. Sands K. Andrews S. Bingham

2009-01-01

153

Passifloricins, polyketides ?-pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three polyketides ?-pyrones, named passifloricins, were isolated from Passiflora foetida resin; their structures and relative configurations were assigned through 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These types of compounds were not detected in other passion flowers.

Fernando Echeverri; Victor Arango; Winston Quiñones; Fernando Torres; Gustavo Escobar; Yoni Rosero; Rosendo Archbold

2001-01-01

154

Method of Obtaining Phenol-Furfural Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invention relates to improvement of method of obtaining phenol-furfural resins, utilized in different branches of national economy as cationites (for purification of waste water from ions of calcium, magnesium, etc., sorption of different metals). Method ...

A. Y. Yuldashev D. R. Tursunova N. U. Rizayev Y. Z. Rakhman-Zade

1990-01-01

155

A Study of Soil Stabilization with Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the availability of new quick-curing resinous materials capable of stabilizing sand and silty clay soils by improving their strength characteristics. The investigation was aimed at overcoming the degrading effec...

H. A. Sultan J. D. Kriegh R. L. Sogge

1971-01-01

156

Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermo-oxidative aging produces a nonuniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed ...

L. C. Tsuji

2000-01-01

157

Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins  

SciTech Connect

Two laboratory-scale runs have recently been completed to test the feasibility of a single-step incineration/vitrification process for Three Mile Island EPICOR II resins. The process utilizes vitrification equipment, specifically a 15-cm-dia in-can melter, and a specially designed feed technique. Two process tests, each conducted with 1.2 kg of EPICOR II resins loaded with nonradioactive cesium and strontium, showed excellent operational characteristics. Less than 0.8 wt% of the resins were entrained with the gaseous effluents in the second test. Cesium and strontium losses were controlled to 0.71 wt% and less. In addition, all the carbonaceous resins were converted completely to CO/sub 2/ with no detectable CO. Future activities are being directed to longer-term tests in laboratory-scale equipment to determine attainable volume reduction, process rates, and material conformance to processing conditions.

Buelt, J.L.

1981-11-01

158

21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS...substances required in the production of such basic resins...solventsâdistilled water, 50 percent...

2013-04-01

159

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS...substances required in the production of such basic resins...solvents: Distilled water, 50 percent...

2013-04-01

160

Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source to a total absorbed dose of 10{sup 9} R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of {sup 137}Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s). Structural information was also obtained by {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in K{sub d}.

Carlson, C.D.; Bray, L.A.; Bryan, S.A. [and others

1995-09-01

161

Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides\\u000a and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active\\u000a principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional\\u000a medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several

Rogelio Pereda-Miranda; Daniel Rosas-Ramírez; Jhon Castañeda-Gómez

2010-01-01

162

Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Modification with Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin (poly?phenylpropane units) was precipitated from waste black liquor produced by paper manufacture from rice straw. The use of this lignin as partial substitution of phenol in phenol formaldehyde resin is investigated. The effect of different variables [e.g., lignin concentration, ratio of formaldehyde to phenol lignin (phenol + lignin), temperature, and polymerization time on the properties of the produced resin is studied].

2003-01-01

163

Nano composite from coal modified novolac resin  

SciTech Connect

Coal-modified novolac/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using clay as reinforcing materials. It was found that coal-modified novolac resin based silica nano-composites showed improved tensile strength compared to that of neat novolac resin. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have also been undertaken to see the morphology of the nanocomposites prepared. The results obtained are being reported.

Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Industrial Technology Institute, Delhi (India)

2007-07-01

164

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

1995-08-15

165

Adsorbed resin phase spectrophotometric determination of nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Cyclodextrin polymer (?-CDP) adsorbed resin phase spectrophotometry with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) has been developed for the determination of nickel at the ?g level in human hair and Auricularia auricula (a kind of edible fungi). Iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium and cobalt which form colored species with PAN in the resin phase, can be completely masked with the masking solution composed of

Rong Li; Zi-Tao Jiang; Lu-Yuan Mao; Han-Xi Shen

1998-01-01

166

[Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures].  

PubMed

A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed partial denture is occlusally supported by the abutment(s). A direct resin-bonded fixed partial denture is made of composite, reinforced or not by a frame of flexible metal or fiber material. For an indirect resin-bonded fixed partial denture, a metal, fibre-reinforced composite or ceramic substructure is fabricated in a dental laboratory. The basic principle of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture is minimal invasiveness. However, a restoration in an abutment tooth requires a certain occlusal space which is realized by tooth preparation. Resistance preparations may be performed to improve the longevity of resin-bonded fixed partial dentures. Both financially and biologically, a resin-bonded bridge is a cost-effective prosthetic construction. The longevity is limited, but when the construction fails the negative consequences for the abutments are generally limited, which leaves open several types of other treatments. PMID:23495569

Kreulen, C M; Creugers, N H J

2013-02-01

167

Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins  

SciTech Connect

Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH/sub 2/BO/sub 3/-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB.

Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

1985-01-01

168

Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing 137Cs. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow using elevated temperature (45°, 50°, 55°, 60°, 65°, 75°C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45°C. Above 60°C the resin appears to not load at all.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Peterson, Reid A.

2012-03-01

169

Aging and yellowing of triterpenoid resin varnishes – Influence of aging conditions and resin composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of natural triterpenoid resins used as varnishes on paintings is still insufficiently understood. Although progress has been made, questions concerning the aging pathways in light vs. darkness, or the correlation of oxidation with yellowing, remain open. The influence of aging conditions, primarily the amount of light, but also resin composition, on the aging process were investigated. The aging

Patrick Dietemann; Catherine Higgitt; Moritz Kälin; Michael J. Edelmann; Richard Knochenmuss; Renato Zenobi

2009-01-01

170

Switch to an advanced ion exchange resin cuts boiler costs  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses how a field study demonstrated how that one refinery could save $384,000/yr by changing boiler feedwater ion exchange resin. Constant deterioration of ion exchange resin, used to demineralize boiler feedwater, prompted Star Enterprise to conduct a side-by-side evaluation of two resins. The study compared the macroporous weak base anion (WBA) resin that the refinery had used for years with a new WBA resin that features a uniform particle size. The results of this field trial, which was conducted over an 18-month period, showed that the uniform particle size resin had a higher resistance to organic fouling and produced an average of 28 percent more treated water per cycle than the old resin. Replacement and regeneration costs with the new resin resulted in a $48,000 annual savings per bed of resin.

Kratzer, W.R.; Coker, S.D.

1994-10-01

171

[Classification and several mechanical properties of core composite resins].  

PubMed

According to the classification proposed by Hosoda, six core resins could be divided into two categories on the basis of the elemental composition and size distribution of filler particles by SEM observation and EDX analysis. Furthermore, several mechanical properties of the resins were determined. The following facts were found: Bell Feel Core, Clearfil Core, Clearfil PhotoCore, Core Max, and Core Max II resins were classified as a semihybrid resin, and Microrest Core resin as a hybrid type resin. The elements detected in the resins by the EDX were Si, Zr, Al, Ba and La. The mechanical properties of the resins were shown to be highly stable at one day or one week after curing. The mechanical properties of the resins suggest that the subsequent crown preparation and impression taking should be postponed until the next appointment. PMID:2135512

Yamada, T; Hosoda, H; Tsurugai, T

1990-03-01

172

Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long gauge FBG was embedded in GFRP laminates, and other two ones were located out of laminate for wavelength reference and temperature compensation, respectively. During VaRTM, the embedded FBG could measure how the preform affected the sensor with vacuum pressure and resin was flowed into the preform. In this study, we intended to detect the gradient of compressive strain between impregnated part and umimpregnated one within long gauge FBG. If resin is infused to preform, compressive strain which is generated on FBG is released by volume of resin. We could get the wavelength shift due to the change of compressive strain along gauge length of FBG by using short-time Fourier transformation for signal acquired from FBG. Therefore, we could know the resin flow front with the gradient of compressive strain of FBG. In this study, we used silicon oil which has same viscosity with resin substitute for resin in order to reuse FBG. In order to monitor resin flow, the silicon oil was infused from one edge of preform, the silicon oil was flowed from right to left. Then, we made dry spot within gauge length by infusing silicon oil to both sides of preform to prove the ability of dry spot monitoring with FBG. We could monitor resin flow condition and dry spot formation successfully using by FBG based on OFDR.

Eum, Soohyun; Kageyama, Kazuro; Murayama, Hideaki; Ohsawa, Isamu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Kanai, Makoto; Igawa, Hirotaka

2007-04-01

173

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute's anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

1991-01-01

174

Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.  

PubMed Central

A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics.

Piver, W T

1976-01-01

175

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nitrate *Ethylene-Methacrylic Acid Copolymers *Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers *Fatty Acid Resins *Fluorocarbon Polymers Nylon 11 Resin *Nylon 6-66 Copolymers *Nylon 6âNylon 11 Blends Nylon 6 Resin Nylon 612 Resin Nylon 66...

2012-07-01

176

76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an expedited...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

2011-03-09

177

76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would likely lead to a continuation or...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

2011-07-18

178

Posterior composite resin restorations: operative innovations.  

PubMed

The adhesive revolution is alleviating reservations regarding posterior composite resin restorations, established by past experience with outdated materials and techniques. Improved materials, instrumentation, and placement techniques have enhanced the performance of current formulations of posterior composite resins over their predecessors. However, it is a clinician's operative skill that ultimately determines the quality of a restorative option. The learning objective of this article is to share the author's experience in attaining adhesive excellence with posterior tooth-colored restorations as well as aesthetic anatomic form, minimal postoperative sensitivity, and a bond which can weather the true test of success-durability. Optimal applications, dental dam requirement, importance of the first increment of composite resin, restitution of occlusal morphology, and the clinical application are discussed. PMID:9242131

Liebenberg, W H

1996-10-01

179

Corrosion of resin-bonded orthodontic brackets.  

PubMed

The objective was to identify the nature and origin of indelible black and green stains found in enamel after the removal of bonded orthodontic brackets. Several brackets were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Irrespective of the type of bracket or resin, morphologic evidence of corrosion activity was found. Brackets were pitted, and in some cases large amounts of metal were missing. Cracks were found in the resin which led to sites of destruction in which structures resembling microorganisms were also found. X-ray analysis showed the presence of chromium, nickel, iron, and chlorine in significant amounts in the bonding, discolored resin. It was concluded that the cracks were favoring crevice corrosion. In the presence of organisms and a lowered pH, together with a chloride environment and an oxygen gradient, conditions conducive to corrosion are established. PMID:6758601

Gwinnett, A J

1982-06-01

180

Novel strontium-selective extraction chromatographic resin  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4`(5`)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined. The resin is shown to exhibit excellent selectivity for strontium over nearly all of the test elements; only lead and tetravalent neptunium, polonium, and plutonium show significant affinity for the material. In addition, concentrations of calcium or sodium ion up to approx.0.1 M are shown not to diminish the sorption of strontium appreciably. Several useful radiochemical separation schemes devised on the basis of the results obtained are described. 35 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-04-01

181

Taste masking of Etoricoxib by using ion-exchange resin.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out in order to mask the bitter taste of the Etoricoxib by complexation with cation-exchange resin, Indion 204. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were prepared by batch process and efficient drug loading was obtained by using inactivated form of resin in the drug-resin ratio 1:3.3 with 30 min swelling time of resin in 25 mL of water with 5 min stirring time. Drug-resin complexes were characterized for dissolution studies and spectral studies. Drug release from drug-resin complex in salivary pH was insufficient to impart bitter taste. Volunteers rated the drug resin complex as tasteless and agreeable. PMID:19845450

Patra, Sradhanjali; Samantaray, Rakesh; Pattnaik, Saswat; Barik, B B

182

Analytical Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Flow Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A closed form solution for the flow of resin in the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is used extensively for affordable manufacturing of large composite structures. During VARTM processing, a highly permeable distribution medium is i...

B. K. Fink K. Hsiao R. Mathur J. W. Gillespie S. G. Advani

2000-01-01

183

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (1) Solvent. N,N- Dimethylacetamide, technical grade. (2) Solution. Powdered resin and solvent are heated at 120 °C until the resin is...

2009-04-01

184

Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass...

C. A. Cicero-Herman P. Workman K. Poole D. Erich J. Harden

1998-01-01

185

Significant Properties of Epoxy Resins as Matrices in Graphite Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the work being reported was to determine experimentally what properties of the matrix resins most significantly affected the mechanical properties of the unidirectional graphite fiber/epoxy resin composites evaluated. Five different epoxy...

W. Mahieu J. C. Weidner R. J. Kuhbander

1971-01-01

186

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin...

2013-04-01

187

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2013-04-01

188

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...In accordance with good manufacturing practice, finished articles containing the cross-linked polyester resins shall be...

2009-04-01

189

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...In accordance with good manufacturing practice, finished articles containing the cross-linked polyester resins shall be...

2010-01-01

190

Flammability Characteristics of Some Epoxy Resins and Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flammability characteristics of a number of epoxy resin formulations and glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites have been evaluated by thermal analysis, limiting oxygen index/temperature index, flash ignition, and smoke density measurement tech...

D. P. Macaione R. P. Dowling P. R. Bergquist

1983-01-01

191

Intensification of Gold Sorption by Anion Exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold extraction technology based on anion exchange resins with mixed basicity, commonly used in former soviet countries, includes a complicated and expensive process of resin regeneration and gold stripping by thiocarbamide solution. Satisfactory sorption properties of weak base anion exchange resin at pH 6–8 and low cost of metal stripping by sodium hydroxide solution have aroused considerable interest in these

V. V. AMBAROV; N. O. NIZHEGORODTSEVS

1995-01-01

192

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

2009-04-01

193

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

2010-01-01

194

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2013-04-01

195

Color stability of restorative resins under accelerated aging.  

PubMed

The color stability of seven commercial composite resins, an unfilled resin, and three glazes was studied under conditions of accelerated aging by reflection spectrophotometry and visually with Munsell color tabs. After aging for 900 hours, most of the resins had lower values of luminous reflectance and excitation purity and higher values of dominant wavelength and contrast ratio compared to values at baseline. PMID:281342

Powers, J M; Dennison, J B; Koran, A

196

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

2012-10-01

197

Mathematical Analysis of Resin Flow through Fibrous Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin flow through fiber preforms was analyzed mathematically. Closed form solutions for fiber volume fraction distribution and pressure field during resin infusion into fiber preforms were suggested, and a new effective permeability was defined. The effect of preform compressibility on the fiber volume fraction and pressure distributions in resin-saturated region was investigated analytically. The findings show that the compaction behavior

Young Seok Song

2006-01-01

198

Tensile Properties of Resin-infiltrated Demineralized Human Dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of adhesive resins to restore the physical properties of demineralized dentin has not been well-documented. The unfilled resins that are used for adhesion have relatively low moduli of elasticity and limited ability to increase dentin stiffness, although they may increase the ultimate tensile strength of dentin. This study tested the hypothesis that resin infiltration of demineralized dentin can

H. Sano; T. Takatsu; B. Ciucchi; C. M. Russell; D. H. Pashley

1995-01-01

199

Epoxy resin developments for large superconducting magnets impregnation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future detectors ATLAS and CMS of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will use two huge superconducting magnets. Both are now under design, and their electrical insulation could be realized using epoxy resin and a wet impregnation technique. Because of their large dimensions, and the indirect cooling of the superconductor, the strengths of the resin and of the resin\\/conductor

J. M Rey; B Gallet; F Kircher; J. C Lottin

1998-01-01

200

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Ion-exchange resins. 173.25 Section 173.25...Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.25 Ion-exchange resins. Ion-exchange resins may be safely used in the...

2009-04-01

201

Thermokinetic behavior of powdered phenol-formaldehyde (PPF) resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate thermokinetic behavior of powdered phenol-formaldehyde (PPF) resins used for the production of wood-based panel products. Both fusion diameter and stroke cure time of the PPF resins were measured to characterize flow properties and reactivity of PPF resins. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also used to obtain apparent glass transition temperature (Tg) and

Byung-Dae Park; Xiang-Ming Wang

2005-01-01

202

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purpose of this section, the phenolic resins are those produced...employed in the production of the phenolic resins or added thereto to...extractives limitations: (1) Total extractives not to exceed...molded articles containing the phenolic resins shall be...

2010-01-01

203

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purpose of this section, the phenolic resins are those produced...employed in the production of the phenolic resins or added thereto to...extractives limitations: (1) Total extractives not to exceed...molded articles containing the phenolic resins shall be...

2009-04-01

204

Stability and demulsification of emulsions stabilized by asphaltenes or resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented to show the influence of asphaltenes and resins on the stability and demulsification of emulsions. It was found that emulsion stability was related to the concentrations of the asphaltene and resin in the crude oil, and the state of dispersion of the asphaltenes and resins (molecular vs colloidal) was critical to the strength or rigidity of

Lixin Xia; Shiwei Lu; Guoying Cao

2004-01-01

205

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Ion-exchange resins. 173.25 Section 173.25 Food...Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.25 Ion-exchange resins. Ion-exchange resins may be safely used in the treatment...

2010-01-01

206

Novel Uncured Epoxy Resin\\/CaCO3 Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we synthesized epoxy resin\\/CaCO3 nanocomposites through in-situ and inclusion polymerization, and the nanoparticles were well dispersed in the resin matrix observed by SEM. The effects of the nanoparticles on the properties of epoxy resin are discussed.

Haojie Yu; Li Wang; Quan Shi; Zhenrong Zhao; Guohua Jiang

2006-01-01

207

Engineering Plastics from Lignin. IX. Phenolic Resin Synthesis and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins, formulated with lignin derivatives previously synthesized as phenolic resin prepolymers, was evaluated by thermal analysis of the curing process, and by a hard maple shear block test. At 54 and 60% phenol replacement levels, respectively, kraft (KL) and steam explosion lignin (SEL)-based resoles exhibited cure behavior very similar to a standard PF resin. Acid

Peter C. Muller; Stephen S. Kelley; Wolfgang G. Glasser

1984-01-01

208

RESIN METABOLISM IN THE SAPWOOD OF PINUS RADIATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-14 produced in nuclear explosions was used as a tracer to examine ; resin metabolism in Pinus radiata. Annual rings of trees were ground and the ; resin extracted. The C¹²: C¹³ and C¹⁴ ratio of each sample was ; determined. Results indicate that all the resin activity is considerably lower ; than that of the atmosphere at the time

A. T. Wilson; J. M. Gumbley; D. J. Spedding

1963-01-01

209

Shear and tensile bond testing for resin cement evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the tensile and shear bond strengths of one experimental and four commercially available resin cements following the ISO document TR 110405 for bond measurement.Methods. Tensile and shear bond tests were performed using bovine enamel and dentin as the tooth substrate with each of the resin cements. Resin composite rods were cemented

Yuichi Kitasako; Michael F. Burrow; Toru Nikaido; Naoko Harada; Shigehisa Inokoshi; Toshimoto Yamada; Toshio Takatsu

1995-01-01

210

Urea–formaldehyde (UF) adhesive resins for wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most important type of adhesive resins for the production of wood based panels. They convince by their high reactivity and good performance in the production and by their low price, however they lack in water resistance of the hardened resin owing to the reversibility of the aminomethylene link and hence the susceptibility to hydrolysis. This

M. Dunky

1998-01-01

211

The Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the Weathering of Epoxy Resins and GFR Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments are described where the cylindrically symmetric fields associated with the fibre/resin interface are explored by examination in the optical microscope. The patterns of birefringence show how the difference of the principal stresses vary with d...

C. Alexandre T. W. Turner K. H. G. Ashbee

1979-01-01

212

Thermal Stability of Ion-Exchange Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action of heat, radiation and oxidants on carbon chain polymers, such as ion-exchange resins, often cause irreversible chemical changes in macro molecules. These changes can be e g the rupture of the carbon-carbon single or double bond, and/or the deg...

J. P. Aittola J. Chyssler H. Ringberg

1982-01-01

213

Immobilization of glyoxylic acid on Wang resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report herein the simple preparation of immobilized glyoxylic acid, where the acid function is either linked through an amide or an ester bond to Wang resin. These compounds represent interesting aldehyde inputs for the generation of new libraries of small molecules.

Nathalie Schlienger; Martin R Bryce; Thomas K Hansen

2000-01-01

214

Basic Studies on Recycling of ABS Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent development of the petrochemical industry, plastic products have made our society more convenient. However, the disposal of these convenience products has become a serious threat to the environment. Therefore, research on recycling plastic wastes is necessary now more than ever. This paper is a basic study of recycling technology for ABS (acryionitile-butadienestyrene) resin. We tried to show the

Jin Kuk Kim; Chang K. Kang

1995-01-01

215

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

Elder, David

2005-01-01

216

Modification of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Using Elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyester resin is widely used in the fiber reinforced plastic industry It suffers from lack of toughness, which makes it susceptible to breakage in the absence of reinforcement. This problem can be solved, at least partly, by the incorporation of elastomers. In this study a simple technique of dissolving various masticated elastomers in styrene and subsequent solution blending with

C. Mary Lubi; K. Ravi; Abdeen Ahammed; Eby Thomas Thachil

2000-01-01

217

Ternary resin-bound Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.  

PubMed

The ability to carry out simultaneous orthogonal exchange chemistries has opened new opportunities for increasing the numerical and structural diversity accessible to Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. We present proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating this concept is transferrable to resin-bound DCC, facilitating the generation and analysis of libraries with greater structural diversity. PMID:22240966

Gromova, Anna V; Ciszewski, Joseph M; Miller, Benjamin L

2012-01-13

218

Resin transfer molding speeds composite making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication resin transfer molding (RTM) composite parts for different industrial applications is discussed. These applications include composite aerospace parts, sports car components, and high performance sporting equipment. It is pointed out that RTM parts are lighter than metals and can be formulated to have superior durability. But like all composite parts, they are expensive and are made in limited runs.

Valenti, Michael

1992-11-01

219

The Reactions of Polyamides with Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was found that the interaction of epoxy resins based on bis-phenol A with polyamides in various solvents leads to the formation of a soluble block copolymer. In the absence of a solvent, a block copolymer of a three-dimensional structure is formed. The...

M. M. Tarnorutskii S. R. Rafikov B. A. Zhubanov T. N. Koryanova

1968-01-01

220

Antimicrobial activity of resin acid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents gave rise to a growing effort in the search for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives. In some of these compounds, the antimicrobial activity is associated to the presence in the molecules of functional groups such as the hydroxyl, aldehyde, and ketone or to their cis or trans

Sonia Savluchinske-Feio; Maria João Marcelo Curto; Bárbara Gigante; J. Carlos Roseiro

2006-01-01

221

Application of curable resin-coated proppants  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a laboratory investigation of the interactions between fracturing fluids and resin-coated proppants (RCP's) which revealed (among other conclusions) that RCP's are incompatible with oxidizing breakers. Areas covered included RCP effect on fluid rheology, fluid relationship to RCP strength, theoretical study of required RCP strengths to prevent flowback, and experimental measurement to establish minimum strength.

Norman, L.R.; Terracina, J.M.; McCabe, M.A.; Nguyen, P.D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-11-01

222

Micro-tensile bond testing of resin cements to dentin and an indirect resin composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Micro-tensile bond strength (?TBS) evaluation and fractographic analysis were used to compare four resin cement systems (AC: All-Bond 2\\/Choice; RX: Single Bond\\/RelyX ARC; SB: Super-Bond C&B; and PF: Panavia F) in indirect composite\\/dentin adhesive joints.Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were created on extracted human third molars. The resin cements were used according to the manufacturers' instructions for bonding silanized composite

Yiu-Fai Mak; Shirley C. N Lai; Gary S. P Cheung; Alex W. K Chan; Franklin R Tay; David H Pashley

2002-01-01

223

Unrestricted linear dimensional changes of two hard chairside reline resins and one heat-curing acrylic resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection and use of hard chairside reline resins must be made with regard to dimensional stability, which will influence the accuracy of fit of the denture base. This study compared the dimensional change of two hard chairside reline resins (Duraliner II and Kooliner) and one heat-curing denture base resin (Lucitone 550). A stainless steel mold with reference dimensions (AB,

Ana Lucia Machado Cucci; Eunice Teresinha Giampaolo; Paulo Leonardi; Carlos Eduardo Vergani

1996-01-01

224

Effect of Resin System Parameters on Resin Transfer Molding of Vinyl Ester Based Composites—A Statistically Designed Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the area of composites has advanced significantly over the past three decades, there is still a lack of understanding as to the coupling between materials and processing variables, especially as related to the use of resin systems in emerging processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM). As materials are tailored through the use of additives to resin systems, intricate

Vistasp M. Karbhari; Gaurav Chhabra

1995-01-01

225

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â...of Coatings § 175.380 Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin...produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and...

2013-04-01

226

Synthesis and Characterizations of Melamine-Based Epoxy Resins  

PubMed Central

A new, easy and cost-effective synthetic procedure for the preparation of thermosetting melamine-based epoxy resins is reported. By this innovative synthetic method, different kinds of resins can be obtained just by mixing the reagents in the presence of a catalyst without solvent and with mild curing conditions. Two types of resins were synthesized using melamine and a glycidyl derivative (resins I) or by adding a silane derivative (resin II). The resins were characterized by means of chemical-physical and thermal techniques. Experimental results show that all the prepared resins have a good thermal stability, but differ for their mechanical properties: resin I exhibits remarkable stiffness with a storage modulus value up to 830 MPa at room temperature, while lower storage moduli were found for resin II, indicating that the presence of silane groups could enhance the flexibility of these materials. The resins show a pot life higher than 30 min, which makes these resins good candidates for practical applications. The functionalization with silane terminations can be exploited in the formulation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials.

Ricciotti, Laura; Roviello, Giuseppina; Tarallo, Oreste; Borbone, Fabio; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Catauro, Michelina; Cioffi, Raffaele

2013-01-01

227

Method for permanently storing radioactive ion exchanger resins  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for forming a hardened product containing a radioactive ion exchanger resin in a condition for permanent, noncontaminating storage, by the steps of: providing, before fixing, a mass of such ion exchanger resin saturated in water, the resin being at least one resin selected from the group consisting of spherical resins and powdered resins; mixing the resin mass, with stirring, with a blast furnace cement having a composition which causes it to exhibit slow initial hardening, high sulfate resistance and low hydration heat and with a quantity of additional water equal in weight to 20% to 40% of the weight of the blast furnace cement; and allowing the resulting mixture to harden at room temperature.

Kunze, S.; Eden, G.; Koster, R.

1984-11-20

228

Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper.

Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J. [Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, Anderson, SC (United States)

1998-05-01

229

40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Wwww of... - Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type 7 Table 7 to Subpart...Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different...

2010-07-01

230

40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Wwww of... - Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type 7 Table 7 to Subpart...Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different...

2009-07-01

231

Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage. Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and the specimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: with chlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storage time. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20× stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0–3 criteria. The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests. Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05). There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6 months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033). In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins. Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0) and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus) resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage.

Shafie, F.; Doozandeh, M.; Alavi, A.

2010-01-01

232

Fatigue properties of acrylic denture base resins.  

PubMed

Observations were made of fractured surfaces caused by flexural and tensile fatigue tests made in polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins (PMMA). In addition, the changes in dynamic viscoelastic and tensile properties of the materials along with fatigue propagation were investigated. In the tensile and flexural fatigue tests, both the fractured surfaces, which had striations on their surfaces and cracks near the fractured section, closely resembled each other in appearance. On the other hand, all of the tensile properties, such as elastic modulus, toughness and tensile strength, decreased with the increase of the number of stress cycles in the fatigue test. The storage modulus (E') of the material decreased gradually along with fatigue propagation over the whole range of temperatures tested. The loss modulus (E") and mechanical loss tangent (tan delta) increased slightly. The fatigue limit of four commercial denture base resins varied widely from one product to another. PMID:2490598

Fujii, K

1989-12-01

233

Ceramic whisker reinforcement of dental resin composites.  

PubMed

Resin composites currently available are not suitable for use as large stress-bearing posterior restorations involving cusps due to their tendencies toward excessive fracture and wear. The glass fillers in composites provide only limited reinforcement because of the brittleness and low strength of glass. The aim of the present study was to reinforce dental resins with ceramic single-crystalline whiskers of elongated shapes that possess extremely high strength. A novel method was developed that consisted of fusing silicate glass particles onto the surfaces of individual whiskers for a two-fold benefit: (1) to facilitate silanization regardless of whisker composition; and (2) to enhance whisker retention in the matrix by providing rougher whisker surfaces. Silicon nitride whiskers, with an average diameter of 0.4 microm and length of 5 microm, were coated by the fusion of silica particles 0.04 microm in size to the whisker surface at temperatures ranging from 650 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. The coated whiskers were silanized and manually blended with resins by spatulation. Flexural, fracture toughness, and indentation tests were carried out for evaluation of the properties of the whisker-reinforced composites in comparison with conventional composites. A two-fold increase in strength and toughness was achieved in the whisker-reinforced composite, together with a substantially enhanced resistance to contact damage and microcracking. The highest flexural strength (195+/-8 MPa) and fracture toughness (2.1+/-0.3 MPa x m(1/2)) occurred in a composite reinforced with a whisker-silica mixture at whisker:silica mass ratio of 2:1 fused at 800 degrees C. To conclude, the strength, toughness, and contact damage resistance of dental resin composites can be substantially improved by reinforcement with fillers of ceramic whiskers fused with silica glass particles. PMID:10029470

Xu, H H; Martin, T A; Antonucci, J M; Eichmiller, F C

1999-02-01

234

Shrinkage stresses in glass\\/resin composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model has been used to calculate the residual stresses in polyester-resin\\/glass fibre composites that arise when the material is cooled from the post-curing temperature. An elementary elasticity solution for shrink-fit stresses gives a value of the order of 24 MNm-2 for interfacial pressures in a single fibre model, and it appears that this stress is between 10 and

B. Harris

1978-01-01

235

Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong and weak cation-exchangers were compared for a number of chromatographic parameters, i.e. pH dependence, efficiency, binding strength, particle size distribution, static and dynamic capacity, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures. Chromatographic resins investigated were Fractogel EMD SO3? (M), Fractogel EMD SE Hicap (M), Fractogel EMD COO? (M), MacroPrep 25S, MacroPrep High S, MacroPrep CM, CM HyperZ, and Matrex Cellufine

Arne Staby; Jan H. Jacobsen; Ronni G. Hansen; Ulla K. Bruus; Inge Holm Jensen

2006-01-01

236

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ionexchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants/ superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20497105

Gupta, Shweta; Benien, Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-05-24

237

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ion-exchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants / superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20158479

Gupta, Shweta; Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-02-17

238

Nanoimprinting using release-agent-coated resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) is mainly used as the antisticking layer. To prevent the F-SAM coated on the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) mold from deteriorating, we propose a new form of nanoimprinting using a release-agent-coated resin. The results from measuring the surface free energy and observations by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) confirmed that the surface free energy, frictional force, and

Makoto Okada; Masayuki Iwasa; Ken-ichiro Nakamatsu; Kazuhiro Kanda; Yuichi Haruyama; Shinji Matsui

2009-01-01

239

Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

2013-10-01

240

Robotic recovery of highly radioactive resin.  

PubMed

As the ALARA coordinator at Waterford 3 Nuclear Steam Electric Station, I have seen radiological challenges in many forms. Some are handled as routine with little effort, while others can severely challenge even the finest Health Physics staff. One such event occurred on 26 December 1997, during a routine recirculation of the Spent Resin Tank, when contents of an unknown origin spilled from the tank. Technicians performing initial actions to contain the spill monitored radiation levels of 5-20 rem h21 (50-200 mSv) at waist level. Based on photographs and visual accounts it was estimated that approximately 30-40 ft3 (0.57-1.12 m3) of resin had spilled into the pump room. A sample of the resin indicated that dose rates at the floor would exceed 100 rem h21 (1 Sv h21). It was clear, given the volume of material spilled and dose rates in the room, that robots would be required for any type of recovery effort. This presented another problem in that Waterford 3 did not own a robot, and we had no experience in this area. PMID:9930832

Miller, D C

1999-02-01

241

Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology  

SciTech Connect

The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

1996-04-01

242

CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

2010-02-23

243

Solvent impregnated resins for the recovery of gold from Gold(I)Thiourea solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent Impregnated Resins (SIRs) are high surface area, macroporous, polymeric resins which have been physically impregnated with an organic solvent. In this research, three resins have been impregnated with Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, a solvent which has shown selectivity to gold. The ability of the resins to recover gold (1) thiourea perchlorate from solution has been investigated. The resins have been

Fiona Fitzpatrick

1997-01-01

244

Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface  

DOEpatents

A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including apparatus for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

Huszagh, Donald W. (Bayport, NY)

1985-01-01

245

Post-filling flow in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding processes: Theoretical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For rigid mold filling processes such as resin transfer molding, the resin flow stops when the preform is fully saturated with the resin. However, in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process (VARTM), due to preform deformation the resin flow continues after the filling stage is complete as it does take a finite time for the pressure field to become uniform

Pavel Simacek; Dirk Heider; John W. Gillespie Jr.; Suresh Advani

2009-01-01

246

Inorganic resins for clinical use of .sup.213Bi generators  

DOEpatents

Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly .sup.213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material capable of providing clinical quantities of .sup.213Bi of at least 20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.

DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Clavier, John W. (Elizabethton, TN)

2011-03-29

247

Reuse system for powdered ion-exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

A reuse system has been developed for powdered ion-exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants in order to reduce their waste volume. The system consists of: 1. crud removal from resins; 2. decomposition of flocks (flocculated resins); 3. resin separation into cation and anion types; 4. regeneration of each type. The most important points in this system are items 2 and 3, because generally resins flocculate too tightly to separate easily. By combined usage of a strong electrolyte (15 wt% NaOH solution) and a dual-basket-type centrifuge, spent powdered resins can be separated with an efficiency of 95% and regenerated for another use. The waste volume can be reduced to one-half after four reuse cycles, with a decrease in the ion-exchange capacity of only 5%.

Funabashi, K.; Fukasawa, T.; Kawamura, F.; Yusa, H.; Kikuchi, M.; Sasaki, N.; Yamadera, T.

1986-05-01

248

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement  

SciTech Connect

Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables.

Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1982-01-01

249

Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration\\u000a in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite\\u000a films of ca. 170 ?m in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent;\\u000a RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and

Elif Öztürk; Reinhard Hickel; ?ükran Bolay; Nicoleta Ilie

250

Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same  

DOEpatents

Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

Yamamori, Naoki (Minoo, JP); Yokoi, Junji (Nara, JP); Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi (Nara, JP)

1984-01-01

251

Performance of Chelating Resins Containing Calixpyrroles in Sorption of Anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics and sorptive properties of three series of chelating resins having incorporated calixpyrrole ligands within their structures is reported. Two sets of resins were obtained by immobilization of calix[4]pyrrole or calix[4]pyrrole[2]thiophene on the beads of crosslinked (vinylbenzyl chloride)\\/divinylbenzene copolymer. The third series was synthesized by condensation of calix[4]pyrrole with formaldehyde. All resins displayed sorptive properties towards halide anions and cyanides

Andrzej Ka??dkowski; Andrzej W. Trochimczuk

2006-01-01

252

Detection and Identification of Simple Phenolics in Pistacia lentiscus Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and quantification of a series of phenolic compounds in Pistacia lentiscus resin, commonly known as Chios mastic gum, has been achieved based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation of polar extract of the resin prior to dual?column gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS) analysis. Polyphenols were extracted from the resin with methanol\\/water and the extract was fractionated by HPLC. Identification

A. C. Kaliora; A. Mylona; A. Chiou; D. G. Petsios; N. K. Andrikopoulos

2005-01-01

253

Improved Well Stimulation With Resin-Coated Proppants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin-coated proppants improve well stimulation results by preventing flowback, or fracture evacuation, near the wellbore, a phenomenon that effectively ''decouples'' the wellbore and the productive formation. In addition, the deformable coating protects the resin-coated proppants from crushing and helps resist embedment in softer formations. The tough coating is chemically inert in crude oils, brines, and most acids. The resin-coated materials

A. R. Sinclair; J. W. Graham; C. P. Sinclair

1983-01-01

254

Natural fiber composites with plant oil-based resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding or resin vacuum infusion process was used to make composite panels out of plant oil-based resin [acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO)] and natural fiber mats made of flax, cellulose, pulp and hemp. The composites formed by room temperature cure with natural fiber reinforcement of about 10–50 wt% increased the flexural modulus to a range between 1.5

A O'Donnell; M. A Dweib; R. P Wool

2004-01-01

255

Fiber Reinforced Polyester Resins Polymerized by Microwave Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester resin based composite materials are widely used in the manufacture of fiberglass boats. Production time of fiberglass\\u000a laminate components could be strongly reduced by using an intense energy source as well as microwaves. In this work a polyester\\u000a resin was used with 2% by weight of catalyst and reinforced with chopped or woven glass fabric. Pure resin and composite

A. M. Visco; L. Calabrese; P. Cianciafara; L. Bonaccorsi; E. Proverbio

2007-01-01

256

Sand-Consolidation Resins - Their Stability in Hot Brine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercial in-situ sand-consolidation resin systems and one resin-sandpack system were tested for durability in hot (160°F (71.1°C)) flowing brine for up to 28 months, and in as much as 30 million PV brine. Brine was selected as the test fluid since it is considered to be more damaging than oil to the stability of resin consolidated sand. Two epoxy

Roger Rensvold

1983-01-01

257

Frequency Responses of Ag Nanoparticles in Polyurethane Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency properties of Ag nanoparticles in polyurethane have been investigated. The Ag nanoparticles prepared by phase transfer method were added to polyurethane resin and hardened with polyisocyanate. From the experimental results, the frequency responses of the hydride resin arise with the little addition of Ag nanoparticles. The electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the resin cut?off at about 9.0×10 Hz.

Chen Hsu

2006-01-01

258

Reversibly collapsible macroporous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of poly(styrene–divinylbenzene) (poly(PS–DVB)) resins have been prepared by suspension polymerisation of styrene–DVB mixtures with DVB contents of 1–12mol%. In each case 2-ethyl-hexan-1-ol was used as a porogen. Those resins prepared with <10mol% DVB collapsed to clear glassy particles on drying from dichloromethane or toluene. However, on drying these resins from acetone, methanol and scCO2 some opacity was retained.

S. M. Howdle; K. Jerábek; V. Leocorbo; P. C. Marr; D. C. Sherrington

2000-01-01

259

[IR studies on the chloride polypropylene/alkyd resin blends].  

PubMed

The miscibility of CPP with alkyd resin in the specified mixing ratios has been studied by FTIR spectra. The results obtained indicate that the bands of hydroxyl groups noticeably shifted in the FTIR spectra of the blends in contrast with the infrared spectrum of alkyd resin, and the blends were miscible when the weight fraction of alkyd resin in the blends of CPP and alkyd resin was less than 0.5, and immiscible when greater than 0.5, which were proved by the glossiness of their films. PMID:12953558

Fan, Zhong-lei; Liu, Da-zhuang; Zhao, Gen-suo

2003-06-01

260

Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.  

PubMed

The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens. PMID:24107720

Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

2013-01-01

261

21 CFR 175.300 - Resinous and polymeric coatings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Styrene. Vinyl toluene. (xv) Vinyl resinous substance, as the basic polymers: Polyvinyl acetate. Polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral. Polyvinyl chloride. Polyvinyl formal. Polyvinylidene chloride....

2009-04-01

262

21 CFR 175.300 - Resinous and polymeric coatings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Styrene. Vinyl toluene. (xv) Vinyl resinous substance, as the basic polymers: Polyvinyl acetate. Polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral. Polyvinyl chloride. Polyvinyl formal. Polyvinylidene chloride....

2010-01-01

263

21 CFR 175.300 - Resinous and polymeric coatings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Styrene. Vinyl toluene. (xv) Vinyl resinous substance, as the basic polymers: Polyvinyl acetate. Polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral. Polyvinyl chloride. Polyvinyl formal. Polyvinylidene chloride....

2013-04-01

264

The cytotoxic effects of denture base resin sealants.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that light-polymerized denture base resins have a cytotoxic effect on oral epithelial cells. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of two denture base resin sealants when used on three light-polymerized denture base resins. Sample disks were examined for their effect on protein synthesis. Results indicate that one sealant protected the cells against toxic effects of the materials (P < .05), while one sealant enhanced toxicity up to 88% above that attributed to the resin alone. PMID:1307016

Lefebvre, C A; Schuster, G S; Richardson, D W; Barron, D J

265

Branched polymeric media: boron-chelating resins from hyperbranched polyethylenimine.  

PubMed

Extraction of boron from aqueous solutions using selective resins is important in a variety of applications including desalination, ultrapure water production, and nuclear power generation. Today's commercial boron-selective resins are exclusively prepared by functionalization of styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads with N-methylglucamine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited binding capacity with a maximum free base content of 0.7 eq/L, which corresponds to a sorption capacity of 1.16 ± 0.03 mMol/g in aqueous solutions with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM. In this article, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new resin that can selectively extract boron from aqueous solutions. We show that branched polyethylenimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension process can be reacted with glucono-1,5-D-lactone to afford a resin consisting of spherical beads with high density of boron-chelating groups. This resin has a sorption capacity of 1.93 ± 0.04 mMol/g in aqueous solution with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM, which is 66% percent larger than that of standard commercial STY-DVB resins. Our new boron-selective resin also shows excellent regeneration efficiency using a standard acid wash with a 1.0 M HCl solution followed by neutralization with a 0.1 M NaOH solution. PMID:22827255

Mishra, Himanshu; Yu, Changjun; Chen, Dennis P; Goddard, William A; Dalleska, Nathan F; Hoffmann, Michael R; Diallo, Mamadou S

2012-08-10

266

Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of a hydroxamic acid resin.  

PubMed

A chelating ion-exchange resin with hydroxamic acid functional groups was synthesized from styrene-maleic acid co-polymer cross-linked with divinylbenzene. A resin prepared from equimolar amounts of styrene and maleic anhydride with 0.75 mole% divinylbenzene gives the best sorption characteristics. The selectivity of the resin for metal ions is copper(II) > cobalt(II) > zinc(II) > nickel(II) > manganese(II) > chromium(III) > iron(III) > vanadium(V). Copper(II), chromium(III) and iron(III) in chromium plating baths can be separated by use of the resin and determined spectrophotometrically. PMID:18964984

Mendez, R; Pillai, V N

1990-06-01

267

Sorption of organics from aqueous solution onto polymeric resins  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of phenol, toluene, chlorobenzene, and benzoic acid by several polymeric resins and activated carbon was investigated experimentally. Presentation of the sorption data in terms of the number of sorbed monolayers and fractional pore volume filled indicated that, for the polymeric resins, solute uptake cannot be viewed as only a surface adsorption phenomenon. It is suggested that the aqueous phase uptake of phenol, toluene, chlorobenzene, and benzoic acid by the polymeric resins is attributable, in part, to solute absorption. The present study also suggests that solute uptake is affected by the swelling of some of the polymeric resins in water.

Gusler, G.M.; Browne, T.E.; Cohen, Y. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-11-01

268

Shear bond strength between light polymerized hard reline resin and denture base resin subjected to long term water immersion  

PubMed Central

Statement of the problem The effect of long-term water immersion on the shear bond strength between denture base resin and Triad visible-light-polymerized (VLP) direct hard reline resin is not known. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the bonding characteristics of Triad VLP direct hard reline resin to heat-polymerized denture base resin subjected to long-term water immersion. Material and methods Ninety circular disks, 15 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, of denture base resin were polymerized from a gypsum mold. Sixty specimens were subjected to water immersion and 30 were stored at ambient room temperature for 4 months. Thirty water-immersed specimens were dried with gauze (group 1), while the other 30 water-immersed specimens were dried with a hair dryer (group 2). The dry specimens (n = 30) represented the control group (group 3). All specimens were air abraded and painted with bonding agent before packing Triad VLP direct hard-reline resin. Specimens in each group were subjected to thermal cycling for 50,000 cycles between 4 °C and 60 °C water baths with 1-min dwell time at each temperature. The bond strength at which the bond failed under stress was recorded using a universal testing machine. One-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc comparison were applied to find significant differences between groups (? = 0.05). Results Significant differences in mean shear bond strength among the specimens existed because of variable water content in the denture base resin (P < 0.05). Group 3 (dry) was higher than group 2 (desiccated), and the lowest was group 1 (saturated). Conclusion The shear bond strength of Triad VLP direct hard reline resin to denture base resin depended on the water content in the denture base resin. The dry denture base resin demonstrated superior bond strength compared with the desiccated and water-saturated denture base resins.

Al Rifaiy, Mohammad Q.

2011-01-01

269

In vitro mutagenicity testing. I. Kermide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent. [Ames Salmonella assay system used  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five compounds, Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, Sylgard 184 curing agent, benzo(a)pyrene, and acridine orange were tested for in vitro mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent were not mutagenic under the described experimental conditions, while benzo(a)pyrene and acridine orange were both mutagenic.

S. Y. Wang; D. M. Smith

1978-01-01

270

HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS  

SciTech Connect

A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

2007-09-27

271

An improved two-resin method for the cleavage of tertiary amines from REM resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of polymer-bound guanidine 6b or polymer-bound phosphazene 6c significantly improve the yield of the Hofmann elimination step in the preparation of tertiary amines using REM resin, providing products with superior purities and free from contamination with trialkylammonium salts.

Carolina Alhambra; Julia Castro; Jose Luis Chiara; Esther Fernández; Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas; José M Fiandor; Silvestre Garc??a-Ochoa; Mar??a D Mart??n-Ortega

2001-01-01

272

77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

2012-03-21

273

77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; NESHAP for Pesticide...

2012-01-09

274

76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading...National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

2011-04-21

275

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2010-01-01

276

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2009-04-01

277

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2013-04-01

278

21 CFR 177.2460 - Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide basic resins meet the following: (1) Specifications...0.01 percent tert- butylcatechol. (ii) Resin sample: Powdered resin obtained from production prior to molding or...

2010-01-01

279

21 CFR 177.2460 - Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide basic resins meet the following: (1) Specifications...0.01 percent tert- butylcatechol. (ii) Resin sample: Powdered resin obtained from production prior to molding or...

2009-04-01

280

76 FR 28455 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

2011-05-17

281

76 FR 27663 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

2011-05-12

282

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50...STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

283

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50...STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

284

Materials Characterization of High-Temperature Epoxy Resins: SC-79 and SC-15/SC-79 Blend.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg) of the Army's SC-15 epoxy resin system necessitates study into suitable alternative resins capable of better low- and high-temperature performance. This work investigates two of those alternative resins...

I. M. McAninch J. J. La Scala M. L. Wang

2011-01-01

285

21 CFR 177.2460 - Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...oxide resins consist of basic resins produced by the oxidative coupling of 2,6-xylenol such that the finished basic resins meet...to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html....

2013-04-01

286

In-vitro Investigations on Suitability of Light-cured Resins for Interocclusal Splints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  It was the aim of the present study to investigate the material properties of different resins and their suitability for the fabrication of occlusal and intermaxillary splints.Material and Method:  We subjected auto-polymerized resins (Palapress, Orthocryl, Steady-ResinM) and light-polymerized resins (Acrylight, Primosplint, TriadTranSheetColorless and Pink) to investigation. The TargisPower light oven was used to polymerize the light-cured resins. After the auto-polymerized resins

Gholamreza Danesh; Carsten Lippold; Thomas Ziebura; Klaus-Jürgen Reinhardt; Edgar Schäfer; Ulrike Ehmer

2006-01-01

287

Synthesis of Functional Resins from Poly(Chloromethyl thiirane) and Their Sorption Properties for Noble Metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new kinds of functional resins bearing polythioether backbone and primary amino group (CA), or dithiocarbamate (CDTC) or Shiff base (CSB) in side chain, were synthesized from poly(chloromethyl thiirane). The sorption capacities of CA resins for noble metals were 5–8 mmol Au(III)\\/g resin and 7–9 mmol Ag\\/g resin. CDTC resins could absorb 9–11 mmol Ag per gram resin, but little

W. LI; Z. SHEN; Y. ZHANG

1998-01-01

288

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl AcetateâPVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Resins Polyvinyl Alcohol Resin Polyvinyl Chloride Polyvinyl Chloride, Chlorinated *Polyvinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride...

2010-07-01

289

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl AcetateâPVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Resins Polyvinyl Alcohol Resin Polyvinyl Chloride Polyvinyl Chloride, Chlorinated *Polyvinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride...

2009-07-01

290

Modeling of process-induced residual stresses and resin flow behavior in resin transfer molded composites with woven fiber mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on modeling Resin Transfer Molding process for manufacture of composite parts with woven fiber mats. Models are developed to determine cure dependent stiffness matrices for composites manufactured with two types of woven fiber mats. Five-harness carbon and eight-harness fiberglass mats with EPON 826 resin composites are considered. The models presented here take into account important material/process parameters with emphasis on; (1) The effects of cure-dependent resin mechanical properties, (2) Fiber undulation due to the weave of the fiber fill and warp bundles, and (3) Resin interaction with the fiber bundles at a microscopic scale. Cure-dependent mechanical properties were then used in numerical models to determine residual stresses and deformation in the composite parts. The complete cure cycle was modeled in these analyses. Also the cool down stage after the composite cure was analyzed. The effect of 5% resin shrinkage on residual stresses and deformations was also investigated. In the second part of the study, Finite Element models were developed to simulate mold filling in RTM processes. Resin flow in the fiber mats was modeled as flow through porous media. Physical models were also developed to investigate resin flow behavior into molds of rectangular and irregular shapes. Silicone fluids of 50 and 100 centistoke viscosities as well as EPON 826 epoxy resin were used in the mold filling experiments. The reinforcements consisted of several layers of woven fiberglass and carbon fiber mats. The effects of injection pressure, fluid viscosity, type of reinforcement, and mold geometry on mold filling times were investigated. Fiber mat permeabilities were determined experimentally for both types of reinforcements. Comparison of experimental and numerical resin front positions indicated the importance of edge effects in resin flow behavior in small cavities. The resin front positions agreed well for the rectangular mold geometry.

Golestanian, Hossein

291

Stereolithography 1993: epoxy resins, improved accuracy, and investment casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years there has been much emphasis on the development of stereolithography resins with improved part building characteristics as well as enhanced physical and mechanical properties. A detailed presentation of the results achieved by all four companies would be well beyond the scope of this paper. However, a discussion of a new epoxy resin currently undergoing extensive

Paul Jacobs

1994-01-01

292

Molecular properties and evaluation of indion 234-ondansetron resinates.  

PubMed

Ondansetron is a serotonin 5HT3 antagonist; anti-emetic drug. Bitter taste of the ondansetron is a major problem in ensuring patient compliance. The study was designed to formulate tasteless complexes of ondansetron with ion exchange resin and evaluate molecular properties of drug complex. The drug-loading process was carried out using various resins and was optimized using different drug:resin ratio and pH. Resinates were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Indion 234 gave the best loading efficiency at drug resin ratio of 1:1.5. pH had no effect on drug loading. XRPD studies revealed that drug is in amorphous state in complex. The Infrared studies revealed complexation of secondary amine group of drug with carboxylic functional group of resin. Taste evaluation by using semiquantitative method found resonates as tasteless and agreeable. The release of drug from resinates in simulated gastric fluid was complete in 30 min. Thus, ion exchange resinates offer an effective tool for masking of bitterness and improve drug release. PMID:21042479

Shah, S; Pandya, S; Bhalekar, Mr

2010-07-01

293

An approach to model resin flow through swelling porous media ...  

Treesearch

Description: Theoretical model for the 1-D flow of a resin-like liquid in the natural fiber fiber mats of resin transfer molding (RTM) mold is proposed. ... front location is proposed after employing an altered form of continuity equation (which takes ...

294

Environmental effects on the dimensions of SL5195 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of humidity, temperature and temperature ramping rate on the dimensional changes of the photo-cured stereolithography (SL) resin SL5195 was investigated. It was found that moisture absorption by the SL resin is a very slow process at ambient temperatures. Varying relative humidity (RH) between 20 and 90 per cent in the environment only produced slight changes in the sample

Xing Yang Liu; Jiaren Jiang

2003-01-01

295

Melamine resin microcapsules containing fragrant oil: synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melamine resin microcapsules with long self-life containing fragrant Migrin oil were prepared by in situ polymerization from Migrin oil as core material, melamine and formaline as wall materials, sodium lauryl sulphate as emulsifier and poly(vinyl alcohol) as protective colloid. Melamine resin microcapsules were characterized on structure, a mean particle size and size distribution, morphologies, thermal properties and release behavior.

K Hong

1999-01-01

296

Impregnation of softwood cell walls with melamine-formaldehyde resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin impregnation has shown considerable potential to improve a number of wood properties, such as surface hardness and weathering resistance. In this study, selected factors influencing the uptake of MF resin into the cell wall of softwood were studied. Using UV-microspectroscopy, it could be shown that water soluble MF diffused well into the secondary cell wall and the

W. Gindl; F. Zargar-Yaghubi; R. Wimmer

2003-01-01

297

Poliflexsol polyester resin: It's properties and applications to conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poliflexsol is a light curable, glass fibre reinforced polyester resin supplied in sheet form. Since sheets of Poliflexsol are contained between two nylon films, the resin is clean and easy to handle. Its high flexibility allows it to be shaped as required and this has led to its application as a support material. The purpose of this paper is to

Yvonne Shashoua; Barbara Wills

1994-01-01

298

Hydrocarbon solvent recovery in the presence of resin contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system was developed to recover acetone from an air stream in which epoxy resin particles were suspended. This recovery problem is encountered in the manufacture of fiber glass reinforced plastic pipe. It is representative of numerous other industrial situations which require the recovery of hydrocarbon solvents from a gaseous stream containing resin particles in order to eliminate atmospheric pollution.

Turpin

1984-01-01

299

Fatigue Crack Propagation in Resin-Fiber Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study of fatigue crack propagation in both boron and glass fiber reinforced epoxy resins was begun. An attempt was made to relate the concepts of fracture mechanics to the fatigue process. Under the test conditions employed, the epoxy resin...

R. W. Hertzberg J. A. Manson H. Nordberg

1969-01-01

300

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

1992-01-01

301

Fluorochemical resin complexes for use solvent repellent hand creams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorochemical (FC)-resin complex has been developed for use in protective hand creams. Hand creams incorporating this new technology effectively repel solvents and resist their penetration into the skin. The in vitro studies conducted to determine the efficacy of the formulated FC-resin complex include solvent penetration through treated filter paper, solvent repellency on treated pigskin, and penetration of radio tagged

NATHANIEL P. LANGFORD

1978-01-01

302

Solidphase synthesis of aryl ethers on high loading dendrimer resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin-bound dendrimers have the potential to increase bead loading by at least one order of magnitude. In this letter we report the solid-phase synthesis of a library of aryl ethers using high-loading dendrimer beads, and compare the synthetic efficiency with that of TentaGel (Polystyrene-PEG) resin.

Andrea Basso; Brian Evans; Neil Pegg; Mark Bradley

2000-01-01

303

Biocompatibility of visible light-polymerized denture base resins.  

PubMed

The biocompatibility of three commercial formulations of visible light-polymerized denture base resins was studied to determine its effects on the RNA and DNA synthesis of oral epithelial cells in vitro. Isotope incorporation into RNA or DNA was measured after 24 hours of incubation with isotope and 48 hours of exposure to resin. The resins were shown to significantly inhibit the synthesis of both nucleotides as compared to a heat-processed resin control. Increasing the polymerization time can mitigate the toxicity of some of the resins. The air barrier coatings used to prevent oxygen inhibition of polymerization increased the toxic effects of two resins and decreased that of one of the materials. These investigations suggest that visible light-polymerized denture resins may impair the replication of oral epithelial cells. DNA synthesis is more sensitive to the toxic effects of the materials, which may relate to the ability to cause mucosal pathology. The cytotoxic effects may relate to the presence of unpolymerized resin constituents or polymerization by-products. PMID:7507674

Barron, D J; Schuster, G S; Caughman, G B; Lefebvre, C A

304

Risks Involved in Curing Vinylester Resins Using Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies have been carried out to cure vinylester particle reinforced resins in microwaves to reduce shrinkage of the composites. The results were encouraging. With an exposure time of 35 to 40 s and a power level of 180 W, the shrinkage of 50- and 200-ml composite samples, flyash particulate–reinforced vinylester resin, approached 0%. Despite the success, there are risks

H. Ku

2002-01-01

305

Stress Transfer in Single Fiber\\/ Resin Tensile Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscale (25 mm gauge length) “dogbone” resin specimens with single carbon fibers embedded through the length of the specimen have been studied as a method for determining the fiber-resin interphase strength. The specimens are pulled in tension until the fiber fragments to a critical length, lc. Evidence is presented here, based primarily on the relaxation of stress birefringence around the

W. D. Bascom; R. M. Jensen

1986-01-01

306

Retrospective study of orthodontic bonding without liquid resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of fixed orthodontic appliances bonded without liquid resin with the use of a retrospective study design. Patients from each of 2 consultant orthodontists in the same specialty clinic were chosen under strict selection criteria. In the test group (n = 37), composite material (Phase II) without liquid resin was used

Alexander T. H. Tang; Lars Björkman; Lars Isaksson; Karl-Fredrik Lindbäck; Anna Andlin-Sobocki; Jan Ekstrand

2000-01-01

307

Study on UV Curable Resins for Optical Fibers,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UV curable resins for optical fiber coating materials have been investigated in order to attain higher drawing rate and reduced cost. The paper reports the studies with regard to the curability of UV resins, the relations between their properties and atte...

H. Kuzushita M. Nagai T. Zushi T. Watanabe H. Tanaka

1987-01-01

308

Ultraviolet light and ultraviolet light-activated composite resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a comparison of the UV light--activated composite resins, Estilux was polymerized to a significantly greater depth than the other composite resins. In general, Lee-fill polymerized the least. When comparing the UV light sources, the Lee light and the Duralux light did not significantly differ from each other, but both polymerized the materials tested to a significantly greater depth than

G. A. Murray; J. L. Yates; S. M. Newman

1981-01-01

309

Optical Emission Behavior and Radiation Resistance of Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To make clear a mechanism of radiation resistance of epoxy resin systems, a role of energy trapping site induced in bisphenol A type epoxy resins cured with 4 kinds of aromatic amines (PHI/sub N/) was studied in comparison with the case of aliphatic amine...

S. Kawanishi A. Udagawa M. Hagiwara

1987-01-01

310

Diphonix® Resin: A Review of Its Properties and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed Diphonix® resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing geminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible

R. Chiariza; E. P. Horwitz; S. D. Alexandrators; M. J. Gula

1997-01-01

311

Sand control in wells with gas generator and resin  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a quantity of fluid resin material in alignment with the formation perforations of the wellbore; positioning a gas generator in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to increase wellbore pressure in a substantially instantaneous manner to a pressure substantially in excess of well pressure to force the fluid resin material from the wellbore into the formation perforations; and subsequently polymerizing the resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore. This paper also describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a coiled tubing, having a valve and gas generator attached thereto, so that the valve is positioned in a predetermined location relative to the bottom formation perforation; injecting a predetermined amount of fluid resin material through the coiled tubing and valve into the wellbore; raising the gas generator to a position across the formation perforations and in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to force the fluid resin material into the formation perforations; and thereafter polymerizing the previously fluid resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore.

Dees, J.M.

1992-04-07

312

Characterization of EA9396 Epoxy Resin for Composite Repair Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program was completed to develop material property data for an epoxy resin system for aircraft repair applications. The epoxy resin was developed by Hysol and is designated EA9396. An extensive array of mechanical property data was generated for both gl...

R. Askins

1991-01-01

313

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal  

SciTech Connect

Technical activities for the fourth quarter involved efforts by both the University of Utah and Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Laboratory research at the University of Utah was primarily concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization, which has emphasized Fourier transform infrared analysis in the past quarter. APT's major activities included proof-of-concept plant testing of the fossil resin flotation circuit. (VC)

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1991-10-15

314

Thermal expansion of phenolic resin and phenolic-fibre composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of thermal expansion measurements in the temperature range 20 to 300‡C are presented for the Monsanto phenolic resin SC-1008 as a function of heating rate, position in cured block, curing treatment and repeated heating cycles. Thermal expansion measurements in those directions where the resin dominates are also reported up to 400‡C for composite systems consisting of the

J. T. Mottram; B. Geary; R. Taylor

1992-01-01

315

Luminescence study of conversion of resins to asphaltenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objects of this investigation were resins and asphaltenes from a West Siberian crude. The resins were extracted from a straight pyrolysis tar with petroleum ether, after removing the aromatic hydrocarbons with butanol. The asphaltenes remained in the precipitate. As model systems, the authors took solutions of these substances in toluene. Owing to the high sensitivity of the luminescence spectrometric

R. Z. Syunyaev

1985-01-01

316

Fluoride and chlorhexidine release from filled resins.  

PubMed

Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes. PMID:20581354

Shen, C; Zhang, N-Z; Anusavice, K J

2010-06-25

317

Polymerization shrinkage of dental composite resins.  

PubMed

Aesthetic materials have always been a priority for the restoration of anterior teeth; increasingly, they have also gained prominence in the restoration of posterior teeth. This has been due to their advantages as an alternative to amalgam. Their drawbacks however, can include poor marginal adaptation, postoperative sensitivity and cuspal movement. These are particularly associated with the polymerization shrinkage accompanying the placement of composite resins. Consequently, a variety of methods have been used for determining the polymerization shrinkage. These range from dilatometer methods, specific gravity methods and deflecting disc systems to optical methods. In this work a unique method for the qualitative analysis of polymerization shrinkage was undertaken. This method utilized a miniature transducer and provided details of the shrinkage from within the material. The results indicated movement of material towards the initiating light, followed by a return movement away from it. The study was expanded to incorporate clinical aspects, whereby the composite resin was in direct contact with dental tissue, as in a restoration. Tests were performed with surface-treated cavity moulds, as in restoration placement, and without surface treatment. Results indicated that the shrinkage was highly dependent upon the region under investigation, as well as on the state of the surface. PMID:11521760

Ensaff, H; O'Doherty, D M; Jacobsen, P H

2001-01-01

318

Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.  

PubMed

The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans. PMID:18810508

Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

2008-09-23

319

Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

320

Perfluorotriethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified composite resins for improved dental restoratives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies described in this dissertation focus on improvement of water resistance and durability of current dental composite resins. The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the diluent fluorinated monomer, perfluorotriethylene glycol methacrylate (FTEGDMA), FTEGDMA-containing neat resin and its formulated composite resins were evaluated and compared with the conventional visible light-cured (VLC) dental composite resins. Further, the biocompatibility of this monomer and its cured resins were investigated and compared with their conventional counterparts. The results showed that the FTEGDMA-containing neat resin and its composite systems showed more water resistance and longer durability, compared to the conventional Bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA/TEGDMA) system. The preliminary in vitro biocompatibility test showed that FTEGDMA favored cell growth, compared to the conventional dental resins. The first study investigated basic physical properties of the diluent FTEGDMA monomer. The results showed that the FTEGDMA exhibited lower viscosity, lower refractive index, and a smaller contact angle, which were all beneficial to lowering the water sorption and increasing hydrophobicity. The second study evaluated some physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the FTEGDMA based neat resins, including polymerization shrinkage, contact angle, water sorption, glass-transitions, dynamic modulus, thermal expansion, compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength. The results showed that the FTEGDMA diluent exhibited significant less water sorption and lower polymerization shrinkage and the BisEMA also contributed towards reducing water sorption. The third study investigated the effects of the FTEGDMA on the mechanical properties of the composite resins including flexural strength (FS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and wear resistance (WR). In addition, the fracture surface topography of the tested materials was examined and compared. The results showed that the composite resin with FTEGDMA did not affect the CS, FS and WR but showed increased DTS under dry conditions. The fourth study explored and investigated the biocompatibility of this fluorinated monomer containing resin, as compared with the conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA resins and blank controls, using cell culture techniques. The human gingival fibroblasts were used for evaluation of these resins. The results revealed that the fluorinated monomer significantly favored the cell growth of the human gingival fibroblasts, compared to both the control and the TEGDMA containing resins. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wang, Guigui

321

Bond strength of resin cements to zirconia conditioned with primers.  

PubMed

New ceramic primers, which reportedly enhance bonding of resin cements to zirconia, have been marketed recently. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of 3 resin cements to zirconia conditioned with 4 ceramic primers. Zirconia blocks were conditioned with 4 different primers (Z-Prime Plus, MonoBond Plus, CLEARFIL CERAMIC PRIMER, and AZ Primer) or no primer (control). The zirconia blocks were placed in a jig, and 1 of 3 resin cements (Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem, Panavia F 2.0) were mixed, injected into a mold, and light cured. The specimens were tested in shear on a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage in distilled water. The shear bond strength of the resin cements to zirconia varied based on the type of primer. Z-Prime Plus provided the highest shear bond strength to zirconia, and was significantly greater than the control (no primer) with all 3 resin cements. PMID:24064168

Kobes, Kurtis G; Vandewalle, Kraig S

322

Polymerization shrinkage of index and pattern acrylic resins.  

PubMed

Inadequate dimensional stability caused by polymerization shrinkage has been reported concerning the various applications of acrylic resins. The objective of the study was to evaluate dimensional changes of two self-curing acrylic resins marketed as pattern and index material. Early volumetric changes were measured with a dilatometer and late linear changes were recorded with an inductive transducer. After 24 hours the volumetric shrinkage was 7.9% for Duralay resin and 6.5% for Palavit G resin; 80% of the change appears before 17 minutes at room temperature. Shrinkage was significantly increased when the proportion of powder in the mix was diminished. Results suggest that these resins should be used with some method to compensate for the shrinkage, when used as index material. However, the dimensional change might provide significant advantages for intracoronal castings. PMID:2079675

Mojon, P; Oberholzer, J P; Meyer, J M; Belser, U C

1990-12-01

323

Relationships between denture base resin cytotoxicity and cell lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Substances that elute from denture base resins may inhibit cell growth and disrupt various metabolic processes. This study investigated the effects on cell lipid metabolism of eluates from several denture base resins. Cultured oral epithelial cells were exposed in vitro to eluates of discs made from several denture base resins. Lipid metabolism of the cells was measured using isotopic labeling with 14C-acetate. Results demonstrated that the metabolism of several lipid classes found mainly in the cell membrane was altered by the resin eluates. Eluate from one resin caused the appearance of two previously unrecognized classes of lipids. The alterations of the cell lipids and the presence of the previously unrecognized lipids may be the basis for some clinically evident cytotoxic and allergic reactions. PMID:8595119

Schuster, G S; Lefebvre, C A; Dirksen, T R; Knoernschild, K L; Caughman, G B

324

Clinical performance of Class II restorations in which resin composite is laminated over resin-modified glass-ionomer.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the one-year functioning of resin-composite/resin-modified glass-ionomer open-laminate restorations when used for restoring Class II cavities. It also investigated the effect of the thickness of the resin composite layer on the performance of such restorations. The test restorations were made of Vitremer glass ionomer, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus and Z100 resin composite, and the control restorations were made of Z100 with Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus. Forty pairs of restorations were placed in 40 patients aged 16 years and over. The thickness of the resin composite layer was measured both clinically and in the laboratory using a reflex microscope. The completed restorations were assessed in vivo and in vitro at baseline, six-month and one-year recalls using a modified Ryge system. The reflex microscope measurements showed that the majority of restorations had a resin composite layer of more than 1.5 mm in thickness, as intended. At one year, 37 pairs of restorations were examined. Apart from a few minor problems, all performed satisfactorily. Thus, it appears that the resin composite/resin modified glass ionomer open laminate is a suitable technique for restoring Class II cavities. PMID:11203844

Aboush, Y E; Torabzadeh, H

325

Fluorimetric determination of fluoride in a flow assembly integrated on-line to an open/closed FIA system to remove interference by solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

A simple flow injection fluorimetric method for fluoride determination is proposed. The method is based on the enhanced fluorescence of quercitin-Zr(IV) complex when fluoride ion is present in the sample. An open/closed FIA manifold with a mini-column of Dowex 50W X8 resin was used to remove the most important interference (aluminum). The two FIA assemblies were integrated on-line to automate the pretreatment of the water sample and fluoride determination. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-3.0 mug ml(-1) of fluoride with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and LOD 0.06 mug ml(-1). The relative standard deviation was 2.5% and the sample throughput was 52 h(-1) without pretreatment and 10 h(-1) with pretreatment of the sample. The method was applied to the determination of fluoride in water samples. PMID:18968815

Garrido, M; Lista, A G; Palomeque, M; Fernández Band, B S

2002-11-12

326

[Visible light cured resin. Chronological change in mechanical properties of matrix resin immersed in MeOH].  

PubMed

Monomer composition was examined to improve durability of matrix resin of visible light cured composite resin. As a monomer, five kinds of cyclophosphazene monomers, two kinds of commercial monomers and a mixture of commercial monomers were prepared to the visible light cured resins. The mechanical properties of these set products were examined with time after immersion in MeOH, an aging accelerating solvent. Compressive strength of the resins using cyclophosphazene monomers tended to decrease with time, but it increased in accordance with the increase of the number of polymerization group. Compressive strength of the resins using commercial monomers tended to decrease, but that using the BMPEPP monomer tended to increase with time. Yield point of the resins with the cyclophosphazene monomer 4 PN-(EMA)8 tended to increase with the time but that of the resins with other cases monomers decreased. The yield point of all three resins made using commercial monomers tended to decrease with time, but the rate of decrease was small for BMPEPP monomer. Compressive elastic modulus of the resins using cyclophosphazene monomers tended to increase with time when the number of polymerization group was 6-8, while it decreased when the number was 4-5. When commercial monomers were used, it tended to decrease with time, but the rate of decrease was small for the BMPEPP monomer. Transverse strength of the resins using cyclophosphazene monomers showed a tendency to decrease with time. When a commercial monomer was used, cracks appeared in the Bis-GMA+Tri-EDMA monomer after 7 days, and with the other two monomers, the transverse strength tended to decrease with time, though the rate of decrease was small for the BMPEPP monomer. Transverse elastic modulus tended to decrease with time, but the rate of decrease was small for the BMPEPP monomer. PMID:2135531

Ishibe, N

1990-05-01

327

Leaching of concrete admixtures containing thiocyanate and resin acids.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern about the emission of pollutants during the construction and lifetime of buildings. The leaching of concrete admixtures containing thiocyanate and resin acids was studied using standard leaching tests and chemical analysis. Ecotoxicological risk was assessed for each admixture. Thiocyanate leaching from concrete, with a chlorine-free accelerating admixture, was determined by ion chromatography. Of the total amount of thiocyanate added, 6-8% was emitted within 30 d. The thiocyanate diffusion curve indicates a fast dissolution process from the surface layer, followed by a slower continuous diffusion process. Thiocyanate exhibits both acute and chronic toxicity, which makes it of immediate environmental concern. Resin acid leaching from concrete test specimens containing an admixture of air-entraining agents with tall oil was determined by solid-phase extraction, methylation, and GC/MS. Of added resin acids, 10% was emitted over 143 d. The leaching curves for the resin acids indicate a continuous diffusion that is proportional to the square root of time and follows Fick's first law of diffusion. The chemical composition of the resin acids in the leachate demonstrates degradation and rearrangement of the resin acids during diffusion. Resin acids emitted from concrete are of environmental concern because they are persistent and have the ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. PMID:11349293

Andersson, A C; Stromvall, A M

2001-02-15

328

Composition of asphaltenes and resins of west Siberian petroleums  

SciTech Connect

ESR and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine asphaltene and resin samples of West Siberia. Experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of catagenesis on resin and asphaltene composition. Processes of thermocatalytic transformations of crude oil in the deposit were found to have no marked effect on asphaltene and resin composition. Transformation of the organic input at sedimentation was assumed to be the main factor determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of crude oil resins and asphaltenes of West Siberia. Petroleums formed from organic matter, accumulating under reducing conditions, contain more asphaltenes and resins, they include much tetravalent vanadium and the asphaltenes have abundant paramagnetic centres. Petroleums formed from oxidized organic matter contain very little asphaltene low concentrations of paramagnetic centers, and little tetravalent vanadium. Resins of these petroleums are rich in oxygen. High levels of asphalt-resin matter in petroleums is related to the presence in the initial organic progenitors of polyunsaturated fatty acids and various nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

Goncharov, I.V.; Babicheva, T.A.; Bodak, A.N.; Nemirovskaya, G.B.; Mashigorov, A.A.

1985-01-01

329

Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems  

SciTech Connect

The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

1985-09-01

330

Tetric: advanced techniques for a universal direct resin system.  

PubMed

No other restorative methodology has been as intensively and critically investigated as that of tooth-colored restorative options. As the biologic and physiochemical shortcomings of earlier adhesive and restorative resins systems have been identified and corrected, newer materials have been formulated, and new techniques utilized. The use of dental dam, attainment of proximal contacts, and the importance of the first layer of composite resin are often overlooked. This article presents various solutions in the quest for adhesive and aesthetic excellence in anterior and posterior applications using Tetric* (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), a microhybrid that meets the optimal criteria for direct composite resin restorations. PMID:9227158

Liebenberg, W H

1996-01-01

331

Epoxy resin compositions, processes utilizing same and articles made therefrom  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are epoxy resin compositions which include an alkali metal containing cure accelerator. The alkali metal containing cure accelerators are preferably alkali metal hydroxides, alkoxides, carboxylates, or alkali metal salts. Articles prepared from the resin compositions of the invention exhibit enhanced thermal properties, and similar non-thermal properties, when compared to articles prepared from compositions including other accelerators such as imidazoles. The resin compositions of the invention may be used for any purpose, but are particularly suited to be utilized in the manufacture of laminates for printed circuit boards and non-electrical structural applications.

2009-09-22

332

Photochemical formation of palladium patterns on surface-modified polyimide resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified method for forming a palladium circuit pattern on polyimide resin substrate was proposed. The carboxyl group, as a cation exchange group, was formed on the polyimide resin surface by a potassium hydroxide treatment. Palladium(II) ion was then adsorbed onto the surface modified polyimide resin by ion exchange. Ultraviolet irradiation of this palladium(II) ion absorbed resin with sodium formate

M. Seita; H. Nawafune; T. Nishioka; S. Mizumoto; T. Kanai

2002-01-01

333

Selective Elution of Mercury, Silver, and Gold from Strong-Base Anion-Exchange Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines investigated methods for selectively eluting mercury (Hg), silver (Ag), and gold (Au) from strong-base anion-exchange resins, including Rohm and Haas resins IRA-430 and 900 and Dow Chemical resins 21K, SMA-1, and SBR. Resins were typic...

W. L. Staker R. G. Sandberg

1987-01-01

334

Friction and wear of friction materials containing two different phenolic resins reinforced with aramid pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear characteristics of automotive friction materials containing two different phenolic resins (a straight novolac resin and a modified novolac resin) were investigated using a pad-on-disk type friction tester. Six different friction materials with different relative amounts of the phenolic resins and aramid pulp were manufactured and tested. Two different test modes were employed to examine the friction characteristics

Seong Jin Kim; Ho Jang

2000-01-01

335

The use of a stent-resin–bonded splint combination to stabilize a free gingival autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of a resin-bonded retainer in combination with an acrylic resin stent to stabilize a free gingival graft. This retainer also prevents migration of muscle attachment after surgery to deepen a section of the vestibule where the oral mucosa closely approached the gingival margin. The acrylic resin stent is attached to the resin-bonded retainer by means

Ayla Arikan; S. Begüm Turker

1999-01-01

336

Improvement of the heat resistance of epoxy casting resin for insulating spacers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New research has succeeded in producing more compact insulating spacers for gas insulated switchgear (GIS) by increasing the heat resistance (from 105°C to 115°C) of casting resin and by increasing the heat resistance of the interface bond between metal and resin. The newly developed resin is composed, like conventional types, of epoxy resin blended with alumina filler. In the new

I. Ichikawa; K. Goto; M. Takei; T. Nakano; Y. Kanazashi

1998-01-01

337

PYROLYSIS OF FOUNDRY SAND RESINS: A DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to identify the major organic products produced by pyrolysis of three foundry sand resins: 1) Novolac and 2) phenolic urethane (PU) [both phenol-formaldehyde based resins], and 3) furan (furfuryl alcohol based resin). These resins a...

338

Properties of wheat straw particleboards bonded with different types of resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw particleboard bonded with a urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin, usually employed in the manufacture of wood-based particleboards, or with a resin based on epoxidised oil was manufactured using a compression molding machine. The effects of resin type on internal bond strength, flexural modulus, and thickness swelling were examined. The properties of boards using UF resins were poor. Internal bond strength

Nicolas Boquillon; Ge’rard Elbez; Uwe SchÖnfeld

2004-01-01

339

Intermediate velocity bullet impact response of laminated glass fiber reinforced hybrid (HEP) resin carbon nano composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, five different types of six layered GFRP laminates were prepared from three types of resin systems and compared for their intermediate velocity bullet impact response. The first panel was made of epoxy resin, second one is of hybrid resin (a blend of 60% epoxy and 40% polyester) and the remaining three panels were made of hybrid resin

P. S. Venkatanarayanan; A. Joseph Stanley

340

Effect of using a resin coating on KrF chemically amplified positive resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tried several resins to protect chemically amplified positive resists from contaminants such as ammonia and amines. Polymethyl silsesquioxane (PMSS), a hydrophobic resin, significantly reduced the severity of T-tops and improved delay-time stability. Polyolefinic resin (POR) was the most effective hydrophobic resin and improved the performance of all chemically amplified resists we tried. The pattern profiles were not significantly affected by the protective resin thickness; resin films from 400 angstroms to 9500 angstroms were equally effective. We also used resin coatings to identify when resists are contaminated. We found that contamination begins just after exposure and continues to the end of postexposure bake (PEB).

Oikawa, Akira; Santoh, Nobuaki; Miyata, Shuichi; Hatakenaka, Yasunori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Kenji

1993-09-01

341

Cytotoxicity of resin-based restorative materials on human pulp cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the cytocompatibility of 5 different extracts of resin-based restorative materials (2 resin-modified glass ionomer cements, 1 compomer, and 2 composite resins) on human pulp cells. Study Design. Set specimens from 2 resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Fuju II LC and Fuji IX), 1 compomer (Dyract), and 2 composite resins (Tetric and Superfil) were

Fu-Mei Huang; Yu-Chao Chang

2002-01-01

342

21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dichloropropyl) formal Cross-linking agent. Butyl alcohol Solvent. Carbon black (channel process) Chlorinated paraffins Cross-linking agent. Epoxidized linseed oil Epoxidized soybean oil Epoxy resins (as listed in §...

2013-04-01

343

21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polystyrene standards, and a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain optional...

2013-04-01

344

Development of affinity resins for isolation of angiotensin receptors.  

PubMed Central

The development of affinity resins for the isolation of angiotensin II receptors from adrenal fasciculata cells is described. The approach is based on the avidin-biotin interaction. The advantages of the technique are delineated.

Finn, F. M.; Hofmann, K.

1985-01-01

345

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TBHQ Di-tert- butyl hydroquinone Hydroquinone 2. Accelerators: Total not to exceed 1.5 percent. Benzyl trimethyl...of the polyester resin. 4. Solvents for inhibitors, accelerators, and catalysts: Butyl benzyl phthalate...

2013-04-01

346

Moisture Diffusion Parameter Characteristics for Epoxy Composites and Neat Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium...

E. R. Long

1979-01-01

347

Synthetic Resin Adsorbents in Treatment of Industrial Waste Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of synthetic polymeric adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants from industrial waste streams is a viable alternative to more common treatment methods such as carbon adsorption. However, resin technology is not widely practiced due to the diff...

L. S. Benner

1983-01-01

348

Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet e...

A. J. Caraccio B. J. Taylor J. W. Ehrlich J. W. Sampson L. N. C. Tate M. C. Wright S. B. Cox

2013-01-01

349

Properties of Synthetic Resinous In situ Flooring Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, synthetic resinous in situ flooring materials (in the following called flooring materials) have come into frequent use as flooring material for industrial facilities, but standards have not yet been established, and performance test metho...

M. Nakayama

1984-01-01

350

Securing Containerized Hazardous Wastes with Polyethylene Resin and Fiberglass Encapsulates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the fabrication and use of polyethylene resin and fiberglass to encapsulate and secure containerized hazardous wastes. Laboratory-scale encapsulates of composite structure were made from powdered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) a...

H. R. Lubowitz R. W. Telles

1981-01-01

351

Passifloricins, polyketides alpha-pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin.  

PubMed

Three polyketides alpha-pyrones, named passifloricins, were isolated from Passiflora foetida resin; their structures and relative configurations were assigned through 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These types of compounds were not detected in other passion flowers. PMID:11324922

Echeverri, F; Arango, V; Quiñones, W; Torres, F; Escobar, G; Rosero, Y; Archbold, R

2001-04-01

352

Cyanate Ester Composite Resins Derived from Renewable Polyphenol Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyanate ester resins were synthesized from a series of renewable phenols including; vanillin, creosol, resorcylic acid, resveratrol, and nordihydroguarietic acid. These phenols can be derived from plant sources and even waste biomass, allowing for high pe...

A. G. Guenthner B. G. Harvey M. Davis M. E. Wright S. Compel

2011-01-01

353

Engineering Control Technology Assessment for the Plastics and Resins Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control technology assessment for the plastics and resins industry was made by conducting in-depth surveys of 15 polymerization and compounding processes. The processes selected provide a representative coverage of the industry relative to the number of...

J. H. Bochinski

1978-01-01

354

Ultrasonic extraction of resins from an historic textile.  

PubMed

Ultrasound assisted extraction was applied on the historical textile as the most appropriate sample preparation step for the identification of the resinous binder. Fragile silk banner from the 19th century was analyzed for the presence of different resins. After the ultrasonic extraction with ethyl acetate in the ultrasonic bath, resinous materials and unknown sample from the banner were separated by thin layer chromatography. The multiple developments in benzene-methanol (95:5) system as mobile phase and silica gel layer as stationary phase were applied, and afterwards the video densitometry determination of the components was performed by means of video camera HV-C20. The shellac resin was determined as an important part of the complex binder. PMID:17822938

Rezi?, I; Krsti?, D; Boki?, Lj

2007-07-25

355

CHARACTERIZATION OF SORBENT RESINS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the use of chromatographic techniques to characterize resins which are used to trap vapors in environmental sampling schemes. It describes two such techniques (frontal and elution analysis) which have been applied to characterize sorbent cartridges packed wit...

356

21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...above. (d) Polyphenylene sulfide resin coatings may be used in contact with food at temperatures not to exceed the boiling point of water; provided that the finished cured coating, when extracted at reflux temperatures for 8 hours...

2013-04-01

357

Degradation, fatigue and failure of resin dental composite materials  

PubMed Central

The intent of this article is to review the numerous factors that affect the mechanical properties of particle or fiber filler containing, indirect dental resin composite materials. The focus will be on degradation due to aging in different media, mainly water and water and ethanol, cyclic loading, and mixed mode loading on the flexure strength and fracture toughness. Next several selected papers will be examined in detail with respect to mixed and cyclic loading and then an examination of 3D tomography using multiaxial compression specimens. The main cause of failure, for most dental resin composites, is the breakdown of the resin matrix and or the interface between the filler and the resin matrix. In clinical studies, it appears that failure in the first 5 years is a restoration issue (technique or material selection) and after that time period from secondary decay.

Drummond, James L.

2008-01-01

358

Binding Studies on Resins Imprinted with (S)-naproxen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resins were prepared in a free-radical polymerization of 4- vinylpyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of (S)-(+)-6- methoxy-alpha-methyl-2- naphtaleneacetic acid ((S)-naproxen). Initially (S)- naproxen, the imprinted molecule templa...

R. A. Orwoll Y. Hu

2002-01-01

359

Effects of Resin Hydrophilicity on Dentin Bond Strength  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine if hydrophobic resins can be coaxed into dentin wet with ethanol instead of water. The test hypothesis was that dentin wet with ethanol would produce higher bond strengths for hydrophobic resins than would dentin wet with water. This study examined the microtensile bond strength of 5 experimental adhesives (50 wt% ethanol/50% comonomers) of various degrees of hydrophilicity to acid-etched dentin that was left moist with water, moist with ethanol, or air-dried. Following composite buildups, hourglass-shaped slabs were prepared from the bonded teeth for microtensile testing. For all 3 types of dentin surfaces, higher bond strengths were achieved with increased resin hydrophilicity. The lowest bond strengths were obtained on dried dentin, while the highest bond strengths were achieved when dentin was bonded moist with ethanol. Wet-bonding with ethanol achieved higher bond strengths with hydrophobic resins than were possible with water-saturated matrices.

Nishitani, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Donnelly, A.M.; Agee, K.A.; Sword, J.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

2008-01-01

360

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872...applied to the surface of a restorative resin dental filling to attain a smooth,...

2013-04-01

361

Degradation, Fatigue, and Failure of Resin Dental Composite Materials  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this article is to review the numerous factors that affect the mechanical properties of particle- or fiber-filler-containing indirect dental resin composite materials. The focus will be on the effects of degradation due to aging in different media, mainly water and water and ethanol, cyclic loading, and mixed-mode loading on flexure strength and fracture toughness. Several selected papers will be examined in detail with respect to mixed and cyclic loading, and 3D tomography with multi-axial compression specimens. The main cause of failure, for most dental resin composites, is the breakdown of the resin matrix and/or the interface between the filler and the resin matrix. In clinical studies, it appears that failure in the first 5 years is a restoration issue (technique or material selection); after that time period, failure most often results from secondary decay.

Drummond, J.L. (UIC)

2008-11-03

362

An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect

A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance, quantification of cesium adsorption performance as a function of operating temperature and pH, and evaluation of sodium uptake (titration) as function of pH and counteranion concentration. The results of these efforts are presented in this report. Hydraulic performance of the resin and the use of eluant alternatives to nitric acid have also been evaluated and have been reported elsewhere (Taylor 2009, Taylor and Johnson 2009).

Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL

2010-09-01

363

Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM): Model development and verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation, a comprehensive Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process simulation model was developed and verified. The model incorporates resin flow through the preform, compaction and relaxation of the preform, and viscosity and cure kinetics of the resin. The computer model can be used to analyze the resin flow details, track the thickness change of the preform, predict the total infiltration time and final fiber volume fraction of the parts, and determine whether the resin could completely infiltrate and uniformly wet out the preform. Flow of resin through the preform is modeled as flow through porous media. Darcy's law combined with the continuity equation for an incompressible Newtonian fluid forms the basis of the flow model. During the infiltration process, it is well accepted that the total pressure is shared by the resin pressure and the pressure supported by the fiber network. With the progression of the resin, the net pressure applied to the preform decreases as a result of increasing local resin pressure. This leads to the springback of the preform, and is called the springback mechanism. On the other side, the lubrication effect of the resin causes the rearrangement of the fiber network and an increase in the preform compaction. This is called the wetting compaction mechanism. The thickness change of the preform is determined by the relative magnitude of the springback and wetting deformation mechanisms. In the compaction model, the transverse equilibrium equation is used to calculate the net compaction pressure applied to the preform, and the compaction test results are fitted to give the compressive constitutive law of the preform. The Finite Element/Control Volume (FE/CV) method is adopted to find the flow front location and the fluid pressure. The code features the ability of simultaneous integration of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D element types in a single simulation, and thus enables efficient modeling of the flow in complex mold geometries. VARTM of two flat composite panels was conducted to verify the simulation model. The composite panels were fabricated using the SAERTEX multi-axial warp knit carbon fiber fabric and SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Song, Xiaolan

2003-06-01

364

Resin glycosides from the leaves and stems of Ipomoea digitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hydrolysis of the ether-soluble resin glycoside (jalapin) fraction of the leaves and stems of Ipomoea digitata L. (Convolvulaceae) gave six organic acids, isobutyric, (S)-2-methylbutyric, tiglic, n-decanoic, n-dodecanoic, and cinnamic acids, and two glycosidic acids, quamoclinic acid A and operculinic acid A. Further, a new genuine\\u000a resin glycoside, named digitatajalapin I, was isolated from the jalapin fraction, along with three

Masateru Ono; Hitoshi Fukuda; Hiroko Murata; Kazumoto Miyahara

2009-01-01

365

Affordable Resins and Adhesives From Optimized Soybean Varieties (ARA Program)  

SciTech Connect

The Mission of the ARA Program was to develop the Corporate Infrastructure to mass-produce new bio-based materials from Soybeans. The resins were integrated with the bio-fuels program. (1) to research, develop, and commercialize low cost adhesives and resins from soy oil and protein, the co-products of the soy bio-diesel process. (2) to study structure-functionality of soy oil and proteins at molecular and genomic levels

Dr. Richard WOol; Dr. X. Susan Sun; Rich Chapas

2004-04-21

366

Effect of pressure on dynamic heterogeneity in dendrimeric alkyd resin.  

PubMed

Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is employed to investigate the non-Debye relaxation behavior in a dendrimeric alkyd resin. From temperature-dependent measurements at ambient pressure, we found a very broad distribution of relaxation times. This is attributed to the complex geometrical topology of the molecule. However, compression significantly reduces the non-Debye character of the dielectric response; thus, pressure induces dynamic homogeneity in the dendrimeric alkyd resin. PMID:15268337

Paluch, M; Sekula, M; Maslanka, S; Manczyk, K; Su?kowski, W W; Rzoska, S J; Ziolo, J

2004-01-22

367

Effect of pressure on dynamic heterogeneity in dendrimeric alkyd resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is employed to investigate the non-Debye relaxation behavior in a dendrimeric alkyd resin. From temperature-dependent measurements at ambient pressure, we found a very broad distribution of relaxation times. This is attributed to the complex geometrical topology of the molecule. However, compression significantly reduces the non-Debye character of the dielectric response; thus, pressure induces dynamic homogeneity in the dendrimeric alkyd resin.

Paluch, M.; Sekula, M.; Ma?lanka, S.; Ma?czyk, K.; Su?kowski, W. W.; Rzoska, S. J.; Ziolo, J.

2004-01-01

368

Characterization and Process Development of Cyanate Ester Resin and Composite  

SciTech Connect

Cyanate ester (or polycyanate) resins offer advantages as composite matrices because of their high thermal stability, low outgassing, low water absorption and radiation resistance. This report describes the results of a processing study to develop high-strength hoop-wound composite by the wet-filament winding method using Toray T1000G carbon fiber and YLA RS-14A polycyanate resin as the constituent materials. Process trials, tests and analyses were conducted in order to gain insight into factors that can affect final properties of the cured cyanate ester resin and its composites. The study shows that the cyanate ester resin has a broad process envelope but that an inert-atmosphere cure is essential for obtaining optimum resin and composite properties. Minimizing moisture exposure prior to cure is also crucial as it affects the T{sub g} of the resin and composite. Recommendations for reducing moisture contact with the resin during wet-winding are presented. High fiber volume fraction ({approximately}80%) composites wound and cured with these methods yielded excellent hoop tensile strengths (660 to 670 ksi average with individual rings failing above 700 ksi), which are believed to be the highest recorded strengths for this class of materials. The measured transverse properties were also exceptional for these high fiber fraction composites. Based on the available data, this cyanate ester resin system and its composites are recommended for space and vacuum applications only. Further testing is required before these materials can be recommended for long term use at elevated temperatures in an ambient air environment. The results of all analyses and tests performed as part of this study are presented as well as baseline process for fabricating thick, stage-cured composites. The manufacture of a 1 in. thick composite cylinder made with this process is also described.

Frame, B.J.

1998-03-01

369

Effect of different dental composite resins on the polymerization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental composite resins possess good esthetic properties, and are currently among the most popular dental restorative materials.\\u000a Both organic and inorganic phases might influence the material behavior, the filler particle features and rate are the most\\u000a important factors related to improvement of the mechanical properties of resin composites. Thus, the objective of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the effect of

T. P. Rodrigues; A. N. S. Rastelli; M. F. Andrade; J. R. C. Saad

2009-01-01

370

Carbon14 removal for disposal of reactor deionizer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of depleted ion exchange resins from the primary system of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors is complicated by the presence of Carbon-14. Because Carbon-14 has a long half-life (5,730 years) and high mobility in soils, burial of the resins is no longer a viable option. Consequently some 35 spent reactor deionizers have accumulated that are to be stored

W. H. Carlton; E. W. Baumann

1991-01-01

371

Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix  

DOEpatents

A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Herman E. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

372

Flame retarding PC\\/ABS resins having superior thermomechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is well known to be one of the most effective flame retardants for acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene\\u000a copolymer (ABS) and its blending resins, such as polycarbonate (PC)\\/ABS, among various phosphorous-based compounds. However,\\u000a TPP can also play a role as a plasticizer, which decreases the mechanical properties of PC\\/ABS resins at high temperature.\\u000a Furthermore considerable amount of TPP has to be

Kwang Ho Sohn; Min Kwan Kim; So Min Lee; Byung Chul Ji; Kwang Soo Cho; Kyungmoon Jeon; Han Do Ghim

2011-01-01

373

Preirradiation grafting of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylic acid was graft copolymerised on to EVA powdered resins containing 9%, 18% and 28% vinyl acetate. A preirradiation grafting method was used and the effect on graft level of varying the parameters of gamma irradiation dose (2–50 kGy), dose rate (0.5–5 kGy h?1), monomer concentration (2.5–25%) and grafting time (1–4 h) and temperature (35–98°C) was investigated. The graft copolymer resins

B. J Ringrose; E Kronfli

1999-01-01

374

Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration\\u000a of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using\\u000a adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen

Dongliang Hua; Cuiqing Ma; Lifu Song; Shan Lin; Zhaobin Zhang; Zixin Deng; Ping Xu

2007-01-01

375

Preparation of Magnetic Amine Resins by Polymer Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weak acid ion exchangers prepared by graft polymerization of acrylic acid on cross-linked PVA microbeads containing magnetic iron oxide were converted to strong or weak base resins by reaction with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride or with epichlorohydrin and diethylamine, respectively. Capacities up to 2.6 meq\\/g were obtained, but the products were susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. Comparable resins prepared by grafting substituted methacrylic

R. J. Eldridge

1982-01-01

376

Properties of modified anhydride hardener and its cured resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl-nadic-tetrahydric-methylanhydride (MNA), nadic-tetrahydric-methylanhydride (NA), anhydride hardener was modified by solid diol molecule to improve the impregnation resin fracture toughness in cryogenic temperature. The lap-shear strength, transverse tension as well as the thermal shock test showed that the resin cured by the modified anhydride hardener had higher bond strength and more toughness at 77 K. After the experiment of vacuum pressure

Chen Qiang; Gao Bingjun; Chen Jinglin; X. Tongzhao

2000-01-01

377

Electrochemical Copolymerization of Pyrrole and Methyl Ethyl Ketone Formaldehyde Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of methyl ethyl ketone formaldehyde resin (MEKF-R) was accomplished. Characterization of insoluble free-standing films was carried out via FTIR spectrum, cyclic voltammogram (CV), UV-visible spectrum, and four-point probe conductivity measurements. The effect of pyrrole and the resin concentrations on the conductivity of the resulting products was investigated. The copolymers obtained as free-standing films

Belk?s Ustamehmeto?lu; Nilgün K?z?lcan; A. Sezai Saraç; Ahmet Akar

2005-01-01

378

Removal of viruscide agents by using styrenic resins.  

PubMed

Strong and weak anionic polystyrene/divinylbenzene ion exchange resins were investigated both as iodophores and as iodine/iodide ion removal agents in blood disinfection applications. Resin-iodine complexes were prepared, but there was no significant iodine release observed in either distilled water or isotonic saline solution. However, all ion-exchange resin were able to remove almost quantitatively both iodine and iodide ions from water solutions. Cross-linked styrene/divinylbenzene resins are excellent polyaromatic viruscide adsorbents, although their hydrophobicity is responsible for poor wettability in physiologi-cal fluids. Surface modification with hydrophilic reagents appeared a promising strategy to overcome this drawback. A Merrifield-type chloromethylated resin and a highly cross-linked mesoporous resin (Lewatit 1064) with a large surface area and content of unreacted vinyl groups were selected as starting materials. The Merrifield resin was modified by the reaction of the pendant chloromethyl groups with triethyleneglycol, tetraethyleneglycol and â -cyclodextrin. The conversion of Lewatit double bonds into hydrophilic moieties was attempted by the radical grafting of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), maleic anhydride (MAn), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, acrylamide (AAm) and different poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) methacrylates. The addition of 2-mer-captoethanol (2ME) and epoxidation were also investigated. The modified Merrifield resins demonstrated very low efficiency in acridine viruscide uptake, in spite of the large increase in both wettability and water uptake. On the other hand, all modified Lewatit samples removed rapidly and almost quantitatively the viruscide from aqueous solutions, although only a few samples resulted in being very hydrophilic. In all cases, hydrophilicity and viruscide adsorbing capacity were maintained after heating at 180 degrees C to simulate pyrogen elimination. PMID:20803444

Bartolozzi, I; Solaro, R; Mari, G; Bonaguidi, P; Chiellini, E

379

Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix  

DOEpatents

A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

1983-11-14

380

A NOVEL STRONTIUM-SELECTIVE EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4?(5?)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined.

E. Philip Horwitz; Renato Chiarizia; Mark L. Dietz

1992-01-01

381

Epoxy Resin-Orlon Cable Terminations for 4Kv Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of a termination for 4-kv operation on PILC cable has been described. It is based on a hand applied insulation and weather seal of epoxy-resin-impregnated orlon tape which covers the cable end from the lead sheath to the high-voltage connector. Filler materials may be added to the basic resin. Savings have been effected through the elimination of the porcelain

J. J. Rueckert; O. W. Lusby; P. L. Betz

1959-01-01

382

Production scheduling of a multi-grade PET resin plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a discrete-time, Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model for the production schedul- ing of a continuous-process multi-grade PET resin plant. The objective is to minimize the cost associated with grade changeovers in order to avoid undesirable variations in base resin properties and process conditions that occur during such changes. The constraints of the model include requirements related to

George Liberopoulos; George Kozanidis; Olympia Hatzikonstantinou

2010-01-01

383

PEG-related polymer resins as synthetic supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combinatorial chemistry has become a significant part of the discovery and optimization process for novel drugs, affinity\\u000a ligands, and catalysts. The polymeric supports play a key role in combinatory chemistry. Therefore, various kinds of functional\\u000a polymer resins have been exploited as supports, reagents, and catalysts in organic synthesis. In comparison to the conventional\\u000a Merrifield resins, the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-related polymer

Zheng Wang; RuLei Yang; JunDong Zhu; XiaoXia Zhu

2010-01-01

384

Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H2g) and carbon dioxide (CO2g). TMA and H2g are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMAaq was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMAaq), monomethylamine (MMAaq) and ammonia (NH). CO2g is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMAg.

Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dauvois, V.; Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C.

2013-10-01

385

Flame-retardant Elvacite Acrylic Resin Nanocompoistes Using Melt Blending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flame retardant Elvacite acrylic resin/clay nanocomposites were prepared via direct melt intercalation by using a Brabender twin-screw extruder. The TEM results indicate a high degree of exfoliation occurs, 62.5exfoliated, 37.5platelets. This high degree of exfoliation results in a large improvement in thermal stability and UV resistance. The Cone Calorimetry test data show the heat release rate (HRR) and mass loss rate (MLR) of clay/Elvacite acrylic resin nanocompoistes are reduced by a factor of 2.1 and 2.2 compared to pure resins, which are consistent with a dramatic increase in the specific heat of nanocomposites as determined from high precision differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. And thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement indicates the thermal stability of nancomposites is enhanced by almost 50 ¡ãC (at 50weight loss) when the samples are thermally degraded under nitrogen. That strongly proves that the introduction of clay can dramatically improve the flame retardance of Elvacite acrylics resins. The Elvacite acrylic resin/clay nanocomposites made by this method don't have a flash point and burn gradually. And the Young's modulus of nanocomposites measured by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) is higher then pure resins, especially in the molten state, which makes this new material much easier to process and mold.

Hefter, Jonathan; Song, Andrew; Si, Mayu; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Goldman, Michael; Smith, Michael; Rudomen, Gregory

2003-03-01

386

EP-toxicity testing of mercury removal resin grout  

SciTech Connect

To determine which category a waste will fit into, the EPA requires a classification test. The test, EP-toxicity, consists of a physical integrity test followed by an extraction. For the case of the mercury removal resin grout, the mercury concentration in the extract cannot exceed 0.2 mg/L if the waste is to be classified as ``solid waste.`` Otherwise, the waste is classified as ``hazardous.`` Simulated process solutions were used to load the mercury removal resin. The resin was solidified with the addition of cement and water using a formulation based on grout formulations typically used to solidify power reactor ion exchange resins. Envirodyne Engineers of St. Louis, Missouri, an EPA sanctioned laboratory, performed the EP-toxicity test for the two samples. One sample was a blank which was made with unloaded resin. For the formulation tested, the EP-toxicity test results showed that the mercury removal resin grout does not fit into the ``hazardous waste`` category.

Mersman, K.E.

1984-07-18

387

Method for rigless zone abandonment using internally catalyzed resin system  

SciTech Connect

A zone of a subterranean formation penetrated by a well bore is permanently plugged by injecting a liquid resin system containing at least one thermosetting resin and at least one curing agent or catalyst therefor into the formation and injecting into the wellbore following the resin system, a second liquid containing at least one chain stopping compound to react with one component in the resin system to prevent any of the resin system remaining in the well bore from crosslinking to a sufficient crosslink density to form a solid in the wellbore. Preferably, the second liquid also contains a fluid loss additive to minimize loss of the second liquid from the wellbore to the formation. The method permits a zone to be plugged off and abandoned without the need to erect a drilling rig to drill out excess plugging material remaining in the wellbore. In a preferred embodiment, the resin system comprises the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol a and polymethylene phenylamine in ethylene glycol ethyl ether, and the preferred second liquid is monoethanolamine in ethylene glycol ethyl ether as a solvent with ethylcellulose and silic flour to control fluid loss.

Martin, R.C.

1980-02-19

388

Biomimetic Remineralization of Resin-bonded Acid-etched Dentin  

PubMed Central

Degradation of denuded collagen within adhesive resin-infiltrated dentin is a pertinent problem in dentin bonding. A biomimetic remineralization scheme that incorporates non-classic crystallization pathways of fluidic amorphous nanoprecursors and mesoscopic transformation has been successful in remineralizing resin-free, acid-etched dentin, with evidence of intrafibrillar and interfibrillar remineralization. This study tested the hypothesis that biomimetic remineralization provides a means for remineralizing incompletely infiltrated resin-dentin interfaces created by etch-and-rinse adhesives. The remineralization medium consists of a Portland cement/simulated body fluid that includes polyacrylic acid and polyvinylphosphonic acid biomimetic analogs for amorphous calcium phosphate dimension regulation and collagen targeting. Both interfibrillar and intrafibrillar apatites became readily discernible within the hybrid layers after 2-4 months. In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic remineralization scheme provides a proof-of-concept for the adoption of nanotechnology as an alternative strategy to extend the longevity of resin-dentin bonds.

Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

2009-01-01

389

Usage of Fiber-Reinforced Resin Instruments in Interproximal Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fiber-reinforced resin burs on the surface roughness of a nanofilled composite. Methods Average surface roughness values (Ra, ?m) were measured using a surface profilometer and surface textures after finishing procedures were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty cylindrical specimens were prepared using sectional teflon molds. A nanofilled composite was chosen. After the preparation specimens were divided into three subgroups randomly. After profilometric measurements, representative samples of the mentioned finishing procedures were selected and SEM analyses were carried out. Results Mylar strip group was statistically different from the other two groups (P<.05). The smoothest surfaces occurred when composite resin samples were light cured against the strips. On the other hand there was no statistical difference between fiber-reinforced resin burs and Sof-Lex discs (P>.05). For fiber-reinforced resin burs scratches and pitting which may be due to plucking of the filler particles during finishing were observed on the surface topography of the composite resin material. On the other hand, for the Sof-Lex discs although scratches were noticed on the surface topography, no pitting was observed. Conclusions Fiber-reinforced resin burs can be preferred for the grinding of composite surplus in interproximal surfaces, where the use of Sof-Lex discs can be harmful to soft tissues.

Can-Karabulut, Deniz C.; Ozyurt, Perihan; Gurbuz, Ayhan; Gullu, Abdulkadir

2008-01-01

390

Examination of styrene-divinylbenzene ion-exchange resins, used in contact with food, for potential migrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of extractable substances from five types of styrene-divinylbenzene ion-exchange resins used in the preparation of foodstuffs was investigated. Strong acid cation resins, strong and weak base anion resins, and an active carbon replacement resin were examined. These resins are used for a variety of purposes including water softening, decalcification of sugar syrups, demineralization, removal of nitrate ions from

J. A. Sidwell; B. G. Willoughby

2006-01-01

391

Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system  

DOEpatents

A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2009-01-06

392

Compact 50W ultrashort pulse fiber laser for precision and high-speed material processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated ultrashort pulse amplification in fiber systems beyond the B-integral limit. Here we report on recent experiments to increase the average power of such systems, and their application to high-speed material processing. A compact fiber chirped pulse amplification system, producing sub-picosecond 50 muJ pulses at a repetition rate of 1 MHz, is obtained by implementing a fiber

L. Shah; M. E. Fermann; J. W. Dawson; C. P. J. Barty

2007-01-01

393

US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, F & B SEVIN BRAND 50-W ...  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

... lTight! COSJit;,!< fnt'olvir:, intr:~ti~ ~, practit:e o~ 'J:'~~ - rJ)';'" Jjr ~~ :'tJ'iY >:-it:'.:t..t!'~,· _'~~ .t:~,:, b? ~)~j ",.tf'~ .t!rott:~rn \\,I ~ ... ioo~t'~ ...

2011-04-14

394

Cellulose whisker/epoxy resin nanocomposites.  

PubMed

New nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofibers or "whiskers" and an epoxy resin were prepared. Cellulose whiskers with aspect ratios of approximately 10 and approximately 84 were isolated from cotton and sea animals called tunicates, respectively. Suspensions of these whiskers in dimethylformamide were combined with an oligomeric difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide equivalent weight of 185-192 and a diethyl toluenediamine-based curing agent. Thin films were produced by casting these mixtures and subsequent curing. The whisker content was systematically varied between 4 and 24% v/v. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the whiskers are evenly dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis revealed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the materials was not significantly influenced by the incorporation of the cellulose filler. Between room temperature and 150 degrees C, i.e., below T(g), the tensile storage moduli (E') of the nanocomposites increased modestly, for example from 1.6 GPa for the neat polymer to 4.9 and 3.6 GPa for nanocomposites comprising 16% v/v tunicate or cotton whiskers. The relative reinforcement was more significant at 185 degrees C (i.e., above T(g)), where E' was increased from approximately 16 MPa (neat polymer) to approximately 1.6 GPa (tunicate) or approximately 215 MPa (cotton). The mechanical properties of the new materials are well-described by the percolation model and are the result of the formation of a percolating whisker network in which stress transfer is facilitated by strong interactions between the whiskers. PMID:20423128

Tang, Liming; Weder, Christoph

2010-04-01

395

High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus <15 GPa. Chemical additives can also effectively raise the hardness to as much as 1.34 GPa. Besides>alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the attenuation of mobility of polymer chains. Complementary studies indicate that our resin composites are promising for the proposed applications as a stiff support to all-ceramic crowns.

Wang, Yijun

396

Characterization and Process Development of Cyanate Ester Resin Composites  

SciTech Connect

Cyanate ester resins offer advantages as composite matrices because of their high thermal stability, low outgassing, low water absorption, and radiation resistance. This paper describes the results of a processing study to develop a high-strength hoop-wound composite by the wet-filament winding method using Toray TI 000G carbon fiber and YLA RS- 14A cyanate ester resin as the constituent materials. The study shows that the cyanate ester resin has a broad process envelope but that an inert-atmosphere cure is essential for obtaining optimum resin and composite properties. Minimizing moisture exposure prior to and during cure is also crucial as it affects the glass transition temperature of the resin and composite. Composite cylinders wound and cured with these methods yielded excellent ring tensile strengths both at room and elevated temperature. A summary of the measured mechanical and thermal property data for these composites is presented. Potential applications for these materials include flywheeI energy storage systems for space and satellite structures.

Frame, B.J.

1999-05-23

397

Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns  

SciTech Connect

There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system`s costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies.

Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

1997-10-01

398

Removal of phenols from aqueous solution by XAD-4 resin.  

PubMed

The experiments on the adsorption of phenols from aqueous solution by Amberlite XAD-4, a polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin without functional group, were carried out under different conditions. The phenols studied in this research include 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-methylphenol, and 2,4-dimethylphenol. The experimental observations indicate that adsorption behavior of various phenols by XAD-4 resin could be described by either Langmuir or Freundlich models. The removals of phenols by XAD-4 resin for solutions of different pH varied significantly and can be explained by the species distribution of phenols in aqueous solutions. Phenols were effectively removed by XAD-4 resin at acidic conditions where the presence of molecular phenol species dominates. The removal decreased sharply for alkaline solutions where the negatively-charged ionic species is the dominant phenol species. The proposed adsorption equilibrium model adequately describes the sorption behavior of phenols by XAD-4 resin. The presence of functional groups on the benzene ring of various phenols plays an important role on the extent of adsorption. The removals of phenols by adsorption were found to correlate with the octanol/water partition coefficients of various phenol compounds. PMID:11080569

Ku, Y; Lee, K C

2000-12-30

399

Influence of light intensity on contraction stress of flowable resins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of power density on contraction stress of resin composite restorative materials during photo-polymerization. Six flowable resin composites, and a hybrid resin composite for comparison, were used. The composites were polymerized with the power density adjusted to either 100 or 600 mW/cm(2). Stress development was determined with a custom-made tensilometer. The adhesive was placed in a thin layer on a steel rod and resin paste was packed into the mold. The contraction force (N) generated during polymerization was continuously recorded and the maximum contraction stress (MPa) was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically. When the power density was adjusted to 100 mW/cm(2), the average contraction stress ranged from 0.30 to 0.50 MPa for the flowable composites, compared with 0.35 MPa for the hybrid composite. When the power density was adjusted to 600 mW/cm(2), the average contraction stress ranged from 0.34 to 1.00 MPa for the flowable composites and 0.69 MPa for the hybrid composite comparison. For all materials tested except Estelite Flow Quick, contraction stress increased with higher power density. The present results indicate that contraction stress during polymerization is influenced by power density and resin composite type. PMID:18403882

Takamizawa, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Akira; Inoue, Naoki; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Oto, Tatsuki; Irokawa, Atsushi; Tsubota, Keishi; Miyazaki, Masashi

2008-03-01

400

Cariogenic bacteria degrade dental resin composites and adhesives.  

PubMed

A major reason for dental resin composite restoration replacement is related to secondary caries promoted by acid production from bacteria including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). We hypothesized that S. mutans has esterase activities that degrade dental resin composites and adhesives. Standardized specimens of resin composite (Z250), total-etch (Scotchbond Multipurpose, SB), and self-etch (Easybond, EB) adhesives were incubated with S. mutans UA159 or uninoculated culture medium (control) for up to 30 days. Quantification of the BisGMA-derived biodegradation by-product, bishydroxy-propoxy-phenyl-propane (BisHPPP), was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Surface analysis of the specimens was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). S. mutans was shown to have esterase activities in levels comparable with those found in human saliva. A trend of increasing BisHPPP release throughout the incubation period was observed for all materials and was more elevated in the presence of bacteria vs. control medium for EB and Z250, but not for SB (p < .05). SEM confirmed the increased degradation of all materials with S. mutans UA159 vs. control. S. mutans has esterase activities at levels that degrade resin composites and adhesives; degree of degradation was dependent on the material's chemical formulation. This finding suggests that the resin-dentin interface could be compromised by oral bacteria that contribute to the progression of secondary caries. PMID:24026951

Bourbia, M; Ma, D; Cvitkovitch, D G; Santerre, J P; Finer, Y

2013-09-11

401

Hygrothermal modeling of thick thermoset resin during electron beam cure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hygrothermal model has been developed to predict the temperature evolution, epoxy conversion ratio, the glass transition temperature increase and associated resin yield stress rise, and absorbed moisture vapor pressure in I+Sb F-6 catalyzed DGEBA epoxy resin systems during e-beam induced polymerization on the effects of four different initiator concentrations: 0.1, 1, 3, and 10 phr. The numerical results showed that the cure reaction of I +Sb F-6 DGEBA epoxy resin is diffusion controlled, but long lived reactive species allowed for measurable increase in conversion after e-beam irradiation (post cure effects). Higher initiator concentration results in higher degree of cure at a specific dose, causing higher temperature rise and larger temperature and conversion ratio gradients within the sample under given experimental conditions. One simulation was performed to optimize the e-beam cure process by controlling the thermal history of the sample via adjusting thermal boundary conditions. The results showed that the temperature gradient in the resin could be reduced significantly and the critical condition under which the moisture induced blistering occurs could be avoided during cure, while obtaining the same degree of cure as before. Finally, the thermal gradient across the fiber matrix interface was modeled on a larger scale in order to study the development of stresses during the rapid cure of the carbon fiber epoxy resin under e-beam irradiation.

Moon, Sung-Won

402

[Shrinkage stress developed by polymerization of composite resin].  

PubMed

The effects of the shrinkage stress on the various cavity forms, were examined. The shrinkage stress was obtained from the displacement of the brass mold developed by polymerization of the composite resin. The shrinkage stress developed in the cavity wall, was analyzed by the finite element method, and the crack of the cylindrical silica tube filled with composite resin, was observed. The shrinkage stress 30 minutes after mixing the composite resin was reduced with the increase in the marginal angle as well as the diameter or the depth of cavity. Preparation of the bevel at the cavity margin reduced the shrinkage stress. In the case of reverse bevel, reduction of the stress was not observed within 24 hours, but in the other cases, the stress immediately decreased after hardening. The analysis by the finite element method reveoled the maximum stress at the margin, with less stress for the round, flat and reverse bevel in this order. For the observation of the cylindrical silica tube filled with composite resin, the crack was observed in the cylindrical silica tubes prepared round, flat or without bevel, it was not observed in the tube prepared reverse bevel that the crack was developed in this tube and composite resin was detached from this tube within 24 hours. PMID:2134819

Komatsu, K

1990-07-01

403

40 CFR 63.5698 - What emission limit must I meet for open molding resin and gel coat operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations...This exemption does not apply to blends of vinylester and polyester resins used for skin coats. The total resin materials...

2010-07-01

404

40 CFR 63.5698 - What emission limit must I meet for open molding resin and gel coat operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations...This exemption does not apply to blends of vinylester and polyester resins used for skin coats. The total resin materials...

2009-07-01

405

The use of ultraviolet LED illumination for composite resin removal: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

It may be difficult to recognize composite resin restorations that are correctly shade-matched and well-placed by visual and tactile inspection alone--which can make the replacement of an existing resin restoration challenging. Many composite resins fluoresce under UV light, which can help dentists to detect resin material. This article explores a technique that utilizes a UV LED to cause composite resin to fluoresce. A UV/visible light spectrofluorometer was used to measure fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of 14 composite resin brands. Control samples of dentin and enamel were measured in a similar manner. Subsequently, each brand of composite resin was placed in extracted teeth and relative fluorescence was assessed. The composite resins were then removed and each tooth was inspected using UV light to detect remaining resin. Results from this study indicated that the optimal excitation wavelength was 385-395 nm, while 460 nm was determined to be the mean emission maxima. This study revealed three types of resin: highly fluorescent, moderately fluorescent, and weakly fluorescent. In each instance, the UV light revealed the presence of resin after all resin was believed to have been removed. Based on the results of this study, the use of UV illumination can be a useful technique for determining if composite resin has been removed completely. PMID:20829156

Bush, Mary A; Hermanson, Arnold S; Yetto, Robert J; Wieczkowski, Gerard

406

Acid–base properties of ion exchangers. I. Optimising of potentiometric titration of ion exchangers exemplified by carboxylic acid resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determined conditions for fast titration the ion exchanger in the one-sample experiment allowing obtaining its equilibrium titration curve. Carboxylic acid ion exchangers KB-4 and Dowex MAC-3 were taken as examples. They were titrated under different conditions with NaOH, KOH and Ba(OH)2. The forward and backward titration of concentrated immersions of finely ground ion

V. S Soldatov; Z. I Sosinovich; T. A Korshunova; T. V Mironova

2004-01-01

407

Glass Reinforcement of Various Epoxy Resins-Polyurea Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyureas (PUs) were prepared by the polycondensation reaction of disperse dyes containing -NH2 group and toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate. The disperse dyes have been prepared by coupling of various 2-diazobenzothiazoles with 1,3-benzenediamine. All the PUs were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral studies, number average molecular weight ( {overline{{Mn}} } ), and thermogravimetry. Further reaction of PUs was carried out with an epoxy resin (i.e., DGEBA). The curing study of prepared resins was monitored by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Based on DSC, thermograms glass fiber-reinforced composites have been laminated and characterized by chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. The unreinforced cured resins were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The laminated composites showed excellent resistance properties against chemicals and good mechanical and electrical properties.

Joshi, Medha; Jauhari, Smita

2012-07-01

408

Tensile strength of enamel-resin-metal joints.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the tensile strength of enamel-resin-metal joints formed with four adhesive systems for attaching resin-bonded FPDs. Groups of 10 cast alloy cylinders were blasted with 50 microns alumina, washed, and prepared for bonding according to the resin as follows: (1) Panavia Ex with no treatment, (2) Super-Bond oxidized for 2 minutes with potassium permanganate in sulphuric acid, (3) Conclude electrolytically etched, and (4) ABC conditioned with primer. The cylinders were bonded to etched human enamel and after 24 hours in water at 37 degrees C the tensile strengths of the joints were recorded. Joint failure was examined under a stereomicoscope and a scanning electron microscope. The results demonstrated that the adhesive system influenced the tensile strength and mode of failure of the joints. PMID:2657026

Aboush, Y E; Jenkins, C B

1989-06-01

409

Epoxy and acrylate sterolithography resins: in-situ property measurements  

SciTech Connect

Stereolithography is a rapid prototyping method that is becoming an important product realization and concurrent engineering tool, with applications in advanced and agile manufacturing. During the build process, material behavior plays a significant role in the mechanics leading to internal stresses and, potentially, to distortion (curling) of parts. The goal of the ``Stereolithography Manufacturing Process Modeling and Optimization`` LDRD program was to develop engineering tools for improving overall part accuracy during the stereolithography build process. These tools include phenomenological material models of solidifying stereolithography photocurable resins and a 3D finite element architecture that incorporates time varying material behavior, laser path dependence, and structural linkage. This SAND report discusses the in situ measurement of shrinkage and force relaxation behavior of two photocurable resins, and the measurement of curl in simple cantilever beams. These studies directly supported the development of phenomenological material models for solidifying resins and provided experimental curl data to compare to model predictions.

Guess, T.R.; Chambers, R.S.; Hinnerichs, T.D.

1996-01-01

410

Raman spectroscopy of different types of Mexican copal resins.  

PubMed

Dispersive Raman spectra of six copal resins, that were purchased in local markets in Mexico, are presented. The spectra were interpreted and compared with each other. For all these spectra, the relative intensity of the Raman band at approximately 1645 cm(-1), attributed to the exomethylene nu(C=C) stretching vibration, was rather low, especially as fresh samples are involved. In one resin, viz. Incienso, CaCO3 was detected. Probably this inorganic pigment was added as a whitener. In the spectrum of Lágrima a starch fraction was present. Raman spectra of a sample from an Aztec figurine were recorded. It was shown that its composition was inhomogeneous at the micrometer level. Here, too, CaCO3 was observed. It was not possible to identify the resin applied in the antique figurine due to material degradation by age and environmental exposure. PMID:12909136

Vandenabeele, Peter; Grimaldi, Dulce Maria; Edwards, Howell G M; Moens, Luc

2003-08-01

411

Shrinkage Stresses Generated during Resin-Composite Applications: A Review  

PubMed Central

Many developments have been made in the field of resin composites for dental applications. However, the manifestation of shrinkage due to the polymerization process continues to be a major problem. The material's shrinkage, associated with dynamic development of elastic modulus, creates stresses within the material and its interface with the tooth structure. As a consequence, marginal failure and subsequent secondary caries, marginal staining, restoration displacement, tooth fracture, and/or post-operative sensitivity are clinical drawbacks of resin-composite applications. The aim of the current paper is to present an overview about the shrinkage stresses created during resin-composite applications, consequences, and advances. The paper is based on results of many researches that are available in the literature.

Schneider, Luis Felipe J.; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria; Silikas, Nick

2010-01-01

412

Resin glycosides from the aerial parts of Operculina turpethum.  

PubMed

Three glycosidic acids, turpethic acids A-C, and two intact resin glycosides, turpethosides A and B, all having a common pentasaccharide moiety and 12-hydroxy fatty acid aglycones of different chain lengths, were obtained from the aerial parts of Operculina turpethum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. The aglycones were characterized as 12-hydroxypentadecanoic acid in two compounds, 12-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in two other components, and 12-hydroxyheptadecanoic acid in the fifth compound, which were all confirmed by synthesis. The absolute configurations of these aglycones were all established as S by Mosher's method. These compounds represent the first examples of resin glycosides with a monohydroxylated 12-hydroxy fatty acid as an aglycone, and one compound is the first described resin glycoside having a hydroxylated C(17) fatty acid as its aglycone. PMID:22717506

Ding, Wenbing; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Wu, Ping; Xu, Liangxiong; Wei, Xiaoyi

2012-06-18

413

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has contracted to further develop its anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. From environmental as well as economic viewpoints, it is necessary to remove soluble sulfates from the wastes created by flue gas desulfudization systems. In order to do this economically, a low-cost desulfurization process for spent sorbents is necessary. UTSl's anion exchange resin-based desulfudization concept is believed to satisfy these requirements. We have nearly completed the process variables study in which we have evaluated the effects of seven major process variables. At present, we are analyzing the data using the fixed bed math model used in our earlier study. We have also initiated the batch mode resin regeneration experiments to identity optimum conditions for the fixed bed regeneration. Similarly, we are also continuing with our efforts to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the evaporation/concentration load.

Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

1992-01-01

414

Cytotoxicity of eluates from light-polymerized denture base resins.  

PubMed

This study examined the metabolic effects of eluates from four light-polymerized denture base resins and one heat-polymerized denture base resin on oral epithelial cells in vitro. The eluate was cell culture medium that contained either or both of apparently nonpolymerized components and reaction products that diffused out of the resin samples. Eluates were prepared by daily transfer of sample disks in a cell culture medium over 10 days. Toxicity of eluates was tested immediately after transfer (fresh) and after storage for 30 days (aged) by use of radioisotope incorporation and cell viability studies. The fresh eluates inhibited cell metabolism, whereas the aged eluates stimulated then inhibited the responses. Results suggest that the components that leach out of the tested materials do so at different rates and have prolonged toxic effects on cells. Thus soaking prosthesis in water before insertion may be beneficial. PMID:7853263

Lefebvre, C A; Knoernschild, K L; Schuster, G S

1994-12-01

415

The interaction between lining materials and composite resin restorative materials.  

PubMed

The effects of four lining materials, Dycal, Procal, Cavitec and Poly F cement on Adaptic and Concise have been investigated in vitro. The parameters studied were surface roughness, hardness and colour both with and without an intermediate (or bonding) resin being present between the restorative material and the liner. The effects of the four liners on the composites varied both between the lining materials themselves and with the composite resin. Two materials, Procal and Dycal, had little interaction with the composites, provided an intermediate resin was used with the latter. Cavitec appeared to have an adverse reaction with the composites and Poly F, whilst having no effect on the colour of the composites, did increase surface roughness. The adverse effects of linig materials were ascribed to minor constituents, particularly methyl salicylate, present in the formulation. PMID:6453213

Lingard, G L; Davies, E H; Von Fraunhofer, J A

1981-03-01

416

Characterization of non-MDA-containing bismaleimide resins  

SciTech Connect

Recent regulatory action by OSHA for the workplace exposure to 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) is generating considerable interest in developing non-MDA-containing thermoset resins. One such material is a new bismaleimide, 2,2'-bismaleimido(1,2 phenylthioethane), designated APO-BMI. This material has been evaluated and pilot production quantities produced for replacement of a commercially available MDA-containing bismaleimide for syntactic foam applications. A diol extended version of the APO-BMI has also been characterized. Thermal analysis has been used extensively to characterize these three materials. Comparative data for these three resins will be presented and will include cure cycle optimization, glass transition and resin reactivity measurements by DSC, thermal and oxidative stability by TGA and coefficient of linear thermal expansion and Tg by TMA. 2 refs., 7 figs.

Spieker, D.A.; Larsen, F.N.

1988-08-01

417

White-rot fungi demonstrate first biodegradation of phenolic resin.  

PubMed

Phenolic resins, phenol-formaldehyde polymers previously thought to be nonbiodegradable, are produced at an annual rate of 2.2 million metric tons in the United States for many industrial and commercial applications. Three independent lines of evidence established their biodegradability with the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Chromatic transformation of growth medium (yellow to pink) indicated initial biodegradation of the resin 3 days after inoculation. A degradation product, 13C-labeled phenol, was detected with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Scanning electron micrographs revealed physical evidence of degradation. This is the first demonstrated biodegradation of these phenol-formaldehyde polymers and stands as a platform for investigation into bioremediation and biorecycling of phenolic resins. PMID:16856735

Gusse, Adam C; Miller, Paul D; Volk, Thomas J

2006-07-01

418

Plutonium Loading onto Reillex HPQ Anion Exchange Resin  

SciTech Connect

The new HB-Line facility was designed and built in the early to mid 1980s. Phase II of HB-Line is currently being prepared for startup to stabilize Pu solutions. This facility was designed to receive Pu (or Np) nitrate solutions from H-Canyon and convert them into oxides for storage or shipment. After receipt of Pu solution, anion exchange columns will both purify and concentrate the Pu nitrate solution, after which it will be converted to an oxide via oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination. The current work examined the Pu loading characteristics of the ''improved'' resin. The first objective of this work was to measure the resin capacity under HB-Line process conditions to determine the point at which visual Pu break-through would occur. A second objective was to determine the ultimate capacity of the resin column if loading continued well past the point of visual break-through.

Kyser, E.A.

2001-01-03

419

REACTIVITY OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN WITH NITRIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis have been used to evaluate the reactivity of resorcinol formaldehyde resin with nitric acid and characterize the solid product. Two distinct reactions were identified within the temperature range 25-55 C. The first reaction is primarily associated with resin nitration, while the second involves bulk oxidation and degradation of the polymer network leading to dissolution and off-gassing. Reaction was confirmed with nitric acid concentrations as low as 3 M at 25 C applied temperature and 0.625 M at 66 C. Although a nitrated resin product can be isolated under appropriate experimental conditions, calorimetry testing indicates no significant hazard associated with handling the dry material.

King, W; Fernando Fondeur, F; Bill Wilmarth, B; Myra Pettis, M; Shirley Mccollum, S

2006-06-14

420

A novel antibacterial resin composite for improved dental restoratives.  

PubMed

A novel furanone-containing antibacterial resin composite has been prepared and evaluated. compressive strength (CS) and Streptococcus mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the composites. The modified resin composites showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With 5-30 % addition of the furanone derivative, the composite kept its original CS unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with a 16-68 % reduction in the S. mutans viability. Further, the antibacterial function of the new composite was not affected by human saliva. The aging study indicates that the composite may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. Within the limitations of this study, it appears that the experimental antibacterial resin composite may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function. PMID:22466818

Weng, Yiming; Howard, Leah; Guo, Xia; Chong, Voon Joe; Gregory, Richard L; Xie, Dong

2012-04-01

421

Separation of four platinum metals by anion-exchange in hydrobromic acid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution coefficients of Pt, Ir, Pd and Rh in the systems Dowex 1 [Br?]?HBr plus 0.0035M bromine and Dowex 1 [Br?]?HBr plus 2% N2H4·HCl, were determined with the aid of radioactive tracers by batch equilibration for the resins of nominal cross-linking 2,\\u000a 4 and 8, respectively. Column experiments showed that Dowex 1X4 should be used for separations because of the

R. Dybczy?ski; H. Maleszewska

1974-01-01

422

Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

1994-08-01

423

Deproteinizing effects on resin-tooth bond structures.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of NaOCl on resin-tooth bonds to simulate the situations of long-term durability and caries invasion. Resin-tooth bonded specimens were produced with the use of two resin adhesives (Excite and One-Bond). Resin-tooth bonded beams (adhesive area; 0.9 mm2) were serially sectioned and the specimens were immersed in 10% NaOCl medium for 0 (control), 2, 4, and 6 h after being stored in water for 24 h. After immersion, microtensile bond tests were performed. SEM fractography was conducted to calculate each failure mode by image analysis. In addition, the adhesive interface was examined with the use of TEM. In the control specimens, enamel bond strengths had no difference between Excite (45.6 +/- 15.0) and One-Bond (56.9 +/- 12.9). On the other hand, dentin bond strengths had significant difference between Excite (80.6 +/- 21.2) and One-Bond (50.7 +/- 11.2). The bond strengths decreased with increased storage time for both systems with enamel and dentin bonds. The deteriorated mineralized dentin of beams resulted in bond-strength reduction for resin-enamel bonds. For dentin bonding, the adhesive interface was gradually dissolved from the outer to the center portion of the beam. The depletion of collagen fibrils within the demineralized dentin or hybrid layer deformation was found under SEM and TEM examinations. These morphological changes are responsible for bond strength reduction of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:14689493

Yoshida, Eiji; Hashimoto, Masanori; Hori, Minoru; Kaga, Masayuki; Sano, Hidehiko; Oguchi, Haruhisa

2004-01-15

424

Characteristics of denture thermoplastic resins for non-metal clasp dentures.  

PubMed

Six thermoplastic resins and conventional acrylic resin were examined to characterize their mechanical and physical properties, water sorption, solubility, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and color stability. Thermoplastic resins for non-metal clasp dentures exhibiting low water sorption and solubility offer hygienic advantages. Since they have a low modulus of elasticity and are easily manipulated, these materials make it possible for larger undercuts to be used for retention compared to acrylic resin. Not all of the thermoplastic resins tested fractured after the bending test in contrast to the conventional denture base resin, which fractured when tested beyond its proportional limit. It was also found that clinically noticeable staining may occur on the polyamide resins and polyethylene terephtalate resins. PMID:20644329

Takabayashi, Yota

2010-07-13

425

Selective flotation of fossil resin from western coal. Quarterly report, December 1, 1990-February 28, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research continued flotation of resin from coal. This quarter laboratory research at the University of Utah was concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization and the development of analytical techniques. APT's activities included plant construct...

1991-01-01

426

40 CFR 63.523 - Standards for basic liquid resins manufacturers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Epoxy Resins Production and Non-Nylon Polyamides Production § 63.523 Standards for basic liquid resins manufacturers. (a) Owners or operators of...

2010-07-01

427

40 CFR 63.524 - Standards for wet strength resins manufacturers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Epoxy Resins Production and Non-Nylon Polyamides Production § 63.524 Standards for wet strength resins manufacturers. (a) Owners or operators of...

2010-07-01

428

Removing thiocyanates from wastewater with pyridine and quinoline ion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

The use of ion exchange resins for the treatment of coking plant wastewater has been investigated. Anion resins synthesized from chloromethylated styrene copolymer and divinylbenzene with pyridine and quinoline groups, appear promising for the removal of thiocyanate ions.

Lipunov, I.N.

1981-01-01

429

40 CFR 63.5728 - What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards...application operation meets the definition of closed...then you must comply with the limit for open molding resin operations...operation must comply with the limit for open molding resin and...

2012-07-01

430

Study of Processing and Properties of Graphite Fiber/High Temperature Resin Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of processing conditions on the structure and properties of composites was examined using polyphenylquinoxaline and other high temperature resins as matrices and graphite fibers as reinforcement. It was observed that inadequate resin flow and v...

B. L. Lee F. J. McGarry

1976-01-01

431

76 FR 29008 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Correction of Notice of Scheduling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Correction of Notice of Scheduling AGENCY: United States...antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy. CORRECTION: The Commission hereby corrects the...

2011-05-19

432

78 FR 11627 - Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-475-703] Certain Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012...granular polytetrafluoroethylene (``PTFE'') resin from Italy. The period of review is August 1, 2011, through July...

2013-02-19

433

Applications of fossil resin studies to an understanding of depositional and paleoenvironments  

SciTech Connect

Fossil resins are polymerized terpene (isoprenoid) acids. Because of their complexity and resulting variability, isoprenoids have been useful for their information content and geochemical signatures. Fossil resin occurs throughout a 304-ft continuous core and correlated outcrops from the Late Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the Fossil Forest study area, San Juan basin, New Mexico, in associated with coal, sandstone, shale, and petrified wood. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectra of resin from throughout the sequence reveal oxidative and chemical variation. FTIR spectra of resin incorporated in petrified wood differ from those of resin exposed to the paleoatmosphere in the same individual tree. This study was initiated to complement previous studies related to analyses of fluid inclusions in fossil resin and to elucidate reactions between the resin matrix and possible atmospheric inclusions. It was done in conjunction with extensive trace-element, palynological, and mineralogical analyses. Understanding the biogeochemistry of fossil resin may elucidate the origin, diagenesis, and depositional environment of smaller concentrations of isoprenoids.

Bellis, D.; Wolberg, D.L. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro (USA))

1989-09-01

434

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart...Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This...hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with...

2009-07-01

435

40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle...

2013-07-01

436

Performance Properties of a Translucent, X-Ray Opaque Dental Acrylic Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dental acrylic resins routinely used today are radiolucent and cannot be imaged using standard radiographic techniques. A significant number of foreign bodies are dental objects made from acrylic resin and, due to their radiolucency, are difficult to dete...

P. A. Mattie

1994-01-01

437

[Studies on adsorption of the organic phosphorus pesticide with the macroporous resin].  

PubMed

Macroporous adsorbing resins prepared by styrene are selected as absorbent in the static and dynamic adsorption experiments of organic phosphorus pesticide. These resins are attempted to be applied in blood purification to detoxify and save the patient's life. PMID:11211815

Li, G; Yang, B; Li, C; Chen, Y; Guo, X; He, B; Zhang, Y; Dai, R

2000-12-01

438

Ultraviolet light and ultraviolet light-activated composite resins  

SciTech Connect

In a comparison of the UV light--activated composite resins, Estilux was polymerized to a significantly greater depth than the other composite resins. In general, Lee-fill polymerized the least. When comparing the UV light sources, the Lee light and the Duralux light did not significantly differ from each other, but both polymerized the materials tested to a significantly greater depth than the other light sources. Of the two time exposures, 60-second exposure provided a significantly greater depth of polymerization than 20 seconds for each light with each material.

Murray, G.A.; Yates, J.L.; Newman, S.M.

1981-08-01

439

Clinical significance of polymerization shrinkage of composite resins.  

PubMed

The volumetric polymerization shrinkage of some composite resin restorative materials was measured with a modified dilatometer. It is emphasized that only the shrinkage from the start of the gelation, the rigid contraction of the material, is of clinical relevance. The amount of gelation was determined with an instrument that indicates the first moment at which the setting material is rigid enough to exert tensile forces. In addition, the influences of storage, testing conditions, and mixing ratio on the rigid contraction were studied for one light-cured as well as some chemically cured composite resins. PMID:6955507

Bausch, J R; de Lange, K; Davidson, C L; Peters, A; de Gee, A J

1982-07-01

440

Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof  

DOEpatents

Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

1998-03-10

441

Cobalt dicarbollide containing polymer resins for cesium and strontium uptake  

SciTech Connect

Cobalt(III) dicarbollide [(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}Co]{sup {minus}} (CB{sub 2}) is being investigated for Cs and Sr extraction from nuclear waste. Because organic solvents should be avoided, bonding of CB{sub 2} to resins were investigated. CB{sub 2} was successfully covalently bonded to polystyrene and polybenzimidazole resins. Tetrahydrofuran was the most efficient solvent for grafting. Analysis is being performed, and separation coefficients are also being determined. 3 figs, 8 refs.

Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Duke, J.R. Jr.; Jorgensen, B.S.

1994-04-01

442

Fallout analysis of atmospheric water precipitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid ion-exchange method for the determination of 137Cs, 89Sr, and 90Sr in rain-, snow-, cistern-, and soft surface-waters is presented. The sorption of 2–30 l samples with a calcium content up to 300 mg is carried out on a specially shaped column filled with Dowex 50, X-8 or Dowex 50 W, X-8. Radiocaesium is washed from the column with

M. Senega?nik; Š. Paljk

1967-01-01

443

Advantages of a one-part resin system for processing aerospace parts by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-part resin systems for RTM are being recognized as having several significant advantages over the more common two-part systems in use today. The advantages in processing include elimination of mix ratio concerns, reduction of in-process QC testing and reduction of worker exposure to chemicals. 3M Aerospace Materials Department offers a unique one-part resin system for RTM that provides additional advantages. The 3M PR 500 is derated during manufacture thereby eliminating the degassing step and pumping directly from the shipping container is possible. The excellent stability of this one-part resin dramatically reduces waste and cleanup. Equipment for handling one-part systems will be discussed as well as a brief review of the unique characteristics and properties of 3M PR 500.

Sundsrud, Gerald J.

1993-01-01

444

Tribological Characteristics of Binder Resins for Brake Friction Materials at Elevated Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat resistance of the multiphase friction materials made with straight phenolic resin (ST), boron–phosphorous (B–P)-modified\\u000a phenolic resin (BP), or polyimide (PI) was investigated using a Krauss-type friction tester. Thermal analysis of the cured\\u000a resins was also carried out to examine the chemical and mechanical properties of the resin and their effects on the wear rate\\u000a and the coefficient of

M. W. Shin; K. H. Cho; W. K. Lee; H. Jang

2010-01-01

445

Effect of CaF2 Content on Rate of Fluoride Release from Filled Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the time-dependent release of fluoride from filled resins containing fluoride particles as a function of particle content and solution pH is limited. This study characterized the fluoride ion release from filled resins containing CaF2 particles as a function of filler content and pH. Urethane dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate resins were used to make filled-resin disks containing 9.09,

K. J. Anusavice; N.-Z. Zhang; C. Shen

2005-01-01

446

Novel chelating resins containing calix[4]pyrroles: Synthesis and sorptive properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chelating resins containing calix[4]pyrroles have been synthesized via: (i) immobilization of calixpyrrole on a polymeric support (VBC\\/DVB copolymer), (ii) condensation of calixpyrrole with formaldehyde, and (iii) radical copolymerization of calixpyrrole-monomer with methyl methacrylate and divinylbenzene. Insoluble, cross-linked material was obtained in all cases, bearing up to 1.03mmol of calixpyrrole units per gram resin in case of resin 2. All resins

Andrzej Ka??dkowski; Andrzej W. Trochimczuk

2006-01-01

447

From vulcanite to vinyl, a history of resins in restorative dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides historical background on the development of resin-based dental restorative materials. With an understanding of the evolution of these materials, clinicians can better appreciate both the complexity of and similarities among the wide variety of resins and polymerization techniques available today. Common problems associated with the use of resin-based materials are explained, and more advanced resin-based systems currently

Frederick A. Rueggeberg

2002-01-01

448

A simple ion-exchange resin procedure for extracting plant-available elements from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified procedure for extracting ions from soil with ion-exchange resins is reported. The resin, placed in nylon-netting bags, were immersed in soil suspensions and shaken. Compared to the conventional procedure, where the resin beads are freely suspended in the soil-water mixture, this bag-procedure allowed quicker separation of resin from the soil suspensions. Furthermore, the severe soil grinding as done

E. Sibbesen

1977-01-01

449

Effectiveness of Resins in Neutralizing Antibiotic Activities in Bactec Plus Aerobic/F Culture Medium  

PubMed Central

Incorporating resins in blood culture media can effectively reduce the activities of several antibiotics. It was shown that the activities of some generally used antibiotics decreased by 80 to 90% within 2 h in Bactec Plus Aerobic/F resin-containing culture medium. Bactec vials containing resins were still found to be positive for bacteria when antibiotics were present. The addition of ?-lactamase shortened the detection time irrespective of the presence of resins.

Spaargaren, J.; van Boven, C. P. A.; Voorn, G. P.

1998-01-01

450

Carrier materials impregnated with thermosetting resins, process for their manufacture and their use  

SciTech Connect

Described herein is a resin-cured carrier material and a process for preparing a resin-cured carrier material. The carrier material has two oppositely disposed major surfaces and a core therebetween, the core being impregnated with at least one heatcured thermosetting resin and at least one of the two surfaces having a coating of at least one polymerization resin curable by U.V.-radiation, electron radiation or the radiation of radioactive isotopes.

Holzer, H.; Kopp, O.; Schinko, C.B.

1981-01-20

451

Fossil resin flotation from coal by selective coagulation and depression of coal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for separating minute resin particles from a slurry mixture of minute resin particles and minute coal particles. It comprises: adjusting the pH of the slurry mixture of minute resin particles and minute coal particles to above about 12 and subjecting the pH adjusted slurry mixture of particles to froth flotation in the presence of a frothing agent, to produce a froth fraction enriched with respect to the minute resin particles.

Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.

1990-02-27

452

Taste Mask, Design and Evaluation of an Oral Formulation Using Ion Exchange Resin as Drug Carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (DPH) using cation exchange resins.\\u000a Indion 234 and Tulsion 343 that contained crosslinked polyacrylic backbone were used. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were\\u000a prepared by batch process by taking drug: resin ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The optimum drug: resin ratio and the time required\\u000a for

Kiran Bhise; Shafi Shaikh; Divyakumar Bora

2008-01-01

453

[Effect of temperature during polymerization on mechanical properties of acrylic resin].  

PubMed

Mechanical properties of heat curing acrylic resin obtained by polymerization for long period of heating at a temperature lower than conventional temperatures were examined. The mechanical properties of the resin were lower than those of the resin cured at 100 degrees C. The results of high performance liquid chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry suggested that the poor mechanical properties were due to significant amounts of residue monomer and benzoyl peroxide in the resin, but is not to changes molecular weight. PMID:2135540

Kurata, S; Umemoto, K; Yamanaka, A

1990-11-01

454

Some of the properties of oriented strandboard manufactured using kraft lignin phenolic resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kraft lignin phenol formaldehyde resin has certain advantages as a binder in oriented strand board manufacture over the other commercially exterior resins. Since kraft lignin is used as substitute for almost 50% phenol in a typical resin, kraft lignin phenol formaldehyde is not only environmentally friendly but also less expensive as compared to other exterior binders used in wood composite

Ayfer Donmez Cavdar; Hulya Kalaycioglu; Salim Hiziroglu

2008-01-01

455

Influence of drinks on resin composite: Evaluation of degree of cure and color change parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin composites represent a class of materials widely used in restorative dentistry due to patient demands for better aesthetics. In this study, the degree of conversion and color change parameters of commercial resin composite Charisma after immersion in commonly used drinks were investigated. Degree of conversion and color stability are important parameters of modern resin-based dental filling materials. The specimens,

Betsy K. M. Luiz; Renata D. M. C. Amboni; Luiz Henrique M. Prates; José Roberto Bertolino; Alfredo T. N. Pires

2007-01-01

456

The Dependence of Shrinkage Stress Reduction on Porosity Concentration in Thin Resin Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of polymerization contraction stress was determined as a function of the surface area of porosity, so that the contribution of voids in resin composite to stress relief could be investigated. Experiments were carried out on 200-um-thick layers of resin bonded from wall to wall in a restrained condition. The resin samples were divided into three groups: Group A

D. Alster; A. J. Feilzer; A. J. De Gee; A. Moli; C. L. Davidson

1992-01-01

457

EXPERIMENTS WITH A RESIN-IN-PULP PROCESS FOR TREATING LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results of experiments to evaluate the potential for using a resin-in-pulp process to remove lead contamination from soil. These experiments examined the kinetics and equilibrium partitioning of lead, lead carbonate, lead oxide, and lead sulfate in resin-s...

458

Permanganate Degradation of Reillex HPQ Ion Exchange Resin for Use in HB-Line  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the use of Reillex TM HPQ resin as a replacement for the Ionac A-641 resin currently authorized for use in H B-Line. The study concentrated on the ability of the existing alkaline permanganate digestion process to convert spent resin for disposal.

Walker, B.W.

1999-06-02

459

Lignin from waste black liquor 3-treated lignin in phenol formaldehyde resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse and rice straw lignins undergo different treatments, e.g. acid hydrolysis, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and thermal treatment, before being used as a partial replacement for phenol in phenol formaldehyde resin. These treatments improved the resin formation properties of the lignin. The effect of these treatments on the improvement of the properties of the resin produced has the following sequence:

A. M. A. Nada; M. A. Yousef; K. A. Shaffei; A. Salah

2000-01-01

460

Resin Systems and Glass Reinforcements to Improve Dry-Formed Hardboards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various resin systems and quantities of resin and a glass yarn scrim were investigated to determine whether they improved stiffness and linear stability of dry-formed, medium-and high-density hardboards. The following resins were used: A low-viscosity (pe...

P. E. Steinmetz

1977-01-01

461

Laboratory Technique for the Development and Evaluation of Moulded Resinous Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two procedures of resin moulding powder preparation were evaluated. Their results are discussed on the basis of their tensile properties for moulded dumb-bells. The best procedure was then implemented for future work on phenolated pitch\\/ligin systems. Mouldings of different resin contents made with these phenolated resins were tested and the most promising catalytic systems were then selected for the development

R. E. Ysbrandy; G. F. R. Gerischer; R. D. Sanderson

1995-01-01

462

Modification of vinyl ester resin by a new thermoset liquid crystalline diacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinyl ester (VE) resins possess outstanding corrosion resistance and satisfy a critical requirement in fiberreinforced plastic applications. However, VE resins are also brittle in nature and therefore, toughening has been an important topic for both scientists and engineers. Several techniques have been developed to improve the toughness of VE resins including (1) modifications of network structure via manipulation of VE

Guozheng Liang; Ruilin Zuo; Tingli Lu; Junlong Wang

2005-01-01

463

Microscale Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Using a Macroreticular Cation Exchange Resin as Catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are few experiments for the undergraduate laboratory involving ion exchange resins as catalysts. In this experiment, cyclohexanol is dehydrated to cyclohexene using Amberlyst 15 macroreticular resin as an acid catalyst. The procedure is carried out with partners, one student using phosphoric acid-sulfuric acid catalyst, the other student using the resin. Yields and ease of manipulation between the two options are compared.

Moeur, Harriet P.; Swatik, Sharon A.; Pinnell, Robert P.

1997-07-01

464

Microscale Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Using a Macroreticular Cation Exchange Resin as Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few experiments for the undergraduate laboratory involving ion exchange resins as catalysts. In this experiment, cyclohexanol is dehydrated to cyclohexene using Amberlyst 15 macroreticular resin as an acid catalyst. The procedure is carried out with partners, one student using phosphoric acid-sulfuric acid catalyst, the other student using the resin. Yields and ease of manipulation between the two options

Harriet P. Moeur; Sharon A. Swatik; Robert P. Pinnell

1997-01-01

465

An investigation of the radiolytic stability of a resorcinol- formaldehyde ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Radiolytic stability of a resorcinol-formaldehyde polycondensation-type cation exchange resin was investigated for up to lE09 rads total dose. The resorcinol-formaldehyde resin is a resin that has potential cesium decontamination applications at Pacific Northwest and Savannah River. We have determined both radiation and storage effects on performance of the resin using 101-AW Hanford simulant and ASTM Type-I water. Distribution coefficient determinations, total carbon analysis, and physical observations lead us to conclude that radiation up to lE08 rads does not significantly affect the performance of the resin. The resin is more stable to radiation in water than in 101-AW Hanford simulant. Also radiation or storage does not affect the thermal stability of the resin. Gas production rates for several resin slurries increased in the order of resin/101-AW Hanford simulant, resin/ASTM water, and resin/0.5 M HNO{sub 3}. H{sub 2} is produced from radiolysis of resin in 101-AW Hanford simulant with a G value of G(H{sub 2}) of 0.11 {plus_minus} 0.02 molecules/100eV and in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} with a G value of G(H{sub 2}) of 0.27 {plus_minus} 0.02 molecules/lOOeV.

Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.; Bibler, J.P.

1993-12-31

466

Effect of monomer composition on crystal growth by resin containing bioglass.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of resin monomer composition on crystal growth at the interface between the resin/bioglass composites and water. Light-cured resin that contained 2-bis[4(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxy-propyloxy)-phenyl], 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate with different compositions were used. Resin/bioglass composites were prepared with 40 mass% bioglass and 60 mass% resin. The resin/bioglass composites were stored in deionized distilled water for 24 h (control group) or 3-12 months (experimental groups). After water storage, the disk surfaces were examined by light- and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical states of the crystals were analyzed by laser-Raman spectroscopy and micro-X-ray diffractometry. The microscopic analysis showed crystal on the resin disks surface after six months of water storage for hydrophilic resins. However, there was no crystal formation in the control and the experimental groups of specimens of hydrophobic resins. Raman analysis showed the chemical states of the crystals formed on the resin matrix and bioglass to be different. The micro-X-ray analysis of crystals on resin disks identified them to be calcium carbonate. This crystal formation occurred in water instead of simulated body fluid. In conclusion, the resin monomer compositions affected the ability to induce crystal growth on the surfaces of disks containing bioglass. PMID:20524186

Hashimoto, Masanori; Iijima, Masahiro; Nagano, Futami; Ohno, Hiroki; Endo, Kazuhiko

2010-07-01

467

Using Polymer Characterization Techniques to Predict LDPE Resin Suitability for Extruded Foam Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

All LDPE resins are not created equal. It is well known that autoclave LDPEs are considered to be the products of choice for extrusion coating applications. On the other hand, LDPE resins produced using tubular reactors have a different structure that makes them more suitable for extruded foam applications. More specifically, within the choices of tubular LDPE resins for extruded

Jim Auger; Lan Nguyen

2001-01-01

468

PYROLYSIS OF FOUNDRY SAND RESINS: A PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to identify the major organic products produced by pyrolysis of three foundry sand resins: 1) Phenolic Urethane Cold-Box, 2) Novolac (both phenol-formaldehyde based resins), and 3) Furan Warm-Box (furfuryl alcohol based resin). Thes...

469

Resin composite monomers alter MTT and LDH activity of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Substances such as monomers may be released from composite resin systems and may induce adverse effects in biological tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic concentrations of resin composite monomers on cultures of human gingival fibroblasts.Methods. A range of dilutions of five resin composite monomers (HEMA, HPMA, DMAEMA, TEGDMA, and Bis–GMA) were added to the

Y Issa; D. C Watts; P. A Brunton; C. M Waters; A. J Duxbury

2004-01-01

470

IONIC DOPING OF LOW-CONDUCTIVITY STRUCTURAL RESINS FOR IMPROVED DIRECT-CURRENT SENSING  

EPA Science Inventory

This investigation developed a methodology for doping high-resistivity vinyl-ester (VE) resins with an organic dopant. The polymeric resin system investigated was a Dow Derakane 411-C50 VE resin. A number of potential dopants were studied, and two in particular, tetrabutylammoniu...

471

SLDV (scanning laser Doppler vibrometry) for the analysis of defects in the teeth cavity resin filling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important research theme in today's dentistry is the selection of the appropriate resin to be used for the filling of drilled cavities. Some resins in fact may cause high sensitivity or pain in the patient also few days after their application. This phenomenon of high sensitivity seems to be used by the creation of likeages at the interface between dentin and resin.

Esposito, Enrico; Putignano, A.; Rappelli, G.; Scalise, Lorenzo

1999-02-01

472

Preparation and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins with flexible diamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) is one of the most widely used epoxy resins for many industrial applications, including cryogenic engineering. In this paper, diethyl toluene diamine (DETD) cured DGEBA epoxy resin has been modified by two flexible diamines (D-230 and D-400). The cryogenic mechanical behaviors of the modified epoxy resins are studied in terms of the tensile properties

Guo Yang; Shao-Yun Fu; Jiao-Ping Yang

2007-01-01

473

Technology Perspectives on the Management of Spent-Resin Wastes Generated From Nuclear Power Reactor Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic-resin wastes (spent resins) are generated by different purification systems employed in all types of nuclear power reactors during routine and non-routine operations. The quantities of such resin wastes, and their inventories of contaminants vary depend on the operational goals of the individual power plant. Depending on the regulatory target in the particular jurisdiction where the reactor is located, the

Shiv Vijayan; Makoto Kikuchi; Akihiro Komatsu

2002-01-01

474

TRPO Impregnated Levextrel Resin: Synthesis and Extraction Behavior of Zr (IV) and Nd (III) Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel kind of Levextrel resin with trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) extractant impregnated in the styrene-divinylbenzene copolymerization was synthesized. The extraction behavior of the resin toward Zr (IV) and Nd (III) ions was investigated by batch and column operations. The influence factors such as suspension system, porogen content, stirring rate and temperature were systematically examined. The TRPO impregnated Levextrel resin showed

Wen Zhang; Gang Ye; Jing Chen

2012-01-01

475

Archaeological resinous samples from Asian wrecks: Taxonomic characterization by GC–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant resins, and particularly dammars from the Dipterocarpaceae family, were widely used in the past, notably as part of caulking material. The organic composition of resins, already complicated, is not always preserved over time and can be considerably affected by ageing. Hence, their occurrence in archaeological items leads to the necessity to identify them taxonomically with precision. Resinous organic materials

Pauline Burger; Armelle Charrié-Duhaut; Jacques Connan; Michael Flecker; Pierre Albrecht

2009-01-01

476

Carbon fibers from electrospun polymeric phenolic resin precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents a technique for producing carbon fibers of nano- to micro-sized dimension by utilizing a non-conventional fiber spinning approach with refractory polymers, followed by post-processing steps, to create new carbon materials with distinctive chemical/physical property characteristics. Phenolic resins, novolak and resole, are selected for this study because of their low cost, marketability, environmental friendliness, and high char yield upon pyrolysis. The new carbon fibers are at least an order of magnitude smaller than their conventionally processed counterpart, and possess significant advantages. Phenolic resin fibers, consisting of a blend of novolak and resole, are generated via electrospinning and are subsequently cured and pyrolyzed at temperatures from 800°C to 2000°C to form carbon fibers having diameters of ˜1 mum. Fiber analysis by scanning electron microscopy confirms that the morphology generated during the electrospinning processing is retained throughout the curing and carbonization processes. X-ray diffraction suggests the presence of highly graphitized carbon, which is further validated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. There is evidence of crystalline graphite, which may have nucleated on aligned sheets presence on the fiber surface. The physical characteristics of electrospun fibers are contrary to those exhibited by pyrolyzed phenolic resins, which fall into the classification of non-graphitizing. It is likely that the thin electrospun fibers offer a template that encourages ordering not usually seen in thicker fibers or bulk samples of carbonized phenolic resins.

Gee, Diane L.

477

Characteristics of diallyl phthalate resin as a fission track detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin plates were irradiated with fission fragments, and then etched in aqueous solution of KOH. Etched tracks were observed and counted by using an optical microscope. The detection efficiency of fission fragments was about 100% for both perpendicular and random incidence. DAP plates were insensitive to alpha particles and fast neutrons. These characteristics are suitable for detecting

T. Tsuruta

1999-01-01

478

Thermocycling Effects on Resin Bond to Silicatized and Silanized Zirconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various techniques have been introduced to create a durable resin composite bond to sintered zirconia (Y-TZP). Shear bond strength values achieved through tribochemical treatment have been investigated in numerous studies, but less is reported about long-term durability. The objective here was to evaluate the effects of thermocycling and silane on shear bond strength of a composite luting cement to silicatized

Timo T. Heikkinen; Lippo V. J. Lassila; Jukka P. Matinlinna; Pekka K. Vallittu

2009-01-01

479

Changes in surface characteristics of dental resin composites after polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine in vitro changes in surface roughness and color of dental resin composites after application of three finishing and polishing systems; (2) to evaluate the difference in color stability after immersion in a dye solution after polishing; and (3) to evaluate the effects of surface condition, especially roughness, on measured color depending

Mi-Sook Choi; Yong-Keun Lee; Bum-Soon Lim; Sang-Hoon Rhee; Hyeong-Cheol Yang

2005-01-01

480

Application of mixed mode resins for the purification of antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies from cell culture supernatant is usually done by a number of chromatographic and non-chromatographic steps. Efforts are taken to reduce the costs associated to those steps, while maintaining a high product purity. A possibility to reach this goal is the reduction of the number of chromatographic steps using mixed mode resins that offer more

Agnes Voitl; Thomas Müller-Späth; Massimo Morbidelli

2010-01-01

481

AFM of biological material embedded in epoxy resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple method to extract morphological details from the block face of epoxy embedded biopolymers by AFM. It is shown that topographical contrast and the identification of small structural details critically depend on the procedure of sample preparation before embedding (chemical fixation or high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution) and on the hardness of the embedding epoxy resin. Ethanol treatment

Nadezda Matsko; Martin Mueller

2004-01-01

482

Composite micromechanics of hemp fibres and epoxy resin microdroplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the microdeformation of single hemp fibres can be monitored by following the peak shift of the 1095 cm?1 Raman band with respect to strain and stress. This relationship is then used to monitor the deformation micromechanics of strained single hemp fibres with a microdroplet of epoxy resin attached along the gauge length. It is shown that

S. J. Eichhorn; R. J. Young

2004-01-01

483

Application of ion exchange resin in floating drug delivery system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the application of low-density ion exchange resin (IER) Tulsion(R) 344, for floating drug delivery system (FDDS), and study the effect of its particle size on rate of complexation, water uptake, drug release, and in situ complex formation. Batch method was used for the preparation of complexes, which were characterized by physical methods. Tablet containing resin with high degree of crosslinking showed buoyancy lag time (BLT) of 5-8 min. Decreasing the particle size of resin showed decrease in water uptake and drug release, with no significant effect on the rate of complexation and in situ complex formation for both preformed complexes (PCs) and physical mixtures (PMs). Thus, low-density and high degree of crosslinking of resin and water uptake may be the governing factor for controlling the initial release of tablet containing PMs but not in situ complex formation. However, further sustained release may be due to in situ complex formation. PMID:18777244

Upadhye, Abhijeet A; Ambike, Anshuman A; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant

2008-10-01

484

Low temperature cure of unsaturated polyester resins with thermoplastic additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dilatometry and morphological study of the effect of the various thermoplastic additives on shrinkage control of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins cured at low temperatures is presented in this article. It was found that shrinkage control is closely related to the morphological changes during curing. There are two major transitions in the relationship of shrinkage and additive concentration that can

W Li; L. J Lee

2000-01-01

485

Evaluation of four ABS resins by thermal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new commercial grades of rubber toughened ABS (acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene) terpolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical analysis and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These rubber toughened ABS molding compounds were manufactured by a new “blended technology” to yield resins which offer a broad range of flow properties and levels of toughness. Based upon DSC estimates of the level of

H. E. Bair; D. J. Boyle; B. Twombly

1996-01-01

486

Economic Impact Analysis for the Polymers and Resins I NESHAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this economic impact analysis (EIA) is to evaluate the effect of the control costs associated with the Polymers and Resins Group I National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) on the behavior of the regulated synthetic r...

1995-01-01

487

The preparation and properties of glass powder reinforced epoxy resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sealing composites were prepared by mixing superfine glass powder and epoxy resin. The effect of active agent (stearate) on glass powder size and size distribution and the effect of surface treatment of the glass powder on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of glass powder\\/epoxy composites were investigated. Glass powder size was measured using a laser particle size analyzer.

Haifeng Wang; Wenjue Han; Haibing Tian; Yimin Wang

2005-01-01

488

Chemical recycling of phenol resin by supercritical methanol  

SciTech Connect

Thermosetting resin is one of the most difficult substances to be recycled, because it includes a highly cross-linked structure which gives the polymer chemical and thermal resistances. A preliminary study on the technique to recycle phenol resin was conducted in the present study, which was intended to be achieved by the use of a supercritical fluid. Supercritical methanol was employed because it has the following advantages over supercritical water: i.e., it allows milder reaction conditions and easier operation for the separation of the products from the solvent. The reaction phenol resin in supercritical methanol was studied by varying the temperature in the range of 300--420 C or changing the reaction time 30--150 min to understand the effects of the reaction temperature and of the reaction time. The conversion increased rapidly above 350 C to give 94% at maximum at 420 C, and the gas fraction also increased at the same time. When a longer reaction time was employed for the reaction at 400 C, the conversion increased without giving additional gas product. From the point of view of liquefaction, the longer reaction at lower temperature would give better results. A gas chromatographic study revealed that the liquid product included phenol and its methylated derivatives. The carbon content of the solid product was higher than the initial phenol resin, showing that some carbonization took place during the reaction.

Ozaki, Junichi; Djaja, S.K.I.; Oya, Asao

2000-02-01

489

Certification of Standard Reference Material 1474a, A Polyethylene Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The melt flow rate of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1474a, a linear polyethylene (narrow MWD ethylene-hexene copolymer) resin, was determined to be 5.10 g/10 min at 190 degrees C under a load of 2.16 kg using the ASTM Method D 1238-00. The average res...

J. R. Maurey K. M. Flynn C. M. Guttman

2003-01-01

490

Biocompatibility of visible light-cured resin systems in prosthodontics.  

PubMed

Frequently dental products are introduced that have had little or no biologic testing. Cell culture systems that traditionally have been used for the study of cellular responses have recently been used to assess biocompatibility. This article reviews various cellular toxicity assays and their application to the resin systems used in clinical prosthodontics. PMID:7510339

Lefebvre, C A; Schuster, G S

1994-02-01

491

Wood ants use resin to protect themselves against pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social life is generally associated with an increased exposure to pathogens and parasites, due to factors such as high population density, frequent physical contact and the use of perennial nest sites. However, sociality also permits the evolution of new collective behavioural defences. Wood ants, Formica paralugubris, commonly bring back pieces of solidified coniferous resin to their nest. Many birds and

Michel Chapuisat; Anne Oppliger; Pasqualina Magliano; Philippe Christe

2007-01-01

492

Treatment of Spent Ion Exchange Resins IAEA Research Coordination Programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spent ion-exchange resins arising from steam condensate systems, reactor coolant clean-up systems and rad-waste procession, are considered as a specific solid waste management problem. This is the second report on the product characterisation with respect...

K. Balu S. C. Bhatia P. K. Wattal N. Chanana

1981-01-01

493

Experimental and modeling studies of clay\\/polydicyclopentadiene resin nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites have received considerable attention during the last five years due to their unexpected properties. This work incorporated nanodispersed organically modified montmorillonite clay into polydicyclopentadiene resin matrices. Montmorillonite consists of 1 nm platelet sheets with a 2:1 structure, consisting of an alumina octahedral layer sandwiched between two silica tetrahedral layers. The relative weak forces between platelets allow small

Mitra Yoonessi

2004-01-01

494

Kinetic mechanisms of laser pyrolysis of epoxy resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assess the kinetics of epoxy resin pyrolysis under the action of a carbon dioxide laser and show the rate of gas liberation to be dependent on irradiation time and power input to the laser. A helium-neon laser is used both to monitor the original laser beam and in a spectral analysis of the resulting chars and gases. The

S. G. Bychkov; A. V. Desyatkov; A. A. Biketov; G. I. Ksandopulo

1986-01-01

495

Progress in Solidification of Radioactive Waste Resins Using Specific Cement  

SciTech Connect

A kind of special cement (Named as ASC) was used in radioactive spent resins solidification in China. A prescription of X ASC cement + 0.5 X waste resins (50% water hold) + 0.35 X water was obtained first. In order to control the temperature rise caused by hydration of cement in 200 L solidification matrix, various supplementary materials were tried. Based on compressive strength tests and center temperature rise, super powered zeolite was selected. In addition, more resins were added to reduce the center temperature rise. A superior combination was obtained as ASC 35 wt.%, zeolite 7 wt.% to mix 42 wt.% of resins (50% water hold) with 16 wt.% of water. The microstructures of hydrated OPC, ASC and ASC with different zeolite addition were compared by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the SEM pictures, the structures of the needles or spines can be seen in ASC matrices and the needles structure of ASC change into flake structure gradually with more zeolite added. The simulated leaching tests showed that inclusion of zeolite in ASC reduced the leaching rates of radionuclides significantly. From 200 L matrix test, the centre temperature curve was measured, and the highest temperature was lower than 90 deg. C. No thermal cracks were found in the final solidified products. (authors)

Li, J.F.; Ye, Y.C.; Wang, J.L. [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology - INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2006-07-01

496

Resin Elongation Phenomenon of Polystyrene Nanopillars in Nanoimprint Lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the elongation of polystyrene nanopillars formed by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Silicone and perfluoropolyether were used as mold release agents to obtain molds with different adhesion forces against polystyrene to be imprinted. The adhesion force between the resin and release layers was evaluated as a force curve by atomic force microscope with a polystyrene colloid probe. Elongation depended on

Kosuke Kuwabara; Akihiro Miyauchi; Hiroyuki Sugimura

2010-01-01

497

New Advances in Catalysis by Ion-exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research on the general problems, methods and theory of catalysis by ion-exchange resins as well as new advances in its application in hydrolytic, hydration, and dehydration reactions, the synthesis of esters, alkylation, polymerisation, isomerisation, and condensation are surveyed. The bibliography includes 276 references.

N. G. Polyanskii; V. K. Sapozhnikov

1977-01-01

498

ADSORPTION OF PROTEINS ONTO ACTIVATED CARBON AND PHENOLIC RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of BSA lysozyme and mixture of the two proteins from aqueous solution onto activated carbon and adsorption of BSA onto phenolic resin has been studied to develop design parameters for protein adsorption and to evaluate the effective diffusivity of the proteins. The findings then are used as the theoretical basis for the study of processes such as enzyme immobilization

REI-YOUNG AMOS WU

1982-01-01

499

Triglyceride Oil-Derived Water-Dispersible Urethane Resin Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel class of water-dispersible urethane resin coating compositions is prepared from triglyceride oils by a three-step, one kettle process. The steps of preparation are all characterized by low energy reaction conditions, and the resultant coating comp...

W. J. Schneider L. E. Gast

1977-01-01

500

Crack propagation in and fractography of epoxy resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the stability of crack propagation in, and the fracture surface appearance of, DGEBA epoxy resins cured with TETA has been investigated using a linear elastic fracture mechanics approach. In particular, the effect of varying the amount of curing agent and curing conditions and altering external variables such as testing rate, temperature and environment have been studied. Under

Salim Yamini; Robert J. Young

1979-01-01