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Sample records for downregulates dopamine synthesis

  1. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  2. Dopamine autoreceptors and the effects of drugs on locomotion and dopamine synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, F.; Campbell, W.; Mitchell, P. J.; Randall, K.

    1985-01-01

    Criteria for distinguishing dopamine autoreceptor agonism from other mechanisms of inhibiting locomotion were examined, together with the relationship between inhibition of locomotion and dopamine synthesis. ED50 potencies to inhibit locomotion of mice were established for drugs from a number of categories. Spiperone 0.02 mg kg-1 significantly (P less than 0.05) reversed inhibition of locomotion by known dopamine agonists but not that by the other types of drug. Idazoxan antagonized inhibition of locomotion due to alpha 2-agonists but not dopamine agonists. RU 24926 (N-propyl-N,N-di[2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine) was antagonized by both spiperone and idazoxan. Only for dopamine agonists was there good correlation (r = 0.97) between potencies to inhibit locomotion in mice and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) accumulation in the nucleus accumbens of rats treated with gamma-butyrolactone and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine. The specific dopamine D1-agonist, SK&F 38393 (2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine), was inactive in both tests at doses up to 10 mg kg-1. The mixed dopamine agonist/antagonist, (-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine, commonly known as (-)-3-PPP, acted as a dopamine agonist in both tests but inhibited locomotion more potently than L-DOPA accumulation. The inhibitory effects of dopamine agonists on locomotion were not prevented by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine pretreatment. The data suggest that spiperone-reversible inhibition of locomotion in mice is a good criterion for dopamine autoreceptor agonists. The receptors involved are affected by low doses of both dopamine agonists and antagonists and seem similar to those involved in the autoreceptor mediated inhibition of dopamine synthesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4005487

  3. Catecholamines up Integrates Dopamine Synthesis and Synaptic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Ferdousy, Faiza; Lawal, Hakeem; Huang, Zhinong; Daigle, J. Gavin; Izevbaye, Iyare; Doherty, Olugbenga; Thomas, Jerrad; Stathakis, Dean G; O’Donnell, Janis M.

    2011-01-01

    The highly reactive nature of dopamine renders dopaminergic neurons vulnerable to oxidative damage. We recently demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila gene Catecholamines up (Catsup) elevate dopamine pools but, paradoxically, also confer resistance to paraquat, an herbicide that induces oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. We now report a novel association of the membrane protein, Catsup, with GTP cyclohydrolase rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase, rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis, which requires BH4 as a cofactor. Loss-of-function Catsup mutations cause dominant hyperactivation of both enzymes. Elevated dopamine levels in Catsup mutants coincide with several distinct characteristics, including hypermobility, minimal basal levels of 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenylacetic Acid, an oxidative metabolite of dopamine, and resistance to the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter inhibitor, reserpine, suggesting that excess dopamine is synaptically active and that Catsup functions in the regulation of synaptic vesicle loading and release of dopamine. We conclude that Catsup regulates and links the dopamine synthesis and transport networks. PMID:21985068

  4. Prefrontal dopamine regulates fear reinstatement through the downregulation of extinction circuits.

    PubMed

    Hitora-Imamura, Natsuko; Miura, Yuki; Teshirogi, Chie; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Nomura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of relapses is a major challenge in treating anxiety disorders. Fear reinstatement can cause relapse in spite of successful fear reduction through extinction-based exposure therapy. By utilising a contextual fear-conditioning task in mice, we found that reinstatement was accompanied by decreased c-Fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL) with reduction of synaptic input and enhanced c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeM). Moreover, we found that IL dopamine plays a key role in reinstatement. A reinstatement-inducing reminder shock induced c-Fos expression in the IL-projecting dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and the blocking of IL D1 signalling prevented reduction of synaptic input, CeM c-Fos expression, and fear reinstatement. These findings demonstrate that a dopamine-dependent inactivation of extinction circuits underlies fear reinstatement and may explain the comorbidity of substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26226637

  5. Prefrontal dopamine regulates fear reinstatement through the downregulation of extinction circuits

    PubMed Central

    Hitora-Imamura, Natsuko; Miura, Yuki; Teshirogi, Chie; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Nomura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of relapses is a major challenge in treating anxiety disorders. Fear reinstatement can cause relapse in spite of successful fear reduction through extinction-based exposure therapy. By utilising a contextual fear-conditioning task in mice, we found that reinstatement was accompanied by decreased c-Fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL) with reduction of synaptic input and enhanced c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeM). Moreover, we found that IL dopamine plays a key role in reinstatement. A reinstatement-inducing reminder shock induced c-Fos expression in the IL-projecting dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and the blocking of IL D1 signalling prevented reduction of synaptic input, CeM c-Fos expression, and fear reinstatement. These findings demonstrate that a dopamine-dependent inactivation of extinction circuits underlies fear reinstatement and may explain the comorbidity of substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08274.001 PMID:26226637

  6. Early-Life Social Isolation Stress Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Responsiveness and Downregulates the Dopamine System.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Rose, Jamie H; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-08-01

    Chronic early-life stress increases vulnerability to alcoholism and anxiety disorders during adulthood. Similarly, rats reared in social isolation (SI) during adolescence exhibit augmented ethanol intake and anxiety-like behaviors compared with group housed (GH) rats. Prior studies suggest that disruption of dopamine (DA) signaling contributes to SI-associated behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not fully understood. Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have an important role in regulating mesolimbic DA signaling, and other kinds of stressors have been shown to augment KOR function. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SI-induced increases in KOR function contribute to the dysregulation of NAc DA and the escalation in ethanol intake associated with SI. Our ex vivo voltammetry experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of the kappa agonist U50,488 on DA release were significantly enhanced in the NAc core and shell of SI rats. Dynorphin levels in NAc tissue were observed to be lower in SI rats. Microdialysis in freely moving rats revealed that SI was also associated with reduced baseline DA levels, and pretreatment with the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) increased DA levels selectively in SI subjects. Acute ethanol elevated DA in SI and GH rats and nor-BNI pretreatment augmented this effect in SI subjects, while having no effect on ethanol-stimulated DA release in GH rats. Together, these data suggest that KORs may have increased responsiveness following SI, which could lead to hypodopaminergia and contribute to an increased drive to consume ethanol. Indeed, SI rats exhibited greater ethanol intake and preference and KOR blockade selectively attenuated ethanol intake in SI rats. Collectively, the findings that nor-BNI reversed SI-mediated hypodopaminergic state and escalated ethanol intake suggest that KOR antagonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders, particularly

  7. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in ventral striatum

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin JM; Lorenz, Robert C.; Buchert, Ralph; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Plotkin, Michail; Kumakara, Yoshitaka; Cumming, Paul; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Grace, Anthony A.; Rapp, Michael A.; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug related reward. Indeed, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas of patients with alcohol dependence is shifted from non-drug related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked‘ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug related rewards and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used fMRI to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N=27). The same subjects also underwent FDOPA PET to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation by RPEs, nor striatal dopamine synthesis capacity differed between patients and controls. However, the ventral striatal coding of RPEs was negatively correlated with craving in patients. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between ventral striatal coding of RPEs and dopamine synthesis capacity in healthy controls, but not in alcohol-dependent patients. Moderator analyses showed that the magnitude of the association between RPE coding and dopamine synthesis capacity depended on the amount of chronic-habitual alcohol intake. Using a multimodal imaging approach, this study suggests that dopaminergic modulation of neural learning signals is disrupted in alcohol dependence and this is linked to long-term alcohol intake of patients. Drug intake may thus perpetuate itself by interfering with dopaminergic modulation of neural learning signals in the ventral striatum, thus increasing craving for habitual drug intake. PMID:25546072

  8. Tyrosine administration enhances dopamine synthesis and release in light-activated rat retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. J.; Watkins, C. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of dark-adapted albino rats to light (350 lux) significantly elevated retinal levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid during the next hour; their return to a dark environment caused dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid levels to fall. Retinal dopamine levels were increased slightly by light exposure, suggesting that the increase in dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid reflected accelerated dopamine synthesis. Administration of tyrosine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) further elevated retinal dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid among light-exposed animals, but failed to affect dopamine release among animals in the dark. These observations show that a physiological stimulus - light exposure - can cause catecholaminergic neurons to become tyrosine-dependent; they also suggest that food consumption may affect neurotransmitter release within the retina.

  9. Strontium vanadate nanoribbons: Synthesis, characterization and detection of dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qing; Shao, Mingwang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Hongyan

    2010-09-15

    Large-scale, high-purity and uniform strontium vanadate (Sr{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanoribbons were easily synthesized via a hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The as-prepared products were up to hundreds of micrometers in length, 200-600 nm in width, and 20 nm in thickness. These nanomaterials were employed to modify glassy carbon electrode, which displayed excellent electrochemical sensitivity in detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. A linear relationship between the concentrations of dopamine and its oxidation peak currents was obtained. The modified electrode exhibited high reproducibility and stability, which might be found potential application in the biosensors.

  10. Dopamine as a Carbon Source: The Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Carbon Spheres and Yolk-Structured Carbon Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Liu, Rui; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Chen; Unocic, Raymond R; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Gao, Hongjun; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    A facile and versatile synthesis using dopamine as a carbon source gives hollow carbon spheres and yolk-shell Au{at}Carbon nanocomposites. The uniform nature of dopamine coatings and their high carbon yield endow the products with high structural integrity. The Au{at}C nanocomposites are catalytically active.

  11. The monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 counteracts downregulated dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens of long-term drinking Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Feltmann, Kristin; Fredriksson, Ida; Wirf, Malin; Schilström, Björn; Steensland, Pia

    2016-03-01

    We recently established that the monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) decreased voluntary alcohol-mediated behaviors, including alcohol intake and cue/priming-induced reinstatement, in long-term drinking rats, while blunting alcohol-induced dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-naïve rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that OSU6162 attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviors by blunting alcohol's rewarding effects. Here, we evaluated the effects of long-term drinking and OSU6162 treatment (30 mg/kg, sc) on basal and alcohol-induced (2.5 g/kg, ip) NAc dopamine outputs in Wistar rats after 10 months of intermittent access to 20% alcohol. The results showed that basal and alcohol-induced NAc dopamine outputs were significantly lower in long-term drinking rats, compared with alcohol-naïve rats. In the long-term drinking rats, OSU6162 slowly increased and maintained the dopamine output significantly elevated compared with baseline for at least 4 hours. Furthermore, OSU6162 pre-treatment did not blunt the alcohol-induced output in the long-term drinking rats, a finding that contrasted with our previous results in alcohol-naïve rats. Finally, OSU6162 did not induce conditioned place preference (CPP) in either long-term drinking or alcohol-naïve rats, indicating that OSU6162 has no reinforcing properties. To verify that the CPP results were not due to memory acquisition impairment, we demonstrated that OSU6162 did not affect novel object recognition. In conclusion, these results indicate that OSU6162 attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviors by counteracting NAc dopamine deficits in long-term drinking rats and that OSU6162 is not rewarding on its own. Together with OSU6162's beneficial side-effect profile, the present study merits evaluation of OSU6162's clinical efficacy to attenuate alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:26464265

  12. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bilandžija, Helena; Ma, Li; Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment. PMID:24282555

  13. Ventral Striatal Dopamine Synthesis Capacity Predicts Financial Extravagance in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Andrew D.; Brooks, David J.; Whone, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including disordered gambling, can occur in a significant number of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) receiving dopaminergic therapy. The neurobiology underlying susceptibility to such problems is unclear, but risk likely results from an interaction between dopaminergic medication and a pre-existing trait vulnerability. Impulse control and addictive disorders form part of a broader psychopathological spectrum of disorders, which share a common underlying genetic vulnerability, referred to as externalizing. The broad externalizing risk factor is a continuously varying trait reflecting vulnerability to various impulse control problems, manifested at the overt level by disinhibitory symptoms and at the personality level by antecedent traits such as impulsivity and novelty/sensation seeking. Trait “disinhibition” is thus a core endophenotype of ICDs, and a key target for neurobiological investigation. The ventral striatal dopamine system has been hypothesized to underlie individual variation in behavioral disinhibition. Here, we examined whether individual differences in ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity predicted individual variation in disinhibitory temperament traits in individuals with PD. Eighteen early-stage male PD patients underwent 6-[18F]Fluoro-l-DOPA (FDOPA) positron emission tomography scanning to measure striatal dopamine synthesis capacity, and completed a measure of disinhibited personality. Consistent with our predictions, we found that levels of ventral, but not dorsal, striatal dopamine synthesis capacity predicted disinhibited personality, particularly a propensity for financial extravagance. Our results are consistent with recent preclinical models of vulnerability to behavioral disinhibition and addiction proneness, and provide novel insights into the neurobiology of potential vulnerability to impulse control problems in PD and other disorders. PMID:23450713

  14. Dipeptides Inhibit Melanin Synthesis in Mel-Ab Cells through Down-Regulation of Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-e; Kim, Eun-Hyun; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Sohn, Uy Dong; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proline-serine (PS) and valine-serine (VS) dipeptides on melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells. Proline-serine and VS significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, though neither dipeptide directly inhibited tyrosinase activity in a cell-free system. Both PS and VS down-regulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. In a follow-up study also described here, the effects of these dipeptides on melanogenesis-related signal transduction were quantified. Specifically, PS and VS induced ERK phosphorylation, though they had no effect on phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). These data suggest that PS and VS inhibit melanogenesis through ERK phosphorylation and subsequent down-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase. Properties of these dipeptides are compatible with application as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22915995

  15. MicroRNA-133 Inhibits Behavioral Aggregation by Controlling Dopamine Synthesis in Locusts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Guo, Xiaojiao; He, Jing; Kang, Le

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and primarily controlled by interactions between environmental and genetic factors. The migratory locust, a worldwide pest, exhibits pronounced phenotypic plasticity, which is a population density-dependent transition that occurs between the gregarious and solitary phases. Genes involved in dopamine synthesis have been shown to regulate the phase transition of locusts. However, the function of microRNAs in this process remains unknown. In this study, we report the participation of miR-133 in dopamine production and the behavioral transition by negatively regulating two critical genes, henna and pale, in the dopamine pathway. miR-133 participated in the post-transcriptional regulation of henna and pale by binding to their coding region and 3′ untranslated region, respectively. miR-133 displayed cellular co-localization with henna/pale in the protocerebrum, and its expression in the protocerebrum was negatively correlated with henna and pale expression. Moreover, miR-133 agomir delivery suppressed henna and pale expression, which consequently decreased dopamine production, thus resulting in the behavioral shift of the locusts from the gregarious phase to the solitary phase. Increasing the dopamine content could rescue the solitary phenotype, which was induced by miR-133 agomir delivery. Conversely, miR-133 inhibition increased the expression of henna and pale, resulting in the gregarious-like behavior of solitary locusts; this gregarious phenotype could be rescued by RNA interference of henna and pale. This study shows the novel function and modulation pattern of a miRNA in phenotypic plasticity and provides insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of the phase transition of locusts. PMID:24586212

  16. Chromatographic assay to study the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of dopamine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lindsay D; Baker, Hannah; Yeoman, Mark S; Patel, Bhavik Anil

    2012-03-21

    Serotonin and dopamine are crucial regulators of signalling in the peripheral and central nervous systems. We present an ex-vivo, isocratic chromatographic method that allows for the measurement of tyrosine, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in a model central nervous (CNS) system, to study the role of key enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of serotonin and dopamine. By utilising a sample splitting technique, we could test a single CNS sample at multiple time points under various pharmacological treatments. In, addition, we were able to conduct this assay by utilising the endogenous biochemical components of the CNS to study the synthesis and metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, negating the requirement of additional enzyme activators or stabilisers in the biological matrix. Finally we utilised NSD-1015, an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzyme inhibitor used to study the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin to monitor alterations in levels of key neurochemicals. 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine dihydrochloride (NSD-1015) was able to reduce levels of serotonin and dopamine, whilst elevating precursors L-DOPA and 5-HTP. PMID:22290325

  17. Cell-free protein synthesis and purification of human dopamine D2 receptor long isoform.

    PubMed

    Basu, Dipannita; Castellano, Jessica M; Thomas, Nancy; Mishra, Ram K

    2013-01-01

    The human dopamine D2 receptor long isoform (D2L) has significant implications in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Detailed structural knowledge of this receptor is limited owing to its highly hydrophobic nature, which leads to protein aggregation and host toxicity when expressed in cellular systems. The newly emerging field of cell-free protein expression presents numerous advantages to overcome these challenges. This system utilizes protein synthesis machinery and exogenous DNA to synthesize functional proteins outside of intact cells. This study utilizes two different cell-free systems for the synthesis of human dopamine D2L receptor. These include the Escherichia coli lysate-based system and the wheat-germ lysate-based system. The bacterial cell-free method used pET 100/D-TOPO vector to synthesize hexa-histidine-tagged D2L receptor using a dialysis bag system; the resulting protein was purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity resin. The wheat germ system used pEU-glutathione-S-transferase (GST) vector to synthesize GST-tagged D2L receptor using a bilayer translation method; the resulting protein was purified using a GST affinity resin. The presence and binding capacity of the synthesized D2L receptor was confirmed by immunoblotting and radioligand competition assays, respectively. Additionally, in-gel protein sequencing via Nano LC-MS/MS was used to confirm protein synthesis via the wheat germ system. The results showed both systems to synthesize microgram quantities of the receptor. Improved expression of this highly challenging protein can improve research and understanding of the human dopamine D2L receptor. PMID:23424095

  18. Synthesis and SAR of aminothiazole fused benzazepines as selective dopamine D2 partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Rebecca A; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Ye; Blackwell, William; Steelman, Gary; Rosamond, Jim; Wesolowski, Steven S; Campbell, James B; Zhang, Minli; Brockel, Becky; Widzowski, Daniel V

    2013-01-15

    Dopamine (D(2)) partial agonists (D2PAs) have been regarded as a potential treatment for schizophrenia patients with expected better side effect profiles than currently marketed antipsychotics. Herein we report the synthesis and SAR of a series of aminothiazole fused benzazepines as selective D(2) partial agonists. These compounds have good selectivity, CNS drug-like properties and tunable D(2) partial agonism. One of the key compounds, 8h, has good in vitro/in vivo ADME characteristics, and is active in a rat amphetamine-induced locomotor activity model. PMID:23237836

  19. Dopamine D2-Receptor Antagonists Down-Regulate CYP1A1/2 and CYP1B1 in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Harkitis, P.; Lang, M. A.; Marselos, M.; Fotopoulos, A.; Albucharali, G.; Konstandi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic systems regulate the release of several hormones including growth hormone (GH), thyroid hormones, insulin, glucocorticoids and prolactin (PRL) that play significant roles in the regulation of various Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The present study investigated the role of dopamine D2-receptor-linked pathways in the regulation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that belong to a battery of genes controlled by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and play a crucial role in the metabolism and toxicity of numerous environmental toxicants. Inhibition of dopamine D2-receptors with sulpiride (SULP) significantly repressed the constitutive and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B expression in the rat liver. The expression of AhR, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) was suppressed by SULP in B[a]P-treated livers, whereas the AhRR expression was increased by the drug suggesting that the SULP-mediated repression of the CYP1 inducibility is due to inactivation of the AhR regulatory system. At signal transduction level, the D2-mediated down-regulation of constitutive CYP1A1/2 and CYP1B1 expression appears to be mediated by activation of the insulin/PI3K/AKT pathway. PRL-linked pathways exerting a negative control on various CYPs, and inactivation of the glucocorticoid-linked pathways that positively control the AhR-regulated CYP1 genes, may also participate in the SULP-mediated repression of both, the constitutive and induced CYP1 expression. The present findings indicate that drugs acting as D2-dopamine receptor antagonists can modify several hormone systems that regulate the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1, and may affect the toxicity and carcinogenicity outcome of numerous toxicants and pre-carcinogenic substances. Therefore, these drugs could be considered as a part of the strategy to reduce the risk of exposure to environmental pollutants and pre-carcinogens. PMID:26466350

  20. Histamine H3 receptor activation inhibits dopamine synthesis but not release or uptake in rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Aquino-Miranda, Guillermo; Escamilla-Sánchez, Juan; González-Pantoja, Raúl; Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We studied the effect of activating histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) on rat nucleus accumbens (rNAcc) dopaminergic transmission by analyzing [(3)H]-dopamine uptake by synaptosomes, and dopamine synthesis and depolarization-evoked [(3)H]-dopamine release in slices. The uptake of [(3)H]-dopamine by rNAcc synaptosomes was not affected by the H3R agonist RAMH (10(-10)-10(-6) M). In rNAcc slices perfusion with RAMH (1 μM) had no significant effect on [(3)H]-dopamine release evoked by depolarization with 30 mM K(+) (91.4 ± 4.5% of controls). The blockade of dopamine D2 autoreceptors with sulpiride (1 μM) enhanced K(+)-evoked [(3)H]-dopamine release (168.8 ± 15.5% of controls), but under this condition RAMH (1 μM) also failed to affect [(3)H]-dopamine release. Dopamine synthesis was evaluated in rNAcc slices incubated with the l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) decarboxylase inhibitor NSD-1015 (1 mM). Forskolin-induced DOPA accumulation (220.1 ± 10.4% of controls) was significantly reduced by RAMH (41.1 ± 6.5% and 43.5 ± 9.1% inhibition at 100 nM and 1 μM, respectively), and this effect was prevented by the H3R antagonist ciproxifan (10 μM). DOPA accumulation induced by preventing cAMP degradation with IBMX (iso-butyl-methylxantine, 1 mM) or by activating receptors for the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) with PACAP-27 (1 μM) was reduced (IBMX) or prevented (PACAP-27) by RAMH (100 nM). In contrast, DOPA accumulation induced by 8-Bromo-cAMP (1 mM) was not affected by RAMH (100 nM). These results indicate that in rNAcc H3Rs do not modulate dopamine uptake or release, but regulate dopamine synthesis by inhibiting cAMP formation and thus PKA activation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. PMID:26169221

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of 3-aryl piperidine analogs as potent and efficacious dopamine D4 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Bhatia, Pramila A; Daanen, Jerome F; Latsaw, Steve P; Rohde, Jeffrey; Kolasa, Teodozyi; Hakeem, Ahmed A; Matulenko, Mark A; Nakane, Masaki; Uchic, Marie E; Miller, Loan N; Chang, Renjie; Moreland, Robert B; Brioni, Jorge D; Stewart, Andrew O

    2005-08-01

    A series of 3-aryl piperidine analogs with 2-piperidinoalkylamino or 2-piperidinoalkyloxy fused bicyclic rings were prepared and found to be potent and efficacious human dopamine D4 agonists. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies that led to the identification of these compounds are discussed. PMID:15896964

  2. A Biochemical and Functional Protein Complex Involving Dopamine Synthesis and Transport into Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Etienne A.; Parra, Leonardo A.; Baust, Tracy B.; Quiroz, Marisol; Salazar, Gloria; Faundez, Victor; Egaña, Loreto; Torres, Gonzalo E.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic transmission depends on neurotransmitter pools stored within vesicles that undergo regulated exocytosis. In the brain, the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) is responsible for the loading of dopamine (DA) and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles. Prior to storage within vesicles, DA synthesis occurs at the synaptic terminal in a two-step enzymatic process. First, the rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) converts tyrosine to di-OH-phenylalanine. Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) then converts di-OH-phenylalanine into DA. Here, we provide evidence that VMAT2 physically and functionally interacts with the enzymes responsible for DA synthesis. In rat striata, TH and AADC co-immunoprecipitate with VMAT2, whereas in PC 12 cells, TH co-immunoprecipitates with the closely related VMAT1 and with overexpressed VMAT2. GST pull-down assays further identified three cytosolic domains of VMAT2 involved in the interaction with TH and AADC. Furthermore, in vitro binding assays demonstrated that TH directly interacts with VMAT2. Additionally, using fractionation and immunoisolation approaches, we demonstrate that TH and AADC associate with VMAT2-containing synaptic vesicles from rat brain. These vesicles exhibited specific TH activity. Finally, the coupling between synthesis and transport of DA into vesicles was impaired in the presence of fragments involved in the VMAT2/TH/AADC interaction. Taken together, our results indicate that DA synthesis can occur at the synaptic vesicle membrane, where it is physically and functionally coupled to VMAT2-mediated transport into vesicles. PMID:19903816

  3. Aberrant Salience Is Related to Reduced Reinforcement Learning Signals and Elevated Dopamine Synthesis Capacity in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Rebecca; Deserno, Lorenz; Gleich, Tobias; Katthagen, Teresa; Pankow, Anne; Behr, Joachim; Buchert, Ralph; Roiser, Jonathan P; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-07-15

    The striatum is known to play a key role in reinforcement learning, specifically in the encoding of teaching signals such as reward prediction errors (RPEs). It has been proposed that aberrant salience attribution is associated with impaired coding of RPE and heightened dopamine turnover in the striatum, and might be linked to the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the relationship of aberrant salience attribution, RPE coding, and dopamine synthesis capacity has not been directly investigated. Here we assessed the association between a behavioral measure of aberrant salience attribution, the salience attribution test, to neural correlates of RPEs measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants (n = 58) performed an instrumental learning task. A subset of participants (n = 27) also underwent positron emission tomography with the radiotracer [(18)F]fluoro-l-DOPA to quantify striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity. Individual variability in aberrant salience measures related negatively to ventral striatal and prefrontal RPE signals and in an exploratory analysis was found to be positively associated with ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine levels. These data provide the first evidence for a specific link between the constructs of aberrant salience attribution, reduced RPE processing, and potentially increased presynaptic dopamine function. PMID:26180188

  4. Additional Nitrogen Fertilization at Heading Time of Rice Down-Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Seed Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Keiko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Terauchi, Kaede; Hoshi, Masako; Ikenaga, Sachiko; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2014-01-01

    The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm. PMID:24905454

  5. Multicomponent Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Piperazine-Based Dopamine Receptor Ligand Library.

    PubMed

    Stucchi, Mattia; Gmeiner, Peter; Huebner, Harald; Rainoldi, Giulia; Sacchetti, Alessandro; Silvani, Alessandra; Lesma, Giordano

    2015-08-13

    A series of 1,4-disubstituted piperazine-based compounds were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as dopamine D2/D3 receptor ligands. The synthesis relies on the key multicomponent split-Ugi reaction, assessing its great potential in generating chemical diversity around the piperazine core. With the aim of evaluating the effect of such diversity on the dopamine receptor affinity, a small library of compounds was prepared, applying post-Ugi transformations. Ligand stimulated binding assays indicated that some compounds show a significant affinity, with K i values up to 53 nM for the D2 receptor. Molecular docking studies with the D2 and D3 receptor homology models were also performed on selected compounds. They highlighted key interactions at the indole head and at the piperazine moiety, which resulted in good agreement with the known pharmacophore models, thus helping to explain the observed structure-activity relationship data. Molecular insights from this study could enable a rational improvement of the split-Ugi primary scaffold, toward more selective ligands. PMID:26288260

  6. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  7. Multicomponent Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Piperazine-Based Dopamine Receptor Ligand Library

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of 1,4-disubstituted piperazine-based compounds were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as dopamine D2/D3 receptor ligands. The synthesis relies on the key multicomponent split-Ugi reaction, assessing its great potential in generating chemical diversity around the piperazine core. With the aim of evaluating the effect of such diversity on the dopamine receptor affinity, a small library of compounds was prepared, applying post-Ugi transformations. Ligand stimulated binding assays indicated that some compounds show a significant affinity, with Ki values up to 53 nM for the D2 receptor. Molecular docking studies with the D2 and D3 receptor homology models were also performed on selected compounds. They highlighted key interactions at the indole head and at the piperazine moiety, which resulted in good agreement with the known pharmacophore models, thus helping to explain the observed structure–activity relationship data. Molecular insights from this study could enable a rational improvement of the split-Ugi primary scaffold, toward more selective ligands. PMID:26288260

  8. Synthesis and dopamine transporter imaging in rhesus monkeys with fluorine-18 labeled FECT

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.; Hoffman, J.M.; Eschima, D.

    1996-05-01

    Parkinson`s patients have been shown to suffer a 60-80% loss of dopamine transporters in the substantia nigra and striatum. Dopamine transporter ligands labeled with fluorine-18 (t {1/2}=110 min) are attractive probes for measuring the density of dopamine transporter sites n the striatum for the diagnosis and evaluation of Parkinson`s patients by PET. We have synthesized (Ki = 32 nM vs RTI-55), fluorine-18 labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane (FECT), with favorable kinetics as a potential dopamine transporter PET imaging agent. Treatment of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)nortropane (1) with 1-bromo-2-fluoroethane (2) in CH3CN at 80{degrees}C gave FECT (3). [F-18]FECT (3) was prepared by treating 1,2-ditosyloxyethane (4) with NCA K[F-18]/K222 (365 mCi) for 5 min in CH3CN at 85{degrees}C to give [F-18] 1-fluoro-2-tosyloxyethane (5) (175 mCi)in 59% E.O.B. yield. Coupling of [F-18] 5 with 1 in DMF at 135 {degrees}C for 45 min gave [F-18]FECT (41 mCi) in 25% yield E.O.B. following HPLC purification in a total synthesis time of 122 min. [F-18] 5 was >99% radiochemically pure with a specific activity of 5 Ci/{mu}mole. Following intravenous administration to a rhesus monkey [F-18]FECT (8.13 mCi) showed a peak uptake at 30 min in the striatum (S) followed by a slow clearance and a rapid washout from the cerebellum to afford a high S/C ratio = 11.0 at 125 min. Radio-HPLC analysis of the ether extracts form plasma samples for radioactive metabolites detected only the presence of [F-18]FECT. These results suggest that FECT is an Research supported by DOE.

  9. Ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity is associated with individual differences in behavioral disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Andrew D.; Brooks, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling, alongside addictive and antisocial disorders, forms part of a broad psychopathological spectrum of externalizing disorders, which share an underlying genetic vulnerability. The shared externalizing propensity is a highly heritable, continuously varying trait. Disinhibitory personality traits such as impulsivity and novelty seeking (NS) function as indicators of this broad shared externalizing tendency, which may reflect, at the neurobiological level, variation in the reactivity of dopaminergic (DAergic) brain reward systems centered on the ventral striatum (VS). Here, we examined whether individual differences in ventral striatal dopamine (DA) synthesis capacity were associated with individual variation in disinhibitory personality traits. Twelve healthy male volunteers underwent 6-[18F]Fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to measure striatal DA synthesis capacity, and completed a measure of disinhibited personality (NS). We found that levels of ventral, but not dorsal, striatal DA synthesis capacity were significantly correlated with inter-individual variation in disinhibitory personality traits, particularly a propensity for financial extravagance and irresponsibility. Our results are consistent with preclinical models of behavioral disinhibition and addiction proneness, and provide novel insights into the neurobiology of personality based vulnerability to pathological gambling and other externalizing disorders. PMID:24672449

  10. Part 1: synthesis of irreversible inhibitors of aldose reductase with subsequent development of a carbon-13 NMR protein probe. Part 2: synthesis of selenium analogs of dopamine as potential dopamine receptor agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Ares, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Aldose reductase converts glucose into sorbitol using NADPH as a cofactor. Sorbitol accumulation in various tissues is believed to play a major role in the development of debilitating complications of diabetes; thus, much effort has been directed toward the preparation of aldose reductase inhibitors. Of the compounds prepared, the most active are the isothiocyanate and azide analogs of the reversible aldose reductase inhibitor alrestatin. The potency of the alrestatin isothiocyanate prompted the authors to examine the possibility that isothiocyanates enriched with carbon-13 could be used as carbon-13 NMR protein probes. Toward this end, a synthesis of carbon-13 enriched phenylisothiocyanate has been developed. This reagent has been successfully utilized to study peptides via carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Research in their laboratory over the years has focused on answering two fundamental questions regarding the interaction of dopamine with its receptor. First, can the concept of bioisosterism be applied to dopamine agonists. Secondly, what is the actual molecular species of dopamine which interacts with the dopamine receptor. In an effort to answer these questions, methyl selenide and dimethyl selenonium analogs of dopamine have been synthesized.

  11. Mutant huntingtin activates Nrf2-responsive genes and impairs dopamine synthesis in a PC12 model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    van Roon-Mom, Willeke MC; Pepers, Barry A; 't Hoen, Peter AC; Verwijmeren, Carola ACM; den Dunnen, Johan T; Dorsman, Josephine C; van Ommen, GertJan B

    2008-01-01

    Background Huntington's disease is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD or Huntington's disease gene. Although micro array studies on patient and animal tissue provide valuable information, the primary effect of mutant huntingtin will inevitably be masked by secondary processes in advanced stages of the disease. Thus, cell models are instrumental to study early, direct effects of mutant huntingtin. mRNA changes were studied in an inducible PC12 model of Huntington's disease, before and after aggregates became visible, to identify groups of genes that could play a role in the early pathology of Huntington's disease. Results Before aggregation, up-regulation of gene expression predominated, while after aggregates became visible, down-regulation and up-regulation occurred to the same extent. After aggregates became visible there was a down-regulation of dopamine biosynthesis genes accompanied by down-regulation of dopamine levels in culture, indicating the utility of this model to identify functionally relevant pathways. Furthermore, genes of the anti-oxidant Nrf2-ARE pathway were up-regulated, possibly as a protective mechanism. In parallel, we discovered alterations in genes which may result in increased oxidative stress and damage. Conclusion Up-regulation of gene expression may be more important in HD pathology than previously appreciated. In addition, given the pathogenic impact of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway constitutes a new attractive therapeutic target for HD. PMID:18844975

  12. Sodium-dependence and ouabain-sensitivity of the synthesis of dopamine in renal tissues of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-da-Silva, P.; Fernandes, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    1. The present study has examined the influence of sodium chloride (0-160 mM) and ouabain (100 and 500 microM), an inhibitor of the enzyme Na(+)-K+ ATPase, on the synthesis of dopamine in slices of rat renal cortex loaded with exogenous L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). The deamination of newly-formed dopamine into 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was also examined. The assay of L-DOPA, dopamine and DOPAC in kidney slices was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) with electrochemical detection. 2. The accumulation of newly-formed dopamine and DOPAC in kidney slices loaded with L-DOPA (50 and 100 microM) was found to be dependent on the concentration of NaCl in the medium. A similar picture could be observed for DOPAC. The fractional rate of accumulation (k; mM NaCl-1) was at 50 and 100 microM L-DOPA, respectively, 0.00305 +/- 0.00036 and 0.00328 +/- 0.00029 for dopamine and 0.00672 +/- 0.00072 and 0.00641 +/- 0.00069 for DOPAC. The sodium-dependent formation of dopamine was completely abolished when the experiments were performed in the absence of oxygen. 3. In experiments performed in the presence of 120 mM NaCl, but not in conditions of low sodium (20 mM NaCl in the medium), ouabain (100 and 500 microM) was found to inhibit the accumulation of newly-formed dopamine and DOPAC (14-57% reduction; P less than 0.05); this effect was more marked at 50 and 100 microM L-DOPA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504714

  13. Stimulation of dopamine synthesis and activation of tyrosine hydroxylase by phorbol diesters in rat striatum

    SciTech Connect

    Onali, P.; Olianas, M.C.

    1987-03-23

    In rat striatal synaptosomes, 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 4 ..beta..-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), two activators of Ca/sup 2 +/-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) increased dopamine (DA) synthesis measured by following the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C) tyrosine. Maximal stimulation (21-28% increase of basal rate) was produced by 0.5 ..mu..M PMA and 1 ..mu..M PDBu. 4 ..beta..-Phorbol and 4 ..beta..-phorbol 13-acetate, which are not activators of protein kinase C, were ineffective at 1 ..mu..M. PMA did not change the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C)DOPA. Addition of 1 mM EGTA to a Ca/sup 2 +/-free incubation medium failed to affect PMA stimulation. KCl (60 mM) enhanced DA synthesis by 25%. Exposure of synaptosomes to either PMA or PDBu prior to KCl addition resulted in a more than additive increase (80-100%) of DA synthesis. A similar synergistic effect was observed when the phorbol diesters were combined with either veratridine or d-amphetamine but not with forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Pretreatment of striatal synaptosomes with phorbol diesters produced an activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) associated with a 60% increase of the Vmax and a decrease of the Km for the pterine cofactor 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin. These results indicate that protein kinase C participates in the regulation of striatal TH in situ and that its activation may act synergistically with DA releasing agents in stimulating DA synthesis. 37 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  15. Mapping the Catechol Binding Site in Dopamine D1 Receptors: Synthesis and Evaluation of Two Parallel Series of Bicyclic Dopamine Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Lisa A.; Laban, Uros; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Juncosa, Jose I.; Lill, Markus A.; Watts, Val J.; Nichols, David E.

    2012-01-01

    A novel class of isochroman dopamine analogues, 1, originally reported by Abbott Laboratories, had greater than 100-fold selectivity for D1-like vs. D2-like receptors. We synthesized a parallel series of chroman compounds, 2, and showed that repositioning the oxygen in the heterocyclic ring reduced potency and conferred D2-like receptor selectivity to these compounds. In silico modeling supported the hypothesis that the altered pharmacology for 2 was due to potential intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the oxygen in the chroman ring and the meta-hydroxyl of the catechol moiety. This interaction realigns the catechol hydroxyl groups and disrupts key interactions between these ligands and critical serine residues in TM5 of the D1-like receptors. This hypothesis was tested by the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a parallel series of carbocyclic compounds, 3. Our results suggest that when the potential for intramolecular hydrogen bonding is removed, D1-like receptor potency and selectivity is restored. PMID:21538900

  16. Perturbations in dopamine synthesis lead to discrete physiological effects and impact oxidative stress response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Marley E; Bednářová, Andrea; Rakshit, Kuntol; Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; O'Donnell, Janis M; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-02-01

    The impact of mutations in four essential genes involved in dopamine (DA) synthesis and transport on longevity, motor behavior, and resistance to oxidative stress was monitored in Drosophila melanogaster. The fly lines used for this study were: (i) a loss of function mutation in Catecholamines up (Catsup(26)), which is a negative regulator of the rate limiting enzyme for DA synthesis, (ii) a mutant for the gene pale (ple(2)) that encodes for the rate limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), (iii) a mutant for the gene Punch (Pu(Z22)) that encodes guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase, required for TH activity, and (iv) a mutant in the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT(Δ14)), which is required for packaging of DA as vesicles inside DA neurons. Median lifespans of ple(2), Pu(Z22) and VMAT(Δ14) mutants were significantly decreased compared to Catsup(26) and wild type controls that did not significantly differ between each other. Catsup(26) flies survived longer when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (80 μM) or paraquat (10mM) compared to ple(2), Pu(Z22) or VMAT(Δ14) and controls. These flies also exhibited significantly higher negative geotaxis activity compared to ple(2), Pu(Z22), VMAT(Δ14) and controls. All mutant flies demonstrated rhythmic circadian locomotor activity in general, albeit Catsup(26) and VMAT(Δ14) flies had slightly weaker rhythms. Expression analysis of some key antioxidant genes revealed that glutathione S-transferase Omega-1 (GSTO1) expression was significantly up-regulated in all DA synthesis pathway mutants and especially in Catsup(26) and VMAT(Δ14) flies at both mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, we hypothesize that DA could directly influence GSTO1 transcription and thus play a significant role in the regulation of response to oxidative stress. Additionally, perturbations in DA synthesis do not appear to have a significant impact on circadian locomotor activity rhythms per se, but do have an influence on general locomotor

  17. Dopamine Polymerization in Liquid Marbles: A General Route to Janus Particle Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yifeng; Sun, Guanqing; Ngai, To

    2016-04-01

    Coating a liquid with a particle shell not only renders a droplet superhydrophobic but also isolates a well-confined microenvironment for miniaturized chemical processes. Previously, we have demonstrated that particles at the liquid marble interface provide an ideal platform for the site-selective modification of superhydrophobic particles. However, the need for a special chemical reaction limits their potential use for the fabrication of Janus particles with various properties. Herein, we combine the employment of liquid marbles as microreactors with the remarkable adhesive ability of polydopamine to develop a general route for the synthesis of Janus particles from micrometer-sized superhydrophobic particles. We demonstrate that dopamine polymerization and deposition inside liquid marbles could be used for the selective surface modification of microsized silica particles, resulting in the formation of Janus particles. Moreover, it is possible to manipulate the Janus balance of the particles via the addition of surfactants and/or organic solvents to tune the interfacial energy. More importantly, owing to the many functional groups in polydopamine, we show that versatile strategies could be introduced to use these partially polydopamine-coated silica particles as platforms for further modification, including nanoparticle immobilization, metal ion chelation and reduction, as well as for chemical reactions. Given the flexibility in the choice of cores and the modification strategies, this developed method is distinctive in its high universality, good controllability, and great practicability. PMID:26963571

  18. Forebrain overexpression of CK1δ leads to down-regulation of dopamine receptors and altered locomotor activity reminiscent of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingming; Rebholz, Heike; Brocia, Christine; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer L.; Fienberg, Allen A.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission controls motor and perseverative behavior, is mediated by protein phosphorylation, and may be perturbed in disorders of attention and hyperactivity. To assess the role of casein kinase I (CK1) in the regulation of dopamine signaling, we generated a genetically modified mouse line that overexpresses CK1δ (CK1δ OE) specifically in the forebrain. Overexpression was confirmed both at the mRNA and at the protein levels. Under basal conditions, CK1δ OE mice exhibited horizontal and vertical hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and nesting behavior deficiencies. The CK1δ OE mice also presented paradoxical responses to dopamine receptor stimulation, showing hypoactivity following injection of d-amphetamine or methylphenidate, indicating that CK1 activity has a profound effect on dopamine signaling in vivo. Interestingly, CK1δ overexpression led to significantly reduced D1R and D2R dopamine receptor levels. All together, under basal conditions and in response to drug stimulation, the behavioral phenotype of CK1δ OE mice is reminiscent of the symptoms and drug responses observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and therefore the CK1δ OE mice appear to be a model for this disorder. PMID:20145109

  19. Controllable Synthesis of Functional Hollow Carbon Nanostructures with Dopamine As Precursor for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiansheng; Luo, Rui; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-08-26

    N-doped hollow carbon spheres (N-HCSs) are promising candidates as electrode material for supercapacitor application. In this work, we report a facile one-step synthesis of discrete and highly dispersible N-HCSs with dopamine (DA) as a carbon precursor and TEOS as a structure-assistant agent in a mixture containing water, ethanol, and ammonia. The architectures of resultant N-HCSs, including yolk-shell hollow carbon spheres (YS-HCSs), single-shell hollow carbon spheres (SS-HCSs), and double-shells hollow carbon spheres (DS-HCSs), can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the amount of ammonia. To explain the relation and formation mechanism of these hollow carbon structures, the samples during the different synthetic steps, including polymer/silica spheres, carbon/silica spheres and silica spheres by combustion in air, were characterized by TEM. Electrochemical measurements performed on YS-HCSs, SS-HCSs, and DS-HCSs showed high capacitance with 215, 280, and 381 F g(-1), respectively. Moreover, all the nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanospheres showed a good cycling stability 97.0% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles. Notably, the highest capacitance of DS-HCSs up to 381 F g(-1) is higher than the capacitance reported so far for many carbon-based materials, which may be attributed to the high surface area, hollow structure, nitrogen functionalization, and double-shell architecture. These kinds of N-doped hollow-structured carbon spheres may show promising prospects as advanced energy storage materials and catalyst supports. PMID:26243663

  20. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. PMID:25080496

  1. Lesions of dopamine neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex: effects on self-administration of amphetamine and dopamine synthesis in the brain of the rat.

    PubMed

    Leccese, A P; Lyness, W H

    1987-09-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine (DA)-containing neurons within the medial prefrontal cortex subserve a role in the positive reinforcing effects of psychomotor stimulants. Injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into this region, which destroyed a major portion of the DA innervation, but maintained the integrity of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons, failed to alter either the acquisition or maintenance of the intravenous self-administration of d-amphetamine in rats. Compared to vehicle-injected controls (sham lesions), the animals treated with 6-OHDA acquired the drug-abuse behaviour and maintained comparable, stable rates of self-injection. The lesions increased concentrations of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the nucleus accumbens septi but not in the striatum. The increased synthesis of DA in the nucleus accumbens septi [demonstrated by increased accumulation of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)] was abolished by the intravenous administration of d-amphetamine, in patterns mimicking those of animals trained in self-administration. PMID:3118232

  2. Synthesis, Pharmacological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies of Triazole Containing Dopamine D3 Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xin; Wang, Qi; Mishra, Yogesh; Xu, Jinbin; Reichert, David E.; Malik, Maninder; Taylor, Michelle; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    A series of 2-methoxyphenyl piperazine analogues containing a triazole ring were synthesized and their in vitro binding affinities at human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors were evaluated. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, and 4g, demonstrate high affinity for dopamine D3 receptors and moderate selectivity for the dopamine D3 versus D2 receptor subtypes. To further examine their potential as therapeutic agents, their intrinsic efficacy at both D2 and D3 receptors was determined using a forskolin-dependent adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay. Affinity at dopamine D4 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors was also determined. In addition, information from previous molecular modeling studies of the binding of a panel of 163 structurally-related benzamide analogues at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors was applied to this series of compounds. The results of the modeling studies were consistent with our previous experimental data. More importantly, the modeling study results explained why the replacement of the amide linkage with the hetero-aromatic ring leads to a reduction in the affinity of these compounds at D3 receptors. PMID:25556097

  3. Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of iodobenzamide analogues: Potential D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.A.; Kung, H.F.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J. )

    1990-01-01

    (S)-N-((1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6- methoxybenzamide (({sup 123}I)IBZM) is a central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent. In order to investigate the versatility of this parent structure in specific dopamine receptor localization and the potential for developing new dopamine receptor imaging agents, a series of new iodinated benzamides with fused ring systems, naphthalene (INAP) and benzofuran (IBF), was synthesized and radiolabeled, and the in vivo and in vitro biological properties were characterized. The best analogue of IBZM is IBF (21). The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) with rat striatal tissue preparation was found to be saturable and displayed a Kd of 0.106 {plus minus} 0.015 nM. Competition data of various receptor ligands for ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) binding show the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than IBF (21) greater than IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than ({plus minus})-ADTN,6,7 greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol. The in vivo biodistribution results confirm that ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) concentrated in the striatal area after iv injection into rats. The study demonstrates that ({sup 123}I)IBF (21) is a potential agent for imaging CNS D-2 dopamine receptors.

  5. Effects of systemic carbidopa on dopamine synthesis in rat hypothalamus and striatum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaakkola, S.; Tuomainen, P.; Wurtman, R. J.; Mannisto, P. T.

    1992-01-01

    Significant concentrations of carbidopa (CD) were found in rat hypothalamus, striatum, and in striatal microdialysis efflux after intraperitoneal administration of the drug. Efflux levels peaked one hour after administration of 100 mg/kg at 0.37 micrograms/ml, or about 2% of serum levels. Concurrent CD levels in hypothalamus and striatum were about 2.5% and 1.5%, respectively, of corresponding serum levels. Levels of dopamine and its principal metabolites in striatal efflux were unaffected. The removal of the brain blood by saline perfusion decreased the striatal and hypothalamic CD concentrations only by 33% and 16%, respectively. In other rats receiving both CD and levodopa (LD), brain L-dopa, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels after one hour tended to be proportionate to LD dose. When the LD dose remained constant, increasing the CD dose dose-dependently enhanced L-dopa levels in the hypothalamus and striatum. However dopamine levels did not increase but, in contrast, decreased dose-dependently (although significantly only in the hypothalamus). CD also caused dose-dependent decrease in striatal 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) and in striatal and hypothalamic homovanillic acid (HVA), when the LD dose was 50 mg/kg. We conclude that, at doses exceeding 50 mg/kg, sufficient quantities of CD enter the brain to inhibit dopamine formation, especially in the hypothalamus. Moreover, high doses of LD/CD, both of which are themselves catechols, can inhibit the O-methylation of brain catecholamines formed from the LD.

  6. Effects of systemic carbidopa on dopamine synthesis in rat hypothalamus and striatum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaakkola, S.; Tuomainen, P.; Wurtman, R. J.; Maennistoe, P. T.

    1991-01-01

    Significant concentrations of carbidopa (CD) were found in rat hypothalamus, striatum, and in striatal microdialysis efflux after intraperitoneal administration of the drug. Efflux levels peaked one hour after administration of 100 mg/kg at 0.37 microg/kg or about 2 percent of serum levels. Concurrent CD levels in hypothalamus and striatum were about 2.5 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively, of corresponding serum levels. Levels of dopamine and its principal metabolites in striatal efflux were unaffected. The removal of the brain blood by saline perfusion decreased the striatal and hypothalamic CD concentrations only by 33 percent and 16 percent, respectively. In other rats receiving both CD and levodopa (LD), brain L-dopa, dopamine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenvlacetic acid (DOPAC) levels after one hour tended to be proportionate to LD dose. When the LD dose remained constant, increasing the CD dose dose-dependently enhanced L-dopa levels in the hypothalamus and striatum. However, dopamine levels did not increase but, in contrast, decreased dose-dependently (although significantly only in the hypothalamus). CD also caused dose-dependent decrease in striatal 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) and in striatal and hypothalamic homovanillic acid (HVA), when the LD dose was 50 mg/kg. We conclude that, at doses exceedimg 50 mg/kg, sufficient quantities of CD enter the brain to inhibit dopamine formation, especially in the hypothalamus. Moreover, high doses of LD/CD, both of which are themselves catechols, can inhibit the O-methylation of brain catecholamines formed from the LD.

  7. Chinese Medicine Formula “Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction” Attenuates Tourette Syndrome via Downregulating the Expression of Dopamine Transporter in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dao-han; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiao-fang; Zhang, Jin-ming; Wang, Su-mei

    2013-01-01

    Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) is dedicated to the treatment for Tourette syndrome (TS) with the guidance of the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This study aims to investigate the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and stereotyped behavior of TS mice model by intervention of JPZDD. Mice were induced by 3,3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN, 350 mg kg−1 day−1, i.p.) for 7 days and divided into 4 groups (n = 20, each): control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups with Tiapride (Tia, 50 mg kg−1 day−1) and JPZDD (20 g kg−1 day−1), respectively. The results showed that the scores of stereotyped behavior in IDPN+JPZDD group were significantly reduced. A noticeably increased 11C-β-CFT binding at bilateral striatum was observed after administration of JPZDD versus that of IDPN or Tia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies manifested higher levels of DAT protein and mRNA in IDPN+JPZDD group. These findings not only demonstrated that JPZDD could effectively inhibit the abnormal behaviors of TS mice model, but also increase the level of DAT in striatum. Therefore, JPZDD could be one of potential treatments of patients with TS. PMID:23431337

  8. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory properties of sulfamides structurally related to dopamine.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Kadir; Nar, Meryem; Tanc, Muhammet; Vullo, Daniela; Gülçin, Ilhami; Göksu, Süleyman; Tümer, Ferhan; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel sulfamides incorporating the dopamine scaffold were synthesized. Reaction of amines and tert-butyl-alcohol/benzyl alcohol in the presence of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) afforded sulfamoyl carbamates, which were converted to the title compounds by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid or by palladium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. Inhibition of six α-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), that is, CA I, CA II, CA VA, CA IX, CA XII and CA XIV, and two β-CAs from Candida glabrata (CgCA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv3588) with these sulfamides was investigated. All CA isozymes were inhibited in the low micromolar to nanomolar range by the dopamine sulfamide analogues. K(i)s were in the range of 0.061-1.822 μM for CA I, 1.47-2.94 nM for CA II, 2.25-3.34 μM for CA VA, 0.041-0.37 μM for CA IX, 0.021-1.52 μM for CA XII, 0.007-0.219 μM for CA XIV, 0.35-5.31 μM for CgCA and 0.465-4.29 μM for Rv3588. The synthesized sulfamides may lead to inhibitors targeting medicinally relevant CA isoforms with potential applications as antiepileptic, antiobesity antitumor agents or anti-infective. PMID:23623256

  9. Synthesis and characterization of selective dopamine D2 receptor ligands using aripiprazole as the lead compound

    PubMed Central

    Vangveravong, Suwanna; Zhang, Zhanbin; Taylor, Michelle; Bearden, Melissa; Xu, Jinbin; Cui, Jinquan; Wang, Wei; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of compounds structurally related to aripiprazole (1), an atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant used clinically for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, have been prepared and evaluated for affinity at D2-like dopamine receptors. These compounds also share structural elements with the classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists, haloperidol, N-methylspiperone, domperidone and benperidol. Two new compounds, 7-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one oxalate (6) and 7-(4-(4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one oxalate (7) were found to (a) bind to the D2 receptor subtype with high affinity (Ki values <0.3 nM), (b) exhibit >50-fold D2 versus D3 receptor binding selectivity and (c) be partial agonists at both the D2 and D3 receptor subtype. PMID:21536445

  10. p38 MAPKs regulate the expression of genes in the dopamine synthesis pathway through phosphorylation of NR4A nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yusuke; Takagahara, Shuichi; Hatanaka, Ryo; Watanabe, Takeshi; Oguchi, Haruka; Noguchi, Takuya; Naguro, Isao; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Tsunoda, Makoto; Funatsu, Takashi; Nomura, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Matsuki, Norio; Kuranaga, Erina; Miura, Masayuki; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2011-09-01

    In Drosophila, the melanization reaction is an important defense mechanism against injury and invasion of microorganisms. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, also known as Pale) and dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), key enzymes in the dopamine synthesis pathway, underlie the melanin synthesis by providing the melanin precursors dopa and dopamine, respectively. It has been shown that expression of Drosophila TH and Ddc is induced in various physiological and pathological conditions, including bacterial challenge; however, the mechanism involved has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that ectopic activation of p38 MAPK induces TH and Ddc expression, leading to upregulation of melanization in the Drosophila cuticle. This p38-dependent melanization was attenuated by knockdown of TH and Ddc, as well as by that of Drosophila HR38, a member of the NR4A family of nuclear receptors. In mammalian cells, p38 phosphorylated mammalian NR4As and Drosophila HR38 and potentiated these NR4As to transactivate a promoter containing NR4A-binding elements, with this transactivation being, at least in part, dependent on the phosphorylation. This suggests an evolutionarily conserved role for p38 MAPKs in the regulation of NR4As. Thus, p38-regulated gene induction through NR4As appears to function in the dopamine synthesis pathway and may be involved in immune and stress responses. PMID:21878507

  11. Nitric oxide metabolite concentrations in maternal plasma decrease during parturition: possible transient down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nanno, H; Sagawa, N; Itoh, H; Matsumoto, T; Terakawa, K; Mori, T; Itoh, H; Nakao, K

    1998-06-01

    To elucidate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in parturition, we measured the maternal plasma concentrations of the NO metabolites, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate (cGMP) in pregnant women at various gestational ages including those at vaginal and elective Caesarean deliveries. The plasma cGMP and NO metabolite concentrations at vaginal delivery were significantly lower than those of the pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. These concentrations remained low until 4 h after delivery but returned 24 h after delivery to values similar to those of the non-pregnant women. Such suppressions of plasma cGMP and NO metabolite concentrations were not observed in the women who underwent elective Caesarean section before the onset of labour. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in the plasma ANP and BNP concentrations at the time of vaginal and Caesarean deliveries, except that a slight but significant elevation of the plasma ANP concentration was observed 1 h after Caesarean delivery. In conclusion, the plasma concentrations of cGMP and NO metabolites significantly decreased at vaginal delivery but not at Caesarean delivery. These changes were independent of the plasma ANP and BNP concentrations, suggesting the possible down-regulation of maternal NO synthesis during parturition. PMID:9665345

  12. Sensitivity of kinetic macro parameters to changes in dopamine synthesis, storage, and metabolism: a simulation study for [¹⁸F]FDOPA PET by a model with detailed dopamine pathway.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Keisuke; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Takuya; Endres, Christopher J; Minato, Kotaro; Iida, Hidehiro

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative interpretation of brain [¹⁸F]FDOPA PET data has been made possible by several kinetic modeling approaches, which are based on different assumptions about complex [¹⁸F]FDOPA metabolic pathways in brain tissue. Simple kinetic macro parameters are often utilized to quantitatively evaluate metabolic and physiological processes of interest, which may include DDC activity, vesicular storage, and catabolism from (18) F-labeled dopamine to DOPAC and HVA. A macro parameter most sensitive to the changes of these processes would be potentially beneficial to identify impaired processes in a neurodegenerative disorder such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study is a systematic comparison of several [¹⁸F]FDOPA macro parameters in terms of sensitivities to process-specific changes in simulated time-activity curve (TAC) data of [¹⁸F]FDOPA PET. We introduced a multiple-compartment kinetic model to simulate PET TACs with physiological changes in the dopamine pathway. TACs in the alteration of dopamine synthesis, storage, and metabolism were simulated with a plasma input function obtained by a non-human primate [¹⁸F]FDOPA PET study. Kinetic macro parameters were calculated using three conventional linear approaches (Gjedde-Patlak, Logan, and Kumakura methods). For simulated changes in dopamine storage and metabolism, the slow clearance rate (k(loss) ) as calculated by the Kumakura method showed the highest sensitivity to these changes. Although k(loss) performed well at typical ROI noise levels, there was large bias at high noise level. In contrast, for simulated changes in DDC activity it was found that K(i) and V(T), estimated by Gjedde-Patlak and Logan method respectively, have better performance than k(loss). PMID:21190220

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of novel tropane derivatives as potential PET imaging agents for the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Hongwen; Zhu, Lin; Lieberman, Brian P.; Zha, Zhihao; Plössl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2012-01-01

    A novel series of tropane derivatives containing a fluorinated tertiary amino or amide at the 2β position was synthesized, labeled with the positron-emitter fluorine-18 (T1/2 = 109.8 min), and tested as potential in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging agents. The corresponding chlorinated analogs were prepared and employed as precursors for radiolabeling leading to the fluorine-18-labeled derivatives via a one-step nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reaction. In vitro binding results showed that the 2β-amino compounds 6b, 6d and 7b displayed moderately high affinities to DAT (Ki < 10 nM). Biodistribution studies of [18F]6b and [18F]6d showed that the brain uptakes in rats were low. This is likely due to their low lipophilicities. Further structural modifications of these tropane derivatives will be needed to improve their in vivo properties as DAT imaging agents. PMID:22658558

  14. Synthesis and radioiodination of ergoline derivatives: potential in-vivo dopamine receptor site mapping radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhail, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The need of a dopamine-receptor based radiopharmaceutical for brain imaging is apparent. If such an agent is made available to physicians, it could provide means for detecting brain tumors, and diagnose such mental disorders as parkinsonism, schizophrenia and psychosis. Currently, such agents are yet to be discovered. Procedures were developed to synthesize and label four ergoline derivatives which could potentially exhibit affinity to dopamine receptors. Labelling with /sup 125/I was accomplished in some cases by displacing a suitably positioned leaving group with /sup 125/I-anion, while in other cases iodine exchange procedures were utilized. Formulations of the labeled derivatives were achieved via the formation of their water soluble tartarate salts. Biodistribution studies in mature Sprague-Dawley rats showed that of the four radioactive compounds injected, the highest uptake in the brain and adrenals was achieved with 8 ..beta..-(I-125)-iodomethyl-6-propylergoline. In addition, high target/nontarget ratios were obtained with the above mentioned compound. On the other hand, the least brain and adrenal uptake as well as the lowest target/nontarget ratios were exhibited by 8 ..beta..-(I-125)-(p-iodobenzenesulfonyl)-lysergol presumably due to its in-vivo instability. A comparative biodistribution study for ergoline derivatives and N-isopropyl-(I-123)-p-iodoamphetamine was conducted. The biodistribution studies showed that the brain to blood ratio for the ergoline derivative 8 ..beta..-(I-125)-iodomethyl-6-propylergoline to be very close to that for /sup 125/I-IMP at 1 minute after dose administration. However after 15 minutes the brain/blood ratio of compound XLVI was half the value of /sup 123/I-IMP. Different mechanisms of brain influx and efflux are known to occur with the amphetamine and ergoline derivatives.

  15. One-pot synthesis of magnetite nanorods/graphene composites and its catalytic activity toward electrochemical detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Salamon, J; Sathishkumar, Y; Ramachandran, K; Lee, Yang Soo; Yoo, Dong Jin; Kim, Ae Rhan; Gnana Kumar, G

    2015-02-15

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanorods anchored over reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were synthesized through a one-pot synthesis method, where the reduction of GO and in-situ generation of Fe3O4 nanorods occurred concurrently. The average head and tail diameter of Fe3O4 nanorods anchored over the rGO matrix are found to be 32 and 11 nm, respectively, and morphology, structure and diameter of bare Fe3O4 nanorods were not altered even after the composite formation with rGO. The increased structural disorders and decrement in the sp(2) domains stimulated the high electrical conductivity and extended catalytic active sites for the prepared rGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The constructed rGO/Fe3O4/GCE sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of dopamine (DA) with a quick response time of 6s, a wide linear range between 0.01 and 100.55 µM, high sensitivity of 3.15 µA µM(-1) cm(-2) and a lower detection limit of 7 nM. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor exhibited a practical applicability in the quantification of DA in urine samples with an excellent recovery rate. The excellent electroanalytical performances and straight-forward, surfactant and template free preparation method construct the rGO/Fe3O4 composite as an extremely promising material for the diagnosis of DA related diseases in biomedical applications. PMID:25240127

  16. Modulation of impulsivity and reward sensitivity in intertemporal choice by striatal and midbrain dopamine synthesis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher T; Wallace, Deanna L; Dang, Linh C; Aarts, Esther; Jagust, William J; D'Esposito, Mark; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Converging evidence links individual differences in mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine (DA) to variation in the tendency to choose immediate rewards ("Now") over larger, delayed rewards ("Later"), or "Now bias." However, to date, no study of healthy young adults has evaluated the relationship between Now bias and DA with positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen healthy adults (ages 24-34 yr; 50% women) completed a delay-discounting task that quantified aspects of intertemporal reward choice, including Now bias and reward magnitude sensitivity. Participants also underwent PET scanning with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT), a radiotracer that measures DA synthesis capacity. Lower putamen FMT signal predicted elevated Now bias, a more rapidly declining discount rate with increasing delay time, and reduced willingness to accept low-interest-rate delayed rewards. In contrast, lower FMT signal in the midbrain predicted greater sensitivity to increasing magnitude of the Later reward. These data demonstrate that intertemporal reward choice in healthy humans varies with region-specific measures of DA processing, with regionally distinct associations with sensitivity to delay and to reward magnitude. PMID:26683066

  17. Facile synthesis of hexagonal-shaped polypyrrole self-assembled particles for the electrochemical detection of dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Di-Yao; Prasannan, Adhimoorthy; Kalaivani, Raman; Hong, Po-Da

    2016-02-01

    Nanomaterials have been used as an electroactive medium to enhance the efficiency of bio/chemical sensors, primarily when synergy is reached upon mixing different materials. In this study, we report on the facile synthesis of hexagonal-shaped plate-like polypyrrole (PPY-IC) prepared through inclusion polymerization of the host-guest pyrrole monomeric inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to be used in the detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). The amount of the monomer complex plays a crucial role in the fabrication of well-defined hexagonal-shaped PPY-IC through intermolecular interactions such as π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding between the β-CD and PPY. The microstructure and morphology of the PPY-IC were examined by using various analytical techniques and a tentative mechanism for the growth process proposed which elucidates the formation of the hierarchical structure of the PPY-IC. Cyclo-voltammetry was performed with a PPY-IC modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the electrochemical detection of DA. The concepts behind the novel architecture of the PPY-IC modified electrodes have potential for the production of materials to be used in electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  18. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong; Xu, Dan; Lei, Youying; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  19. Stimulus-Dependent Dopamine Release in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker; Soderlund, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to an attenuated and dysfunctional dopamine system. Normally, a high extracellular dopamine level yields a tonic dopaminergic input that down-regulates stimuli-evoked phasic dopamine responses through autoreceptors. Abnormally low tonic extracellular dopamine in ADHD up-regulates the…

  20. Enhancing Integrin α1 Inserted (I) Domain Affinity to Ligand Potentiates Integrin α1β1-mediated Down-regulation of Collagen Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Mingjian; Pedchenko, Vadim; Greer, Briana H.; Van Horn, Wade D.; Santoro, Samuel A.; Sanders, Charles R.; Hudson, Billy G.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2012-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 binding to collagen IV, which is mediated by the α1-inserted (I) domain, down-regulates collagen synthesis. When unligated, a salt bridge between Arg287 and Glu317 is thought to keep this domain in a low affinity conformation. Ligand binding opens the salt bridge leading to a high-affinity conformation. How modulating integrin α1β1 affinity alters collagen homeostasis is unknown. To address this question, we utilized a thermolysin-derived product of the α1α2α1 network of collagen IV (α1α2α1(IV) truncated protomer) that selectively binds integrin α1β1. We show that an E317A substitution enhanced binding to the truncated protomer, consistent with a previous finding that this substitution eliminates the salt bridge. Surprisingly, we show that an R287A substitution did not alter binding, whereas R287E/E317R substitutions enhanced binding to the truncated protomer. NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggested that eliminating the Glu317 negative charge is sufficient to induce a conformational change toward the open state. Thus, the role played by Glu317 is largely independent of the salt bridge. We further show that cells expressing E317A or R287E/E317R substitutions have enhanced down-regulation of collagen IV synthesis, which is mediated by the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that modulating the affinity of the extracellular α1 I domain to collagen IV enhances outside-in signaling by potentiating ERK activation and enhancing the down-regulation of collagen synthesis. PMID:22888006

  1. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kultti, Anne; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Marjo; Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I.

    2009-07-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast, SKOV-3 ovarian and UT-SCC118 squamous carcinoma cells by analysing hyaluronan synthesis, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) content, and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA levels. The maximal inhibition in hyaluronan synthesis ranged 22-80% in the cell lines tested. Active glucuronidation of 4-MU produced large quantities of 4-MU-glucuronide, depleting the cellular UDP-GlcUA pool. The maximal reduction varied between 38 and 95%. 4-MU also downregulated HAS mRNA levels: HAS3 was 84-60% lower in MDA-MB-361, A2058 and SKOV-3 cells. HAS2 was the major isoenzyme in MCF-7 cells and lowered by 81%, similar to 88% in A2058 cells. These data indicate that both HAS substrate and HAS2 and/or HAS3 mRNA are targeted by 4-MU. Despite different target point sensitivities, the reduction of hyaluronan caused by 4-MU was associated with a significant inhibition of cell migration, proliferation and invasion, supporting the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in cancer, and the therapeutic potential of hyaluronan synthesis inhibition.

  2. Synthesis of hybrid cellulose nanocomposite bonded with dopamine SiO2/TiO2 and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material based cellulose was synthesized by the sol-gel approach. The explosion of activity in this area in the past decade has made tremendous progress in industry or academic both fundamental understanding of sol-gel process and applications of new functionalized hybrid materials. In this present research work, we focused on cellulose-dopamine functionalized SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite by sol-gel process. The cellulose-dopamine hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized via γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) coupling agent by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized dopamine bonding to cellulose structure with covalent cross linking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. The morphological analysis of cellulose-dopamine nanoSiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. From this different analysis results indicate that the optical transparency, thermal stability, control morphology of cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was tested against pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity.

  3. The vulnerability of nigral neurons to Parkinson's disease is unrelated to their intrinsic capacity for dopamine synthesis: an in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, A E; Marsden, C D; Foster, O J

    1999-03-01

    The contribution of the dopamine-synthetic capacity of nigral neuronal subregions to their vulnerability to degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) was explored using semiquantitative in situ hybridization to study expression of mRNA encoding the rate-limiting dopamine synthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Expression of mRNA, the structural protein, beta-tubulin, and the glycolytic enzyme, fructose-1,6, biphosphate aldolase (aldolase C) was studied in parallel in individual neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in matched groups of IPD and control subjects. TH mRNA expression was found to be heterogeneously expressed in nigral neurons in control and IPD subjects. There was no significant difference in mean values for TH mRNA expression between control and IPD cases and none between nigral subregions, either in control subjects or in established IPD subjects in this study, but there was evidence for a selective upregulation of TH mRNA expression in non-melanized neurons in IPD. There was no relationship between TH mRNA expression disease duration or L-dopa dosage in the IPD group. Mean TH mRNA values for two additional 40-year-old control subjects fell within the range of values of the aged-control group. Aldolase C and beta-tubulin expression did not differ between control and IPD groups or between nigral subregions. These findings suggest that regulation of dopamine synthesis at the level of the cell body does not play a part in determining the pattern of nigral cell vulnerability in IPD. The heterogeneous pattern of TH synthesis was not age-dependent and may be of physiological significance in nigral function. There was no evidence for compensatory upregulation of TH synthesis in surviving melanized neurons in IPD but non-melanized neurons may be involved in this process. Surviving nigral neurons in IPD appear to retain the capacity for normal aldolase C and beta-tubulin peptide synthesis. Long-term L-dopa treatment does not

  4. Apoptosis induction by glycoprotein isolated from Laminaria japonica is associated with down-regulation of telomerase activity and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Nam, Taek-Jeong; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Glycoprotein isolated from Laminaria japonica (LJGP) is known to exhibit significant cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of its cytoxicity are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated further possible mechanisms by which LJGP exerts its anti-cancer action in cultured human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. LJGP treatment of AGS cells resulted in inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was associated with up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and IAP family members, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. LJGP treatment markedly down-regulated the activity of telomerase and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a main determinant of telomerase enzymatic activity, with inhibition of Sp1 and c-Myc expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, LJGP treatment also caused a progressive decrease in the expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which was correlated with a decrease in prostaglandin E2 synthesis. These results provide important new insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of LJGP. PMID:21132266

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of biphenyl derivatives as potential downregulators of VEGF protein secretion and telomerase-related gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Peris, María; Falomir, Eva; Murga, Juan; Carda, Miguel; Marco, J Alberto

    2016-07-15

    A group of 47 biphenyl functionalized compounds, prepared by means of Suzuki couplings, has been investigated for their cytotoxicity on two tumoral cell lines (HT-29 and MCF-7) and one non tumoral cell line (HEK-293). 29 selected compounds have been investigated for their ability to inhibit the production of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Subsequently, the capacity of the compounds to downregulate the expression of the VEGF, h-TERT and c-Myc genes, the two latter involved in the control of the activation of telomerase, has also been determined. PMID:27259399

  6. Down-regulation of hepatic urea synthesis by oxypurines: xanthine and uric acid inhibit N-acetylglutamate synthase.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Itzhak; Horyn, Oksana; Nissim, Ilana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Caldovic, Ljubica; Barcelona, Belen; Cervera, Javier; Tuchman, Mendel; Yudkoff, Marc

    2011-06-24

    We previously reported that isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), a derivative of oxypurine, inhibits citrulline synthesis by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that IBMX and other oxypurines containing a 2,6-dione group interfere with the binding of glutamate to the active site of N-acetylglutamate synthetase (NAGS), thereby decreasing synthesis of N-acetylglutamate, the obligatory activator of carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS1). The result is reduction of citrulline and urea synthesis. Experiments were performed with (15)N-labeled substrates, purified hepatic CPS1, and recombinant mouse NAGS as well as isolated mitochondria. We also used isolated hepatocytes to examine the action of various oxypurines on ureagenesis and to assess the ameliorating affect of N-carbamylglutamate and/or l-arginine on NAGS inhibition. Among various oxypurines tested, only IBMX, xanthine, or uric acid significantly increased the apparent K(m) for glutamate and decreased velocity of NAGS, with little effect on CPS1. The inhibition of NAGS is time- and dose-dependent and leads to decreased formation of the CPS1-N-acetylglutamate complex and consequent inhibition of citrulline and urea synthesis. However, such inhibition was reversed by supplementation with N-carbamylglutamate. The data demonstrate that xanthine and uric acid, both physiologically occurring oxypurines, inhibit the hepatic synthesis of N-acetylglutamate. An important and novel concept emerging from this study is that xanthine and/or uric acid may have a role in the regulation of ureagenesis and, thus, nitrogen homeostasis in normal and disease states. PMID:21540182

  7. Effects of VMAT2 inhibitors lobeline and GZ-793A on methamphetamine-induced changes in dopamine release, metabolism and synthesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Andrew C; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2013-10-01

    Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitors reduce methamphetamine (METH) reward in rats. The current study determined the effects of VMAT2 inhibitors lobeline (LOB; 1 or 3 mg/kg) and N-(1,2R-dihydroxylpropyl)-2,6-cis-di(4-methoxyphenethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-793A; 15 or 30 mg/kg) on METH-induced (0.5 mg/kg, SC) changes in extracellular dopamine (DA) and its metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the reward-relevant nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell using in vivo microdialysis. The effect of GZ-793A (15 mg/kg) on DA synthesis in tissue also was investigated in NAc, striatum, medial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. In NAc shell, METH produced a time-dependent increase in extracellular DA and decrease in DOPAC. Neither LOB nor GZ-793A alone altered extracellular DA; however, both drugs increased extracellular DOPAC. In combination with METH, LOB did not alter the effects of METH on DA; however, GZ-793A, which has greater selectivity than LOB for inhibiting VMAT2, reduced the duration of the METH-induced increase in extracellular DA. Both LOB and GZ-793A enhanced the duration of the METH-induced decrease in extracellular DOPAC. METH also increased tissue DA synthesis in NAc and striatum, whereas GZ-793A decreased synthesis; no effect of METH or GZ-793A on DA synthesis was found in medial prefrontal cortex or orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that selective inhibition of VMAT2 produces a time-dependent decrease in DA release in NAc shell as a result of alterations in tyrosine hydroxylase activity, which may play a role in the ability of GZ-793A to decrease METH reward. PMID:23875705

  8. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  9. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2-mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures.

    PubMed

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  10. Microbiota modification with probiotics induces hepatic bile acid synthesis via downregulation of the Fxr-Fgf15 axis in mice.

    PubMed

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Rainaldi, Stefania; Bovenga, Fabiola; Murzilli, Stefania; Moschetta, Antonio

    2014-04-10

    Gut microbiota influences host health status by providing trophic, protective, and metabolic functions, including bile acid (BA) biotransformation. Microbial imprinting on BA signature modifies pool size and hydrophobicity, thus contributing to BA enterohepatic circulation. Microbiota-targeted therapies are now emerging as effective strategies for preventing and/or treating gut-related diseases. Here, we show that gut microbiota modulation induced by VSL#3 probiotics enhances BA deconjugation and fecal excretion in mice. These events are associated with changes in ileal BA absorption, repression of the enterohepatic farnesoid X receptor-fibroblast growth factor 15 (FXR-FGF15) axis, and increased hepatic BA neosynthesis. Treatment with a FXR agonist normalized fecal BA levels in probiotic-administered mice, whereas probiotic-induced alterations in BA metabolism are abolished upon FXR and FGF15 deficiency. Our data provide clear in vivo evidence that VSL#3 probiotics promote ileal BA deconjugation with subsequent fecal BA excretion and induce hepatic BA neosynthesis via downregulation of the gut-liver FXR-FGF15 axis. PMID:24656817

  11. Synthesis of ROS scavenging microspheres from a dopamine containing poly(β-amino ester) for applications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Newland, Ben; Wolff, Paul; Zhou, Dezhong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hong; Rosser, Anne; Wang, Wenxin; Werner, Carsten

    2016-02-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a substantial decrease of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The neurological deterioration during PD can be, in part, attributed to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radical scavengers have previously been shown to protect dopaminergic cells from toxic effects in vitro. Hence, new approaches need to be investigated to improve the administration of antioxidants in order to provide neuroprotection. Polymers exhibiting catechol structures offer one such approach due to their interesting physicochemical properties. In the present study a photocrosslinkable dopamine-containing poly(β-amino ester) (DPAE) was synthesized from poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and dopamine hydrochloride using Michael type addition. A water-in-oil emulsion technique was used to photo-crosslink the polymer into spherical microparticles. DPAE microspheres featured excellent scavenging properties towards 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in a dose dependent manner and could even reduce the dissolved oxygen content of physiological solution. Furthermore, the concentrations required for radical scavenging were shown to be non-toxic towards dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells as well as primary astrocytes and primary embryonic rat ventral midbrain cultures. PMID:26756041

  12. Design, synthesis and evaluation of bitopic arylpiperazinephenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles as preferential dopamine D3 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yongkai; Min, Chengchun; Acharya, Srijan; Kim, Kyeong-Man; Cheon, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-15

    The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) was proposed as a therapeutic target for drug development to treat drug abuse and addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several D3R-selective modulators over the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) can avoid extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and hyperprolactinemia. However, few biased D3R ligands were identified or showed a narrow range of selectivity at the D3R over D2R because of their high sequence homology. Herein, we designed, synthesized and evaluated the binding affinity of a series of bitopic ligands: arypiperazine-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles. Compound 9e·HCl was the most potent and selective D3R modulator among these bitopic ligands. Molecular modeling revealed that D3R selectivity depends on the divergence of secondary binding pocket (SBP) in D3R and D2R. Specifically, non-conserved Tyr36, EL1 especially non-conserved Thr92 and Gly94, and EL2 Val180, Cys181 and Ser182 of D3R may contribute to D3R specificity over D2R. PMID:26707842

  13. Effective seed-assisted synthesis of gold nanoparticles anchored nitrogen-doped graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran Duy; Balamurugan, Jayaraman; Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2016-07-15

    A novel gold nanoparticle-anchored nitrogen-doped graphene (AuNP/NG) nanohybrid was synthesized through a seed-assisted growth method, as an effective electrocatalyst for glucose and dopamine detection. The AuNP/NG nanohybrids exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity toward glucose and dopamine sensing applications. The as-synthesized nanohybrids exhibited excellent catalytic activity toward glucose, with a linear response throughout the concentration range from 40μM to 16.1mM, a detection limit of 12μM, and a short response time (∼ 10s). It also exhibited an excellent response toward DA, with a wide detection range from 30nM to 48μM, a low detection limit of 10nM, and a short response time (∼ 8s). Furthermore, it also showed long-term stability and high selectivity for the target analytes. These results imply that such nanohybrids show a great potential for electrochemical biosensing application. PMID:26967913

  14. Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Down-Regulates Melanin Synthesis in UVB-Induced Guinea Pigs Epidermal Skin Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek Hwan; Seo, Jae Ok; Do, Moon Ho; Ji, Eunhee; Baek, So-Hyeon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic compounds that are used in the clinic to regulate skin hyperpigmentation, such as arbutin, hydroquinone, and kojic acid, are only moderately effective. But, their use is limited by side effects. As part of an effort to overcome the limitations, we developed resveratrol-enriched rice (RR) using genetic engineering technique. Each of resveratrol and rice has been reported to produce anti-melanogenic effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that RR would show more anti-melanogenic effects than those of resveratrol or rice alone. Anti-melanogenic effect of RR was done by using melan-a mouse melanocytes. The depigmenting efficacy was then observed following topical application of the RR to UVB-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skin of guinea pigs. Treatment with RR extract resulted a 21.4 ± 0.7% decrease in tyrosinase expression at melan-a cells. Colorimetric analysis showed a significantly lower depigmenting value by day 9 following treatment with RR in UVB-irradiated guinea pigs the dorsal skin (p<0.01), indicating that RR produced a depigmentation effect. By staining with Fontana-Masson stain, we found that the RR-treated group had more effect histopathologically in epidermal melanin production than resveratrol or rice alone-treated group. RR was associated with reduction in the levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and downregulation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-2) expression, leading to inhibit epidermal melanin production by western blot analysis. This study suggests that the resveratrol-enriched rice may be a promising candidate in regulating skin pigmentation with UVB exposure. PMID:25414774

  15. The Role of De Novo Catecholamine Synthesis in Mediating Methylmercury-Induced Vesicular Dopamine Release From Rat Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize methylmercury (MeHg)–induced dopamine (DA) release from undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and to examine the potential role for DA synthesis in this process. MeHg caused a significant increase in DA release that was both concentration- and time-dependent. DA release was significantly increased by 2µM MeHg at 60min and by 5µM MeHg at 30min; 1µM MeHg was without effect. Because DA release induced by 5µM MeHg was associated with a significant percentage of cell death at 60 and 120min, 2µM MeHg was chosen for further characterization of release mechanisms. MeHg-induced DA release was attenuated but not abolished in the absence of extracellular calcium, whereas the vesicular content depleting drug reserpine (50nM) abolished release. Thus, MeHg-induced DA release requires vesicular exocytosis but not extracellular calcium. MeHg also increased intracellular DA and the rate of DA storage utilization, suggesting a role for DA synthesis in MeHg-induced DA release. The tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor α-methyltyrosine (300µM, 24h) completely abolished MeHg-induced DA release. MeHg significantly increased DA precursor accumulation in cells treated with 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (10µM), revealing that MeHg increases tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Overall, these data demonstrate that MeHg facilitates DA synthesis, increases intracellular DA, and augments vesicular exocytosis. PMID:23425605

  16. Levodopa Reverses Cytokine-Induced Reductions in Striatal Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Carla R.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies using neuroimaging and in vivo microdialysis in humans and nonhuman primates indicate that inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-alpha reduce dopamine release in the ventral striatum in association with depressive symptoms including anhedonia and psychomotor slowing. Methods: Herein, we examined whether reduced striatal dopamine release in rhesus monkeys chronically treated with interferon-alpha can be restored by administration of the dopamine precursor levodopa via reverse in vivo microdialysis. Results: Levodopa completely reversed interferon-alpha–induced reductions in striatal dopamine release. No changes were found in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine ratio, which increases when unpackaged dopamine is metabolized via monoamine oxidase. Conclusions: These findings suggest that inflammatory cytokines reduce the availability of dopamine precursors without affecting end-product synthesis or vesicular packaging and/or release and provide the foundation for future studies investigating therapeutic strategies that facilitate availability of dopamine precursors to improve depressive symptoms in patient populations with increased inflammation. PMID:25638816

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of novel N-fluoropyridyl derivatives of tropane as potential PET imaging agents for the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingying; Zhu, Lin; Plössl, Karl; Lieberman, Brian P.; Kung, Hank F.

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel N-fluoropyridyl-containing tropane derivatives were synthesized and their binding affinities for the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) were determined via competitive radioligand binding assays. Among these derivatives, compound 6d showed the highest binding affinity to DAT (Ki = 4.1 nM), and selectivity for DAT over SERT (5 fold) and NET (16 fold). Compound 6d was radiolabeled with Fluorine-18 in two steps. Regional brain distribution and ex vivo autoradiography studies of [18F]6d demonstrated that the ligand was selectively localized in the striatum region, where DAT binding sites are highly expressed. [18F]6d may be useful as a potential radioligand for imaging DATs with PET. PMID:21458259

  18. Down-regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase affects glycosaminoglycans synthesis and motility in HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tsung-Pao; Pan, Yun-Ru; Fu, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hwan-You

    2010-10-15

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes oxidation of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid, a precursor of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in extracellular matrix. Although association of extracellular matrix with cell proliferation and migration has been well documented, the importance of UGDH in these behaviors is not clear. Using UGDH-specific small interference RNA to treat HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells, a decrease in both mRNA and protein levels of UGDH, as well as the cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and GAG production was observed. Treatment of HCT-8 cells with either UGDH-specific siRNA or HA synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone effectively delayed cell aggregation into multicellular spheroids and impaired cell motility in both three-dimensional collagen gel and transwell migration assays. The reduction in cell aggregation and migration rates could be restored by addition of exogenous HA. These results indicate that UGDH can regulate cell motility through the production of GAG. The enzyme may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of colorectal cancers.

  19. Interfacial Polymerization of Dopamine in a Pickering Emulsion: Synthesis of Cross-Linkable Colloidosomes and Enzyme Immobilization at Oil/Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanning; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-07-15

    Colloidosomes are promising carriers for immobilizing enzyme for catalytic purposes in aqueous/organic media. However, they often suffer from one or more problems regarding catalytic performance, stability, and recyclability. Here, we report a novel approach for the synthesis of cross-linkable colloidosomes by the selective polymerization of dopamine at oil/water interfaces in a Pickering emulsion. An efficient enzyme immobilization method was further developed by covalently bonding enzymes to the polydopamine (PDA) layer along with the formation of such colloidosomes with lipase as a model enzyme. In this enzyme system, the PDA layer served as a cross-linking layer and enzyme support for simultaneously enhancing the colloidosomes' stability and improving surface availability of the enzymes for catalytic reaction. It was found that the specific activity of lipases immobilized on the colloidosome shells was 8 and 1.4 times higher than that of free lipase and encapsulated lipase positioned in the aqueous cores of colloidosomes, respectively. Moreover, the immobilized lipases demonstrated excellent operational stability and recyclability, retaining 86.6% of enzyme activity after 15 cycles. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this novel approach for enzyme immobilization has great potential to serve as an important technique for the construction of biocatalytic systems. PMID:26104042

  20. Synthesis of 8-thiabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes and their binding affinity for the dopamine and serotonin transporters.

    PubMed

    Pham-Huu, Duy-Phong; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Liu, Shanghao; Madras, Bertha K; Meltzer, Peter C

    2007-01-15

    Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the central nervous system. Its reinforcing and stimulant properties have been associated with inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) on presynaptic neurons. In the search for medications for cocaine abuse, we have prepared 2-carbomethoxy-3-aryl-8-thiabicyclo[3.2.1]octane analogues of cocaine. We report that this class of compounds provides potent and selective inhibitors of the DAT and SERT. The selectivity resulted from reduced activity at the SERT. The 3beta-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) analogue inhibits the DAT and SERT with a potency of IC(50)=5.7 nM and 8.0 nM, respectively. The 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,3-unsaturated analogue inhibits the DAT potently (IC(50)=4.5 nM) and selectively (>800-fold vs SERT). Biological enantioselectivity of DAT inhibition was limited for both the 3-aryl-2,3-unsaturated and the 3alpha-aryl analogues (2-fold), but more robust (>10-fold) for the 3beta-aryl analogues. The (1R)-configuration provided the eutomers. PMID:17070057

  1. Synthesis of 3beta-(4-[18F]fluoromethylphenyl)- and 3beta-(2-[18F] fluoromethylphenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters: new ligands for mapping brain dopamine transporter with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Petric, A; Barrio, J R; Namavari, M; Huang, S C; Satyamurthy, N

    1999-07-01

    The synthesis of two new dopamine transporter ligands, 3beta-(4-fluoromethylphenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester and 3beta-(2-fluoromethylphenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester, and their spectral characterization are described. The precursors for these ligands were prepared by TiCl4 catalyzed chloromethylation of 3beta-phenyltropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester followed by separation of the isomeric product mixture of 2- and 4-chloromethylphenyltropane derivatives. Reaction of the chloromethyl analogs with no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride ion followed by high performance liquid chromatography purification provided the corresponding [18F]fluoromethyltropanes, in good radiochemical yields, useful for imaging the brain dopamine transporter system in vivo with positron emission tomography. PMID:10473191

  2. Neurons expressing individual enzymes of dopamine synthesis in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult rats: functional significance and topographic interrelations.

    PubMed

    Ugrumov, M; Taxi, J; Pronina, T; Kurina, A; Sorokin, A; Sapronova, A; Calas, A

    2014-09-26

    Besides dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons having all enzymes of DA synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), "monoenzymatic" neurons expressing only one of them were found in the brain, mostly in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that DA is synthesized by monoenzymatic neurons, i.e. l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), which produced in the monoenzymatic TH neurons is transported in the monoenzymatic AADC neurons for DA synthesis. Incubation of MBH in Krebs-Ringer solution with l-leucine, a competitive inhibitor of l-DOPA uptake, was used to prevent a hypothetical l-DOPA capture into AADC-containing neurons. Incubation of the substantia nigra containing DA-ergic neurons under the same conditions served as the control. According to our data, the l-leucine administration provoked a decrease of DA concentration in MBH and in the incubation medium but not in the substantia nigra and respective incubation medium, showing a decrease of cooperative synthesis of DA in MBH. This conclusion was supported by an observation of higher concentration of l-DOPA in the incubation medium under perfusion of MBH with Krebs-Ringer solution containing tolcapone, an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase, and l-leucine than under perfusion with the same solution, but without l-leucine. Functional interaction between monoenzymatic TH and AADC neurons was indirectly confirmed by finding in electron microscopy their close relations in MBH. Besides monoenzymatic AADC neurons, any AADC-possessing neurons, catecholaminergic and serotoninergic, apparently, could participate in DA synthesis together with monoenzymatic TH neurons. This idea was confirmed by the observation of close topographic relations between monoenzymatic TH neurons and those containing both enzymes, i.e. DA-ergic, noradrenergic or adrenergic. Thus, monoenzymatic neurons possessing TH or AADC and being in close topographic relations

  3. Enhanced synthesis and release of dopamine in transgenic mice with gain-of-function α6* nAChRs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Lee, Jang-Won; Oh, Gyeon; Grady, Sharon R.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Brunzell, Darlene H.; Cannon, Jason R.; Drenan, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    α6β2* nAChRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens (NAc) pathway are implicated in the response to nicotine, and recent work suggests these receptors play a role in the rewarding action of ethanol. Here, we studied mice expressing gain-of-function α6β2* nAChRs (α6L9’S mice) that are hypersensitive to nicotine and endogenous acetylcholine (ACh). Evoked extracellular dopamine (DA) levels were enhanced in α6L9’S NAc slices compared to control, non-transgenic (nonTg) slices. Extracellular DA levels in both nonTg and α6L9’S slices were further enhanced in the presence of GBR12909, suggesting intact DA transporter function in both mouse strains. Ongoing α6β2* nAChR activation by ACh plays a role in enhancing DA levels, as α-conotoxin MII completely abolished evoked DA release in α6L9’S slices and decreased spontaneous DA release from striatal synaptosomes. In HPLC experiments, α6L9’S NAc tissue contained significantly more DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) compared to nonTg NAc tissue. Serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine (NE) were unchanged in α6L9’S compared to nonTg tissue. Western blot analysis revealed increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression in α6L9’S NAc. Overall, these results show that enhanced α6β2* nAChR activity in NAc can stimulate DA production and lead to increased extracellular DA levels. PMID:24266758

  4. Enhanced synthesis and release of dopamine in transgenic mice with gain-of-function α6* nAChRs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexiang; Lee, Jang-Won; Oh, Gyeon; Grady, Sharon R; McIntosh, J Michael; Brunzell, Darlene H; Cannon, Jason R; Drenan, Ryan M

    2014-04-01

    α6β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)s in the ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens (NAc) pathway are implicated in the response to nicotine, and recent work suggests these receptors play a role in the rewarding action of ethanol. Here, we studied mice expressing gain-of-function α6β2* nAChRs (α6L9'S mice) that are hypersensitive to nicotine and endogenous acetylcholine. Evoked extracellular dopamine (DA) levels were enhanced in α6L9'S NAc slices compared to control, non-transgenic (non-Tg) slices. Extracellular DA levels in both non-Tg and α6L9'S slices were further enhanced in the presence of GBR12909, suggesting intact DA transporter function in both mouse strains. Ongoing α6β2* nAChR activation by acetylcholine plays a role in enhancing DA levels, as α-conotoxin MII completely abolished evoked DA release in α6L9'S slices and decreased spontaneous DA release from striatal synaptosomes. In HPLC experiments, α6L9'S NAc tissue contained significantly more DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid compared to non-Tg NAc tissue. Serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine (NE) were unchanged in α6L9'S compared to non-Tg tissue. Western blot analysis revealed increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression in α6L9'S NAc. Overall, these results show that enhanced α6β2* nAChR activity in NAc can stimulate DA production and lead to increased extracellular DA levels. PMID:24266758

  5. Synthesis, Protein Levels, Activity and Phosphorylation State of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Mesoaccumbens and Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathways of Chronically Food-restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yan; Berman, Yemiliya; Haberny, Sandra; Meller, Emanuel; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic food restriction (FR) enhances the rewarding and motor-activating effects of abused drugs, and is accompanied by changes in dopamine (DA) dynamics and increased D-1 DA receptor-mediated cell signaling and transcriptional responses in nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, little is known about effects of FR on DA synthetic activity in the mesoaccumbens and nigrostriatal pathways. In Experiment 1 of the present study, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was measured in ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, using real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization; no differences were observed between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats. In Experiment 2, TH protein levels, determined by Western blot, were found to be elevated in NAc and caudate-putamen (CPu) of FR relative to AL rats. In the absence of increased transcription, this may reflect a slowing of TH degradation. In Experiments 3 and 4, DA synthetic activity was assessed by Western blot measurement of TH phosphorylation at Ser-40, and HPLC measurement of in vivo tyrosine hydroxylation rate, as reflected by DOPA accumulation following administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor (NSD-1015; 100 mg/kg, i.p.). Basal phospho-Ser(40)-TH levels did not differ between groups but DOPA accumulation was decreased by FR. Decreased DOPA synthesis, despite increased levels of TH protein, may reflect the inhibitory effect of increased DA binding to TH protein or decreased concentrations of cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. Finally, in response to d-amphetamine (0.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), phospho-Ser(40)-TH was selectively decreased in NAc of FR rats. This suggests increased feedback inhibition of DA synthesis - a possible consequence of postsynaptic receptor hypersensitivity, or increased extracellular DA concentration. These results indicate that FR increases TH protein levels, but may decrease the capacity for DA synthesis by decreasing TH activity. According to this scheme, the previously observed upregulation of striatal

  6. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase depletes tryptophan, activates general control non-derepressible 2 kinase and down-regulates key enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in primary human CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2015-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and exerts immunosuppressive effects on CD4(+) T cells. One mechanism is through the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. Another prerequisite for T-cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells is increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis. The effect of IDO on enzymes involved in FA synthesis was evaluated in primary human cells both in mixed lymphocyte reactions in the presence or not of the IDO inhibitor 1-dl-methyl-tryptophan, and in stimulated CD4(+) T cells in the presence or not of the general control non-derepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase activator tryptophanol (TRP). IDO or TRP inhibited cell proliferation. By assessing the level of GCN2 kinase or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 substrates along with a kynurenine free system we showed that IDO exerts its effect mainly through activation of GCN2 kinase. IDO or TRP down-regulated ATP-citrate lyase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1, key enzymes involved in FA synthesis. Also, IDO or TRP altered the expression of enzymes that control the availability of carbon atoms for FA synthesis, such as lactate dehydrogenase-A, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutaminase 1 and glutaminase 2, in a way that inhibits FA synthesis. In conclusion, IDO through GCN2 kinase activation inhibits CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and down-regulates key enzymes that directly or indirectly promote FA synthesis, a prerequisite for CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cell lineages. PMID:26147366

  7. Sunlight assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles in zeolite matrix and study of its application on electrochemical detection of dopamine and uric acid in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, S; Devi, S; Pandian, K; Devendiran, R; Selvaraj, M

    2016-12-01

    Sunlight assisted reduction of silver ions were accomplished for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles incorporated within the mesoporous silicate framework of zeolite Y. The zeolite-Y and AgNP/Zeo-Y were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption BET isotherm and X-ray diffraction techniques. The incorporation of silver nanoparticles within the porous framework was further confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation of biologically important molecules like dopamine and uric acid using AgNP/Zeo-Y modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed. A simultaneous oxidation of DA and UA peaks were obtained at +0.31V and +0.43V (vs. Ag/AgCl) using AgNP/Zeo-Y/GCE under the optimum experimental condition. A well-resolved peak potential window (~120mV) for the oxidation of both DA and UA were observed at AgNP/Zeo-Y/GCE system. The calibration curves for DA and UA were obtained within the dynamic linear range of 0.02×10(-6) to 0.18×10(-6)M (R(2)=0.9899) and 0.05×10(-6) to 0.7×10(-6)M (R(2)=0.9996) and the detection limits were found to be 1.6×10(-8)M and 2.51×10(-8)M by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of both DA and UA in human urine samples with a related standard deviation was <3%, and n=5 using the standard addition method. PMID:27612692

  8. A facile one-pot synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for simultaneous enhanced detecting of dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyin; Zheng, Xiaohui; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we described the facile synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (CNDs-rGO) and their application for the enhanced electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). CNDs-rGO were synthesized for the first time through a green and facile one-step approach, carried out by hydrothermal heat-treatment of an aqueous solution containing GO and chitosan without introduction of other reducing agents or surface modifier. Then, the morphology and composition of CNDs-rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM observations revealed that CNDs with a size of about 5.0 nm were homogeneously and densely distributed on the surface of rGO. Electrochemical investigations indicated that CNDs-rGO nanocomposites exhibited an excellent performance toward DA and UA. The linear range for DA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 227 μM with a sensitivity of 154.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.03 μM. Meanwhile, the linear range for UA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 328 μM with a high sensitivity of 178.1 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.05 μM. Therefore, CNDs-rGO nanocomposites showed great application potential for constructing electrochemical sensors for the detection of DA and UA. PMID:27284588

  9. Increased local dopamine secretion has growth promoting effects in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coufal, Monique; Invernizzi, Pietro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Frampton, Gabriel A.; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Carpino, Guido; Ramirez, Jonathan C.; Alvaro, Domenico; Marzioni, Marco; Battisti, Guido; Benedetti, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating cancer of biliary origin with limited treatment options. Symptoms are usually evident after blockage of the bile duct by the tumor, and at this late stage, they are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Therefore, it is imperative that alternative treatment options are explored. We have previously shown that serotonin metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma leading to an increased secretion of serotonin, which has growth-promoting effects. Because serotonin and dopamine share the degradation machinery, we evaluated the secretion of dopamine from cholangiocarcinoma and its effects on cell proliferation. Using 4 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and human biopsy samples, we demonstrated that there was an increase in mRNA and protein expression of the dopamine synthesis enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase in cholangiocarcinoma. There was increased dopamine secretion from cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared to H69 and HIBEC cholangiocytes and increased dopamine immunoreactivity in human biopsy samples. Furthermore, administration of dopamine to all cholangiocarcinoma cell lines studied increased proliferation by up to 30% which could be blocked by the pretreatment of the D2 and D4 dopamine receptor antagonists, whereas blocking dopamine production by α-methyldopa administration suppressed growth by up to 25%. Administration of α-methyldopa to nude mice also suppressed cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth. The data presented here represent the first evidence that dopamine metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma and that modulation of dopamine synthesis may represent an alternative target for the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:19795457

  10. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-11-01

    Methamphetamine's widepread abuse and concerns that it might increase Parkinson's disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [(11)C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as a marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15). In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of dopamine terminals. PMID

  11. The role of D2-autoreceptors in regulating dopamine neuron activity and transmission.

    PubMed

    Ford, C P

    2014-12-12

    Dopamine D2-autoreceptors play a key role in regulating the activity of dopamine neurons and control the synthesis, release and uptake of dopamine. These Gi/o-coupled inhibitory receptors play a major part in shaping dopamine transmission. Found at both somatodendritic and axonal sites, autoreceptors regulate the firing patterns of dopamine neurons and control the timing and amount of dopamine released from their terminals in target regions. Alterations in the expression and activity of autoreceptors are thought to contribute to Parkinson's disease as well as schizophrenia, drug addiction and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which emphasizes the importance of D2-autoreceptors in regulating the dopamine system. This review will summarize the cellular actions of dopamine autoreceptors and discuss recent advances that have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms by which D2-receptors control dopamine transmission. PMID:24463000

  12. Subtilase cytotoxin, produced by Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, transiently inhibits protein synthesis of Vero cells via degradation of BiP and induces cell cycle arrest at G1 by downregulation of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Naoko; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Matsuura, Gen; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2008-04-01

    Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a AB(5) type toxin produced by Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, which exhibits cytotoxicity to Vero cells. SubAB B subunit binds to toxin receptors on the cell surface, whereas the A subunit is a subtilase-like serine protease that specifically cleaves chaperone BiP/Grp78. As noted previously, SubAB caused inhibition of protein synthesis. We now show that the inhibition of protein synthesis was transient and occurred as a result of ER stress induced by cleavage of BiP; it was closely associated with phosphorylation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha). The phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2alpha was maximal at 30-60 min and then returned to the control level. Protein synthesis after treatment of cells with SubAB was suppressed for 2 h and recovered, followed by induction of stress-inducible C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). BiP degradation continued, however, even after protein synthesis recovered. SubAB-treated cells showed cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, which may result from cyclin D1 downregulation caused by both SubAB-induced translational inhibition and continuous prolonged proteasomal degradation. PMID:18005237

  13. Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling. PMID:25232310

  14. Synthesis and resolution of (+-)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(3'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro- 1H-3- benzazepine (TISCH): A high affinity and selective iodinated ligand for CNS D1 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chumpradit, S.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J.J.; Kung, H.F. )

    1991-03-01

    The synthesis and resolution of (+-)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(3'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3- benzazepine, (+/-)-TISCH (8) has been achieved by resolution of intermediate 4, the O-methoxyl, 3'-bromo derivative, as the diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salt. The final products, R-(+)-8 and S-(-)-8, were prepared by treatment of R-(+)- or S-(-)-7, the 3'-tributyltin intermediates, with iodine in chloroform, followed by O-demethylation. By using HPLC with a chiral column, the optical purity (greater than 99%) of the intermediates and the final compounds was determined. Radioiodination was achieved by an iodo-destannylation reaction with sodium (125I)iodide and hydrogen peroxide. As expected, the R-(+)-(125I)-8 (the active isomer) displayed high affinity and selectivity to the CNS D-1 receptor in rat striatum tissue preparation (Kd = 0.205 nM). The rank order of potency was as follows: SCH-23390 (1a) greater than (+/-)-8 greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than spiperone, WB4101 greater than dopamine, 5-HT. After an iv injection, the R-(+)-(125I)-8 penetrated the blood-brain barrier with ease and displayed specific regional distribution corresponding to the D-1 receptor density, while the S-(-)-(125I)-8 showed no specific uptake. The data suggest that the ligand may be useful as a pharmacological tool for characterizing the D-1 dopamine receptor. When labeled with I-123, this ligand is a potential agent for in vivo imaging of CNS D-1 dopamine receptor.

  15. Dopamine: the rewarding years

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

  16. Restoration of the Dopamine Transporter through Cell Therapy Improves Dyskinesia in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, D.; Stanic, D.; Chua, H. K.; White, K.; Boon, W. C.; Horne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The dyskinesia of Parkinson's Disease is most likely due to excess levels of dopamine in the striatum. The mechanism may be due to aberrant synthesis but also, a deficiency or absence of the Dopamine Transporter. In this study we have examined the proposition that reinstating Dopamine Transporter expression in the striatum would reduce dyskinesia. We transplanted c17.2 cells that stably expressed the Dopamine Transporter into dyskinetic rats. There was a reduction in dyskinesia in rats that received grafts expressing the Dopamine Transporter. Strategies designed to increase Dopamine Transporter in the striatum may be useful in treating the dyskinesia associated with human Parkinson's Disease. PMID:27077649

  17. Design and Synthesis of Photoaffinity Labeling Ligands of the l-Prolyl-l-leucyl-glycinmide Binding Site Involved in the Allosteric Modulation of the Dopamine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Abigail; Mann, Amandeep; Verma, Vaneeta; Thomas, Nancy; Mishra, Ram K.; Johnson, Rodney L.

    2008-01-01

    Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 (PLG), in addition to its endocrine effects, possesses the ability to modulate dopamine D2 receptors within the CNS. However, the precise binding site of PLG is unknown. Potential photoaffinity labeling ligands of the PLG binding site were designed as tools to be used in the identification of the macromolecule that possesses this binding site. Six different photoaffinity labeling ligands were designed and synthesized based upon γ-lactam PLG peptidomimetic 1. The 4-azido-benzoyl and 4-azido-2-hydroxy-benzoyl photoaffinity labeling moieties were placed at opposite ends of PLG peptidomimetic 1 to generate a series of ligands that potentially could be used to map the PLG binding site. All of the compounds that were synthesized possessed activity comparable to or better than PLG in enhancing [3H]N-propylnorapomorphine agonist binding to dopamine receptors. Photoaffinity ligands that were cross-linked to the receptor preparation produced a modulatory effect that was either comparable to or greater than the increase in agonist binding produced by the respective ligands that were not cross-linked to the dopamine receptor. The results indicate that these photoaffinity labeling agents are binding at the same site as PLG and PLG peptidomimetic 1. PMID:16392815

  18. Transition-metal-ion-mediated polymerization of dopamine: mussel-inspired approach for the facile synthesis of robust transition-metal nanoparticle-graphene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Kong, Junhua; Zhou, Dan; Ang, Jia Ming; Phua, Si Lei; Yee, Wu Aik; Liu, Hai; Huang, Yizhong; Lu, Xuehong

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by the high transition-metal-ion content in mussel glues, and the cross-linking and mechanical reinforcement effects of some transition-metal ions in mussel threads, high concentrations of nickel(II), cobalt(II), and manganese(II) ions have been purposely introduced into the reaction system for dopamine polymerization. Kinetics studies were conducted for the Ni(2+)-dopamine system to investigate the polymerization mechanism. The results show that the Ni(2+) ions could accelerate the assembly of dopamine oligomers in the polymerization process. Spectroscopic and electron microscopic studies reveal that the Ni(2+) ions are chelated with polydopamine (PDA) units, forming homogeneous Ni(2+)-PDA complexes. This facile one-pot approach is utilized to construct transition-metal-ion-PDA complex thin coatings on graphene oxide, which can be carbonized to produce robust hybrid nanosheets with well-dispersed metallic nickel/metallic cobalt/manganese(II) oxide nanoparticles embedded in PDA-derived thin graphitic carbon layers. The nickel-graphene hybrid prepared by using this approach shows good catalytic properties and recyclability for the reduction of p-nitrophenol. PMID:24862644

  19. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Downregulates ELOVL1 Gene Expression and Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Fetal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weipeng; He, Qiburi; Guo, Zhixin; Yang, Limin; Bao, Lili; Bao, Wenlei; Zheng, Xu; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 1 (ELOVL1) is a ubiquitously expressed gene that belongs to the ELOVL family and regulates the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and sphingolipids, from yeast to mammals. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of cell metabolism and is associated with fatty acids synthesis. In this study, we cloned the cDNA that encodes Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) ELOVL1 (GenBank Accession number KF549985) and investigated its expression in 10 tissues. ELOVL1 cDNA was 840 bp, encoding a deduced protein of 279 amino acids, and ELOVL1 mRNA was expressed in a wide range of tissues. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin decreased ELOVL1 expression and fatty acids synthesis in Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts. These data show that ELOVL1 expression is regulated by mTORC1 and that mTORC1 has significant function in fatty acids synthesis in Cashmere goat. PMID:26204830

  20. trans-Caffeic acid stearyl ester from Paeonia suffruticosa inhibits melanin synthesis by cAMP-mediating down-regulation of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated melanogenesis signaling pathway in B16 cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chou, Tzung-Han; Tseng, Ya-Ping; Ding, Hsiou-Yu

    2012-01-01

    trans-Caffeic acid stearyl ester (TCASE) from the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa ANDREWS is a traditional medicinal herb that has several beneficial properties. However, the inhibitory effect of TCASE on melanogenesis has not been explored. In the cell viability assay, TCASE did not show a cytotoxic effect at a dose of 65 µM for 48 h in B16, HaCaT and Hs68 cells. TCASE considerably inhibits melanin synthesis, and reduces intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, tyrosinase activity and L-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-alanine (DOPA) oxidase activity in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in B16 cells, and the inhibition efficiency of TCASE exceeds that of ascorbic acid and arbutin. TCASE reduces melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) and TRP-1 mRNA and protein levels in B16 cells. Based on the findings, TCASE is posited to inhibit melanogenesis signaling while suppressing cAMP levels and, subsequently, MC1R, MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-2 and TRP-1 down-regulation, resulting in the suppression of tyrosinase activity, DOPA oxidase activity and melanin synthesis. PMID:23207771

  1. QUANTIFICATION OF RESERVE POOL DOPAMINE IN METHIONINE SULFOXIDE REDUCTASE A NULL MICE

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Andrea N.; Oien, Derek B.; Moskovitz, Jackob; Johnson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mice, which serve as a potential model for neurodegeneration, suffer from increased oxidative stress and have previously been found to have chronically elevated brain dopamine content levels relative to control mice. Additionally, these high levels parallel increased presynaptic dopamine release. In this work, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to quantify striatal reserve pool dopamine in knockout mice and wild-type control mice. Reserve pool dopamine efflux, induced by amphetamine, was measured in brain slices from knockout and wild type mice in the presence of α-methyl-p-tyrosine, a dopamine synthesis inhibitor. Additionally, the stimulated release of reserve pool dopamine, mobilized by cocaine, was measured. Both efflux and stimulated release measurements were enhanced in slices from knockout mice, suggesting that these mice have greater reserve pool dopamine stores than wild-type and that these stores are effectively mobilized. Moreover, dopamine transporter labeling data indicate that the difference in measured dopamine efflux was likely not caused by altered dopamine transporter protein expression. Additionally, slices from MsrA−/− and wild-type mice were equally responsive to increasing extracellular calcium concentrations, suggesting that potential differences in either calcium entry or intracellular calcium handling are not responsible for increased reserve pool dopamine release. Collectively, these results demonstrate that MsrA−/− knockout mice maintain a larger dopamine reserve pool than wild-type control mice, and that this pool is readily mobilized. PMID:21219974

  2. Sport physiology, dopamine and nitric oxide - Some speculations and hypothesis generation.

    PubMed

    Landers, J G; Esch, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Elite Spanish professional soccer players surprisingly showed a preponderance of an allele coding for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that resulted in lower nitric oxide (NO) compared with Spanish endurance and power athletes and sedentary men. The present paper attempts a speculative explanation. Soccer is an "externally-paced" (EP) sport and team work dependent, requiring "executive function skills". We accept that time interval estimation skill is, in part, also an executive skill. Dopamine (DA) is prominent among the neurotransmitters with a role in such skills. Polymorphisms affecting dopamine (especially DRD2/ANKK1-Taq1a which leads to lower density of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum, leading to increased striatal dopamine synthesis) and COMT val 158 met (which prolongs the action of dopamine in the cortex) feature both in the time interval estimation and the executive skills literatures. Our paper may be a pioneering attempt to stimulate empirical efforts to show how genotypes among soccer players may be connected via neurotransmitters to certain cognitive abilities that predict sporting success, perhaps also in some other externally-paced team sports. Graphing DA levels against time interval estimation accuracy and also against certain executive skills reveals an inverted-U relationship. A pathway from DA, via endogenous morphine and mu3 receptors on endothelia, to the generation of NO in tiny quantities has been demonstrated. Exercise up-regulates DA and this pathway. With somewhat excessive exercise, negative feedback from NO down-regulates DA, hypothetically keeping it near the peak of the inverted-U. Other research, not yet done on higher animals or humans, shows NO "fine-tuning" movement. We speculate that Caucasian men, playing soccer recreationally, would exemplify the above pattern and their nitric oxide synthase (NOS) would reflect the norm of their community, whereas professional players of soccer and perhaps other EP sports, with DA boosted by

  3. Cytokine effects on the basal ganglia and dopamine function: the subcortical source of inflammatory malaise.

    PubMed

    Felger, Jennifer C; Miller, Andrew H

    2012-08-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

  4. Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

  5. Gd-DTPA-Dopamine-Bisphytanyl Amphiphile: Synthesis, Characterisation and Relaxation Parameters of the Nanoassemblies and Their Potential as MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; de Campo, Liliana; Hwang, Dennis W; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-09-28

    Here, a new amphiphilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a Gd(III)-chelated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated to two branched alkyl chains via a dopamine spacer, Gd-DTPA-dopamine-bisphytanyl (Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy), which is readily capable of self-assembling into liposomal nanoassemblies upon dispersion in an aqueous solution, is reported. In vitro relaxivities of the dispersions were found to be much higher than Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent, at 0.47 T but comparable at 9.40 T. Analysis of variable temperature (17)O NMR transverse relaxation measurements revealed the water exchange of the nanoassemblies to be faster than that previously reported for paramagnetic liposomes. Molecular reorientation dynamics were probed by (1)H NMRD profiles using a classical inner and outer sphere relaxation model and a Lipari-Szabo "model-free" approach. High payloads of Gd(III) ions in the liposomal nanoassemblies made solely from the Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy amphiphiles, in combination with slow molecular reorientation and fast water exchange makes this novel amphiphile a suitable candidate to be investigated as an advanced MRI contrast agent. PMID:26376329

  6. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-07-21

    Metamphetamine’s widepread abuse and concerns that it may increase Parkinson’s disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [11C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [11C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15). In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of

  7. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-07-21

    Metamphetamine’s widepread abuse and concerns that it may increase Parkinson’s disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [11C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [11C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15).more » In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of dopamine terminals.« less

  8. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Fernandez, W.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Vargas-Barroso, V.; Narváez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L.F.; Sahd, J. Larriva

    2014-01-01

    modulate the activity and/or Dopamine synthesis of substantial numbers of tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons at the somatic and terminal level. The immunohistochemical work also gives support to the view that dopamine D1 receptors and/or dopamine D2 receptors in the lateral palisade zone by mediating dopamine volume transmission may contribute to the inhibition of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone release from nerve terminals in this region. PMID:25308843

  9. Attenuation of PAMP-triggered immunity in maize requires down-regulation of the key β-1,6-glucan synthesis genes KRE5 and KRE6 in biotrophic hyphae of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Deising, Holger B

    2016-08-01

    In plants, pathogen defense is initiated by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via plasma membrane-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Fungal structural cell wall polymers such as branched β-glucans are essential for infection structure rigidity and pathogenicity, but at the same time represent PAMPs. Kre5 and Kre6 are key enzymes in β-1,6-glucan synthesis and formation of branch points of the β-glucan network. In spite of the importance of branched β-glucan for hyphal rigidity and plant-fungus interactions, neither the role of KRE5 and KRE6 in pathogenesis nor mechanisms allowing circumventing branched β-glucan-triggered immune responses are known. We functionally characterized KRE5 and KRE6 of the ascomycete Colletotrichum graminicola, a hemibiotroph that infects maize (Zea mays). After appressorial plant invasion, this fungus sequentially differentiates biotrophic and highly destructive necrotrophic hyphae. RNAi-mediated reduction of KRE5 and KRE6 transcript abundance caused appressoria to burst and swelling of necrotrophic hyphae, indicating that β-1,6-glucosidic bonds are essential in these cells. Live cell imaging employing KRE5:mCherry and KRE6:mCherry knock-in strains and probing of infection structures with a YFP-conjugated β-1,6-glucan-binding protein showed expression of these genes and exposure of β-1,6-glucan in conidia, appressoria and necrotrophic, but not in biotrophic hyphae. Overexpression of KRE5 and KRE6 in biotrophic hyphae led to activation of broad-spectrum plant defense responses, including papilla and H2 O2 formation, as well as transcriptional activation of several defense-related genes. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that down-regulation of synthesis and avoidance of exposure of branched β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan in biotrophic hyphae is required for attenuation of plant immune responses. PMID:27144995

  10. The Neurotropic Parasite Toxoplasma Gondii Increases Dopamine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Prandovszky, Emese; Gaskell, Elizabeth; Martin, Heather; Dubey, J. P.; Webster, Joanne P.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2011-01-01

    The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates its host's behavior. In infected rodents, the behavioral changes increase the likelihood that the parasite will be transmitted back to its definitive cat host, an essential step in completion of the parasite's life cycle. The mechanism(s) responsible for behavioral changes in the host is unknown but two lines of published evidence suggest that the parasite alters neurotransmitter signal transduction: the disruption of the parasite-induced behavioral changes with medications used to treat psychiatric disease (specifically dopamine antagonists) and identification of a tyrosine hydroxylase encoded in the parasite genome. In this study, infection of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of dopamine several-fold, with a direct correlation between the number of infected cells and the quantity of dopamine released. Immunostaining brain sections of infected mice with dopamine antibody showed intense staining of encysted parasites. Based on these analyses, T. gondii orchestrates a significant increase in dopamine metabolism in neural cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was also found in intracellular tissue cysts in brain tissue with antibodies specific for the parasite-encoded tyrosine hydroxylase. These observations provide a mechanism for parasite-induced behavioral changes. The observed effects on dopamine metabolism could also be relevant in interpreting reports of psychobehavioral changes in toxoplasmosis-infected humans. PMID:21957440

  11. Identification and expression of a sialyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of disialylgalactosylgloboside in normal and malignant kidney cells: downregulation of ST6GalNAc VI in renal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Senda, Motohiro; Ito, Akihiro; Tsuchida, Akiko; Hagiwara, Tomoko; Kaneda, Tsuguhiro; Nakamura, Yoko; Kasama, Kenji; Kiso, Makoto; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Yoko; Ono, Yoshinari; Ogiso, Manabu; Urano, Takeshi; Furukawa, Keiko; Oshima, Shinichi; Furukawa, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Although disialyl glycosphingolipids such as GD3 and GD2 have been considered to be associated with malignant tumours, whether branched-type disialyl glycosphingolipids show such an association is not well understood. We investigated the sialyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DSGG (disialylgalactosylgloboside) from MSGG (monosialylgalactosylgloboside). Among six GalNAc:α2,6-sialyltransferases cloned to date, we focused on ST6GalNAc III, V and VI, which utilize sialylglycolipids as substrates. In vitro enzyme analyses revealed that ST6GalNAc III and VI generated DSGG from MSGG with Vmax/Km values of 1.91 and 4.16 respectively. Transfection of the cDNA expression vectors for these enzymes resulted in DSGG expression in a renal cancer cell line. Although both ST6GalNAc III and VI genes were expressed in normal kidney cells, the expression profiles of ST6GalNAc VI among 20 renal cancer cell lines correlated clearly with those of DSGG, suggesting that the sialyltransferase involved in the synthesis of DSGG in the kidney is ST6GalNAc-VI. ST6GalNAc-VI and DSGG were found in proximal tubule epithelial cells in normal kidney tissues, while they were downregulated in renal cancer cell lines and cancer tissues. All these findings indicated that DSGG was suppressed during the malignant transformation of the proximal tubules as a maturation arrest of glycosylation. PMID:17123352

  12. Bisphenol A Exposure during Adulthood Causes Augmentation of Follicular Atresia and Luteal Regression by Decreasing 17β-Estradiol Synthesis via Downregulation of Aromatase in Rat Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Gee; Chung, Jin-Yong; Park, Ji-Eun; Oh, Seunghoon; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Yoo, Ki Soo; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in human body fluids, such as serum and ovarian follicular fluids. Several reports indicated that BPA exposure is associated with the occurrence of several female reproductive diseases resulting from the disruption of steroid hormone biosynthesis in the adult ovary. Objective: We hypothesized that long-term exposure to low concentrations of BPA disrupts 17β-estradiol (E2) production in granulosa cells via an alteration of steroidogenic proteins in ovarian cells. Methods: Adult female rats received BPA for 90 days by daily gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, or 0.1 mg/kg body weight. We determined serum levels of E2, testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also analyzed the expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase (3β-HSD), and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) in the ovary. Results: Exposure to BPA significantly decreased E2 serum concentration, which was accompanied by augmented follicular atresia and luteal regression via increase of caspase-3–associated apoptosis in ovarian cells. After BPA exposure, P450arom and StAR protein levels were significantly decreased in granulosa cells and theca-interstitial (T-I) cells, respectively. However, P450scc and 3β-HSD protein levels remained unchanged. The increase in LH levels appeared to be associated with the decreased synthesis of T in T-I cells after BPA exposure via homeostatic positive feedback regulation. Conclusions: BPA exposure during adulthood can disturb the maintenance of normal ovarian functions by reducing E2. The steroidogenic proteins StAR and P450arom appear to be targeted by BPA. PMID:23512349

  13. Novel neuroprotective mechanisms of pramipexole, an anti-Parkinson drug, against endogenous dopamine-mediated excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Sawada, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Shimohama, Shun; Akaike, Akinori

    2007-02-28

    Parkinson disease is characterized by selective degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, and endogenous dopamine may play a pivotal role in the degenerative processes. Using primary cultured mesencephalic neurons, we found that glutamate, an excitotoxin, caused selective dopaminergic neuronal death depending on endogenous dopamine content. Pramipexole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist used clinically in the treatment of Parkinson disease, did not affect glutamate-induced calcium influx but blocked dopaminergic neuronal death induced by glutamate. Pramipexole reduced dopamine content but did not change the levels of total or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. The neuroprotective effect of pramipexole was independent of dopamine receptor stimulation because it was not abrogated by domperidone, a dopamine D2-type receptor antagonist. Moreover, both active S(-)- and inactive R(+)-enantiomers of pramipexole as a dopamine D2-like receptor agonist equally suppressed dopaminergic neuronal death. These results suggest that pramipexole protects dopaminergic neurons from glutamate neurotoxicity by the reduction of intracellular dopamine content, independently of dopamine D2-like receptor activation. PMID:17161393

  14. Dopamine and the cognitive downside of a promised bonus

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Esther; Wallace, Deanna L.; Dang, Linh C.; Jagust, William; Cools, Roshan; D'Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the promise of a monetary bonus improves cognitive control. We show that in fact appetitive motivation can also impair cognitive control, depending on baseline levels of dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum. These data demonstrate not only that appetitive motivation can have paradoxical detrimental effects for cognitive control, but also provide a mechanistic account of these effects. PMID:24525265

  15. Long-term controlled GDNF over-expression reduces dopamine transporter activity without affecting tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the rat mesostriatal system.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Castro-Hernández, Javier; Salas-Hernández, Josmar; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Luis-Ravelo, Diego; Humbert-Claude, Marie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; González-Hernández, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein expressed in dopaminergic (DA-) cells that takes back DA into presynaptic neurons after its release. DAT dysfunction has been involved in different neuro-psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). On the other hand, numerous studies support that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a protective effect on DA-cells. However, studies in rodents show that prolonged GDNF over-expression may cause a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) decline. The evidence of TH down-regulation suggests that another player in DA handling, DAT, may also be regulated by prolonged GDNF over-expression, and the possibility that this effect is induced at GDNF expression levels lower than those inducing TH down-regulation. This issue was investigated here using intrastriatal injections of a tetracycline-inducible adeno-associated viral vector expressing human GDNF cDNA (AAV-tetON-GDNF) in rats, and doxycycline (DOX; 0.01, 0.03, 0.5 and 3mg/ml) in the drinking water during 5weeks. We found that 3mg/ml DOX promotes an increase in striatal GDNF expression of 12× basal GDNF levels and both DA uptake decrease and TH down-regulation in its native and Ser40 phosphorylated forms. However, 0.5mg/ml DOX promotes a GDNF expression increase of 3× basal GDNF levels with DA uptake decrease but not TH down-regulation. The use of western-blot under non-reducing conditions, co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that the DA uptake decrease is associated with the formation of DAT dimers and an increase in DAT-α-synuclein interactions, without changes in total DAT levels or its compartmental distribution. In conclusion, at appropriate GDNF transduction levels, DA uptake is regulated through DAT protein-protein interactions without interfering with DA synthesis. PMID:26777664

  16. Electrochemical Co-Reduction Synthesis of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanocomposites for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid and Uric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zongya; Zhang, Mingming; Chen, Xiang; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were obtained by electrochemical co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO), HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6. The as-prepared AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and other electrochemical methods. The morphology and composition of the nanocomposite could be easily controlled by adjusting the HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 concentration ratio. The electrochemical experiments showed that when the concentration ratio of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 was 1:1, the obtained AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposite (denoted as Au1Pt1NPs-GR) possessed the highest electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA). As such, Au1Pt1NPs-GR nanocomposites were used to detect DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique and on the modified electrode, there were three separate DPV oxidation peaks with the peak potential separations of 177 mV, 130 mV and 307 mV for DA and AA, DA and UA, AA and UA, respectively. The linear range of the constructed DA sensor was from 1.6 μM to 39.7 μM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM (S/N = 3). The obtained DA sensor with good stability, high reproducibility and excellent selectivity made it possible to detect DA in human urine samples. PMID:26184200

  17. Selective expression of Parkinson's disease-related Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 G2019S missense mutation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons impairs dopamine release and dopaminergic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoxiang; Sgobio, Carmelo; Gu, Xinglong; Sun, Lixin; Lin, Xian; Yu, Jia; Parisiadou, Loukia; Xie, Chengsong; Sastry, Namratha; Ding, Jinhui; Lohr, Kelly M; Miller, Gary W; Mateo, Yolanda; Lovinger, David M; Cai, Huaibin

    2015-09-15

    Preferential dysfunction/degeneration of midbrain substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic (DA) neurons contributes to the main movement symptoms manifested in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S missense mutation (LRRK2 G2019S) is the most common causative genetic factor linked to PD, the effects of LRRK2 G2019S on the function and survival of SNpc DA neurons are poorly understood. Using a binary gene expression system, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type human LRRK2 (WT mice) or the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (G2019S mice) selectively in the midbrain DA neurons. Here we show that overexpression of LRRK2 G2019S did not induce overt motor abnormalities or substantial SNpc DA neuron loss. However, the LRRK2 G2019S mutation impaired dopamine homeostasis and release in aged mice. This reduction in dopamine content/release coincided with the degeneration of DA axon terminals and decreased expression of DA neuron-enriched genes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular monoamine transporter 2, dopamine transporter and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. These factors are responsible for dopamine synthesis, transport and degradation, and their expression is regulated by transcription factor paired-like homeodomain 3 (PITX3). Levels of Pitx3 mRNA and protein were similarly decreased in the SNpc DA neurons of aged G2019S mice. Together, these findings suggest that PITX3-dependent transcription regulation could be one of the many potential mechanisms by which LRRK2 G2019S acts in SNpc DA neurons, resulting in downregulation of its downstream target genes critical for dopamine homeostasis and release. PMID:26123485

  18. Amphetamine paradoxically augments exocytotic dopamine release and phasic dopamine signals.

    PubMed

    Daberkow, D P; Brown, H D; Bunner, K D; Kraniotis, S A; Doellman, M A; Ragozzino, M E; Garris, P A; Roitman, M F

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain-reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting nonexocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties, which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to 2 h. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration, and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, nonelectrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sugar reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sugar-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify upregulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  19. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. PMID:26608248

  20. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. PMID:20417658

  1. Growth of dopamine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  2. Dopamine determines the vulnerability of striatal neurons to the N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin through the regulation of mitochondrial complex II

    PubMed Central

    Benchoua, Alexandra; Trioulier, Yaël; Diguet, Elsa; Malgorn, Carole; Gaillard, Marie-Claude; Dufour, Noelle; Elalouf, Jean-Marc; Krajewski, Stan; Hantraye, Philippe; Déglon, Nicole; Brouillet, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    In neurodegenerative disorders associated with primary or secondary mitochondrial defects such as Huntington's disease (HD), cells of the striatum are particularly vulnerable to cell death, although the mechanisms by which this cell death is induced are unclear. Dopamine, found in high concentrations in the striatum, may play a role in striatal cell death. We show that in primary striatal cultures, dopamine increases the toxicity of an N-terminal fragment of mutated huntingtin (Htt-171-82Q). Mitochondrial complex II protein (mCII) levels are reduced in HD striatum, indicating that this protein may be important for dopamine-mediated striatal cell death. We found that dopamine enhances the toxicity of the selective mCII inhibitor, 3-nitropropionic acid. We also demonstrated that dopamine doses that are insufficient to produce cell loss regulate mCII expression at the mRNA, protein and catalytic activity level. We also show that dopamine-induced down-regulation of mCII levels can be blocked by several dopamine D2 receptor antagonists. Sustained overexpression of mCII subunits using lentiviral vectors abrogated the effects of dopamine, both by high dopamine concentrations alone and neuronal death induced by low dopamine concentrations together with Htt-171-82Q. This novel pathway links dopamine signaling and regulation of mCII activity and could play a key role in oxidative energy metabolism and explain the vulnerability of the striatum in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18267960

  3. Dopamine receptors - IUPHAR Review 13.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  4. Dorsal Striatal Dopamine, Food Preference and Health Perception in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Deanna L.; Aarts, Esther; Dang, Linh C.; Greer, Stephanie M.; Jagust, William J.; D′Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies have explored the neurochemical mechanisms supporting individual differences in food preference in humans. Here we investigate how dorsal striatal dopamine, as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]fluorometatyrosine (FMT), correlates with food-related decision-making, as well as body mass index (BMI) in 16 healthy-weight to moderately obese individuals. We find that lower PET FMT dopamine synthesis binding potential correlates with higher BMI, greater preference for perceived “healthy” foods, but also greater healthiness ratings for food items. These findings further substantiate the role of dorsal striatal dopamine in food-related behaviors and shed light on the complexity of individual differences in food preference. PMID:24806534

  5. Morbillivirus Downregulation of CD46

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Sareen E.; Tiwari, Ashok; Baron, Michael D.; Lund, Brett T.; Barrett, Thomas; Cosby, S. Louise

    1998-01-01

    There is evidence that CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) is a cellular receptor for vaccine and laboratory-passaged strains of measles virus (MV). Following infection with these MV strains, CD46 is downregulated from the cell surface, and consequent complement-mediated lysis has been shown to occur upon infection of a human monocytic cell line. The MV hemagglutinin (H) protein alone is capable of inducing this downregulation. Some wild-type strains of MV fail to downregulate CD46, despite infection being prevented by anti-CD46 antibodies. In this study we show that CD46 is also downregulated to the same extent by wild-type, vaccine, and laboratory-passaged strains of rinderpest virus (RPV), although CD46 did not appear to be the receptor for RPV. Expression of the RPV H protein by a nonreplicating adenovirus vector was also found to cause this downregulation. A vaccine strain of peste des petits ruminants virus caused slight downregulation of CD46 in infected Vero cells, while wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus and a wild-type strain of dolphin morbillivirus failed to downregulate CD46. Downregulation of CD46 can, therefore, be a function independent of the use of this protein as a virus receptor. PMID:9811778

  6. Dopamine D-2 receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals: synthesis, radiolabeling, and in vitro binding of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N- ((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Kasliwal, R.; Pan, S.G.; Kung, M.P.; Mach, R.H.; Guo, Y.Z.

    1988-05-01

    In developing central nervous system (CNS) dopamine D-2 receptor imaging agents, enantiomers, R-(+) and S-(-) isomers, of 3-(/sup 125/I)iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-((1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl)benzamide, (/sup 125/I)IBZM, were synthesized, and their in vitro binding characteristics were evaluated in rat striatum tissue preparation. The (S)-(-)-(/sup 125/I)IBZM showed high specific dopamine D-2 receptor binding (Kd = 0.43 nM, Bmax = 0.48 pmol/mg of protein). Competition data of various ligands for IBZM binding displayed the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than (S)-(-)-IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol much greater than (R)-(+)-IBZM greater than (S)-(-)-BZM greater than dopamine greater than ketanserin greater than SCH23390 much greater than propanolol. The results indicate that (/sup 125/I)IBZM binds specifically to the dopamine D-2-receptor with stereospecificity. The (/sup 125/I)IBZM is potentially useful as an imaging agent for the investigation of dopamine D-2 receptors in humans.

  7. A heterocyclic compound CE-103 inhibits dopamine reuptake and modulates dopamine transporter and dopamine D1-D3 containing receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Aher, Yogesh D; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Ganesan, Minu Karthika; Sase, Sunetra; Holy, Marion; Höger, Harald; Bakulev, Vasiliy; Ecker, Gerhard F; Langer, Thierry; Sitte, Harald H; Leban, Johann; Lubec, Gert

    2016-03-01

    A series of compounds have been reported to enhance memory via the DA system and herein a heterocyclic compound was tested for working memory (WM) enhancement. 2-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)thiazole (CE-103) was synthesized in a six-step synthesis. Binding of CE-103 to the dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters and dopamine reuptake inhibition was tested as well as blood brain permeation and a screen for GPCR targets. 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: CE-103 treated 1-10 mg/kg body weight, trained (TDI) and yoked (YDI) and vehicle treated, trained (TVI) and yoked (YVI) rats. Daily single intraperitoneal injections for a period of 10 days were administered and rats were tested in a radial arm maze (RAM). Hippocampi were taken 6 h following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT) and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits were determined. CE-103 was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50 = 14.73 μM). From day eight the compound was decreasing WM errors in the RAM significantly at both doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. In the trained CE-103-treated group levels of the complex containing the phosphorylated dopamine transporter (pDAT) as well as D1R were decreased while levels of complexes containing D2R and D3R were significantly increased. CE-103 was shown to enhance spatial WM and DA reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3 receptors is proposed as a possible mechanism of action. PMID:26407764

  8. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine's actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of "dopaminergic" neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory formation

  9. Iron Storage within Dopamine Neurovesicles Revealed by Chemical Nano-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Richard; Cloetens, Peter; Devès, Guillaume; Carmona, Asunción; Bohic, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of metal ions is suspected to play a critical role in neurodegeneration. However, the lack of analytical technique with sufficient spatial resolution prevents the investigation of metals distribution in neurons. An original experimental setup was developed to perform chemical element imaging with a 90 nm spatial resolution using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. This unique spatial resolution, combined to a high brightness, enables chemical element imaging in subcellular compartments. We investigated the distribution of iron in dopamine producing neurons because iron-dopamine compounds are suspected to be formed but have yet never been observed in cells. The study shows that iron accumulates into dopamine neurovesicles. In addition, the inhibition of dopamine synthesis results in a decreased vesicular storage of iron. These results indicate a new physiological role for dopamine in iron buffering within normal dopamine producing cells. This system could be at fault in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by an increased level of iron in the substancia nigra pars compacta and an impaired storage of dopamine due to the disruption of vesicular trafficking. The re-distribution of highly reactive dopamine-iron complexes outside neurovesicles would result in an enhanced death of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:17895967

  10. Complexity of dopamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability. In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD. PMID:23683503

  11. Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside suppresses melanin synthesis by augmenting p38 MAPK and CREB signaling pathways and subsequent cAMP down-regulation in murine melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Gug; Kim, Han Hyuk; Paul, Souren; Jang, Jae Yoon; Cho, Yong Hun; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Yu, Jae Myo; Lee, Eun Su; An, Bong Jeun; Kang, Sun Chul; Bang, Byung Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of purified quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosid (QCGG) on melanogenesis was investigated. QCGG was isolated from the calyx of a traditional Korean medicinal herb, Persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The hypopigmentation effects of QCGG were determined by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay, and Western blotting of α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Our results showed that QCGG inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner as well as significantly reduced the expression of melanogenic proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1, tyrosinase-related protein-2, and tyrosinase. Moreover, QCGG inhibited intracellular cAMP levels, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and p38 MAPK expression in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of QCGG on melanogenesis may involve down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway via phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB along with reduced cAMP levels. These results indicate that QCGG reduced melanin synthesis by reducing expression of tyrosine and tyrosine-related proteins via extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) activation, followed by down-regulation of CREB, p38, and MITF. PMID:26586997

  12. Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside suppresses melanin synthesis by augmenting p38 MAPK and CREB signaling pathways and subsequent cAMP down-regulation in murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Gug; Kim, Han Hyuk; Paul, Souren; Jang, Jae Yoon; Cho, Yong Hun; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Yu, Jae Myo; Lee, Eun Su; An, Bong Jeun; Kang, Sun Chul; Bang, Byung Ho

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of purified quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosid (QCGG) on melanogenesis was investigated. QCGG was isolated from the calyx of a traditional Korean medicinal herb, Persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The hypopigmentation effects of QCGG were determined by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay, and Western blotting of α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Our results showed that QCGG inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner as well as significantly reduced the expression of melanogenic proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1, tyrosinase-related protein-2, and tyrosinase. Moreover, QCGG inhibited intracellular cAMP levels, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and p38 MAPK expression in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of QCGG on melanogenesis may involve down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway via phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB along with reduced cAMP levels. These results indicate that QCGG reduced melanin synthesis by reducing expression of tyrosine and tyrosine-related proteins via extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) activation, followed by down-regulation of CREB, p38, and MITF. PMID:26586997

  13. Differences in Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Associated with Summer and Winter Photoperiods in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Aumann, Tim D.; Raabus, Mai; Tomas, Doris; Prijanto, Agustinus; Churilov, Leonid; Spitzer, Nicholas C.; Horne, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult rodent hypothalamus and midbrain is regulated by environmental cues, including photoperiod, and that this occurs via up- or down-regulation of expression of genes and proteins that are important for dopamine (DA) synthesis in extant neurons (‘DA neurotransmitter switching’). If the same occurs in humans, it may have implications for neurological symptoms associated with DA imbalances. Here we tested whether there are differences in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) and DA transporter (DAT) immunoreactive neurons in the midbrain of people who died in summer (long-day photoperiod, n = 5) versus winter (short-day photoperiod, n = 5). TH and DAT immunoreactivity in neurons and their processes was qualitatively higher in summer compared with winter. The density of TH immunopositive (TH+) neurons was significantly (~6-fold) higher whereas the density of TH immunonegative (TH-) neurons was significantly (~2.5-fold) lower in summer compared with winter. The density of total neurons (TH+ and TH- combined) was not different. The density of DAT+ neurons was ~2-fold higher whereas the density of DAT- neurons was ~2-fold lower in summer compared with winter, although these differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, midbrain nuclear volume, the density of supposed glia (small TH- cells), and the amount of TUNEL staining were the same in summer compared with winter. This study provides the first evidence of an association between environmental stimuli (photoperiod) and the number of midbrain DA neurons in humans, and suggests DA neurotransmitter switching underlies this association. PMID:27428306

  14. Radiolabeled2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}(S)-fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane (FIPIT): Synthesis, characterization and primate imaging of a radioligand for mapping dopamine transporter sites by both PET and SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, R.; Shi, B.; Hoffman, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    Highly potent and selective dopamine transporter ligands containing both iodine and fluorine are versatile probes for in vivo mapping of dopamine transporter sites in the striatum by PET and SPECT when labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123, respectively. Dual labeled biochemical probes are attractive agents since only one set of toxicity and pharmacokinetic analysis may be required for ligand validation for both imaging modalities. Recently, we reported that replacement of the methyl ester of 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane with a 2{prime}(R,S)-[F-18]fluoroisopropyl ester affords a highly potent and selective dopamine transporter ligand, 2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}(R,S)- fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (FIPCT). FIPCT showed high uptake and retention in the striatum (S) resulting in good S/cerebellum = 3.5 at 125 min post injection in a rhesus monkey. These findings prompted us to synthesize and evaluate the 4-iodo analog, 2{beta}-carbo-2{prime}-(S)-fluoroisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (1) with 1-fluoropropan-2-ol (2) and POC13. These results suggest that [F-18]S-FIPIT is an excellent candidate for mapping of dopamine transporter sites.

  15. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    PubMed

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted. PMID:25967984

  16. Neuropharmacology of dopamine receptors:

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Frank I.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an extraordinary recent accumulation of information concerning the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of dopamine (DA) receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. Many new DA molecular entities have been cloned, their gene, peptide sequences and structures have been identified, their anatomical distributions in the mammalian brain described, and their pharmacology characterized. Progress has been made toward developing selective ligands and drug-candidates for different DA receptors. The new discoveries have greatly stimulated preclinical and clinical studies to explore the neuropharmacology of DA receptors and their implications in the neuropathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Accordingly, it seems timely to review the salient aspects of this specialized area of preclinical neuropharmacology and its relevance to clinical neuropsychiatry. PMID:24019715

  17. Dopamine-deficient mice are hypersensitive to dopamine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S; Szczypka, M S; Palmiter, R D

    2000-06-15

    Dopamine-deficient (DA-/-) mice were created by targeted inactivation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in dopaminergic neurons. The locomotor activity response of these mutants to dopamine D1 or D2 receptor agonists and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) was 3- to 13-fold greater than the response elicited from wild-type mice. The enhanced sensitivity of DA-/- mice to agonists was independent of changes in steady-state levels of dopamine receptors and the presynaptic dopamine transporter as measured by ligand binding. The acute behavioral response of DA-/- mice to a dopamine D1 receptor agonist was correlated with c-fos induction in the striatum, a brain nucleus that receives dense dopaminergic input. Chronic replacement of dopamine to DA-/- mice by repeated l-DOPA administration over 4 d relieved the hypersensitivity of DA-/- mutants in terms of induction of both locomotion and striatal c-fos expression. The results suggest that the chronic presence of dopaminergic neurotransmission is required to dampen the intracellular signaling response of striatal neurons. PMID:10844009

  18. Dopamine induces the accumulation of insoluble prion protein and affects autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Marcio H. M.; Peres, Italo T.; Santos, Tiago G.; Martins, Vilma R.; Icimoto, Marcelo Y.; Lee, Kil S.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of protein aggregates is a histopathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, but in most cases the aggregation occurs without defined mutations or clinical histories, suggesting that certain endogenous metabolites can promote aggregation of specific proteins. One example that supports this hypothesis is dopamine and its metabolites. Dopamine metabolism generates several oxidative metabolites that induce aggregation of α-synuclein, and represents the main etiology of Parkinson's diseases. Because dopamine and its metabolites are unstable and can be highly reactive, we investigated whether these molecules can also affect other proteins that are prone to aggregate, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC). In this study, we showed that dopamine treatment of neuronal cells reduced the number of viable cells and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as demonstrated in previous studies. Overall PrPC expression level was not altered by dopamine treatment, but its unglycosylated form was consistently reduced at 100 μM of dopamine. At the same concentration, the level of phosphorylated mTOR and 4EBP1 was also reduced. Moreover, dopamine treatment decreased the solubility of PrPC, and increased its accumulation in autophagosomal compartments with concomitant induction of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1 levels. In vitro oxidation of dopamine promoted formation of high-order oligomers of recombinant prion protein. These results suggest that dopamine metabolites alter the conformation of PrPC, which in turn is sorted to degradation pathway, causing autophagosome overload and attenuation of protein synthesis. Accumulation of PrPC aggregates is an important feature of prion diseases. Thus, this study brings new insight into the dopamine metabolism as a source of endogenous metabolites capable of altering PrPC solubility and its subcellular localization. PMID:25698927

  19. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine’s actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of “dopaminergic” neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory

  20. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  1. Mesolimbic dopamine signals the value of work.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Arif A; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Mabrouk, Omar S; Hetrick, Vaughn L; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Kennedy, Robert T; Aragona, Brandon J; Berke, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (phasic) dopamine fluctuations support learning, whereas much slower (tonic) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We found that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covaried with reward rate and motivational vigor. Second-by-second dopamine release encoded an estimate of temporally discounted future reward (a value function). Changing dopamine immediately altered willingness to work and reinforced preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, which is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  2. Cocaine induction of dopamine transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Little, Karley Y; Elmer, Lawrence W; Zhong, Huailing; Scheys, Joshua O; Zhang, Lian

    2002-02-01

    Several previous human postmortem experiments have detected an increase in striatal [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in chronic cocaine users. However, animal experiments have found considerable variability in DAT radioligand binding levels in brain after cocaine administration, perhaps caused by length and dose of treatment and type of radioligand used. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake would be increased by exposure to cocaine through alterations in DAT cellular trafficking, rather than increased protein synthesis. Experiments were conducted in stably hDAT-transfected N2A cells and assessed the dose response and time course of cocaine effects on [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding to the DAT, [(3)H]dopamine uptake, measures of DAT protein and mRNA, as well as DAT subcellular location. Cocaine doses of 10(-6) M caused statistically significant increases in [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake after 12 and 3 h, respectively. Despite these increases in DAT function, there was no change in DAT total protein or mRNA. Immunofluorescence and biotinylation experiments indicated that cocaine treatment induced increases in plasma membrane DAT immunoreactivity and intracellular decreases. The present model system may further our understanding of regulatory alterations in DAT radioligand binding and function caused by cocaine exposure. PMID:11809869

  3. Renal dopamine excretion in healthy volunteers after oral ingestion of L-dopa.

    PubMed

    Barthelmebs, M; Mbou, P; Stephan, D; Grima, M; Imbs, J L

    1993-01-01

    L-Dopa is converted to dopamine by aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). In the kidney, proximal tubular epithelial cells are rich in AADC and urinary free dopamine excretion is a marker for endorenal extraneuronal dopamine synthesis. The urinary free dopamine excretion was analysed in a double-blind cross-over study after oral ingestion of L-Dopa or a placebo in five healthy volunteers. The drug ingestions were separated by one week's wash-out. Since in a preliminary study, two volunteers ingesting a single L-Dopa dose of 500 mg with breakfast experienced nausea, the five volunteers of the present study were given 300 mg L-Dopa (50 mg at 9 am with breakfast, 100 mg before lunch and 150 mg before dinner) without any adverse effects. L-Dopa induced an increase in 24-h urinary dopamine excretion (HPLC with electrochemical detection). Free urinary dopamine (1900 micrograms/24 h) accounted for 0.8% of the daily oral L-Dopa dose and represented 10% of total urinary dopamine excretion. L-Dopa treatment had no significant effect on mean ambulatory arterial blood pressure and heart rate measured from 9 am to 6 pm (Spacelabs) or on 24 h urinary water and sodium excretion. PMID:8458598

  4. Genetic variation in COMT activity impacts learning and dopamine release capacity in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Eleanor H.; Morud, Julia; Winiger, Vanessa; Biezonski, Dominik; Zhu, Judy P.; Bach, Mary Elizabeth; Malleret, Gael; Polan, H. Jonathan; Ng-Evans, Scott; Phillips, Paul E.M.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Kandel, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    A common genetic polymorphism that results in increased activity of the dopamine regulating enzyme COMT (the COMT Val158 allele) has been found to associate with poorer cognitive performance and increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. It is generally assumed that this increase in COMT activity influences cognitive function and psychiatric disease risk by increasing dopamine turnover in cortical synapses, though this cannot be directly measured in humans. Here we explore a novel transgenic mouse model of increased COMT activity, equivalent to the relative increase in activity observed with the human COMT Val158 allele. By performing an extensive battery of behavioral tests, we found that COMT overexpressing mice (COMT-OE mice) exhibit cognitive deficits selectively in the domains that are affected by the COMT Val158 allele, stimulus–response learning and working memory, functionally validating our model of increased COMT activity. Although we detected no changes in the level of markers for dopamine synthesis and dopamine transport, we found that COMT-OE mice display an increase in dopamine release capacity in the striatum. This result suggests that increased COMT activity may not only affect dopamine signaling by enhancing synaptic clearance in the cortex, but may also cause changes in presynaptic dopamine function in the striatum. These changes may underlie the behavioral deficits observed in the mice and might also play a role in the cognitive deficits and increased psychiatric disease risk associated with genetic variation in COMT activity in humans. PMID:24639487

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of a Series of [4-(4-Carboxamidobutyl)]-1-arylpiperazines: Insights into Structural Features Contributing to Dopamine D3 versus D2 Receptor Subtype Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antagonist and partial agonist modulators of the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) have emerged as promising therapeutics for the treatment of substance abuse and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, development of druglike lead compounds with selectivity for the D3 receptor has been challenging because of the high sequence homology between the D3R and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). In this effort, we synthesized a series of acylaminobutylpiperazines incorporating aza-aromatic units and evaluated their binding and functional activities at the D3 and D2 receptors. Docking studies and results from evaluations against a set of chimeric and mutant receptors suggest that interactions at the extracellular end of TM7 contribute to the D3R versus D2R selectivity of these ligands. Molecular insights from this study could potentially enable rational design of potent and selective D3R ligands. PMID:25126833

  6. Modulation of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptor function by the selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593.

    PubMed

    Acri, J B; Thompson, A C; Shippenberg, T

    2001-03-15

    The repeated administration of selective kappa-opioid receptor agonists prevents the locomotor activation produced by acute cocaine administration and the development of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Previous studies have shown that dopamine (DA) D2 autoreceptors modulate the synthesis and release of DA in the striatum. Evidence that kappa agonist treatment downregulates DA D2 receptors in this same brain region has recently been obtained. Accordingly, the present studies were undertaken to examine the influence of repeated kappa-opioid receptor agonist administration on pre- and postsynaptic DA D2 receptor function in the dorsal striatum using pre- and postsynaptic receptor-selective doses of quinpirole. Rats were injected once daily with the selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 (0.16-0.32 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle for 3 days. Microdialysis studies assessing basal and quinpirole-evoked (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) DA levels were conducted 2 days later. Basal and quinpirole-stimulated locomotor activity were assessed in a parallel group of animals. The no-net flux method of quantitative microdialysis revealed no effect of U69593 on basal DA dynamics, in that extracellular DA concentration and extraction fraction did not differ in control and U69593-treated animals. Acute administration of quinpirole significantly decreased striatal DA levels in control animals, but in animals treated with U69593, the inhibitory effects of quinpirole were significantly reduced. Quinpirole produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in control animals, and this effect was significantly attenuated in U69593-treated animals. These data reveal that prior repeated administration of a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist attenuates quinpirole-induced alterations in DA neurotransmission and locomotor activity. These results suggest that both pre- and postsynaptic striatal DA D2 receptors may be downregulated following repeated kappa-opioid receptor agonist

  7. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  8. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  9. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Sanders A.; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J.; Abdulla, Zuhair I.; Lee, Ryan J.; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1–21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as persistent increases in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1–21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., “autoreceptor” doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  10. Dopamine Modulates Insulin Release and Is Involved in the Survival of Rat Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias Osma, Maria Carmen; Blanco, Enrique J.; Carretero Hernández, Marta; Sánchez Robledo, Virginia; Catalano Iniesta, Leonardo; Carrero, Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The local synthesis of dopamine and its effects on insulin release have been described in isolated islets. Thus, it may be accepted that dopamine exerts an auto-paracrine regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. The aim of the present study is to analyze whether dopamine is a regulator of the proliferation and apoptosis of rat pancreatic beta cells after glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Glucose stimulated pancreatic islets obtained from male Wistar rats were cultured with 1 or 10 μM dopamine from 1 to 12 h. Insulin secretion was analyzed by RIA. The cellular proliferation rate of pancreatic islets and beta cells was studied with immunocytochemical double labelling for both insulin and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and active caspase-3 was detected to evaluate apoptosis. The secretion of insulin from isolated islets was significantly inhibited (p<0.01), by treatment with 1 and 10 μM dopamine, with no differences between either dose as early as 1 h after treatment. The percentage of insulin-positive cells in the islets decreased significantly (p<0.01) after 1 h of treatment up to 12 h. The proliferation rate of insulin-positive cells in the islets decreased significantly (p<0.01) following treatment with dopamine. Apoptosis in pancreatic islets and beta cells was increased by treatment with 1 and 10 μM dopamine along 12 h. In conclusion, these results suggest that dopamine could modulate the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells and that dopamine may be involved in the maintenance of pancreatic islets. PMID:25886074

  11. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  12. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth. PMID:26921458

  13. Protein Kinase C Beta Regulates the D2-Like Dopamine Autoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Luderman, Kathryn D.; Chen, Rong; Ferris, Mark J.; Jones, Sara R.; Gnegy, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was the regulation of the D2-like dopamine autoreceptor (D2 autoreceptor) by protein kinase Cβ, a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. Together with the dopamine transporter, the D2 autoreceptor regulates the level of extracellular dopamine and thus dopaminergic signaling. PKC regulates neuronal signaling via several mechanisms, including desensitizing autoreceptors to increase the release of several different neurotransmitters. Here, using both PKCβ−/− mice and specific PKCβ inhibitors, we demonstrated that a lack of PKCβ activity enhanced the D2 autoreceptor-stimulated decrease in dopamine release following both chemical and electrical stimulations. Inhibition of PKCβ increased surface localization of D2R in mouse striatal synaptosomes, which could underlie the greater sensitivity to quinpirole following inhibition of PKCβ. PKCβ−/− mice displayed greater sensitivity to the quinpirole-induced suppression of locomotor activity, demonstrating that the regulation of the D2 autoreceptor by PKCβ is physiologically significant. Overall, we have found that PKCβ downregulates the D2 autoreceptor, providing an additional layer of regulation for dopaminergic signaling. We propose that in the absence of PKCβ activity, surface D2 autoreceptor localization and thus D2 autoreceptor signaling is increased, leading to less dopamine in the extracellular space and attenuated dopaminergic signaling. PMID:25446677

  14. An updated view on the role of dopamine in myopia.

    PubMed

    Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2013-09-01

    retinal dopamine synthesis and release, the role of dopamine in the early steps is unclear. The wide spatial distribution of dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina and the observation that changes in dopamine levels can be locally induced by local retinal deprivation is in line with the assumption that dopaminergic mechanisms control both central and peripheral eye growth. The protective effect of outdoor activity on myopia development in children seems to be partly mediated by the stimulatory effect of light on retinal dopamine production and release. However, the dose-response function linking light exposure to dopamine and to the suppression of myopia is not known and requires further studies. PMID:23434455

  15. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and…

  16. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU)

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Cary O.; Winn, Shelley R.; Gibson, K. Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Summary Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  17. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Harding, Cary O; Winn, Shelley R; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  18. Dopamine gene therapy for Parkinson's disease in a nonhuman primate without associated dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Jarraya, Béchir; Boulet, Sabrina; Ralph, G Scott; Jan, Caroline; Bonvento, Gilles; Azzouz, Mimoun; Miskin, James E; Shin, Masahiro; Delzescaux, Thierry; Drouot, Xavier; Hérard, Anne-Sophie; Day, Denise M; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Kingsman, Susan M; Hantraye, Philippe; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Palfi, Stéphane

    2009-10-14

    In Parkinson's disease, degeneration of specific neurons in the midbrain can cause severe motor deficits, including tremors and the inability to initiate movement. The standard treatment is administration of pharmacological agents that transiently increase concentrations of brain dopamine and thereby discontinuously modulate neuronal activity in the striatum, the primary target of dopaminergic neurons. The resulting intermittent dopamine alleviates parkinsonian symptoms but is also thought to cause abnormal involuntary movements, called dyskinesias. To investigate gene therapy for Parkinson's disease, we simulated the disease in macaque monkeys by treating them with the complex I mitochondrial inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, which induces selective degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons. In this model, we demonstrated that injection of a tricistronic lentiviral vector encoding the critical genes for dopamine synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, and guanosine 5'-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1) into the striatum safely restored extracellular concentrations of dopamine and corrected the motor deficits for 12 months without associated dyskinesias. Gene therapy-mediated dopamine replacement may be able to correct Parkinsonism in patients without the complications of dyskinesias. PMID:20368163

  19. Interactions between glutamate, dopamine, and the neuronal signature of response inhibition in the human striatum.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Buchert, Ralph; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Response inhibition is a basic mechanism in cognitive control and dysfunctional in major psychiatric disorders. The neuronal mechanisms are in part driven by dopamine in the striatum. Animal data suggest a regulatory role of glutamate on the level of the striatum. We used a trimodal imaging procedure of the human striatum including F18-DOPA positron emission tomography, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional magnetic resonance imaging of a stop signal task. We investigated dopamine synthesis capacity and glutamate concentration in vivo and their relation to functional properties of response inhibition. A mediation analysis revealed a significant positive association between dopamine synthesis capacity and inhibition-related neural activity in the caudate nucleus. This relationship was significantly mediated by striatal glutamate concentration. Furthermore, stop signal reaction time was inversely related to striatal activity during inhibition. The data show, for the first time in humans, an interaction between dopamine, glutamate, and the neural signature of response inhibition in the striatum. This finding stresses the importance of the dopamine-glutamate interaction for behavior and may facilitate the understanding of psychiatric disorders characterized by impaired response inhibition. PMID:26177932

  20. DOPAMINE DEPLETION SLOWS RETINAL TRANSMISSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In male hooded rats, depletion of norepinephrine and dopamine by a-methyl-paratyrosine (AMT) significantly increased the latencies of early peaks in flash-evoked potentials recorded from the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic tract. These effects were not produc...

  1. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  2. Apparent dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the weaver mutant mouse: receptor binding and coupling to adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Dewar, K M; Paquet, M; Sequeira, A

    1999-01-01

    Weaver mutant mice have a selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway arising between 7-21 days after birth. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of this mutation on different parameters of the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine system: apparent D1 and D2 receptor binding sites as well as their signal transduction pathway. Using quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine D1, D2 receptors and the dopamine uptake site, we found a significant loss in apparent D1 receptor binding sites throughout the neostriatum, significant increase of apparent D2 receptor binding in the dorsal aspect of the neostriatum, and almost complete loss of DA uptake sites in these regions of the weaver mouse. In contrast to the neostriatum, the density of dopamine receptors and uptake sites in the nucleus accumbens of the weaver mouse did not differ from controls. Despite alterations in the binding of apparent D1 and D2 receptors, there was no significant difference in either basal, DA stimulated or GTPgammaS stimulated cAMP production. These findings suggest the down-regulation of apparent D1 receptor binding sites reported in this model, probably does not reflect an important physiological mechanism through which these animals compensate for loss of dopamine innervation. PMID:10443552

  3. Rapid determination of dopamine in human plasma using a gold nanoparticle-based dual-mode sensing system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Qi, Suijian; Liu, Zhonggang; Shi, Yupeng; Yue, Wanqing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine plays a very important role in biological systems and has a direct relationship with the ability of learning and cognition, human desires, feelings and mental state, as well as motor functions. Traditional methods for the detection of dopamine are complicated and time-consuming, therefore it is necessary to explore rapid and accurate detection of dopamine with high sensitivity and specificity. Herein we report a dual-mode system of colorimetric and fluorometric analyses based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and aptamers specifically targeting dopamine. Aptamers modified with the fluorophore were used as dopamine specific recognition probe and the sensing mechanism is based on the color change of AuNPs and the fluorescence recovery of fluorophore conjugated on the aptamers in the presence of dopamine. The addition of aptamers into AuNPs colloid solution would prevent the AuNPs from aggregation in the high-salt solution. The close distance between AuNPs and fluorophore conjugated on the aptamers would lead to the quenching of fluorescence signal. In the presence of dopamine, the conformation of the aptamers and the inter-particle distance would be changed, leading to the aggregation of AuNPs, which subsequently results in color change from red to blue and fluorescence signal recovery. The dual-mode sensing system demonstrated high specificity towards dopamine with the detection limit as low as 78.7 nM. The sensing system reflects on its simplicity as no surface functionalization is required for the nanoparticles, leading to less laborious and more cost-effective synthesis. The reaction time is only 6 min, demonstrating a simple approach for rapid analysis of dopamine. More importantly, the sensing system allows the detection of dopamine in both aqueous solution and complicated biological sample with sensitive response, illustrating the feasibility and reliability for the potential applications in clinical and biomedical analysis in the future. PMID:26838842

  4. [Effect of aluminum on the non-enzymatic oxidation of dopamine].

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Manso, C F

    1994-11-01

    The effect of different concentrations of aluminum sulphate on the nonenzymatic oxidation of dopamine was studied in order to evaluate the action of this metal on neuromelanin synthesis. Data shows that under the studied conditions, aluminum partially inhibits dopamine self-oxidation, decreasing the formation of some intermediate compounds, namely dopaminequinone and dopaminochrome. If neuromelanins have a cytoprotective function in the central nervous system, possibly acting as intracellular scavengers of free radicals and redox metal ions, their decrease due to aluminum could be responsible for serious damage to neuronal tissues. PMID:7717100

  5. Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, A.V.; Iversen, L.L.; Rossor, M.; Spokes, E.; Bird, E.; Arregui, A.; Creese, I.; Synder, S.H.

    1982-09-01

    In postmortem samples of caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens from 48 schizophrenic patients, there were significant increases in both the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) and the apparent dissociation constant (KD) for tritiated spiperone. The increase in apparent KD probably reflects the presence of residual neuroleptic drugs, but changes in Bmax for tritiated spiperone reflect genuine changes in receptor numbers. The increases in receptors were seen only in patients in whom neuroleptic medication had been maintained until the time of death, indicating that they may be entirely iatrogenic. Dopamine measurements for a larger series of schizophrenic and control cases (n greater than 60) show significantly increased concentrations in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus. The changes in dopamine were not obviously related to neuroleptic medication and, unlike the receptor changes, were most severe in younger patients.

  6. Dopamine neurons control striatal cholinergic neurons via regionally heterogeneous dopamine and glutamate signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chuhma, Nao; Mingote, Susana; Moore, Holly; Rayport, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Midbrain dopamine neurons fire in bursts conveying salient information. Bursts are associated with pauses in tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons. While the reciprocal balance of dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum is well known, how dopamine neurons control cholinergic neurons has not been elucidated. Here we show that dopamine neurons make direct fast dopaminergic and glutamatergic connections with cholinergic interneurons, with regional heterogeneity. Dopamine neurons drive a burst-pause firing sequence in cholinergic interneurons in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, mixed actions in the accumbens core, and a pause in the dorsal striatum. This heterogeneity is due mainly to regional variation in dopamine-neuron glutamate cotransmission. A single dose of amphetamine attenuates dopamine neuron connections to cholinergic interneurons with dose-dependent regional specificity. Overall, the present data indicate that dopamine neurons control striatal circuit function via discrete, plastic connections with cholinergic interneurons. PMID:24559678

  7. PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE MODULATION BY STIMULANT SELF ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is an essential participant in the initiation and modulation of various forms of goal-directed behavior, including drug reinforcement and addiction processes. Dopamine neurotransmission is increased by acute administration of all drugs of abuse, including the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Chronic exposure to these drugs via voluntary self-administration provides a model of stimulant abuse that is useful in evaluating potential behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur during addiction. This review describes commonly used methodologies to measure dopamine and baseline parameters of presynaptic dopamine regulation, including exocytotic release and reuptake through the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as dramatic adaptations in dopamine neurotransmission and drug sensitivity that occur with acute non-contingent and chronic, contingent self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:23277050

  8. Mesolimbic Dopamine Signals the Value of Work

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Arif A.; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (“phasic”) dopamine fluctuations support learning, while much slower (“tonic”) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We first show that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covary with reward rate and motivational vigor. We then show that second-by-second dopamine release encodes an estimate of temporally-discounted future reward (a value function). We demonstrate that changing dopamine immediately alters willingness to work, and reinforces preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly-evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, that is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  9. Grafted dopamine neurons: Morphology, neurochemistry, and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Ingrid; Bickford, Paula; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2010-02-01

    Grafting of dopamine-rich tissue to counteract the symptoms in Parkinson's disease became a promising tool for future treatment. This article discusses how to improve the functional outcome with respect to graft outgrowth and functions of dopamine release and electrophysiological responses to graft implantation in the host brain striatal target. It has been documented that a subpopulation of the dopamine neurons innervates the host brain in a target-specific manner, while some of the grafted dopamine neurons never project to the host striatum. Neurochemical studies have demonstrated that the graft-induced outgrowth synthesize, store, metabolize and release dopamine and possibly other neurotransmitters such as 5-HT. Furthermore, the released dopamine affects the dopamine-depleted brain in areas that are larger than the graft-derived nerve fibers reach. While stem cells will most likely be the future source of cells to be used in grafting, it is important to find the guiding cues for how to reinnervate the dopamine-depleted striatum in a proper way with respect to the dopamine subpopulations of A9 and A10 to efficiently treat the motor abnormalities seen in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19853009

  10. Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Ghazzaoui, Rassil; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2014-07-01

    Low striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine release have been observed in alcoholism, cocaine and heroin dependence. Multiple studies to date have examined D2 availability in cannabis dependence and have consistently failed to demonstrate alterations. In addition, the response of the dopamine system to an amphetamine challenge and to a stress challenge has also been examined, and did not show alterations. We review these studies here and conclude that cannabis dependence is an exception among commonly abused drugs in that it is not associated with blunting of the dopamine system. PMID:24513022

  11. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  12. Metabolism of /sup 3/H-dopamine by human chorioamnion in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, M.; Niloff, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Previous investigation has demonstrated biologically significant concentrations of catecholamines in amniotic fluid, which increase with gestation. The half life, metabolic clearance rate, and metabolic fate of these hormones in the amniotic compartment are yet to be established. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of human chorioamnion to metabolize dopamine in vitro. Incubation experiments demonstrated that /sup 3/H-dopamine is rapidly metabolized to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylethanol-all products of monoamine oxidase. No significant 3-methoxytyramine, a catechol-o-methyltransferase product, was observed. Incubation experiments with pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, resulted in significant reduction in /sup 3/H-dopamine metabolism. Catecholamines and their interaction with prostaglandin synthesis have been theorized to be a fetal signal for the initiation of parturition. The ability of chorioamnion to metabolize catecholamine could, therefore, provide another control mechanism by which fetal catecholamines are modulated.

  13. Serotonin and Dopamine Protect from Hypothermia/Rewarming Damage through the CBS/ H2S Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Van der Graaf, Adrianus C.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and apoptosis. Treatment with both compounds doubled CBS expression through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and increased H2S production in cultured rat smooth muscle cells. In addition, serotonin and dopamine treatment significantly reduced ROS formation. The beneficial effect of both compounds was minimized by inhibition of their re-uptake and by pharmacological inhibition of CBS or its down-regulation by siRNA. Exogenous administration of H2S and activation of CBS by Prydoxal 5′-phosphate also protected cells from hypothermic damage. Finally, serotonin and dopamine pretreatment of rat lung, kidney, liver and heart prior to 24 h of hypothermia at 3°C followed by 30 min of rewarming at 37°C upregulated the expression of CBS, strongly reduced caspase activity and maintained the physiological pH compared to untreated tissues. Thus, dopamine and serotonin protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced damage by increasing H2S production mediated through CBS. Our data identify a novel molecular link between biogenic amines and the H2S pathway, which may profoundly affect our understanding of the biological effects of monoamine neurotransmitters. PMID:21829469

  14. Efficient N-Acyldopamine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yotaro; Ito, Akihiro; Uesugi, Motonari; Kittaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    N-Acyldopamines are endogenous analogs of capsaicin that exhibit cannabinoid-like activities and were identified from brain extracts. Among them, N-arachidonoyldopamine (AADA) and N-oleoyldopamine (ODA) were characterized as transient receptor potential vanilloid type V1 channel (TRPV1) ligands. Recently, it was shown that N-acyldopamines may possess diverse physiological roles in addition to their ligand activities. To study the multiple functions and action mechanisms of endogenous N-acyldopamines, a simple and efficient method of N-acyldopamine synthesis was investigated. The eighteen potentially endogenous N-acyldopamines and two deuterated ones, N-palmitoyl dopamine-d5 and N-stearoyl dopamine-d5, were efficiently synthesized without protective groups in CH2Cl2 under optimized conditions using propylphosphoric acid cyclic anhydride (PPACA) as a condensation agent. PMID:27373649

  15. Facilitation of fear extinction by novelty depends on dopamine acting on D1-subtype dopamine receptors in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Jefferson; Alves, Niége; Borges, Sidnei; Roehrs, Rafael; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Izquierdo, Ivan; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2015-01-01

    Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval. Recently it was shown that a brief exposure to a novel environment enhances the extinction of contextual fear in rats, an effect explainable by a synaptic tagging-and-capture process. Here we examine whether this also happens with the extinction of another fear-motivated task, inhibitory avoidance (IA), and whether it depends on dopamine acting on D1 or D5 receptors. Rats were trained first in IA and then in extinction of this task. The retention of extinction was measured 24 h later. A 5-min exposure to a novel environment 30 min before extinction training enhanced its retention. Right after exposure to the novelty, animals were given bilateral intrahippocampal infusions of vehicle (VEH), of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, of the D1/D5 dopaminergic antagonist SCH23390, of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP or of the PKC inhibitor Gö6976, and of the PKA stimulator Sp-cAMP or of the PKC stimulator PMA. The novelty increased hippocampal dopamine levels and facilitated the extinction, which was inhibited by intrahippocampal protein synthesis inhibitor anisomysin, D1/D5 dopaminerdic antagonist SCH23390, or PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP and unaffected by PKC inhibitor Gö6976; additionally, the hippocampal infusion of PKA stimulator Sp-cAMP reverts the effect of D1/D5 dopaminergic antagonist SCH 23390, but the infusion of PKC stimulator PMA does not. The results attest to the generality of the novelty effect on fear extinction, suggest that it relies on synaptic tagging and capture, and show that it depends on hippocampal dopamine D1 but not D5 receptors. PMID:25775606

  16. Synthesis and characterization of dopamine substitue tripodal trinuclear [(salen/salophen/salpropen)M] (Mdbnd Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) ions) capped s-triazine complexes: Investigation of their thermal and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Şaban; Koç, Ziya Erdem

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel tridirectional ligand including three catechol groups and its novel tridirectional-trinuclear triazine core complexes. For this purpose, we used melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) (MA) as starting material. 2,4,6-tris(4-carboxybenzimino)-1,3,5-triazine (II) was synthesized by the reaction of an equivalent melamine (I) and three equivalent 4-carboxybenzaldehyde. 4,4‧,4″-((1E,1‧E,1″E)-((1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanylylidene))tris(methanylylidene))tris(N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)benzamide) L (IV) was synthesized by the reaction of one equivalent (II) and three equivalent dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) (DA) by using two different methods. (II, III, IV) and nine novel trinuclear Cr(III), Mn(III) and Fe(III) complexes of (IV) were characterized by means of elemental analyses, 1H NMR, FT-IR spectrometry, LC-MS (ESI+) and thermal analyses. The metal ratios of the prepared complexes were performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). We also synthesized novel tridirectional-trinuclear systems and investigated their effects on magnetic behaviors of [salen, salophen, salpropen Cr(III)/Mn(III)/Fe(III)] capped complexes. The complexes were determined to be low-spin distorted octahedral Mn(III) and Fe(III), and distorted octahedral Cr(III) all bridged by catechol group.

  17. Ketamine decreased striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding with no alterations in static dopamine concentrations in the striatal extracellular fluid in the monkey brain: multiparametric PET studies combined with microdialysis analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, H; Harada, N; Nishiyama, S; Ohba, H; Sato, K; Fukumoto, D; Kakiuchi, T

    2000-08-01

    The effects of ketamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors, on the striatal dopaminergic system were evaluated multiparametrically in the monkey brain using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with microdialysis. L-[beta-(11)C]DOPA, [(11)C]raclopride, and [(11)C]beta-CFT were used to evaluate dopamine synthesis rate, D(2) receptor binding, and transporter availability, respectively, in conscious and ketamine-anesthetized animals. Dopamine concentrations in the striatal extracellular fluid (ECF) were simultaneously measured by PET. Thirty minutes prior to PET scan, intravenous administration of ketamine was started by continuous infusion at a rate of 3 or 10 mg/kg/h. Ketamine infusion dose-dependently decreased [(11)C]raclopride binding, but induced no significant changes in dopamine concentration in the striatal ECF as measured by microdialysis at any dose used. In contrast, ketamine increased both dopamine synthesis and DAT availability as measured by L-[beta-(11)C]DOPA and [(11)C]beta-CFT, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the inhibition of glutamatergic neuronal activity modulates dopamine turnover in the striatum by simultaneous enhancement of the dynamics of dopamine synthesis and DAT availability to the same extent, resulting in no apparent changes in ECF dopamine concentration as measured by microdialysis. It also suggests that the alteration of [(11)C]raclopride binding in vivo as measured by PET might not simply be modulated by the static synaptic concentration of dopamine. PMID:10881030

  18. Dopamine: burning the candle at both ends.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine neurons are well known for signaling reward-prediction errors. In this issue, Matsumoto and Takada (2013) show that some dopamine neurons also signal salient events during progression through a visual search task requiring working memory and sustained attention. PMID:24011998

  19. Urinary dopamine in man and rat: effects of inorganic salts on dopamine excretion.

    PubMed

    Ball, S G; Oats, N S; Lee, M R

    1978-08-01

    1. Plasma and urine free dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) were measured in six normal male volunteer subjects and the urinary clearance of dopamine was calculated for each subject. 2. The excretion rates for free dopamine in man were greater than could be explained by simple renal clearance. It was concluded that free dopamine must, therefore, be formed in the kidney. 3. Changes in urinary dopamine excretion were studied in four groups of rats initially maintained on low sodium diet and then given equimolar dietary supplements of NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl or NH4Cl, to study the specificity of the previously observed increase in dopamine excretion after increased dietary NaCl. 4. The mean dopamine excretion increased significantly in rats given NaCl, KCl and NH4Cl, whereas dopamine excretion decreased in those given NaHCO3. 5. The failure of dopamine excretion to rise in response to loading with NaHCO3 was unexpected, and argues against a simple effect of volume expansion by the sodium ion. The increase in dopamine excretion with KCl and NH4Cl showed that this response was not specific to the sodium ion. PMID:28196

  20. Pramipexole, a dopamine D2 autoreceptor agonist, decreases the extracellular concentration of dopamine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carter, A J; Müller, R E

    1991-07-23

    Pramipexole (SND 919) is a dopamine D2 autoreceptor agonist which is structurally related to talipexole (B-HT 920), a potential antipsychotic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pramipexole on the extracellular concentration of dopamine in vivo. Dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, were measured in the anterior striatum of freely moving rats by microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Pramipexole (30 and 100 micrograms/kg) caused long-lasting decreases in the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites. Talipexole (30 micrograms/kg) produced similar effects. Sulpiride (5 mg/kg), a selective dopamine D2 antagonist, caused a transient increase in the concentration of dopamine and long-lasting increases in the concentrations of its metabolites; it also reversed the effects of pramipexole. SCH-23390 (100 micrograms/kg), a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, caused a transient increase in the concentration of dopamine but did not affect the concentrations of the metabolites. SCH-23390 failed to reverse the effects of pramipexole. These results indicate that pramipexole reduces the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites in vivo through a reversible interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor. PMID:1685123

  1. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Senard, Jean-Michel; Rouet, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH) deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS). Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance. PMID:16722595

  2. Polypharmacology of dopamine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Butini, S; Nikolic, K; Kassel, S; Brückmann, H; Filipic, S; Agbaba, D; Gemma, S; Brogi, S; Brindisi, M; Campiani, G; Stark, H

    2016-07-01

    Most neurological diseases have a multifactorial nature and the number of molecular mechanisms discovered as underpinning these diseases is continuously evolving. The old concept of developing selective agents for a single target does not fit with the medical need of most neurological diseases. The development of designed multiple ligands holds great promises and appears as the next step in drug development for the treatment of these multifactorial diseases. Dopamine and its five receptor subtypes are intimately involved in numerous neurological disorders. Dopamine receptor ligands display a high degree of cross interactions with many other targets including G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes and ion channels. For brain disorders like Parkinsońs disease, schizophrenia and depression the dopaminergic system, being intertwined with many other signaling systems, plays a key role in pathogenesis and therapy. The concept of designed multiple ligands and polypharmacology, which perfectly meets the therapeutic needs for these brain disorders, is herein discussed as a general ligand-based concept while focusing on dopaminergic agents and receptor subtypes in particular. PMID:27234980

  3. Shifts in striatal responsivity evoked by chronic stimulation of dopamine and glutamate systems.

    PubMed

    Canales, J J; Capper-Loup, C; Hu, D; Choe, E S; Upadhyay, U; Graybiel, A M

    2002-10-01

    Dopamine and glutamate are key neurotransmitters in cortico-basal ganglia loops affecting motor and cognitive function. To examine functional convergence of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitter systems in the basal ganglia, we evaluated the long-term effects of chronic stimulation of each of these systems on striatal responses to stimulation of the other. First we exposed rats to chronic intermittent cocaine and used early-gene assays to test the responsivity of the striatum to subsequent acute motor cortex stimulation by application of the GABA(A) (gamma-aminobutyric acid alpha subunit) receptor antagonist, picrotoxin. Reciprocally, we studied the effects of chronic intermittent motor cortex stimulation on the capacity for subsequent acute dopaminergic treatments to induce early-gene activation in the striatum. Prior treatment with chronic intermittent cocaine induced motor sensitization and significantly potentiated the striatal expression of Fos-family early genes in response to stimulation of the motor cortex. Contrary to this, chronic intermittent stimulation of the motor cortex down-regulated cocaine-induced gene expression in the striatum, but enhanced striatal gene expression induced by a full D1 receptor agonist (SKF 81297) and did not change the early-gene response elicited by a D2 receptor antagonist (haloperidol). These findings suggests that repeated dopaminergic stimulation produces long-term enhancement of corticostriatal signalling from the motor cortex, amplifying cortically evoked modulation of the basal ganglia. By contrast, persistent stimulation of the motor cortex inhibits cocaine-stimulated signalling in the striatum, but not signalling mediated by individual dopamine receptor sites, suggesting that chronic cortical hyperexcitability produces long-term impairment of dopaminergic activity and compensation at the receptor level. These findings prompt a model of the basal ganglia function as being regulated by opposing homeostatic dopamine

  4. Dopamine receptor heteromeric complexes and their emerging functions.

    PubMed

    George, Susan R; Kern, Andras; Smith, Roy G; Franco, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission is traditionally accepted as occurring through the five dopamine receptors that transduce its signal. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the range of physiologically relevant dopamine signaling complexes is greatly expanded by the ability of dopamine receptors to interact with other dopamine receptors and with receptors of other endogenous signaling ligands. These novel heteromeric complexes have functional properties distinct from the component receptors or are able to modulate the canonical signaling and function of the cognate receptors. These dopamine receptor heteromers provide new insight into physiological mechanisms and pathophysiological processes involving dopamine. PMID:24968781

  5. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  6. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    DOEpatents

    Civelli, Olivier; Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  7. Phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Matthew J.; Willuhn, Ingo; Clark, Jeremy J.; Phillips, Paul E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Short phasic bursts of neuronal activity in dopamine neurons produce rapid and transient increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations throughout the mesocorticolimbic system, which are associated with the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. It is well established that acute exposure to many addictive drugs produce increases in tonic dopamine levels that occur on the order of minutes. However, recent studies suggest that abused drugs similarly enhance phasic dopamine release events that occur on a subsecond time scale. Furthermore, drug experience modulates the synaptic and intrinsic properties of dopamine neurons, which could affect dopamine burst firing and phasic dopamine release. This review will provide a general introduction to the mesolimbic dopamine system, as well as the primary methods used to detect dopamine neurons and dopamine release. We present the role of phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors in the context of contemporary theories regarding the function of dopamine. Next we discuss the known drug-induced changes to dopamine neurons and phasic release in both in vitro and in vivo preparations. Finally, we offer a simple model that chronic drug experience attenuates tonic/basal dopamine levels but promotes phasic dopamine release, which may result in aberrant goal-directed behaviors contributing to the development of addiction. PMID:19630749

  8. MAOA-VNTR polymorphism modulates context-dependent dopamine release and aggressive behavior in males.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Thorben; Winz, Oliver; Henkel, Karsten; Eggermann, Thomas; Mohammadkhani-Shali, Siamak; Dietrich, Claudia; Heinzel, Alexander; Decker, Michel; Cumming, Paul; Zerres, Klaus; Piel, Markus; Mottaghy, Felix M; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2016-01-15

    A recent [(18)F]FDOPA-PET study reports negative correlations between dopamine synthesis rates and aggressive behavior. Since dopamine is among the substrates for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), this investigation examines whether functional allelic variants of the MAOA tandem repeat (VNTR) promotor polymorphism, which is known to modulate aggressive behavior, influences dopamine release and aggression in response to violent visual stimuli. We selected from a genetic prescreening sample, strictly case-matched groups of 2×12 healthy male subjects with VNTRs predictive of high (MAOA-High) and low (MAOA-Low) MAOA expression. Subjects underwent pairs of PET sessions (dopamine D2/3 ligand [(18)F]DMFP) while viewing a movie of neutral content, versus violent content. Directly afterwards, aggressive behavior was assessed by the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). Finally, PET data of 23 participants and behavioral data of 22 participants were analyzed due to post hoc exclusion criteria. In the genetic prescreening sample MAOA-Low carriers had significantly increased scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. In the PET-study-group, aggressive behavior under the emotional neutral condition was significantly higher in the MAOA-Low group. Interestingly, the two MAOA-groups showed inverse dopaminergic and behavioral reactions to the violent movie: The MAOA-High group showed higher dopamine release and increased aggression after the violent movie; MAOA-Low subjects showed decreases in aggressive behavior and no consistent dopamine release. These results indicate a possible impact of the MAOA-promotor polymorphism on the neurobiological modulation of aggressive behavior. However, the data do not support approaches stating that MAOA-Low fosters aggression by a simple pro-dopaminergic mechanism. PMID:26481676

  9. Environment- and activity-dependent dopamine neurotransmitter plasticity in the adult substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Aumann, Tim D

    2016-04-01

    The ability of neurons to change the amount or type of neurotransmitter they use, or 'neurotransmitter plasticity', is an emerging new form of adult brain plasticity. For example, it has recently been shown that neurons in the adult rat hypothalamus up- or down-regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in response to the amount of light the animal receives (photoperiod), and that this in turn affects anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (Dulcis et al., 2013). In this Chapter I consolidate recent evidence from my laboratory suggesting neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) also undergo DA neurotransmitter plasticity in response to persistent changes in their electrical activity, including that driven by the mouse's environment or behavior. Specifically, we have shown that the amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene promoter activity, TH mRNA and TH protein in SNc neurons increases or decreases after ∼20h of altered electrical activity. Also, infusion of ion-channel agonists or antagonists into the midbrain for 2 weeks results in ∼10% (∼500 neurons) more or fewer TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons, with no change in the total number of SNc neurons (TH+ and TH-). Targeting ion-channels mediating cell-autonomous pacemaker activity in, or synaptic input and afferent pathways to, SNc neurons are equally effective in this regard. In addition, exposing mice to different environments (sex pairing or environment enrichment) for 1-2 weeks induces ∼10% more or fewer TH+ SNc (and ventral tegmental area or VTA) neurons and this is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic transmission in midbrain. Although further research is required to establish SNc (and VTA) DA neurotransmitter plasticity, and to determine whether it alters brain function and behavior, it is an exciting prospect because: (1) It may play important roles in movement, motor learning, reward, motivation, memory and cognition; and (2

  10. Diagnosing dopamine-responsive dystonias.

    PubMed

    Malek, N; Fletcher, N; Newman, E

    2015-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of dopamine-responsive dystonias (DRDs) has expanded over the last decade to comprise several distinct disorders. At the milder end of the clinical spectrum is the autosomal-dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiency syndrome (GTPCH-DRD), and at the more severe end is the much less common autosomal recessive tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (TH-DRD), with intermediate forms in between. Understanding the pathophysiology of DRDs can help in their optimal diagnosis and management. These are conditions with the potential to be either underdiagnosed when not considered or overdiagnosed if there is an equivocal L-dopa (levo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) response. In this article, we discuss the clinical phenotypes of these disorders, and we outline how investigations can help in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:26045581

  11. 1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, an endogenous parkinsonism-inducing toxin, strongly potentiates MAO-dependent dopamine oxidation and impairs dopamine release: ex vivo and in vivo neurochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Agnieszka; Romańska, Irena; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna

    2009-01-01

    1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1BnTIQ), an endogenous neurotoxin, is known to cause a parkinsonism-like syndrome in rodents and primates. In this study we evaluated the effects of single and multiple 1BnTIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) administration on the concentrations of dopamine, serotonin, and respective metabolites (homovanillic acid, HVA; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC; 3-methoxytyramine, 3-MT; and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, 5-HIAA), in substantia nigra, striatum (STR), and nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats. In addition, the effect of 1BnTIQ on locomotor activity and dopamine release in vivo was also estimated in rat STR. In a behavioral study, acute administration of 1BnTIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) produced a significant decrease in exploratory locomotor activity. A high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection ex vivo study showed that a single injection of 1BnTIQ produced a dramatic fall in the dopamine concentration in the noted brain regions (approximately 65%; P < 0.01), but not in striatal serotonin. Moreover, 1BnTIQ reduced the content of the extraneuronal dopamine metabolite 3-MT by 70% (P < 0.01). Conversely, levels of DOPAC, HVA, and 5-HIAA were elevated by 220, 320, and 185%, respectively (P < 0.01). Interestingly, multiple 1BnTIQ treatments (50 mg/kg/day i.p. x 10 days) resulted in development of tolerance to its dopamine depressing effect, while the impairment of dopamine synthesis was persisted. An in vivo microdialysis study demonstrated that 1BnTIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) produced a profound and long-lasting decrease in extraneuronal striatal dopamine. Concurrently, however, DOPAC and HVA were elevated. This comparison between ex vivo and in vivo effects of 1BnTIQ provides greater insight into the neurotoxic actions of 1BnTIQ specific to dopamine neurons. 1BnTIQ neurotoxicity may be related to an impairment of dopamine storage, leading to a fall in intraneuronal dopamine and enhanced dopamine catabolism through a monoamine oxidize

  12. Increased glutamate-stimulated release of dopamine in substantia nigra of a rat model for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder--lack of effect of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Warton, Fleur L; Howells, Fleur M; Russell, Vivienne A

    2009-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioural disorder that has been associated with dysfunction of the dopaminergic system. Abnormal dopamine function could be the result of a primary defect in dopamine neurons (neuronal firing, dopamine transporter, synthesis, receptor function) or an indirect result of impaired glutamate and/or noradrenergic regulation of dopamine neurons. There is considerable evidence to suggest that dopamine release is impaired at mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals. However, it is not known whether dysregulation occurs at the level of the cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN). An in vitro superfusion technique was used to measure dopamine release in a widely used model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and its normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control. At approximately 30 days of age, rats were analysed for behavioural differences in the open field in response to acute treatment with methylphenidate (0.5 to 2 mg/kg in condensed milk, oral self-administration). In addition, rats were treated chronically with methylphenidate (2 mg/kg, oral self-administration, twice daily for 14 days from postnatal day 21 to 34) before the VTA and the SN were analysed for glutamate-stimulated and depolarization-evoked release of dopamine in these areas. In support of its use as an animal model for ADHD, SHR were more active in the open field and displayed less anxiety-like behaviour than WKY. Neither strain showed any effect of treatment with methylphenidate. A significant difference was observed in glutamate-stimulated release of dopamine in the SN of SHR and WKY, with SHR releasing more dopamine, consistent with the hypothesis of altered glutamate regulation of dopamine neurons in SHR. PMID:19821016

  13. Detection of Dopamine Dynamics in the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, R. Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores neurochemical events in the extra cellular space of the brain by use of in vivo voltammetric microelectrodes. Reports dopamine concentrations and pathways, and discusses techniques used for analysis. Recognizes current problems and future directions for research. (ML)

  14. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptor downregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tietz, E.I.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Chiu, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    Regional differences in downregulation of brain benzodiazepine receptors were studied using a quantitative autoradiographic method. Rats were given a 4-week flurazepam treatment known to cause tolerance and receptor downregulation. A second group of rats was given a similar treatment, but for only 1 week. A third group was given a single acute dose of diazepam to produce a brain benzodiazepine-like activity equivalent to that found after the chronic treatment. Areas studied included hippocampal formation, cerebral cortex, superior colliculus, substantia nigra, dorsal geniculate nucleus, lateral amygdala and lateral hypothalamus. There was a regional variation in the degree of downregulation after 1 week of flurazepam treatment, ranging from 12% to 25%. Extending the flurazepam treatment to 4 weeks caused little further downregulation in those areas studied, except for the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, which showed a 13% reduction in (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding after 1 week and a 40% reduction after 4 weeks of treatment. In a few areas, such as the lateral hypothalamus, no significant change in binding was found after 4 weeks. Acute diazepam treatment caused no change in binding. This latter finding as well as results obtained during the development of the methodology show that downregulation was not an artifact due to residual drug content of brain slices. The regional variations in degree and rate of downregulation suggest areas that may be most important for benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence and may be related to the varying time courses for tolerance to different benzodiazepine actions.

  15. Dopamine-oxytocin interactions in penile erection.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, T A; Allard, J; Wayman, C; Douglas, A J

    2009-12-01

    Dopamine and oxytocin have established roles in the central regulation of penile erection in rats; however, the neural circuitries involved in a specific erectile context and the interaction between dopamine and oxytocin mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus may serve as candidate sites because they contain oxytocin cells, receive dopaminergic inputs and have been implicated in mediating masculine sexual behavior. Double immunofluorescence revealed that substantial numbers of oxytocin cells in the MPOA, SON and PVN possess dopamine D(2), D(3) and D(4) receptors. In anaesthetized rats, using intracavernous pressure as a physiological indicator of erection, blockade of lumbosacral oxytocin receptors (UK, 427843) reduced erectile responses to a nonselective dopamine agonist (apomorphine), suggesting that dopamine recruits a paraventriculospinal oxytocin pathway. In conscious males in the absence of a female, penile erection elicited by a D(2)/D(3) (Quinelorane) but not D(4) (PD168077) agonist was associated with activation of medial parvocellular PVN oxytocin cells. In another experiment where males were given full access to a receptive female, a D(4) (L-745870) but not D(2) or D(3) antagonist (L-741626; nafadotride) inhibited penile erection (intromission), and this was correlated with SON magnocellular oxytocin neuron activation. Together, the data suggest dopamine's effects on hypothalamic oxytocin cells during penile erection are context-specific. Dopamine may act via different parvocellular and magnocellular oxytocin subpopulations to elicit erectile responses, depending upon whether intromission is performed. This study demonstrates the potential existence of interaction between central dopamine and oxytocin pathways during penile erection, with the SON and PVN serving as integrative sites. PMID:20128851

  16. Tonic Dopamine Modulates Exploitation of Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Daw, Nathaniel; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this “closed economy” paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior. PMID:21120145

  17. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Caitlin B.; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920

  18. Neurotrophic effects of L-DOPA in postnatal midbrain dopamine neuron/cortical astrocyte cocultures.

    PubMed

    Mena, M A; Davila, V; Sulzer, D

    1997-10-01

    L-DOPA is toxic to catecholamine neurons in culture, but the toxicity is reduced by exposure to astrocytes. We tested the effect of L-DOPA on dopamine neurons using postnatal ventral midbrain neuron/cortical astrocyte cocultures in serum-free, glia-conditioned medium. L-DOPA (50 microM) protected against dopamine neuronal cell death and increased the number and branching of dopamine processes. In contrast to embryonically derived glia-free cultures, where L-DOPA is toxic, postnatal midbrain cultures did not show toxicity at 200 microM L-DOPA. The stereoisomer D-DOPA (50-400 microM) was not neurotrophic. The aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa (25 microM) did not block the neurotrophic effect. These data suggest that the neurotrophic effect of L-DOPA is stereospecific but independent of the production of dopamine. However, L-DOPA increased the level of glutathione. Inhibition of glutathione peroxidase by L-buthionine sulfoximine (3 microM for 24 h) blocked the neurotrophic action of L-DOPA. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (250 microM for 48 h), which promotes glutathione synthesis, had a neurotrophic effect similar to that of L-DOPA. These data suggest that the neurotrophic effect of L-DOPA may be mediated, at least in part, by elevation of glutathione content. PMID:9326268

  19. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caitlin B; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR) exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN. PMID:26808920

  20. Dopamine-first’ mechanism enables the rational engineering of the norcoclaurine synthase aldehyde activity profile

    PubMed Central

    Lichman, Benjamin R; Gershater, Markus C; Lamming, Eleanor D; Pesnot, Thomas; Sula, Altin; Keep, Nicholas H; Hailes, Helen C; Ward, John M

    2015-01-01

    Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) (EC 4.2.1.78) catalyzes the Pictet–Spengler condensation of dopamine and an aldehyde, forming a substituted (S)-tetrahydroisoquinoline, a pharmaceutically important moiety. This unique activity has led to NCS being used for both in vitro biocatalysis and in vivo recombinant metabolism. Future engineering of NCS activity to enable the synthesis of diverse tetrahydroisoquinolines is dependent on an understanding of the NCS mechanism and kinetics. We assess two proposed mechanisms for NCS activity: (a) one based on the holo X-ray crystal structure and (b) the ‘dopamine-first’ mechanism based on computational docking. Thalictrum flavum NCS variant activities support the dopamine-first mechanism. Suppression of the non-enzymatic background reaction reveals novel kinetic parameters for NCS, showing it to act with low catalytic efficiency. This kinetic behaviour can account for the ineffectiveness of recombinant NCS in in vivo systems, and also suggests NCS may have an in planta role as a metabolic gatekeeper. The amino acid substitution L76A, situated in the proposed aldehyde binding site, results in the alteration of the enzyme's aldehyde activity profile. This both verifies the dopamine-first mechanism and demonstrates the potential for the rational engineering of NCS activity. PMID:25620686

  1. Multiple human D sub 5 dopamine receptor genes: A functional receptor and two pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, D.K.; Yuan Zhang; Bouvier, C.; Qunyong Zhou; Johnson, R.A.; Allen, L.; Buck, K.; Bunzow, J.R.; Salon, J.; Civelli, O. )

    1991-10-15

    Three genes closely related to the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor were identified in the human genome. One of the genes lacks introns and encodes a functional human dopamine receptor, D{sub 5}, whose deduced amino acid sequence is 49% identical to that of the human D{sub 1} receptor. Compared with the human D{sub 1} dopamine receptor, the D{sub 5} receptor displayed a higher affinity for dopamine and was able to stimulate a biphasic rather than a monophasic intracellular accumulation of cAMP. Neither of the other two genes was able to direct the synthesis of a receptor. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that these two genes are 98% identical to each other and 95% identical to the D{sub 5} sequence. Relative to the D{sub 5} sequence, both contain insertions and deletions that result in several in-frame termination codons. Premature termination of translation is the most likely explanation for the failure of these genes to produce receptors in COS-7 and 293 cells even though their messages are transcribed. The authors conclude that the two are pseudogenes. Blot hybridization experiments performed on rat genomic DNA suggest that there is one D{sub 5} gene in this species and that the pseudogenes may be the result of a relatively recent evolutionary event.

  2. Dopamine induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages in rat C6 glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Tian; Wang, Chenlong; Chen, Xuewei; Duan, Chenfan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Tian; Chen, Honglei; Yue, Jiang; Li, Ying; Yang, Jing

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancers, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at days 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing the coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. - Highlights: • Dopamine induces tumor growth inhibition and vascular normalization in rat C6 glioma. • Dopamine switches macrophage phenotype from M2 to M1. • Dopamine-induced vascular normalization is mediated by macrophage polarization. • Dopamine is a promising agent targeting the microvasculature in tumor

  3. Orbitofrontal Dopamine Depletion Upregulates Caudate Dopamine and Alters Behavior via Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, R. N.; Rygula, R.; Hong, Y. T.; Fryer, T. D.; Sawiak, S. J.; Ferrari, V.; Cockcroft, G.; Aigbirhio, F. I.; Robbins, T. W.; Roberts, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with upregulation of dopamine (DA) release in the caudate nucleus. The caudate has dense connections with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) via the frontostriatal loops, and both areas exhibit pathophysiological change in schizophrenia. Despite evidence that abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and prefrontal cortex function co-occur in schizophrenia, the influence of OFC DA on caudate DA and reinforcement processing is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that OFC dopaminergic dysfunction disrupts caudate dopamine function, we selectively depleted dopamine from the OFC of marmoset monkeys and measured striatal extracellular dopamine levels (using microdialysis) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding (using positron emission tomography), while modeling reinforcement-related behavior in a discrimination learning paradigm. OFC dopamine depletion caused an increase in tonic dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus and a corresponding reduction in D2/D3 receptor binding. Computational modeling of behavior showed that the lesion increased response exploration, reducing the tendency to persist with a recently chosen response side. This effect is akin to increased response switching previously seen in schizophrenia and was correlated with striatal but not OFC D2/D3 receptor binding. These results demonstrate that OFC dopamine depletion is sufficient to induce striatal hyperdopaminergia and changes in reinforcement learning relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:24872570

  4. Cytosolic Sulfotransferase 1A3 Is Induced by Dopamine and Protects Neuronal Cells from Dopamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sidharthan, Neelima P.; Minchin, Rodney F.; Butcher, Neville J.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurotoxicity is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, and neurons utilize several mechanisms, including uptake and metabolism, to protect them from injury. Metabolism of dopamine involves three enzymes: monoamine oxidase, catechol O-methyltransferase, and sulfotransferase. In primates but not lower order animals, a sulfotransferase (SULT1A3) is present that can rapidly metabolize dopamine to dopamine sulfate. Here, we show that SULT1A3 and a closely related protein SULT1A1 are highly inducible by dopamine. This involves activation of the D1 and NMDA receptors. Both ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcineurin activation are required for induction. Pharmacological agents that inhibited induction or siRNA targeting SULT1A3 significantly increased the susceptibility of cells to dopamine toxicity. Taken together, these results show that dopamine can induce its own metabolism and protect neuron-like cells from damage, suggesting that SULT1A3 activity may be a risk factor for dopamine-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24136195

  5. Endogenous Dopamine Suppresses Initiation of Swimming in Prefeeding Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalai, Vatsala; Cline, Hollis T.

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulator of locomotory circuits, yet the role that dopamine plays during development of these circuits is less well understood. Here, we describe a suppressive effect of dopamine on swim circuits in larval zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae exhibit marked changes in swimming behavior between 3 days postfertilization (dpf) and 5dpf. We found that swim episodes were fewer and of longer durations at 3 than at 5dpf. At 3dpf, application of dopamine as well as bupropion, a dopamine reuptake blocker, abolished spontaneous fictive swim episodes. Blocking D2 receptors increased frequency of occurrence of episodes and activation of adenylyl cyclase, a downstream target inhibited by D2-receptor signaling, blocked the inhibitory effect of dopamine. Dopamine had no effect on motor neuron firing properties, input impedance, resting membrane potential, or the amplitude of spike afterhyperpolarization. Application of dopamine either to the isolated spinal cord or locally within the cord does not decrease episode frequency, whereas dopamine application to the brain silences episodes, suggesting a supraspinal locus of dopaminergic action. Treating larvae with 10 μM MPTP reduced catecholaminergic innervation in the brain and increased episode frequency. These data indicate that dopamine inhibits the initiation of fictive swimming episodes at 3dpf. We found that at 5dpf, exogenously applied dopamine inhibits swim episodes, yet the dopamine reuptake blocker or the D2-receptor antagonist have no effect on episode frequency. These results led us to propose that endogenous dopamine release transiently suppresses swim circuits in developing zebrafish. PMID:18562547

  6. Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons into the median eminence activates dopamine-D2 receptors in the pituitary gland where it inhibits lactotroph function. We have previously described genetic dopamine-deficient mouse models which lack the ability to synthesize dopamine. Because...

  7. Cytokine-mediated down-regulation of CYP1A1 in Hepa1 cells.

    PubMed

    Paton, T E; Renton, K W

    1998-06-01

    The activation of host defense mechanisms down-regulates microsomal cytochrome P450 in cell culture, humans, and animals. Investigation into various aspects of this effect using in vivo models has yet to define clearly the role that cytokines play in this phenomenon. The mechanism of down-regulation by immunostimulants, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is explored with an in vitro model, utilizing a murine hepatoma (Hepa1) and a murine macrophage (IC-21) cell line. It is hypothesized that down-regulation of P450 activity by immunostimulants involves the activation of immune cells and the subsequent release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The effects of immunostimulation on P450 activity are assessed by ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, an assay that measures CYP1A activity in Hepa1 cells. Initial studies demonstrated that LPS added directly to hepatoma cells had no effect on the levels of CYP1A1 activity. In contrast, a significant down-regulation in CYP1A1 activity occurred when hepatoma cells were incubated with monocyte conditioned medium obtained by incubating LPS with IC-21 cells. When pentoxifylline, a TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor, was co-administered with LPS to macrophages, the down-regulation of CYP1A1 activity was prevented. The direct administration of murine recombinant TNF-alpha to hepatoma cells resulted in a down-regulation of CYP1A1 activity. These results implicated the release of TNF-alpha from macrophages as an important step in the down-regulation of CYP1A1 by LPS. PMID:9714297

  8. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  9. Dopamine systems in the forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cave, John W.; Baker, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    The brain contains a number of distinct regions that share expression of dopamine (DA) and its requisite biosynthetic machinery, but otherwise encompass a diverse array of features and functions. Across the vertebrate family, the olfactory bulb (OB) contains the major DA system in the forebrain. OB DA cells are primarily periglomerular interneurons that define the glomerular structures in which they receive innervation from olfactory receptor neurons as well as mitral and tufted cells, the primary OB output neurons. The OB DA cells are necessary for both discrimination and the dynamic range over which odorant sensory information can be detected. In the embryo, OB DA neurons are derived from the ventricular area of the evaginating telencephalon, the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence, and the septum. However, most OB DA interneurons are generated post-natally and continue to be produced throughout adult life from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and rostral migratory stream. Adult born OB DA neurons are capable of integrating into existing circuits and do not appear to degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Several genes have been identified that regulate the differentiation of OB DA interneurons from neural stem cells. These include transcription factors that modify the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the DA biosynthetic pathway and a reliable marker of the DA phenotype. Elucidation of the molecular genetic pathways of OB DA differentiation may advance the development of strategies to treat neurological disease. PMID:19731547

  10. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  11. Downregulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chul-Ho; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by diverse anti-cancer drugs or phytochemicals has been closely related with the induction of apoptosis in cancers. Also, the downregulation of ROS by these chemicals has been found to block initiation of carcinogenesis. Therefore, modulation of ROS by phytochemicals emerges as a crucial mechanism to regulate apoptosis in cancer prevention or therapy. This review summarizes the current understanding of the selected chemical compounds and related cellular components that modulate ROS during apoptotic process. Metformin, quercetin, curcumin, vitamin C, and other compounds have been shown to downregulate ROS in the cellular apoptotic process, and some of them even induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cellular components mediating the downregulation of ROS include nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 antioxidant signaling pathway, thioredoxin, catalase, glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and uncoupling proteins. The present review provides information on the relationship between these compounds and the cellular components in modulating ROS in apoptotic cancer cells. PMID:27051644

  12. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... CONGENITAL Sources for This Page Cubells JF, Zabetian CP. Human genetics of plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity: ... GeneReview: Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency Kim CH, Zabetian CP, Cubells JF, Cho S, Biaggioni I, Cohen BM, Robertson ...

  13. Brain May Compensate for Dopamine Neuron Loss Early in Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Science News Brain May Compensate for Dopamine Neuron Loss Early in Parkinson’s - May 09 2014 Scientists ... at least 25 percent of the brain’s dopamine neurons already have been lost. So why do symptoms ...

  14. Dopamine-dependent neurodegeneration in rats induced by viral vector-mediated overexpression of the parkin target protein, CDCrel-1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhizhong; Ferger, Boris; Paterna, Jean-Charles; Vogel, Denise; Furler, Sven; Osinde, Maribel; Feldon, Joram; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in the parkin gene are linked to autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). Parkin functions as a ubiquitin protein ligase in the degradation of several proteins, including the neuron-specific septin CDCrel-1. AR-JP-associated parkin mutations inhibit ubiquitination and degradation of CDCrel-1 and other parkin target proteins. Here we show that recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated CDCrel-1 gene transfer to the substantia nigra of rats results in a rapid onset (6-10 days) of nigral and striatal CDCrel-1 expression that is followed by a progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a decline of the striatal dopamine levels. In contrast, neurons of the globus pallidus are spared from CDCrel-1 toxicity. Furthermore, CDCrel-1 inhibits the release of dopamine from stably-transfected PC12 cells, and pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine synthesis in rats prevents CDCrel-1-induced nigral neurodegeneration. These results show that CDCrel-1 overexpression exerts dopamine-dependent neurotoxicity and suggest that inhibition of dopamine secretion by CDCrel-1 may contribute to the development of AR-JP. PMID:14530399

  15. Grafts of fetal dopamine neurons survive and improve motor function in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lindvall, O.; Brundin, P.; Widner, H.; Rehncrona, S.; Gustavii, B.; Frackowiak, R.; Leenders, K.L.; Sawle, G.; Rothwell, J.C.; Marsden, C.D. )

    1990-02-02

    Neural transplantation can restore striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in animal models of Parkinson's disease. It has now been shown that mesencephalic dopamine neurons, obtained from human fetuses of 8 to 9 weeks gestational age, can survive in the human brain and produce marked and sustained symptomatic relief in a patient severely affected with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The grafts, which were implanted unilaterally into the putamen by stereotactic surgery, restored dopamine synthesis and storage in the grafted area, as assessed by positron emission tomography with 6-L-({sup 18}F)fluorodopa. This neurochemical change was accompanied by a therapeutically significant reduction in the patient's severe rigidity and bradykinesia and a marked diminuation of the fluctuations in the patient's condition during optimum medication (the on-off phenomenon). The clinical improvement was most marked on the side contralateral to the transplant.

  16. Fabrication of gold nanorods with tunable longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks by reductive dopamine.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaoxing; Yang, Chi; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-01-20

    Hydroxyphenol compounds are often used as reductants in controlling the growth of nanoparticles. Herein, dopamine was used as an effective reductant in seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs). The as-prepared GNRs (83 × 16 nm) were monodisperse and had a high degree of purity. The conversion ratio from gold ions to GNRs was around 80%. In addition, dopamine worked as an additive. At a very low concentration of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB; 0.025 M), thinner and shorter GNRs (60 × 9 nm) were successfully prepared. By regulating the concentration of silver ions, CTAB, seeds, and reductant, GNRs with longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks ranging from 680 to 1030 nm were synthesized. The growth process was tracked using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, and it was found that a slow growth rate was beneficial to the formation of GNRs. PMID:25521416

  17. Dopamine Gene Profiling to Predict Impulse Control and Effects of Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Hayley J; Stinear, Cathy M; Ren, April; Coxon, James P; Kao, Justin; Macdonald, Lorraine; Snow, Barry; Cramer, Steven C; Byblow, Winston D

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine agonists can impair inhibitory control and cause impulse control disorders for those with Parkinson disease (PD), although mechanistically this is not well understood. In this study, we hypothesized that the extent of such drug effects on impulse control is related to specific dopamine gene polymorphisms. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to examine the effect of single doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg of the dopamine agonist ropinirole on impulse control in healthy adults of typical age for PD onset. Impulse control was measured by stop signal RT on a response inhibition task and by an index of impulsive decision-making on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. A dopamine genetic risk score quantified basal dopamine neurotransmission from the influence of five genes: catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, and those encoding receptors D1, D2, and D3. With placebo, impulse control was better for the high versus low genetic risk score groups. Ropinirole modulated impulse control in a manner dependent on genetic risk score. For the lower score group, both doses improved response inhibition (decreased stop signal RT) whereas the lower dose reduced impulsiveness in decision-making. Conversely, the higher score group showed a trend for worsened response inhibition on the lower dose whereas both doses increased impulsiveness in decision-making. The implications of the present findings are that genotyping can be used to predict impulse control and whether it will improve or worsen with the administration of dopamine agonists. PMID:26942320

  18. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-addicted subjects, striatal DA D2 receptor availability is reduced in obese subjects, which may predispose obese subjects to seek food as a means to temporarily compensate for understimulated reward circuits. Decreased DA D2 receptors in the obese subjects are also associated with decreased metabolism in prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control, which may underlie their inability to control food intake. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates cortical and limbic regions involved with self-control, motivation, and memory. These brain regions are also activated during drug craving in drug-addicted subjects. Obese subjects have increased metabolism in the somatosensory cortex, which suggests an enhanced sensitivity to the sensory properties of food. The reduction in DA D2 receptors in obese subjects coupled with the enhanced sensitivity to food palatability could make food their most salient reinforcer putting them at risk for compulsive eating and obesity. The results from these studies suggest that multiple but similar brain circuits are disrupted in obesity and drug addiction and suggest that strategies aimed at improving DA function might be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:21603099

  19. Differential dopamine function in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Daniel S; MacKie, Palmer J; Kareken, David A; Hutchins, Gary D; Chumin, Evgeny J; Christian, Bradley T; Yoder, Karmen K

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 30 % of Americans suffer from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia (FM), which can cause debilitating pain. Many pain-killing drugs prescribed for chronic pain disorders are highly addictive, have limited clinical efficacy, and do not treat the cognitive symptoms reported by many patients. The neurobiological substrates of chronic pain are largely unknown, but evidence points to altered dopaminergic transmission in aberrant pain perception. We sought to characterize the dopamine (DA) system in individuals with FM. Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]fallypride (FAL) was used to assess changes in DA during a working memory challenge relative to a baseline task, and to test for associations between baseline D2/D3 availability and experimental pain measures. Twelve female subjects with FM and 11 female controls completed study procedures. Subjects received one FAL PET scan while performing a "2-back" task, and one while performing a "0-back" (attentional control, "baseline") task. FM subjects had lower baseline FAL binding potential (BP) in several cortical regions relative to controls, including anterior cingulate cortex. In FM subjects, self-reported spontaneous pain negatively correlated with FAL BP in the left orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Baseline BP was significantly negatively correlated with experimental pain sensitivity and tolerance in both FM and CON subjects, although spatial patterns of these associations differed between groups. The data suggest that abnormal DA function may be associated with differential processing of pain perception in FM. Further studies are needed to explore the functional significance of DA in nociception and cognitive processing in chronic pain. PMID:26497890

  20. Thermal Stability of Dopamine Transporters.

    PubMed

    Kukk, Siim; Stepanov, Vladimir; Järv, Jaak

    2015-08-01

    The thermal stabilities of the rat and mouse dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins were studied within the temperature range of 0-37°C. The inactivation of the protein was followed by monitoring changes in radioligand-specific binding. We found that the process followed a rate equation with first-order kinetics and was characterized by having a single rate constant k inact. The activation energies (E a) that were calculated from the Arrhenius plots (ln k inact vs. 1/T) were 43 ± 5 and 45 ± 6 kJ/mol for the rat (rDAT) and mouse (mDAT) transporters, respectively, and 44 ± 7 kJ/mol for rDAT from PC-6.3 cell line. These E a values were similar to the E a values of thermal inactivation of the muscarinic receptor from rat brain cortex and to the thermal inactivation of other transmembrane proteins. However, all of these activation energy values were significantly lower than the E a values for soluble single-subunit proteins of similar size. These results therefore suggest that the thermal stability of transmembrane proteins may be governed to a significant extent by cell membrane properties and by interactions between the membrane components and the protein. In contrast, the stability of soluble proteins seems to be mostly governed by protein structure and size, which determine the sum of the stabilizing intramolecular interactions within the protein molecule. It is therefore not surprising that cell membrane properties and composition may have significant effects on the functional properties of transmembrane proteins. PMID:25812533

  1. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  2. Theoretical determinations of ionization potentials of dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. F.; Yu, Z. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Adiabatic and vertical ionization potentials (IPs) of nine conformers of dopamine in the gas phase are determined using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP, B3P86, B3PW91 methods and high level ab initio HF method with 6-311++G** basis set, respectively. And the nine stable cationic states have been found in the ionization process of dopamine. Vertical ionization potentials of nine conformers of dopamine are calculated using the older outer-valence Green's function (OVGF) calculations at 6-311++G** basis set. Vibrational frequencies and infrared spectrum intensities of G1b and G1b+ at B3LYP/6-311++G** level are discussed.

  3. Dopamine receptors in a songbird brain

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Wada, Kazuhiro; Jarvis, Erich D

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulatory transmitter in the brain. It acts through dopamine receptors to affect changes in neural activity, gene expression, and behavior. In songbirds, dopamine is released into the striatal song nucleus Area X, and the levels depend on social contexts of undirected and directed singing. This differential release is associated with differential expression of activity-dependent genes, such as egr1 (avian zenk), which in mammalian brain are modulated by dopamine receptors. Here we cloned from zebra finch brain cDNAs of all avian dopamine receptors: the D1 (D1A, D1B, D1D) and D2 (D2, D3, D4) families. Comparative sequence analyses of predicted proteins revealed expected phylogenetic relationships, in which the D1 family exists as single exon and the D2 family exists as spliced exon genes. In both zebra finch and chicken, the D1A, D1B, and D2 receptors were highly expressed in the striatum, the D1D and D3 throughout the pallium and within the mesopallium, respectively, and the D4 mainly in the cerebellum. Furthermore, within the zebra finch, all receptors, except for D4, showed differential expression in song nuclei relative to the surrounding regions and developmentally regulated expression that decreased for most receptors during the sensory acquisition and sensorimotor phases of song learning. Within Area X, half of the cells expressed both D1A and D2 receptors, and a higher proportion of the D1A-only-containing neurons expressed egr1 during undirected but not during directed singing. Our findings are consistent with hypotheses that dopamine receptors may be involved in song development and social context-dependent behaviors. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:741–769, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20058221

  4. Dopamine and synaptic plasticity in the neostriatum

    PubMed Central

    ARBUTHNOTT, G. W.; INGHAM, C. A.; WICKENS, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    After the unilateral destruction of the dopamine input to the neostriatum there are enduring changes in rat behaviour. These have been ascribed to the loss of dopamine and the animals are often referred to as ‘hemiparkinsonian’. In the denervated neostriatum, we have shown that not only are the tyrosine hydroxylase positive boutons missing, but also the medium sized densely spiny output cells have fewer spines. Spines usually have asymmetric synapses on their heads. In a recent stereological study we were able to show that there is a loss of approximately 20% of asymmetric synapses in the lesioned neostriatum by 1 mo after the lesion. Current experiments are trying to establish the specificity of this loss. So far we have evidence suggesting that there is no obvious preferential loss of synapses from either D1 or D2 receptor immunostained dendrites in the neostriatum with damaged dopamine innervation. These experiments suggest that dopamine is somehow necessary for the maintenance of corticostriatal synapses in the neostriatum. In a different series of experiments slices of cortex and neostriatum were maintained in vitro in such a way as to preserve at least some of the corticostriatal connections. In this preparation we have been able to show that cortical stimulation results in robust excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) recorded from inside striatal neurons. Using stimulation protocols derived from the experiments on hippocampal synaptic plasticity we have shown that the usual consequence of trains of high frequency stimulation of the cortex is the depression of the size of EPSPs in the striatal cell. In agreement with similar experiments by others, the effect seems to be influenced by NMDA receptors since the unblocking of these receptors with low Mg++ concentrations in the perfusate uncovers a potentiation of the EPSPs after trains of stimulation. Dopamine applied in the perfusion fluid round the slices has no effect but pulsatile application of

  5. PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. |

    1996-07-01

    Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) Nanosensors for Monitoring Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is widely innervated throughout the brain and critical for many cognitive and motor functions. Imbalances or loss in dopamine transmission underlie various psychiatric disorders and degenerative diseases. Research involving cellular studies and disease states would benefit from a tool for measuring dopamine transmission. Here we show a Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) nanosensor platform for selective and dynamic detection of dopamine. This nanosensor exploits DNA technology and enzyme recognition systems to optically image dopamine levels. The DNA quadruplex architecture is designed to be compatible in physically constrained environments (110 nm) with high flexibility, homogeneity, and a lower detection limit of 110 µM. PMID:26287196

  7. Methylamine-dependent release of nitric oxide and dopamine in the CNS modulates food intake in fasting rats

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, L; Alfarano, C; Pacini, A; Livi, S; Ghelardini, C; DeSiena, G; Pirisino, R

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Methylamine is an endogenous aliphatic amine exhibiting anorexigenic properties in mice. The aim of this work was to show whether methylamine also modifies feeding behaviour in rats and, if so, to identify the mediator(s) responsible for such effects. Experimental approach: Microdialysis experiments with the probe inserted in the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus were carried out in 12 h starved, freely moving rats. Collected perfusate samples following methylamine injection (i.c.v.) were analysed for nitric oxide by chemiluminescence and for dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine content by HPLC. Kv1.6 potassium channel expression was reduced by antisense strategy and this decrease quantified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Key results: Methylamine showed biphasic dose-related effects on rat feeding. At doses of 15–30 μg per rat, it was hyperphagic whereas higher doses (60–80 μg) were hypophagic. Methylamine stimulated central nitric oxide (+115% vs. basal) following hyperphagic and dopamine release (60% over basal values) at hypophagic doses, respectively. Treatment with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (i.c.v. 2 μg 10 μl−1) or with α-methyl-p-tyrosine (i.p. 100 mg kg−1) before methylamine injection, reduced nitric oxide output and hyperphagia, or dopamine release and hypophagia respectively. Moreover, hypophagia and hyperphagia, as well as nitric oxide and dopamine release were significantly reduced by down-regulating brain Kv1.6 potassium channel expression. Conclusions and implications: The effects of methylamine on feeding depend on the hypothalamic release of nitric oxide and dopamine as a result of interaction at the Kv1.6 channels. The study of methylamine levels in the CNS may provide new perspectives on the physio-pathogy of alimentary behaviour. PMID:17339841

  8. Downregulating the sucrose transporter VpSUT1 in Verbascum phoeniceum does not inhibit phloem loading

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cankui; Turgeon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Sucrose is loaded into the phloem in the minor veins of leaves before export. Two active, species-specific loading mechanisms have been proposed. One involves transporter-mediated sucrose transfer from the apoplast into the sieve element-companion cell complex, so-called apoplastic loading. In the putative second mechanism, sucrose follows an entirely symplastic pathway, and the solute concentration is elevated by the synthesis of raffinose and stachyose in the phloem, not by transporter activity. Several sucrose-transporting plants have been shown to be apoplastic loaders by downregulating sucrose transporter 1 (SUT1), leading to accumulation of sugars and leaf chlorosis. In this study we compared the effect of downregulating SUT1 in Nicotiana tabacum, a sucrose transporter, and Verbascum phoeniceum, a species that transports raffinose and stachyose. To test the effectiveness of RNAi downregulation, we measured SUT1 mRNA levels and sucrose-H+ symport in leaf discs. Mild NtSUT1 downregulation in N. tabacum resulted in the pronounced phenotype associated with loading inhibition. In contrast, no such phenotype developed when VpSUT1 was downregulated in V. phoeniceum, leaving minimal sucrose transport activity. Only those plants with the most severe VpSUT1 downregulation accumulated more carbohydrate than usual and these plants were normal by other criteria: growth rate, photosynthesis, and ability to clear starch during the night. The results provide direct evidence that the mechanism of phloem loading in V. phoeniceum does not require active sucrose uptake from the apoplast and strongly supports the conclusion that the loading pathway is symplastic in this species. PMID:19846784

  9. Dopamine Transporters, D2 Receptors, and Dopamine Release in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schneier, Franklin R.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Laruelle, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter availability in the striatum have each been reported abnormal in generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) in studies using single photon computerized tomography (SPECT). D2 receptors and dopamine transporters have not previously been studied within the same GSAD subjects, however, and prior GSAD studies have not assessed dopamine release or subdivided striatum into functional subregions. Methods Unmedicated adults with GSAD (N=17) and matched healthy comparison subjects (HC, N=13) participated in this study. Of these, 15 GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed baseline assessment of D2 receptor availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiotracer [11C] raclopride. Twelve GSAD and 13 HC subjects completed a repeat scan after intravenous administration of D-amphetamine, to study dopamine release. Twelve of the GSAD subjects and 10 of the HC subjects also completed SPECT with the radiotracer [123I] methyl 3ß-(4-iodophenyl) tropane-2ß-carboxylate ([123I] ß-CIT) to assess dopamine transporter availability. Results GSAD and HC groups did not differ significantly in striatal dopamine transporter availability, overall striatal or striatal subregion D2 receptor availability at baseline, or change in D2 receptor availability after D-amphetamine. Receptor availability and change after D-amphetamine were not significantly associated with severity of social anxiety or trait detachment. Conclusions These findings do not replicate previous findings of altered striatal dopamine transporter and D2 receptor availability in GSAD subjects assessed with SPECT. The differences from results of prior studies may be due to differences in imaging methods or characteristics of samples. PMID:19180583

  10. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gironacci, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and Ang-(1-7) may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7) was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7) and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7)-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7) stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide) did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7) on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7) was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7) enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  11. Dopamine-melanin nanofilms for biomimetic structural coloration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong-Fei; Hong, Jong-Dal

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the formation of dopamine-melanin thin films (50-200 nm thick) at an air/dopamine solution interface under static conditions. Beneath these films, spherical melanin granules formed in bulk liquid phase. The thickness of dopamine-melanin films at the interface relied mainly on the concentration of dopamine solution and the reaction time. A plausible mechanism underlining dopamine-melanin thin film formation was proposed based on the hydrophobicity of dopamine-melanin aggregates and the mass transport of the aggregates to the air/solution interface as a result of convective flow. The thickness of the interfacial films increased linearly with the dopamine concentration and the reaction time. The dopamine-melanin thin film and granules (formed in bulk liquid phase) with a double-layered structure were transferred onto a solid substrate to mimic the (keratin layer)/(melanin granules) structure present in bird plumage, thereby preparing full dopamine-melanin thin-film reflectors. The reflected color of the thin-film reflectors depended on the film thickness, which could be adjusted according to the dopamine concentration. The reflectance of the resulted reflectors exhibited a maximal reflectance value of 8-11%, comparable to that of bird plumage (∼11%). This study provides a useful, simple, and low-cost approach to the fabrication of biomimetic thin-film reflectors using full dopamine-melanin materials. PMID:25587771

  12. Differential action of methamphetamine on tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transport in the nigrostriatal pathway of μ-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Won; He, Zhi; Shen, Xine; Roman, Richard J; Ma, Tangeng

    2012-06-01

    Extensive anatomical and functional interactions exist between central dopaminergic and opioidergic systems and both systems are proposed to be targets for amphetamine-like drugs. We have previously reported that μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR) knockout mice are resistant to the loss of dopamine in the striatum and the development of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated methamphetamine (METH) treatment. The present study assessed whether METH-treated μ-OR knockout mice exhibit a differential response of the expression of dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis and maintaining dopamine levels. Mice daily received intraperitoneal injection of METH (0, 0.6, 2.5, or 10 mg/kg) for 7 days and sacrificed on day 11 (4 days after the last injection). The expression of TH protein in the striatum and the levels of TH mRNA and number of TH positive neurons in the substantia nigra were reduced in wild-type mice treated with METH (2.5 and 10 mg/kg), but not in the μ-OR knockout mice. In contrast, METH exposure at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) reduced dopamine transporter levels in both strains of mice. These results suggest that the μ-OR contributes to METH-induced loss of dopamine and behavioral sensitization by decreasing the expression of TH. PMID:22329540

  13. Organization of monosynaptic inputs to the serotonin and dopamine neuromodulatorysystems

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Sachie K.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.; Hwang, Dabin; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Serotonin and dopamine are major neuromodulators. Here we used a modified rabies virus to identify monosynaptic inputs to serotonin neurons in the dorsal and median raphe (DR and MR). We found that inputs to DR and MR serotonin neurons are spatially shiftedin the forebrain, with MRserotonin neurons receiving inputs from more medial structures. We then compared these data with inputs to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantianigra pars compacta (SNc). We found that DR serotonin neurons receive inputs from a remarkably similar set of areas as VTA dopamine neurons, apart from the striatum, which preferentially targets dopamine neurons. Ourresults suggest three majorinput streams: amedial stream regulates MR serotonin neurons, anintermediate stream regulatesDR serotonin and VTA dopamine neurons, and alateral stream regulatesSNc dopamine neurons. These results providefundamental organizational principlesofafferent control forserotonin and dopamine. PMID:25108805

  14. BEYOND ANOXIA: THE PHYSIOLOGY OF METABOLIC DOWNREGULATION AND RECOVERY IN THE ANOXIA-TOLERANT TURTLE*

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Sarah L.; Prentice, Howard M.

    2007-01-01

    The freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta is among the most anoxia tolerant of vertebrates, a true facultative anaerobe able to survive without oxygen for days at room temperature to weeks or months during winter hibernation. Our good friend and colleague Peter Lutz devoted nearly 25 years to the study of the physiology of anoxia tolerance in these and other model organisms, promoting not just the basic science but also the idea that understanding the physiology and molecular mechanisms behind anoxia tolerance provides insights into critical survival pathways that may be applicable to the hypoxic/ischemic mammalian brain. Work by Peter and his colleagues focused on the factors which enable the turtle to enter a deep hypometabolic state, including decreases in ion flux (“channel arrest”), increases in inhibitory neuromodulators like adenosine and GABA, and the maintenance of low extracellular levels of excitatory compounds such as dopamine and glutamate. Our attention has recently turned to molecular mechanisms of anoxia tolerance, including the upregulation of such protective factors as heat shock proteins (Hsp 72, Hsc73), the reversible downregulation of voltage gated potassium channels, and the modulation of MAP kinase pathways. In this review we discuss three phases of anoxia tolerance, including the initial metabolic downregulation over the first several hours, the long-term maintenance of neuronal function over days to weeks of anoxia, and finally recovery upon reoxygenation, with necessary defenses against reactive oxygen stress. PMID:17049896

  15. Imaging extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy by endogenous dopamine in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Verhoeff, N P; Varrone, A; Zoghbi, S S; Baldwin, R M; Jatlow, P A; Anderson, G M; Seibyl, J P; Innis, R B

    2000-01-10

    The effect of endogenous dopamine on in vivo measurement of dopamine D(2) receptors in extrastriatal regions (thalamus and temporal cortex) was evaluated with single photon emission computed tomography and the high affinity ligand [123I]epidepride by comparing the binding potential before and after acute dopamine depletion. Dopamine depletion was achieved by per-oral administration of 5.5 g/70 kg body weight alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine given in 37 h. The alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine treatment increased the binding potential significantly in the temporal cortex (13+/-15%, P=0.036) but not in the thalamus (2+/-9%). The increase of the binding potential in the temporal cortex correlated strongly with the increase of dysphoric mood evaluated by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) (rho=0.88, P=0.004). These results imply that [123I]epidepride, coupled with acute dopamine depletion might provide estimates of synaptic dopamine concentration. PMID:10650158

  16. Oscillating from Neurosecretion to Multitasking Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, David R.; Akopian, Armen N.

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Cell Reports, Stagkourakis et al. (2016) report that oscillating hypothalamic TIDA neurons, previously thought to be simple neurosecretory neurons controlling pituitary prolactin secretion, control dopamine output via autoregulatory mechanisms and thus could potentially regulate other physiologically important hypothalamic neuronal circuits. PMID:27119847

  17. Comparison of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in Decreasing Production of the Autotoxic Dopamine Metabolite 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patti; Holmes, Courtney; Kopin, Irwin J; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2016-02-01

    According to the catecholaldehyde hypothesis, the toxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) contributes to the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) catalyzes the conversion of intraneuronal dopamine to DOPAL and may serve as a therapeutic target. The "cheese effect"-paroxysmal hypertension evoked by tyramine-containing foodstuffs-limits clinical use of irreversible MAO-A inhibitors. Combined MAO-A/B inhibition decreases DOPAL production in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, but whether reversible MAO-A inhibitors or MAO-B inhibitors decrease endogenous DOPAL production is unknown. We compared the potencies of MAO inhibitors in attenuating DOPAL production and examined possible secondary effects on dopamine storage, constitutive release, synthesis, and auto-oxidation. Catechol concentrations were measured in cells and medium after incubation with the irreversible MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline, three reversible MAO-A inhibitors, or the MAO-B inhibitors selegiline or rasagiline for 180 minutes. Reversible MAO-A inhibitors were generally ineffective, whereas clorgyline (1 nM), rasagiline (500 nM), and selegiline (500 nM) decreased DOPAL levels in the cells and medium. All three drugs also increased dopamine and norepinephrine, decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and increased cysteinyl-dopamine concentrations in the medium, suggesting increased vesicular uptake and constitutive release, decreased dopamine synthesis, and increased dopamine spontaneous oxidation. In conclusion, clorgyline, rasagiline, and selegiline decrease production of endogenous DOPAL. At relatively high concentrations, the latter drugs probably lose their selectivity for MAO-B. Possibly offsetting increased formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and decreased formation of DOPAL might account for the failure of large clinical trials of MAO-B inhibitors to demonstrate slowing of neurodegeneration in Parkinson

  18. Comparison of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in Decreasing Production of the Autotoxic Dopamine Metabolite 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patti; Holmes, Courtney; Kopin, Irwin J.; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2016-01-01

    According to the catecholaldehyde hypothesis, the toxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) contributes to the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) catalyzes the conversion of intraneuronal dopamine to DOPAL and may serve as a therapeutic target. The “cheese effect”—paroxysmal hypertension evoked by tyramine-containing foodstuffs—limits clinical use of irreversible MAO-A inhibitors. Combined MAO-A/B inhibition decreases DOPAL production in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, but whether reversible MAO-A inhibitors or MAO-B inhibitors decrease endogenous DOPAL production is unknown. We compared the potencies of MAO inhibitors in attenuating DOPAL production and examined possible secondary effects on dopamine storage, constitutive release, synthesis, and auto-oxidation. Catechol concentrations were measured in cells and medium after incubation with the irreversible MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline, three reversible MAO-A inhibitors, or the MAO-B inhibitors selegiline or rasagiline for 180 minutes. Reversible MAO-A inhibitors were generally ineffective, whereas clorgyline (1 nM), rasagiline (500 nM), and selegiline (500 nM) decreased DOPAL levels in the cells and medium. All three drugs also increased dopamine and norepinephrine, decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and increased cysteinyl-dopamine concentrations in the medium, suggesting increased vesicular uptake and constitutive release, decreased dopamine synthesis, and increased dopamine spontaneous oxidation. In conclusion, clorgyline, rasagiline, and selegiline decrease production of endogenous DOPAL. At relatively high concentrations, the latter drugs probably lose their selectivity for MAO-B. Possibly offsetting increased formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and decreased formation of DOPAL might account for the failure of large clinical trials of MAO-B inhibitors to demonstrate slowing of neurodegeneration in

  19. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 ..mu..M and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 ..mu..M and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 ..mu..M respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D/sub 2/-dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 ..mu..M. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, /sup 3/H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D/sup 1/- and D/sup 2/-dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Effects of ketamine exposure on dopamine concentrations and dopamine type 2 receptor mRNA expression in rat brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Liu, Mei-Li; Wu, Xiu-Ping; Jia, Juan; Cao, Jie; Wei, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Yu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of ketamine abuse on the concentration of dopamine (DA), a monoamine neurotransmitter, and the mRNA expression of dopamine type 2 (D2) receptors in brain tissue, we used male Wistar rats to model ketamine abuse through chronic intraperitoneal infusion of ketamine across different doses. Methods: The rats were sacrificed 45 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after initiating the administration of ketamine or normal saline, as well as 3 days following discontinuation. Brain tissue was harvested to examine the concentration of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, the primary metabolites of DA, as well as the expression of D2 receptor mRNA. In addition, behavioral changes were observed within 30 minutes of administration, and withdrawal symptoms were also documented. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate variations and correlations in the primary outcome measures across the four doses and five time points. Brain DA concentrations were significantly higher in the ketamine-treated groups compared with the saline-treated group, with 30 mg/kg > 10 mg/kg > 60 mg/kg > saline (P < 0.05). The D2 receptor mRNA expression exhibited an inverse downregulation pattern, with 30 mg/kg < 10 mg/kg < 60 mg/kg < saline (P < 0.05). In the 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg ketamine-treated groups, the DA concentration and D2 receptor mRNA level in the brain tissue correlated with the dose of ketamine (r = 0.752, r = -0.806), but no significant correlation was found in the 60 mg/kg group. Result: These findings indicated that chronic dosing with ketamine increased the concentration of DA in rat brain tissue by increasing DA release or interrupting DA degradation. D2 receptor mRNA expression likely decreased because of stimulation with excessive DA. Conclusion: High-dose (60 mg/kg) ketamine had potent paralyzing effects on the central nervous system of rats and weakened the excitatory effects of the limbic system. Brain DA and D2 receptor m

  1. [In vivo continuous electrochemical determination of dopamine release in rat neostriatum].

    PubMed

    Gonon, F; Cespuglio, R; Ponchon, J L; Buda, M; Jouvet, M; Adams, R N; Pujol, J F

    1978-04-24

    Polarographic micro-electrodes (carbon fiber, o. d. 8 micron) implanted in the Rat caudate nucleus, allowed a practically continuous in vivo monitoring (one measurement every 5 sec.) of the extra-cellular concentration of dopamine released by striatal dopaminergic terminals. Administration of amphetamine produced a reproducible increase of the oxidation current. This effect was suppressed after the selective degeneration of the striatal dopaminergic terminals following the injection of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra or after inhibition of the synthesis of the amine by alpha methyl-p-tyrosin. After 5 hrs. this drug produced a 70% decrease of the oxidation current. PMID:96981

  2. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine inhibits skin pigmentation by suppressing of melanosome transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a niacinamide derivative, N-Nicotinoyl dopamine (NND) on melanogenesis. NND inhibits melanosome transfer in a normal human melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture system and through phagocytic ability without affecting viability of cells while it did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In addition, safety of NND was verified through performing neural stem cell morphology assay. Our findings indicate that NND may potentially be used for cosmetic industry for improvement of skin whitening and therapies related with several skin disorders, and the effect of NND may be acquired via reduction of melanosome transfer. PMID:26597116

  3. Depression and the role of genes involved in dopamine metabolism and signalling.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; Kortekaas, Rudie; Aleman, André

    2010-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder and leading cause of disability worldwide. It is associated with increased mortality, especially from suicide. Heritability of MDD is estimated around 40%, suggesting that genotyping is a promising field for research into the development of MDD. According to the dopamine theory of affective disorders, a deficiency in dopaminergic neurotransmission may play a role in the major symptoms of MDD. Specific polymorphisms in genes that affect dopamine transmission could increase susceptibility to MDD. To determine the extent to which these genes influence vulnerability to MDD, we discuss genes for crucial steps in dopamine neurotransmission: synthesis, signalling and inactivation. The val158met polymorphism of the COMT gene exemplifies the lack of consensus in the literature: although it is one of the most reported polymorphisms that relates to MDD vulnerability, its role is not corroborated by meta-analysis. Gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions provide more explanatory potential than single gene associations. Two notable exceptions are the DRD4 and DAT gene: both have variable tandem repeat polymorphisms which may have a "single gene" influence on susceptibility to MDD. PMID:20558238

  4. HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibition increases cell viability and potentiates dopamine release in dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jens Leander; Sager, Thomas Nikolaj; Lotharius, Julie; Witten, Louise; Mørk, Arne; Egebjerg, Jan; Thirstrup, Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) controls the expression of genes that adapts the cellular condition to accommodate oxidative stress. The potential beneficial effect of HIF up-regulation in ischemia has recently gained interest substantiated by the known HIF-regulation of erythropoietin and other hypoxia accommodating genes. So far the perspectives for HIF up-regulation has been focused on anemia and ischemia related diseases but little information is available about the relevance of HIF biology for neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson's disease. We therefore sought out to characterize the effect of HIF-up-regulation on survival and dopamine homeostasis in dopaminergic cells. We used a low molecular weight HIF prolyl hydroxylase (HPH) inhibitor and lentiviral based shRNA knockdown of HPH subtypes as molecular tools to increase HIF protein level and downstream HIF-regulated genes. We show that HIF induction results in protection against oxidative stress in cellular models based on PC12 cells and LUHMES cells. In addition, HPH inhibition elevates tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity, which causes increased dopamine synthesis and release in both PC12 cells and a primary rat ventral mesencephalic cell culture. All together these findings suggest that prolyl hydroxylases may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention in disorders characterized by dopamine homeostasis dysregulation like Parkinson's disease. PMID:20649842

  5. RASGRF2 regulates alcohol-induced reinforcement by influencing mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity and dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, David; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Maroteaux, Matthieu; Jia, Tianye; Easton, Alanna C.; Longueville, Sophie; Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Fernandez-Medarde, Alberto; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Mann, Karl F.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Palkovits, Miklós; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ruggeri, Barbara; Santos, Eugenio; Smolka, Michael N.; Staehlin, Oliver; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Elliott, Paul; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Mameli, Manuel; Müller, Christian P.; Spanagel, Rainer; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Schumann, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    The firing of mesolimbic dopamine neurons is important for drug-induced reinforcement, although underlying genetic factors remain poorly understood. In a recent genome-wide association metaanalysis of alcohol intake, we identified a suggestive association of SNP rs26907 in the ras-specific guanine-nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) gene, encoding a protein that mediates Ca2+-dependent activation of the ERK pathway. We performed functional characterization of this gene in relation to alcohol-related phenotypes and mesolimbic dopamine function in both mice and adolescent humans. Ethanol intake and preference were decreased in Rasgrf2−/− mice relative to WT controls. Accordingly, ethanol-induced dopamine release in the ventral striatum was blunted in Rasgrf2−/− mice. Recording of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area revealed reduced excitability in the absence of Ras-GRF2, likely because of lack of inhibition of the IA potassium current by ERK. This deficit provided an explanation for the altered dopamine release, presumably linked to impaired activation of dopamine neurons firing. Functional neuroimaging analysis of a monetary incentive–delay task in 663 adolescent boys revealed significant association of ventral striatal activity during reward anticipation with a RASGRF2 haplotype containing rs26907, the SNP associated with alcohol intake in our previous metaanalysis. This finding suggests a link between the RASGRF2 haplotype and reward sensitivity, a known risk factor for alcohol and drug addiction. Indeed, follow-up of these same boys at age 16 y revealed an association between this haplotype and number of drinking episodes. Together, these combined animal and human data indicate a role for RASGRF2 in the regulation of mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity, reward response, and alcohol use and abuse. PMID:23223532

  6. Sensitivity of binding of high-affinity dopamine receptor radioligands to increased synaptic dopamine.

    PubMed

    Gatley, S J; Gifford, A N; Carroll, F I; Volkow, N D

    2000-12-15

    PET and SPECT studies have documented that D2 radioligands of moderate affinity, but not radioligands of high affinity, are sensitive to pharmacological challenges that alter synaptic dopamine levels. The objective of this work was to determine whether the brain kinetics of high-affinity radioligands for dopamine D1 ([(3)H]SCH 23390) and D2 ([(123)I]epidepride) receptors were altered by a prolonged elevation of synaptic dopamine induced by the potent cocaine analog RTI-55. Mice were injected intravenously with radioligands either 30 min after or 4 h before intraperitoneal administration of RTI-55 (2 mg/kg). In separate experiments, the pharmacological effects of RTI-55 were assessed biochemically by measuring uptake of dopamine in synaptosomes prepared from RTI-treated mice and behaviorally by monitoring locomotor activity. Consistent with the expected elevation of synaptic dopamine, RTI-55 induced a long-lasting decrement in dopamine uptake measured ex vivo, and a prolonged increase in locomotor activity. RTI-55 injected prior to the radioligands induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase in striatal concentration of [(123)I]epidepride at 15 min, relative to saline-treated controls, but there were no differences between the two groups at later time-points. For [(3)H]SCH 23390, both initial striatal uptake and subsequent clearance were slightly increased by preadministration of RTI-55. Administration of RTI-55 4 h after the radioligands (i.e., when it was presumed that a state of near equilibrium binding of the radioligands had been reached), was associated with a significant reduction of striatal radioactivity for both radiotracers. Our results are consistent with increased competition between dopamine and radioligand for binding to both D1 and D2 receptors after treatment with RTI-55. We suggest that the magnitude of the competition is reduced by failure of the receptor binding of high-affinity radioligands to rapidly attain equilibrium. PMID:11044896

  7. RASGRF2 regulates alcohol-induced reinforcement by influencing mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity and dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Stacey, David; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Maroteaux, Matthieu; Jia, Tianye; Easton, Alanna C; Longueville, Sophie; Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Fernandez-Medarde, Alberto; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Bokde, Arun L W; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Mann, Karl F; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Palkovits, Miklós; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ruggeri, Barbara; Santos, Eugenio; Smolka, Michael N; Staehlin, Oliver; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Elliott, Paul; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Mameli, Manuel; Müller, Christian P; Spanagel, Rainer; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Schumann, Gunter

    2012-12-18

    The firing of mesolimbic dopamine neurons is important for drug-induced reinforcement, although underlying genetic factors remain poorly understood. In a recent genome-wide association metaanalysis of alcohol intake, we identified a suggestive association of SNP rs26907 in the ras-specific guanine-nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) gene, encoding a protein that mediates Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the ERK pathway. We performed functional characterization of this gene in relation to alcohol-related phenotypes and mesolimbic dopamine function in both mice and adolescent humans. Ethanol intake and preference were decreased in Rasgrf2(-/-) mice relative to WT controls. Accordingly, ethanol-induced dopamine release in the ventral striatum was blunted in Rasgrf2(-/-) mice. Recording of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area revealed reduced excitability in the absence of Ras-GRF2, likely because of lack of inhibition of the I(A) potassium current by ERK. This deficit provided an explanation for the altered dopamine release, presumably linked to impaired activation of dopamine neurons firing. Functional neuroimaging analysis of a monetary incentive-delay task in 663 adolescent boys revealed significant association of ventral striatal activity during reward anticipation with a RASGRF2 haplotype containing rs26907, the SNP associated with alcohol intake in our previous metaanalysis. This finding suggests a link between the RASGRF2 haplotype and reward sensitivity, a known risk factor for alcohol and drug addiction. Indeed, follow-up of these same boys at age 16 y revealed an association between this haplotype and number of drinking episodes. Together, these combined animal and human data indicate a role for RASGRF2 in the regulation of mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity, reward response, and alcohol use and abuse. PMID:23223532

  8. Optical suppression of drug-evoked phasic dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, James E.; Cone, Jackson J.; Sinon, Christopher G.; Fortin, Samantha M.; Kantak, Pranish A.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl; Stuber, Garret D.; Roitman, Mitchell F.

    2014-01-01

    Brief fluctuations in dopamine concentration (dopamine transients) play a key role in behavior towards rewards, including drugs of abuse. Drug-evoked dopamine transients may result from actions at both dopamine cell bodies and dopamine terminals. Inhibitory opsins can be targeted to dopamine neurons permitting their firing activity to be suppressed. However, as dopamine transients can become uncoupled from firing, it is unknown whether optogenetic hyperpolarization at the level of the soma is able to suppress dopamine transients. Here, we used in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to record transients evoked by cocaine and raclopride in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of urethane-anesthetized rats. We targeted halorhodopsin (NpHR) specifically to dopamine cells by injecting Cre-inducible virus into ventral tegmental area (VTA) of transgenic rats that expressed Cre recombinase under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre+ rats). Consistent with previous work, co-administration of cocaine and raclopride led to the generation of dopamine transients in NAc shell. Illumination of VTA with laser strongly suppressed the frequency of transients in NpHR-expressing rats, but not in control rats. Laser did not have any effect on amplitude of transients. Thus, optogenetics can effectively reduce the occurrence of drug-evoked transients and is therefore a suitable approach for studying the functional role of such transients in drug-associated behavior. PMID:25278845

  9. Heterogeneity of dopamine neuron activity across traits and states

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Michela; McCutcheon, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons fire irregularly, with interspersed clusters of high-frequency spikes, commonly called ‘bursts’. In this review we examine such heterogeneity in activity, and provide insight into how it can participate in psychiatric conditions such as drug addiction. We first describe several techniques used to evaluate dopamine neuron activity, and comment on the different measures that each provides. We next describe the activity of dopamine neurons in ‘basal’ conditions. Specifically, we discuss how the use of anesthesia and reduced preparations may alter aspects of dopamine cell activity, and how there is heterogeneity across species and regions. We also describe how dopamine cell firing changes throughout the peri-adolescent period and how dopamine neuron activity differs across the population. In the final section, we discuss how dopamine neuron activity changes in response to life events. First, we focus attention on drugs of abuse. Drugs themselves change firing activity through a variety of mechanisms, with effects on firing while drug is present differing from those seen after drug discontinuation. We then review how stimuli that are rewarding, aversive, or salient can evoke changes in firing rate and discharge pattern of dopamine neurons, and provide behavioral relevance of dopamine signaling. Finally, we discuss how stress can modulate dopamine neuron firing and how this may contribute to the role that stressful experiences play in psychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. PMID:25084048

  10. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  11. Heterogeneity of dopamine neuron activity across traits and states.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, M; McCutcheon, J E

    2014-12-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons fire irregularly, with interspersed clusters of high-frequency spikes, commonly called 'bursts'. In this review we examine such heterogeneity in activity, and provide insight into how it can participate in psychiatric conditions such as drug addiction. We first describe several techniques used to evaluate dopamine neuron activity, and comment on the different measures that each provides. We next describe the activity of dopamine neurons in 'basal' conditions. Specifically, we discuss how the use of anesthesia and reduced preparations may alter aspects of dopamine cell activity, and how there is heterogeneity across species and regions. We also describe how dopamine cell firing changes throughout the peri-adolescent period and how dopamine neuron activity differs across the population. In the final section, we discuss how dopamine neuron activity changes in response to life events. First, we focus attention on drugs of abuse. Drugs themselves change firing activity through a variety of mechanisms, with effects on firing while drug is present differing from those seen after drug discontinuation. We then review how stimuli that are rewarding, aversive, or salient can evoke changes in firing rate and discharge pattern of dopamine neurons, and provide behavioral relevance of dopamine signaling. Finally, we discuss how stress can modulate dopamine neuron firing and how this may contribute to the role that stressful experiences play in psychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. PMID:25084048

  12. Dual restoring effects of gastrodin on dopamine in rat models of Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Anyuan

    2015-02-19

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) occurs commonly in children, and dysfunction of dopaminergic system has long been postulated to underlie the disorder. Here, we used two TS rat models induced by 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) and Apomorphine (Apo) to assess an unique dopamine (DA) modulating property of gastrodin (GAS), the main bioactive component isolated from Gastrodia elata Blume, which has been widely used for treating various neurological disorders. By using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the dual restoring effects of gastrodin, at least partially, has been observed: on the one hand, gastrodin increased the down-regulated striatal DA content in IDPN-induced rats; on the other hand, gastrodin decreased the up-regulated striatal DA content in Apo-induced rats. Taken together, our data corroborated that gastrodin could restore the abnormal striatal DA dually, and this therapeutic potential might be meaningful for the anti-tic treatment. PMID:25549540

  13. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex II affects dopamine metabolism and decreases its uptake into striatal synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Cakała, Magdalena; Drabik, Jacek; Kaźmierczak, Anna; Kopczuk, Dorota; Adamczyk, Agata

    2006-01-01

    The mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), is a specific inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, complex II in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between inhibition of mitochondrial complex II and dopamine (DA) metabolism and its transport into rat striatal synaptosomes after exposure to 3-NP. The study was carried out using spectrophotometric, radiochemical and HPLC methods. Our data showed that inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 3-NP (cumulated dose 100 mg/kg in 4 days) significantly affected DA metabolism, leading to the accumulation of its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxylphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the rat striatum. These experimental conditions had no effect on free radical dependent lipid peroxidation in the brain. In vitro experiments revealed that DA and DOPAC significantly decrease lipid peroxidation in the brain homogenate. Moreover, 3-NP significantly inhibited [3H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes by specific dopamine transporter (DAT). The scavengers of superoxide radical (O2-) Tempol and Trolox had no effect on DAT function, but the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N w-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM) prevented 3-NP-evoked DAT down-regulation. In summary, our results indicate that inhibition of mitochondrial complex II by 3-NP enhances DA degradation and decreases its uptake into synaptosomes. It is suggested that NO and energy failure are responsible for alteration of the dopaminergic system in the striatum. PMID:17183449

  14. A Physical Interaction between the Dopamine Transporter and DJ-1 Facilitates Increased Dopamine Reuptake

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Beryl; Mohammed, Mohinuddin; Liu, Fang; Lee, Frank J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) impacts extracellular dopamine levels after release from dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, a variety of protein partners have been identified that can interact with and modulate DAT function. In this study we show that DJ-1 can potentially modulate DAT function. Co-expression of DAT and DJ-1 in HEK-293T cells leads to an increase in [3H] dopamine uptake that does not appear to be mediated by increased total DAT expression but rather through an increase in DAT cell surface localization. In addition, through a series of GST affinity purifications and co-immunoprecipitations, we provide evidence that the DAT can be found in a complex with DJ-1, which involve distinct regions within both DAT and DJ-1. Using in vitro binding experiments we also show that this complex can be formed in part by a direct interaction between DAT and DJ-1. Co-expression of a mini-gene that can disrupt the DAT/DJ-1 complex appears to block the increase in [3H] dopamine uptake by DJ-1. Mutations in DJ-1 have been linked to familial forms of Parkinson’s disease, yet the normal physiological function of DJ-1 remains unclear. Our study suggests that DJ-1 may also play a role in regulating dopamine levels by modifying DAT activity. PMID:26305376

  15. Pharmacology of Signaling Induced by Dopamine D1-Like Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Undieh, Ashiwel S.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine D1-like receptors consisting of D1 and D5 subtypes are intimately implicated in dopaminergic regulation of fundamental neurophysiologic processes such as mood, motivation, cognitive function, and motor activity. Upon stimulation, D1-like receptors initiate signal transduction cascades that are mediated through adenylyl cyclase or phosphoinositide metabolism, with subsequent enhancement of multiple downstream kinase cascades. The latter actions propagate and further amplify the receptor signals, thus predisposing D1-like receptors to multifaceted interactions with various other mediators and receptor systems. The adenylyl cyclase response to dopamine or selective D1-like receptor agonists is reliably associated with the D1 subtype, while emerging evidence indicates that the phosphoinositide responses in native brain tissues may be preferentially mediated through stimulation of the D5 receptor. Besides classic coupling of each receptor subtype to specific G proteins, additional biophysical models are advanced in attempts to account for differential subcellular distribution, heteromolecular oligomerization, and activity-dependent selectivity of the receptors. It is expected that significant advances in understanding of dopamine neurobiology will emerge from current and anticipated studies directed at uncovering the molecular mechanisms of D5 coupling to phosphoinositide signaling, the structural features that might enhance pharmacological selectivity for D5 versus D1 subtypes, the mechanism by which dopamine may modulate phosphoinositide synthesis, the contributions of the various responsive signal mediators to D1 or D5 interactions with D2-like receptors, and the spectrum of dopaminergic functions that may be attributed to each receptor subtype and signaling pathway. PMID:20547182

  16. Role for mTOR Signaling and Neuronal Activity in Morphine-Induced Adaptations in Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mazei-Robison, M.S.; Koo, J.W.; Friedman, A.; Lansink, C.S.; Robison, A.J.; Vinish, M.; Krishnan, V.; Kim, S.; Siuta, M.A.; Galli, M. A.; Niswender, K.D.; Appasani, R.; Horvath, M.C.; Neve, R.L.; Worley, P.F.; Snyder, S.H.; Hurd, Y.L.; Cheer, J.F.; Han, M.H.; Russo, S.J.; Nestler, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY While the abuse of opiate drugs continues to rise, the neuroadaptations that occur with long-term drug exposure remain poorly understood. We describe here a series of chronic morphine-induced adaptations in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which are mediated via downregulation of AKT-mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2). Chronic opiates decrease the size of VTA dopamine neurons in rodents, an effect seen in humans as well, and concomitantly increase the excitability of the cells but decrease dopamine output to target regions. Chronic morphine decreases mTORC2 activity, and overexpression of Rictor, a component of mTORC2, prevents morphine-induced changes in cell morphology and activity. Further, local knock-out of Rictor in VTA decreases DA soma size and reduces rewarding responses to morphine, consistent with the hypothesis that these adaptations represent a mechanism of reward tolerance. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel role for AKT-mTORC2 signaling in mediating neuroadaptations to opiate drugs of abuse. PMID:22196333

  17. Pinolenic Acid Downregulates Lipid Anabolic Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah Ron; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-07-01

    Pine nut oil (PNO) was reported to reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. However, the specific effect of pinolenic acid (18:3, all-cis-Δ5,9,12), a unique component of PNO, on lipid metabolism has not been studied. We hypothesized that pinolenic acid downregulates the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 μM bovine serum albumin (BSA), palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or α-linolenic acid for 24 h. Lipid accumulation was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and ACC1), fatty acid oxidation (ACC2, PPARα, CPT1A, and ACADL), cholesterol synthesis (SREBP2 and HMGCR), and lipoprotein uptake (LDLr) and of genes that may be involved in the downregulation of the lipogenic pathway (ACSL3, ACSL4, and ACSL5) were determined by qPCR. LDLR protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of SREBP1c, FAS, and SCD1 were significantly downregulated by pinolenic acid treatment compared to BSA control (53, 54, and 38 % lower, respectively). In addition, the mRNA levels of HMGCR, ACSL3, and LDLr were significantly lower (30, 30, and 43 % lower, respectively), and ACSL4 tended to be lower in the pinolenic acid group (20 % lower, P = 0.082) relative to the control group. In conclusion, pinolenic acid downregulated the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells by reducing expression of genes related to lipid synthesis, lipoprotein uptake, and the regulation of the lipogenic pathway. PMID:27084371

  18. [Effect of dopamine on the portal pressure].

    PubMed

    Benko, H; Peschl, L; Schüller, J; Neumayr, A

    1975-01-01

    1. An infusion of 3 gamma/kg/min dopamine causes a significant increase in the renal plasma flow and the glomerulum filtration rate. This dosage does not cause a change of the mean systolic and arterial pressure. This effect may also be observed in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. 2. The wedged hepatic vein pressure, an indicator for the portal pressure, only shows a slight increase (9,46 +/- 9,41%) as compared to the initial pressure produced by the mentioned dose. Measurements of the spleen pulpa pressure, which likewise indicates the portal pressure, showed an increase of pressure up to 100% due to pressing or coughing. 3. If in the case of bleeding oesophageal varices acute renal failure might develop, the advantage of the effect of dopamine in stimulating the blood flow through the kidneys may be considered more important than the minute danger of a slight increase of the portal pressure, which might provoke haemorrhage. PMID:1220517

  19. Kallikrein gene downregulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yousef, G M; Yacoub, G M; Polymeris, M-E; Popalis, C; Soosaipillai, A; Diamandis, E P

    2004-01-12

    Recent evidence suggests that many members of the human kallikrein gene family are differentially regulated in breast cancer and other endocrine-related malignancies. In this study, we utilised the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) to perform in silico analyses of the expression pattern of the 15 human kallikrein genes in normal and cancerous breast tissues and cell lines using different analytical tools such as Virtual Northern blotting, Digital Differential Display and X-profiler. Our results indicate that at least four kallikrein genes (KLK5, 6, 8, 10) are downregulated in breast cancer. Probing eight normal and 24 breast cancer SAGE libraries with gene-specific tags for each of the above kallikreins indicated moderate-to-high expression densities in normal breast (27-319 tags per million; tpm, in two to five out of eight libraries), compared to no or low expression (0 - 34 tpm in zero to two libraries out of 24) in breast cancer. These data were verified by screening the EST databases, where all mRNA clones isolated for these genes, except for one in each, were from normal breast libraries, with no clones detected from breast cancer tissues or cell lines (with the exception of KLK8). X-profiler comparison of two pools of normal and breast cancer libraries further verified the presence of significant downregulation of expression levels of 4 of the kallikreins genes (KLK5, 6, 10, 12). We experimentally verified the downregulation of these four kallikreins (KLK5, 6, 8, 10 and 12) by RT - PCR analysis. PMID:14710225

  20. Dopamine neurons share common response function for reward prediction error

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Tian, Ju; Bukwich, Michael; Uchida, Naoshige

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to signal reward prediction error, or the difference between actual and predicted reward. How dopamine neurons jointly encode this information, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that different neurons specialize in different aspects of prediction error; another is that each neuron calculates prediction error in the same way. We recorded from optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice performed classical conditioning tasks. Our tasks allowed us to determine the full prediction error functions of dopamine neurons and compare them to each other. We found striking homogeneity among individual dopamine neurons: their responses to both unexpected and expected rewards followed the same function, just scaled up or down. As a result, we could describe both individual and population responses using just two parameters. Such uniformity ensures robust information coding, allowing each dopamine neuron to contribute fully to the prediction error signal. PMID:26854803

  1. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J; Alpert, Michael H; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-04-26

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson's disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine's role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  2. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC. PMID:26558348

  3. mTORC2/Rictor Signaling Disrupts Dopamine-Dependent Behaviors via Defects in Striatal Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Dadalko, Olga I.; Siuta, Michael; Poe, Amanda; Erreger, Kevin; Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Niswender, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted neuronal protein kinase B (Akt) signaling has been associated with dopamine (DA)-related neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. We hypothesize that proper DA neurotransmission is therefore dependent upon intact neuronal Akt function. Akt is activated by phosphorylation of two key residues: Thr308 and Ser473. Blunted Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 (pAkt-473) has been observed in lymphocytes and postmortem brains of schizophrenia patients, and psychosis-prone normal individuals. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) is a multiprotein complex that is responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 (pAkt-473). We demonstrate that mice with disrupted mTORC2 signaling in brain exhibit altered striatal DA-dependent behaviors, such as increased basal locomotion, stereotypic counts, and exaggerated response to the psychomotor effects of amphetamine (AMPH). Combining in vivo and ex vivo pharmacological, electrophysiological, and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that the changes in striatal DA neurotransmission and associated behaviors are caused, at least in part, by elevated D2 DA receptor (D2R) expression and upregulated ERK1/2 activation. Haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic and D2R blocker, reduced AMPH hypersensitivity and elevated pERK1/2 to the levels of control animals. By viral gene delivery, we downregulated mTORC2 solely in the dorsal striatum of adult wild-type mice, demonstrating that striatal mTORC2 regulates AMPH-stimulated behaviors. Our findings implicate mTORC2 signaling as a novel pathway regulating striatal DA tone and D2R signaling. PMID:26063917

  4. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide down-regulates expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ernst R; Bahrami, Soheyl; Heller, Regine; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2002-03-22

    GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein (GFRP) is a 9.7-kDa protein regulating GTP cyclohydrolase I activity in dependence of tetrahydrobiopterin and phenylalanine concentrations, thus enabling stimulation of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis by phenylalanine to ensure its efficient metabolism by phenylalanine hydroxylase. Here, we were interested in regulation of GFRP expression by proinflammatory cytokines and stimuli, which are known to induce GTP cyclohydrolase I expression. Recombinant human GFRP stimulated recombinant human GTP cyclohydrolase I in the presence of phenylalanine and mediated feedback inhibition by tetrahydrobiopterin. Levels of GFRP mRNA in human myelomonocytoma (THP-1) cells remained unaltered by treatment of cells with interferon-gamma or interleukin-1beta, but were significantly down-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 microg/ml), without or with cotreatment by interferon-gamma, which strongly up-regulated GTP cyclohydrolase I expression and activity. GFRP expression was also suppressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with 1 microg/ml LPS, as well as in rat tissues 7 h post intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS. THP-1 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma alone showed increased pteridine synthesis by addition of phenylalanine to the culture medium. Cells stimulated with interferon-gamma plus LPS, in contrast, showed phenylalanine-independent pteridine synthesis. These results demonstrate that LPS down-regulates expression of GFRP, thus rendering pteridine synthesis independent of metabolic control by phenylalanine. PMID:11799107

  5. Structural studies of dopamine. beta. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Dopamine ..beta..-hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, a ..beta..-hydroxylation reaction, utilizing ascorbic acid as reducing agent and molecular oxygen as cosubstrate. Modifications of the previously published purification procedure for D..beta..H have produced findings which show that (1) enzyme is inactivated by ascorbate autooxidation during the isolation procedure, (2) active as well as inactive D..beta..H co-purify throughout the entire purification procedure and (3) beef liver catalase totally protects against this time dependent inactivation. The stoichiometry of copper binding to the active sites of D..beta..H has been investigated using /sup 19/F-NMR and radioactive binding experiments. The data unequivocally show that homogeneous D..beta..H (isolated in the presence of catalase) specifically binds up to approx.8 copper atoms per enzyme tetramer. Distance determinations done using NMR relaxation rate theory show that anion activators of the catalytic reaction are bound at a fairly far distance from the Cu/sup 2 +/ centers. Spin-echo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that at least one, possibly two, histidines are bound as equatorial ligands to each Cu/sup 2 +/ ion. The combined data indicate that highly purified dopamine ..beta..-hydroxylase contains a 2 copper atom active site, composed of magnetically non-interacting metal centers. Active site components are distant from the Cu/sup 2 +/ centers, suggesting a possible movement of active site residues or components after reduction of enzyme bound copper in order to achieve the insertion of 1 atom of oxygen into the benzylic C-H bond of dopamine.

  6. Action Initiation Shapes Mesolimbic Dopamine Encoding of Future Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Emilie C.J.; Grima, Laura L.; Magill, Peter J.; Bogacz, Rafal; Brown, Peter; Walton, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely held that dopamine signaling encodes predictions of future rewards and such predictions are regularly used to drive behavior, but the relationship between these two is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate in rats that nucleus accumbens dopamine following a reward-predicting cue is attenuated unless movement is correctly initiated. These results demonstrate that dopamine release in this region is contingent upon correct action initiation and not just reward prediction. PMID:26642087

  7. The dopamine transporter: role in neurotoxicity and human disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bannon, Michael J. . E-mail: mbannon@med.wayne.edu

    2005-05-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane transport protein expressed exclusively within a small subset of CNS neurons. It plays a crucial role in controlling dopamine-mediated neurotransmission and a number of associated behaviors. This review focuses on recent data elucidating the role of the dopamine transporter in neurotoxicity and a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson disease, drug abuse, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  8. Brain dopamine and kinematics of graphomotor functions.

    PubMed

    Lange, Klaus W; Mecklinger, Lara; Walitza, Susanne; Becker, Georg; Gerlach, Manfred; Naumann, Markus; Tucha, Oliver

    2006-10-01

    Three experiments were performed in an attempt to achieve a better understanding of the effect of dopamine on handwriting. In the first experiment, kinematic aspects of handwriting movements were compared between healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on their usual dopaminergic treatment and following withdrawal of dopaminergic medication. In the second experiment, the writing performance of healthy participants with a hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra as detected by transcranial sonography (TCS) was compared with the performance of healthy participants with low echogenicity of the substantia nigra. The third experiment examined the effect of central dopamine reduction on kinematic aspects of handwriting movements in healthy adults using acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD). A digitising tablet was used for the assessment of handwriting movements. Participants were asked to perform a simple writing task. Movement time, distance, velocity, acceleration and measures of fluency of handwriting movements were measured. The kinematic analysis of handwriting movements revealed that alterations of central dopaminergic neurotransmission adversely affect movement execution during handwriting. In comparison to the automatic processing of handwriting movements displayed by control participants, participants with an altered dopaminergic neurotransmission shifted from an automatic to a controlled processing of movement execution. Central dopamine appears to be of particular importance with regard to the automatic execution of well-learned movements. PMID:16859791

  9. DOPAMINE AND FOOD ADDICTION: LEXICON BADLY NEEDED

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term “addiction” to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates “reward”, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present paper provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors, and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  10. Dopamine and food addiction: lexicon badly needed.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2013-05-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term addiction to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates reward, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present article provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  11. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    PubMed Central

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654

  12. Atypical Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors that Provide Clues About Cocaine's Mechanism at the Dopamine Transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck Newman, Amy; Katz, Jonathan L.

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) has been a primary target for cocaine abuse/addiction medication discovery. However predicted addiction liability and limited clinical evaluation has provided a formidable challenge for development of these agents for human use. The unique and atypical pharmacological profile of the benztropine (BZT) class of dopamine uptake inhibitors, in preclinical models of cocaine effects and abuse, has encouraged further development of these agents. Moreover, in vivo studies have challenged the original DAT hypothesis and demonstrated that DAT occupancy and subsequent increases in dopamine produced by BZT analogues are significantly delayed and long lasting, as compared to cocaine. These important and distinctive elements are critical to the lack of abuse liability among BZT analogues, and improve their potential for development as treatments for cocaine abuse and possibly other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. The binding sites for cocaine and dopamine in the dopamine transporter overlap

    PubMed Central

    Beuming, Thijs; Kniazeff, Julie; Bergmann, Marianne L; Shi, Lei; Gracia, Luis; Raniszewska, Klaudia; Newman, Amy Hauck; Javitch, Jonathan A; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik; Loland, Claus J

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused substance with psychostimulant effects that are attributed to inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). We present molecular models for DAT binding of cocaine and cocaine analogs constructed from the high-resolution structure of the bacterial transporter homolog LeuT. Our models suggest that the binding site for cocaine and cocaine analogs is deeply buried between transmembrane segments 1, 3, 6 and 8, and overlaps with the binding sites for the substrates dopamine and amphetamine, as well as for benztropine-like DAT inhibitors. We validated our models by detailed mutagenesis and by trapping the radiolabeled cocaine analog [3H]CFT in the transporter, either by cross-linking engineered cysteines or with an engineered Zn2+-binding site that was situated extracellularly to the predicted common binding pocket. Our data demonstrate the molecular basis for the competitive inhibition of dopamine transport by cocaine. PMID:18568020

  14. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0–1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  15. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0-1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  16. Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Usdin, T.B.; Chen, C.; Brownstein, M.J.; Hoffman, B.J. ); Mezey, E. )

    1991-12-15

    A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. ({sup 3}H)Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transports, including GBR12909.

  17. Dopamine release in rat striatum - Physiological coupling to tyrosine supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor dopamine release in rat striatal extracellular fluid following the intraperitoneal administration of dopamine's precursor amino acid, L-tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates increased transiently after tyrosine (50-100 mg/kg) administration. Pretreatment with haloperidol or the partial lesioning of nigrostriatal neurons enhanced the effect of tyrosine on dopamine release, and haloperidol also prolonged this effect. These data suggest that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are responsive to changes in precursor availability under basal conditions, but that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms limit the magnitude and duration of this effect.

  18. Optogenetic control of striatal dopamine release in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Vance, Zachary B; Sullivan, Ryan P; Bonin, Keith D; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2010-01-01

    Optogenetic control over neuronal firing has become an increasingly elegant method to dissect the microcircuitry of mammalian brains. To date, examination of these manipulations on neurotransmitter release has been minimal. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of optogenetic stimulation on dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal striatum of urethane-anesthetized rats. By combining the tight spatial and temporal resolution of both optogenetics and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry we have determined the parameters necessary to control phasic dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of rats in vivo. The kinetics of optically induced dopamine release mirror established models of electrically evoked release, indicating that potential artifacts of electrical stimulation on ion channels and the dopamine transporter are negligible. Furthermore a lack of change in extracellular pH indicates that optical stimulation does not alter blood flow. Optical control over dopamine release is highly reproducible and flexible. We are able to repeatedly evoke concentrations of dopamine release as small as a single dopamine transient (50 nM). A U-shaped frequency response curve exists with maximal stimulation inducing dopamine effluxes exceeding 500 nM. Taken together, these results have obvious implications for understanding the neurobiological basis of dopaminergic-based disorders and provide the framework to effectively manipulate dopamine patterns. PMID:20534006

  19. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance.

    PubMed

    Fox, Megan E; Mikhailova, Maria A; Bass, Caroline E; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Budygin, Evgeny A; Wightman, R Mark

    2016-06-21

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson's disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  20. Dopamine receptor regulating factor, DRRF: a zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C K; D'Souza, U M; Eisch, A J; Yajima, S; Lammers, C H; Yang, Y; Lee, S H; Kim, Y M; Nestler, E J; Mouradian, M M

    2001-06-19

    Dopamine receptor genes are under complex transcription control, determining their unique regional distribution in the brain. We describe here a zinc finger type transcription factor, designated dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF), which binds to GC and GT boxes in the D1A and D2 dopamine receptor promoters and effectively displaces Sp1 and Sp3 from these sequences. Consequently, DRRF can modulate the activity of these dopamine receptor promoters. Highest DRRF mRNA levels are found in brain with a specific regional distribution including olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex. Many of these brain regions also express abundant levels of various dopamine receptors. In vivo, DRRF itself can be regulated by manipulations of dopaminergic transmission. Mice treated with drugs that increase extracellular striatal dopamine levels (cocaine), block dopamine receptors (haloperidol), or destroy dopamine terminals (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) show significant alterations in DRRF mRNA. The latter observations provide a basis for dopamine receptor regulation after these manipulations. We conclude that DRRF is important for modulating dopaminergic transmission in the brain. PMID:11390978

  1. Dysregulation of dopamine-dependent mechanisms as a determinant of hypertension: studies in dopamine receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chunyu; Armando, Ines; Luo, Yingjin; Eisner, Gilbert M.; Felder, Robin A.; Jose, Pedro A.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension by regulating epithelial sodium transport and by interacting with vasoactive hormones/humoral factors, such as aldosterone, angiotensin, catecholamines, endothelin, oxytocin, prolactin pro-opiomelancortin, reactive oxygen species, renin, and vasopressin. Dopamine receptors are classified into D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) subtypes based on their structure and pharmacology. In recent years, mice deficient in one or more of the five dopamine receptor subtypes have been generated, leading to a better understanding of the physiological role of each of the dopamine receptor subtypes. This review summarizes the results from studies of various dopamine receptor mutant mice on the role of individual dopamine receptor subtypes and their interactions with other G protein-coupled receptors in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:18083900

  2. The action of dopamine and vascular dopamine (DA1) receptor agonists on human isolated subcutaneous and omental small arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A. D.; Sever, P. S.

    1989-01-01

    1. Human small arteries were obtained from surgical specimens and studied in vitro by use of a myograph technique. Following induction of tone with a potassium depolarizing solution, dopamine in the presence of beta-adrenoceptor and catecholamine uptake blockade relaxed isolated omental and subcutaneous arteries. Preincubation of tissues with phentolamine increased the maximum relaxation in response to dopamine. 2. The selective vascular dopamine receptor agonists, fenoldopam and SKF 38393 also relaxed isolated subcutaneous and omental arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of potency for agonists was dopamine greater than fenoldopam greater than SKF 38393. 3. Dopamine-induced relaxation was competitively antagonized by SCH 23390, (R)- and (S)-sulpiride, and fenoldopam induced relaxation by SCH 23390 and (+)- but not (-)-butaclamol. 4. These results indicate the presence of vascular dopamine receptors (DA1 subtype) on human isolated resistance arteries from omental and subcutaneous sites. PMID:2474354

  3. Pleiotrophin is downregulated in human keloids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Jin, Cheng Long; Kim, Yeji; Shin, Mi Hee; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Minji; Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Soyun

    2016-10-01

    Keloid is an abnormal hyperproliferative scarring process with involvement of complex genetic and triggering environmental factors. Previously published dysregulated gene expression profile of keloids includes genes involved in tumor formation. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted, heparin-binding growth factor which is involved in various biological functions such as cell growth, differentiation, and tumor progression. Although PTN expression was reported to be increased in hypertrophic scars, there is no study on PTN expression in keloids, and previous microarray results are controversial. To clarify differential expression of PTN in keloids, we investigated the expression of PTN and its interacting molecules in keloid and control fibroblasts, and performed immunohistochemical staining of PTN using tissue arrays. The expressions of PTN, its upstream regulator platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B) and corresponding PDGF receptors were significantly downregulated in keloid fibroblasts compared to normal human fibroblasts, and the decreased PTN protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry as well as Western blot. Moreover, functional downstream receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase β/ζ was significantly upregulated in keloid fibroblasts, supporting overall downregulation of PTN signaling pathway. The lowered PTN expression in keloids suggests a different pathomechanism from that of hypertrophic scars. PMID:27465069

  4. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3380807

  5. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3357895

  6. Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  7. Absence of NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons attenuates dopamine release but not conditioned approach during Pavlovian conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jones G.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Clark, Jeremy J.; Evans, Scott B.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    During Pavlovian conditioning, phasic dopamine (DA) responses emerge to reward-predictive stimuli as the subject learns to anticipate reward delivery. This observation has led to the hypothesis that phasic dopamine signaling is important for learning. To assess the ability of mice to develop anticipatory behavior and to characterize the contribution of dopamine, we used a food-reinforced Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. As mice learned the cue–reward association, they increased their head entries to the food receptacle in a pattern that was consistent with conditioned anticipatory behavior. D1-receptor knockout (D1R-KO) mice had impaired acquisition, and systemic administration of a D1R antagonist blocked both the acquisition and expression of conditioned approach in wild-type mice. To assess the specific contribution of phasic dopamine transmission, we tested mice lacking NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) exclusively in dopamine neurons (NR1-KO mice). Surprisingly, NR1-KO mice learned at the same rate as their littermate controls. To evaluate the contribution of NMDARs to phasic dopamine release in this paradigm, we performed fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens of awake mice. Despite having significantly attenuated phasic dopamine release following reward delivery, KO mice developed cue-evoked dopamine release at the same rate as controls. We conclude that NMDARs in dopamine neurons enhance but are not critical for phasic dopamine release to behaviorally relevant stimuli; furthermore, their contribution to phasic dopamine signaling is not necessary for the development of cue-evoked dopamine or anticipatory activity in a D1R-dependent Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. PMID:20616081

  8. Amygdala Dopamine Receptors Are Required for the Destabilization of a Reconsolidating Appetitive Memory1,2

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Emiliano; Ratano, Patrizia; Ilioi, Elena C.; Robbins, Miranda A.L.S.; Everitt, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disrupting maladaptive memories may provide a novel form of treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders, but little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the induction of lability, or destabilization, of a retrieved consolidated memory. Destabilization has been theoretically linked to the violation of expectations during memory retrieval, which, in turn, has been suggested to correlate with prediction error (PE). It is well-established that PE correlates with dopaminergic signaling in limbic forebrain structures that are critical for emotional learning. The basolateral amygdala is a key neural substrate for the reconsolidation of pavlovian reward-related memories, but the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in inducing lability of amygdala-dependent memories has not been investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic signaling within the basolateral amygdala is required for the destabilization of appetitive pavlovian memories by investigating the effects dopaminergic and protein synthesis manipulations on appetitive memory reconsolidation in rats. Intra-amygdala administration of either the D1-selective dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or the D2-selective dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride prevented memory destabilization at retrieval, thereby protecting the memory from the effects of an amnestic agent, the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. These data show that dopaminergic transmission within the basolateral amygdala is required for memory labilization during appetitive memory reconsolidation. PMID:26464966

  9. Evaluation of Tetrahydrobiopterin Therapy with Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation in Phenylketonuria: Effects on Potential Peripheral Biomarkers, Melatonin and Dopamine, for Brain Monoamine Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Shoji; Moseley, Kathryn; Fu, Xiaowei; Azen, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to a defective hepatic enzyme, phenylalanine (Phe) hydroxylase. Transport of the precursor amino acids from blood into the brain for serotonin and dopamine synthesis is reported to be inhibited by high blood Phe concentrations. Deficiencies of serotonin and dopamine are involved in neurocognitive dysfunction in PKU. Objective (1) To evaluate the effects of sapropterin (BH4) and concurrent use of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) on the peripheral biomarkers, melatonin and dopamine with the hypothesis they reflect brain serotonin and dopamine metabolism. (2) To evaluate synergistic effects with BH4 and LNAA. (3) To determine the effects of blood Phe concentrations on the peripheral biomarkers concentrations. Methods Nine adults with PKU completed our study consisting of four 4-week phases: (1) LNAA supplementation, (2) Washout, (3) BH4 therapy, and (4) LNAA with BH4 therapy. An overnight protocol measured plasma amino acids, serum melatonin, and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and dopamine in first void urine after each phase. Results (1) Three out of nine subjects responded to BH4. A significant increase of serum melatonin levels was observed in BH4 responders with decreased blood Phe concentration. No significant change in melatonin, dopamine or Phe levels was observed with BH4 in the subjects as a whole. (2) Synergistic effects with BH4 and LNAA were observed in serum melatonin in BH4 responders. (3) The relationship between serum melatonin and Phe showed a significant negative slope (p = 0.0005) with a trend toward differing slopes among individual subjects (p = 0.066). There was also a negative association overall between blood Phe and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and dopamine (P = 0.040 and 0.047). Conclusion Blood Phe concentrations affected peripheral monoamine neurotransmitter biomarker concentrations differently in each individual with PKU. Melatonin levels increased with BH4 therapy only when blood Phe decreased. Monitoring

  10. Responses of in vivo renal microvessels to dopamine.

    PubMed

    Steinhausen, M; Weis, S; Fleming, J; Dussel, R; Parekh, N

    1986-09-01

    The split hydronephrotic kidney preparation was used to directly observe the effects of locally applied dopamine on the in vivo diameters of renal vessels. Dopamine (1 X 10(-6) to 3 X 10(-5) M) produced a concentration-dependent dilation of the arcuate and interlobular arteries and afferent arterioles. Efferent arterioles near the glomeruli also dilated to dopamine but the dilation was less than that of the preglomerular vessels. Higher dopamine concentrations (3 X 10(-4) and 1 X 10(-3) M) produced more variable effects, with a tendency for the arcuate and interlobular arteries and the afferent and efferent arterioles away from the glomeruli to decrease in diameter. After pretreatment with haloperidol, dopamine (1 X 10(-6) to 1 X 10(-4) M) did not dilate any pre- or postglomerular vascular segment, but the tendency for pre- and postglomerular constrictions with higher dopamine concentrations were not abolished. Pretreatment with phentolamine and propranolol enhanced the dilator response of the pre- and postglomerular vessels (except the afferent arterioles near glomeruli and efferent arterioles near welling points) to dopamine (3 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-4) M), and abolished the reductions in diameter produced by the high dopamine levels. These data indicate that the dilator effect of dopamine is mediated by interactions with specific dopaminergic receptors, while alpha and beta adrenergic receptors appear to mediate a constrictor influence observed with high dopamine concentrations. The overall effect of dopamine on the renal vessel diameters thus appears to depend on the balance of dilator and constrictor stimuli mediated by multiple receptors. PMID:3023735

  11. Deficits of mesolimbic dopamine neurotransmission in rat dietary obesity.

    PubMed

    Geiger, B M; Haburcak, M; Avena, N M; Moyer, M C; Hoebel, B G; Pothos, E N

    2009-04-10

    Increased caloric intake in dietary obesity could be driven by central mechanisms that regulate reward-seeking behavior. The mesolimbic dopamine system, and the nucleus accumbens in particular, underlies both food and drug reward. We investigated whether rat dietary obesity is linked to changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission in that region. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a cafeteria-style diet to induce obesity or a laboratory chow diet to maintain normal weight gain. Extracellular dopamine levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis. Electrically evoked dopamine release was measured ex vivo in coronal slices of the nucleus accumbens and the dorsal striatum using real-time carbon fiber amperometry. Over 15 weeks, cafeteria-diet fed rats became obese (>20% increase in body weight) and exhibited lower extracellular accumbens dopamine levels than normal weight rats (0.007+/-0.001 vs. 0.023+/-0.002 pmol/sample; P<0.05). Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of obese rats was stimulated by a cafeteria-diet challenge, but it remained unresponsive to a laboratory chow meal. Administration of d-amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) also revealed an attenuated dopamine response in obese rats. Experiments measuring electrically evoked dopamine signal ex vivo in nucleus accumbens slices showed a much weaker response in obese animals (12 vs. 25x10(6) dopamine molecules per stimulation, P<0.05). The results demonstrate that deficits in mesolimbic dopamine neurotransmission are linked to dietary obesity. Depressed dopamine release may lead obese animals to compensate by eating palatable "comfort" food, a stimulus that released dopamine when laboratory chow failed. PMID:19409204

  12. DEFICITS OF MESOLIMBIC DOPAMINE NEUROTRANSMISSION IN RAT DIETARY OBESITY

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, B. M.; Haburcak, M.; Avena, N. M.; Moyer, M. C.; Hoebel, B. G.; Pothos, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    Increased caloric intake in dietary obesity could be driven by central mechanisms that regulate reward-seeking behavior. The mesolimbic dopamine system, and the nucleus accumbens in particular, underlies both food and drug reward. We investigated whether rat dietary obesity is linked to changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission in that region. Sprague–Dawley rats were placed on a cafeteria-style diet to induce obesity or a laboratory chow diet to maintain normal weight gain. Extracellular dopamine levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis. Electrically evoked dopamine release was measured ex vivo in coronal slices of the nucleus accumbens and the dorsal striatum using real-time carbon fiber amperometry. Over 15 weeks, cafeteria-diet fed rats became obese (>20% increase in body weight) and exhibited lower extracellular accumbens dopamine levels than normal weight rats (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.023±0.002 pmol/sample; P<0.05). Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of obese rats was stimulated by a cafeteria-diet challenge, but it remained unresponsive to a laboratory chow meal. Administration of d-amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) also revealed an attenuated dopamine response in obese rats. Experiments measuring electrically evoked dopamine signal ex vivo in nucleus accumbens slices showed a much weaker response in obese animals (12 vs. 25 × 106 dopamine molecules per stimulation, P<0.05). The results demonstrate that deficits in mesolimbic dopamine neurotransmission are linked to dietary obesity. Depressed dopamine release may lead obese animals to compensate by eating palatable “comfort” food, a stimulus that released dopamine when laboratory chow failed. PMID:19409204

  13. Central actions of a novel and selective dopamine antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine traditionally have been divided into two subgroups: the D/sub 1/ class, which is linked to the stimulation of adenylate cyclase-activity, and the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ dopamine receptor that mediates the physiological and behavioral actions of dopamine in the intact animal. However, the benzazepine SCH23390 is a dopamine antagonist which has potent behavioral actions while displaying apparent neurochemical selectivity for the D/sub 1/ class of dopamine receptors. The purpose of this dissertation was to (1) confirm and characterize this selectivity, and (2) test certain hypothesis related to possible modes of action of SCH233390. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase by SCH23390 occurred via an action at the dopamine receptor only. A radiolabeled analog of SCH23390 displayed the receptor binding properties of a specific high-affinity ligand, and regional receptor densities were highly correlated with dopamine levels. The subcellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding did not correspond completely with that of dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. The neurochemical potency of SCH23390 as a D/sub 1/ receptor antagonist was preserved following parental administration. A variety of dopamine agonists and antagonists displayed a high correlation between their abilities to compete for (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding in vitro and to act at an adenylate cyclase-linked receptor. Finally, the relative affinities of dopamine and SCH23390 for both D/sub 1/ receptors and (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding sites were comparable. It is concluded that the behavioral effects of SCH23390 are mediated by actions at D/sub 1/ dopamine receptors only, and that the physiological importance of this class of receptors should be reevaluated.

  14. A solid-phase combinatorial approach for indoloquinolizidine-peptides with high affinity at D(1) and D(2) dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Molero, Anabel; Vendrell, Marc; Bonaventura, Jordi; Zachmann, Julian; López, Laura; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluis, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Albericio, Fernando; Casadó, Vicent; Royo, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Ligands acting at multiple dopamine receptors hold potential as therapeutic agents for a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Specifically, compounds able to bind at D1R and D2R with high affinity could restore the effects of dopamine depletion and enhance motor activation on degenerated nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems. We have directed our research towards the synthesis and characterisation of heterocycle-peptide hybrids based on the indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidine core. This privileged structure is a water-soluble and synthetically accessible scaffold with affinity for diverse GPCRs. Herein we have prepared a solid-phase combinatorial library of 80 indoloquinolizidine-peptides to identify compounds with enhanced binding affinity at D2R, a receptor that is crucial to re-establish activity on dopamine-depleted degenerated GABAergic neurons. We applied computational tools and high-throughput screening assays to identify 9a{1,3,3} as a ligand for dopamine receptors with nanomolar affinity and agonist activity at D2R. Our results validate the application of indoloquinolizidine-peptide combinatorial libraries to fine-tune the pharmacological profiles of multiple ligands at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. PMID:25969169

  15. Influence of lead on repetitive behavior and dopamine metabolism in a mouse model of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Kueon, Chojin; Kim, Jonghan

    2014-12-01

    Exposures to lead (Pb) are associated with neurological problems including psychiatric disorders and impaired learning and memory. Pb can be absorbed by iron transporters, which are up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder in which increased iron deposition in various parenchymal organs promote metal-induced oxidative damage. While dysfunction in HFE (High Fe) gene is the major cause of hemochromatosis, the transport and toxicity of Pb in Hfe-related hemochromatosis are largely unknown. To elucidate the relationship between HFE gene dysfunction and Pb absorption, H67D knock-in Hfe-mutant and wild-type mice were given drinking water containing Pb 1.6 mg/ml ad libitum for 6 weeks and examined for behavioral phenotypes using the nestlet-shredding and marble-burying tests. Latency to nestlet-shredding in Pb-treated wild-type mice was prolonged compared with non-exposed wild-types (p < 0.001), whereas Pb exposure did not alter shredding latency in Hfe-mutant mice. In the marble-burying test, Hfe-mutant mice showed an increased number of marbles buried compared with wild-type mice (p = 0.002), indicating more repetitive behavior upon Hfe mutation. Importantly, Pb-exposed wild-type mice buried more marbles than non-exposed wild-types, whereas the number of marbles buried by Hfe-mutant mice did not change whether or not exposed to Pb. These results suggest that Hfe mutation could normalize Pb-induced behavioral alteration. To explore the mechanism of repetitive behavior caused by Pb, western blot analysis was conducted for proteins involved in brain dopamine metabolism. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter increased upon Pb exposure in both genotypes, whereas Hfe-mutant mice displayed down-regulation of the dopamine transporter and dopamine D1 receptor with D2 receptor elevated. Taken together, our data support the idea that both Pb exposure and Hfe mutation increase repetitive behavior in mice and further suggest that

  16. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-12-31

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor.

  17. Interaction of structural analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride with striatal dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of these studies were to determine if the nitrogen atom of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists drugs is required for interaction with the D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors and whether the positively charged or uncharged molecular species interacts with these receptors. To address these issues, permanently charged analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride were synthesized in which a dimethylsulfonium, dimethylselenonium or quaternary ammonium group replaced the amine group. Permanently uncharged analogs which contained a methylsulfide, methylselenide and sulfoxide group instead of an amine group were also synthesized. The interactions of these compounds with striatal dopamine receptors were studied. We found that the permanently charged dopamine analogs bound to the D-2 receptor of striatal membranes like conventional dopaminergic agonists and displayed agonist activity at the D-2 receptor regulating potassium-evoked (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine release. In contrast, the permanently uncharged analogs bound only to the high affinity state of the D-2 receptor and had neither agonist or antagonist activity.

  18. Anxiolytic effects of dopamine receptor ligands: I. Involvement of dopamine autoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Bartoszyk, G D

    1998-01-01

    The anxiolytic-like properties of dopamine agonists and antagonists with different receptor profiles were investigated in the ultrasonic vocalization test in rats after subcutaneous administration. Only dopamine D2 receptor agonists inhibited ultrasonic vocalization with the following ED50 values: apomorphine (0.07 mg/kg), quinelorane (0.01 mg/kg), quinpirole (0.04 mg/kg), pramipexole (0.09 mg/kg), roxindole (0.04 mg/kg), talipexole (0.04 mg/kg), (+/-)-7-OH-DPAT (0.05 mg/kg), (+/-)-PPHT (0.03 mg/kg), (-)-TNPA (0.06 mg/kg), PD128907 (0.13 mg/kg). The D2 antagonists haloperidol, mazapertine, raclopride, remoxipride, L745870, U99194A, U101958 and S(-)-DS121, the partial agonists PD143188 and preclamol, the selective D1 agonist R(+)-SKF38393 and the D1 antagonist SCH23390, and the uptake inhibitors GBR12909, GBR12935 and indatraline lacked significant inhibitory effects on ultrasonic vocalization. Because at least some of the D2 receptor agonists investigated have selectivity for dopamine autoreceptors, it is speculated that the dopamine autoreceptor may be a target for the development of new antianxiety drugs. PMID:9472724

  19. The neurosteroidogenic enzyme 5α-reductase modulates the role of D1 dopamine receptors in rat sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Frau, Roberto; Mosher, Laura J; Bini, Valentina; Pillolla, Giuliano; Pes, Romina; Saba, Pierluigi; Fanni, Silvia; Devoto, Paola; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Neurosteroids exert diverse modulatory actions on dopamine neurotransmission and signaling. We previously documented that the enzyme 5α-reductase, which catalyzes the main rate-limiting step in neurosteroid synthesis, is required for the behavioral responses of Sprague-Dawley rats to non-selective dopaminergic agonists, such as the D1-D2 receptor agonist apomorphine. Specifically, systemic and intra-accumbal administrations of the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride countered apomorphine-induced deficits of sensorimotor gating, as measured by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex; the classes of dopamine receptors involved in these effects, however, remain unknown. Prior rodent studies have revealed that the contributions of dopamine receptors to PPI regulation vary depending on the genetic background; thus, we analyzed the effect of finasteride on the PPI deficits induced by selective dopamine receptor agonists in Long-Evans (a strain exhibiting PPI deficits in response to both D1 and D2 receptor agonists) and Sprague-Dawley rats (which display PPI reductions following treatment with D2, and D3, but not D1 receptor agonists). In Long-Evans rats, finasteride opposed the PPI deficits induced by activation of D1, but not D2 receptors; conversely, in Sprague-Dawley rats, finasteride prevented the reductions in %PPI and accumbal dopamine extracellular levels caused by selective stimulation of D3, but not D2 receptors; however, the effects on %PPI were not confirmed by analyses on absolute PPI values. Our findings suggest that 5α-reductase modulates the effects of D1, but not D2 receptor agonists on sensorimotor gating. These data may help elucidate the role of neurosteroids in neuropsychiatric disorders featuring PPI deficits, including schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome. PMID:26415119

  20. Functional potencies of dopamine agonists and antagonists at human dopamine D₂ and D₃ receptors.

    PubMed

    Tadori, Yoshihiro; Forbes, Robert A; McQuade, Robert D; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2011-09-01

    We measured the functional agonist potencies of dopamine agonists including antiparkinson drugs, and functional antagonist potencies of antipsychotics at human dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. In vitro pharmacological assessment included inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation and the reversal of dopamine-induced inhibition in clonal Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing low and high densities of human dopamine D(2L) and D(2S) receptors (hD(2L)-Low, hD(2L)-High, hD(2S)-Low and hD(2S)-High, respectively) and human dopamine D(3) Ser-9 and D(3) Gly-9 receptors (hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9, respectively). Cabergoline, bromocriptine, pergolide, (±)-7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT), talipexole, pramipexole, R-(+)-trans-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-olhydrochloride (PD128907) and ropinirole behaved as dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptor full agonists and showed higher potencies in hD(2L)-High and hD(2S)-High compared to hD(2L)-Low and hD(2S)-Low. In hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9 compared to hD(2L)-Low and hD(2S)-Low, dopamine, ropinirole, PD128907, and pramipexole potencies were clearly higher; talipexole and 7-OH-DPAT showed slightly higher potencies; pergolide showed slightly lower potency; and, cabergoline and bromocriptine potencies were lower. Aripiprazole acted as an antagonist in hD(2L)-Low; a low intrinsic activity partial agonist in hD(2S)-Low; a moderate partial agonist in hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9; a robust partial agonist in hD(2L)-High; and a full agonist in hD(2S)-High. Amisulpride, sulpiride and perphenazine behaved as preferential antagonists; and chlorpromazine and asenapine behaved as modest preferential antagonists; whereas fluphenazine, haloperidol, and blonanserin behaved as non-preferential antagonists in hD(2S)-Low and hD(2S)-High compared to hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9. These findings may help to elucidate the basis of therapeutic benefit observed with these drugs, with

  1. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25447236

  2. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  3. Undiagnosed congenital hypothyroidism in a newborn treated with dopamine infusion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuanxing; Sun, Yueling; Qiang, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Medications administered during the neonatal period may mask the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism. Herein, we report a case of undiagnosed congenital hypothyroidism while the infant was on treatment with dopamine. Given the inhibitory effect of dopamine on thyroid-stimulating hormone, a high index of suspicion for potential congenital hypothyroidism is needed in such neonates. PMID:25724212

  4. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents. PMID:26514168

  5. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  6. PKCβ Inhibitors Attenuate Amphetamine-Stimulated Dopamine Efflux.

    PubMed

    Zestos, Alexander G; Mikelman, Sarah R; Kennedy, Robert T; Gnegy, Margaret E

    2016-06-15

    Amphetamine abuse afflicts over 13 million people, and there is currently no universally accepted treatment for amphetamine addiction. Amphetamine serves as a substrate for the dopamine transporter and reverses the transporter to cause an increase in extracellular dopamine. Activation of the beta subunit of protein kinase C (PKCβ) enhances extracellular dopamine in the presence of amphetamine by facilitating the reverse transport of dopamine and internalizing the D2 autoreceptor. We previously demonstrated that PKCβ inhibitors block amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux in synaptosomes from rat striatum in vitro. In this study, we utilized in vivo microdialysis in live, behaving rats to assess the effect of the PKCβ inhibitors, enzastaurin and ruboxistaurin, on amphetamine-stimulated locomotion and increases in monoamines and their metabolites. A 30 min perfusion of the nucleus accumbens core with 1 μM enzastaurin or 1 μM ruboxistaurin reduced efflux of dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine induced by amphetamine by approximately 50%. The inhibitors also significantly reduced amphetamine-stimulated extracellular levels of norepinephrine. The stimulation of locomotor behavior by amphetamine, measured simultaneously with the analytes, was comparably reduced by the PKCβ inhibitors. Using a stable isotope label retrodialysis procedure, we determined that ruboxistaurin had no effect on basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, or GABA. In addition, normal uptake function through the dopamine transporter was unaltered by the PKCβ inhibitors, as measured in rat synaptosomes. Our results support the utility of using PKCβ inhibitors to reduce the effects of amphetamine. PMID:26996926

  7. Decreased brain dopamine cell numbers in human cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Little, Karley Y; Ramssen, Eric; Welchko, Ryan; Volberg, Vitaly; Roland, Courtney J; Cassin, Bader

    2009-08-15

    Cocaine use diminishes striatal and midbrain dopamine neuronal components in both post-mortem and in vivo human experiments. The diffuse nature of these declines suggests the possibility that cocaine use might cause a loss of dopamine neurons in humans. Previous rodent studies have not detected cocaine-induced dopamine cell damage. The present experiment involved counting midbrain dopamine neurons utilizing both melanin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Well-preserved blocks ranging from +38 mm obex to +45 mm obex were examined in 10 cocaine users and 9 controls. Sections were also examined for signs of acute pathological injury by counting activated macrophages and microglia. Melanized cells at six midbrain levels were significantly reduced in cocaine users by both drug exposures. The estimated total number of melanized dopamine cells in the anterior midbrain was significantly reduced in cocaine users by 16%. Results with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were less conclusive because of variability in staining. Both activated macrophages and activated microglia were significantly increased among cocaine users. Cocaine exposure may have neurotoxic effects on dopamine neurons in humans. The infiltration of phagocytic cells suggests that the lower number of dopamine cells found in cocaine users was a relatively recent effect. The loss of dopamine cells could contribute to and intensify cocaine dependence, as well as anhedonic and depressive symptoms, in some cocaine users. Further efforts at clarifying the pathophysiological mechanisms involved may help explain treatment refractoriness, and identify targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19233481

  8. Dopamine modulates egalitarian behavior in humans.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Ignacio; Zhu, Lusha; Set, Eric; Kayser, Andrew; Hsu, Ming

    2015-03-30

    Egalitarian motives form a powerful force in promoting prosocial behavior and enabling large-scale cooperation in the human species [1]. At the neural level, there is substantial, albeit correlational, evidence suggesting a link between dopamine and such behavior [2, 3]. However, important questions remain about the specific role of dopamine in setting or modulating behavioral sensitivity to prosocial concerns. Here, using a combination of pharmacological tools and economic games, we provide critical evidence for a causal involvement of dopamine in human egalitarian tendencies. Specifically, using the brain penetrant catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone [4, 5], we investigated the causal relationship between dopaminergic mechanisms and two prosocial concerns at the core of a number of widely used economic games: (1) the extent to which individuals directly value the material payoffs of others, i.e., generosity, and (2) the extent to which they are averse to differences between their own payoffs and those of others, i.e., inequity. We found that dopaminergic augmentation via COMT inhibition increased egalitarian tendencies in participants who played an extended version of the dictator game [6]. Strikingly, computational modeling of choice behavior [7] revealed that tolcapone exerted selective effects on inequity aversion, and not on other computational components such as the extent to which individuals directly value the material payoffs of others. Together, these data shed light on the causal relationship between neurochemical systems and human prosocial behavior and have potential implications for our understanding of the complex array of social impairments accompanying neuropsychiatric disorders involving dopaminergic dysregulation. PMID:25802148

  9. Inflammation and ER Stress Downregulate BDH2 Expression and Dysregulate Intracellular Iron in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zughaier, Susu M.; Stauffer, Brandon B.; McCarty, Nael A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2) protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25762501

  10. Inflammation and ER stress downregulate BDH2 expression and dysregulate intracellular iron in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zughaier, Susu M; Stauffer, Brandon B; McCarty, Nael A

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2) protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25762501

  11. Dopamine agonist: pathological gambling and hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    (1) Pathological gambling and increased sexual activity can occur in patients taking dopaminergic drugs. Detailed case reports and small case series mention serious familial and social consequences. The frequency is poorly documented; (2) Most affected patients are being treated for Parkinson's disease, but cases have been reported among patients prescribed a dopamine agonist for restless legs syndrome or pituitary adenoma; (3) Patients treated with this type of drug, and their relatives, should be informed of these risks so that they can watch for changes in behaviour. If such disorders occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose or to withdraw the drug or replace it with another medication. PMID:19536937

  12. Ethics of Preclinical Dopamine Transporter Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Thomas I

    2016-08-01

    While dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) imaging is sensitive and specific when performed in patients with signs or symptoms of parkinsonism, its predictive value is uncertain in healthy subjects, even with patients who have first-degree relatives affected by Parkinson disease. In deciding whether to honor a patient's request for a DAT-SPECT, neurologists must balance a patient's autonomy rights with beneficence and nonmaleficence and also consider the distributive justice implications of ordering the test. Generally speaking, the benefits of a DAT-SPECT will be too small to justify its use in an asymptomatic patient concerned about developing Parkinson disease. PMID:27495208

  13. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  14. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  15. Basal Ganglia Dopamine Loss Due to Defect in Purine Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Egami, Kiyoshi; Yitta, Silaja; Kasim, Suhail; Lewers, J. Chris; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Lehar, Mohamed; Jinnah, H. A.

    2007-01-01

    Several rare inherited disorders have provided valuable experiments of nature highlighting specific biological processes of particular importance to the survival or function of midbrain dopamine neurons. In both humans and mice, deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) is associated with profound loss of striatal dopamine, with relative preservation of other neurotransmitters. In the current studies of knockout mice, no morphological signs of abnormal development or degeneration were found in an exhaustive battery that included stereological and morphometric measures of midbrain dopamine neurons, electron microscopic studies of striatal axons and terminals, and stains for degeneration or gliosis. A novel culture model involving HPRT-deficient dopaminergic neurons also exhibited significant loss of dopamine without a morphological correlate. These results suggest dopamine loss in HPRT deficiency has a biochemical rather than anatomical basis, and imply purine recycling to be a biochemical process of particular importance to the function of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:17374562

  16. Arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Bukwich, Michael; Rao, Vinod; Hemmelder, Vivian; Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to facilitate learning by comparing actual and expected reward1,2. Despite two decades of investigation, little is known about how this comparison is made. To determine how dopamine neurons calculate prediction error, we combined optogenetic manipulations with extracellular recordings in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice engaged in classical conditioning. By manipulating the temporal expectation of reward, we demonstrate that dopamine neurons perform subtraction, a computation that is ideal for reinforcement learning but rarely observed in the brain. Furthermore, selectively exciting and inhibiting neighbouring GABA neurons in the VTA reveals that these neurons are a source of subtraction: they inhibit dopamine neurons when reward is expected, causally contributing to prediction error calculations. Finally, bilaterally stimulating VTA GABA neurons dramatically reduces anticipatory licking to conditioned odours, consistent with an important role for these neurons in reinforcement learning. Together, our results uncover the arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors. PMID:26322583

  17. Cortisol administration induces global down-regulation of the brain's reward circuitry.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David; Rosenberger, Lisa A; van Honk, Jack

    2014-09-01

    Research in rodents and humans has shown divergent effects of the glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol (CRT) on reward processing. In rodents, administration of CRT increases reward drive by facilitating dopamine release in the ventral striatum. In humans, correspondingly, risky decision-making increases when CRT levels are elevated. Human stress studies contrariwise show that elevated CRT is accompanied by a decrease in reward-related brain activity. There are however no direct insights into how CRT acts on the reward system in the human brain. Accordingly, we used pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (pharmaco-fMRI) to investigate the effects of CRT on the brain's reward system. In a randomized within-subject design we administered a high dose of CRT (40 mg) and placebo to twenty healthy male volunteers on separate days, and used a monetary incentive delay task to assess the effects of the hormone on the striatum and the amygdala in anticipation of potential reward. In contrast to animal studies, we show that this high dose of CRT strongly decreases activity of the striatum in both reward and non-reward conditions. Furthermore, we observed reductions in activity in the basolateral amygdala, a key regulator of the brain's reward system. Crucially, the overall down-regulation of the brain's reward circuit was verified on the subjective level as subjects reported significantly reduced reward preference after CRT. In sum, we provide here direct evidence in humans that CRT acts on brain regions involved in reward-related behavior, that is, the basolateral amygdala and the striatum. Our findings suggest that CRT in the quantity and time course presently used globally down-regulates the reward system, and thereby decreases motivational processing in general. PMID:25001954

  18. Multiple functionalization of fluorescent nanoparticles for specific biolabeling and drug delivery of dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvindi, Maria Ada; di Corato, Riccardo; Curcio, Annalisa; Melisi, Daniela; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; Tortiglione, Claudia; Tino, Angela; George, Chandramohan; Brunetti, Virgilio; Cingolani, Roberto; Pellegrino, Teresa; Ragusa, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    The development of fluorescent biolabels for specific targeting and controlled drug release is of paramount importance in biological applications due to their potential in the generation of novel tools for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in several neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the controlled delivery of its agonists already proved to have beneficial effects both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the synthesis and multiple functionalization of highly fluorescent CdSe/CdS quantum rods for specific biolabeling and controlled drug release. After being transferred into aqueous media, the nanocrystals were made highly biocompatible through PEG conjugation and covered by a carbohydrate shell, which allowed specific GLUT-1 recognition. Controlled attachment of dopamine through an ester bond also allowed hydrolysis by esterases, yielding a smart nanotool for specific biolabeling and controlled drug release.The development of fluorescent biolabels for specific targeting and controlled drug release is of paramount importance in biological applications due to their potential in the generation of novel tools for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in several neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the controlled delivery of its agonists already proved to have beneficial effects both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the synthesis and multiple functionalization of highly fluorescent CdSe/CdS quantum rods for specific biolabeling and controlled drug release. After being transferred into aqueous media, the nanocrystals were made highly biocompatible through PEG conjugation and covered by a carbohydrate shell, which allowed specific GLUT-1 recognition. Controlled attachment of dopamine through an ester bond also allowed

  19. Preferential enhancement of dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens shell by cocaine is attributable to a direct increase in phasic dopamine release events.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Brandon J; Cleaveland, Nathan A; Stuber, Garret D; Day, Jeremy J; Carelli, Regina M; Wightman, R Mark

    2008-08-27

    Preferential enhancement of dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell is a fundamental aspect of the neural regulation of cocaine reward. Despite its importance, the nature of this effect is poorly understood. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to examine specific transmission processes underlying cocaine-evoked increases in dopamine transmission within the NAc core and shell. Initially, we examined altered terminal dopamine concentrations after global autoreceptor blockade. This was the first examination of autoreceptor regulation of naturally occurring phasic dopamine transmission and provided a novel characterization of specific components of dopamine neurotransmission. Comparison of increased dopamine signaling evoked by autoreceptor blockade and cocaine administration allowed robust resolution between increased frequency, concentration, and duration of phasic dopamine release events after cocaine delivery. Cocaine increased dopamine transmission by slowed uptake and increased concentration of dopamine released in the core and shell. However, an additional increase in the number phasic release events occurred only within the NAc shell, and this increase was eliminated by inactivation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This represents the first evidence that cocaine directly increases the frequency of dopamine release events and reveals that this is responsible for preferentially increased dopamine transmission within the NAc shell after cocaine administration. Additionally, cocaine administration resulted in a synergistic increase in dopamine concentration, and subregion differences were abolished when cocaine was administered in the absence of autoregulation. Together, these results demonstrate that cocaine administration results in a temporally and regionally specific increase in phasic dopamine release that is significantly regulated by dopamine autoreceptors. PMID:18753384

  20. Photosynthesis down-regulation precedes carbohydrate accumulation under sink limitation in Citrus.

    PubMed

    Nebauer, Sergio G; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Guardiola, José Luis; Molina, Rosa-Victoria

    2011-02-01

    Photosynthesis down-regulation due to an imbalance between sources and sinks in Citrus leaves could be mediated by excessive accumulation of carbohydrates. However, there is limited understanding of the physiological role of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in photosynthesis regulation and the elements triggering the down-regulation process. In this work, the role of non-structural carbohydrates in the regulation of photosynthesis under a broad spectrum of source-sink relationships has been investigated in the Salustiana sweet orange. Soluble sugar and starch accumulation in leaves, induced by girdling experiments, did not induce down-regulation of the photosynthetic rate in the presence of sinks (fruits). The leaf-to-fruit ratio did not modulate photosynthesis but allocation of photoassimilates to the fruits. The lack of strong sink activity led to a decrease in the photosynthetic rate and starch accumulation in leaves. However, photosynthesis down-regulation due to an excess of total soluble sugars or starch was discarded because photosynthesis and stomatal conductance reduction occurred prior to any significant accumulation of these carbohydrates. Gas exchange and fluorescence parameters suggested biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. In addition, the expression of carbon metabolism-related genes was altered within 24 h when strong sinks were removed. Sucrose synthesis and export genes were inhibited, whereas the expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was increased to cope with the excess of assimilates. In conclusion, changes in starch and soluble sugar turnover, but not sugar content per se, could provide the signal for photosynthesis regulation. In these conditions, non-stomatal limitations strongly inhibited the photosynthetic rate prior to any significant increase in carbohydrate levels. PMID:21367744

  1. Striatal interaction among dopamine, glutamate and ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ingrid; Fuentes, Angel; Ballaz, Santiago; Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Despite evidence suggesting the interaction among glutamate (GLU), dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in the striatum, their actions are often studied separately. Microdialysis was used here to quantify the extracellular interaction among GLU-DA-AA in the striatum of rats, an interaction which was compared with those studied in the substantia nigra (SN). Perfusion of GLU by reverse microdialysis increased DA and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the extracellular medium of the striatum, but increased both DA and DOPAC in the SN. The increase of extracellular DA-concentration induced by the local DA-perfusion decreased the extracellular level of GLU and glutamine, an effect that, as suggested by the GLU and glutamine increase observed after the haloperidol administration, probably involves the D2 dopamine receptor. Local administration of AA increased the extracellular DA, decreased DOPAC and had no effect on GLU and glutamine. Present data suggest that, in the striatum, GLU-release inhibits DA-uptake, DA-release inhibits GLU-release, and AA-release prevents DA-oxidation increasing its extracellular diffusion. These effects were different in the SN where GLU probably promoted the DA-release instead of inhibiting the DA-uptake as presumably occurred in the striatum. Present data denote a marked GLU-DA-AA interaction in the striatum, which might be relevant for the pharmacological control of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:22959966

  2. [Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs)].

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yohei; Murata, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease. Neurological diseases that exhibit parkinsonism and have normal dopaminergic cells in the nigrostriatal system (e.g., essential tremor, psychogenic parkinsonism, DOPA-responsive dystonia, vascular parkinsonism, drug-induced parkinsonism, manganism, brain tumor, myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11), and fragile X syndrome) might be diagnosed with SWEDDs. True bradykinesia with fatigue or decrement may be useful for distinguishing between Parkinson's disease and SWEDDs. However, because SWEDDs encompass many diseases, their properties may not be uniform. In this review, we discuss DaT SPECT, the concept of SWEDDs, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26764301

  3. Physical analysis of COMT and CCOMT downregulated alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCOMT) downregulated alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) have been created. This study examined stem characteristics of these lignin downregulated alfalfas grown in three environments. Twenty COMT and twenty CCOMT downregu...

  4. Juvenile hormone downregulates vitellogenin production in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) sterile workers.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Martinez, Luis Carlos; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier 1792), workers have active ovaries and lay trophic eggs that are eaten by the queen and larvae. Vitellogenins are the main proteins found in the eggs of insects and are the source of nutrients for the embryo in the fertilized eggs and for adults in the trophic eggs. In social insects, vitellogenin titres vary between castes and affect reproductive social status, nursing, foraging, longevity, somatic maintenance, and immunity. In most insects, vitellogenin synthesis is mainly regulated by juvenile hormone. However, in non-reproductive worker ants, this relationship is poorly characterized. This study determined the effects of juvenile hormone on vitellogenin synthesis in non-reproductive E. tuberculatum workers. Juvenile hormone was topically applied onto workers, and the effect on vitellogenin synthesis in the fat body and vitellogenin titres in the haemolymph were analysed by ELISA and qPCR. Juvenile hormone downregulated protein synthesis and reduced vitellogenin titres in the haemolymph, suggesting that in workers of E. tuberculatum, juvenile hormone loses its gonadotrophic function. PMID:26567344

  5. Renal tubular vasopressin receptors downregulated by dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M.; Phillips, M.I. )

    1988-03-01

    Receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) were characterized in tubular epithelial basolateral membranes (BL membranes) prepared from the kidneys of male Spraque-Dawley rats. Association of ({sup 3}H)AVP was rapid, reversible, and specific. Saturation studies revealed a single class of saturable binding sites with a maximal binding (B{sub max}) of 184 {plus minus} 15 fmol/mg protein. The V{sub 2} receptor antagonist was more than 3,700 times as effective in displacing ({sup 3}H)AVP than was the V{sub 1} antagonist. To investigate the physiological regulation of vasopressin receptors, the effects of elevated levels of circulating AVP on receptor characteristics were studied. Seventy-two-hour water deprivation significantly elevated plasma osmolality and caused an 11.5-fold increase in plasma (AVP). Scatchard analysis revealed a 38% decreased in the number of AVP receptors on the BL membranes from dehydrated animals. The high-affinity binding sites on the BL membranes fit the pharmacological profile for adenylate cyclase-linked vasopressin receptors (V{sub 2}), which mediate the antidiuretic action of the hormone. The authors conclude that physiologically elevated levels of AVP can downregulate vasopressin receptors in the kidney.

  6. Dopamine uptake dynamics are preserved under isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brodnik, Zachary D; España, Rodrigo A

    2015-10-01

    Fast scan cyclic voltammetry is commonly used for measuring the kinetics of dopamine release and uptake. For experiments using an anesthetized preparation, urethane is preferentially used because it does not alter dopamine uptake kinetics compared to freely moving animals. Unfortunately, urethane is highly toxic, can induce premature death during experiments, and cannot be used for recovery surgeries. Isoflurane is an alternative anesthetic that is less toxic than urethane, produces a stable level of anesthesia over extended periods, and is often used for recovery surgeries. Despite these benefits, the effects of isoflurane on dopamine release and uptake have not been directly characterized. In the present studies, we assessed the utility of isoflurane for voltammetry experiments by testing dopamine signaling parameters under baseline conditions, after treatment with the dopamine uptake inhibitor cocaine, and after exposure to increasing concentrations of isoflurane. Our results indicate that surgical levels of isoflurane do not significantly alter terminal mechanisms of dopamine release and uptake over prolonged periods of time. Consequently, we propose that isoflurane is an acceptable anesthetic for voltammetry experiments, which in turn permits the design of studies in which dopamine signaling is examined under anesthesia prior to recovery and subsequent experimentation in the same animals. PMID:26321152

  7. Effect of dopamine on viability of BHK-21 cells.

    PubMed

    Moshkov, D A; Abramova, M B; Shubina, V S; Lavrovskaya, V P; Pavlik, L L; Lezhnev, E I

    2010-09-01

    We studied the effects of dopamine added to culture medium on survival of floating or adherent BHK-21 cells differing by organization of actin cytoskeleton. The viability of floating cells more drastically decreased with increasing dopamine concentration and duration of exposure than that of adherent cells. The cells worse adhered to the substrate and formed a monolayer. The formed monolayer degrades, cell borders become blurred, cells, polygonal in the control, are rounded. Preliminary blockade of dopamine receptors with haloperidol, inessential for cell survival and morphology, does not prevent the destructive effect of dopamine on the cells. Ultrastructural study revealed increased density of filamentous actin threads in deep compartments of cell cytoplasm after dopamine treatment, this increase being more pronounced in cells grown in suspension. Bearing in mind the polymerizing effect of dopamine on globular actin in vitro and the fact that the content of this protein in floating cells is higher than in adherent cells, we can conclude that the decrease in viability of BHK-21 cells is caused by interaction of dopamine with cytoplasmic globular actin. PMID:21246101

  8. Prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission is decreased in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Frankle, W. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such working memory, attention, inhibitory control and risk/reward decisions--all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies in alcoholics that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, we hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in alcoholism. To test this hypothesis, we used amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cortical dopamine transmission in a group of 21 recently abstinent alcoholics and matched healthy controls. Methods [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BPND) was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg−1 of d-amphetamine. Results Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (Δ BPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in alcoholics compared to healthy controls. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in alcoholics included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Conclusions The results of this study for the first time unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism. PMID:24874293

  9. Ceramide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Evan L; Rau, Kristi S; Topham, Matthew K; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ceramide on dopamine and serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) transporters. Exposure of rat striatal synaptosomes to C2-ceramide caused a reversible, concentration-dependent decrease in plasmalemmal dopamine uptake. In contrast, ceramide exposure increased striatal 5-HT synaptosomal uptake. This increase did not appear to be due to an increased uptake by the 5-HT transporter. Rather, the increase appeared to result from an increase in 5-HT transport through the dopamine transporter, an assertion evidenced by findings that this increase: (1) does not occur in hippocampal synaptosomes (i.e., a preparation largely devoid of dopamine transporters), (2) occurs in striatal synaptosomes prepared from para-chloroamphetamine-treated rats (i.e., a preparation lacking 5-HT transporters), (3) is attenuated by pretreatment with methylphenidate (i.e., a relatively selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor) and (4) is inhibited by exposure to exogenous dopamine (i.e., which presumably competes for uptake with 5-HT). Taken together, these results reveal that ceramide is a novel modulator of monoamine transporter function, and may alter the affinity of dopamine transporters for its primary substrate. PMID:12498904

  10. Dopamine Modulates Metabolic Rate and Temperature Sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shits induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine), which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation. PMID:22347491

  11. Maternal Immune Activation Disrupts Dopamine System in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Lecca, Salvatore; Melis, Miriam; De Felice, Marta; Cadeddu, Francesca; Frau, Roberto; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Fadda, Paola; Devoto, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to maternal viral infections is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders with a supposed neurodevelopmental origin, including schizophrenia. Hence, immune response factors exert a negative impact on brain maturation that predisposes the offspring to the emergence of pathological phenotypes later in life. Although ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and their target regions play essential roles in the pathophysiology of psychoses, it remains to be fully elucidated how dopamine activity and functionality are disrupted in maternal immune activation models of schizophrenia. Methods: Here, we used an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model based on prenatal administration of the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid in rats, which mimics a viral infection and recapitulates behavioral abnormalities relevant to psychiatric disorders in the offspring. Extracellular dopamine levels were measured by brain microdialysis in both the nucleus accumbens shell and the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area were studied by in vivo electrophysiology. Results: Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid-treated animals, at adulthood, displayed deficits in sensorimotor gating, memory, and social interaction and increased baseline extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the prefrontal cortex. In polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid rats, dopamine neurons showed reduced spontaneously firing rate and population activity. Conclusions: These results confirm that maternal immune activation severely impairs dopamine system and that the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid model can be considered a proper animal model of a psychiatric condition that fulfills a multidimensional set of validity criteria predictive of a human pathology. PMID:26819283

  12. Dopamine D2-like receptor signaling suppresses human osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hanami, Kentaro; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Okada, Yosuke; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Kubo, Satoshi; Kondo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine, a major neurotransmitter, transmits signals via five different seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1 to D5. Although the relevance of neuroendocrine system to bone metabolism has been emerging, the precise effects of dopaminergic signaling upon osteoclastogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human monocyte-derived osteoclast precursor cells express all dopamine-receptor subtypes. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists such as pramipexole and quinpirole reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells, cathepsin K mRNA expression, and pit formation area in vitro. These inhibitory effects were reversed by pre-treatment with a D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol or a Gαi inhibitor pertussis toxin, but not with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists, but not a D1-like receptor agonist, suppressed intracellular cAMP concentration as well as RANKL-meditated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1 mRNA expression in human osteoclast precursor cells. Finally, the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone marrow culture ex vivo. These findings indicate that dopaminergic signaling plays an important role in bone homeostasis via direct effects upon osteoclast differentiation and further suggest that the clinical use of neuroleptics is likely to affect bone mass. PMID:23631878

  13. Effect of parasitic infection on dopamine biosynthesis in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, H.L.; Alsaady, I.; Howell, G.; Prandovszky, E.; Peers, C.; Robinson, P.; McConkey, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the neurotropic agent Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior and can result in neuropsychiatric symptoms in humans. Little is understood regarding the effects of infection on host neural processes but alterations to dopaminergic neurotransmission are implicated. We have previously reported elevated levels of dopamine (DA) in infected dopaminergic cells however the involvement of the host enzymes and fate of the produced DA were not defined. In order to clarify the effects of infection on host DA biosynthetic enzymes and DA packaging we examined enzyme levels and activity and DA accumulation and release in T. gondii-infected neurosecretory cells. Although the levels of the host tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DOPA decarboxylase and AADC (DDC) did not change significantly in infected cultures, DDC was found within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), the vacuolar compartment where the parasites reside, as well as in the host cytosol in infected dopaminergic cells. Strikingly, DDC was found within the intracellular parasite cysts in infected brain tissue. This finding could provide some explanation for observations of DA within tissue cysts in infected brain as a parasite-encoded enzyme with TH activity was also localized within tissue cysts. In contrast, cellular DA packaging appeared unchanged in single-cell microamperometry experiments and only a fraction of the increased DA was accessible to high potassium-induced release. This study provides some understanding of how this parasite produces elevated DA within dopaminergic cells without the toxic ramifications of free cytosolic DA. The mechanism for synthesis and packaging of DA by T. gondii-infected dopaminergic cells may have important implications for the effects of chronic T. gondii infection on humans and animals. PMID:26297895

  14. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine agonists are effective treatments for a variety of indications, including Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, but may have serious side effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hallucinations, and impulse control disorders (including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping/buying, and hypersexuality). The most effective way to alleviate these side effects is to taper or discontinue dopamine agonist therapy. A subset of patients who taper a dopamine agonist, however, develop dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS), which has been defined as a severe, stereotyped cluster of physical and psychological symptoms that correlate with dopamine agonist withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner, cause clinically significant distress or social/occupational dysfunction, are refractory to levodopa and other dopaminergic medications, and cannot be accounted for by other clinical factors. The symptoms of DAWS include anxiety, panic attacks, dysphoria, depression, agitation, irritability, suicidal ideation, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, generalized pain, and drug cravings. The severity and prognosis of DAWS is highly variable. While some patients have transient symptoms and make a full recovery, others have a protracted withdrawal syndrome lasting for months to years, and therefore may be unwilling or unable to discontinue DA therapy. Impulse control disorders appear to be a major risk factor for DAWS, and are present in virtually all affected patients. Thus, patients who are unable to discontinue dopamine agonist therapy may experience chronic impulse control disorders. At the current time, there are no known effective treatments for DAWS. For this reason, providers are urged to use dopamine agonists judiciously, warn patients about the risks of DAWS prior to the initiation of dopamine agonist therapy, and follow patients closely for withdrawal symptoms during dopamine agonist taper. PMID:23686524

  15. Deamination of newly-formed dopamine in rat renal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. H.; Pestana, M.; Soares-da-Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    1. The present study has examined the formation of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in slices of the rat renal cortex and the renal medulla loaded with exogenous L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). The effects of pargyline and of two selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) types A and B, respectively Ro 41-1049 and Ro 19-6327, on the deamination of newly-synthesized dopamine in kidney slices incubated with exogenous L-DOPA were also tested. The assay of L-DOPA, dopamine, noradrenaline and DOPAC was performed by means of h.p.l.c. with electrochemical detection. 2. Incubation of renal slices with exogenous L-DOPA resulted in a concentration-dependent accumulation of dopamine and DOPAC; the tissue levels of newly-formed dopamine and DOPAC in slices of the renal medulla were 6-8% of those in cortical slices. 3. Pargyline (0.1 mM) produced a marked decrease (84% reduction) in the formation of DOPAC in kidney slices loaded with 1.0 mM L-DOPA; this effect was accompanied by a 17% increase in the accumulation of dopamine. Similar effects were obtained at higher concentrations of pargyline (0.5 and 1.0 mM). At 5.0 and 10.0 mM pargyline, a marked decrease (46 and 76% reduction) in the accumulation of newly-formed dopamine was observed. 4. The accumulation of dopamine and DOPAC was found to be time-dependent in experiments in which tissues were incubated with 5 and 10 microM L-DOPA for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Pargyline (0.1 mM) produced an increase in the accumulation of dopamine at all incubation periods and decreased the formation of DOPAC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1364853

  16. Regulation of bat echolocation pulse acoustics by striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Tressler, Jedediah; Schwartz, Christine; Wellman, Paul; Hughes, Samuel; Smotherman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to control the bandwidth, amplitude and duration of echolocation pulses is a crucial aspect of echolocation performance but few details are known about the neural mechanisms underlying the control of these voice parameters in any mammal. The basal ganglia (BG) are a suite of forebrain nuclei centrally involved in sensory-motor control and are characterized by their dependence on dopamine. We hypothesized that pharmacological manipulation of brain dopamine levels could reveal how BG circuits might influence the acoustic structure of bat echolocation pulses. A single intraperitoneal injection of a low dose (5 mg kg–1) of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPTP), which selectively targets dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra, produced a rapid degradation in pulse acoustic structure and eliminated the bat's ability to make compensatory changes in pulse amplitude in response to background noise, i.e. the Lombard response. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements of striatal dopamine concentrations revealed that the main effect of MPTP was a fourfold increase rather than the predicted decrease in striatal dopamine levels. After first using autoradiographic methods to confirm the presence and location of D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors in the bat striatum, systemic injections of receptor subtype-specific agonists showed that MPTP's effects on pulse acoustics were mimicked by a D2-type dopamine receptor agonist (Quinpirole) but not by a D1-type dopamine receptor agonist (SKF82958). The results suggest that BG circuits have the capacity to influence echolocation pulse acoustics, particularly via D2-type dopamine receptor-mediated pathways, and may therefore represent an important mechanism for vocal control in bats. PMID:21900471

  17. Striatal dopamine receptor plasticity in neurotensin deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Lucy G.; Qu, Hongyan; Bourke, Chase H.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Dobner, Paul R.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Kinkead, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to be caused, at least in part, by dysfunction in striatal dopamine neurotransmission. Both clinical studies and animal research have implicated the dopamine neuromodulator neurotensin (NT) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Utilizing male mice lacking the NT gene (NT−/−), these studies examined the consequences of NT deficiency on dopaminergic tone and function, investigating (1) dopamine concentrations and dopamine receptor and transporter expression and binding in dopaminergic terminal regions, and (2) the behavioral effects of selective dopamine receptor agonists on locomotion and sensorimotor gating in adult NT−/− mice compared to wildtype (NT+/+) mice. NT−/− mice did not differ from NT+/+ mice in concentrations of dopamine or its metabolite DOPAC in any brain region examined. However, NT−/− mice showed significantly increased D1 receptor, D2 receptor, and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA in the caudate putamen compared to NT+/+ controls. NT−/− mice also showed elevated D2 receptor binding densities in both the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens shell compared to NT+/+ mice. In addition, some of the behavioral effects of the D1-type receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole on locomotion, startle amplitude, and prepulse inhibition were dose-dependently altered in NT−/− mice, showing altered D1-type and D2-type receptor sensitivity to stimulation by agonists in the absence of NT. The results indicate that NT deficiency alters striatal dopamine receptor expression, binding, and function. This suggests a critical role for the NT system in the maintenance of striatal DA system homeostasis and implicates NT deficiency in the etiology of dopamine-associated disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:25449842

  18. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Shifts Temporally Engendered Patterns of Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration—suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55 212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner—suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55 212-2. PMID:24345819

  19. Contribution of dopamine to mitochondrial complex I inhibition and dopaminergic deficits caused by methylenedioxymethamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Barros-Miñones, L; Goñi-Allo, B; Suquia, V; Beitia, G; Aguirre, N; Puerta, E

    2015-06-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by oxidative stress probably due to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. In this study we investigated the contribution of dopamine (DA) to such effects. For this, we modulated the dopaminergic system of mice at the synthesis, uptake or metabolism levels. Striatal mitochondrial complex I activity was decreased 1 h after MDMA; an effect not observed in the striatum of DA depleted mice or in the hippocampus, a dopamine spare region. The DA precursor, L-dopa, caused a significant reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity by itself and exacerbated the dopaminergic deficits when combined with systemic MDMA. By contrast, no damage was observed when L-dopa was combined with intrastriatal injections of MDMA. On the other hand, dopamine uptake blockade using GBR 12909, inhibited both, the acute inhibition of complex I activity and the long-term dopaminergic toxicity caused by MDMA. Moreover, the inhibition of DA metabolism with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, pargyline, afforded a significant protection against MDMA-induced complex I inhibition and neurotoxicity. Taken together, these findings point to the formation of hydrogen peroxide subsequent to DA metabolism by MAO, rather than a direct DA-mediated mitochondrial complex I inhibition, and the contribution of a peripheral metabolite of MDMA, as the key steps in the chain of biochemical events leading to DA neurotoxicity caused by MDMA in mice. PMID:25666033

  20. Characterization of ultrananocrystalline diamond microsensors for in vivo dopamine detection

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Zeng, Hongjun; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Covey, Dan P.; Carlisle, John A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We show the technical feasibility of coating and micro patterning boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD®) on metal microwires and of applying them as microsensors for the detection of dopamine in vivo using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. UNCD electrode surface consistently generated electrochemical signals with high signal-to-noise ratio of >800 using potassium ferrocyanide-ferricyanide redox couple. Parylene patterned UNCD microelectrodes were effectively applied to detect dopamine reliably in vitro using flow injection analysis with a detection limit of 27 nM and in the striatum of the anesthetized rat during electrical stimulation of dopamine neurons. PMID:23918991

  1. Characterization of ultrananocrystalline diamond microsensors for in vivo dopamine detection.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Prabhu U; Zeng, Hongjun; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Covey, Dan P; Carlisle, John A; Garris, Paul A

    2013-06-24

    We show the technical feasibility of coating and micro patterning boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD(®)) on metal microwires and of applying them as microsensors for the detection of dopamine in vivo using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. UNCD electrode surface consistently generated electrochemical signals with high signal-to-noise ratio of >800 using potassium ferrocyanide-ferricyanide redox couple. Parylene patterned UNCD microelectrodes were effectively applied to detect dopamine reliably in vitro using flow injection analysis with a detection limit of 27 nM and in the striatum of the anesthetized rat during electrical stimulation of dopamine neurons. PMID:23918991

  2. Metformin Prevents Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration Independent of AMPK Activation in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Santos, Vanessa V.; Deo, Minh; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Elsworth, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD. We generated transgenic mice in which AMPK activity in dopamine neurons was ablated by removing AMPK beta 1 and beta 2 subunits from dopamine transporter expressing neurons. These AMPK WT and KO mice were then chronically exposed to Metformin in the drinking water then exposed to MPTP, the mouse model of PD. Chronic Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) neuronal number and volume and TH protein concentration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, Metformin treatment prevented the MPTP-induced elevation of the DOPAC:DA ratio regardless of genotype. Metformin also prevented MPTP induced gliosis in the Substantia Nigra. These neuroprotective actions were independent of genotype and occurred in both AMPK WT and AMPK KO mice. Overall, our studies suggest that Metformin’s neuroprotective effects are not due to AMPK activation in dopaminergic neurons and that more research is required to determine how metformin acts to restrict the development of PD. PMID:27467571

  3. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonists induce neurotrophic effects on mesencephalic dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Li, Rui; Huang, Yuangui; Li, Xuping; Le, Weidong

    2005-11-01

    Anti-parkinsonian agents, pramipexole (PPX) and ropinirole (ROP), have been reported to possess neuroprotective properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying neuroprotection afforded by the D3-preferring receptor agonists remain poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that incubation of primary mesencephalic cultures with PPX and ROP or the conditioned medium from PPX- or ROP-treated primary cultures induced a marked increase in the number of dopamine (DA) neurons in the cultures. Similar effects can be observed after incubating with the conditioned medium derived from PPX- and ROP-treated substantia nigra astroglia. Meanwhile, PPX and ROP can protect the primary cells from insult of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Furthermore, the neurotrophic effects of PPX and ROP on mesencephalic dopamine neurons could be significantly blocked by D3 receptor antagonist, but not by D2 receptor antagonist. Moreover, we found that the levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the conditioned medium of mesencephalic cultures treated with PPX and ROP were significantly increased. Blocking GDNF and BDNF with the neutralizing antibodies, the neurotrophic effects of PPX and ROP were greatly diminished. These results suggest that D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonists, PPX and ROP, exert neurotrophic effects on cultured DA neurons by modulating the production of endogenous GDNF and BDNF, which may participate in their neuroprotection. PMID:16307585

  4. Role of Histidine 547 of Human Dopamine Transporter in Molecular Interaction with HIV-1 Tat and Dopamine Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yaxia; Quizon, Pamela M.; Sun, Wei-Lun; Yao, Jianzhuang; Zhu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat plays an important role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) by disrupting neurotransmission including dopamine uptake by human dopamine transporter (hDAT). Previous studies have demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat directly binds to hDAT and some amino-acid mutations that attenuate the hDAT-Tat binding also significantly decreased dopamine uptake activity of hDAT. This combined computational-experimental study demonstrates that histidine-547 (H547) of hDAT plays a crucial role in the hDAT-Tat binding and dopamine uptake by hDAT, and that the H547A mutation can not only considerably attenuate Tat-induced inhibition of dopamine uptake, but also significantly increase the Vmax of hDAT for dopamine uptake. The finding of such an unusual hDAT mutant capable of both increasing the Vmax of hDAT for dopamine uptake and disrupting the hDAT-Tat binding may provide an exciting knowledge basis for development of novel concepts for therapeutic treatment of the HAND. PMID:27250920

  5. Role of Histidine 547 of Human Dopamine Transporter in Molecular Interaction with HIV-1 Tat and Dopamine Uptake.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yaxia; Quizon, Pamela M; Sun, Wei-Lun; Yao, Jianzhuang; Zhu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat plays an important role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) by disrupting neurotransmission including dopamine uptake by human dopamine transporter (hDAT). Previous studies have demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat directly binds to hDAT and some amino-acid mutations that attenuate the hDAT-Tat binding also significantly decreased dopamine uptake activity of hDAT. This combined computational-experimental study demonstrates that histidine-547 (H547) of hDAT plays a crucial role in the hDAT-Tat binding and dopamine uptake by hDAT, and that the H547A mutation can not only considerably attenuate Tat-induced inhibition of dopamine uptake, but also significantly increase the Vmax of hDAT for dopamine uptake. The finding of such an unusual hDAT mutant capable of both increasing the Vmax of hDAT for dopamine uptake and disrupting the hDAT-Tat binding may provide an exciting knowledge basis for development of novel concepts for therapeutic treatment of the HAND. PMID:27250920

  6. Molecular backgrounds of ERAP1 downregulation in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akash M; Osse, Michelle; Kolkman-Uljee, Sandra; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-01-01

    The antigen processing machinery (APM) plays an important role in immune recognition of virally infected and transformed cells. Defective expression of the APM component ERAP1 is associated with progression and poor clinical outcome in cervical carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of ERAP1 protein downregulation remain to be established. We investigated ERAP1 mRNA expression levels in 14 patients with established ERAP1 protein downregulation. To further examine the possible pretranscriptional mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation, ERAP1 DNA mutation status was analyzed alongside existing data on various single nucleotide polymorphisms. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity at various loci in the ERAP1 gene was investigated. In cases with ERAP1 protein downregulation, ERAP1 mRNA quantities were found to be significantly lower than in a cohort with normal ERAP1 protein expression (P = 0.001). Loss of heterozygosity was demonstrated to occur in up to 50% of tumors with ERAP1 downregulation. Our data indicate that ERAP1 downregulation is associated with loss of heterozygosity. These data provide the first insight into in vivo mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation in cervical carcinoma. PMID:26146606

  7. Molecular Backgrounds of ERAP1 Downregulation in Cervical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Akash M.; Osse, Michelle; Kolkman-Uljee, Sandra; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2015-01-01

    The antigen processing machinery (APM) plays an important role in immune recognition of virally infected and transformed cells. Defective expression of the APM component ERAP1 is associated with progression and poor clinical outcome in cervical carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of ERAP1 protein downregulation remain to be established. We investigated ERAP1 mRNA expression levels in 14 patients with established ERAP1 protein downregulation. To further examine the possible pretranscriptional mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation, ERAP1 DNA mutation status was analyzed alongside existing data on various single nucleotide polymorphisms. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity at various loci in the ERAP1 gene was investigated. In cases with ERAP1 protein downregulation, ERAP1 mRNA quantities were found to be significantly lower than in a cohort with normal ERAP1 protein expression (P = 0.001). Loss of heterozygosity was demonstrated to occur in up to 50% of tumors with ERAP1 downregulation. Our data indicate that ERAP1 downregulation is associated with loss of heterozygosity. These data provide the first insight into in vivo mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation in cervical carcinoma. PMID:26146606

  8. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors. PMID:24130517

  9. Prefrontal cortical dopamine from an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we propose the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acquired neotenic development as a consequence of mesocortical dopamine (DA) innervation, which in turn drove evolution of the PFC into becoming a complex functional system. Accordingly, from the evolutionary perspective, decreased DA signaling in the PFC associated with such adverse conditions as chronic stress may be considered as an environmental adaptation strategy. Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder may also be understood as environmental adaptation or a by-product of such a process that has emerged through evolution in humans. To investigate the evolutionary perspective of DA signaling in the PFC, domestic animals such as dogs may be a useful model. PMID:25617024

  10. Dopamine agonist resistance-related endocan promotes angiogenesis and cells viability of prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Leng, Zhi Gen; Guo, Yu Hang; Lin, Shao Jian; Wu, Ze Rui; Su, Zhi Peng; Lu, Jiang Long; Wei, Li Fei; Zhuge, Qi Chuan; Jin, Kunlin; Wu, Zhe Bao

    2016-06-01

    Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line treatment of prolactinomas. They function through the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) in the tumor cells. Endocan, also called endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM1), has been described as a marker of neoangiogenesis. However, whether ESM1 promotes the resistance of prolactinomas to DA therapy is largely unknown. In our study, 25 patients with prolactinomas were divided into resistant- and sensitive- groups according to the clinical response to bromocriptine. We found that ESM1-microvessel density of resistant prolactinomas was significantly higher than that of sensitive prolactinomas (47.9 ± 11.6, n = 8, vs 13.1 ± 2.8, n = 17, p = 0.0006), indicating that ESM1 was a DA resistance-related gene. Immunostaining showed that ESM1 was expressed in tumor vessels and sporadic tumor cells, and ESM1 was overlapped with the Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA) and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) in the tumor vessels. Silencing of ESM1 markedly suppressed the viability of GH3 and MMQ cells in vitro, and furthermore, significantly increased the sensitivity of GH3 and MMQ cells to DA treatment. Additionally, silencing of ESM1 down-regulated the angiogenesis-associated genes, such as VEGFR2, FGF2, CD34, CD31, VWF, and EGFR. Knockdown of ESM1 decreased endothelial tube formation of HUVECs, and significantly increased the sensitivity of HUVECs to Avastin treatment. Therefore, we first demonstrate that DA resistance-related ESM1 promotes the angiogenesis and tumor cells growth of prolactinomas, suggesting that ESM1 may be a novel therapeutic target for prolactinomas. PMID:26662185

  11. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-jing; Zou, Ji-li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-wei; Wu, Jin-hu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5 mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

  12. Adult rat bone marrow stromal cells express genes associated with dopamine neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Brian C.; Woodbury, Dale . E-mail: WOODBURYDL@AOL.COM; Black, Ira B.

    2006-05-19

    An intensive search is underway to identify candidates to replace the cells that degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, no suitable substitute has been found. We have recently found that adult rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to assume a neuronal phenotype in vitro. These findings may have particular relevance to the treatment of PD. We now report that adult MSCs express multiple dopaminergic genes, suggesting that they are potential candidates for cell therapy. Using RT-PCR, we have examined families of genes that are associated with the development and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons. MSCs transcribe a variety of dopaminergic genes including patched and smoothened (components of the Shh receptor), Gli-1 (downstream mediator of Shh), and Otx-1, a gene associated with formation of the mesencephalon during development. Furthermore, Shh treatment elicits a 1.5-fold increase in DNA synthesis in cultured MSCs, suggesting the presence of a functional Shh receptor complex. We have also found that MSCs transcribe and translate Nurr-1, a nuclear receptor essential for the development of dopamine neurons. In addition, MSCs express a variety of growth factor receptors including the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand-binding subunit of the GDNF receptor, GFR{alpha}1, as well as fibroblast growth factor receptors one and four. The expression of genes that are associated with the development and survival of dopamine neurons suggests a potential role for these cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Concomitant changes in formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of dopamine interneurones and in slow inhibitory post-synaptic potentials of the rabbit superior cervical ganglion, induced by stimulation of the preganglionic nerve or by a muscarinic agent

    PubMed Central

    Libet, B.; Owman, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    1. Dopamine was identified by formaldehyde histochemistry and cytospectrofluorometry in the rabbit's superior cervical ganglion. Dopamine was localized to the intraganglionic `small intensely fluorescent' cells, and also to the characteristically beaded fibres forming a network in close contact with virtually all ganglion cell bodies. The extensive beaded fibres are therefore presumed to be processes of the small intensely fluorescent cells. 2. Changes in the dopamine content of these interneurones were studied by recording alterations in their relative fluorescence intensity in conjunction with changes in the slow inhibitory post-synaptic potential (s.-i.p.s.p.) response of the ganglion to orthodromic nerve input. 3. Dopamine content was lower after several hours in vitro even without special stimulation; this was in accord with a regularly observed spontaneous reduction of the s.-i.p.s.p. response. 4. After a period of conditioning stimulation of the preganglionic nerve, in the presence of an anticholinesterase agent (eserine) and an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis (α-methyl-p-tyrosine), the s.-i.p.s.p. was selectively and markedly reduced. The dopamine fluorescence in the small intensely fluorescent cell interneurones was also significantly reduced, to a mean value of about 55 or 60% of the fluorescence in the dopamine interneurones of the paired but unstimulated control ganglion. A significant reduction in dopamine fluorescence was always accompanied by a marked loss of s.-i.p.s.p. response; the reverse was not always true. 5. Treatment with the muscarinic agent bethanechol for 30 min, with no α-methyl-p-tyrosine or eserine present, similarly resulted in reductions in the s.-i.p.s.p. response of the ganglia and in the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of the dopamine interneurones. 6. A functional uptake of extrinsic dopamine by the dopamine interneurones was also demonstrated: temporary exposure to dopamine restored a large fraction of both the s

  14. Enhanced electrochemiluminescence sensor for detecting dopamine based on gold nanoflower@graphitic carbon nitride polymer nanosheet-polyaniline hybrids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiyi; Zhang, Juanjuan; Liu, Xiaofang; Wu, Yuanya; Yuan, Ruo; Chen, Shihong

    2014-12-21

    In this work, an enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on gold nanoflower@graphitic carbon nitride polymer nanosheet-polyaniline hybrids (AuNF@g-C3N4-PANI) was prepared for the detection of dapamine (DA). First, the bulk g-C3N4 was prepared through polymerizing melamine under 600 °C. And then the g-C3N4 nanosheet was obtained by ultrasonication-assisted liquid exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4. Finally, polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoflowers (AuNFs) were successively formed on the g-C3N4 nanosheet through an in situ synthesis method. The resulting AuNF@g-C3N4-PANI hybrids were modified onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode to achieve a sensor (AuNF@g-C3N4-PANI/GCE) for detecting dopamine. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL signal increased linearly with the concentration of dopamine. The linear range of 5.0 × 10(-9) to 1.6 × 10(-6) M was obtained, while the detection limit was 1.7 × 10(-9) M. The prepared sensor exhibited a low detection limit and high sensitivity for the determination of dopamine. The combination of g-C3N4 nanosheet, PANI and AuNF would provide a new opportunity for the ECL sensor. PMID:25356445

  15. Incorporating β-cyclodextrin with ZnO nanorods: a potentiometric strategy for selectivity and detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Sami; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    We describe a chemical sensor based on a simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) for the detection of dopamine molecules by a potentiometric approach. The polar nature of dopamine leads to a change of surface charges on the ZNR surface via metal ligand bond formation which results in a measurable electrical signal. ZNRs were grown on a gold-coated glass substrate by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. Polymeric membranes incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate was immobilized on the ZNR surface. The fabricated electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The grown ZNRs were well aligned and exhibited good crystal quality. The present sensor system displays a stable potential response for the detection of dopamine in 10(-2) mol·L(-1) acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.45 within a wide concentration range of 1 × 10(-6) M(-1) × 10(-1) M, with sensitivity of 49 mV/decade. The electrode shows a good response time (less than 10 s) and excellent repeatability. This finding can contribute to routine analysis in laboratories studying the neuropharmacology of catecholamines. Moreover, the metal-ligand bonds can be further exploited to detect DA receptors, and for bio-imaging applications. PMID:24445413

  16. Formation and occurrence of dopamine-derived betacyanins.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Schmidt, J; Wray, V; Schliemann, W

    2001-03-01

    In light of the fact that the main betaxanthin (miraxanthin V) and the major betacyanin (2-descarboxy-betanidin) in hairy root cultures of yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are both dopamine-derived, the occurrence of similar structures for the minor betacyanins was also suggested. By HPLC comparison with the betacyanins obtained by dopamine administration to beet seedlings, enzymatic hydrolysis, LCMS and 1H NMR analyses, the minor betacyanins from hairy roots were identified as 2-descarboxy-betanin and its 6'-O-malonyl derivative. A short-term dopamine administration experiment with fodder beet seedlings revealed that the condensation step between 2-descarboxy-cyclo-Dopa and betalamic acid is the decisive reaction, followed by glucosylation and acylation. From these data a pathway for the biosynthesis of dopamine-derived betalains is proposed. Furthermore, the occurrence of these compounds in various cell and hairy root cultures as well as beet plants (Fodder and Garden Beet Group) is shown. PMID:11261575

  17. Selective dopamine chemosensing using silver-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Jana, Jayasmita; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-04-15

    Condensation product of salicylaldehyde and 1,3 propylenediamine becomes a diiminic Schiff base, which is oxidized by AgNO3 in alkaline solution, and in turn, stable Ag(0) is produced at room temperature. Under this condition, the solution exhibits intense silver nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence (SEF) with the λ(em) at 412 nm. Dopamine is selectively detected down to the nanomolar level via exclusive fluorescence quenching of the SEF. Dopamine-infested solution regains the fluorescence [i.e., SEF in the presence of Hg(II) ions]. Thus dopamine and Hg(II) in succession demonstrate "turn off/on" fluorescence due to the change in the scattering cross section of Ag(0) and gives a quantitative measure of dopamine in real samples. The proposed method is free from interferences of common biocompetitors. PMID:24650302

  18. The Role of Dopamine in Reinforcement: Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity Induced by D[subscript 1]-Type, D[subscript 2]-Type, and Nonselective Dopamine Receptor Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratcher, Natalie A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri; Dougan, James D.; Heidenreich, Byron A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Dose-dependent changes in sensitivity to reinforcement were found when rats were treated with low, moderate, and high doses of the partial dopamine D[subscript 1]-type receptor agonist SKF38393 and with the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine, but did not change when rats were treated with similar doses of the selective dopamine D[subscript…

  19. Could dopamine agonists aid in drug development for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  20. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  1. Oxygen radicals diminish dopamine transporter function in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, A E; Metzger, R R; Beyeler, M L; Gibb, J W; Hanson, G R

    1997-09-01

    Incubation of striatal synaptosomes with the oxygen radical generating enzyme, xanthine oxidase, decreased [3H]dopamine uptake: an effect attributable to a decreased Vmax. Concurrent incubation with the superoxide radical scavenger, superoxide dismutase, abolished the xanthine oxidase-induced decrease. These results indicate that, like methamphetamine administration in vivo, reactive oxygen species diminish dopamine transporter function in vitro. The significance of these findings to mechanisms responsible for effects of methamphetamine is discussed. PMID:9346337

  2. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with versatile surface functions based on dopamine anchors.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Mykola; Barras, Alexandre; Kuncser, Victor; Galatanu, Andrei; Zaitzev, Vladimir; Turcheniuk, Kostiantyn V; Woisel, Patrice; Lyskawa, Joel; Laure, William; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MF-MPs) is one of the most active research areas in advanced materials as their multifunctional surfaces allow conjugation of biological and chemical molecules, thus making it possible to achieve target-specific diagnostic in parallel to therapeutics. We report here a simple strategy to integrate in a one-step reaction several reactive sites onto the particles. The preparation of MF-MPs is based on their simultaneous modification with differently functionalized dopamine derivatives using simple solution chemistry. The formed MF-MPs show comparable magnetic properties to those of naked nanoparticles with almost unaltered particle size of around 25 nm. The different termini, amine, azide and maleimide functions, enable further functionalization of MF-MPs by the grafting-on approach. Michael addition, Cu(i) catalyzed « click » chemistry and amidation reactions are performed on the MF-MPs integrating subsequently 6-(ferrocenyl)-hexanethiol, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and mannose. PMID:23420060

  3. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with versatile surface functions based on dopamine anchors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Mykola; Barras, Alexandre; Kuncser, Victor; Galatanu, Andrei; Zaitzev, Vladimir; Turcheniuk, Kostiantyn V.; Woisel, Patrice; Lyskawa, Joel; Laure, William; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MF-MPs) is one of the most active research areas in advanced materials as their multifunctional surfaces allow conjugation of biological and chemical molecules, thus making it possible to achieve target-specific diagnostic in parallel to therapeutics. We report here a simple strategy to integrate in a one-step reaction several reactive sites onto the particles. The preparation of MF-MPs is based on their simultaneous modification with differently functionalized dopamine derivatives using simple solution chemistry. The formed MF-MPs show comparable magnetic properties to those of naked nanoparticles with almost unaltered particle size of around 25 nm. The different termini, amine, azide and maleimide functions, enable further functionalization of MF-MPs by the grafting-on approach. Michael addition, Cu(i) catalyzed « click » chemistry and amidation reactions are performed on the MF-MPs integrating subsequently 6-(ferrocenyl)-hexanethiol, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and mannose.

  4. Dopamine Dynamics and Signaling in Drosophila: An Overview of Genes, Drugs and Behavioral Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Seto, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in dopamine (DA) signaling have been implicated in a number of human neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Similarly, defects in DA signaling in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have also been associated with several behavioral defects. As most genes involved in DA synthesis, transport, secretion, and signaling are conserved between species, Drosophila is a powerful genetic model organism to study the regulation of DA signaling in vivo. In this review, we will provide an overview of the genes and drugs that regulate DA biology in Drosophila. Furthermore, we will discuss the behavioral paradigms that are regulated by DA signaling in flies. By analyzing the genes and neuronal circuits that govern such behaviors using sophisticated genetic, pharmacologic, electrophysiologic, and imaging approaches in Drosophila, we will likely gain a better understanding about how this neuromodulator regulates motor tasks and cognition in humans. PMID:24770636

  5. Structure-guided development of dual β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Dietmar; Stanek, Markus; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Aiming to discover dual-acting β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor ligands, a structure-guided approach for the evolution of GPCR agonists that address multiple targets was elaborated. Starting from GPCR crystal structures, we describe the design, synthesis and biological investigation of a defined set of compounds leading to the identification of the benzoxazinone (R)-3, which shows agonist properties at the adrenergic β2 receptor and substantial G protein-promoted activation at the D2 receptor. This directed approach yielded molecular probes with tuned dual activity. The congener desOH-3 devoid of the benzylic hydroxyl function was shown to be a β2 adrenergic antagonist/D2 receptor agonist with Ki values in the low nanomolar range. The compounds may serve as a promising starting point for the investigation and treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:27132867

  6. Tyrosine depletion lowers in vivo DOPA synthesis in ventral hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Rodolfo; Kyser, Abby N; Jaskiw, George E

    2012-12-01

    In vivo dopamine synthesis in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat is sensitive to the availability of tyrosine. Whether other limbic cortical dopamine terminal regions are similarly tyrosine-dependent is not known. In this study we examined the effects of tyrosine depletion on dopamine synthesis and catecholamine levels in the ventral hippocampus. A tyrosine- and phenylalanine-free neutral amino acid mixture was used to lower brain tyrosine levels in rats undergoing in vivo microdialysis. In one group, NSD-1015 was included in perfusate to permit measurement of DOPA levels. In a second group, NSD-1015 was not included in perfusate so that catecholamine levels could be assayed. Tyrosine depletion significantly lowered DOPA levels in the NSD-1015 treated group and lowered DOPAC but not dopamine or noradrenaline levels in the group not exposed to NSD-1015. We conclude that while catecholamine synthesis in the ventral hippocampus declines when tyrosine availability is lowered, under basal conditions, compensatory mechanisms are able to maintain stable extracellular catecholamine levels. PMID:23022716

  7. Catalytic enantioselective aziridoarylation of aryl cinnamyl ethers toward synthesis of trans-3-amino-4-arylchromans.

    PubMed

    Hajra, Saumen; Sinha, Debarshi

    2011-09-16

    Catalytic enantioselective one-pot aziridoarylation reaction of aryl cinnamyl ethers has been demonstrated in detail. Combination of suitable copper catalyst and chiral bis-oxazoline ligand was found to be very efficient for asymmetric aziridination followed by intramolecular arylation (Friedel-Crafts) reaction to provide a general and direct method for the synthesis of trans-3-amino-4-arylchromans with high regio-, diastereo- (dr > 99:1), and enantioselectivity (up to 95% ee) with moderate yield. trans-3-Amino-4-arylchroman is an advanced intermediate for the synthesis of chromenoisoquinoline compounds such as doxanthrine, a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine-D(1) receptor. PMID:21797274

  8. Selective modulation of excitatory and inhibitory microcircuits by dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen-Jun; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    2003-03-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the working memory functions of the prefrontal cortex, functions that are impacted in age-related memory decline, drug abuse, and a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that dopamine depresses excitatory transmission between pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Here, using paired recordings, we have investigated dopaminergic modulation of excitatory transmission from pyramidal neurons to fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. In contrast to its effect on recurrent excitation, dopamine was without effect on excitatory transmission to FS interneurons. However, dopamine has directly enhanced the excitability of the FS interneurons to the extent that even a single excitatory postsynaptic potential could initiate spiking with great temporal precision in some of them. These results indicate that dopamine's effects on excitatory transmission are target-specific and that the axon terminals of pyramidal neurons can be selectively regulated at the level of individual synapses. Thus, dopamine's net inhibitory effect on cortical function is remarkably constrained by the nature of the microcircuit elements on which it acts.

  9. Classification of dopamine, serotonin, and dual antagonists by decision trees.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Choo, Hyunah; Cho, Yong Seo; Koh, Hun Yeong; No, Kyoung Tai; Pae, Ae Nim

    2006-04-15

    Dopamine antagonists (DA), serotonin antagonists (SA), and serotonin-dopamine dual antagonists (Dual) are being used as antipsychotics. A lot of dopamine and serotonin antagonists reveal non-selective binding affinity against these two receptors because the antagonists share structurally common features originated from conserved residues of binding site of the aminergic receptor family. Therefore, classification of dopamine and serotonin antagonists into their own receptors can be useful in the designing of selective antagonist for individual therapy of antipsychotic disorders. Data set containing 1135 dopamine antagonists (D2, D3, and D4), 1251 serotonin antagonists (5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C), and 386 serotonin-dopamine dual antagonists was collected from the MDDR database. Cerius2 descriptors were employed to develop a classification model for the 2772 compounds with antipsychotic activity. LDA (linear discriminant analysis), SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy), RP (recursive partitioning), and ANN (artificial neural network) algorithms successfully classified the active class of each compound at the average 73.6% and predicted at the average 69.8%. The decision trees from RP, the best model, were generated to identify and interpret those descriptors that discriminate the active classes more easily. These classification models could be used as a virtual screening tool to predict the active class of new candidates. PMID:16387502

  10. Development of specific dopamine D-1 agonists and antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Sakolchai, S.

    1987-01-01

    To develop potentially selective dopamine D-1 agonists and to investigate on the structural requirement for D-1 activity, the derivatives of dibenzocycloheptadiene are synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. The target compounds are 5-aminomethyl-10,11-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cycloheptene hydrobromide 10 and 9,10-dihydroxy-1,2,3,7,8,12b-hexahydrobenzo(1,2)cyclohepta(3,4,5d,e)isoquinoline hydrobromide 11. In a dopamine-sensitive rat retinal adenylate cyclase assay, a model for D-1 activity, compound 10 is essentially inert for both agonist and antagonist activity. In contrast, compound 11 is approximately equipotent to dopamine in activation of the D-1 receptor. Based on radioligand and binding data, IC{sub 50} of compound 11 for displacement of {sup 3}H-SCH 23390, a D-1 ligand, is about 7 fold less than that for displacement of {sup 3}H-spiperone, a D-2 ligand. These data indicate that compound 11 is a potent selective dopamine D-1 agonist. This study provides a new structural class of dopamine D-1 acting agent: dihydroxy-benzocycloheptadiene analog which can serve as a lead compound for further drug development and as a probe for investigation on the nature of dopamine D-1 receptor.

  11. Purity and Enrichment of Laser-Microdissected Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda L.; Day, Trevor A.; Dayas, Christopher V.; Smith, Doug W.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to microdissect individual cells from the nervous system has enormous potential, as it can allow for the study of gene expression in phenotypically identified cells. However, if the resultant gene expression profiles are to be accurately ascribed, it is necessary to determine the extent of contamination by nontarget cells in the microdissected sample. Here, we show that midbrain dopamine neurons can be laser-microdissected to a high degree of enrichment and purity. The average enrichment for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the microdissected sample relative to midbrain sections was approximately 200-fold. For the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (Vmat2), average enrichments were approximately 100- and 60-fold, respectively. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad65) expression, a marker for GABAergic neurons, was several hundredfold lower than dopamine neuron-specific genes. Glial cell and glutamatergic neuron gene expression were not detected in microdissected samples. Additionally, SN and VTA dopamine neurons had significantly different expression levels of dopamine neuron-specific genes, which likely reflects functional differences between the two cell groups. This study demonstrates that it is possible to laser-microdissect dopamine neurons to a high degree of cell purity. Therefore gene expression profiles can be precisely attributed to the targeted microdissected cells. PMID:23984404

  12. Ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells generates mice with seizures, dystonia, hyperactivity, and impaired oral behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gantois, Ilse; Fang, Ke; Jiang, Luning; Babovic, Daniela; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Ferreri, Vincenzo; Teper, Yaroslav; Jupp, Bianca; Ziebell, Jenna; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina M.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Nally, Rachel; Schütz, Günter; Waddington, John; Egan, Gary F.; Drago, John

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease is characterized by death of striatal projection neurons. We used a Cre/Lox transgenic approach to generate an animal model in which D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1a)+ cells are progressively ablated in the postnatal brain. Striatal Drd1a, substance P, and dynorphin expression is progressively lost, whereas D2 dopamine receptor (Drd2) and enkephalin expression is up-regulated. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis demonstrated early elevation of the striatal choline/creatine ratio, a finding associated with extensive reactive striatal astrogliosis. Sequential MRI demonstrated a progressive reduction in striatal volume and secondary ventricular enlargement confirmed to be due to loss of striatal cells. Mutant mice had normal gait and rotarod performance but displayed hindlimb dystonia, locomotor hyperactivity, and handling-induced electrographically verified spontaneous seizures. Ethological assessment identified an increase in rearing and impairments in the oral behaviors of sifting and chewing. In line with the limbic seizure profile, cell loss, astrogliosis, microgliosis, and down-regulated dynorphin expression were seen in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This study specifically implicates Drd1a+ cell loss with tail suspension hindlimb dystonia, hyperactivity, and abnormal oral function. The latter may relate to the speech and swallowing disturbances and the classic sign of tongue-protrusion motor impersistence observed in Huntington's disease. In addition, the findings of this study support the notion that Drd1a and Drd2 are segregated on striatal projection neurons. PMID:17360497

  13. Not only dopamine D2 receptors involved in Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, an herbal preparation against antipsychotic-associated hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhang, Li; McAlonan, Grainne M; Wang, Xiao-Min; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Feng, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2012-12-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of an herbal preparation called Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) in alleviating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL). In the present study, we further examined the pharmacological action of PGD on prolactin (PRL) secretion using in vitro and in vivo models, with specific attention to the role of dopaminergic mediators and other sex hormones. Treatment with PGD at 1-5mg/ml significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis in MMQ cells, a model of hyperPRL derived from pituitary adenoma cells. The suppressive effects were completely abolished by pretreatment with 10μM haloperidol, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist. Consistent with a D(2)-action, PGD did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D(2) receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D(2) receptors and dopamine transporters (DAT) in PC12 cells. In a rat model of hyperPRL, produced by repeated injection of the dopamine blocker metoclopramide (MCP), chronic PGD (2.5-10g/kg daily) significantly reduced elevated serum PRL. The reduction in magnitude was similar to that elicited by bromocriptine (BMT), a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist currently used for treatment of hyperPRL. Neither PGD nor BMT altered serum estradiol, but PGD reversed decreased serum progesterone to control level, whereas BMT did not. These results indicate that the anti-hyperPRL effects of PGD are associated not only with D(2) receptor and DAT modulation, but also with a normalization of other sex hormone dysfunction. This experimental evidence supports clinical use of PGD as an effective treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperPRL. PMID:22796279

  14. Metaphit inhibits dopamine transport and binding of ( sup 3 H)methylphenidate, a proposed marker for the dopamine transport complex

    SciTech Connect

    Schweri, M.M. ); Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. ); Lessor, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Metaphit, an acylating derivative of phencyclidine, was shown to interact with components of the dopamine nerve terminal in rat striatal tissue. This compound, previously demonstrated to be an irreversible inhibitor at the phencyclidine receptor, was shown in these experiments to irreversibly inhibit synaptosomal ({sup 3}H)dopamine uptake. It also inhibited binding of ({sup 3}H)methylphenidate to its recognition site, which is thought to be a subunit of the dopamine transporter. Although the inhibition was due primarily to a reduction in the binding and transport capacity of the systems studied, increases in the apparent K{sub D} of ({sup 3}H)methylphenidate and the K{sub m} of ({sup 3}H)dopamine were also observed. Differences in the behavior of Metaphit and phencylidine in these dopaminergic systems compared to their effects on the NMDA receptor-linked phencyclidine receptor suggest that Metaphit may be interacting with two distinct molecular sites in the rat striatum.

  15. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Levite, M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine, a principal neurotransmitter, deserves upgrading to 'NeuroImmunotransmitter' thanks to its multiple, direct and powerful effects on most/all immune cells. Dopamine by itself is a potent activator of resting effector T cells (Teffs), via two independent ways: direct Teffs activation, and indirect Teffs activation by suppression of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The review covers the following findings: (i) T cells express functional dopamine receptors (DRs) D1R-D5R, but their level and function are dynamic and context-sensitive, (ii) DR membranal protein levels do not necessarily correlate with DR mRNA levels, (iii) different T cell types/subtypes have different DR levels and composition and different responses to dopamine, (iv) autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells and T cell leukaemia/lymphoma also express functional DRs, (v) dopamine (~10(-8) M) activates resting/naive Teffs (CD8(+) >CD4(+) ), (vi) dopamine affects Th1/Th2/Th17 differentiation, (vii) dopamine inhibits already activated Teffs (i.e. T cells that have been already activated by either antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies cytokines or other molecules), (viii) dopamine inhibits activated Tregs in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, dopamine 'suppresses the suppressors' and releases the inhibition they exert on Teffs, (ix) dopamine affects intracellular signalling molecules and cascades in T cells (e.g. ERK, Lck, Fyn, NF-κB, KLF2), (x) T cells produce dopamine (Tregs>Teffs), can release dopamine, mainly after activation (by antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies, PKC activators or other), uptake extracellular dopamine, and most probably need dopamine, (xi) dopamine is important for antigen-specific interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, (xii) in few autoimmune diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis/SLE/rheumatoid arthritis), and neurological/psychiatric diseases (e.g. Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and Tourette), patient's T cells seem to have abnormal DRs

  16. Polymorphism of the dopamine transporter type 1 gene modifies the treatment response in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Meguig, Sayah; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Labreuche, Julien; Vasseur, Francis; Duhamel, Alain; Delval, Arnaud; Bardyn, Thomas; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; Rouaix, Nathalie; Petyt, Gregory; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Guehl, Dominique; Eusebio, Alexandre; Fraix, Valérie; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Lagha-Boukbiza, Ouhaid; Durif, Frank; Faighel, Mirela; Giordana, Caroline; Drapier, Sophie; Maltête, David; Tranchant, Christine; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Debû, Bettina; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Tison, François; Destée, Alain; Vidailhet, Marie; Rascol, Olivier; Dujardin, Kathy; Defebvre, Luc; Bordet, Régis; Sablonnière, Bernard; Devos, David

    2015-05-01

    After more than 50 years of treating Parkinson's disease with l-DOPA, there are still no guidelines on setting the optimal dose for a given patient. The dopamine transporter type 1, now known as solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 3 (SLC6A3) is the most powerful determinant of dopamine neurotransmission and might therefore influence the treatment response. We recently demonstrated that methylphenidate (a dopamine transporter inhibitor) is effective in patients with Parkinson's disease with motor and gait disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine whether genetic variants of the dopamine transporter type 1-encoding gene (SLC6A3) are associated with differences in the response to treatment of motor symptoms and gait disorders with l-DOPA and methylphenidate (with respect to the demographic, the disease and the treatment parameters and the other genes involved in the dopaminergic neurotransmission). This analysis was part of a multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate in Parkinson's disease (Protocol ID:2008-005801-20; ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT00914095). We scored the motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Stand-Walk-Sit Test before and after a standardized acute l-DOPA challenge before randomization and then after 3 months of methylphenidate treatment. Patients were screened for variants of genes involved in dopamine metabolism: rs28363170 and rs3836790 polymorphisms in the SLC6A3 gene, rs921451 and rs3837091 in the DDC gene (encoding the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase involved in the synthesis of dopamine from l-DOPA), rs1799836 in the MAOB gene (coding for monoamine oxidase B) and rs4680 in the COMT gene (coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase). Investigators and patients were blinded to the genotyping data throughout the study. Eighty-one subjects were genotyped and 61 were analysed for their acute motor response to l-DOPA. The SLC6A3

  17. N-Octanoyl Dopamine, a Non-Hemodyanic Dopamine Derivative, for Cell Protection during Hypothermic Organ Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Grietje; Schnuelle, Peter; Höger, Simone; Wehling, Martin; Yard, Benito A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although donor dopamine treatment reduces the requirement for post transplantation dialysis in renal transplant recipients, implementation of dopamine in donor management is hampered by its hemodynamic side-effects. Therefore novel dopamine derivatives lacking any hemodynamic actions and yet are more efficacious in protecting tissue from cold preservation injury are warranted. We hypothesized that variation of the molecular structure would yield more efficacious compounds avoid of any hemodynamic effects. Methodology/Principal Findings To this end, we assessed protection against cold preservation injury in HUVEC by the attenuation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Modification of dopamine by an alkanoyl group increased cellular uptake and significantly improved efficacy of protection. Further variation revealed that only compounds bearing two hydroxy groups in ortho or para position at the benzene nucleus, i.e. strong reductants, were protective. However, other reducing agents like N-acetyl cysteine and ascorbate, or NADPH oxidase inhibition did not prevent cellular injury following cold storage. Unlike dopamine, a prototypic novel compound caused no hemodynamic side-effects. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, we demonstrate that protection against cold preservation injury by catecholamines is exclusively governed by strong reducing capacity and sufficient lipophilicity. The novel dopamine derivatives might be of clinical relevance in donor pre-conditioning as they are completely devoid of hemodynamic action, their increased cellular uptake would reduce time of treatment and therefore also may have a potential use for non-heart beating donors. PMID:20300525

  18. Expression of dopamine D2 receptor in PC-12 cells and regulation of membrane conductances by dopamine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W H; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1997-10-01

    PC-12 cells depolarize during hypoxia and release dopamine. The hypoxia-induced depolarization is due to inhibition of an O2-sensitive K+ current. The role of dopamine released during hypoxia is uncertain, but it could act as an autocrine to modulate membrane conductance during hypoxia. The current study was undertaken to investigate this possibility. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis revealed that the D2 isoform of the dopamine receptor is expressed in rat PC-12 cells. Exogenously applied dopamine and the D2 agonist quinpirole elicited inhibition of a voltage-dependent K+ current (I(K)) that was prevented by sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist. Dopamine and quinpirole applied during hypoxia potentiated the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on I(K). We also found that quinpirole caused reversible inhibition of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ current (I(Ca)) and attenuation of the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ during hypoxia. Our results indicate that dopamine released from PC-12 cells during hypoxia acts via a D2 receptor to "autoregulate" I(K) and I(Ca). PMID:9357757

  19. A comparison of combination dopamine and epinephrine treatment with high-dose dopamine alone in asphyxiated newborn piglets after resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Manouchehri, Namdar; Bigam, David L.; Churchill, Thomas; Rayner, David; Joynt, Chloe; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background When asphyxiated neonates require additional cardiovascular support to moderate doses of dopamine infusion, controversy exists on differential hemodynamic effects of two approaches (adding a second inotrope vs. increasing dopamine dosage). We hypothesized that high-dose dopamine (HD) would be detrimental on systemic and regional perfusion when compared with dopamine and epinephrine (D+E) combination therapy using a swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R). Methods Twenty-seven piglets (1–4 days, 1.5–2.5kg) were used for continuous monitoring of systemic (MAP) and pulmonary (PAP) arterial pressures, cardiac output (CI) and carotid (CAFI), superior mesenteric (SMAFI) and renal arterial flows. H-R piglets underwent 2h of hypoxia followed by 2h of reoxygenation prior to drug infusion (2h). Results The hemodynamics of H-R piglets deteriorated gradually after reoxygenation. HD and D+E infusions improved CI similarly (both groups vs. control; p<0.05). Both regimens increased MAP (p<0.05) but not PAP, with decreased PAP/MAP ratio in D+E piglets. Both regimens improved CAFI and SMAFI with decreased mesenteric vascular resistance in HD-treated piglets. No significant effect on renal perfusion was observed. Conclusion In H-R newborn piglets treated with a moderate dose of dopamine, adding epinephrine or further increasing dopamine improved systemic hemodynamics similarly, and have differential effects on the pulmonary and mesenteric circulations. PMID:23344679

  20. Visualizing dopamine released from living cells using a nanoplasmonic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, W. W.; Wang, S. P.; Li, J.; Peng, T. H.; Xu, Y.; Wang, K.; Shi, J. Y.; Fan, C. H.; Li, D.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive nanoplasmonic probe for discriminative detection and imaging of dopamine released from living cells. The sensing mechanism is based on the dopamine-induced seeded-growth of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) that leads to the shift of the plasmon band. This platform allows for the detection of dopamine with a detection limit down to 0.25 pM within 1 min. This nanoplasmonic assay is further applied to visualize the release of dopamine from living rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells under ATP-stimulation with dark-field microscopy (DFM). The DFM results together with real time fluorescence imaging of PC12 cells stained with the Fluo calcium indicator, suggested that ATP stimulated-release of dopamine is concomitant with the Ca2+ influx, and the influx of Ca2+ is through ATP-activated channels instead of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGC).We report the development of an ultrasensitive nanoplasmonic probe for discriminative detection and imaging of dopamine released from living cells. The sensing mechanism is based on the dopamine-induced seeded-growth of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) that leads to the shift of the plasmon band. This platform allows for the detection of dopamine with a detection limit down to 0.25 pM within 1 min. This nanoplasmonic assay is further applied to visualize the release of dopamine from living rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells under ATP-stimulation with dark-field microscopy (DFM). The DFM results together with real time fluorescence imaging of PC12 cells stained with the Fluo calcium indicator, suggested that ATP stimulated-release of dopamine is concomitant with the Ca2+ influx, and the influx of Ca2+ is through ATP-activated channels instead of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGC). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S4 and Table S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04433b

  1. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Induce Down-Regulation of c-Kit by Targeting the ATP Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Descarpentries, Clotilde; Frisan, Emilie; Adam, Kevin; Verdier, Frederique; Floquet, Célia; Dubreuil, Patrice; Lacombe, Catherine; Fontenay, Michaela; Mayeux, Patrick; Kosmider, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The stem cell factor receptor (SCF) c-Kit plays a pivotal role in regulating cell proliferation and survival in many cell types. In particular, c-Kit is required for early amplification of erythroid progenitors, while it must disappear from cell surface for the cell entering the final steps of maturation in an erythropoietin-dependent manner. We initially observed that imatinib (IM), an inhibitor targeting the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Kit concomitantly down-regulated the expression of c-Kit and accelerated the Epo-driven differentiation of erythroblasts in the absence of SCF. We investigated the mechanism by which IM or related masitinib (MA) induce c-Kit down-regulation in the human UT-7/Epo cell line. We found that the down-regulation of c-Kit in the presence of IM or MA was inhibited by a pre-incubation with methyl-β-cyclodextrin suggesting that c-Kit was internalized in the absence of ligand. By contrast to SCF, the internalization induced by TKI was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. Furthermore, c-Kit was degraded through lysosomal, but not proteasomal pathway. In pulse-chase experiments, IM did not modulate c-Kit synthesis or maturation. Analysis of phosphotyrosine peptides in UT-7/Epo cells treated or not with IM show that IM did not modify overall tyrosine phosphorylation in these cells. Furthermore, we showed that a T670I mutation preventing the full access of IM to the ATP binding pocket, did not allow the internalization process in the presence of IM. Altogether these data show that TKI-induced internalization of c-Kit is linked to a modification of the integrity of ATP binding pocket. PMID:23637779

  2. CXCL4 Downregulates the Atheroprotective Hemoglobin Receptor CD163 in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gleissner, Christian A.; Shaked, Iftach; Erbel, Christian; Böckler, Dittmar; Katus, Hugo A.; Ley, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Rationale CXCL4 is a platelet-derived chemokine that promotes macrophage differentiation from monocytes. Deletion of the PF4 gene that encodes CXCL4 reduces atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice. Objective We sought to study effects of CXCL4 on macrophage differentiation with possible relevance for atherogenesis. Methods and Results Flow cytometry for expression of surface markers in macrophage colony–stimulating factor (M-CSF)– and CXCL4-induced macrophages demonstrated virtually complete absence of the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in CXCL4-induced macrophages. mRNA for CD163 was downregulated as early as 2 hours after CXCL4. CD163 protein reached a minimum after 3 days, which was not reversed by treatment of cells with M-CSF. The CXCL4 effect was entirely neutralized by heparin, which bound CXCL4 and prevented CXCL4 surface binding to monocytes. Pretreatment of cells with chlorate, which inhibits glycosaminoglycan synthesis, strongly inhibited CXCL4-dependent downregulation of CD163. Similar to recombinant CXCL4, releasate from human platelets also reduced CD163 expression. CXCL4-differentiated macrophages were unable to upregulate the atheroprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 at the RNA and protein level in response to hemoglobin–haptoglobin complexes. Immunofluorescence of human atherosclerotic plaques demonstrated presence of both CD68+CD163+ and CD68+CD163− macrophages. PF4 and CD163 gene expression within human atherosclerotic lesions were inversely correlated, supporting the in vivo relevance of CXCL4-induced downregulation of CD163. Conclusions CXCL4 may promote atherogenesis by suppressing CD163 in macrophages, which are then unable to upregulate the atheroprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in response to hemoglobin. PMID:19910578

  3. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1a1 Mediates a GABA Synthesis Pathway in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Ick; Ganesan, Subhashree; Luo, Sarah X.; Wu, Yu-Wei; Park, Esther; Huang, Eric J.; Chen, Lu; Ding, Jun B.

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here we show that GABA corelease in dopamine neurons does not utilize the conventional GABA synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol at binge drinking blood alcohol concentrations and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction. PMID:26430123

  4. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal "clock" gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, M; Yildiz, S; Dirim Arslan, A; Sharma, R; Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-23

    Using a transgenic mice model (i.e. "clock" knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulates the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e. D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2 (neuronal PAS domain protein 2), and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e. D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e. rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the dopamine receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e. intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  5. Dopamine Function and the Efficiency of Human Movement

    PubMed Central

    Gepshtein, Sergei; Li, Xiaoyan; Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard

    2016-01-01

    To sustain successful behavior in dynamic environments, active organisms must be able to learn from the consequences of their actions and predict action outcomes. One of the most important discoveries in systems neuroscience over the last 15 years has been about the key role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in mediating such active behavior. Dopamine cell firing was found to encode differences between the expected and obtained outcomes of actions. Although activity of dopamine cells does not specify movements themselves, a recent study in humans has suggested that tonic levels of dopamine in the dorsal striatum may in part enable normal movement by encoding sensitivity to the energy cost of a movement, providing an implicit “motor motivational” signal for movement. We investigated the motivational hypothesis of dopamine by studying motor performance of patients with Parkinson disease who have marked dopamine depletion in the dorsal striatum and compared their performance with that of elderly healthy adults. All participants performed rapid sequential movements to visual targets associated with different risk and different energy costs, countered or assisted by gravity. In conditions of low energy cost, patients performed surprisingly well, similar to prescriptions of an ideal planner and healthy participants. As energy costs increased, however, performance of patients with Parkinson disease dropped markedly below the prescriptions for action by an ideal planner and below performance of healthy elderly participants. The results indicate that the ability for efficient planning depends on the energy cost of action and that the effect of energy cost on action is mediated by dopamine. PMID:24144250

  6. Dopamine D4 Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Grandy, David; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Since the cloning of the D4 receptor in the 1990s, interest has been building in the role of this receptor in drug addiction, given the importance of dopamine in addiction. Like the D3 receptor, the D4 receptor has limited distribution within the brain suggesting it may have a unique role in drug abuse. However, compared to the D3 receptor, few studies have evaluated the importance of the D4 receptor. This may be due, in part, to the relative lack of compounds selective for the D4 receptor; the early studies were mainly conducted in mice lacking the D4 receptor. In this review, we summarize the literature on the structure and localization of the D4 receptor before reviewing the data from D4 knockout mice that used behavioral models relevant to the understanding of stimulant use. Next, we present evidence from more recent pharmacological studies using selective D4 agonists and antagonists and animal models of drug seeking and taking. The data summarized here suggest a role for D4 receptors in relapse to stimulant use. Therefore, treatments based on antagonism of the D4 receptor may be useful treatments for relapse to nicotine, cocaine and amphetamine use. PMID:24484981

  7. Neuromodulation in Tourette syndrome: dopamine and beyond.

    PubMed

    Buse, Judith; Schoenefeld, Katja; Münchau, Alexander; Roessner, Veit

    2013-07-01

    Almost since the beginning of research on Tourette syndrome (TS), tics have been linked to a dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system. At first, this assumption was mainly based on clinical findings of DA antagonists being the most effective drug in treating tics, but in recent years nuclear imaging has enabled a much deeper understanding of DA neurotransmission in TS. Based on the findings of various PET and SPECT studies the first part of the review discusses four hypotheses on DA dysfunctions in TS: (i) DA hyperinnervation, (ii) supersensitive DA receptors, (iii) pre-synaptic DA abnormality and (iv) DA tonic-phasic dysfunction. According to the latter hypothesis, reduced levels of tonic DA in the extracellular space lead to higher concentrations of DA in the axon terminal and an increase of stimulus-dependent DA release. The second part of the review addresses the modulating role of DA in some major clinical features of TS, like the exacerbation with stress or infection and the association with deficient sensorimotor gating. PMID:23085211

  8. Biophysically realistic minimal model of dopamine neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprisan, Sorinel

    2008-03-01

    We proposed and studied a new biophysically relevant computational model of dopaminergic neurons. Midbrain dopamine neurons are involved in motivation and the control of movement, and have been implicated in various pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The model we developed is a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type parallel conductance membrane model. The model captures the essential mechanisms underlying the slow oscillatory potentials and plateau potential oscillations. The main currents involved are: 1) a voltage-dependent fast calcium current, 2) a small conductance potassium current that is modulated by the cytosolic concentration of calcium, and 3) a slow voltage-activated potassium current. We developed multidimensional bifurcation diagrams and extracted the effective domains of sustained oscillations. The model includes a calcium balance due to the fundamental importance of calcium influx as proved by simultaneous electrophysiological and calcium imaging procedure. Although there are significant evidences to suggest a partially electrogenic calcium pump, all previous models considered only elecrtogenic pumps. We investigated the effect of the electrogenic calcium pump on the bifurcation diagram of the model and compared our findings against the experimental results.

  9. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  10. "Is dopamine involved in Alzheimer's disease?".

    PubMed

    Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline and dementia. Recent advances indicate that AD pathogenesis appears more complex than its mere neuropathology. Changes in synaptic plasticity, neuronal disarray and cell death are pathways commonly recognized as pathogenic mechanisms of AD. It is thought that the altered metabolism of certain membrane proteins may lead to the production of amyloid (Aβ) oligomers that are characterized by an highly toxic effect on neurotransmission pathways, such as those mediated by Acetylcholine. The interaction of Aβ oligomers with these neurotansmitters systems would in turn induce cell dysfunction, neurotransmitters signaling imbalance and finally lead to the appearance of neurological signs. In this perspective, it is still debated how and if these mechanisms may also engage the dopaminergic system in AD. Recent experimental work revealed that the dopaminergic system may well be involved in the occurrence of cognitive decline, often being predictive of rapidly progressive forms of AD. However, a clear idea on the role of the dopamine system in AD is still missing. Here we review the more recent evidences supporting the notion that the dopaminergic dysfunction has a pathogenic role in cognitive decline symptoms of AD. PMID:25309431

  11. Oxytocin, Motivation and the Role of Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has drawn the attention of scientists for more than a century. The understanding of the function of oxytocin has expanded dramatically over the years from a simple peptide adept at inducing uterine contractions and milk ejection to a complex neuromodulator with a capacity to shape human social behavior. Decades of research have outlined oxytocin’s ability to enhance intricate social activities ranging from pair bonding, sexual activity, affiliative preferences, and parental behaviors. The precise neural mechanisms underlying oxytocin’s influence on such behaviors have just begun to be understood. Research suggests that oxytocin interacts closely with the neural pathways responsible for processing motivationally relevant stimuli. In particular, oxytocin appears to impact dopaminergic activity within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which is crucial not only for reward and motivated behavior but also for the expression of affiliative behaviors. Though most of the work performed in this area has been done using animal models, several neuroimaging studies suggest similar relationships may be observed in humans. In order to introduce this topic further, this paper will review the recent evidence that oxytocin may exert some of its social-behavioral effects through its impact on motivational networks. PMID:23850525

  12. The role of dopamine signaling in epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, Yuri; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies implicate most neuromodulatory systems in epileptogenesis. The dopaminergic system has a seizure-modulating effect that crucially depends on the different subtypes of dopamine (DA) receptors involved and the brain regions in which they are activated. Specifically, DA plays a major role in the control of seizures arising in the limbic system. Studies performed in a wide variety of animal models contributed to illustrate the opposite actions of D1-like and D2-like receptor signaling in limbic epileptogenesis. Indeed, signaling from D1-like receptors is generally pro-epileptogenic, whereas D2-like receptor signaling exerts an anti-epileptogenic effect. However, this view might appear quite simplistic as the complex neuromodulatory action of DA in the control of epileptogenesis likely requires a physiological balance in the activation of circuits modulated by these two major DA receptor subtypes, which determines the response to seizure-promoting stimuli. Here we will review recent evidences on the identification of molecules activated by DA transduction pathways in the generation and spread of seizures in the limbic system. We will discuss the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by activation of different DA receptors in relation to their role in limbic epileptogenesis, which lead to the activation of neuronal death/survival cascades. A deep understanding of the signaling pathways involved in epileptogenesis is crucial for the identification of novel targets for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24062645

  13. Importance of cholesterol in dopamine transporter function

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kymry T.; Zhen, Juan; Reith, Maarten E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The conformation and function of the dopamine transporter (DAT) can be affected by manipulating membrane cholesterol, yet there is no agreement as to the impact of cholesterol on the activity of lipid-raft localized DATs compared to non-raft DATs. Given the paucity of information regarding the impact of cholesterol on substrate efflux by the DAT, this study explores its influence on the kinetics of DAT-mediated DA efflux induced by dextroamphetamine, as measured by rotating disk electrode voltammetry (RDEV). Treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD), which effectively depletes total membrane cholesterol- uniformly affecting cholesterol-DAT interactions in both raft and non-raft membrane domains- reduced both DA uptake and efflux rate. In contrast, disruption of raft localized DAT by cholesterol chelation with nystatin had no effect, arguing against a vital role for raft-localized DAT in substrate uptake or efflux. Supra-normal repletion of cholesterol depleted cells with the analogue desmosterol, a non-raft promoting sterol, was as effective as cholesterol itself in restoring transport rates. Further studies with Zn2+ and the conformationally-biased W84L DAT mutant supported the idea that cholesterol is important for maintaining the outward-facing DAT with normal rates of conformational interconversions. Collectively, these results point to a role for direct cholesterol-DAT interactions in regulating DAT function. PMID:22957537

  14. Somatodendritic dopamine release: recent mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Rice, Margaret E; Patel, Jyoti C

    2015-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in motor, reward and cogitative pathways, with DA dysfunction implicated in disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction. Located in midbrain, DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta project via the medial forebrain bundle to the dorsal striatum (caudate putamen), and DA neurons in the adjacent ventral tegmental area project to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal cortex. In addition to classical vesicular release from axons, midbrain DA neurons exhibit DA release from their cell bodies and dendrites. Somatodendritic DA release leads to activation of D2 DA autoreceptors on DA neurons that inhibit their firing via G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. This helps determine patterns of DA signalling at distant axonal release sites. Somatodendritically released DA also acts via volume transmission to extrasynaptic receptors that modulate local transmitter release and neuronal activity in the midbrain. Thus, somatodendritic release is a pivotal intrinsic feature of DA neurons that must be well defined in order to fully understand the physiology and pathophysiology of DA pathways. Here, we review recent mechanistic aspects of somatodendritic DA release, with particular emphasis on the Ca(2+) dependence of release and the potential role of exocytotic proteins. PMID:26009764

  15. Cognition, dopamine and bioactive lipids in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Condray, Ruth; Yao, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a remarkably complex disorder with a multitude of behavioral and biological perturbations. Cognitive deficits are a core feature of this disorder, and involve abnormalities across multiple domains, including memory, attention, and perception. The complexity of this debilitating illness has led to a view that the key to unraveling its pathophysiology lies in deconstructing the clinically-defined syndrome into pathophysiologically distinct intermediate phenotypes. Accumulating evidence suggests that one of these intermediate phenotypes may involve phospholipid signaling abnormalities, particularly in relation to arachidonic acid (AA). Our data show relationships between levels of AA and performance on tests of cognition for schizophrenia patients, with defects in AA signaling associated with deficits in cognition. Moreover, dopamine may moderate these relationships between AA and cognition. Taken together, cognitive deficits, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and bioactive lipids have emerged as related features of schizophrenia. Existing treatment options for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia do not specifically target lipid-derived signaling pathways; understanding these processes could inform efforts to identify novel targets for treatment innovation. PMID:21196378

  16. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  17. NMDA receptor dysregulation in chronic state: a possible mechanism underlying depression with BDNF downregulation.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carol E; Riener, Romina; Reynolds, Elaine; Britton, Gabrielle B

    2014-12-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic stress and downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) are the key components of depression pathology. Evidence from animal models of depression demonstrates that chronic stress impairs hippocampal BDNF expression and that antidepressant drug effects correlate with increased BDNF synthesis and activity in the hippocampus. Studies with human carriers of BDNF Met-allele polymorphism link stress vulnerability and risk for depression. The mechanism by which chronic stress downregulates BDNF and promotes depressive-like responses is not established yet. It has been reported that chronic stress mediates alterations in several calcium-related components involved in BDNF synthesis, including CAMKII, CAMKIV and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and glutamatergic neurotransmission through N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Treatments with NMDAR antagonists like ketamine modulate glutamate signals, upregulate CREB and BDNF expression, and correct stress-induced cognitive and behavioral alterations. With the increasing interest to develop NMDAR modulators, it is crucial to understand the conditions that lead to depression pathology in order to develop rational therapies aimed at reestablishing proper neuronal function. We present here the current knowledge regarding the relation between chronic stress, BDNF and NMDARs and its implications in depression. We discuss a plausible mechanism where chronic stress induced NMDAR stimulation could lead to dysregulated calcium signaling and decreased BDNF activity. In these circumstances, neurons become vulnerable to the effects of stress, leading to dysfunctional neurotransmission and behavioral alterations. We propose that treatment with NMDAR antagonists may help to return the balance of calcium signaling, promote proper BDNF signaling and correct depressive symptoms. PMID:25277075

  18. Calcineurin/NFAT Signaling Represses Genes Vamp1 and Vamp2 via PMCA-Dependent Mechanism during Dopamine Secretion by Pheochromocytoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosiorek, Michalina; Zylinska, Ludmila; Zablocki, Krzysztof; Pikula, Slawomir

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA) extrude Ca2+ ions out of the cell and contribute to generation of calcium oscillations. Calcium signaling is crucial for transcriptional regulation of dopamine secretion by neuroendocrine PC12 cells. Low resting [Ca2+]c in PC12 cells is maintained mainly by two Ca2+-ATPases, PMCA2 and PMCA3. Recently, we found that Ca2+ dependent phosphatase calcineurin was excessively activated under conditions of experimental downregulation of PMCA2 or PMCA3. Thus, the aim of this study was to explain if, via modulation of the Ca2+/calcineurin-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway, PMCA2 and PMCA3 affect intracellular signaling in pheochromocytoma/neuronal cells/PC12 cells. Secondly, we tested whether this might influence dopamine secretion by PC12 cells. Results PMCA2- and PMCA3-deficient cells displayed profound decrease in dopamine secretion accompanied by a permanent increase in [Ca2+]c. Reduction in secretion might result from changes in NFAT signaling, following altered PMCA pattern. Consequently, activation of NFAT1 and NFAT3 transcription factors was observed in PMCA2- or PMCA3-deficient cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that NFATs could be involved in repression of Vamp genes encoding vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP). Conclusions PMCA2 and PMCA3 are crucial for dopamine secretion in PC12 cells. Reduction in PMCA2 or PMCA3 led to calcium-dependent activation of calcineurin/NFAT signaling and, in consequence, to repression of the Vamp gene and deterioration of the SNARE complex formation in PC12 cells. PMID:24667359

  19. Loss of D2 Dopamine Receptor Function Modulates Cocaine-Induced Glutamatergic Synaptic Potentiation in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  20. Loss of D2 dopamine receptor function modulates cocaine-induced glutamatergic synaptic potentiation in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-07-24

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  1. SKF-83566, a D1-dopamine receptor antagonist, inhibits the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Melissa A; Ali, Solav; Reith, Maarten E A; Patel, Jyoti C; Sarti, Federica; Carr, Kenneth D; Rice, Margaret E

    2011-09-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important transmitter in both motor and limbic pathways. We sought to investigate the role of D(1)-receptor activation in axonal DA release regulation in dorsal striatum using a D(1)-receptor antagonist, SKF-83566. Evoked DA release was monitored in rat striatal slices using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. SKF-83566 caused a concentration-dependent increase in peak single-pulse evoked extracellular DA concentration, with a maximum increase of ∼ 65% in 5 μM SKF-83566. This was accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular DA concentration clearance time. Both effects were occluded by nomifensine (1 μM), a dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, suggesting that SKF-83566 acted via the DAT. We tested this by examining [(3)H]DA uptake into LLc-PK cells expressing rat DAT, and confirmed that SKF-83566 is a competitive DAT inhibitor with an IC(50) of 5.7 μM. Binding studies with [(3)H]CFT, a cocaine analog, showed even more potent action of SKF-83566 at the DAT cocaine binding site (IC(50) = 0.51 μM). Thus, data obtained using SKF-83566 as a D(1) DA-receptor antagonist may be confounded by concurrent DAT inhibition. More positively, however, SKF-83566 might be a candidate to attenuate cocaine effects in vivo because of the greater potency of this drug at the cocaine versus DA binding site of the DAT. PMID:21689106

  2. Prolonged treatment with pramipexole promotes physical interaction of striatal dopamine D3 autoreceptors with dopamine transporters to reduce dopamine uptake.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hernández, Javier; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Salas-Hernández, Josmar; Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Moratalla, Rosario; Millan, Mark J; González-Hernández, Tomás

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), a membrane glycoprotein expressed in dopaminergic neurons, clears DA from extracellular space and is regulated by diverse presynaptic proteins like protein kinases, α-synuclein, D2 and D3 autoreceptors. DAT dysfunction is implicated in Parkinson's disease and depression, which are therapeutically treated by dopaminergic D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) agonists. It is, then, important to improve our understanding of interactions between D3R and DAT. We show that prolonged administration of pramipexole (0.1mg/kg/day, 6 to 21 days), a preferential D3R agonist, leads to a decrease in DA uptake in mouse striatum that reflects a reduction in DAT affinity for DA in the absence of any change in DAT density or subcellular distribution. The effect of pramipexole was absent in mice with genetically-deleted D3R (D3R(-/-)), yet unaffected in mice genetically deprived of D2R (D2R(-/-)). Pramipexole treatment induced a physical interaction between D3R and DAT, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay. Furthermore, it promoted the formation of DAT dimers and DAT association with both D2R and α-synuclein, effects that were abolished in D3R(-/-) mice, yet unaffected in D2R(-/-) mice, indicating dependence upon D3R. Collectively, these data suggest that prolonged treatment with dopaminergic D3 agonists provokes a reduction in DA reuptake by dopaminergic neurons related to a hitherto-unsuspected modification of the DAT interactome. These observations provide novel insights into the long-term antiparkinson, antidepressant and additional clinical actions of pramipexole and other D3R agonists. PMID:25511804

  3. Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

    2012-10-01

    Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium

  4. Molecular dynamics investigation of the adhesion mechanism acting between dopamine and the surface of dopamine-processed aramid fibers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Dongliang; Xie, Zhimin; Wang, Youshan; Liu, Li; Yum, Young-Jin

    2014-10-22

    Dopamine, as a universal material for surface treatment, can effectively improve the surface performance of aramid fibers. However, directly processing the surface of aramid fibers using dopamine currently incurs a high cost. To seek dopamine substitutes, one must first explore the adhesion mechanism responsible for binding the dopamine to the surface of the fiber. In this study, we construct an all-atomic molecular dynamics model of an aramid fiber before and after surface modification using dopamine. A force field based on condensed-phase optimized molecular potentials for atomistic simulation studies (COMPASS) is used. Using it, we analyze the surface adhesion mechanism of polydopamines aggregated by 21 kinds of molecular structures typically found on the surface of aramid fibers. The results show that a clear and smooth interface is formed between the polydopamine nanofilm layer and the surface of the aramid fiber. The high atomic density of the polydopamine in the small interface region is found to be conducive to noncovalent bonds of polydopamines with the surface of the aramid fiber. In addition, we investigate the works of adhesion of the 21 molecular structures typically found on the surface of aramid fibers. The results suggest that the work of adhesion of 5,6-indolequinone is the highest, followed by annular eumelanin molecules with annular planar structure. Straight-chain shaped dimers proved to be the molecules with the highest adhesion ability of the dihydroxyindole chain oligomers. Therefore, there is reason to suppose that more molecular structures (as above) can be formed by processing the surface of aramid fibers using dopamine by controlling the processing conditions. These molecular structures help improve the adhesion ability of the dopamine on the surface of the aramid fiber. Additionally, if these polydopamine molecules with high adhesion ability can be synthesized on a large scale, then new surface-processing materials are possible. PMID

  5. Identification of a dopamine pathway that regulates sleep and arousal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Endo, Keita; Ito, Kei; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is required to maintain physiological functions, including memory, and is regulated by monoamines across species. Enhancement of dopamine signals by a mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) decreases sleep, but the underlying dopamine circuit responsible for this remains unknown. We found that the D1 dopamine receptor (DA1) in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFSB) mediates the arousal effect of dopamine in Drosophila. The short sleep phenotype of the DAT mutant was completely rescued by an additional mutation in the DA1 (also known as DopR) gene, but expression of wild-type DA1 in the dFSB restored the short sleep phenotype. We found anatomical and physiological connections between dopamine neurons and the dFSB neuron. Finally, we used mosaic analysis with a repressive marker and found that a single dopamine neuron projecting to the FSB activated arousal. These results suggest that a local dopamine pathway regulates sleep. PMID:23064381

  6. Gonadotropic effects of dopamine in isolated workers of the primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Yamasaki, Kazuhisa; Tsuchida, Koji; Nagao, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    In social insects, biogenic amines are thought to play regulatory roles in the transition between reproductive states in females. To determine the effect of dopamine on the reproductive development of workers in primitively eusocial societies, isolated workers of the paper wasp Polistes chinensis were supplied with oral dopamine. Ovarian development was accelerated in dopamine-fed workers as compared to control workers of the same age fed only sucrose solution. Oral dopamine increased brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite ( N-acetyldopamine). Brain levels of tyramine or octopamine were also increased by dopamine application in one of two colonies; levels of the tyramine metabolite N-acetyltyramine were unchanged. These results indicate that dopamine plays a gonadotropic role in isolated workers in the primitively eusocial wasp, similar to the gonadotropic role previously reported for juvenile hormone. This is the first study to report effects of dopamine on ovarian development in workers of the paper wasp.

  7. Genetic Variation in Dopamine Pathways Differentially Associated with Smoking Progression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Frank, Josef; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Treutlein, Jens; Skowronek, Markus H.; Schumann, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    A study examines whether genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associate with smoking progression in adolescence. Results indicate the influence of specific dopamine genes in different stages of smoking progression in adolescents.

  8. Real-Time Dopamine Measurement in Awake Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Erik W.; Mitz, Andrew R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc). We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation. PMID:24921937

  9. Dopamine Autoreceptor Regulation of a Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Network

    PubMed Central

    Stagkourakis, Stefanos; Kim, Hoseok; Lyons, David J.; Broberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary How autoreceptors contribute to maintaining a stable output of rhythmically active neuronal circuits is poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue in a dopamine population, spontaneously oscillating hypothalamic rat (TIDA) neurons, that underlie neuroendocrine control of reproduction and neuroleptic side effects. Activation of dopamine receptors of the type 2 family (D2Rs) at the cell-body level slowed TIDA oscillations through two mechanisms. First, they prolonged the depolarizing phase through a combination of presynaptic increases in inhibition and postsynaptic hyperpolarization. Second, they extended the discharge phase through presynaptic attenuation of calcium currents and decreased synaptic inhibition. Dopamine reuptake blockade similarly reconfigured the oscillation, indicating that ambient somatodendritic transmitter concentration determines electrical behavior. In the absence of D2R feedback, however, discharge was abolished by depolarization block. These results indicate the existence of an ultra-short feedback loop whereby neuroendocrine dopamine neurons tune network behavior to echoes of their own activity, reflected in ambient somatodendritic dopamine, and also suggest a mechanism for antipsychotic side effects. PMID:27149844

  10. Real-time dopamine measurement in awake monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Erik W; Mitz, Andrew R; Cheer, Joseph F; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc). We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation. PMID:24921937

  11. Differential regional effects of methamphetamine on dopamine transport.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pei-Wen; Seferian, Kristi S; Birdsall, Elisabeth; Truong, Jannine G; Riordan, James A; Metcalf, Cameron S; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2008-08-20

    Multiple high-dose methamphetamine administrations cause long-lasting (>1 week) deficits in striatal dopaminergic neuronal function. This stimulant likewise causes rapid (within 1 h) and persistent (at least 48 h) decreases in activities of striatal: 1) dopamine transporters, as assessed in synaptosomes; and 2) vesicular monoamine transporter -2 (VMAT-2), as assessed in a non-membrane-associated (referred to herein as cytoplasmic) vesicular subcellular fraction. Importantly, not all brain areas are vulnerable to methamphetamine-induced long-lasting deficits. Similarly, the present study indicates that methamphetamine exerts differential acute effects on monoaminergic transporters according to brain region. In particular, results revealed that in the nucleus accumbens, methamphetamine rapidly, but reversibly (within 24 h), decreased plasmalemmal dopamine transporter function, without effect on plasmalemmal dopamine transporter immunoreactivity. Methamphetamine also rapidly and reversibly (within 48 h) decreased cytoplasmic VMAT-2 function in this region, with relatively little effect on cytoplasmic VMAT-2 immunoreactivity. In contrast, methamphetamine did not alter either dopamine transporter or VMAT-2 activity in the hypothalamus. Noteworthy, the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus did not display the persistent long-lasting striatal dopamine depletions caused by the stimulant. Taken together, these data suggest that deficits in plasmalemmal and vesicular monoamine transporter activity lasting greater than 24-48 h may be linked to the long-lasting dopaminergic deficits caused by methamphetamine and appear to be region specific. PMID:18599036

  12. A Causal Link Between Prediction Errors, Dopamine Neurons and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E.; Keiflin, Ronald; Boivin, Josiah R.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H.

    2013-01-01

    Situations where rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes, termed a reward prediction error. However, it is unknown whether dopamine neuron prediction error signaling and cue-reward learning are causally linked. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated dopamine neuron activity in rats in two behavioral procedures, associative blocking and extinction, that illustrate the essential function of prediction errors in learning. We observed that optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons concurrent with reward delivery, mimicking a prediction error, was sufficient to cause long-lasting increases in cue-elicited reward-seeking behavior. Our findings establish a causal role for temporally-precise dopamine neuron signaling in cue-reward learning, bridging a critical gap between experimental evidence and influential theoretical frameworks. PMID:23708143

  13. A causal link between prediction errors, dopamine neurons and learning.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Keiflin, Ronald; Boivin, Josiah R; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H

    2013-07-01

    Situations in which rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes, termed a reward prediction error. However, it is unknown whether dopamine neuron prediction error signaling and cue-reward learning are causally linked. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated dopamine neuron activity in rats in two behavioral procedures, associative blocking and extinction, that illustrate the essential function of prediction errors in learning. We observed that optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons concurrent with reward delivery, mimicking a prediction error, was sufficient to cause long-lasting increases in cue-elicited reward-seeking behavior. Our findings establish a causal role for temporally precise dopamine neuron signaling in cue-reward learning, bridging a critical gap between experimental evidence and influential theoretical frameworks. PMID:23708143

  14. A microfluidic method for dopamine uptake measurements in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Krastev, Dimitar L; Dryden, Michael D M; Leung, Yen; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a classical neurotransmitter and dysfunction in its synaptic handling underlies many neurological disorders, including addiction, depression, and neurodegeneration. A key to understanding DA dysfunction is the accurate measurement of dopamine uptake by dopaminergic neurons. Current methods that allow for the analysis of dopamine uptake rely on standard multiwell-plate based ELISA, or on carbon-fibre microelectrodes used in in vivo recording techniques. The former suffers from challenges associated with automation and analyte degradation, while the latter has low throughput and is not ideal for laboratory screening. In response to these challenges, we introduce a digital microfluidic platform to evaluate dopamine homeostasis in in vitro neuron culture. The method features voltammetric dopamine sensors with limit of detection of 30 nM integrated with cell culture sites for multi-day neuron culture and differentiation. We demonstrate the utility of the new technique for DA uptake assays featuring in-line culture and analysis, with a determination of uptake of approximately ∼32 fmol in 10 min per virtual microwell (each containing ∼200 differentiated SH-SY5Y cells). We propose that future generations of this technique will be useful for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disease as well as for a wide range of applications that would benefit from integrated cell culture and electroanalysis. PMID:26725686

  15. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels. PMID:24257812

  16. Differential effects of dopamine-directed treatments on cognition

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F Gregory; Valentin, Vivian V; von Meer, Stella S

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine, a prominent neuromodulator, is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. It has wide-ranging effects on both cortical and subcortical brain regions and on many types of cognitive tasks that rely on a variety of different learning and memory systems. As neuroscience and behavioral evidence for the existence of multiple memory systems and their corresponding neural networks accumulated, so did the notion that dopamine’s role is markedly different depending on which memory system is engaged. As a result, dopamine-directed treatments will have different effects on different types of cognitive behaviors. To predict what these effects will be, it is critical to understand: which memory system is mediating the behavior; the neural basis of the mediating memory system; the nature of the dopamine projections into that system; and the time course of dopamine after its release into the relevant brain regions. Consideration of these questions leads to different predictions for how changes in brain dopamine levels will affect automatic behaviors and behaviors mediated by declarative, procedural, and perceptual representation memory systems. PMID:26251602

  17. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Callear, Samantha K.; Imberti, Silvia; Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E.

    2015-01-07

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and π interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  18. Role of dimerization in dopamine D(4) receptor biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Skieterska, Kamila; Duchou, Jolien; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors critically involved in locomotion, reward, and cognitive processes. Export of dopamine receptors to the plasma membrane is thought to follow the default secretory pathway, whereby proteins travel from the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), through the Golgi apparatus, to arrive at the cell surface. Several observations indicate that trafficking from the ER to the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, and that correct folding in the ER acts as a bottle neck to the maturation of the dopamine D4 receptors. The dopamine D(4) receptor is an interesting receptor since it has a polymorphic region in its third intracellular loop, resulting in receptor isoforms of varying length and amino acid composition. Correct folding is enhanced by: (1) interaction with specific proteins, such as ER resident chaperones, (2) interaction with pharmacological chaperones, for example, ligands that are membrane permeable and can bind to the receptor in the ER, and (3) receptor dimerization; the assembly of multisubunit proteins into a quaternary structure is started in the ER before cell surface delivery, which helps in correct folding and subsequent expression. These interactions help the process of GPCR folding, but more importantly they ensure that only properly folded proteins proceed from the ER to the trans-Golgi network. In this review we will mainly focus on the role of receptor dimerization in dopamine D(4) receptor maturation. PMID:25175456

  19. Putting desire on a budget: dopamine and energy expenditure, reconciling reward and resources

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the “reward deficiency hypothesis” as a perceived energy deficit

  20. Hyperthermia induced by the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SK&F38393 in combination with the dopamine D2 receptor agonist talipexole in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, M; Yamada, K; Kimura, H; Matsumoto, S; Furukawa, T

    1992-12-01

    The present experiments were performed to investigate the effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists given alone or in combination with dopamine D2 receptor agonists on body temperature in rats. The selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist, 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol (SK&F38393), produced hyperthermia. However, the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, B-HT 920 (talipexole), and the newly synthesized dopamine D2 receptor agonist, (S)-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6-propylamino-benzothiazole (SND 919), did not change the temperature. Interestingly, the SK&F38393-induced hyperthermia was enhanced by talipexole and SND 919. The drastic hyperthermia induced by combined administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists was blocked by either the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, or the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, spiperone. On the other hand, treatment with prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, scopolamine, or methysergide failed to affect the marked hyperthermia. The present results suggest that a functional link between dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may be synergistic in the regulation of body temperature and that concurrent stimulation of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors thereby produces marked hyperthermia in the rat. PMID:1361996

  1. The evolution of dopamine systems in chordates.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Vernier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory-motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2) revealed new populations of DA-synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina, and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g., teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates. PMID:21483723

  2. Feeding behavior in dopamine-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Szczypka, Mark S.; Rainey, Mark A.; Kim, Douglas S.; Alaynick, William A.; Marck, Brett T.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Mice that cannot make dopamine (DA), a condition caused by the selective inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons, are born normal but gradually become hypoactive and hypophagic, and die at 3 weeks of age. We characterized the feeding and locomotor responses of these DA-deficient (DA−/−) mice to 3,4-dihyroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) to investigate the relationship between brain DA levels and these complex behaviors. Daily administration of l-DOPA to DA−/− mice stimulated locomotor activity that lasted 6 to 9 hr; during that time the mice consumed most of their daily food and water. The minimal dose of l-DOPA that was sufficient to elicit normal feeding behavior in the DA−/− mice also restored their striatal DA to 9.1% of that in the wild-type (WT) mice at 3 hr; then DA content declined to <1% of WT levels by 24 hr. This dose of l-DOPA induced locomotor activity that exceeded that of treated WT mice by 5- to 7-fold, suggesting that DA−/− mice are supersensitive to DA. Unexpectedly, DA−/− mice manifested a second wave of activity 24 to 48 hr after l-DOPA treatment that was equivalent in magnitude to that of WT mice and independent of DA receptor activation. The DA−/− mice approached, sniffed, and chewed food during this second period of activity, but they ate <10% of that required for sustenance. Therefore, DA−/− mice can execute behaviors necessary to seek and ingest food, but they do not eat enough to survive. PMID:10518589

  3. The lateral mesopontine tegmentum regulates both tonic and phasic activity of VTA dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li

    2013-01-01

    Anatomic studies have demonstrated that the mesolimbic dopamine system receives a substantial afferent input from a variety of regions ranging from the prefrontal cortex through to the brain stem. However, how these afferents regulate dopamine neuron activity is still largely unknown. The mesopontine tegmentum provides a significant input to ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, and it has been demonstrated that discrete subdivisions within this region differentially alter dopamine neuron activity. Thus the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus provides a tonic input essential for maintaining burst firing of dopamine neurons, whereas the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPTg) nucleus regulates a transition from single-spike firing to burst firing. In contrast, the recently identified rostromedial tegmental nucleus provides an inhibitory input to the VTA and decreases spontaneous dopamine neuron activity. Here, we demonstrate that an area adjacent to the PPTg regulates both population activity as well as burst firing of VTA dopamine neurons. Specifically, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) activation of the lateral mesopontine tegmentum produces an increase in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons and an increase in the average percentage of burst firing of dopamine neurons. This increase in neuronal activity was correlated with extracellular dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens, as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Taken together, we provide further evidence that the mesopontine tegmentum regulates discrete dopamine neuron activity states that are relevant for the understanding of dopamine system function in both normal and disease states. PMID:24004527

  4. Research Review: Dopamine Transfer Deficit: A Neurobiological Theory of Altered Reinforcement Mechanisms in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R.

    2008-01-01

    This review considers the hypothesis that changes in dopamine signalling might account for altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement in children with ADHD. The existing evidence regarding dopamine cell activity in relation to positive reinforcement is reviewed. We focus on the anticipatory firing of dopamine cells brought about by a transfer…

  5. Dopamine D1 signaling organizes network dynamics underlying working memory

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Joshua L.; Tanner, Alexandra S.; Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Rodriguez-Thompson, Anais; Silverstein, Noah J.; Ho, New Fei; Nitenson, Adam Z.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Greve, Douglas N.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Buckner, Randy L.; Manoach, Dara S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Local prefrontal dopamine signaling supports working memory by tuning pyramidal neurons to task-relevant stimuli. Enabled by simultaneous positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), we determined whether neuromodulatory effects of dopamine scale to the level of cortical networks and coordinate their interplay during working memory. Among network territories, mean cortical D1 receptor densities differed substantially but were strongly interrelated, suggesting cross-network regulation. Indeed, mean cortical D1 density predicted working memory–emergent decoupling of the frontoparietal and default networks, which respectively manage task-related and internal stimuli. In contrast, striatal D1 predicted opposing effects within these two networks but no between-network effects. These findings specifically link cortical dopamine signaling to network crosstalk that redirects cognitive resources to working memory, echoing neuromodulatory effects of D1 signaling on the level of cortical microcircuits. PMID:27386561

  6. Striatal cholinergic interneurons drive GABA release from dopamine terminals

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Hammack, Nora; Yang, Cindy F.; Shah, Nirao M.; Seal, Rebecca P.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal cholinergic interneurons are implicated in motor control, associative plasticity, and reward-dependent learning. Synchronous activation of cholinergic interneurons triggers large inhibitory synaptic currents in dorsal striatal projection neurons, providing one potential substrate for control of striatal output, but the mechanism for these GABAergic currents is not fully understood. Using optogenetics and whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we find that a large component of these inhibitory responses derive from action-potential-independent disynaptic neurotransmission mediated by nicotinic receptors. Cholinergically-driven IPSCs were not affected by ablation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons, but were greatly reduced after acute treatment with vesicular monoamine transport inhibitors or selective destruction of dopamine terminals with 6-hydroxydopamine, indicating that GABA release originated from dopamine terminals. These results delineate a mechanism in which striatal cholinergic interneurons can co-opt dopamine terminals to drive GABA release and rapidly inhibit striatal output neurons. PMID:24613418

  7. Components and characteristics of the dopamine reward utility signal.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Rewards are defined by their behavioral functions in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices, and emotions. Dopamine neurons respond to rewards with two components, similar to higher order sensory and cognitive neurons. The initial, rapid, unselective dopamine detection component reports all salient environmental events irrespective of their reward association. It is highly sensitive to factors related to reward and thus detects a maximal number of potential rewards. It also senses aversive stimuli but reports their physical impact rather than their aversiveness. The second response component processes reward value accurately and starts early enough to prevent confusion with unrewarded stimuli and objects. It codes reward value as a numeric, quantitative utility prediction error, consistent with formal concepts of economic decision theory. Thus, the dopamine reward signal is fast, highly sensitive and appropriate for driving and updating economic decisions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1699-1711, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26272220

  8. A Novel Restricted Diffusion Model of Evoked Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry provides high-fidelity recordings of electrically evoked dopamine release in the rat striatum. The evoked responses are suitable targets for numerical modeling because the frequency and duration of the stimulus are exactly known. Responses recorded in the dorsal and ventral striatum of the rat do not bear out the predictions of a numerical model that assumes the presence of a diffusion gap interposed between the recording electrode and nearby dopamine terminals. Recent findings, however, suggest that dopamine may be subject to restricted diffusion processes in brain extracellular space. A numerical model cast to account for restricted diffusion produces excellent agreement between simulated and observed responses recorded under a broad range of anatomical, stimulus, and pharmacological conditions. The numerical model requires four, and in some cases only three, adjustable parameters and produces meaningful kinetic parameter values. PMID:24983330

  9. Taste pathways that mediate accumbens dopamine release by sapid sucrose.

    PubMed

    Hajnal, Andras; Norgren, Ralph

    2005-03-16

    Although it has been associated with the release of dopamine in the forebrain, reward remains a conundrum in neuroscience. Sucrose is inherently rewarding and its sensory message reaches the brain via the gustatory system. In rodents, the central gustatory system bifurcates in the pontine parabrachial nuclei, one arm forming a standard thalamocortical axis, the other distributing widely in the limbic forebrain. We report here that lesions of the gustatory thalamus fail to affect dopamine overflow during sucrose licking (149+/-5% vs. 149+/-4% for controls). Similar damage to the parabrachial nuclei, which severs the limbic taste projection, substantially reduces dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens (121+/-4% vs. 168+/-9% for sham operated controls; p<0.02). This represents the first demonstration that the affective character of a sensory stimulus might separate from the thalamocortical system as early as the second central synapse. PMID:15763573

  10. Dopamine Neuron-Specific Optogenetic Stimulation in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Yang, Aimei; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Boyden, Edward S; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Optogenetic studies in mice have revealed new relationships between well-defined neurons and brain functions. However, there are currently no means to achieve the same cell-type specificity in monkeys, which possess an expanded behavioral repertoire and closer anatomical homology to humans. Here, we present a resource for cell-type-specific channelrhodopsin expression in Rhesus monkeys and apply this technique to modulate dopamine activity and monkey choice behavior. These data show that two viral vectors label dopamine neurons with greater than 95% specificity. Infected neurons were activated by light pulses, indicating functional expression. The addition of optical stimulation to reward outcomes promoted the learning of reward-predicting stimuli at the neuronal and behavioral level. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of effective and selective stimulation of dopamine neurons in non-human primates and a resource that could be applied to other cell types in the monkey brain. PMID:27610576

  11. Striatal dopamine, reward, and decision making in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Elevated striatal dopamine function is one of the best-established findings in schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss causes and consequences of this striata! dopamine alteration. We first summarize earlier findings regarding striatal reward processing and anticipation using functional neuroimaging. Secondly, we present a series of recent studies that are exemplary for a particular research approach: a combination of theory-driven reinforcement learning and decision-making tasks in combination with computational modeling and functional neuroimaging. We discuss why this approach represents a promising tool to understand underlying mechanisms of symptom dimensions by dissecting the contribution of multiple behavioral control systems working in parallel. We also discuss how it can advance our understanding of the neurobiological implementation of such functions. Thirdly, we review evidence regarding the topography of dopamine dysfunction within the striatum. Finally, we present conclusions and outline important aspects to be considered in future studies. PMID:27069382

  12. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-11-15

    -Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive dopaminergic amacrine cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure selectively decreased dopaminergic, but not GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic, amacrine cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased retinal dopamine content, its metabolites and dopamine utilization Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A decrease in dopamine can alter ERG amplitudes, circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity.

  13. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    SciTech Connect

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W. . E-mail: gary.miller@emory.edu

    2006-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 {mu}M) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 {mu}M) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 {mu}M) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD.

  14. Sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists: review

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Carl Nikolaus; Wenzel, Karoline; Suppan, Klaudia; Ivanic, Gerd; Kriechbaum, Norbert; Crevenna, Richard; Ott, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assess the evidence for the existence and prevalence of sleep attacks in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease, the type of drugs implicated, and strategies for prevention and treatment. Design Review of publications between July 1999 and May 2001 in which sleep attacks or narcoleptic-like attacks were discussed in patients with Parkinson's disease. Results 124 patients with sleep events were found in 20 publications. Overall, 6.6% of patients taking dopamine agonists who attended movement disorder centres had sleep events. Men were over-represented. Sleep events occurred at both high and low doses of the drugs, with different durations of treatment (0-20 years), and with or without preceding signs of tiredness. Sleep attacks are a class effect, having been found in patients taking the following dopamine agonists: levodopa (monotherapy in 8 patients), ergot agonists (apomorphine in 2 patients, bromocriptine in 13, cabergoline in 1, lisuride or piribedil in 23, pergolide in 5,) and non-ergot agonists (pramipexole in 32, ropinirole in 38). Reports suggest two distinct types of events: those of sudden onset without warning and those of slow onset with prodrome drowsiness. Conclusion Insufficient data are available to provide effective guidelines for prevention and treatment of sleep events in patients taking dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease. Prospective population based studies are needed to provide this information. What is already known on this topicCar crashes in patients with Parkinson's disease have been associated with sleep attacks caused by the dopamine agonists pramipexole and ropiniroleWhether sleep attacks exist, their connection with certain agonists, prevention or treatment, and the justification of legal actions are controversialWhat this study addsSleep attacks as a phenomenon distinct from normal somnolence really do existThey are a class effect of all dopamine drugsEffective prevention and treatment

  15. The ventral tegmentum and dopamine: A new wave of diversity.

    PubMed

    Barrot, M

    2014-12-12

    Projection systems arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra (SN) have a critical role in a broad range of functions, as well as in the etiology, symptoms and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Mostly studied for its dopamine neurons, the ventral tegmentum is in fact heterogeneous at cellular and functional levels. This special issue of Neuroscience gathered some experts in the field to review the connectivity of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex, its cellular heterogeneity with attention given to glutamate neurons, the D2 autoreceptor and the cholinergic controls of dopamine activity, the influence of neurotrophins, the controls of bursting activity and the heterogeneity of neuronal activity across traits and states, the pedunculopontine tegmental and the sensory controls of dopamine activity, the sex-dependent diversity, the links between circadian and dopamine systems, the functional antero-posterior heterogeneity of the VTA and the role of its GABA tail (tVTA/rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg)), the functional heterogeneity of the VTA outputs, the place of dopamine in cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, the different roles of the D1 and D2 striatal pathways and the role of dopamine in associative learning and memory. Recent progress also highlights the need for molecular markers of functional subpopulations within the ventral tegmentum, for deeper developmental knowledge of this region, and for a single cell level of connectomic. It also raises the question of inter-individual, sex, strain and species heterogeneity, and conversely the question of data generalization in a context of human pathology models, which warrant comparative studies and translational effort. PMID:25453764

  16. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    PubMed Central

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM–100 μM) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 μM) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 μM) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD. PMID:16005927

  17. Direct Bidirectional μ-Opioid Control of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmstad, Gregory O.; Fujita, Wakako; Fields, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is required for the rewarding and motivational actions of opioids and activation of dopamine neurons has been implicated in these effects. The canonical model posits that opioid activation of VTA dopamine neurons is indirect, through inhibition of GABAergic inputs. However, VTA dopamine neurons also express postsynaptic μ-opioid peptide (MOP) receptors. We report here that in Sprague Dawley rat, the MOP receptor-selective agonist DAMGO (0.5–3 μm) depolarized or increased the firing rate of 87 of 451 VTA neurons (including 22 of 110 dopamine neurons). This DAMGO excitation occurs in the presence of GABAA receptor blockade and its EC50 value is two orders of magnitude lower than for presynaptic inhibition of GABA release on to VTA neurons. Consistent with a postsynaptic channel opening, excitations were accompanied by a decrease in input resistance. Excitations were blocked by CdCl2 (100 μm, n = 5) and ω-agatoxin-IVA (100 nm, n = 3), nonselective and Cav2.1 Ca2+ channel blockers, respectively. DAMGO also produced a postsynaptic inhibition in 233 of 451 VTA neurons, including 45 of 110 dopamine neurons. The mean reversal potential of the inhibitory current was −78 ± 7 mV and inhibitions were blocked by the K+ channel blocker BaCl2 (100 μm, n = 7). Blockade of either excitation or inhibition unmasked the opposite effect, suggesting that MOP receptors activate concurrent postsynaptic excitatory and inhibitory processes in most VTA neurons. These results provide a novel direct mechanism for MOP receptor control of VTA dopamine neurons. PMID:25355223

  18. Affinities of methylphenidate derivatives for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin transporters.

    PubMed

    Gatley, S J; Pan, D; Chen, R; Chaturvedi, G; Ding, Y S

    1996-01-01

    We have synthesized several derivative of dl-threo-methylphenidate (Ritalin) bearing substituents on the phenyl ring. IC50 values for binding these compounds to rat brain monoamine transporters were assessed using [3H]WIN 35,428 (striatal membranes, dopamine transporters, DAT), [3H]nisoxetine (frontal cortex membranes, norepinephrine transporters, NET) and [3H]paroxetine (brain stem membranes, 5HT transporters, 5HTT). Affinities (1/Ki) decreased in the order: DAT > NET > 5HTT. Substitution at the para position of dl-threo-methylphenidate generally led to retained or increased affinity for the dopamine transporter (bromo > iodo > methoxy > hydroxy). Substitution at the meta position also increased affinity for the DAT (m-bromo > methylphenidate; m-iodo-p-hydroxy > p-hydroxy). Substitution at the ortho position with bromine considerably decreased affinity. Similar IC50 values for binding of o-bromomethylphenidate to the dopamine transporter were measured at 0, 22 and 37 degrees. N-Methylation of the piperidine ring of methylphenidate also considerably reduced affinity. The dl-erythro isomer of o-bromomethylphenidate did not bind to the DAT (IC50 > 50,000 nM). Affinities at the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters for substituted methylphenidate derivatives were well correlated (r2=0.90). Abilities of several methylphenidate derivatives to inhibit [3H]dopamine uptake in striatal synaptosomes corresponded well with inhibition of [3H]WIN 35, 428 binding. None of the compounds examined exhibited significant affinity to dopamine D1 or D2 receptors (IC50 > 500 or 5,000 nM, respectively), as assessed by inhibition of binding of [3H]SCH 23390 or [123I]epidepride, respectively, to striatal membranes. PMID:8786705

  19. Dopamine-dependent responses to morphine depend on glucocorticoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Marinelli, Michela; Aouizerate, Bruno; Barrot, Michel; Le Moal, Michel; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has shown that glucocorticoid hormones facilitate the behavioral and dopaminergic effects of morphine. In this study we examined the possible role in these effects of the two central corticosteroid receptor types: mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). To accomplish this, specific antagonists of these receptors were infused intracerebroventricularly and 2 hr later we measured: (i) locomotor activity induced by a systemic injection of morphine (2 mg/kg); (ii) locomotor activity induced by an infusion of morphine (1 μg per side) into the ventral tegmental area, which is a dopamine-dependent behavioral response to morphine; (iii) morphine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, a dopaminergic projection site mediating the locomotor and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Blockade of MRs by spironolactone had no significant effects on locomotion induced by systemic morphine. In contrast, blockade of GRs by either RU38486 or RU39305, which is devoid of antiprogesterone effects, reduced the locomotor response to morphine, and this effect was dose dependent. GR antagonists also reduced the locomotor response to intraventral tegmental area morphine as well as the basal and morphine-induced increase in accumbens dopamine, as measured by microdialysis in freely moving rats. In contrast, spironolactone did not modify dopamine release. In conclusion, glucocorticoids, via GRs, facilitate the dopamine-dependent behavioral effects of morphine, probably by facilitating dopamine release. The possibility of decreasing the behavioral and dopaminergic effects of opioids by an acute administration of GR antagonists may open new therapeutic strategies for treatment of drug addiction. PMID:9636221

  20. Aberrant mesolimbic dopamine-opiate interaction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lauri; Tuulari, Jetro; Karlsson, Henry; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Salminen, Paulina; Parkkola, Riitta; Hietala, Jarmo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-15

    Dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems share many functions such as regulation of reward and pleasure. μ-Opioid receptors (MOR) modulate the mesolimbic dopamine system in ventral tegmental area and striatum, key areas implicated in reward. We hypothesized that dopamine and opioid receptor availabilities correlate in vivo and that this correlation is altered in obesity, a disease with altered reward processing. Twenty lean females (mean BMI 22) and 25 non-binge eating morbidly obese females (mean BMI 41) underwent two positron emission tomography scans with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride to measure the MOR and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability, respectively. In lean subjects, the MOR and DRD2 availabilities were positively associated in the ventral striatum (r=0.62, p=0.003) and dorsal caudate nucleus (r=0.62, p=0.004). Moreover, DRD2 availability in the ventral striatum was associated with MOR availability in other regions of the reward circuitry, particularly in the ventral tegmental area. In morbidly obese subjects, this receptor interaction was significantly weaker in ventral striatum but unaltered in the caudate nucleus. Finally, the association between DRD2 availability in the ventral striatum and MOR availability in the ventral tegmental area was abolished in the morbidly obese. The study demonstrates a link between DRD2 and MOR availabilities in living human brain. This interaction is selectively disrupted in mesolimbic dopamine system in morbid obesity. We propose that interaction between the dopamine and opioid systems is a prerequisite for normal reward processing and that disrupted cross-talk may underlie altered reward processing in obesity. PMID:26260431

  1. Adaptations in the mesoaccumbens dopamine system resulting from repeated administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-selective agonists: relevance to cocaine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Henry, D J; Hu, X T; White, F J

    1998-11-01

    The mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) system is intricately involved in sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. Among the adaptations implicated in cocaine sensitization are transient subsensitivity of impulse-regulating DA D2 autoreceptors on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons leading to hyperactivity of the mesoaccumbens DA pathway, and persistently enhanced DA D1 receptor responses of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons. We have tested the hypothesis that both of these adaptations are necessary to produce cocaine sensitization. We injected rats twice daily for 2 weeks with the selective DA D1 class receptor agonist SKF 38393, the DA D2 class receptor agonist quinpirole, or both. We then used single-cell recording procedures to determine possible alterations in VTA DA autoreceptor sensitivity and NAc D1 receptor sensitivity at three withdrawal times: 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. We also tested whether these treatments produced cross-sensitization to cocaine at each withdrawal time. Repeated quinpirole treatment produced a reduction in VTA autoreceptor sensitivity and cross-sensitization to cocaine, but these effects lasted for less than 1 week. Repeated SKF 38393 treatment produced enhanced NAc D1 responses which lasted for 1 week and cross-sensitization to cocaine which was only evident after 1 week of withdrawal. Repeated treatment with the combination of the two agonists transiently down-regulated autoreceptor sensitivity, enhanced and prolonged D1 receptor supersensitivity (lasting 1 month), and produced enduring cross-sensitization to cocaine. These results suggest that neuroadaptations within both the VTA and NAc may be necessary for the induction of enduring cocaine sensitization. PMID:9860115

  2. Downregulating viral gene expression: codon usage bias manipulation for the generation of novel influenza A virus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Steven F; Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination represents the best option to protect humans against influenza virus. However, improving the effectiveness of current vaccines could better stifle the health burden caused by viral infection. Protein synthesis from individual genes can be downregulated by synthetically deoptimizing a gene’s codon usage. With more rapid and affordable nucleotide synthesis, generating viruses that contain genes with deoptimized codons is now feasible. Attenuated, vaccine-candidate viruses can thus be engineered with hitherto uncharacterized properties. With eight gene segments, influenza A viruses with variably recoded genomes can produce a spectrum of attenuation that is contingent on the gene segment targeted and the number of codon changes. This review summarizes different targets and approaches to deoptimize influenza A virus codons for novel vaccine generation. PMID:26213563

  3. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Schlyer, D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Alpert, R.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.; Bendriem, B.; Christman, D. )

    1990-06-01

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval.

  4. Galanin: A Role in Mesolimbic Dopamine-Mediated Instrumental Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, John K.; Brewer, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    ROBINSON, J.K. and Brewer, A. Galanin: A Role in Mesolimbic-Dopamine Mediated Instrumental Behavior? NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2008. The involvement of the neuropeptide galanin in the consumption of the primary “commodities” of food and water is well established. However, the present review describes anatomical and behavioral evidence that suggests that galanin may also modulate ascending mesolimbic dopamine function and thereby play an inhibitory role in the systems by which instrumental behavior is energized toward acquiring primary commodities. General anatomical frameworks for this interaction are presented and future studies that could evaluate it are discussed. PMID:18632153

  5. D1 dopamine receptor activity of anti-parkinsonian drugs.

    PubMed

    Fici, G J; Wu, H; VonVoigtlander, P F; Sethy, V H

    1997-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical investigations suggest that stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors may be responsible for dyskinesias induced by dopamine agonist treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD), and that these dyskinesias may be decreased by treatment with a D1 antagonist (clozapine). Therefore, the effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists have been investigated in a primary cerebellar granule cell model of cAMP formation that seems to be highly responsive to the D1 receptors. SKF 38393, lisuride, apomorphine, pergolide, dopamine, bromocriptine and 7-OH-DPAT showed concentration-dependent increases in cAMP formation, with EC50s (in microM) of 0.013, 0.053, 0.25, 1.04, 2.18, 50.9 and 54.4, respectively. SKF 38393, apomorphine, dopamine and pergolide had similar intrinsic activity (100%), while the intrinsic activities of 7-OH-DPAT, bromocriptine and lisuride were 28.0%, 20.7% and 17.2%, respectively. SCH 23390, a selective D1 dopamine receptor antagonist, blocked an increase in cAMP formation produced by EC50 concentrations of all of the dopamine agonists investigated in this study. Clozapine concentration-dependently blocked pergolide-induced increases in cAMP and was approximately 1700-fold less potent than SCH 23390 (IC50: 0.97 microM and 0.56 nM, respectively). U-95666A (1-1000 microM), selective for the D2 receptors, showed no significant effect on cAMP, while pramipexole (0.1-100 microM), a D3 preferring agonist, did not elevate cAMP. These data suggest that primary cerebellar granule cell cultures are an excellent model for measuring D1 dopamine receptor-mediated changes in cellular cAMP. The results are discussed with reference to the relationship between the D1 receptor-stimulated increase in cAMP formation and the induction of dyskinesia in humans by these anti-parkinsonian drugs. PMID:9126882

  6. Inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on zebrafish methamphetamine dependence are associated with amelioration of neurotransmitters content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingjin; Chen, Yifei; Li, Chan; Peng, Qiuxian; Fang, Miao; Liu, Wei; Kang, Qunzhao; Lin, Yingbo; Yung, Ken Kin Lam; Mo, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Others and we have reported that rhynchophylline reverses amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) effect which may be partly mediated by amelioration of central neurotransmitters and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) levels in the rat brains. The current study investigated the inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-induced (METH-induced) CPP in adult zebrafish and METH-induced locomotor activity in tyrosine hydroxylase-green fluorescent protein (TH-GFP) transgenic zebrafish larvae and attempted to confirm the hypothesis that these effects were mediated via regulation of neurotransmitters and dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. After baseline preference test (on days 1-3), zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally METH (on days 4, 6 and 8) or the same volume of fish physiological saline (on days 5 and 7) and were immediately conditioned. Rhynchophylline was administered at 12h after injection of METH. On day 9, zebrafish were tested for METH-induced CPP. Results revealed that rhynchophylline (100mg/kg) significantly inhibited the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, reduced the content of dopamine and glutamate and down-regulated the expression of TH and NR2B in the CPP zebrafish brains. Furthermore, the influence of rhynchophylline on METH-induced locomotor activity was also observed in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Results showed that rhynchophylline (50mg/L) treatment led to a significant reduction on the locomotor activity and TH expression in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of the formation of METH dependence by rhynchophylline in zebrafish is associated with amelioration of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression. PMID:27009763

  7. Understanding dopamine and reinforcement learning: the dopamine reward prediction error hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-09-13

    A number of recent advances have been achieved in the study of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Understanding these advances and how they relate to one another requires a deep understanding of the computational models that serve as an explanatory framework and guide ongoing experimental inquiry. This intertwining of theory and experiment now suggests very clearly that the phasic activity of the midbrain dopamine neurons provides a global mechanism for synaptic modification. These synaptic modifications, in turn, provide the mechanistic underpinning for a specific class of reinforcement learning mechanisms that now seem to underlie much of human and animal behavior. This review describes both the critical empirical findings that are at the root of this conclusion and the fantastic theoretical advances from which this conclusion is drawn. PMID:21389268

  8. ADHD-associated dopamine transporter, latrophilin and neurofibromin share a dopamine-related locomotor signature in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    van der Voet, M; Harich, B; Franke, B; Schenck, A

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder with hyperactivity as one of the hallmarks. Aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to be a major theme in ADHD, but how this relates to the vast majority of ADHD candidate genes is illusive. Here we report a Drosophila dopamine-related locomotor endophenotype that is shared by pan-neuronal knockdown of orthologs of the ADHD-associated genes Dopamine transporter (DAT1) and Latrophilin (LPHN3), and of a gene causing a monogenic disorder with frequent ADHD comorbidity: Neurofibromin (NF1). The locomotor signature was not found in control models and could be ameliorated by methylphenidate, validating its relevance to symptoms of the disorder. The Drosophila ADHD endophenotype can be further exploited in high throughput to characterize the growing number of candidate genes. It represents an equally useful outcome measure for testing chemical compounds to define novel treatment options. PMID:25962619

  9. ADHD-associated dopamine transporter, latrophilin and neurofibromin share a dopamine-related locomotor signature in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    van der Voet, M; Harich, B; Franke, B; Schenck, A

    2016-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder with hyperactivity as one of the hallmarks. Aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to be a major theme in ADHD, but how this relates to the vast majority of ADHD candidate genes is illusive. Here we report a Drosophila dopamine-related locomotor endophenotype that is shared by pan-neuronal knockdown of orthologs of the ADHD-associated genes Dopamine transporter (DAT1) and Latrophilin (LPHN3), and of a gene causing a monogenic disorder with frequent ADHD comorbidity: Neurofibromin (NF1). The locomotor signature was not found in control models and could be ameliorated by methylphenidate, validating its relevance to symptoms of the disorder. The Drosophila ADHD endophenotype can be further exploited in high throughput to characterize the growing number of candidate genes. It represents an equally useful outcome measure for testing chemical compounds to define novel treatment options. PMID:25962619

  10. Low and high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitors block dopamine uptake within 5 sec of intravenous injection

    PubMed Central

    Yorgason, Jordan T.; Jones, Sara R.; España, Rodrigo A.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that the reinforcing effects of cocaine involve inhibition of dopamine transporters (DAT) and subsequent increases in dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum. We have previously reported that cocaine inhibits the DAT within 4–5 sec of intravenous injection, matching the temporal profile of the behavioral and subjective effects of cocaine. Intravenous injection of GBR-12909, a high affinity, long-acting DAT inhibitor, also inhibits DA uptake within 5 sec. Given that high affinity, long-acting drugs are considered to have relatively low abuse potential, we found it intriguing that GBR-12909 had an onset profile similar to that of cocaine. To further explore the onset kinetics of both low and high affinity DAT inhibitors, we examined the effects of intravenous cocaine (1.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (1.5 mg/kg), nomifensine (1.5 mg/kg), GBR-12909 (1.5 mg/kg), PTT (0.5 mg/kg), and WF23 (0.5 mg/kg) on electrically-evoked DA release and uptake in the nucleus accumbens core. Results indicate that all of the DAT inhibitors significantly inhibited DA uptake within 5 sec of injection. However, the timing of peak uptake inhibition varied greatly between the low and high affinity uptake inhibitors. Uptake inhibition following cocaine, methylphenidate, and nomifensine peaked 30 sec following injection. In contrast, peak effects for GBR-12909, PTT, and WF23 occurred between 20 and 60 min following injection. These observations suggest that the initial onset for intravenous DAT inhibitors is extremely rapid and does not appear to be dictated by a drug’s affinity. PMID:21402130

  11. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) and dopamine DA1 agonist-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase in renal tubule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meister, B; Fryckstedt, J; Schalling, M; Cortés, R; Hökfelt, T; Aperia, A; Hemmings, H C; Nairn, A C; Ehrlich, M; Greengard, P

    1989-01-01

    The cellular localization of DARPP-32, a dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 that appears to mediate certain actions of dopamine in the mammalian brain by acting as an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1, was studied in the kidney of several species. DARPP-32 mRNA and DARPP-32-like immunoreactivity were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The specific dopamine DA1 agonist SKF 82526 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity, which could be blocked by SCH 23390, a specific DA1 antagonist, and by PKI-(5-24) amide, a specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The results indicate that DA1 dopamine receptors and DARPP-32, an intracellular third messenger for dopamine, are part of the signal-transduction process for dopamine acting on renal tubule cells. Images PMID:2573060

  12. Tuberoinfundibular transport of intrahypothalamic-administered dopamine in normo- and hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine transport system in the tuberoinfundibular tract of the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. The results show that the rate of dopamine transport in this tract is strain-specific. SD rats transported twice as much dopamine (in 30 minutes) as WKY and SHR. The dopamine transport system in the SHR, being at par with that of the WKY, remained intact. These findings suggest that hypertension and the alleged reduced central dopaminergic activity in the SHR is not related to the transport of dopamine in the tuberoinfundibular tract.

  13. Determination of the stability of dopamine in aqueous solutions by high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y. . Dept. of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology); Ye, M.Y. . Dept. of Biology and Chemistry ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Ada, OK )

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the analysis of dopamine and its degradation products in aqueous solutions are described. The technique of reverse phase chromatography with electrochemical detection is used to investigate the stability of dopamine in various aqueous solutions. In neutral and basic solutions, dopamine is rapidly oxidized by dissolved oxygen to form degradation products. The results demonstrate that dopamine is stable in 0.1 N HCl solution, pH < 1. The study indicates that EDTA can slow down the oxidation process. The detection limit for the analysis of dopamine is 0.1 [mu]M with 100 [mu]l injection.

  14. Dopamine agonist-induced substance addiction: the next piece of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Traditional antiparkinson treatment strategies strive to balance the antiparkinson effects of dopaminergic drugs with the avoidance of motor response complications. Dopamine agonists have an established role in delaying the emergence of motor response complications or reducing motor "off" periods. The recent recognition of a range of "behavioural addictions" that are linked to dopamine agonist use has highlighted the role of dopamine in brain reward function and addiction disorders in general. Dopamine agonists have now even been linked occasionally to new substance addictions. The challenge now for the Parkinsonologist is to also balance the net benefits of using dopamine agonists for their motor effects with avoiding the harm from behavioural compulsions. PMID:20980151

  15. Biotic Stress Globally Down-Regulates Photosynthesis Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upon herbivore and pathogen attacks, plants switch from processes supporting growth and reproduction to defense by inducing a set of defense genes and down-regulating most of the nuclear encoded photosynthetic genes. To determine if this transcriptional response is universal we used transcriptome da...

  16. HIV-1 Vpu Mediates HLA-C Downregulation.

    PubMed

    Apps, Richard; Del Prete, Gregory Q; Chatterjee, Pramita; Lara, Abigail; Brumme, Zabrina L; Brockman, Mark A; Neil, Stuart; Pickering, Suzanne; Schneider, Douglas K; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Walker, Bruce D; Thomas, Rasmi; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Keele, Brandon F; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Carrington, Mary

    2016-05-11

    Many pathogens evade cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by downregulating HLA molecules on infected cells, but the loss of HLA can trigger NK cell-mediated lysis. HIV-1 is thought to subvert CTLs while preserving NK cell inhibition by Nef-mediated downregulation of HLA-A and -B but not HLA-C molecules. We find that HLA-C is downregulated by most primary HIV-1 clones, including transmitted founder viruses, in contrast to the laboratory-adapted NL4-3 virus. HLA-C reduction is mediated by viral Vpu and reduces the ability of HLA-C restricted CTLs to suppress viral replication in CD4+ cells in vitro. HLA-A/B are unaffected by Vpu, and primary HIV-1 clones vary in their ability to downregulate HLA-C, possibly in response to whether CTLs or NK cells dominate immune pressure through HLA-C. HIV-2 also suppresses HLA-C expression through distinct mechanisms, underscoring the immune pressure HLA-C exerts on HIV. This viral immune evasion casts new light on the roles of CTLs and NK cells in immune responses against HIV. PMID:27173934

  17. Dopamine system: manager of neural pathways.

    PubMed

    Hong, Simon

    2013-01-01

    There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1) the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel neural pathways (NPs). The DA system can be viewed as the "manager" of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2) there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to provide the needed level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb), the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations. PMID:24367324

  18. Dopamine system: manager of neural pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Simon

    2013-01-01

    There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1) the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel neural pathways (NPs). The DA system can be viewed as the “manager” of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2) there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to provide the needed level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb), the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations. PMID:24367324

  19. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  20. Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Enhance Proliferation and Neurogenesis of Midbrain Lmx1a-expressing Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Eva; Belnoue, Laure; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Salto, Carmen; Bye, Chris; Parish, Clare; Deng, Qiaolin; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Ericson, Johan; Arenas, Ernest; Perlmann, Thomas; Simon, András

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for reactivation of such cells after cessation of normal dopamine neurogenesis. We show here that cells expressing Lmx1a and other progenitor markers remain in the midbrain aqueductal zone beyond the major dopamine neurogenic period. These cells express dopamine receptors, are located in regions heavily innervated by midbrain dopamine fibres and their proliferation can be stimulated by antagonizing dopamine receptors, ultimately leading to increased neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists enhances neurogenesis in vitro, both from embryonic midbrain progenitors as well as from embryonic stem cells. Altogether our results indicate a potential for reactivation of resident midbrain cells with dopamine progenitor potential beyond the normal period of dopamine neurogenesis. PMID:27246266

  1. Thorndike's Law 2.0: Dopamine and the Regulation of Thrift

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine is widely associated with reward, motivation, and reinforcement learning. Research on dopamine has emphasized its contribution to compulsive behaviors, such as addiction and overeating, with less examination of its potential role in behavioral flexibility in normal, non-pathological states. In the study reviewed here, we investigated the effect of increased tonic dopamine in a two-lever homecage operant paradigm where the relative value of the levers was dynamic, requiring the mice to constantly monitor reward outcome and adapt their behavior. The data were fit to a temporal difference learning model that showed that mice with elevated dopamine exhibited less coupling between reward history and behavioral choice. This work suggests a way to integrate motivational and learning theories of dopamine into a single formal model where tonic dopamine regulates the expression of prior reward learning by controlling the degree to which learned reward values bias behavioral choice. Here I place these results in a broader context of dopamine's role in instrumental learning and suggest a novel hypothesis that tonic dopamine regulates thrift, the degree to which an animal needs to exploit its prior reward learning to maximize return on energy expenditure. Our data suggest that increased dopamine decreases thriftiness, facilitating energy expenditure, and permitting greater exploration. Conversely, this implies that decreased dopamine increases thriftiness, favoring the exploitation of prior reward learning, and diminishing exploration. This perspective provides a different window onto the role dopamine may play in behavioral flexibility and its failure, compulsive behavior. PMID:22905023

  2. Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Enhance Proliferation and Neurogenesis of Midbrain Lmx1a-expressing Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Eva; Belnoue, Laure; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Salto, Carmen; Bye, Chris; Parish, Clare; Deng, Qiaolin; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Ericson, Johan; Arenas, Ernest; Perlmann, Thomas; Simon, András

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for reactivation of such cells after cessation of normal dopamine neurogenesis. We show here that cells expressing Lmx1a and other progenitor markers remain in the midbrain aqueductal zone beyond the major dopamine neurogenic period. These cells express dopamine receptors, are located in regions heavily innervated by midbrain dopamine fibres and their proliferation can be stimulated by antagonizing dopamine receptors, ultimately leading to increased neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists enhances neurogenesis in vitro, both from embryonic midbrain progenitors as well as from embryonic stem cells. Altogether our results indicate a potential for reactivation of resident midbrain cells with dopamine progenitor potential beyond the normal period of dopamine neurogenesis. PMID:27246266

  3. Real-Time Dopamine Efflux in the Nucleus Accumbens Core During Pavlovian Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Sunsay, Ceyhun; Rebec, George V.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the role of dopamine input to the nucleus accumbens core in anticipatory learning, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was combined with appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. One group of rats (Paired) received 16 tone-food pairings for at least four daily sessions while the control group (Unpaired) received the same number of unpaired tone and food presentations. Both groups showed transient dopamine responses during food presentation throughout training, confirming dopamine involvement in reward processing. Only the Paired Group, however, showed consistently timed dopamine transients during the 10-s tone presentation. Transients first appeared near the end of the tone period as each animal acquired the tone-food association and then occurred progressively sooner on subsequent sessions. Later sessions also revealed a consistently timed dopamine response soon after food delivery in Paired animals. Collectively, these results implicate phasic dopamine release in the acquisition of Pavlovian learning and also suggest an early dopamine response to the unconditioned stimulus as training continues. PMID:18410174

  4. Antipsychotic-induced alterations in D2 dopamine receptor interacting proteins within the cortex.

    PubMed

    Kabbani, Nadine; Levenson, Robert

    2006-02-27

    Current antipsychotic treatment involves the regulation of D2 dopamine receptor activity in the brain. Here, we examined the effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine on cortical D2 dopamine receptors and six different dopamine receptor interacting proteins. Using comparative immunoblot analysis, we found that treatment with either haloperidol or clozapine increased D2 dopamine receptors, calcium activator protein for secretion, protein 4.1N, and neuronal calcium sensor-1 expression. Treatment with clozapine increased calmodulin and spinophilin expression, while treatment with haloperidol decreased expression of these two dopamine receptor interacting proteins. Neither antipsychotic drug was found to have an effect on filamin-A expression. These findings underscore a role for cortical D2 dopamine receptor in the mechanism of antipsychotic drug action, and suggest dopamine receptor interacting proteins as novel targets in antipsychotic drug development. PMID:16462601

  5. [Effects of dopamine and adenosine on regulation of water-electrolyte exchange in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine and adenosine both regulate transport of sodium chloride in the renal tubules in mammals. We have studied the effect of dopamine and adenosine on spontaneous activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteous. Both substances stimulated contractile vacuole. The effect of dopamine was suppressed by D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol, but not by D1 antagonist, SCH 39166. Adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2.5-dideoxyadenosine, suppressed the effect of dopamine, but not of adenosine. Inhibitor of protein kinase C, staurosporine, in contrast, blocked the effect of adenosine, but not dopamine. Notably, dopamine opposed effect of adenosine and vice versa. These results suggest that similar effects of dopamine and adenosine could be mediated by different intracellulare mechanisms. PMID:25509166

  6. Increased baseline occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Rodenhiser, Janine; Printz, David; Zea-Ponce, Yolanda; Gil, Roberto; Kegeles, Lawrence S.; Weiss, Richard; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Van Heertum, Ronald L.; Gorman, Jack M.; Laruelle, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates a hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission at the D2 receptor. We measured in vivo occupancy of striatal D2 receptors by dopamine in 18 untreated patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls, by comparing D2 receptor availability before and during pharmacologically induced acute dopamine depletion. Acute depletion of intrasynaptic dopamine resulted in a larger increase in D2 receptor availability in patients with schizophrenia (19% ± 11%) compared with control subjects (9% ± 7%, P = 0.003). The increased occupancy of D2 receptors by dopamine occurred both in first-episode neuroleptic-naive patients and in previously treated chronic patients experiencing an episode of illness exacerbation. In addition, elevated synaptic dopamine was predictive of good treatment response of positive symptoms to antipsychotic drugs. This finding provides direct evidence of increased stimulation of D2 receptors by dopamine in schizophrenia, consistent with increased phasic activity of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:10884434

  7. Basal ganglia circuit loops, dopamine and motivation: A review and enquiry.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Yang, Chen; Tan, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those located in the ventral tegmental area, but also in the substantia nigra. The present paper reviews previous rodent work concerning dopamine's role in approach motivation and the connectivity of dopamine neurons, and proposes two working models: One concerns the relationship between extracellular dopamine concentration and approach motivation. High, moderate and low concentrations of extracellular dopamine induce euphoric, seeking and aversive states, respectively. The other concerns circuit loops involving the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain through which dopaminergic activity alters approach motivation. These models should help to generate hypothesis-driven research and provide insights for understanding altered states associated with drugs of abuse and affective disorders. PMID:25907747

  8. Dynamic shaping of dopamine signals during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Paul E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cue- and reward-evoked phasic dopamine activity during Pavlovian and operant conditioning paradigms is well correlated with reward-prediction errors from formal reinforcement learning models, which feature teaching signals in the form of discrepancies between actual and expected reward outcomes. Additionally, in learning tasks where conditioned cues probabilistically predict rewards, dopamine neurons show sustained cue-evoked responses that are correlated with the variance of reward and are maximal to cues predicting rewards with a probability of 0.5. Therefore, it has been suggested that sustained dopamine activity after cue presentation encodes the uncertainty of impending reward delivery. In the current study we examined the acquisition and maintenance of these neural correlates using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rats implanted with carbon fiber electrodes in the nucleus accumbens core during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning. The advantage of this technique is that we can sample from the same animal and recording location throughout learning with single trial resolution. We report that dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core contains correlates of both expected value and variance. A quantitative analysis of these signals throughout learning, and during the ongoing updating process after learning in probabilistic conditions, demonstrates that these correlates are dynamically encoded during these phases. Peak CS-evoked responses are correlated with expected value and predominate during early learning while a variance-correlated sustained CS signal develops during the post-asymptotic updating phase. PMID:25172480

  9. Missense dopamine transporter mutations associate with adult parkinsonism and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Freja H.; Skjørringe, Tina; Yasmeen, Saiqa; Arends, Natascha V.; Sahai, Michelle A.; Erreger, Kevin; Andreassen, Thorvald F.; Holy, Marion; Hamilton, Peter J.; Neergheen, Viruna; Karlsborg, Merete; Newman, Amy H.; Pope, Simon; Heales, Simon J.R.; Friberg, Lars; Law, Ian; Pinborg, Lars H.; Sitte, Harald H.; Loland, Claus; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Galli, Aurelio; Hjermind, Lena E.; Møller, Lisbeth B.; Gether, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Parkinsonism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are widespread brain disorders that involve disturbances of dopaminergic signaling. The sodium-coupled dopamine transporter (DAT) controls dopamine homeostasis, but its contribution to disease remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed a cohort of patients with atypical movement disorder and identified 2 DAT coding variants, DAT-Ile312Phe and a presumed de novo mutant DAT-Asp421Asn, in an adult male with early-onset parkinsonism and ADHD. According to DAT single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) scans and a fluoro-deoxy-glucose-PET/MRI (FDG-PET/MRI) scan, the patient suffered from progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In heterologous cells, both DAT variants exhibited markedly reduced dopamine uptake capacity but preserved membrane targeting, consistent with impaired catalytic activity. Computational simulations and uptake experiments suggested that the disrupted function of the DAT-Asp421Asn mutant is the result of compromised sodium binding, in agreement with Asp421 coordinating sodium at the second sodium site. For DAT-Asp421Asn, substrate efflux experiments revealed a constitutive, anomalous efflux of dopamine, and electrophysiological analyses identified a large cation leak that might further perturb dopaminergic neurotransmission. Our results link specific DAT missense mutations to neurodegenerative early-onset parkinsonism. Moreover, the neuropsychiatric comorbidity provides additional support for the idea that DAT missense mutations are an ADHD risk