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Sample records for downsi diptera muscidae

  1. Interactions between the Avian Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) and the Galapagos Flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris Gould (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Causton, Charlotte; Cedeño, Daniel; Castañeda, Johanna; Hillstrom, Alexandra; Freund, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    An incidental observation of the fly Philornis downsi parasitizing a Galapagos Flycatcher (Myiarchus magnirostris) nest has revealed new insights into the searching behavior and biology of this invasive fly parasite and its interactions with endemic landbirds in the Galapagos Islands. Observations suggest that P. downsi relies on olfactory cues, or olfactory cues combined with the activity of adult birds, to locate nests and that flies continue to visit nests when chicks are >3 d old. At least 200 eggs were laid by P. downsi in different parts of the nest and >40 early-instar larvae were found inside the head of one chick, with additional larvae found in the base of the nest. Parasitism was the likely cause of mortality of both chicks found in or near the nest. This description of P. downsi parasitizing chicks of M. magnirostris highlights the vulnerability of this endemic bird species to this invasive fly. PMID:26267462

  2. Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galápagos archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Gardner, Michael G; Donnellan, Steve; Kleindorfer, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding the dispersal and genetic structure of invasive insects across islands is important for designing management plans that are appropriate at spatial and temporal scales. For invasive parasites, population dynamics are largely determined by the distribution and density of their host species. The introduced parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, parasitises nestlings of endemic birds on all major islands of the Galápagos archipelago. The fly's high mortality and fitness impacts are of conservation concern for vulnerable and declining species of Darwin's finches. Using microsatellite data in Bayesian clustering and landscape genetic analyses, we examine gene flow and dispersal in P. downsi between three islands and across habitats (highlands, lowlands) and examine for the presence of population bottlenecks. We also examine variation at the mitochondrial gene CO1 across islands to establish if cryptic species were present. Results Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data were consistent with there being a single species across islands. We found low genetic differentiation between islands and strong evidence for inter-island gene flow, or shared recent ancestry among individuals. Landscape genetic analysis identified two genetic clusters: one encompassing Santa Cruz and Isabela, and one on Floreana Island. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation between habitats and molecular variance was mainly attributable to within individuals. The combined P. downsi population was found to have undergone a population bottleneck. Conclusion Philornis downsi populations have high connectivity within and between islands, with low levels of genetic differentiation between Floreana and the other two islands examined. The genetic bottleneck found across islands suggests there was a small founding population or few introduction events of P. downsi. The high dispersal capacity and wide habitat use of P. downsi highlights the significant threat that this

  3. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets.

    PubMed

    Lahuatte, Paola F; Lincango, M P; Heimpel, G E; Causton, C E

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer's yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer's yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  4. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lahuatte, Paola F.; Lincango, M. P.; Heimpel, G. E.; Causton, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer’s yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer’s yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  5. New species of Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera: Muscoidea).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    The study of recently collected Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera) from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and South Africa has revealed ten new species which are described herein: Coenosia duomaculata sp. nov., C. nigromaculata sp. nov., C. fragilis sp. nov., Helina harrisorum sp. nov., H. ferfriniorum sp. nov., Hydrotaea tantula sp. nov., Limnophora diminuta sp. nov., L. antennalis sp. nov., Spilogona brunnea sp. nov. and S. bella sp. nov. Coenosia, Helina and Limnophora are speciose muscid genera, found throughout the Afrotropical Region, while Hydrotaea and Spilogona have a more restricted geographic distribution and include some 20 species each.  PMID:25284400

  6. Revision of the key characters for the Thricops nigrifrons species-group (Diptera, Muscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vikhrev, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An analysis of key characters for the separation of Thricops nigrifrons and Thricops longipes (Diptera, Muscidae) is given. A revised key for Thricops nigrifrons and related species, including two species recently described from the Caucasus, is proposed. PMID:21594046

  7. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980). PMID:27394742

  8. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  9. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  10. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  11. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  12. New records of Muscidae (Diptera) from Mediterranean countries

    PubMed Central

    Ivković, Marija; Pont, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records are provided for Muscidae from four different Mediterranean countries, with new distribution records for species in ten different genera. Seven species are newly recorded for Croatia, four species for Montenegro and one species for Bosnia & Herzegovina. In this paper we give the first confirmation of an aquatic larval stage for Lispocephala brachialis (Rondani, 1877), Lispocephala spuria (Zetterstedt, 1838) and Lispocephala mikii (Strobl, 1893). A first record of the species Coenosia lyneborgi Pont, 1972 since its original description is also provided. PMID:25931958

  13. Coenosia Meigen (Diptera: Muscidae) from Angola: new species and records.

    PubMed

    Couri, Marcia S; Pont, Adrian C

    2016-01-01

    The study of unidentified material from Angola (Africa), deposited in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom, has revealed three new Coenosia species: Coenosia lucens sp. nov., Coenosia flavohumeralis sp. nov. and Coenosia setosa sp. nov., and five new records: Coenosia macrochaeta (Emden, 1940), Coenosia nodosa Stein, 1913, Coenosia ochroprocta (Speiser, 1910), Coenosia planifrons Stein, 1913 and Coenosia translucida (Emden, 1940). Only one species of Coenosia had previously been recorded from Angola: Coenosia sanguenguei Zielke 1971. The new species are described with illustrations of the male terminalia, and diagnoses of the newly-recorded species with descriptions of the male terminalia are given. A list of all Muscidae species recorded from Angola is presented. PMID:27394753

  14. Population structure of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) assessed on a global scale using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...

  15. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Taylor, D B; Zurek, L

    2012-03-01

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake annually producing 450,000 stable flies and 175,000 house flies. Stable fly emergence was seasonally bimodal with a primary peak in mid-July and a secondary peak in late August. House fly emergence peaked with the first stable fly emergence peak and then declined gradually for the remainder of the year. House flies tended to emerge from the biosolid cake sooner after its deposition than did stable flies. In addition, house fly emergence was concentrated around midsummer whereas stable fly emergence began earlier in the spring and continued later into the fall. Biosolid age and temperature were the most important parameters affecting emergence for house flies and stable flies, whereas precipitation was not important for either species. This study highlights the importance of biosolid cake as a larval developmental habitat for stable flies and house flies. PMID:22493845

  16. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica. PMID:27514889

  17. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal. PMID:22576856

  18. Feeding and breeding aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salem, A.; Franc, M.; Jacquiet, P.; Bouhsira, E.; Liénard, E.

    2012-01-01

    Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. The colony was maintained at 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 10% RH under a 12-hour light cycle and observed daily. The size of each adult cage is 30 x 30 x 30 cm and designed to house about 500-1,000 flies. The average cycle from egg to adult was 19.2 ± 1.7 days. The mean longevity of imagos was 9.3 ± 5.8 days and not significantly different between sexes. Stable flies were split into two groups; the first was fed with blood, honey and water, and the second was fed only with honey and water. The mean weight of a blood meal was 11.1 ± 3.8 mg with no significant differences between males and females. The mean longevity of non-blood fed flies was found to be significantly higher (10.4 ± 3.9 days) than those fed with blood. The maximum lifespan was shorter for non-blood fed males (17 days) and females (18 days) than for those fed with blood (females: 24 days, males: 23 days). Under these laboratory conditions, S. calcitrans rearing was successfully established. In the end, the number of expected generations of S. calcitrans and the net reproduction rate were estimated to be 11.8 generations/year and 16.2 living females per female respectively. PMID:23193515

  19. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide. PMID:25276929

  20. [Ecology of stomoxyine fulies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. II. Blood meals analysis a nd epidemiologic consequences].

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J F; Simo, G; Gilles, J; De Stordeur, E; Duvallet, G

    2008-12-01

    To determine the origin of stomoxyine fly bloodmeals (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon, 1,021 flies belonging to seven different species of Stomoxys were captured and dissected in the area of Makokou. In total, 798 were not blood-fed and 223 bloodmeals could be gathered on filter paper. The identification of the origin of these meals was made by amplification of mitochondrial Cytb gene, then heteroduplex technique by using the Gambian rat (Cricetomys gambianus) as driver. Samples of fauna, collected on the local market, consisted of 24 mammal and two reptile blood and muscle samples, to which it is necessary to add human samples (27 potential hosts). 19 meals could not be amplified for technical reasons, 65 were amplified, but the acquired patterns corresponded to none of the tested potential hosts. On the 139 identified meals, 55% were taken on the black-fronted duiker (Cephalophus nigrifrons) and 19% on pig. Stomoxys transvittatus, the most abundant species in Makokou, is very opportunistic: 68 % of meals were taken on six different hosts, among whom 48% on the black-fronted duiker and 32% were not identified using the panel of tested hosts. S. xanthomelas took 50% of its meals on the moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) and 7% on human beings. S. calcitrans, species of anthropised areas, took 33% of its meals on human beings. These three species can therefore take bloodmeals on wild fauna and human beings. They could potentially play an important role in the emergence of zoonotic diseases. The four other species took their bloodmeals only on wild fauna and pig, the only example of domestic fauna in this study. This preliminary study must be followed up using a larger number of specimens and by increasing the diversity of the tested potential hosts. PMID:19202770

  1. New records and ecological remarks regarding the tribe Stomoxyini (Diptera: Muscidae) from Israel.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stomoxyini (Muscidae) are a tribe with 10 genera and 49 known species worldwide. Adult flies are obligate blood feeders and several are major pests of domestic livestock. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the Israeli species of Stomoxyini and ...

  2. Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Amado, Sávio; Silveira, Andrea Kill; Vieira, Flávio Dias; Traversa, Donato

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), along with the reactions caused by parasitism and the migration route of the nematodes inside the flies. Houseflies were reared on faeces of a H. muscae-infected horse, then dissected and processed by histology. The experimental part of the study was performed in 1996 in the Parasitological Experimental Station W.O. Neitz, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Three different larval stages of H. muscae were recovered, measured and described. The encapsulation of larval nematodes was found in the third larval instar (L3) of M. domestica and cryptocephalic pupa. The mature capsules were observed in dipteran L3, pupae and mainly adults. In 1day-old or more M. domestica adults an active rupturing of capsules by H. muscae L3 and the migration to the head through the circulatory system and insect hemocoel were observed. Infective H. muscae L3s remained exclusively in the head of adult 5days-old or more M. domestica. PMID:24269197

  3. Cloning, expression, and purification of a new antibacterial substance gene from larvae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhihua; Bian, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Yunhang; Ma, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), the housefly, exhibits unique immune defenses and can produce antibacterial substances upon stimulation with bacteria. On the basis of the cDNA library constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, a 1188-bp antibacterial substance gene, which we named AS566, was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends from M. domestica larva stimulated with Salmonella pullorum (Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella). In this study, the full-length AS566 gene was cloned and inserted into a His-tagged Escherichia coli (Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia) prokaryotic expression system to enable production of the recombinant protein. The recombinant AS566 protein was purified in denatured form from inclusion bodies and renatured to obtain functionally active AS566 protein. The bacteriostatic activity of the recombinant purified AS566 protein was assessed using the Oxford plate assay system and the results indicated that AS566 had antibacterial activity against six bacteria, including an E. coli clinical isolate, S. pullorum, Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcaceae: Streptococcus), Streptococcus suis, and Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcaceae: Staphylococcus) in vitro. The antibacterial activity of AS566 toward Gram- bacteria was two times greater than that against Gram+ bacteria. The sequencing results and BLAST analysis showed that the antibacterial substance gene AS566 was not homologous to any other antibacterial substance genes in GenBank. The antibacterial mechanisms of the newly discovered AS566 protein warrant further study. PMID:25434038

  4. Assessment of resistance risk to fipronil and cross resistance to other insecticides in the Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Ijaz, Mamuna; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-06-15

    Fipronil, a phenyl-pyrazole insecticide has been used frequently for the control of disease vector house flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide including Pakistan. This experiment was performed to determine the selection and assessment of fipronil resistance evolution along with cross resistance to other three insecticides. After 26 generations of selection, the house fly strain developed 430-fold resistance to fipronil compared to a susceptible strain. Realized heritability (h(2)) of resistance to fipronil was 0.05. The projected rate of resistance development revealed that if 30-90% house flies were selected then a tenfold increase in lethal concentration 50 happened after 95.51-26.59 generations for fipronil (h(2)=0.05, Slope=2.34). At similar slope, if h(2)=0.15, then 31.84-8.86 generations are required for tenfold increase in LC50 at 30-90% selection intensity, respectively. Likewise, if h(2)=0.25, then similar would occur in 19.10-5.32 generations. Differences in any of the variable would affect the rate of resistance development. Selection with fipronil did not increase the level of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos and indoxacarb, suggesting no cross resistance to these insecticides. The results of our study concluded that house flies have the potential to develop resistances following continued selection pressure with fipronil. PMID:27198780

  5. Biological trait analysis and stability of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Iqbal, Naeem; Razaq, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae), are pests of poultry and have the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. To design a strategy for resistance management, life history traits based on laboratory observations were established for lambda-cyhalothrin-resistant, susceptible and reciprocal crosses of M. domestica strains. Bioassay results showed that the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 98.34 compared to its susceptible strain. The lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain had a relative fitness of 0.26 and lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, and net reproductive rate compared with its susceptible strain. Mean population growth rates, such as intrinsic rate of population increase, and biotic potential were lower for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain compared to its susceptible strain. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, indoxacarb, and abamectin was unstable while resistance to bifenthrin and methomyl was stable in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain of M. domestica. Development of resistance can cost considerable fitness for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain. The present study provided useful information for making potential management strategies to delay resistance development in M. domestica. PMID:26874957

  6. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. PMID:21735933

  7. Simultaneous detection of pyrethroid, organophosphate, and cyclodiene target site resistance in Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luísa N; Guerrero, Felix D; Foil, Lane D

    2014-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an important pest that causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry, but insecticide resistance in horn fly populations has made horn fly control increasingly difficult to achieve. In this study, we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to simultaneously detect target site resistance to pyrethroids (kdr mutation), organophosphates (G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation), and cyclodienes (Rdl mutation) and used the new procedure to follow the progression of these three mutations after exposure to different insecticide pressure. We assayed flies collected at the Macon Ridge research station, Winnsboro, LA, from 2008 to 2012. The multiplex PCR showed robust results in all our assays. The kdr mutation remained at high frequencies during all years, even after 4 yr with no use of pyrethroids. The G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation fluctuated from 7.5 to 23.8% during the studied years, while the Rdl mutation was rare in 2008, 2009, and June 2010, and then significantly increased after the first use of endosulfan. The possibility of screening for all the known target site resistance mutations in a single PCR reaction makes the multiplex PCR a useful and affordable tool that can be used to help diagnose insecticide resistance. PMID:25276924

  8. First survey of seasonal abundance and daily activity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakornpathom province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Masmeatathip, R; Gilles, J; Ketavan, C; Duvallet, G

    2006-09-01

    The seasonal changes and the daily activity of Stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae) were examined, using Vavoua traps, in a dairy and a beef cattle farm in Nakhonpathom province, Thailand during July 2004 to June 2005. Over this period, Stomoxys calcitrans was the most commonly trapped species, followed by S. sitiens and S. indica. For the later species, this is the first report of its presence in Thailand. A total of 80 % of flies were captured during the rainy season from May to October and 20 % during the dry season from November to April. No major difference of fly density was observed between the dairy and the beef cattle farm. The activity pattern of S. calcitrans was diurnal with a peak between 08:00 am to 10:00 am and another less marked one in the afternoon. The activity pattern of S. sitiens and S. indica was mainly crepuscular with 2 peaks, early in the morning (06:00 a.m.) and late in the afternoon (6:00 p.m.). Those species are important pests of livestock in Thailand, where they are known as a mechanical vector of trypanosomes. A better knowledge of their ecology is a prerequisite for more efficient control measures. PMID:17007217

  9. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans. PMID:20695272

  10. Relationships between chemical properties of larval media and development of two Stomoxys species (Diptera: Muscidae) from Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Gilles, J; David, J F; Lecomte, P; Tillard, E

    2008-02-01

    The development of two cattle pests, Stomoxys calcitrans L. and Stomoxys niger niger Macquart (Diptera: Muscidae), was studied in the laboratory using seven potential larval media from a dairy farm on Reunion Island. The media were six types of cattle feed and an old manure medium. Egg-to-adult survival, duration of development, and adult live weight at emergence were determined for both fly species on each medium. The media were analyzed for pH, nitrogen, organic matter, and structural compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin). For S. calcitrans, immature survival was significantly higher on sugarcane leaves, Rhodes grass, and elephant grass; for S. niger, survival was significantly higher on the same substrates plus sugarcane tops. These substrates were characterized by slightly acid pH values (range, 5.4-6.0). In both species, there were significant bell-shape relationships between immature survival and substrate pH. The developmental time of both fly species was significantly shorter on Rhodes grass, Rhodes grass hay, and elephant grass. These substrates were characterized by high cellulose contents and low soluble organic fractions. In both species, there were significant linear relationships between developmental time and cellulose content of substrates. Similarly, there were significant linear relationships between adult live weight and cellulose content of substrates. The C:N ratio of the most favorable substrates was highly variable. Although the relationships revealed in this study do not establish causation, it is suggested that pH and cellulose content may have direct and indirect effects on Stomoxys development. PMID:18348795

  11. Curatorial implications of Ophyra capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) puparia recovered from the body of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages).

    PubMed

    Morrow, Johnica J; Baldwin, Diesel A; Higley, Leon; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of dipteran remains on mummified individuals can lead to either cause for curatorial concern or to a better understanding of the individual's post-mortem environment. The present study analyzed insect remains associated with the body of a unique medieval mummy of religious significance, that of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi da Monticiano. A total of 79 puparia were examined and all were identified as Ophyra capensis (Diptera: Muscidae). Additionally, a desiccated moth (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) was encountered. Puparia of O. capensis would be associated with normal decomposition shortly after the death of the mummified individual, and not an infestation beginning during more recent years. Similarly, the tineid moth found would likely be related with decomposition of cloth associated with the remains. These findings illustrate how collection and identification of insects associated with human remains can distinguish between historical decomposition versus issues of modern curatorial concern. PMID:26408393

  12. DNA barcoding of Northern Nearctic Muscidae (Diptera) reveals high correspondence between morphological and molecular species limits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various methods have been proposed to assign unknown specimens to known species using their DNA barcodes, while others have focused on using genetic divergence thresholds to estimate “species” diversity for a taxon, without a well-developed taxonomy and/or an extensive reference library of DNA barcodes. The major goals of the present work were to: a) conduct the largest species-level barcoding study of the Muscidae to date and characterize the range of genetic divergence values in the northern Nearctic fauna; b) evaluate the correspondence between morphospecies and barcode groupings defined using both clustering-based and threshold-based approaches; and c) use the reference library produced to address taxonomic issues. Results Our data set included 1114 individuals and their COI sequences (951 from Churchill, Manitoba), representing 160 morphologically-determined species from 25 genera, covering 89% of the known fauna of Churchill and 23% of the Nearctic fauna. Following an iterative process through which all specimens belonging to taxa with anomalous divergence values and/or monophyly issues were re-examined, identity was modified for 9 taxa, including the reinstatement of Phaonia luteva (Walker) stat. nov. as a species distinct from Phaonia errans (Meigen). In the post-reassessment data set, no distinct gap was found between maximum pairwise intraspecific distances (range 0.00-3.01%) and minimum interspecific distances (range: 0.77-11.33%). Nevertheless, using a clustering-based approach, all individuals within 98% of species grouped with their conspecifics with high (>95%) bootstrap support; in contrast, a maximum species discrimination rate of 90% was obtained at the optimal threshold of 1.2%. DNA barcoding enabled the determination of females from 5 ambiguous species pairs and confirmed that 16 morphospecies were genetically distinct from named taxa. There were morphological differences among all distinct genetic clusters; thus, no cases of

  13. [Ecology of Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. I. First survey in different ecological areas].

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J F; Jay-Robert, P; Gilles, J; Atsame, Edda A; Duvallet, G

    2008-03-01

    The stomoxyine flies are hematophagous diptera and potential vectors of various pathogenic agents. Like those of the Afrotropical Region, the stomoxyine flies of Gabon remain nearly unknown. For these reasons, an entomological survey was conducted in a transverse way in eight localities representative of the various ecological zones of Gabon. The survey was based on the use of Vavoua traps. Various environmental factors able to influence the captures were noticed and included into a canonical correspondence analysis. In total, 15,966 Stomoxys spp., belonging to seven species or subspecies, were captured. The apparent densities (DAP) expressed as the number of flies per trap and per day, were highest in Franceville (41), Bakoumba (40), Makokou (25) and Mouila (21). The most abundant species were S. n niger (33.4%), S. transvittatus (33%), then S. calcitrans (17%). The principal factors that could explain the variability of the captures were the degree of anthropisation, the botanical facies (savanna or forest), the presence of wild and domestic fauna and the nature of the vegetal cover of the ground. S. calcitrans, S. niger niger were abundant in the areas where human presence was manifest. S. xanthomelas was present in forest belts. S. transvittatus, S. omega, S. inornatus were ubiquitous species. S. niger bilineatus was found in savannas areas. PMID:18416244

  14. Adulticidal and larvicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), in laboratory and simulated field bioassays.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2011-06-01

    The susceptibility of the adult and larval stage of housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), to two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., was evaluated under laboratory and simulated field bioassays. Bioassays on adult houseflies were carried out at different conidial concentrations ranging from 10(3) to 10(9) conidia/ml in petri plate and minichamber assays. Absolute mortality was observed within 4-5 days at all the concentrations tested. M. anisopliae was found to be more effective with LC(50) of 6.75 × 10(7) conidia/ml compared with 1.21 × 10(8) conidia/ml of B. bassiana in petri plate bioassay. Similar trend was observed in minichamber bioassay. Larvicidal activity evaluated through petri plate bioassay also indicated that M. anisopliae was more effective larvicide with LC(50) of 4.1 × 10(8) conidia/ml as against 3.31 × 10(9) conidia/ml of B. bassiana. Larvicidal activity was further evaluated in simulated field condition of decaying waste matrix using dry conidial formulations (10(8) conidia/g) of both the fungi. Larval mortality obtained in this assay was 43% (B. bassiana) and 63% (M. anisopliae). Remarkably better performance of M. anisopliae as an adulticidal and larvicidal agent over B. bassiana in laboratory bioassays as well as simulated field conditions suggests that it may have good potential to become part of an integrated housefly control program. PMID:21161273

  15. Genetic structure and gene flow along an altitudinal gradient among two stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae) on La Réunion Island.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Jérémie; Litrico, Isabelle; Tillard, Emmanuel; Duvallet, Gerard

    2007-05-01

    Seasonal variations of insect population sizes are often dramatic, particularly in temperate regions and at altitudes where the climatic conditions are unfavorable to insect development during the winter. Decline of population size (or bottlenecks) and founder events may reduce the genetic variability and may create genetic differentiation between populations by drift and founder effects, but this reduction of genetic diversity is strongly influenced by gene flow between populations. In this study, we determined the population genetic structure for two stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) and Stomoxys niger niger Macquart, which co-occur in dairy barns along an altitudinal gradient on La Réunion island. Using microsatellite markers, we quantified the genetic variation within and among populations for different altitudes. This study displays that, contrary to expectations, genetic diversity is not correlated with altitude and that genetic differentiation is not larger among high-altitude populations than among low-altitude populations. These results attest to the small drift and founder effects in high-altitude populations despite drastic decreases in population size during the winter. Furthermore, at the island scale, the populations of S. calcitrans were slightly differentiated, but those of S. niger niger were not. Together, the results revealed large levels of gene flow on La Réunion Island despite the dramatic geographic barriers, and they emphasize the importance of considering agricultural practices to restrict the dispersal of stomoxyines. PMID:17547228

  16. Species of Coenosia Meigen (Diptera, Muscidae) described by Fritz van Emden from the British Museum Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-1935.

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    All the species of Coenosia Meigen (Diptera, Muscidae) described by Fritz van Emden from the British Museum (Natural History) Ruwenzori Expedition of 1934-1935 (Emden 1940), supplemented by species from the Entomological Expedition to Abyssinia of 1926-1927 (Emden 1941), were studied, a total of 51 species. All types are deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, UK. For each species, a diagnosis is given and photographs of the 10 holotypes and of their labels are presented. Dissections and illustrations of the male terminalia were made when paratypes or identified specimens were available; all terminalia are described for the first time. One new synonym is proposed: C. kilembana (Emden, 1940) as a junior synonym of C. rebmanni Speiser, 1924; and three subspecies had their status revised and were elevated to species rank: C. brunneigena Emden, 1940, previously a subspecies of C. heterocnemis Emden, 1940; and C. albisquama (Emden, 1940) and C. argentescens (Emden, 1940), both previously subspecies of C. niveifrons (Stein, 1913). PMID:27470872

  17. Adult house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity and age of females near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene on a southern California dairy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarah M; Mullens, Bradley A

    2010-10-01

    The number of adult male and female house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene alone (5, 50, or 100 micdrol) or combined (50 microl) with sugar was determined using conical screened traps on a dairy in southern California. Overall, significantly more males than females were collected in the traps. Significantly more flies (male and female) were collected in traps with (Z)-9-tricosene. There were no significant differences among doses of (Z)-9-tricosene alone, but numbers of both sexes were significantly higher in traps baited with (Z)-9-tricosene and sugar compared with the 5- and 50-microl doses without sugar. The age of female flies collected in traps was determined by pterin analysis. Mean female ages ranged from 94.7 to 99.6 degree-days (6.3-6.8 d of age) and did not differ significantly among treatments. Dissections of a subset of females from each treatment determined that collected females were primarily nongravid (86.3%). Proportions of gravid females that were collected did not differ among treatments. PMID:21061998

  18. A sustained release gel formulation of doramectin for control of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; Klavons, J A

    2009-04-01

    A gel formulation formed by incorporating technical doramectin into a 10% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose aqueous solution was used to subcutaneously inject steers at varying dosages. Doramectin serum concentration of steers receiving 600 microg (AI)/kg body weight declined from 21.9 ppb at 0.5 wk to below detectable at 8 wk postinjection. The 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection resulted in serum concentrations of 29.1 ppb at 0.5 wk and declined to 0.5 ppb at 8 wk postinjection. Both the 600 and 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injections provided 100% inhibition of index of fecundity (IF) in adult lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum L. (Acari: Ixodidae) through week 8, after which inhibition declined to 79.4 and 45.3%, respectively, during the 12th week posttreatment. For steers treated at 600 microg (AI)/kg, mortality of adult horn flies, Hematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), declined from 16.9% during week 2 to 3.1% during week 7 postinjection. The blood from steers treated at 1,200 microg (AI)/kg resulted in a similar decline in mortality of blood fed adult horn flies from 29.4% during week 1 to 4.0% during week 7. The 600 microg (AI)/kg treatment provided complete control of larval horn flies in the manure for 9 wk, whereas the 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection gave complete control for 14 wk posttreatment. The doramectin gel formulation provided long-lasting delivery of doramectin to cattle and extended control of lone star ticks and larval horn flies. Such a simple and inexpensive formulation could be useful in tick eradication programs by reducing the frequency of gathering cattle. PMID:19449664

  19. Stability of Field-Selected Resistance to Conventional and Newer Chemistry Insecticides in the House Fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, N; Ijaz, M; Shad, S A; Khan, H

    2015-08-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a pest of livestock and has the ability to develop resistance to different insecticides. We assessed the fluctuations in seasonal stability of house fly resistance to insecticides from poultry facility populations in Pakistan. House fly populations were collected from poultry facilities located at Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan in three seasons (July, November, and March) to investigate the fluctuations in their resistance to conventional (organophosphate, pyrethroid) and novel chemistry (spinosyn, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid) insecticides. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions, and cotton pads dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results showed that all house fly populations had varying degrees of susceptibility to tested insecticides. Comparisons between populations at different seasons showed a significant fluctuation in susceptibility to organophosphate, pyrethroid, spinosyn, oxadiazine, and neonicotinoid insecticides. Highest resistant levels were found for organophosphate when compared with other tested insecticides. The resistance to conventional insecticides decreased significantly in March compared with July and November, while resistance to oxadiazine and avermectins decreased significantly in November. However, resistance to spinosad and imidacloprid remained stable throughout the seasons. All conventional and novel chemistry insecticides were significantly correlated with each other in all tested seasons except nitenpyram/lambda-cyhalothrin and nitenpyram/imidacloprid. Our data suggests that the variation in house fly resistance among seasons could be due to fitness costs or to the cessation of selection pressure in the off-season. These results have significant implications for the use of insecticides in house fly management. PMID:26174963

  20. Assessment of resistance risk to lambda-cyhalothrin and cross-resistance to four other insecticides in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    Lambda-cyhalothrin, a sodium channel modulator insecticide, has been used frequently for the control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide, including Pakistan. This experiment was performed to determine the selection and assessment of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance evolution along with four other insecticides. After 26 generations of selection, the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population developed 445-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the susceptible population. There was low cross-resistance to bifenthrin and very low cross-resistance to methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population compared to the field population (G1). Realized heritability (h (2)) of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil was 0.07, 0.05, 0.01, 0.08, and 0.08, respectively. The projected rate of resistance development revealed that if 90 % house flies were selected, then a tenfold increase in lethal concentration 50 occurred after 17, 20, 159, 13, and 14 generations for lambda-cyhalothrin (h (2) = 0.07, slope = 2.09), bifenthrin (h (2) = 0.05, slope = 1.73), methomyl (h (2) = 0.01, slope = 2.52), imidacloprid (h (2) = 0.08, slope = 1.89), and fipronil (h (2) = 0.08, slope = 2.03), respectively. The results of our study concluded that the house fly has the potential to develop multiple insecticide resistances following continued selection pressure with lambda-cyhalothrin. This study will be helpful for assisting the development of resistance management strategies. PMID:25903007

  1. House fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity near baits containing (Z)-9-tricosene and efficacy of commercial toxic fly baits on a southern California dairy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarah M; Gerry, Alec C; Mullens, Bradley A

    2007-08-01

    Sticky card captures of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), were used to compare efficacy of screen-covered baits containing sugar, sugar and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene, sugar and 1.0% (Z)-9-tricosene, Golden Malrin [1.1% methomyl and 0.049% (Z)-9-tricosene], and Quick-Bayt [0.5% imidacloprid and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene]. The QuickBayt treatment caught more flies per hour (mean = 116.5) than sugar alone (mean = 81.0), but the addition of (Z)-9-tricosene to sugar did not increase fly capture compared with sugar alone. More males (65% of total) than females were collected on the sticky cards for all treatments. Fly kill by plain sugar (control) and the commercial baits Golden Malrin, QuikStrike Fly Abatement strips (1.0% nithiazine), and QuickBayt was tested over a 90-min period. An average of 1.4, 5.6, 363.0, and 1,266.0 flies were killed using sugar, Golden Malrin, QuikStrike, and QuickBayt, respectively. The similarity between Golden Malrin and plain sugar reflects severe resistance to this once effective methomyl bait. A no-choice feeding assay using lab-reared methomyl-susceptible and methomyl-resistant house flies was conducted with and without (Z)-9-tricosene. Adult mortality was significantly higher in the methomyl-susceptible strain exposed to treatments containing methomyl. Lower consumption of the methomyl treatments by resistant flies suggested resistance was behavioral and mortality was not influenced by (Z)-9-tricosene for either fly strain. PMID:17849907

  2. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species. PMID:27515658

  3. Say goodbye to tribes in the new house fly classification: A new molecular phylogenetic analysis and an updated biogeographical narrative for the Muscidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Haseyama, Kirstern L F; Wiegmann, Brian M; Almeida, Eduardo A B; de Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2015-08-01

    House flies are one of the best known groups of flies and comprise about 5000 species worldwide. Despite over a century of intensive taxonomic research on these flies, classification of the Muscidae is still poorly resolved. Here we brought together the most diverse molecular dataset ever examined for the Muscidae, with 142 species in 67 genera representing all tribes and all biogeographic regions. Four protein coding genes were analyzed: mitochondrial CO1 and nuclear AATS, CAD (region 4) and EF1-α. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches were used to analyze five different partitioning schemes for the alignment. We also used Bayes factors to test monophyly of the traditionally accepted tribes and subfamilies. Most subfamilial taxa were not recovered in our analyses, and accordingly monophyly was rejected by Bayes factor tests. Our analysis consistently found three main clades of Muscidae and so we propose a new classification with only three subfamilies without tribes. Additionally, we provide the first timeframe for the diversification of all major lineages of house flies and examine contemporary biogeographic hypotheses in light of this timeframe. We conclude that the muscid radiation began in the Paleocene to Eocene and is congruent with the final stages of the breakup of Gondwana, which resulted in the complete separation of Antarctica, Australia, and South America. With this newly proposed classification and better understanding of the timing of evolutionary events, we provide new perspectives for integrating morphological and ecological evolutionary understanding of house flies, their taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography. PMID:25869937

  4. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species. PMID:26314021

  5. Sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages in natural habitats in central Spain: spatial and seasonal changes in composition.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A

    2013-03-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research. PMID:22774926

  6. [The influence of diptera on the domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, K

    1999-01-01

    The Diptera attacked domestic animals in Poland are: Simuliidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Gasterophilidae, Hypoder-matidae and Muscidae. The insect assail the crazing animals, mostly during sunny day dna at close of day. Lack of effective repelents and also difficulties with their usage, makes it impossible to complete extermination of parasitic insects in the environment. It is posible to effectively fight against Hypoderma bovis and Gasterophilus spp. PMID:16886371

  7. What do tiger-fly larvae (Diptera: Muscidae) eat?

    PubMed

    Santos, S; Martins, J; Marcelino, J; Mateus, C; Figueiredo, E

    2013-01-01

    Coenosia attenuata, usually known as tiger-fly, is a generalist predator of agricultural and forest pests in both larval and adult stages; it has potential to be an effective biocontrol agent in protected crops. To contribute for the knowledge of which prey this predator larvae potentially consumes, and of the occurrence and the conditions that promote cannibalism by tiger-fly larvae, intact alive specimens and portions of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris were tested as prey and the cannibalism was evaluated in the presence or in absence of fungus gnat larvae. The tiger-fly larvae fed on the bisected earthworm portions but seem to have difficulty to penetrate in the cuticle of the alive and moving L. terrestris. However, the time to start feeding on the portions of L terrestris was shorter than on fungus gnats. Cannibalism by C. attenuato was not detected, but mortality occurred in several modalities. Nevertheless, escaping from the Petri dishes was the dominant behaviour of the larvae in the cannibalism evaluation assay. PMID:25145255

  8. Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Muenworn, Vithee; Desquesnes, Marc; Desoli, Florian; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Duvallet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Stomoxys flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock, but occasionally humans. In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect. They also induce the gathering of animals for mutual protection; meanwhile they favor development of pathogens in the hosts and their transmission. Their indirect effect is the mechanical transmission of pathogens. In case of interrupted feeding, Stomoxys can re-start their blood meal on another host. When injecting saliva prior to blood-sucking, they can inoculate some infected blood remaining on their mouthparts. Beside this immediate transmission, it was observed that Stomoxys may keep some blood in their crop, which offers a friendly environment for pathogens that could be regurgitated during the next blood meal; thus a delayed transmission by Stomoxys seems possible. Such a mechanism has a considerable epidemiological impact since it allows inter-herd transmission of pathogens. Equine infectious anemia, African swine fever, West Nile, and Rift Valley viruses are known to be transmitted by Stomoxys, while others are suspected. Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.) are also transmitted by Stomoxys. Finally, Stomoxys was also found to act as an intermediate host of the helminth Habronema microstoma and may be involved in the transmission of some Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species. Being cosmopolite, Stomoxys calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission. PMID:23985165

  9. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  10. Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review

    PubMed Central

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Muenworn, Vithee; Desquesnes, Marc; Desoli, Florian; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Duvallet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Stomoxys flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock, but occasionally humans. In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect. They also induce the gathering of animals for mutual protection; meanwhile they favor development of pathogens in the hosts and their transmission. Their indirect effect is the mechanical transmission of pathogens. In case of interrupted feeding, Stomoxys can re-start their blood meal on another host. When injecting saliva prior to blood-sucking, they can inoculate some infected blood remaining on their mouthparts. Beside this immediate transmission, it was observed that Stomoxys may keep some blood in their crop, which offers a friendly environment for pathogens that could be regurgitated during the next blood meal; thus a delayed transmission by Stomoxys seems possible. Such a mechanism has a considerable epidemiological impact since it allows inter-herd transmission of pathogens. Equine infectious anemia, African swine fever, West Nile, and Rift Valley viruses are known to be transmitted by Stomoxys, while others are suspected. Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.) are also transmitted by Stomoxys. Finally, Stomoxys was also found to act as an intermediate host of the helminth Habronema microstoma and may be involved in the transmission of some Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species. Being cosmopolite, Stomoxys calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission. PMID:23985165

  11. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  12. Sex-biased Patterns of Saprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) Collected With Different Baits of Animal Origin.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, P R; Patitucci, L D; Olea, M S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the response behavior of males and females of different families of Calyptratae (Diptera) to two different baits (rotten liver and feces) as separate attractants. We describe the sex bias toward these baits for species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae and compare the general patterns of this sex bias according to the family or trophic guild. In total, 15 species of Sarcophagidae, 10 species of Muscidae, and 9 species of Calliphoridae were analyzed. A female-biased pattern was observed for most calliphorids and for all muscids, whereas a male-biased pattern was more frequent among sarcophagids. The female captures on each kind of bait were assessed as a potential indicator of potential breeding substrates of the species. Three different trophic guilds and their pattern of sex bias were compared. The results obtained allow hypothesizing on the biological traits of saprophagous species, especially on their potential breeding substrates, and assessing proper sampling methods. PMID:26334812

  13. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.  PMID:25661231

  14. Vapour toxicity of aerosol formulation, allethrin on Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Say & Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) N.

    PubMed

    Krishna, D; Murty, U S; Sriram, K; Jamil, K; Reddy, P J

    1993-09-01

    Studies on the toxicity of aerosol vaporizer formulation, allethrin were carried out on both male and female species of C. quinquefasciatus and M. domestica at different times of exposure. ANOVA models revealed significant differences in the mean values of the percentage mortalities in relation to sex and time-of-exposure for both the species. PMID:8262574

  15. Some ultrastructural superficial changes in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae induced by eucalyptol oil.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Boonchu, Noppawan; Piangjai, Somsak

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructural superficial changes in third instar house fly (Musca domestica) and blow fly (Chrysomya megacephala) induced by eucalyptol oil were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dipped in 0.902 g/ml eucalyptol for 30 sec, the larvae integument of both species showed significant aberrant appearance of the body surface, particularly swelling integument, bleb formation, partial breach and deformation of spines. PMID:15517029

  16. Evaluation of a transient barrier trapping system to manage the canyon fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Panchali K; Gerry, Alec C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A circular perimeter barrier of CO,-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction traps (without the light) was placed at a hilltop location in southern California known for high "canyon fly" activity, to determine whether a transiently operated barrier trapping system using attractive traps would reduce the number of these nuisance flies to successfully reach a human host within the protected area Preliminary studies demonstrated that the number of flies captured by a human host was reduced when a single CO2 trap was placed < or =20 m from the host, an indication that these traps are attractive enough to reduce fly pressure on nearby human hosts. The use of eight transiently operated CO2 traps placed equidistant along either a 15- or 5-m radius barrier perimeter significantly reduced the number of flies to reach a human host within the protected area Attack rates at the protected human host were reduced by a maximum of 51% in the presence of a protective barrier. However, with attack rates on a human host in the hundreds of flies per minute at the study site, this level of protection was not deemed sufficient for recommendation of this technique to homeowners or others who want temporary suppression of these nuisance flies in a limited area, such as a backyard. Implications of using a transient barrier trapping system to manage canyon flies are discussed. PMID:24605462

  17. A New Method for Collecting Clean Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae of Known Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., are important pest of confined and pasture cattle. They have been reared in the laboratory to study their biology and to test new methods of control. Research on rearing modifications has concentrated on developing larval diets from materials that are locally ...

  18. Knockdown resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the kdr (knockdown resistance) resistance-associated gene mutation and determine its frequency in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly (Haematobia irritans) populations, a total of 1,804 horn flies of 37 different populations from all Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southe...

  19. Persistence and retention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) by the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) was assessed through a bloodmeal, and virus persistence in the digestive organs of the fly using virus isolation and real-time PCR. Stable flies were fed blood containing live vi...

  20. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of mercury in house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Mishra, N; Tewari, R R

    2011-01-01

    Mercury, one of the most widely diffused and hazardous environmental contaminants, induces oxidative stress in organisms, which ultimately leads to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. House fly Musca domestica L. was used as a model for assaying the genotoxic potential of mercury with the help of micronucleus assay, chromosomal aberration assay as end points and cytotoxicity by assaying the mitotic index and the extent of tissue damage by trypan blue dye exclusion. Late third instar larvae were exposed to different dietary concentrations of mercury (0.0001 mg/ml- 10 mg/ml) for various time intervals. A dose dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus frequency and mitotic index was observed. Micronucleus frequency increases with time while mitotic index decreases showing decreasing rate of cell proliferation due to an increase in cell death. Trypan blue staining gives the visual manifestation of cytotoxicity at higher concentrations of mercury (1 mg/ml- 10mg/ml). The present study suggests that the house fly model may be used to assay the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of mercury as well as other environmental pollutants. PMID:21366971

  1. Condensed tannins inhibit house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) development in livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Kimberly A; Muir, James P; Lambert, Barry D; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-12-01

    Reducing chemical use for suppressing internal and external parasites of livestock is essential for protecting environmental health. Although plant condensed tannins are known to suppress gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants, no research on the effects of tannins on external arthropod populations such as the house fly, Musca domestica L., have been conducted. We examined the impact of plant material containing condensed tannins on house fly development. Prairie acacia (Acacia angustissima (Mill.), Kuntze variety hirta (Nutt.) B.L. Rob.) herbage, panicled tick-clover (Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.) herbage, and quebracho (Shinopsis balansae Engl.) extracts were introduced at rates of 1, 3 or 5% condensed tannins/kg beef cattle, dairy cattle, and goat manure, respectively. In a second experiment, we also introduce purified catechin at 1 or 3% of dairy manure dry matter and measured its impact on house fly development. For the house flies used in these experiments, the following was recorded: percent fly emergence (PFE), average daily gain (ADG), and average fly weight (AFW). No effects (P>0.05) in house fly development were measured in the caprine manure. Prairie acacia (20.9% condensed tannins) had no effect on house flies developing in either bovine manures. Tick clover (4.9% condensed tannins) had a negative effect on all three quantifiable variables of house fly development in the bovine manures, whereas quebracho extract (64.0% condensed tannins) at the 3 and 5% rate reduced fly emergence in beef manure and average daily gain in dairy manure. The application of purified catechin at 3%, but not 1%, reduced fly PFE, ADG, and AFW. PMID:22217775

  2. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Devine, Gregor J

    2012-05-01

    Pyriproxyfen is an insect growth regulator with juvenile hormone-like activity that has potential uses for dipterans that are difficult to manage with conventional insecticides, such as house flies (Musca domestica L.). The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of this insect growth regulator against house flies using variety of delivery systems and target life stages, including an evaluation of the potential for autodissemination by female flies to larval development sites. Adult female house flies exposed to filter paper (3.75% active ingredient) or sugar treated with pyriproxyfen (0.01-0.1%) produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies. Adult emergence from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval rearing medium with 0.35 ml/cm2 of a 12 mg pyriproxyfen/liter preparation had no effect on the number of pupae developing from eggs but markedly inhibited adult emergence from those pupae. There was little difference in susceptibility between an insecticide-susceptible and a wild strain of house fly. The LC50 for inhibiting fly emergence of dust formulations in diatomaceous earth incorporating commercial pyriproxyfen products ranged from 8 to 26 mg/liter, with little difference among products. Compared with untreated flies, significantly fewer pupae were produced at concentrations > 0.5% and no adults were produced at concentrations > 0.05% pyriproxyfen. When gravid females were exposed for 1 h to treated fabric (6 mg pyriproxyfen/cm2) and allowed to oviposit in rearing media containing eggs, sufficient pyriproxyfen was autodisseminated to reduce adult emergence from those eggs by > 99%. Intermittent contact with treated fabric over 2 d reduced adult emergence by 63-76%. PMID:22679868

  3. A behavioral method for separation of house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae from processed pig manure.

    PubMed

    Cicková, Helena; Kozánek, Milan; Morávek, Ivan; Takác, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A behavioral method applicable in biodegradation facilities for separation of house fly (Musca domestica L.) larvae from processed pig manure is presented. The method is based on placing a cover over the larval rearing tray, while escaping larvae are collected in collection trays. Separation units must be placed in a dark room to avoid negative phototactic responses of the larvae. After 24 h of separation, over 70% of the larvae escaped from processed manure and were collected in collection trays. Most of the larvae pupated within 48 h after separation. Mean weight of pupae recovered from manure residue was not significantly different from mean weight of pupae of separated individuals. Eclosion rate of pupae recovered from manure residue was significantly lower than eclosion of separated individuals, and was strongly related to separation success. Factors responsible for escape behavior of larvae are discussed. PMID:22420256

  4. Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2014-02-01

    Housefly (Musca domestica L.), one of the most common insects in human settlements, has been associated as vectors for various food-borne pathogens, causing food spoilage and disease transmission. The control of housefly was attempted using plant monoterpenes; menthone, menthol, menthyl acetate, limonene, citral and 1,8-cineole, against different life stages of housefly. Bioefficacy against housefly adults revealed highest repellent activity by menthol (95.6 percent) and menthone (83.3 percent). Against housefly larvae, menthol with an LC90 of 0.02 µl/cm(2) in contact toxicity assay and menthone with a LC90 value of 5.4 µl/L in fumigation assay were found to be most effective control agent. With respect to pupicidal activity, superior performance was shown by menthol, citral and 1,8-cineole in contact toxicity assay and citral and 1,8-cineole in fumigation assay. Limonene was found to be the poorest performer in all the assays. Overall, highest efficacy observed for menthol and menthone in various bioassays was in agreement with the results of essential oil activity obtained previously. Significant activity of monoterpenes against various life stages of housefly demonstrates their potential as excellent insecticides with prospects of monoterpenes being developed into eco-friendly and acceptable products for housefly control. PMID:24433784

  5. Populational dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linneaus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in three biocenosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Batista, Z; Leite, R C; Oliveira, P R; Lopes, C M L; Borges, L M F

    2005-06-30

    Populational flux of the adult phase of Stomoxys calcitrans was observed in the municipal district of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three biocenoses were selected for the study: stable agrobiocenosis, pastural agrobiocenosis and eubiocenosis. The occurrence and the populational flux of the insects, using the Magoon trap for their capture, were established. For each trap located in different biocenoses, a crossbred calf (Bos taurusxBos indicus) approximately 6-month-old was used as "live bait," exposed weekly for 48h in the traps. Of the three agrobiocenoses studied, the stable agrobiocenosis contributed the greatest number of specimens of. S. calcitrans captured, corresponding to 96.9% of the total flies of this species collected. S. calcitrans shows seasonal behavior for approximately 6 months (spring and summer being the rainiest months of the year). The population peaked during the months of November and December. During the months of July and August, there was no capture of flies. PMID:15908125

  6. Acetylcholinesterase of Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2193-nucleotide cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) was expressed in the baculovirus system. The open reading frame encoded a 91 amino acid secretion signal peptide and a 613 amino acid mature protein with 96% and 94% identity to the AChEs of Haema...

  7. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M; Gomes, Alberto; Ismael, Ana Paula K; Koller, Wilson W

    2002-09-01

    From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 micro g/cm2, and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6). Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides) represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations. PMID:12386720

  8. Flies (Diptera: Muscidae, Calliphoridae) are efficient pollinators of Allium ampeloprasum L. (Alliaceae) in field cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In conjunction with efforts to identify efficient insect pollinators for seed multiplication of cross-pollinated plant species stored and maintained by USDA, ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), experiments were conducted to assess and compare the efficiency of the house fly (HF)...

  9. Larvicide resistance in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in Denmark and establishment of resistant laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Michael; Jespersen, Jørgen B

    2003-08-01

    We determined the toxicity of the two IGRs, diflubenzuron and cyromazine, in this survey of resistance in Danish field populations of Musca domestica (L.). We observed resistance toward diflubenzuron and for the first time in Denmark and we found field populations with some resistance to cyromazine. Eleven of the twenty-one field populations had larvae surviving a diagnostic dose of 1.6 times of susceptible LC95 of diflubenzuron and two of these populations had larvae surviving 6.1 times of LC95. Eight of the twenty-one field populations had larvae surviving 2.2 times of susceptible LC95 of cyromazine and one population had larvae surviving 4.4 times of LC95. A fivefold cyromazine resistant strain was established after selection with cyromazine. It was 3-, 5-, and 90-fold resistant to diflubenzuron, triflumuron, and methoprene, respectively. Two diflubenzuron resistant strains (120- and 86-fold, respectively) were established. They showed a high level of resistance to triflumuron (1000- and 200-fold, respectively), and moderate resistance to methoprene (73- and 50-fold, respectively). Both were susceptible to cyromazine. This study shows that by applying the recommendations of previous resistance risk assessments, severe control failures and detrimental development of a high level of resistance have been avoided. The development of resistance has not been completely avoided, but has not developed to a level of biological or economic importance. PMID:14503604

  10. Toxicity and resistance of field collected Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) against insect growth regulator insecticides.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Arshad, Muhammad; Hafeez, Faisal

    2016-04-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r = 0.976, p < 0.001), suggesting the possibility for cross-resistance. Susceptibility status of different IGRs in Pakistani strains of house flies is reported here for the first time. The trend observed in decreasing susceptibility towards different IGR insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed. PMID:26711449

  11. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) that were exposed as young flies to filter paper (3.75 % a.i.) or sugar (0.01-0.1 %) treated with pyriproxyfen produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies but adult emergence success from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval re...

  12. A Protocol to Preserve the Integrity of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) DNA for Long Distance Shipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic studies on a global scale may be hampered by the ability to acquire quality samples from distant countries. Preservation methods must be adequate to prevent the samples from decay during shipping, so an adequate quantity of quality DNA can be extracted for analysis, and materials...

  13. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae)for West Nile virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, which are notorious pests of cattle and other livestock, were suspected of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) among American white pelicans at the Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Montana in 2006-2007. However the ability of stable flies to transmit the virus was unknown. ...

  14. A new genus and species of Coenosiini from Costa Rica (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Márcia Souto; de Carvalho, Claudio José Barros

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Palpilongus gen. n. is herein described for one species – Palpilongus bifurcus sp. n., from Costa Rica, based on male and females. The striking morphological characters of the species – palpus very long, about as long as prementum; upper calypter truncate and very short and setae of male sternite 5 bifurcated, confirm that this new species is also a new genus in the tribe Coenosiini. Male and female terminalia were dissected and illustrated. PMID:23950688

  15. Phenology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in round bale hay feeding sites in Eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of adult stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), emergence from six sites where large round baled hay had been provided to pastured cattle as winter feed were studied using emergence traps. The substrate at these sites, consisting of waste hay mixed with bovine manure...

  16. Field and laboratory trials of a novel metaflumizone house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) bait in California.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Bradley A; Gerry, Alec C; Diniz, Alesha N

    2010-04-01

    House fly responses to metaflumizone bait were studied in southern California. Field-strain, laboratory-reared flies in outdoor cages had access for 5 d to water and two containers of untreated sugar/dry milk (control), one container of untreated food and one container of metaflumizone bait, or one container of untreated food and one container of spinosad bait (positive control). Most fly mortality occurred between 0 and 48 h for spinosad and between 48 and 96 h for metaflumizone. On a commercial dairy, fly visitation and bait consumption were higher for metaflumizone bait than for sugar or imidacloprid bait. Flies seldom visited or consumed the imidacloprid bait. Approximately 32% of field flies collected directly from metaflumizone bait (single exposure) died when held in the laboratory with untreated food for 72 h versus < 5% mortality for flies from sugar or imidacloprid bait. Individual laboratory-reared females from a field strain and a susceptible laboratory strain were videotaped in the laboratory after exposure to untreated dry milk/sugar, metaflumizone bait, spinosad bait, and imidacloprid bait. Imidacloprid-induced mortality in field strain flies was low; when on the bait they spent proportionally less time feeding (38%) than did the laboratory strain flies (63%). Feeding by the field strain was more variable, and they fed less on all bait/food sources except metaflumizone. Metaflumizone has promise as a relatively slow-acting fly bait. PMID:20429473

  17. Selection for Resistance to Imidacloprid in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., continue to be a primary pest of livestock facilities worldwide. This pest also has shown a propensity for pesticide resistance development when under high selection pressures. In this study a house fly strain, FDm was created by a 20% contribution from each of fiv...

  18. Nutritional Limitation on Growth and Development of Horn Fly (Diptera:Muscidae) Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging of bovine dung for 3-5 yr under refrigeration depleted nutrients required for growth and development of horn fly larvae. Growth of horn fly larvae in mixtures of nutrient-depleted dung and fresh dung resulted in production of larvae and pupae stunted in proportion to the relative amount of ag...

  19. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  20. Treatment of pastures with diflubenzuron suppresses Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diflubenzuron is an insect growth regulator labeled for application to pastures and rangeland to suppress grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) populations. Livestock are permitted access to land immediately after treatment. We hypothesized that the development and survivorship of horn fly Haematobia ...

  1. Bacterial communities associated with larval development of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Adult stable flies are hematophagous parasites that preferentially feed on cattle. Persistent attacks and painful bites of the adults contribute to an economic impact of ~$2 billion/yr on the US cattle industry. Although stable flies are important livestock pests, relatively little is ...

  2. Oviposition deterrence and immature survival if filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial fungal products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the subletha...

  3. Acetylcholinesterase of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae): Baculovirus expression, biochemical properties and organophosphate insensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the baculovirus expression and biochemical characterization of recombinant acetylcholinesterase from Haematobia irritans (L) (rHiAChE) and the effect of the previously described G262A mutation on enzyme activity and sensitivity to selected organophosphates. The rHiAChE was confirm...

  4. The Morgan Recharger: a new horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control device for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Barton, W E; Gray, E W; Noblet, R; Thompson, C E

    1990-08-01

    A 20% diazinon formulation was evaluated for control efficacy against the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), in the Morgan Recharger (Morgan International Products, College Grove, Tenn.). The Morgan Recharger releases insecticide with a wicking system from an insecticide reservoir and can be attached to an animal's ear or tail. This device was most effective against the horn fly when used as an ear tag with two per head; horn fly counts did not exceed five flies per side through 8 wk. The diazinon formulation tested was released from the Morgan Recharger at a decreasing rate. The problems and potential of the Morgan Recharger as an effective horn fly control device are discussed. PMID:2212237

  5. Influence of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin treatments on insecticide resistance in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Byford, R L; Craig, M E; DeRouen, S M; Kimball, M D; Morrison, D G; Wyatt, W E; Foil, L D

    1999-01-01

    The history of insecticide resistance in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the relationship between the characteristics of horn fly biology and insecticide use on resistance development is discussed. Colonies of susceptible horn flies were selected for resistance with six insecticide treatment regimens: continuous single use of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin: permethrin-diazinon (1:2) mixture; and permethrin-diazinon and permethrin-ivermectin rotation (4-month cycle). Under laboratory conditions, resistance developed during generations 21, 31 and 30 to permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin, respectively. The magnitude of resistance ranged from < 3-fold with ivermectin to 1470-fold with permethrin. Field studies demonstrated that use of a single class of insecticidal ear tag during the horn-fly season resulted in product failure within 3-4 years for pyrethroids and organophosphates, respectively. In laboratory studies, use of alternating insecticides or a mixture of insecticides delayed the onset of resistance for up to 12 generations and reduced the magnitude of pyrethroid resistance. In field studies, yearly alternated use of pyrethroids and organophosphates did not slow or reverse pyrethroid resistance (Barros et al., unpublished data), while a 2-year alternated use with organophosphates resulted in partial reversion of pyrethroid resistance. When pyrethroid and organophosphate ear tags were used in a mosaic strategy at two different locations, efficacy of products did not change during a 3-year period. PMID:10048825

  6. Chlorfenapyr ear tags to control Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Volpogni, M M; Scherling, N; Cobeñas, M M; Mangold, A J; Anziani, O S; Ioppolo, M; Doscher, M

    2000-11-01

    The efficacy of ear tags containing 30% chlorfenapyr (total tag weight=13g) to control natural Haematobia irritans (L.) infestations was evaluated for Holstein heifers in Rafaela, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. A group of heifers (TG) was treated with two ear tags (one tag per ear). A control group (ACG) was maintained in a paddock adjacent to the TG paddock and, a distant control group (DCG) was maintained 700m apart from the other groups. From day 4 to day 98 after treatment, H. irritans infestations of ACG were significantly higher (P<0.05, test of Kruskal-Wallis) than the corresponding infestation of TG, but significantly lower than infestation in DCG, probably due to the proximity of TG. The chlorfenapyr control period, with an efficacy higher than 90% to reduce horn fly populations, lasted for 9 weeks when TG infestation was compared to fly numbers in ACG, but increased to 12 weeks in comparison to DCG. The results of this study show that ear tags impregnated with chlorfenapyr are a useful alternative to pyrethroids and organo-phosphate compounds for horn fly control. PMID:11027863

  7. Descriptions of Six New Species of Phaonia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wan-Qi; Rong, Hua; Du, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides diagnoses and keys to species in the Phaonia fuscicoxa-group and the Phaonia barkama-group from China; describes six new species, namely Phaonia subfuscicoxa Xue and Rong, sp. nov., Phaonia hypotuberosurstyla Xue and Rong, sp. nov., Phaonia caesiipollinosa Xue and Rong, sp. nov., Phaonia daliensis Xue and Du, sp. nov., Phaonia quadratilamella Xue, sp. nov., and Phaonia maoershanensis Xue, sp. nov. We report the distributions and provide notes on the affinities of known species. PMID:25368076

  8. Ultrastructure of immature stages of the black dump fly: Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Muscidae: Azeliinae).

    PubMed

    Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Ophyra aenescens (black dump fly) originally belonged to the New World, however, now it is spread worldwide. This fly is a mechanical vector of some pathogenic microorganisms and eggs of the human botfly (Dermatobia hominis). The adults are associated with decaying matter and the immature stages colonize animal and human corpses. It is considered an important muscid species for forensic entomology. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the eggs, the three larval instars and the puparia of O. aenescens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The spiracular opening of the first instar has an interruption in the middle of its length. Comparing to the other instar, the ventral tubercles are only developed in the first instar. The anterior spiracles have a variation in the numbers of spiracular ramification. The puparia morphology is similar to the third instar larvae, however the cephalic region is retracted and on the third thoracic segment, a respiratory structure is present. In conclusion, the SEM technique used and the results obtained are helpful to describe and differentiate the immature stages of O. aenescens and consequently support forensic and medical entomology. PMID:26943996

  9. Potential for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a disease of ruminants and humans, has been responsible for large outbreaks in Africa that have resulted in hundreds of thousands of human infections and major economic disruption due to loss of livestock and to trade restrictions. As indicated by the rapid spread of West N...

  10. Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report our recent findings on the identification of volatile compounds released from the ChiangKiang vinegar that is attractive to house flies, Musca domestica. The field trapping experiments showed that the traps baited with 50-ml of the vinegar captured the highest house flies in the diary farm...

  11. Dispersal of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from larval development sites in a Nebraska landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven mark recapture studies of stable flies wer conducted in a mixed agricultural environment in northeastern Nebraska. Larval developmental sites were marked by dusting the surface with fluorescent pigments and stable flies were recaptured with grids of Alsynite sticky traps. Recaptured flies were...

  12. Spatial-temporal dynamics of stable fly (Diptera:muscidae) trap catches in eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial and temporal relationships among catches of adult stable flies on sticky traps in eastern Nebraska were evaluated. Twenty-five alsynite sticky traps were placed in a 5 × 5 grid with ˜1.6 km intervals in a mixed agricultural environment from 2003 to 2011. Denser grids of 45-90 traps were impl...

  13. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most important arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The most recent detailed estimate of the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production, $608 million, was published in 1992. Subsequently, several studies on the impact of stable flies on...

  14. Reproductive potential of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive potential was assessed for lab-reared stable fly cohorts fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood. Stable flies fed chicken blood oviposited more eggs per day than did cohorts fed cattle or horse blood, but variance in oviposition periods resulted in equal lifetime fecundity across treatmen...

  15. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  16. Susceptibility of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) to permethrin in dairies in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vázquez, Carlos; Altamira, Guicelda; Ramos, Miguel; Medina, Leticia; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; George, John

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey for the susceptibility of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), populations to permethrin on dairy cattle from Aguascalientes, Mexico. Samples of populations of horn flies at 25 dairies were exposed to two discriminating doses (2.5 and 6.0 microg/cm2) on permethrin-treated filter papers and the percentage of mortality was compared with that of a susceptible strain treated with same doses of permethrin. The results show that there was a difference in the mortality from two discriminating doses and the mortality of the susceptible strain. Therefore, horn fly populations at all dairies tested in Aguascalientes, Mexico, were susceptible to permethrin. This insecticide, as well as other pyrethroids, could continue to be used to provide satisfactory control of horn flies in the study region. PMID:12495197

  17. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  18. Geographic distribution of stomoxyine flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal activity of Stomoxys calcitrans in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Muenworn, Vithee; Duvallet, Gerard; Thainchum, Krajana; Tuntakom, Siripun; Tanasilchayakul, Somchai; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Akratanakul, Pongthep; Sukonthabhirom, Suprada; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2010-09-01

    Stomoxyine flies (Stomoxys spp.) were collected in 10 localities of Thailand using the Vavoua traps. These localities represented four major ecological settings, as follows: small local dairy farms, large industrial dairy farms, a national park, and one elephant conservation area. Three species of stable flies were identified in the following proportions: Stomoxys calcitrans (91.5%), Stomoxys indicus (7.9%), and Stomoxys sitiens (0.6%). The number of flies collected differed significantly among collection sites (chi2 = 360.15, df=3, P < 0.05). The greatest number of stomoxyine flies was captured in dairy farms. Seasonal and daily activity of S. calcitrans was observed during a 1-yr period at two selected locations (Dairy Farming Promotion Organization of Thailand and Khao Kheow Open Zoo). S. calcitrans was more abundant during the rainy season (March-September), but was not associated with the total rainfall (r2 = 0.0002, P > 0.05). Peak of daily flight activity of males S. calcitrans was at 1000 and 1600 h, whereas females showed an increase of activity all along the day until 1600 h. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior related to patterns of daily activity will facilitate and improve the efficiency of fly control measures in private and government sectors. PMID:20939373

  19. Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Zhu, Junwei J; Sims, Steve R; Taylor, David B; Zeng, Xiaopeng

    2013-04-01

    A commercial vinegar product (ChinKiang) was found to be highly attractive to adult house flies, Musca domestica L. Field experiments on a Nebraska dairy demonstrated that traps baited with vinegar and brown sugar captured more house flies than those baited with other house fly attractants. Solid phase microextraction was used in the field to collect volatiles from the vinegar bait. Seven compounds were identified as, acetic acid, furfural, butanoic acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-phenylethanol, and p-cresol. Electroantennograms showed that the seven vinegar components elicited significant responses from antennae of female and male house flies. Bioassays indicated that the vinegar blend of the seven volatile components were more attractive than any of the individual components. Field evaluations demonstrated that traps baited with the synthetic seven component blend caught as many flies as those baited with vinegar. This is the first detailed report of house fly attractants from vinegar. The vinegar volatile compounds identified in this study will be useful for the development of less objectionable alternatives to the fetid, manure mimicking volatiles currently used in commercial fly bait systems, especially those designed for use in indoor environments. PMID:23786090

  20. Methods for monitoring outdoor populations of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J

    2005-12-01

    Relative collections of house flies were compared on two Florida dairy farms using several monitoring methods: sticky cylinders, baited jug traps (Farnam Terminator and Victor Fly Magnet), and bait strips (Wellmark QuikStrike). Bait strips were placed over collecting pans and under 61 cm square plywood roofs to protect the toxicant from sunlight ("sheltered QuikStrike traps"). Sticky cylinders collected the fewest flies (515-679 flies/trap/day) and sheltered QuikStrike traps the most (5,659-8,814 flies/trap/day). The sheltered QuikStrike traps are promising tools for disease surveillance programs. The two baited jugs collected a similar and intermediate number of flies, with collections highest during the first 2 days after placement (2,920-5,462 flies/trap/day). Jug trap collections were low after 4 days of use in the field, apparently due to deterioration in the attractiveness of the bait over time. Jug traps collected mostly females, whereas sticky cylinders and sheltered QuikStrike traps collected mostly males. Exposure of jug trap bait (Farnam) to fly cadavers for 3 days did not increase attractiveness of the bait. Combinations of the Farnam and Victor attractants were more attractive than either attractant alone and 25-43% more attractive than expected based on the sum of collections in the single-attractant jug traps. A 25% solution of farm-grade blackstrap molasses was as effective as either of the two proprietary baits tested, offering a low-cost alternative for fly population monitoring. PMID:16599159

  1. Control of horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida with an Australian trap.

    PubMed

    Tozer, R S; Sutherst, R W

    1996-04-01

    A newly developed Haematobia spp. trap is described, and results are presented from field trials to reduce populations of adult horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., on 5 dairy farms in western Florida and Alabama during the summer of 1992. We compared fly infestations on milkers subjected to trapping, versus either dry cattle on the same farm or milkers on a nearby farm, without the trap but where traditional horn fly control practices were used. Results gave 96.9% (95% CI, 93.8-98.4) reduction compared with dry cattle with a mean count of 228 per animal, and 90.2% (84.5-94.5%) compared with milkers on the control farms with a mean count of 113. Trapping removed the need to use insecticides to control this pest on milking dairy cattle and so offers a practical, environmentally acceptable, safe, and sustainable means of horn fly control on cattle which pass through the trap regularly. PMID:8934825

  2. Detection of Blood in Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) with Hemoccult® Test Strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoccult® test kits were used to detect the remnants of blood meals in stable flies. The strips were able to detect remnants of blood meals in > 90% of the stable flies up to 8 days after blood feeding. This can be compared with detecting blood in the gut visually which was possible in less than 5%...

  3. Sublethal consequences of commercial fungal products on filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the subletha...

  4. Discovery of microRNAs of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) by high-throughput sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus), is a serious ectoparasite affecting animal production and health of both animals and humans. Stable fly control relies largely on chemical insecticides; however, the development of insecticide resistance, as well as environmental considerations, requir...

  5. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  6. Inheritance of Propoxur Resistance in a Near-Isogenic Line of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Zhuo; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-04-01

    Propoxur, a carbamate insecticide, has been used worldwide for the control of house flies (Musca domestica L.) for many decades. Resistance levels to propoxur have been detected in field populations of house flies in many parts of the world, including China. In this study, a near-isogenic house fly line (N-PRR) resistant to propoxur was used to determine the mode of inheritance. Bioassay results showed no significant differences in LD50 values or in the slope of log dose-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1’ progenies, and the degree of dominance (D) was more than −1 and less than 0. Chi-square analysis of the responses of self-bred (F2, F2’) and backcross progenies (BC1, BC2, BC1’, and BC2’) indicated that a single gene was responsible for resistance. Propoxur resistance in the N-PRR strain of house fly was inherited as a single, major, autosomal, and incompletely recessive factor. These results should be useful to reveal the mode of inheritance and the development trend of propoxur resistance and develop a systematic strategy for the resistance management in house flies. PMID:26921225

  7. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition. PMID:26547564

  8. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  9. Resistance to Conventional and New Insecticides in House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Poultry Facilities in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Ali Shad, Sarfraz; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are pests of poultry facilities and have the ability to develop resistance against different insecticides. This study was conducted to assess the resistance status of house flies to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and novel chemistry insecticides from poultry facilities in Punjab, Pakistan. Five adult house fly populations were studied for their resistance status to selected conventional and novel chemistry insecticides. For four pyrethroids, the range of resistance ratios was 14-55-fold for cypermethrin, 11-45-fold for bifenthrin, 0.84-4.06-fold for deltamethrin, and 4.42-24-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin when compared with a susceptible population. Very low levels of resistance were found to deltamethrin compared with the other pyrethroids. For the three organophosphate insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.70-16-fold for profenofos, 7.50-60-fold for chlorpyrifos, and 4.37-53-fold for triazophos. Very low levels of resistance were found to profenofos compared with the other insecticides. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 1.20-16.00-fold for fipronil, 3.73-7.16-fold for spinosad, 3.06-23-fold for indoxacarb, 0.96-5.88-fold for abamectin, and 0.56-3.07-fold for emamectin benzoate. Rotation of insecticides with different modes of action showing no or very low resistance may prevent insecticide resistance in house flies. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring and integrated management plans on poultry farms are required to prevent resistance development, field control failures, and environmental pollution. PMID:26470195

  10. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if the reduced suitability of freeze-killed pupae for Pteromalidae, particularly Spalangia cameroni Perkins, is due to freezing, freezing duration or the type of freezer utilized. Processing pupae through freezing had a considerably greater negative effect on ...

  11. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if the reduced suitability of freeze-killed pupae for Pteromalidae, particularly Spalangia cameroni Perkins, is due to freezing, freezing duration or the type of freezer utilized. Processing pupae through freezing had a considerably greater negative effect on ...

  12. Horizontal Transmission of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, M C; Felchicher, F; Duarte, J P; Bernardi, E; Ribeiro, P B

    2015-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin are fungi with potential for controlling Musca domestica L. However, the impact on this dipteral may vary depending on the fungal isolates and the methodology used. This study evaluated the pathogenicity of direct application and horizontal transmission of B. bassiana (CG240) and M. anisopliae (CG34) on adult M. domestica individuals. The impact of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae on M. domestica was evaluated at the concentrations 2 × 10(4), 2 × 10(5), 2 × 10(6), and 2 × 10(7) conidia/ml. Horizontal transmission was also estimated between sexes at different infection periods of the vector insect. The mortality of adult M. domestica individuals directly infected with B. bassiana was above 90%, and the mortality of those infected with M. anisopliae ranged from 25.50 to 97.78%. Horizontal transmission of B. bassiana caused the death of 100% of individuals, in turn, that of M. anisopliae killed 55% of male and 100% of female individuals. Horizontal transmission of fungi was negatively influenced by time. This study shows the potential of these fungi for controlling M. domestica, both with the direct implementation strategy and horizontal transmission. However, field studies are needed to evaluate the capacity to decrease the M. domestica population using these alternatives. PMID:26470298

  13. Evaluation of commercial and field-expedient baited traps for house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparison of 9 commercial baited fly traps on Florida dairy farms demonstrated that Terminator traps collected significantly more (13,323/trap) house flies (Musca domestica L.) than the others tested; Final Flight, Fly Magnet and FliesBeGone traps collected intermediate numbers of flies (834-2,16...

  14. Insecticidal evaluation of essential oils of Citrus sinensis L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) against housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is one of the most common insects, associated with vectoring of various etiological agents. In order to search for effective control agent, the essential oil of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was evaluated for its insecticidal activity against the larvae and pupae of housefly using contact toxicity and fumigation bioassays. In the contact toxicity assay, lethal concentration, LC(50) of C. sinensis essential oil against housefly larvae, varied between 3.93 and 0.71 μl/cm(2) for different observation days, while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 5.8 to 2.3 days. Mortality of larvae were significant with different concentrations (F = 2.79, df = 4, P < 0.05) and time (F = 6.69, df = 3, P < 0.01). In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) of 71.2 and 52.6 μl/l was obtained in 24 and 48 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of oil treated larvae revealed extreme dehydration and surface distortion while control larvae were free from any of the above symptoms and presented smooth surface, conforming effect of essential oil on housefly larvae. Percentage inhibition rate of oil against housefly pupae was 27.3-72.7% for contact toxicity and 46.4-100% for fumigation assay. Compositional analysis of C. sinensis essential oil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed D: -limonene (73.24%), α-pinene (5.86%) and myrcene (4.45%) as major components whereas its vapour profile (solid-phase micro extraction-GC/MS) was dominated by D: -limonene at 92.57%. Significant activity of C. sinensis essential oil against larvae and pupae of housefly, pave the way for its use as eco-friendly housefly control measure. PMID:22127387

  15. Characterization, expression, and evolutionary aspects of Corazonin neuropeptide and its receptor from the House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Sha, Kai; Conner, W Craig; Choi, Dae Y; Park, Jae H

    2012-04-15

    In this article, we characterized structure and expression of genes encoding the neuropeptide Corazonin (MdCrz) and its putative receptor (MdCrzR) in the House Fly, Musca domestica. The MdCrz gene contains two introns, one within the 5' untranslated region and the other within the open reading frame. The 150-amino-acid precursor consists of an N-terminal signal peptide, and mature Crz followed by Crz-associated peptide (CAP). The CAP region is highly diverged from those of other insect precursors, whereas the mature Crz is identical in other dipteran members. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry consistently found a group of three MdCrz-producing neurons in the dorso-lateral protocerebrum, and eight pairs of bi-lateral neurons in the ventral nerve cord in the larvae. In adults, the expression was found exclusively in a cluster of five to seven neurons per brain lobe. Comparable expression patterns observed in other dipteran species suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms of Crz expression and functions during the course of evolution. MdCrzR deduced from the full-length cDNA sequence is a 655-amino acid polypeptide that contains seven trans-membrane (TM) domains and other motifs that are characteristics of Class-A G-protein coupled receptors. Although the TMs and loops between the TMs are conserved in other CrzRs, N-terminal extracellular domain is quite dissimilar. Tissue-specific RT-PCR revealed a high level of MdCrzR expression in the larval salivary glands and a moderate level in the CNS. In adults, the receptor was expressed both in the head and body, suggesting multifunctionality of the Crz signaling system. PMID:22326268

  16. A full-scale house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae bioconversion system for value-added swine manure reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Zhijian; Czapar, George F; Winkler, Mari K H; Zheng, JianGuo

    2013-02-01

    Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported. The greenhouse-assisted larvae bioreactor had a maximum daily treatment capacity of 35 m(3) fresh raw manure per day. The bioconversion process produced a fresh larvae yield of 95-120 kg m(3) fresh raw manure. This process provided an alternative animal foodstuff (having 56.9 and 23.8% protein and total fat as dry matter, respectively), as well as captured nutrients for agricultural re-utilization. Bioconversion reduced odour emission (characterized by 3-methylindole) and the Escherichia coli (E. coli) index by 94.5 and 92.0%, respectively, and reductions in total weight, moisture and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in solids were over 67.2, 80.0 and 76.0%, respectively. Yearly profit under this trial period ranged from US$33.4-46.1 per m(3). It is concluded that swine manure larvae bioconversion technology with subsequent production of value-added bio-products can be a promising avenue when considering a programme to reduce waste products in an intensive animal production system. PMID:23308017

  17. Use of bioluminescent Escherichia coli to determine retention during the life cycle of the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae, L).

    PubMed

    Schuster, Greta L; Donaldson, Janet R; Buntyn, Joe O; Duoss, Heather A; Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeff A; Falkenberg, Shollie M; Schmidt, Ty B

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have documented that the housefly (Musca domestica) can serve as a vector for the spread of foodborne pathogens to livestock, food, and humans. Most studies have investigated Musca domestica as a vector only after the fly comes into contact or consumes the pathogen as an adult. The objective of this study was to determine whether the larvae of Musca domestica could ingest Escherichia coli from bovine manure and whether the E. coli could survive the metamorphosis process and be transmitted. Larvae (n=960) were incubated in sterilized bovine manure inoculated with 0, 3, 5, and 8 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of bioluminescent E. coli for 24 (larvae stage), 48 (larvae stage), 120 (pupae stage), and 192 h (adult stage). Larvae incubated for 24 h in bovine manure possessed 0.0, 2.7, 2.9, and 3.5 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli, from inoculated with 0, 3, 5, and 8 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli, respectively. Concentrations of E. coli within the pupae were 0.0, 1.7, 1.9, and 2.2 log(10) CFU/mL for each inoculation concentration, respectively. Flies that emerged from the pupae stage contained 0.0, 1.3, 2.2, and 1.7 log(10) CFU/mL of E. coli from larvae incubated in manure inoculated with concentrations of E. coli, respectively. These results suggest the housefly can emerge with quantities of E. coli. While this was an enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), these data may suggest that if the fly is capable of retaining similar concentrations of an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), these concentrations may be capable of initiating illness in humans. Furthermore, the E. coli concentration within and on adult flies is related to environmental exposure. It must be noted that larvae were incubated in sterilized bovine manure, and there was no other bacterial competition for the E. coli. Thus, the rate of positive flies and concentrations present when flies emerged may vary under more realistic conditions. PMID:23536983

  18. Mechanism, stability and fitness cost of resistance to pyriproxyfen in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a bio-rational insecticide, used worldwide for the management of many insect pests including the house fly, Musca domestica. To devise a retrospective resistance management strategy, biological parameters of pyriproxyfen resistant (Pyri-SEL), unselected (UNSEL), Cross1 and Cross2M. domestica strains were studied in the laboratory. Additionally, the stability and mechanism of resistance was also investigated. After 30 generations of pyriproxyfen selection, a field-collected strain developed 206-fold resistance compared with susceptible strain. Synergists such as piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate did not alter the LC50 values, suggesting another cause of target site resistance to pyriproxyfen in the Pyri-SEL strain. The resistance to all tested insecticides was unstable in Pyri-SEL strain. The relative fitness of 0.51 with lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, reduced mean population growth rate and net reproductive rate were observed in the Pyri-SEL strain compared with the UNSEL strain. The cost of fitness associated with pyriproxyfen resistance was evident in Pyri-SEL strain. The present study provides useful information for making pro-active resistance management strategies to delay resistance development. PMID:25868819

  19. Use of bioluminescent Escherichia coli to determine retention during the life cycle of the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae, L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have documented that the house fly (Musca domestica) can serve as a bio-enhanced vector for the spread of pathogens to livestock, food, and humans. However, current data has investigated Musca domestica as a vector only after contact with/consuming the pathogen after emerging as an adul...

  20. Simultaneous detection of Pyrethroid, Organophosphate and Cyclodiene target site resistance in Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) by multiplex Polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus, 1758), is an important pest that causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry, but insecticide resistance in horn fly populations has made horn fly control increasingly difficult to achieve. In this study, we developed a multiplex...

  1. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR)to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stab...

  2. Insecticidal activity of monoterpenoids to western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Tsao, R; Peterson, C; Coats, J R

    1997-08-01

    Acute toxicities of 34 naturally occurring monoterpenoids were evaluated against 3 important arthropod pest species; the larva of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the adult of the twospotted spider mite. Tetranychus urticae Koch; and the adult house fly. Musca domestica L. Potential larvicidal or acaricidal activities of each monoterpenoid were determined by topical application, leaf-dip method, soil bioassay, and greenhouse pot tests. Phytotoxicity was also tested on a corn plant. Citronellic acid and thymol were the most topically toxic against the house fly, and citronellol and thujone were the most effective on the western corn rootworm. Most of the monoterpenoids were lethal to the twospotted spider mite at high concentrations; carvomenthenol and terpinen-4-ol were especially effective. A wide range of monoterpenoids showed some larvicidal activity against the western corn rootworm in the soil bioassay. Perillaldehyde, the most toxic (LC50 = 3 micrograms/g) in soil, was only 1/3 as toxic as carbofuran, a commercial soil insecticide (LC50 = 1 microgram/g). Selected monoterpenoids also effectively protected corn roots from attack by the western corn rootworm larvae under greenhouse conditions. alpha-Terpineol was the best monoterpenoid in the greenhouse pot test. The acute toxicity of monoterpenoids was low relative to conventional insecticides. Some monoterpenoids were phytotoxic to corn roots and leaves. l-Carvone was the most phytotoxic, whereas pulegone was the safest. The results with thymyl ethyl ether, one of the synthetic derivatives of thymol, showed a potential of derivatization to reduce monoterpenoid phytotoxicity. PMID:9260540

  3. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Used to Investigate Genetic Variability of the Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Across North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L), is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and humans; its pestiferous nature and painful bite cause stress to cattle and other animals. The stress and resulting avoidance behaviors manifest as reductions in weight gain or milk production in cattle; estimated annual...

  4. Genetic variation between populations of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)(Diptera: Muscidae) from Nebraska, Denmark and Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L., is a cosmopolitan, major pest of livestock. Previous studies on this insect, from samples within the United States, suggested a large amount of gene flow; more genetic variation was detected within populations than between populations. To compare the genetic v...

  5. Effects of compaction and wetting of laterite cover soil on development and survival of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) immatures.

    PubMed

    Abu Tahir, Nurita; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies. PMID:24180104

  6. Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-12-01

    With a greater awareness of the hazards associated with the use of synthetic organic insecticides, there has been an urgent need to explore suitable alternative products for pest control. Musca domestica is ubiquitous insect that has the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans and livestock. They are mechanical carriers of more than hundred human and animal intestinal diseases and are responsible for protozoan, bacterial, helminthic, and viral infections. The present work aimed to investigate the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Manilkara zapota against M. domestica. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 421 nm and scanning electron microscopy confirm the biosynthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. The FTIR analysis of the purified nanoparticles showed the presence of bands 1,079, 1,383, 1,627, 2,353, and 2,648 cm(-1), which were complete synthesis of AgNPs; the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2θ values of 38.06°, 44.37°, 64.51°, and 77.31° sets of lattice planes were observed (111), (200), (220), and (311) facts of silver, respectively. Adult flies were exposed to different concentrations of the aqueous extract of synthesized Ag NPs, 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution and aqueous extract of M. zapota for 1, 2, and 3 h; however, AgNPs showed 72% mortality in 1 h, 89% mortality was found in 2 h, and 100% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/mL and the leaf aqueous extract showed 32% mortality in 1 h, 48% mortality was found in 2 h, and 83% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at concentration of 50 mg/mL. The most efficient activity was observed in synthesized Ag NPs against M. domestica (LD(50) = 3.64 mg/mL; LD(90) = 7.74 mg/mL), the moderate activity reported in the aqueous extract of M. zapota (LD(50) = 28.35 mg/mL; LD(90) = 89.19 mg/mL) and nil activity were observed in AgNO(3) solution at 3 h exposure time at 10 mg/mL. Dimethyl 2, 2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) was used as a positive control and showed the LD(50) value of 3.38 mL/L. These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the adult of M. domestica. This method is considered as a new approach to control sanitary pest. Therefore, this study provides first report on the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized Ag NPs against housefly. PMID:22033735

  7. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used to investigate genetic variability of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) across North America.

    PubMed

    Kneeland, K M; Skoda, S R; Foster, J E

    2013-09-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and humans. The pestiferous nature and painful bite cause stress to cattle and other animals. The stress and resulting avoidance behaviors manifest as reductions in weight gain or milk production in cattle; estimated annual economic loss in the United States exceeds US$2 billion. Understanding the population genetics of stable flies could provide information on their population dynamics, origins of outbreaks, and geographical patterns of insecticide resistance, resulting in a tactical advantage for developing management strategies. Previous studies, mostly on a local scale, reported a high level of gene flow between locations. Here, we report results wherein amplified fragment length polymorphism was used to determine genetic diversity of stable fly samples consisting of 11-40 individuals from 12 locations representing the United States, Canada, and Panama. The Analysis of Molecular Variance showed that the majority of genetic diversity was within groups; very little was among groups. The F(ST) and G(ST) values were low (< 0.4), Nm values high (> 1.0). The tests of neutrality suggested population expansion, and no genetic differentiation was found between locations. These results show that stable flies have a high level of gene flow on a continental scale, with limited isolation owing to distance or geographical barriers. PMID:24180107

  8. A Natural Cattle Immune Response Against Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Salivary Antigens May Regulate Parasite Blood Intake.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Pastro, L; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Alonzo, P; Santos, M; Bolatto, C; Fernández, C; Meikle, A

    2016-08-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a blood-sucking ectoparasite that is responsible for sizeable economic losses in livestock. The salivary gland products facilitate blood intake. Taking advantage of the identification of novel H. irritans salivary antigens (Hematobin, HTB and Irritans 5, IT5), we investigated the parasite loads, H. irritans blood intake, and antibody response of naturally infected bovines during the fly season. Fly loads and fly hemoglobin content fluctuated during the trial. Each time horn fly loads exceeded 200 flies per cattle, a reduction in horn fly blood intake was observed three weeks later. All of the cattle elicited an antibody response against HTB and IT5 that declined once the fly season was over. Cattle anti-IT5 titers were positively correlated with parasite loads and negatively correlated with fly blood intake. These results suggest that the natural changes in the H. irritans blood intake observed in this study were associated with a natural host response against horn fly salivary antigens. PMID:27329632

  9. Toxicity of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Zanthoxylum armatum oil constituents and related compounds to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-09-01

    Zanthoxylum plants (Rutaceae) have drawn attention because they contain insecticidal principles against insects. An assessment was made of the insecticidal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate and Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, their 28 constituents, and eight structurally related compounds against female stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Results were compared with those of two organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. Potent fumigant toxicity was observed with cuminaldehyde, thymol, (1S)-(-)-verbenone, (-)-myrtenal, carvacrol, (S)-(Z)-verbenol, Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate, cuminyl alcohol, Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, piperitone, (-)-(Z)-myrtanol, and citronellal (LC50, 0.075-0.456 microg/cm3). However, they were five orders of magnitude less toxic than either chlorpyrifos or dichlorvos. An in vitro bioassay using female fly heads indicates that strong AChE inhibition was produced by citronellyl acetate, alpha-pinene, thymol, carvacrol, and alpha-terpineol (1.20-2.73 mM), but no direct correlation between fly toxicity and AChE inhibition by the test compounds was observed. Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as carbon skeleton, degrees of saturation and types of functional groups, and vapor pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicities of the test monoterpenoids to stable flies. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on Z. piperitum and Z. armatum oil-derived materials as potential insecticides for the control of stable fly populations. PMID:23025190

  10. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) against adult Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) under stable conditions in the Mexican dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Velasco, E; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Pescador-Rubio, A; Angel-Sahagún, C A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Contreras-Lara, D

    2015-04-30

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of five strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) and three strains of Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) at a concentration of 1×10(8)colony-forming units/ml applied by spraying onto bovines with controlled infestation of Haematobia irritans under stable conditions in the Mexican dry tropics. Four experiments were performed, in each of which three treatments (two fungal strains and one control) were evaluated with eight repetitions for each one, by carrying out a single application of the aqueous suspension of each strain. The animals were isolated in individual cages and direct counts of the infestation were carried out for 13 days. It was observed that strains Ma2, Ma6, Ma10, Ma14, and Ma34 caused 94-100% reduction in infestation between days 12 and 13 post-treatment, while strains Ifr19, Ifr11, and Ifr12 reduced infestation from 90% to 98% up to day 13 post-application. There was an effect in the generation of horn flies from the excrement of bovines that were treated with different strains, reducing the reproduction of subsequent generations. It was concluded that the strains of M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea evaluated in this study can be used as biocontrol agents in infestations of H. irritans in stabled bovines. PMID:25771932

  11. Evaluation of various substances to increase adult Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) collections on alsynite cylinder traps in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E

    1999-09-01

    During 1993-1995, field studies evaluated various volatile substances to increase the catch of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., on adhesive-coated translucent fiberglass (Alsynite) cylinder traps. Dry ice, 1-octen-3-ol (referred to as octenol), acetone, 4:1:8 mixture of 1 octen-3-ol: 3-n-propylphenol: 4-methylphenol, and an eye gnat (Hippelates) attractant were tested. Using dry ice as a baseline, the latter 4 treatments also were considered as possible alternatives to carbon dioxide. Dry ice significantly increased fly collections on cylinders as much as 25-fold compared with cylinders with no odor. Although trap collections increased by approximately 4% with addition of octenol (release rate approximately 18.0 mg/h), it was not significantly different when compared with dry ice alone. Fly collections on cylinders baited with octenol only were significantly lower than dry ice and not significantly different from cylinders with no odor. Collections from Alsynite cylinders baited with either acetone released at approximately 62.0 mg/h or eye gnat bait plus sand caught significantly more stable flies than no odor. However, neither substance increased fly collections as much as dry ice. The 4:1:8 phenolic mixture (released at either 0.7 mg/h or 20.0 mg/h) significantly increased fly collection on cylinders nearly 6-fold compared with no odor and warrants further investigation as an alternative to carbon dioxide for sampling stable flies. PMID:10534955

  12. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  13. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  14. Toxicity to vapor exposure and topical application of essential oils and monoterpenes on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Tarelli, G; Zerba, E N; Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2009-06-01

    The medical and veterinary pest Musca domestica L. has developed resistance to most insecticides used against it. For this reason, there is a constant search for new alternative control tools. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the toxicological effects caused by the fumigant activity and the topical application of five essential oils and five monoterpenes in M. domestica adult males and (2) to study the variation of the fumigant activity of the essential oils and monoterpenes according to the solvent used (acetone or a silicone base). Houses flies were exposed to vapors delivered by filter paper treated with 200 microl of essential oil or monoterpene (10%) in acetone or a silicone base. The knockdown time 50% (KT50) values obtained for essential oils (expressed in minutes) were 3.3 (eucalyptus); 10.1 (orange); 10.4 (mint); 10.9 (lavender); and 17.7 (geranium). The KT50 values obtained for monoterpenes (expressed in minutes) were 2.3 (eucalyptol); 7.5 (limonene); 7.6 (linalool); 19.0 (menthone); and 22.6 (menthyl acetate). In all cases, a delay in the onset of poisoning symptoms was observed when a silicone base vehicle was used. When topically applied, the lethal dose 50% (LD50) values for essential oils (expressed in micrograms of oil/insect) were 0.07 (geranium); 0.09 (mint); 0.13 (lavender); 0.14 (eucalyptus); and 0.16 (orange). The LD50 values for monoterpenes (expressed in micrograms of monoterpene/insect) were 0.04 (linalool); 0.09 (menthyl acetate); 0.10 (limonene); 0.11 (menthone); and 0.13 (eucalyptol). These results suggest that the studied essential oils and monoterpenes are potential tools for controlling M. domestica. PMID:19610461

  15. A Comparison of Attractants for Sampling Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) on Dairy Farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phasuk, J; Prabaripai, A; Chareonviriyaphap, T

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of different stable fly attractants was evaluated at four dairy cattle farms in Muak Lek district, Saraburi province, Thailand. Dry ice, octenol, a mixture of cow dung and urine, a combination of dry ice plus octenol, and no attractants (control) were tested with Vavoua traps. In total, 7,000 individuals of Stomoxys species were collected between July 2013 to September 2014, of which 1,058, 867, 1,274, and 3,801 were trapped on farms 1–4, respectively. Four species of Stomoxys were identified: Stomoxys bengalensis Picard, 1908, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., 1758), Stomoxys indicus Picard, 1908, and Stomoxys sitiens Rondani, 1873. S. calcitrans was the predominant species, comprising 99% of all the samples collected. The number of male and female S. calcitrans collected differed significantly by attractant type. Significantly more S. calcitrans were attracted to dry ice or a combination of dry ice plus octenol-baited traps than to unbaited or octenol-baited traps. The Vavoua traps baited with dry ice alone or a combination of dry ice plus octenol were effective attractants for S. calcitrans. PMID:26614795

  16. Biogenic amines in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae): tissue localization and roles in feeding and reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biogenic amines, such as serotonin (5-hdroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and octopamine (OA), play critical roles as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding and reproduction. Neurons immunoreactive (IR) to 5-HT and OA were detected in the centr...

  17. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a two-year-old pineapple crop, a daily catch of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans was performed. The study was done on fresh pineapple crop crushed = shredded and left on the ground on a farm at Pital, San Carlos, of Costa Rica. Four fabric black and blue traps were assessed and compared against ...

  18. Evaluation of a yearly insecticidal ear tag rotation for control of pyrethroid-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Barros, A T; Alison, M W; Foil, L D

    1999-05-01

    From 1991 to 1997, the yearly alternated use of synergized pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin + piperonyl butoxide) and organophosphate (pirimiphos-methyl) ear tags was evaluated for the control of two pyrethroid-resistant horn fly populations in Louisiana. At each site, weekly fly counts were used to assess product efficacy. Control achieved by synergized pyrethroid ear tag treatments was reduced from 7 to 2 weeks and from 4 to 0 weeks at St. Joseph and Winnsboro, respectively. Control by organophosphate ear tags decreased from 15 to 3 weeks and from 10 to 7 weeks at St. Joseph and Winnsboro, respectively. The rotation of synergized lambda-cyhalothrin and pirimiphos-methyl ear tags did not improve pyrethroid ear tag efficacy or prevent further development of resistance to the pyrethroid or OP compound. PMID:10384908

  19. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to investigate the dynamics of pyrethroid resistance in Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Alison, M W; Kammlah, Diane M; Foil, Lane D

    2002-09-01

    A field study was conducted from 1991 through 1997 to evaluate the use of pyrethroid and organophosphate (OP) ear tags, alternated yearly, for the control of a pyrethroid resistant horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), population in Louisiana. Fly resistance was monitored by weekly fly counts, filter paper bioassays and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the presence of pyrethroid resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene coding region. Fly control in the first study year was poor, as pyrethroid ear tags were effective for only 7 wk. The following year, OP ear tags provided 15 wk of fly control. However, in all subsequent years, fly control was poor with both types of ear tags. The PCR assays showed that there were very few female flies homozygous for the pyrethroid susceptible sodium channel allele, never rising above 10% of the total females in the population. A fitness cost appeared to be associated with the pyrethroid resistant allele, as the resistant form was selected against in the absence of the pyrethroid ear tags. Despite this selection in favor of the susceptible allele and the annual alternation of pyrethroid and OP ear tags, the percentage of homozygous susceptible flies never reached over 19% of the population, resistant alleles of the sodium channel remained at high levels in the population, and horn fly control on cattle with either type of tag quickly became minimal. PMID:12349858

  20. Differential survival of male and female partially resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on steers treated with permethrin.

    PubMed

    McDonald, P T; Schmidt, C D

    1990-10-01

    Males and females from a heterozygous, resistant strain (SR) of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), were tested for survival until reproductive maturity on steers with ear tags in outdoor, screened enclosures and on steers sprayed on the neck in an indoor isolation room. After 6 d, female SR flies on outdoor steers with one tag had 10 times greater survival than males; almost no SR flies on steers with two ear tags survived. Survival of male and female SR flies on steers sprayed on the neck was reduced during the first 24 h, but not thereafter. Lower survival of males compared with females on treated steers reflected differential survival of the sexes during exposure to treated cloths in a laboratory bioassay. Hair samples from neck, back, rump, and lower legs of steers with ear tags in outdoor pens were tested for toxicity to the SR flies. These bioassays indicated high localization of insecticide on the neck of steers with ear tags. PMID:2258510

  1. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. PMID:26454479

  2. Biology and Trapping of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Developing in Pineapple Residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V.; Taylor, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3–7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24–28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3–7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. PMID:26454479

  3. Evaluation of different insecticides and fabric types for development of treated targets for stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cloth targets, visually attractive to blood-feeding flies and treated with insecticides to kill flies when they land, were adapted for use against stable flies in rangeland situations in the U.S. Five candidate fabrics were tested and trigger fabric (polyester/cotton) best maintained pesticide resi...

  4. Survey of microhymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) parasitizing filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae, Calliphoridae) breeding in refuse and poultry farms in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Omar, B; Omar, S; Jeffery, J; Ghauth, I; Busparani, V

    1990-09-01

    Nine species of parasitoids were found parasitizing the pupae of filth flies breeding in refuse dumps and poultry farms throughout peninsular Malaysia. Spalangia were most common, consisting of Spalangia endius Walker, S. cameroni Perkins, S. gemina Boucek, S. nigroaenea Curtis, and two undescribed species. Other parasitoids collected were Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani, Dirhinus himalayanus Westwood, and an unidentified Hymenoptera. The parasitized fly hosts included Musca domestica L., Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Fannia sp., and Ophyra sp. S. endius was the most common parasitoid attacking M. domestica and C. megacephala at refuse dumps and poultry farms D. himalayanus were found to parasitize only M. domestica pupae collected at poultry farms. PMID:2231622

  5. Susceptibility of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and five pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to abamectin and seven commercial insecticides.

    PubMed

    Geden, C J; Rutz, D A; Scott, J G; Long, S J

    1992-04-01

    Assays of five commercial insecticides applied as residual sprays at label rates to plywood indicated the most toxic insecticide overall for pteromalid parasitoids of house flies, Musca domestica L., was Atroban (permethrin), followed by Ciodrin (crotoxyphos), Rabon (tetrachlorvinphos), Ectrin (fenvalerate), and Cygon (dimethoate). Insecticide-susceptible house flies were susceptible to all five insecticides (mortality, 62-100%). Flies that were recently colonized from populations on dairy farms in New York were susceptible only to Rabon. Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead) was the most susceptible parasitoid species overall to these insecticides, followed by Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, Nasonia vitripennis Walker, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani), and Spalangia cameroni Perkins. Compared with susceptible flies, newly colonized flies showed moderate resistance to avermectin B1a (abamectin). Abamectin was more toxic to all of the parasitoids except N. vitripennis and S. cameroni than to newly colonized house flies when exposed for 90 min to plywood boards treated with 0.001-0.1% abamectin. Space sprays with Vapona (dichlorvos) killed all of the parasitoids and susceptible flies and 64% of the newly colonized flies when insects were placed directly in the path of the spray; mortality was substantially lower among flies and parasitoids protected under 5 cm of wheat straw. Space sprays with Pyrenone (pyrethrins) killed greater than 86% of all insects exposed to the spray path except for the newly colonized flies (1% mortality); mortality of insects protected under straw was low (less than 12%) except for S. cameroni (76%). Because responses of the five parasitoids to the different insecticides varied considerably, general conclusions about parasitoid susceptibility to active ingredients, insecticide class, or method of application were not possible. PMID:1593014

  6. Discovery of the Rdl mutation in association with a cyclodiene resistant population of horn flies, Haematobia Irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle that causes significant economic impact in many countries. This pest is a continuing problem since it has become resistant to most of the drugs available for its control. In this study, we investigated the re...

  7. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...

  8. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with...

  9. Host range and community structure of avian nest parasites in the genus Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the island of Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Heimpel, George E

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range can be influenced by physiological, behavioral, and ecological factors. Combining data sets on host–parasite associations with phylogenetic information of the hosts and the parasites involved can generate evolutionary hypotheses about the selective forces shaping host range. Here, we analyzed associations between the nest-parasitic flies in the genus Philornis and their host birds on Trinidad. Four of ten Philornis species were only reared from one species of bird. Of the parasite species with more than one host bird species, P. falsificus was the least specific and P. deceptivus the most specific attacking only Passeriformes. Philornis flies in Trinidad thus include both specialists and generalists, with varying degrees of specificity within the generalists. We used three quantities to more formally compare the host range of Philornis flies: the number of bird species attacked by each species of Philornis, a phylogenetically informed host specificity index (Poulin and Mouillot's STD), and a branch length-based STD. We then assessed the phylogenetic signal of these measures of host range for 29 bird species. None of these measures showed significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that clades of Philornis did not differ significantly in their ability to exploit hosts. We also calculated two quantities of parasite species load for the birds – the parasite species richness, and a variant of the STD index based on nodes rather than on taxonomic levels – and assessed the signal of these measures on the bird phylogeny. We did not find significant phylogenetic signal for the parasite species load or the node-based STD index. Finally, we calculated the parasite associations for all bird pairs using the Jaccard index and regressed these similarity values against the number of nodes in the phylogeny separating bird pairs. This analysis showed that Philornis on Trinidad tend to feed on closely related bird species more often than expected by chance. PMID:26380698

  10. Discovery of the Rdl mutation in association with a cyclodiene resistant population of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luísa N; Guerrero, Felix D; Becker, Michael E; Alison, Montgomery W; Foil, Lane D

    2013-11-15

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle that causes significant economic impact in many countries. We investigated the resistance of a horn fly population from Louisiana/USA to endosulfan, a cyclodiene insecticide. Bioassays were performed in 2010 and 2011 in order to determine the resistance ratio of the population to endosulfan and a PCR assay was developed to detect the Rdl mutation which is the replacement of an alanine with a serine at the GABA receptor locus that has been associated with resistance to cyclodienes in other insect species. Endosulfan tags had provided 8 weeks of effective control in 2010 but only 1 week in 2011. After only one summer (June-September/2010) of exposure to the endosulfan tagged cattle, there was a significant increase in the resistance ratio for endosulfan in the fly population. Most flies surveyed by the PCR diagnostic assay were homozygous susceptible at the Rdl locus, the resistant (R) allele was mainly present in the heterozygous state and there was no difference in the frequency of the R allele between female and male flies. After the first year's exposure of the horn flies to the endosulfan tags, the frequency of the R allele increased significantly. However, after one year without endosulfan treatment (2011-2012), the frequency of the R allele significantly dropped. These results indicate that target site resistance was responsible, at least in part, for the resistance and that a fitness cost is possibly associated with the Rdl mutation. PMID:24055107

  11. Evaluation of commercial and field-expedient baited traps for house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Szumlas, Daniel E; Walker, Todd W

    2009-06-01

    A comparison of nine commercial baited fly traps on Florida dairy farms demonstrated that Terminator traps collected significantly more (13,323/trap) house flies (Musca domestica L.) than the others tested. Final Flight, Fly Magnet, and FliesBeGone traps collected intermediate numbers of flies (834-2,166), and relatively few were caught with ISCA, Advantage, Fermone Big Boy, Squeeze & Snap, or OakStump traps (<300). Terminator traps collected about twice as many flies (799.8/trap) as FliesBeGone traps (343.8) when each trap was baited with its respective attractant, but when the attractants were switched between the two trap types, collections were significantly lower (77-108) than was observed with traps baited with their respective attractant. Solutions of molasses were significantly more attractive to house flies than honey, maple syrup, or jaggery (date palm sugar). Field-expedient traps constructed from discarded PET water bottles were much less effective than commercial traps, but painting the tops of such traps with black spray paint resulted in a six-fold increase in trap capture. PMID:20836809

  12. Resistance to conventional insecticides in Pakistani populations of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential ectoparasite of dairy animals.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2013-04-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important hygienic pest of humans and dairy animals with the potential to develop resistance to most chemical classes of insecticides. Six adult house fly strains from dairy farms in Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated for resistance to selected insecticides from organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid classes. For a chlorocyclodiene and two organophosphates tested, the resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 were in the range of 5.60-22.02 fold for endosulfan, 7.66-23.24 fold for profenofos and 2.47-7.44 fold for chlorpyrifos. For two pyrethroids and one carbamate, the RR values at LC50 were 30.22-70.02 for cypermethrin, 5.73-18.31 for deltamethrin, and 4.39-15.50 for methomyl. This is the first report of resistance to different classes of insecticides in Pakistani dairy populations of house flies. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring programs on dairy farms are needed to prevent field control failures. Moreover, integrated approaches including the judicious use of insecticides are needed to delay the development of insecticide resistance in house flies. PMID:23371032

  13. Costs of existing and recommended manure management practices for house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, W F; Rutz, D A; Miller, R W; Brown, D A

    1989-08-01

    Costs of fly control practices were estimated for 26 New York and Maryland dairy farms. Objectives were to characterize existing practices, compare them with the cost of more frequent and complete manure removal to reduce fly breeding, and to compare costs of manure removal and insecticide application. Information was collected in scouting visits and personal interviews of farm operators. Equipment, labor, and bedding costs were included for manure removal. Insecticide application costs included chemicals and labor for application. A typical farm with a stanchion barn had manure removal costs of $0.348 per cow per day. Recommended changes would increase costs by $0.016-0.033 per cow per day. Insecticide costs averaged $0.021 per cow per day. It may be possible to eliminate many of the insecticide applications on the farms by using the recommended 7-d manure removal practice. Even if insecticides are not eliminated entirely, increased manure removal costs would be offset by some reduction in insecticide cost. This also would have the additional benefit of greatly slowing the development of insecticide resistance by the flies. PMID:2768644

  14. Efficacy of Brahman breeding in the management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Brown, M A; Tolley, G; Phillips, J M

    1994-02-01

    The efficacy of Brahman breeding used as an alternative tactic to manage insecticide-resistant populations of adult horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), was determined. Concentration-mortality bioassays done at Booneville and Hope, AR, in 1988 and 1989, respectively, showed that horn fly populations were resistant to diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, tetrachlorvinphos, and methoxychlor. Data showed loss of field efficacy for coumaphos and delnav. Mean horn fly counts on Braham cows were significantly lower than on Angus cows for all sampling dates in 1989 and 1990. Mean fly counts on Brahman x Angus cows were approximately intermediate to the two purebred mean fly counts. Brahman breeding caused significant reductions in the number of organophosphate-resistant horn flies, which had been equal to or greater than that obtained from continued spraying with organophosphate insecticides. The Brahman x Hereford cows, which have one-eighth greater Brahman breeding than the Brangus cows, had fewer horn flies on 48 of 56 sampling dates in 1988-1990 and significantly fewer flies on 37 sampling dates. The effectiveness of Brahman breeding in causing lower numbers of insecticide-resistant horn flies significantly increased as the percentage of Brahman breeding increased. PMID:8144749

  15. Seasonality and daily flight activity of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phasuk, Jumnongjit; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal abundance and flight activity patterns are required to design effective management programs for insect pests of humans and livestock. In this study, the seasonality and daily flight activity of Stomoxys species were observed on two dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand. Data were assessed throughout 1 year using Vavoua traps from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 2,520 individuals belonging to four species were collected. Most Stomoxys species peaked in September (rainy season) and gradually decreased in number toward February (dry season); a second peak occurred between March and April (hot season). Stomoxys calcitrans was caught throughout the year and was the most abundant species in this study. The total number of males and females of S. calcitrans differed significantly among seasons and time intervals. The weather parameters of relative humidity and light intensity were significantly correlated with S. calcitrans abundance. PMID:23673316

  16. Contact and fumigant toxicity of a botanical-based feeding deterrent of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toxicity of several plant essential oils and some ingredient compounds was evaluated by contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays. Among the three test plant essential oils, catnip at a 20-mg dosage showed the strongest toxicity against stable flies, with the shortest knock-down time (~7 min) and ...

  17. Contact and fumigant toxicity of a botanical-based feeding deterrent of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei J; Li, Andrew Y; Pritchard, Sara; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Baxendale, Frederick P; Brewer, Gary

    2011-09-28

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been considered one of the most serious biting flies of confined and pastured livestock. The economic losses caused by the stable fly to the cattle industry in the United States exceed $2 billion annually. Current practices for managing stable flies using insecticides provide only marginal control. Insecticide resistance has also been recently reported in stable flies. The present study reports the use of plant-based insecticides, for example, essential oils, as alternatives for managing this fly pest. The toxicity of several plant essential oils and selected ingredient compounds was evaluated by contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays. Catnip oil (20 mg dosage) showed the highest toxicity against stable flies, the shortest knock-down time (∼7 min), and the quickest lethal time (∼19 min). Toxicity levels similar to catnip oil were found among three insect repellent compounds (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide, (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide). No differences in knock-down and lethal times were found among the catnip oil and its two active ingredient compounds. Similar stable fly mortality was observed using a 20 mg dose of catnip oil in a modified K&D system and a fumigant jar. When catnip oil was topically applied to stable flies, the least lethal dose was 12.5 μg/fly, and a 50 μg/fly dose resulted in 100% mortality. The blood-feeding behavior of stable flies was also negatively affected by the topical application of catnip oil, and the effect was dose-dependent. This study demonstrated that catnip oil has both contact and fumigant toxicity against the stable fly and thus has the potential as an alternative for stable fly control. PMID:21848320

  18. Biology and feeding requirements larval hunter flies Coenosia attenuata (Diptera:Muscidae) reared in larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera:Sciaridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval feeding requirements and biology of the generalist predatory muscid fly Coenosia attenuata were investigated at 25 deg C. Larval C. attenuata were fed 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar (L2, L3, and L4) larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens at variable rates to determine minimum and optimu...

  19. A mathematical model applied for assisting the estimation of PMI in a case of forensic importance. First record of Conicera similis (Diptera: Phoridae) in a corpse.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, A M; Martínez-Sánchez, A; López, R; García de la Vega, J M; Rica, M; González, M; Disney, R H L

    2013-09-10

    We present a forensic case associated with skeletonized human remains found inside a cistern in a coastal town located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Valencian Regional Government, Spain). In order to analyse the particular environmental conditions that occurred during oviposition and development of the collected insects, estimated temperatures at the crime scene were calculated by a predictive mathematical model. This model analyses the correlation between the variability of the internal temperature depending on the variability of the external ones. The amplitude of the temperature oscillations inside the tank and the containment of the enclosure is reduced by the presence of water. Such variation occurred within about 2h due to the time required for heat exchange. The differential equations employed to model differences between outdoor and indoor temperatures were an essential tool which let us estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) that was carried out by the study of the insect succession and the development time of the collected Diptera specimens under the adjusted temperatures. The presence of live larvae and pupae of Sarcophagidae and empty pupae of Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Piophilidae and the decomposition stage suggested the possibility that the remains were in the tank at least a year. We highlight the absence of Calliphora and Lucilia spp., and the first occurrence of the phorid Conicera similis in a human cadaver among the entomological evidence. PMID:23845917

  20. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  1. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park.

    PubMed

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20-100 m apart. Distance between trap pairs within sites ranged from 1 to 2 m, and was limited by exhibit design and geography. Both trap types reflect/refract ultraviolet (UV) light which attracts adult S. calcitrans. During this 15-week study, AFTs captured significantly more stable flies than the BCTs at 8 of the 10 sites. Of the 12,557 stable flies found on the traps, 80% and 20% were captured by AFTs and BCTs, respectively. The most attractive trap site at the zoo was at the goat exhibit where most stable flies were consistently captured throughout the study. This exhibit was 100 m from the other exhibits, next to a small lake, and adjacent to a field containing pastured exotic ungulates, rhea and ostrich. Stable fly populations peaked in early June then slowly decreased as the last trapping date approached. We believe this to be the first seasonality data collected at a zoological park. Results demonstrate the use of urban zoos by stable flies and the need to develop environmentally friendly stable fly management systems for zoos. PMID:24740859

  2. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered. PMID:25118422

  3. The effects of temperature and innate immunity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) between life stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, S; Gill, C; Lowenberger, C; Skovgård, H; Hald, B

    2014-05-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained at 25 degrees C had mean bacterial numbers of 6.5 +/- 0.2 SE log10 (colony forming units [CFU]/g) that subsequently dropped to 3.6 +/- 0.3 SE log10 (CFU/g) 8 h after infection. Pupae originating from infected larvae contained mean bacterial numbers of 5.3 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g), and these numbers dropped to 4.8 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g) 24 h after pupation. The decline in C. jejuni numbers during pupal development coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial peptides, including cecropin, diptericin, attacin, and defensin, in the larva-pupa transition stage and a later second peak in older pupae (4 or 48 h). Conversely, there was a reduced expression of the digestive enzyme, lysozyme, in pupae and adults compared with larvae. PMID:24897861

  4. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron as a development site treatment for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M

    2012-05-01

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% [AI]), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.); house flies, Musca domestica L.; and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in cow manure. Various rates and insecticide placement locations (top, middle, and bottom of manure) were evaluated in this study and all combinations of these variables reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated controls. The presence of deformed pupae indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Top, middle, or bottom application rates of 0.125, 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron onto manure samples, reduced adult horn fly emergence by > 90%. Middle and bottom application rates of 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron reduced adult house fly emergence >93%. All rates and placement combinations resulted in >98% reduction of adult stable fly emergence. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species along with the ease of use of a granular formulation, make this product an ideal candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program. PMID:22679873

  5. Drilling-in and Chewing-out of Hosts by the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) When Parasitizing Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Broski, Scott A; King, B H

    2015-08-01

    Many organisms are protected from natural enemies by a tough exterior. Such protection is particularly important for immobile stages, such as pupae. The pupa of some insects is protected by a puparium, which is a shell formed from the exoskeleton of the last larval instar. However, the puparium of certain fly species is drilled through by adult females of the wasp Spalangia endius Walker. The female wasp then deposits an egg on the fly pupa within the puparium. After the wasp offspring finishes feeding on the fly pupa, it chews through the puparium to complete emergence. Despite the apparent toughness of the puparium, there was no detectable wear on the ovipositor of S. endius females even when females had been encountering fly pupae (Musca domestica L.) for weeks, and regardless of whether the pupae were large or old or both. Energy dispersive spectroscopy did not reveal any metal ions in the ovipositor's cuticle to account for this resistance against wear. Offspring of S. endius that chewed their way out of pupae also showed no detectable wear on their mandibles. Tests with a penetrometer showed that the force required to penetrate the center of a puparium was greater for larger and for older pupae; and an index of overall thickness was greater for large old pupae than for small old pupae. The lack of an effect of pupal size or age on wear may result from wasps choosing locations on the puparium that are easier to get through. PMID:26314056

  6. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron as a development site treatment for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in cow manure. V...

  7. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) is a biting fly of extreme economic importance and can cause adverse economic effects on host animals. Within zoological parks, hosts may include practically any accessible animal (e.g., sheep, goats, cows, camels, equines, primates, canids, and felids). In many animals, e....

  8. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of house fly and stable fly populations with commercially produced parasitic wasp has become increasingly popular because no pesticides are involved. A field evaluation was performed in northcentral Florida to document local wasp species and their prevalence during the year. Samples wer...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of insecticide resistance in a strain of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) from an intensive chicken farm of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Lanfredi, Massimo; Chicca, Milvia; Tedeschi, Paola; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Leis, Marilena

    2011-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., a relevant sanitary pest, is mainly controlled by insecticides. However, an inappropriate use of chemicals may induce resistance, treatment efficacy decline and environmental damages. We evaluated toxicity of some organophosphates, pyrethroids, spinosad and neonicotinoids by topical applications on adults of a M. domestica strain (OcRo) collected from an intensive chicken farm in Northern Italy, in comparison to a susceptible strain (s-DBF). The OcRo strain exhibited higher levels of resistance (RR₅₀) to four pesticides in comparison to s-DBF. Spinosad and imidacloprid had very low RR₅₀, thus were still efficient in OcRo control. We also tested resistance to pesticides in OcRo after topical applications of synergistic compounds. Hydrolases were involved in phosphorganic detoxification and cytochrome P450 monoxygenases in that of pyrethroids. These results indicate that OcRo strain is now multiresistant to organophosphates and pyrethroids, and this should be considered for an environmentally safe pest management. PMID:21726145

  10. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica. PMID:25175648

  11. A century and a half of research on the Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), 1862-2011: an annotated bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock, wild animals, pets and humans. It is a primary pest of cattle in the United States, estimated to cause more than $1 billion in economic losses annually. It also causes dissention at the rural-urban interface and is a problem i...

  12. A century and a half of research on the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), 1862-2011: An annotated bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock, wild animals, pets and humans. A major US cattle pest, annual economic loss estimates exceed $1 billion. Control methods have been investigated for over a century, with a major portion of the research focused on biology, ecol...

  13. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of 2 different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a...

  14. Field measurements of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) demography, fecundity, and survival based on daily trap catches at a beef farm in southern Ontario over a 5-yr period.

    PubMed

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2012-11-01

    We sampled stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations using a CO2 baited cloth trap (Nzi trap) each day throughout the summer and autumn at a beef farm near Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, from 1997 to 2001. Females (2,512) were dissected for ovarian age-grading, to produce a demographic profile of farm populations. The number of follicles were counted to produce fecundity estimates. The developmental periods of adult female stages, measured as accumulated degree-days above 10 degrees C, were determined for a lab colony of stable flies. These measurements were used to calculate survival in terms of degree-days of the farm populations each year. Of the 2,512 females caught, 42.4% were nulliparous on average each year. The median follicle size at insemination was 305 microm in the field populations, and 495 microm in the colony. Farm caught females had an average of 49.15 follicles per ovary overall, with the body size (leg length) and fecundity increasing slightly with age. On average, 44.5% (SE 3.2%) of nulliparous females survived to become parous, and of these, 45.7% (SE 2.1%) survived the uniparous state to become multiparous. Years of higher rainfall had increased fecundity; rainfall did not appear to affect survival. PMID:23270153

  15. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    PubMed

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment. PMID:26896536

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Insecticides for Use Against the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae): Determination of Resistance Levels on a Malaysian Poultry Farm.

    PubMed

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ahmad, Hamdan; Jaal, Zairi; Rus, Adanan Che

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the toxicology of two commercial larvicides--cyromazine (Neporex 50SP) and ChCy (combination of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, Naga 505)--and five commercial adulticides--thiamethoxam (Agita 10WG), cyfluthrin (Responsar WP), lambda-cyhalothrin (Icon 2.8EC), fipronil (Regent 50SC), and imidacloprid (Toxilat 10WP)--was examined against the WHO/VCRU (World Health Organization/ Vector Control Research Unit) susceptible strain and the AYTW (Ayer Tawar) field strain of house fly, Musca domestica L. These pesticides were administered topically, in the diet, or as a dry residue treatment on plywood. Probit analysis using at least five concentrations and the concentration that was lethal to 50% (LC(50)) of the organisms was applied to compare the toxicology and resistance levels of the AYTW population to different insecticides. In the larvicide laboratory study, ChCy was more effective than cyromazine, with a significantly lower LC(50) value when administered topically or in the diet, although the AYTW population was susceptible to both larvicides with a resistance ratio (RR) <10. For the adulticide laboratory study, cyfluthrin and fipronil exhibited the lowest LC50 values of the adulticides, indicating that they are both effective at controlling adult flies, although lambda-cyhalothrin showed moderate resistance (RR = 11.60 by topical application; 12.41 by plywood treatment). Further investigation of ChCy, cyromazine, cyfluthrin, and fipronil under field conditions confirmed that ChCy and cyromazine strikingly reduced larval density, and surprisingly, ChCy also exhibited adulticidal activity, which significantly reduced adult fly numbers compared with the control group. Cyfluthrin and fipronil were also confirmed to be effective, with a significant reduction in adult fly numbers compared with the control group. PMID:26546486

  17. Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-04-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), are ubiquitous pests that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans, poultries, and dairies. Pesticides are commonly used for the management of this pest. Fipronil is a GABA-gated chloride channel-inhibiting insecticide that has been commonly used for the management of different pests including M. domestica throughout the world. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A field-collected strain of M. domestica was selected with fipronil for continuous 11 generations to assess the cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability for designing a resistance management strategy. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions and cotton soaks dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results at G12 showed that the fipronil-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 140-fold compared to the susceptible strain. Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that fipronil resistance was associated with microsomal oxidase and also esterase. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible strains showed an autosomal and incompletely dominant resistance to fipronil. The LC50 values of F1 and F'1 strains were not significantly different and dominance values were 0.74 and 0.64, respectively. The resistance to fipronil was completely recessive (D(ML) = 0.00) at the highest dose and incompletely dominant at the lowest dose (D(ML) = 0.87). The monogenic resistance based on chi-square goodness of fit test and calculation of the minimum number of segregating genes showed that resistance to fipronil is controlled by multiple genes. The fipronil resistance strain confirmed very low cross-resistance to emamectin benzoate and spinosad while no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid when compared to that of the field population. The heritability values were 0.112, 0.075, 0.084, 0.008, and 0.052 for fipronil, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, acetamiprid, and chlorpyrifos, respectively. It was concluded that fipronil resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. These findings would be helpful for the better and successful management of M. domestica. PMID:24481906

  18. Larvicidal activity and effects on post embrionary development of laboratory reared Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae), treated with Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) spore suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vitor Dos S B; Barcellos, Isadora da S; Carramaschi, Isabel N; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Zahner, Viviane

    2016-06-01

    The application of a spore suspension of Brevibacillus laterosporus (Laubach) (strain Bon707), at a concentration of 1.94×10(9)CFU/mL in the diet, induced a level of 70% mortality in larvae of Musca domestica. No sublethal effects, upon feeding activity or development were recorded. However, electron microscopic examination of the digestive tract of larvae fed with B. laterosporus, revealed cellular vacuolization and cytoplasmic disorganization. PMID:27164160

  19. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients. PMID:26405077

  20. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body wt/day and 0.6 mg/kg body wt/day) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% AI Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musc...

  1. Host suitability of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), pupae killed by high or low temperature treatment for a parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kohei; Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Arakawa, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to -80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at -20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at -80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at -80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at -80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage. PMID:23049472

  2. Identification of a mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the para-type sodium channel of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect sodium channel is of particular interest for evaluating resistance to pyrethroids because it is the target molecule for this major class of neurotoxic insecticides. The stable fly sodium channel coding sequence representing domains IS6 thru IVS6 was isolated, and the domain II coding seq...

  3. An annotated checklist of the Stomoxyini (Diptera: Muscidae) of the Levant with new records from Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Sinai Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stomoxyini are obligate blood feeders and several members of the tribe, especially Stomoxys and Haematobia, are major pests of domestic livestock causing billions of U.S. dollars in damages annually. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the spec...

  4. Effects of mid-season avermectin treatments on pyrethroid resistance in horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations at three locations in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Oremus, G; Guerrero, F D; Alison, M W; Kimball, M M; Kim, J H; Foil, L D

    2006-10-10

    Between 1999 and 2002, the effect of mid-season doramectin treatments on the level of resistance in pyrethroid-resistant horn fly populations was examined at three separate Louisiana State University Agricultural Center research stations. The cattle were treated with pyrethroid ear tags in all years at all farms, and each farm received a mid-season doramectin treatment in 1 year. The number of weeks of control at Red River was 11 weeks higher in the year following the mid-season treatment of doramectin. At Macon Ridge, the number of weeks of control was 2 weeks higher in the year following the doramectin treatment. No change was observed at St. Joseph. The LC50s for fly populations tested at Macon Ridge and St. Joseph were found to increase for pyrethroids from the spring populations to the fall populations between 2000 and 2002. The LC50s for fly populations at Red River followed the same trends except in 2000, the year when the doramectin treatment was administered. Flies collected pre and post-treatment each year from St. Joseph and Red River were assayed for two alleles (kdr and skdr) associated with target site resistance to pyrethroids. Flies collected pretreatment at Macon Ridge in 1999 also were assayed for the kdr and skdr, and this population of flies had a frequency of 85.6% R-kdr alleles. At St. Joseph and Red River there was a general decline in the frequency of homozygous susceptible skdr (SS-skdr) and homozygous susceptible kdr (SS-kdr) individuals, as well as a general increase in homozygous resistant skdr (RR-skdr) and homozygous resistant kdr (RR-kdr) individuals, during the 4-year study. At both sites, the frequency of R-kdr alleles increased significantly in flies collected in the fall compared to flies collected in the spring with the exception of Red River in 2000, when dormacetin was applied. The frequency of the R-kdr alleles was significantly higher in flies collected in the fall compared to flies collected in the spring in the following year at both sites in two out of three comparisons. The frequency of R-skdr alleles was significantly lower in fly populations tested in the spring compared to fly populations tested in the fall at both farms in years when doramectin was not applied but there were no differences in the years when doramectin was applied. The frequency of R-skdr alleles was significantly higher in fly populations tested in the fall compared to in the spring the following year during all three comparisons at Red River and in one of three comparisons at St. Joseph. PMID:16769175

  5. Biological control of house flies Musca domestica and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans(Diptera: Muscidae) by means of inundative releases of Spalangia cameroni(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, H; Nachman, G

    2004-12-01

    The efficacy of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni Perkins as a biological control agent was tested against house flies Musca domestica Linnaeus and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus) in one dairy cattle and two pig installations in Denmark. Weekly releases of S. cameroni from April through to September-October 1999 and 2000 resulted in significant suppressions of house fly populations to below nuisance level, whereas no effect on stable flies was found. Parasitism was significantly higher in the release years compared to the control years, but was below 25% averaged over the fly season for each farm. A statistical model based on a functional relationship between the innate capacity of increase of the two fly species and three explanatory variables (air temperature, fly density and parasitism) provided a fairly good fit to data with the abundances of house flies and stable flies explained mostly by temperature, but intra- and interspecific competition, and parasitism had a significant effect as well. Overall, the model was capable of explaining 14% and 6.6% of the total variation in data for house fly and stable fly, respectively. Spalangia cameroni was the predominant parasitoid to emerge from exposed house fly pupae, but from mid summer onwards Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was also quite common. The study indicated that biological control of house flies can be an efficient alternative to chemical control. PMID:15541194

  6. Inundative releases of pteromalid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for the control of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) at confined cattle installations in west central Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Andress, E R; Campbell, J B

    1994-06-01

    Fly pupal parasitoids, primarily Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, purchased from commercial insectaries, failed to reduce numbers of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), significantly despite weekly releases of high numbers at one feedlot and one dairy during 1990 and a different feedlot and dairy in 1991. Parasitoid emergence from stable fly puparia were not significantly greater in the confinements where releases were made compared with confinements where no releases were made. The level of parasitism increased at all four confinements during and following parasitoid releases. Shipments of parasitoids contained neither the number requested or the species purity that had been anticipated. Both quantity and quality of parasitoids improved the second year of the research. The most numerous naturally occurring parasitoid species were also present at a new, relatively isolated feedlot by mid-July. PMID:8027475

  7. Effect of experimental bedding treatments on the density of immature Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) in outdoor calf hutches.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, E T; Miller, R W; Muller, R

    1989-08-01

    Experimental bedding materials and a novel delivery method of cyromazine (Larvadex) were evaluated as replicated treatments in outdoor calf hutches for effect on the density of immature Musca domestica L. and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). In 6-wk trials, overall density of Musca domestica L. and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in straw bedding averaged 36.2 and 52.6 maggots/liter, respectively, compared with respective average densities of 9.0 and 16.2 for wood chips and 10.4 and 20.0 for wood chips over a hydraulic fabric filter system. These values represent average reductions of 80 and 69% and 77 and 68%, respectively. Densities of M. domestica and S. calcitrans in ground corncob over the filter system averaged 13.3 and 4.1 maggots/liter in 3.2-mm size corncob particles, and 1.7 and 1.2 for 6.4-mm size corncob particles (average reductions of 62 and 87% and 90 and 96%, respectively) relative to straw bedding. Densities of these two species in sand bedding averaged 2.8 and 0.4 maggots/liter (average reductions of 93 and 99%), but sand became compacted and soiled with calf urine and feces after several weeks. Cyromazine excreted in calf urine limited density of both species in straw to an average of 11.0 and 15.6 maggots/liter, respectively (a 58 and 79% suppression relative to untreated straw). These data confirm that straw bedding promotes muscoid maggot growth and illustrate that alternative calf hutch bedding systems and urine delivery of cyromazine may improve muscoid fly management on dairy farms by limiting the development of muscoid maggots. PMID:2768642

  8. Commercial and naturally occurring fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biological control agents of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on California dairies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J A; Mullens, B A; Cyr, T L; Stokes, C

    1990-06-01

    Filth fly parasites reared by commercial insectaries were released on two dairies (MO, DG) in southern California to determine their effect on populations of house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Spalangia endius Walker, Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner, and Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner were released on the MO dairy from 1985 to 1987 in varying quantities. Parasitism by Muscidifurax zaraptor on the MO dairy was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) from the field-collected stable fly (4.4%) and house fly (12.5%) pupae, compared with a control dairy (0.1%, stable fly; 1.3%, house fly). Muscidifurax zaraptor, released from April through October during 1987 on the DG dairy (350,000 per month), was not recovered in a significantly higher proportion from either fly species relative to the corresponding control dairy. No specimens of Muscidifurax raptorellus were recovered from the MO dairy. Parasite treatments had no apparent effect on adult populations of either fly species or on overall parasitism rate of field-collected stable fly (16.8%, MO; 17.2%, DG) and house fly (23.3%, MO; 20.9%, DG) pupae. Spalangia spp. were the predominant parasites recovered from field-collected stable fly and house fly pupae on all four dairies. Sentinel house fly pupae placed in fly-breeding sites on both release dairies were parasitized at a significantly higher rate, as compared with sentinel pupae on control dairies. The generic composition of parasites emerging from sentinel house fly pupae was 20.6% Spalangia spp. and 73.2% Muscidifurax spp., whereas in field-collected house fly pupae, Spalangia spp. and Muscidifurax spp. constituted 74.3 and 19.6% of the parasites, respectively. PMID:2376639

  9. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20–100 m apart. Distance between trap pairs within sites ranged from 1 to 2 m, and was limited by exhibit design and geography. Both trap types reflect/refract ultraviolet (UV) light which attracts adult S. calcitrans. During this 15-week study, AFTs captured significantly more stable flies than the BCTs at 8 of the 10 sites. Of the 12,557 stable flies found on the traps, 80% and 20% were captured by AFTs and BCTs, respectively. The most attractive trap site at the zoo was at the goat exhibit where most stable flies were consistently captured throughout the study. This exhibit was 100 m from the other exhibits, next to a small lake, and adjacent to a field containing pastured exotic ungulates, rhea and ostrich. Stable fly populations peaked in early June then slowly decreased as the last trapping date approached. We believe this to be the first seasonality data collected at a zoological park. Results demonstrate the use of urban zoos by stable flies and the need to develop environmentally friendly stable fly management systems for zoos. Zoo Biol. 33:228–233, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24740859

  10. Host Suitability of House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), Pupae Killed by High or Low Temperature Treatment for a Parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kohei; Ito, Katsura; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Arakawa, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to −80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at −20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at −80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at −80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at –80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage. PMID:23049472

  11. Evaluation of traps for monitoring higher Diptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...

  12. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  13. Checklist of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Skuhravá, Marcela; Penttinen, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A list of the 356 species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented, which comprises 6 Lestremiinae, 156 Micromyinae, 16 Winnertziinae, 69 Porricondylinae, and 109 Cecidomyiinae. The faunistic knowledge of Finnish Winnertziinae, Porricondylinae and Cecidomyiinae is regarded as particularly poor. Based on species numbers known from other countries in Europe, a conservative estimate is 700–800 species of Cecidomyiidae actually occurring in Finland. PMID:25337012

  14. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  15. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used for inter- and intraspecific differentiation of screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphologically, early immature stages of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and secondary screwworms, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), are nearly indistinguishable. Correct identification is crucial to the ongoing eradication and exc...

  16. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  17. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  18. Checklist of the Empidoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016

  19. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  20. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  1. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  2. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-E. coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas where humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. We investigated ...

  3. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Assays were conducted by varying e...

  4. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  5. Frass semiochemicals important to corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...

  6. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...

  7. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  8. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Kerppola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930) and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. Platycheirus modestus is also new to the Palaearctic. PMID:25337020

  9. Descriptions of two new species of Afrotropical Psychodidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ježek, Jan; Oboňa, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) are described and illustrated on the basis of male morphological characters. Neoarisemus nyahururuensis sp. nov. was collected in the vicinity of Thomson's Falls (Nyahururu) in Kenya and Tonnoiriella veronikae sp. nov. in Toamasina province, Madagascar, Analamazaotra 1.4 km SSW Andasibe vill. (Périnet). PMID:27470871

  10. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sheep blow fly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. The females are attracted to sheep, following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Ear...

  11. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  12. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  13. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  14. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  15. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  16. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. PMID:27456938

  17. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para

  18. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level. Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dissected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome techniques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identification process. Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae. Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diagnosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to understand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle. PMID:27308299

  19. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Keawrayup, S.; Duvallet, G.; Sukonthabhirom, S.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2012-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities. PMID:22182611

  1. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keawrayup, S; Duvallet, G; Sukonthabhirom, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T

    2012-08-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  2. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  3. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  4. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  5. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  6. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  7. New replacement name for Chrysotus infirmus Wei, Zhang & Zhou, 2014 (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Diaphorinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zheng-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chrysotus weii Zhou, nom. n., the new replacement name is proposed for the species Chrysotus infirmus Wei, Zhang & Zhou, 2014 (Diptera: Brachycera: Dolichopodidae: Diaphorinae), which was preoccupied by Chrysotus infirmus Parent, 1933. PMID:27551236

  8. Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann), a new immigrant soldier fly in the United States (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae), a species widespread in the Old World, has been introduced and is apparently established in the eastern United States. Specimens were taken in Alexandria, Virginia in August of 2007....

  9. Biological potential study of metal complexes of sulphonylurea glibenclamide on the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae): Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Abdallah, S. M.; Zayed, M. A.; Nassar, M. M. I.

    2009-10-01

    The ligatation behaviour of sulphonylurea glibenclamide drug is studied in order to give an idea about its potentiality towards some transition metals in vitro systems. Metal complexes of glibenclamide (GCA; H 3L) drug are prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, diffused reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are proposed to have the general formulae [M(H 3L)Cl n(H 2O) m]· yH 2O (where M = Cr(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 3); Mn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 1); Fe(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 0), Co(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 0); Ni(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 3); Cu(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 2) and Zn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 0). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that GCA is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral bidentate manner with OO donor sites of the amide- O and sulphone -O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral except Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes which have tetrahedral structure. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) technique. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method. The GCA drug, in comparison to its metal complexes also is screened for its biological activity against house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae). Dose of 5 μg/insect of GCA is topically applied against 3 days old larval instar of M. domestica. Survival of pupal and adult stages has been affected by the complexes of GCA more than larval instars. Morphogenic abnormalities of larvae, pupae and adults are studied. On the other hand pupation and adult emergence program is deteriorated by the effect of different chemicals.

  10. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846

  11. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  12. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  13. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. PMID:24529768

  14. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  15. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts. PMID:27032216

  16. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    PubMed

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  17. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  18. Observations on Hilltopping in Thick-Headed Flies (Diptera: Conopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Maurizio; Gibson, Joel F.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observations of hilltopping behaviour in the thick-headed flies (Diptera: Conopidae) have only been mentioned once in the literature. Hilltop collecting, however, may be an effective way to survey these endparasitoids. The first evidence of hilltopping in species belonging to the subfamilies Myopinae and Dalmanniinae is presented and discussed. Field observations were conducted on Colle Vescovo, Italy and Mount Rigaud, Canada, and museum specimens were examined. Observations and records indicate that four species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, and Zodion are hilltoppers on Colle Vescovo, while three species in the genera Myopa and Physocephala are hilltoppers on three hilltops near Ottawa, Canada. Fifteen additional species of conopids have been collected on hilltops and could possibly utilize hilltops in some years as a part of their mating strategy. Detailed phenologies and observations of mating and perching behaviours are given for species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, Physocephala, and Zodion. The importance of hilltop habitat preservation is stressed. PMID:20578949

  19. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval. PMID:26888288

  20. The complete mitochondria genome of Ravinia pernix (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Juanjuan; Xie, Kai; Che, Kexin; Hu, Zhenyu; Guo, Yadong

    2016-05-01

    Ravinia pernix is considered to be a forensically important fly species of the family Sarcophagidae. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of Ravinia pernix for the first time. There is one encoding region including 37 genes and one non-coding AT-rich region observed in the 15,778 bp circular genome, containing 13 protein-encoding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The arrangement of the genes is the same as that found in the ancestral arthropod. The base compositions of A, T, G and C are 39.57%, 37.60%, 9.36% and 13.47%, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of Ravinia pernix presented will be valuable and useful for enriching the dipteran mitochondrial genomes, resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and the order Diptera, and providing a molecular tool for species identifications for forensic purposes. PMID:25418624

  1. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  2. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  3. The chemical ecology of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Amarawardana, Lakmali; Cross, Jerry V; Francke, Wittko; Boddum, Tina; Hillbur, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    The family of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) exhibits diversified patterns of life history, behavior, host range, population dynamics and other ecological traits. Those that feed on plants include many important agricultural pests; most cultivated plants are attacked by at least one midge species. Several features of the reproductive biology of cecidomyiid midges point to an important role for chemical communication, with this topic last reviewed comprehensively 12 years ago. Here, we review progress on identification of sex pheromones, chemicals involved in location of host plants, the neurophysiology of reception of volatile chemicals, and application of semiochemicals to management of pest species of cecidomyiid midges that has occurred during the last decade. We hope this review will stimulate and sustain further research in these fields. PMID:22215563

  4. Congruence and controversy: toward a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera.

    PubMed

    Yeates, D K; Wiegmann, B M

    1999-01-01

    The order Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-rich and ecologically diverse clades of insects. The order probably arose in the Permian, and the main lineages of flies were present in the Triassic. A novel recent proposal suggests that Strepsiptera are the sister-order to Diptera. Within Diptera, evidence is convincing for the monophyly of Culicomorpha, Blephariceromorpha, and Tipulomorpha but weak for the monophyly of the other basal infraorders and for the relationships among them. The lower Diptera (Nematocera) is paraphyletic with respect to Brachycera, and morphological evidence suggests the sister-group of Brachycera lies in the Psychodomorpha. Recent analyses suggest Tipulomorpha are closer to the base of Brachycera than to the base of Diptera. Brachycera are undoubtedly monophyletic, but relationships between the basal lineages of this group are poorly understood. The monophyly of Stratiomyomorpha, Xylophagomorpha, Tabanomorpha, and Muscomorpha is well supported. Eremoneura, and its constituent clades Empidoidea and Cyclorrhapha, are monophyletic. The sister-group of Eremoneura is likely to be part or all of Asiloidea. Several viewpoints on the homology of the male genitalia of eremoneuran flies are discussed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that lower Cyclorrhapha (Aschiza) are paraphyletic; however, schizophoran monophyly is well supported. The monophyly of Acalyptratae is not well-founded and the relationships between acalyptrate superfamilies remain obscure. Recent advances document the monophyly of the families of Calyptratae and the relationships among them. Areas critical to future advances in understanding dipteran phylogeny include the relationships among the basal infraorders of Diptera and Brachycera and the relationships between the superfamilies of acalyptrates. Progress in dipteran phylogenetics will accelerate with the exploration of novel data sources and the formulation of hypotheses in an explicitly quantitative framework. PMID

  5. Checklist of the smaller families of Opomyzoidea, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Aulacigastridae, Clusiidae, Odiniidae, Opomyzidae and Periscelididae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A species checklist is presented for Finland covering seven smaller families of Opomyzoidea: Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Aulacigastridae, Clusiidae, Odiniidae, Opomyzidae and Periscelididae (Diptera). PMID:25337024

  6. Oviposition behavior of the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in environments with multiple pest aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural enemies are constantly faced with oviposition decisions that have potential fitness consequences. We investigated the oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) when faced with multiple prey choices, i.e. plants infested with Myzus persic...

  7. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  8. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  9. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  10. A new Lestodiplosine (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) preying on the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta Perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species new to science, Tingidoletes praelonga Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)was recently discovered preying on the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann) (Heteroptera: Tingidae), in Florida, USA. A new genus is described to receive the new species....