Science.gov

Sample records for downstream akt activation

  1. A novel AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, inhibits phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activates phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1 dependent on the liver cancer cell type

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YUNCHENG; ZHENG, YUANWEN; FAHEEM, ALI; SUN, TIANTONG; LI, CHUNYOU; LI, ZHE; ZHAO, DIANTANG; WU, CHAO; LIU, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway dysregulation, AKT is typically accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. mTOR, in particular, represents a suitable therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma, whilst suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia family member-1 (SMG-1) is believed to serve a potential tumor suppressor role in human cancer. Despite SMG-1 and mTOR belonging to the same PI3K-related kinase family, the interactions between them are not yet fully understood. In the present study, a novel pyrrolopyrimidine-derived compound, AZD5363, was observed to suppress proliferation in liver cancer Hep-G2 and Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AZD5363 activated the phosphorylation of mTOR, dependent on the liver cancer cell type, as it may have differing effects in various liver cancer cell lines. Additionally, AZD5363 also activated SMG-1 within the same liver cancer cells types, which subsequently activated the phosphorylation of mTOR. In conclusion, the present study indicates that AZD5363 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activated phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1, dependent on the liver cancer type. PMID:26998062

  2. PI3K-C2γ is a Rab5 effector selectively controlling endosomal Akt2 activation downstream of insulin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Braccini, Laura; Ciraolo, Elisa; Campa, Carlo C.; Perino, Alessia; Longo, Dario L.; Tibolla, Gianpaolo; Pregnolato, Marco; Cao, Yanyan; Tassone, Beatrice; Damilano, Federico; Laffargue, Muriel; Calautti, Enzo; Falasca, Marco; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Backer, Jonathan M.; Hirsch, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    In the liver, insulin-mediated activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is at the core of metabolic control. Multiple PI3K and Akt isoenzymes are found in hepatocytes and whether isoform-selective interplays exist is currently unclear. Here we report that insulin signalling triggers the association of the liver-specific class II PI3K isoform γ (PI3K-C2γ) with Rab5-GTP, and its recruitment to Rab5-positive early endosomes. In these vesicles, PI3K-C2γ produces a phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate pool specifically required for delayed and sustained endosomal Akt2 stimulation. Accordingly, loss of PI3K-C2γ does not affect insulin-dependent Akt1 activation as well as S6K and FoxO1-3 phosphorylation, but selectively reduces Akt2 activation, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase activity. As a consequence, PI3K-C2γ-deficient mice display severely reduced liver accumulation of glycogen and develop hyperlipidemia, adiposity as well as insulin resistance with age or after consumption of a high-fat diet. Our data indicate PI3K-C2γ supports an isoenzyme-specific forking of insulin-mediated signal transduction to an endosomal pool of Akt2, required for glucose homeostasis. PMID:26100075

  3. PI3K-C2γ is a Rab5 effector selectively controlling endosomal Akt2 activation downstream of insulin signalling.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Laura; Ciraolo, Elisa; Campa, Carlo C; Perino, Alessia; Longo, Dario L; Tibolla, Gianpaolo; Pregnolato, Marco; Cao, Yanyan; Tassone, Beatrice; Damilano, Federico; Laffargue, Muriel; Calautti, Enzo; Falasca, Marco; Norata, Giuseppe D; Backer, Jonathan M; Hirsch, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    In the liver, insulin-mediated activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is at the core of metabolic control. Multiple PI3K and Akt isoenzymes are found in hepatocytes and whether isoform-selective interplays exist is currently unclear. Here we report that insulin signalling triggers the association of the liver-specific class II PI3K isoform γ (PI3K-C2γ) with Rab5-GTP, and its recruitment to Rab5-positive early endosomes. In these vesicles, PI3K-C2γ produces a phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate pool specifically required for delayed and sustained endosomal Akt2 stimulation. Accordingly, loss of PI3K-C2γ does not affect insulin-dependent Akt1 activation as well as S6K and FoxO1-3 phosphorylation, but selectively reduces Akt2 activation, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase activity. As a consequence, PI3K-C2γ-deficient mice display severely reduced liver accumulation of glycogen and develop hyperlipidemia, adiposity as well as insulin resistance with age or after consumption of a high-fat diet. Our data indicate PI3K-C2γ supports an isoenzyme-specific forking of insulin-mediated signal transduction to an endosomal pool of Akt2, required for glucose homeostasis. PMID:26100075

  4. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  5. AKT-independent signaling downstream of oncogenic PIK3CA mutations in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Krishna M; Barbie, David A; Davies, Michael A; Rabinovsky, Rosalia; McNear, Chontelle J; Kim, Jessica J; Hennessy, Bryan T; Tseng, Hsiuyi; Pochanard, Panisa; Kim, So Young; Dunn, Ian F; Schinzel, Anna C; Sandy, Peter; Hoersch, Sebastian; Sheng, Qing; Gupta, Piyush B; Boehm, Jesse S; Reiling, Jan H; Silver, Serena; Lu, Yiling; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Dutta, Bhaskar; Joy, Corwin; Sahin, Aysegul A; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lluch, Ana; Rameh, Lucia E; Jacks, Tyler; Root, David E; Lander, Eric S; Mills, Gordon B; Hahn, William C; Sellers, William R; Garraway, Levi A

    2009-07-01

    Dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway occurs frequently in human cancer. PTEN tumor suppressor or PIK3CA oncogene mutations both direct PI3K-dependent tumorigenesis largely through activation of the AKT/PKB kinase. However, here we show through phosphoprotein profiling and functional genomic studies that many PIK3CA mutant cancer cell lines and human breast tumors exhibit only minimal AKT activation and a diminished reliance on AKT for anchorage-independent growth. Instead, these cells retain robust PDK1 activation and membrane localization and exhibit dependency on the PDK1 substrate SGK3. SGK3 undergoes PI3K- and PDK1-dependent activation in PIK3CA mutant cancer cells. Thus, PI3K may promote cancer through both AKT-dependent and AKT-independent mechanisms. Knowledge of differential PI3K/PDK1 signaling could inform rational therapeutics in cancers harboring PIK3CA mutations. PMID:19573809

  6. MicroRNA-145 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting IRS1 and its downstream Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yelin; Hu, Chen; Cheng, Jun; Chen, Binquan; Ke, Qinghong; Lv, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • MiR-145 expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues and inversely related with IRS1 levels. • MiR-145 directly targets IRS1 in HCC cells. • Restored expression of miR-145 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and growth. • MiR-145 induced IRS1 under-expression potentially reduced downstream AKT signaling. - Abstract: Accumulating evidences have proved that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we showed that miRNA-145 level was significantly decreased in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) tissues and cell lines, and its low expression was inversely associated with the abundance of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a key mediator in oncogenic insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. We verified IRS1 as a direct target of miR-145 using Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. Further, the restoration of miR-145 in HCC cell lines suppressed cancer cell growth, owing to down-regulated IRS1 expression and its downstream Akt/FOXO1 signaling. Our results demonstrated that miR-145 could inhibit HCC through targeting IRS1 and its downstream signaling, implicating the loss of miR-145 regulation may be a potential molecular mechanism causing aberrant oncogenic signaling in HCC.

  7. Site Specific Activation of AKT Protects Cells from Death Induced by Glucose Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meng; Liang, Jiyong; Lu, Yiling; Guo, Huifang; German, Peter; Bai, Shanshan; Jonasch, Eric; Yang, Xingsheng; Mills, Gordon B.; Ding, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase AKT is a key mediator of cancer cell survival. We demonstrate that transient glucose deprivation modestly induces AKT phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473. In contrast, prolonged glucose deprivation induces selective AKTThr308 phosphorylation and phosphorylation of a distinct subset of AKT downstream targets leading to cell survival under metabolic stress. Glucose deprivation-induced AKTThr308 phosphorylation is dependent on PDK1 and PI3K but not EGFR or IGF1R. Prolonged glucose deprivation induces the formation of a complex of AKT, PDK1, and the GRP78 chaperone protein, directing phosphorylation of AKTThr308 but AKTSer473. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of AKT activation under prolonged glucose deprivation that protects cells from metabolic stress. The selective activation of AKTThr308 phosphorylation that occurs during prolonged nutrient deprivation may provide an unexpected opportunity for the development and implementation of drugs targeting cell metabolism and aberrant AKT signaling. PMID:23396361

  8. Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Akt Phosphorylation Regulates Bax Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sadidi, Mahdieh; Lentz, Stephen I.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved in many cellular processes that positively and negatively regulate cell fate. H2O2, acting as an intracellular messenger, activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and its downstream target Akt, and promotes cell survival. The aim of the current study was to understand the mechanism by which PI3K/Akt signaling promotes survival in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that PI3K/Akt mediates phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bax. This phosphorylation suppresses apoptosis and promotes cell survival. Increased survival in the presence of H2O2 was blocked by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K activation. LY294002 prevented Bax phosphorylation and resulted in Bax translocation to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Collectively, these findings reveal a mechanism by which H2O2-induced activation of PI3K/Akt influences posttranslational modification of Bax and inactivate a key component of the cell death machinery. PMID:19278624

  9. Akt is activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and delivers a pro-survival signal: the therapeutic potential of Akt inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Hawkins, Stephen F.; Glenn, Mark A.; Lin, Ke; Johnson, Gillian G.; Carter, Anthony; Cawley, John C.; Pettitt, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to ascertain the activation status of Akt in the primary cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to investigate the effects of specific Akt inhibition on chronic lymphocytic leukemia-cell survival. Design and Methods Anti-phospho-Akt (Ser473 or Thr308) antibodies and western blotting were used to establish the activation status of Akt. The effects of two different, specific small-molecule inhibitors (A-443654 or Akti-1/2) or small interfering RNA on cell survival and downstream targets of Akt were assessed. Apoptosis was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of phosphatidylserine exposure and by measurement of PARP cleavage. The phosphorylation status of GSK-3 and MDM2, two immediate downstream substrates of Akt, levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins BCL2 and MCL1, and expression of p53 and p21 were all measured by western blotting. Results Fully activated Akt was demonstrable in all chronic lymphocytic leukemia clones examined (n=26). These results were validated with extensive controls and it was shown that a harsh method of cell extraction is needed for detection of the active enzyme. Specific inhibition of Akt induced extensive apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, which was associated with both a rapid loss of MCL1 through proteasomal degradation and increased expression of p53. Moreover, the Akt inhibitors, at concentrations that induced extensive apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, had little or no effect on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions Chronic lymphocytic leukemia clones consistently contain activated Akt which plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell survival. Inhibition of the Akt pathway may be of potential value as a novel therapeutic strategy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:19713228

  10. Activating Akt and the brain's resources to drive cellular survival and prevent inflammatory injury

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Z.Z.; Li, F.; Maiese, K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Protein kinase B, also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine kinase and plays a critical role in the modulation of cell development, growth, and survival. Interestingly, Akt is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body, but its expression in the nervous system is substantially up-regulated during cellular stress, suggesting a more expansive role for Akt in the nervous system that may involve cellular protection. In this regard, a body of recent work has identified a robust capacity for Akt and its downstream substrates to foster both neuronal and vascular survival during apoptotic injury. Cell survival by Akt is driven by the modulation of both intrinsic cellular pathways that oversee genomic DNA integrity and extrinsic mechanisms that control inflammatory microglial activation. A series of distinct pathways are regulated by Akt that include the Forkhead family of transcription factors, GSK-3ß, ß-catenin, c-Jun, CREB, Bad, IKK, and p53. Culminating below these substrates of Akt are the control of caspase mediated pathways that promote genomic integrity as well as prevent inflammatory cell demise. With further levels of progress in defining the cellular role of Akt, the attractiveness of Akt as a vital and broad cytoprotectant for both neuronal and vascular cell populations should continue to escalate. PMID:15578447

  11. TRAIL-induced caspase/p38 activation is responsible for the increased catalytic and invasive activities of Akt

    PubMed Central

    SUN, BO K.; KIM, JOO-HANG; NGUYEN, HOAN N.; KIM, SO Y.; OH, SEEUN; LEE, YONG J.; SONG, JAE J.

    2010-01-01

    We previously observed that TRAIL induces acquired TRAIL resistance coinciding with increased Akt phosphorylation brought about by the Src-PI3K-Akt signaling pathways and mediated by c-Cbl. c-Cbl, a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is simultaneously involved in the rapid degradation of TRAIL receptors and Akt phosphorylation during TRAIL treatment. Here, we show that Akt phosphorylation is not exclusively responsible for acquired TRAIL resistance. Akt catalytic activation is known to increase during metabolic oxidative stress, but we show that TRAIL also dramatically induces the catalytic activation of Akt in TRAIL-sensitive cells, but not in TRAIL-resistant cells. This suggests that Akt catalytic activation during TRAIL-induced apoptosis is likely to play a compensatory role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. In addition, activated p38 and phosphorylated HSP27 were found to act as downstream effector molecules of p38 during TRAIL treatment and were shown to be responsible for increased Akt catalytic and invasive activities. PMID:21109947

  12. Turbulence decay downstream of an active grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewley, Gregory; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-11-01

    A grid in a wind tunnel stirs up turbulence that has a certain large-scale structure. The moving parts in a so-called ``active grid'' can be programmed to produce different structures. We use a special active grid in which each of 129 paddles on the grid has its own position-controlled servomotor that can move independently of the others. We observe among other things that the anisotropy in the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations and in the correlation lengths can be set and varied with an algorithm that oscillates the paddles in a specified way. The variation in the anisotropies that we observe can be explained by our earlier analysis of anisotropic ``soccer ball'' turbulence (Bewley, Chang and Bodenschatz 2012, Phys. Fluids). We define the influence of this variation in structure on the downstream evolution of the turbulence. with Eberhard Bodenschatz and others.

  13. Reduced RKIP enhances nasopharyngeal carcinoma radioresistance by increasing ERK and AKT activity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Li; Yi, Hong-Mei; Yi, Hong; Qu, Jia-Quan; Zhu, Jin-Feng; Li, Li-Na; Xiao, Ta; Zheng, Zhen; Lu, Shan-Shan; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) functions as a chemo-immunotherapeutic sensitizer of cancers, but regulation of RKIP on tumor radiosensitivity remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate the role and mechanism of RKIP in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radioresistance. The results showed that RKIP was frequently downregulated in the radioresistant NPC tissues compared with radiosensitive NPC tissues, and its reduction correlated with NPC radioresistance and poor patient survival, and was an independent prognostic factor. In vitro radioresponse assay showed that RKIP overexpression decreased while RKIP knockdown increased NPC cell radioresistance. In the NPC xenografts, RKIP overexpression decreased while RKIP knockdown increased tumor radioresistance. Mechanistically, RKIP reduction promoted NPC cell radioresistance by increasing ERK and AKT activity, and AKT may be a downstream transducer of ERK signaling. Moreover, the levels of phospho-ERK−1/2 and phospho-AKT were increased in the radioresistant NPC tissues compared with radiosensitive ones, and negatively associated with RKIP expression, indicating that RKIP-regulated NPC radioresponse is mediated by ERK and AKT signaling in the clinical samples. Our data demonstrate that RKIP is a critical determinant of NPC radioresponse, and its reduction enhances NPC radioresistance through increasing ERK and AKT signaling activity, highlighting the therapeutic potential of RKIP-ERK-AKT signaling axis in NPC radiosensitization. PMID:26862850

  14. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Timothy A.; Walton, Mike I.; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K.; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D.; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P.; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J.; Thompson, Neil T.; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G1 arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective and potent AKT inhibitor, which blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being employed in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  15. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity, and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930.

    PubMed

    Yap, Timothy A; Walton, Mike I; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J; Thompson, Neil T; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment- and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G(1) arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective, and potent AKT inhibitor that blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being used in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  16. Hypoxia activates Akt and induces phosphorylation of GSK-3 in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Beitner-Johnson, D; Rust, R T; Hsieh, T C; Millhorn, D E

    2001-01-01

    Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to play a central role in promoting cell survival and opposing apoptosis. We evaluated the effect of hypoxia on Akt in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells were exposed to varying levels of hypoxia, including 21%, 15%, 10%, 5%, and 1% O(2). Hypoxia dramatically increased phosphorylation of Akt (Ser(473)). This effect peaked after 6 h exposure to hypoxia, but persisted strongly for up to 24 h. Phosphorylation of Akt was paralleled with a progressive increase in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), one of its downstream substrates. The effect of hypoxia on phosphorylation of Akt was completely blocked by pretreatment of the cells with wortmannin (100 nM), indicating that this effect is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (P13K). In contrast, whereas hypoxia also strongly induced phosphorylation of the transcription factors CREB and EPAS1, these effects persisted in the presence of wortmannin. Thus, hypoxia regulates both P13K-dependent and P13K-independent signaling pathways. Furthermore, activation of the P13K and Akt signaling pathways may be one mechanism by which cells adapt and survive under conditions of hypoxia. PMID:11257444

  17. Involvement of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway and Its Downstream Intracellular Targets in the Antidepressant-Like Effect of Creatine.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mauricio P; Budni, Josiane; Ludka, Fabiana K; Pazini, Francis L; Rosa, Julia Macedo; Oliveira, Ágatha; Lopes, Mark W; Tasca, Carla I; Leal, Rodrigo B; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-07-01

    Creatine has been proposed to exert beneficial effects in the management of depression, but the cell signaling pathways implicated in its antidepressant effects are not well established. This study investigated the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and its downstream intracellular targets in the antidepressant-like effect of creatine. The acute treatment of mice with creatine (1 mg/kg, po) increased the Akt and P70S6K phosphorylation, and HO-1, GPx and PSD95 immunocontents. The pretreatment of mice with LY294002 (10 nmol/mouse, icv, PI3K inhibitor), wortmannin (0.1 μg/mouse, icv, PI3K inhibitor), ZnPP (10 μg/mouse, icv, HO-1 inhibitor), or rapamycin (0.2 nmol/mouse, icv, mTOR inhibitor) prevented the antidepressant-like effect of creatine (1 mg/kg, po) in the TST. In addition, the administration of subeffective dose of either the selective GSK3 inhibitor AR-A014418 (0.01 μg/mouse, icv), the nonselective GSK3 inhibitor lithium chloride (10 mg/kg, po), or the HO-1 inductor CoPP (0.01 μg/mouse, icv), in combination with a subeffective dose of creatine (0.01 mg/kg, po) reduced the immobility time in the TST as compared with either drug alone. No treatment caused significant changes in the locomotor activity of mice. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of creatine in the TST depends on the activation of Akt, Nrf2/HO-1, GPx, and mTOR, and GSK3 inhibition. PMID:25943184

  18. Constitutively active Akt1 expression in mouse pancreas requires S6 kinase 1 for insulinoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Alliouachene, Samira; Tuttle, Robyn L.; Boumard, Stephanie; Lapointe, Thomas; Berissi, Sophie; Germain, Stephane; Jaubert, Francis; Tosh, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pende, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Factors that promote pancreatic β cell growth and function are potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus. In mice, genetic experiments suggest that signaling cascades initiated by insulin and IGFs positively regulate β cell mass and insulin secretion. Akt and S6 kinase (S6K) family members are activated as part of these signaling cascades, but how the interplay between these proteins controls β cell growth and function has not been determined. Here, we found that although transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 under the rat insulin promoter (RIP-MyrAkt1 mice) had enlarged β cells and high plasma insulin levels, leading to improved glucose tolerance, a substantial proportion of the mice developed insulinomas later in life, which caused decreased viability. This oncogenic transformation tightly correlated with nuclear exclusion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. To address the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate S6K1 in the MyrAkt1-mediated phenotype, we crossed RIP-MyrAkt1 and S6K1-deficient mice. The resulting mice displayed reduced insulinemia and glycemia compared with RIP-MyrAkt1 mice due to a combined effect of improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, although the increase in β cell size in RIP-MyrAkt1 mice was not affected by S6K1 deficiency, the hyperplastic transformation required S6K1. Our results therefore identify S6K1 as a critical element for MyrAkt1-induced tumor formation and suggest that it may represent a useful target for anticancer therapy downstream of mTOR. PMID:18846252

  19. Deoxycholyltaurine rescues human colon cancer cells from apoptosis by activating EGFR-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Shant, Jasleen; Guo, Chang Yue; Roy, Sanjit; Cheng, Kunrong

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that secondary bile acids promote colon cancer cell proliferation but their role in maintaining cell survival has not been explored. We found that deoxycholyltaurine (DCT) markedly attenuated both unstimulated and TNF-alpha-stimulated programmed cell death in colon cancer cells by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mechanism. To examine the role of bile acids and PI3K signaling in maintaining colon cancer cell survival, we explored the role of signaling downstream of bile acid-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in regulating both apoptosis and proliferation of HT-29 and H508 human colon cancer cells. DCT caused dose- and time-dependent Akt (Ser(473)) phosphorylation, a commonly used marker of activated PI3K/Akt signaling. Both EGFR kinase and PI3K inhibitors attenuated DCT-induced Akt phosphorylation and Akt activation, as demonstrated by reduced phosphorylation of a GSK-3-paramyosin substrate. Transfection of HT-29 cells with kinase-dead EGFR (K721M) reduced DCT-induced Akt phosphorylation. In HT-29 cells, EGFR and PI3K inhibitors as well as transfection with dominant negative AKT attenuated DCT-induced cell proliferation. DCT-induced PI3K/Akt activation resulted in downstream phosphorylation of GSK-3 (Ser(21/9)) and BAD (Ser(136)), and nuclear translocation (activation) of NF-kappaB, thereby confirming that DCT-induced activation of PI3K/Akt signaling regulates both proproliferative and prosurvival signals. Collectively, these results indicate that DCT-induced activation of post-EGFR PI3K/Akt signaling stimulates both colon cancer cell survival and proliferation. PMID:18064605

  20. Unique Effects of Acute Aripiprazole Treatment on the Dopamine D2 Receptor Downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β Signalling Pathways in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bo; Chen, Jiezhong; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a wide-used antipsychotic drug with therapeutic effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and reduced side-effects. Although aripiprazole was developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonist, all other D2R partial agonists that aimed to mimic aripiprazole failed to exert therapeutic effects in clinic. The present in vivo study aimed to investigate the effects of aripiprazole on the D2R downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways in comparison with a D2R antagonist – haloperidol and a D2R partial agonist – bifeprunox. Rats were injected once with aripiprazole (0.75mg/kg, i.p.), bifeprunox (0.8mg/kg, i.p.), haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Five brain regions – the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) were collected. The protein levels of PKA, Akt and GSK3β were measured by Western Blotting; the cAMP levels were examined by ELISA tests. The results showed that aripiprazole presented similar acute effects on PKA expression to haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, in the CPU and VTA. Additionally, aripiprazole was able to increase the phosphorylation of GSK3β in the PFC, NAc, CPu and SN, respectively, which cannot be achieved by bifeprunox and haloperidol. These results suggested that acute treatment of aripiprazole had differential effects on the cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways from haloperidol and bifeprunox in these brain areas. This study further indicated that, by comparison with bifeprunox, the unique pharmacological profile of aripiprazole may be attributed to the relatively lower intrinsic activity at D2R. PMID:26162083

  1. Somatic Activation of AKT3 Causes Hemispheric Developmental Brain Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Elhosary, Princess Christina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Hills, L. Benjamin; Heinzen, Erin L.; Hill, Anthony; Hill, R. Sean; Barry, Brenda J.; Bourgeois, Blaise F.D.; Riviello, James J.; Barkovich, A. James; Black, Peter M.; Ligon, Keith L.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hemimegalencephaly (HMG) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by an enlarged, malformed cerebral hemisphere, typically causing epilepsy that requires surgical resection. We studied resected HMG tissue to test whether the condition might reflect somatic mutations affecting genes critical to brain development. We found that 2/8 HMG samples showed trisomy of chromosome 1q, encompassing many genes, including AKT3, which is known to regulate brain size. A third case showed a known activating mutation in AKT3 (c.49G→A, creating p.E17K) that was not present in the patient’s blood cells. Remarkably, the E17K mutation in AKT3 is exactly paralogous to E17K mutations in AKT1 and AKT2 recently discovered in somatic overgrowth syndromes. We show that AKT3 is the most abundant AKT paralogue in brain during neurogenesis and that phosphorylated AKT is abundant in cortical progenitor cells. Our data suggest that somatic mutations limited to brain could represent an important cause of complex neurogenetic disease. PMID:22500628

  2. Copper ions strongly activate the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway independent of the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovitch, Elena A; Lordnejad, Mohammad Reza; Schliess, Freimut; Sies, Helmut; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2002-01-15

    Copper is implicated in metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of signaling pathways regulating cellular survival and function in response to a copper stress is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of such diseases. Exposure of human skin fibroblasts or HeLa cells to Cu(2+) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent activation of the antiapoptotic kinase Akt/protein kinase B, starting at concentrations as low as 3 microM. Only Cu(II), but not Cu(I), had this effect. Activation of Akt was accompanied by phosphorylation of a downstream target of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) completely blocked activation of Akt by Cu(2+), indicating a requirement of PI3K for Cu(2+)-induced activation of Akt. Indeed, cellular PI3K activity was strongly enhanced after exposure to Cu(2+). Copper ions may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide. Activation of Akt by hydrogen peroxide or growth factors is known to proceed via the activation growth factor receptors. In line with this, pretreatment with inhibitors of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases blocked activation of Akt by hydrogen peroxide and growth factors, as did a src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor or the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Activation of Akt by Cu(2+), however, remained unimpaired, implying (i) that tyrosine kinase activation is not involved in Cu(2+) activation of Akt and (ii) that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway by Cu(2+) is initiated independently of that induced by reactive oxygen species. Comparison of the time course of the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein in copper-treated cells with that of Akt activation led to the conclusion that production of hydroperoxides cannot be an upstream event in copper-induced Akt activation. Rather, both activation of Akt and generation of ROS are proposed to occur in parallel, regulating cell survival after a

  3. Modulation in Activation and Expression of PTEN, Akt1, and PDK1: Further Evidence Demonstrating Altered Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling in Postmortem Brain of Suicide Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Zhang, Hui; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling plays a crucial role in neuronal growth and plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that suicide brain is associated with decreased activation and expression of selective catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI 3-K. The present investigation examined the regulation and functional significance of compromised PI 3-K in suicide brain at the level of upstream phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) and downstream substrates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt. Method mRNA expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, and PDK1 by competitive RT-PCR; protein expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated-Akt1 (Ser473), phosphorylated-Akt1(Thr308), phosphorylated-PDK1, and phosphorylated-PTEN by Western blot; and catalytic activities of Akt1, Akt3, and PDK1 by enzymatic assays were determined in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus obtained from suicide subjects and nonpsychiatric controls. Results No significant changes in the expression of Akt1 or Akt3 were observed; however, catalytic activity of Akt1, but not of Akt3, was decreased in PFC and hippocampus of suicide subjects, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 and Thr308. The catalytic activity of PDK1 and the level of phosphorylated-PDK1 were also decreased in both brain areas without any change in expression levels of PDK1. On the other hand, mRNA and protein expression of PTEN was increased, whereas the level of phosphorylated-PTEN was decreased. Conclusion Our study demonstrates abnormalities in PI 3-K signaling at several levels in brain of suicide subjects and suggests the possible involvement of aberrant PI 3-K/Akt signaling in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicide. PMID:20163786

  4. Hirsutenone in Alnus extract inhibits akt activity and suppresses prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soouk; Kim, Jong-Eun; Li, Yan; Jung, Sung Keun; Song, Nu Ry; Thimmegowda, N R; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Hyong Joo; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-11-01

    Although specific compounds found in some East Asian traditional medicines have been shown to exhibit bioactive properties, their molecular mechanisms of action remain elusive. The bark of the Alnus species has been used for the treatment of various pathological conditions including hemorrhage, alcoholism, fever, diarrhea, skin diseases, inflammation, and cancer in East Asia for centuries. In this study, we show that hirsutenone, a bioactive compound in Alnus japonica, exhibits anti-cancer effects against prostate cancer through a direct physical inhibition of Akt1/2. Hirsutenone suppressed anchorage-dependent and independent cell growth of PC3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Annexin V and Propidium iodide (PI) staining results demonstrated that hirsutenone strongly induces apoptotic cell death in both PC3 and LNCaP cells. Furthermore, treatment of hirsutenone attenuated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream substrate of Akt, without affecting Akt phosphorylation. Kinase and pull-down assay results clearly show that hirsutenone inhibits Akt1 and 2 by direct binding in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-noncompetitive manner in vitro and ex vivo. Our results show that hirsutenone suppresses human prostate cancer by targeting Akt1 and 2 as a key component to explain for anti-cancer activity of Alnus species. PMID:25213146

  5. Downstream of Akt: FoxO3 and mTOR in the regulation of autophagy in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mammucari, Cristina; Schiaffino, Stefano; Sandri, Marco

    2008-05-01

    The balance between synthesis and degradation of intracellular components determines the overall muscle fiber size. Muscle atrophy occurs when the degradation rate is higher than the synthesis rate, for example during disuse, fasting or systemic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and renal failure. The two main catabolic systems that are activated during atrophy are the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome pathways. FoxO3 transcription factor causes marked atrophy in adult skeletal muscle and induces the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase Atrogin-1/MAFbx.(1) In addition, we recently reported that FoxO3 is necessary and sufficient for the induction of autophagy in skeletal muscle.(2) Transcription of autophagy related genes, such as LC3B and Bnip3, is activated during fasting and is mediated by FoxO3. In particular, Bnip3 induces autophagosome formation and is responsible for the induction of autophagy by FoxO3. Surprisingly, rapamycin is not able to induce autophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo, indicating that the Akt-FoxO axis, rather than the Akt-mTOR pathway, is involved in this process. Here we discuss the major implications of our recent work. PMID:18367868

  6. Akt1 signaling coordinates BMP signaling and β-catenin activity to regulate second heart field progenitor development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Hengwei; Tao, Lichan; Zhu, Jingai; Wang, Huijuan; Hemmings, Brian A; Yang, Zhongzhou

    2015-02-15

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors exhibit continued proliferation and delayed differentiation, which are modulated by FGF4/8/10, BMP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PTEN-Akt signaling regulates the stem cell/progenitor cell homeostasis in several systems, such as hematopoietic stem cells, intestinal stem cells and neural progenitor cells. To address whether PTEN-Akt signaling is involved in regulating cardiac progenitors, we deleted Pten in SHF progenitors. Deletion of Pten caused SHF expansion and increased the size of the SHF derivatives, the right ventricle and the outflow tract. Cell proliferation of cardiac progenitors was enhanced, whereas cardiac differentiation was unaffected by Pten deletion. Removal of Akt1 rescued the phenotype and early lethality of Pten deletion mice, suggesting that Akt1 was the key downstream target that was negatively regulated by PTEN in cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of FOXO by Akt1 suppressed the expression of the gene encoding the BMP ligand (BMP7), leading to dampened BMP signaling in the hearts of Pten deletion mice. Cardiac activation of Akt also increased the Ser552 phosphorylation of β-catenin, thus enhancing its activity. Reducing β-catenin levels could partially rescue heart defects of Pten deletion mice. We conclude that Akt signaling regulates the cell proliferation of SHF progenitors through coordination of BMP signaling and β-catenin activity. PMID:25670795

  7. Early Endosomal Antigen 1 (EEA1) Is an Obligate Scaffold for Angiotensin II-induced, PKC-α-dependent Akt Activation in Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Nazarewicz, Rafal Robert; Salazar, Gloria; Patrushev, Nikolay; Martin, Alejandra San; Hilenski, Lula; Xiong, Shiqin; Alexander, R. Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) activation/phosphorylation by angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical signaling event in hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Conventional wisdom asserts that Akt activation occurs mainly in plasma membrane domains. Recent evidence that Akt activation may take place within intracellular compartments challenges this dogma. The spatial identity and mechanistic features of these putative signaling domains have not been defined. Using cell fractionation and fluorescence methods, we demonstrate that the early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1)-positive endosomes are a major site of Ang II-induced Akt activation. Akt moves to and is activated in EEA1 endosomes. The expression of EEA1 is required for phosphorylation of Akt at both Thr-308 and Ser-473 as well as for phosphorylation of its downstream targets mTOR and S6 kinase, but not for Erk1/2 activation. Both Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) interact with EEA1. We also found that PKC-α is required for organizing Ang II-induced, EEA1-dependent Akt phosphorylation in VSMC early endosomes. EEA1 expression enables PKC-α phosphorylation, which in turn regulates Akt upstream signaling kinases, PDK1 and p38 MAPK. Our results indicate that PKC-α is a necessary regulator of EEA1-dependent Akt signaling in early endosomes. Finally, EEA1 down-regulation or expression of a dominant negative mutant of PKC-α blunts Ang II-induced leucine incorporation in VSMCs. Thus, EEA1 serves a novel function as an obligate scaffold for Ang II-induced Akt activation in early endosomes. PMID:21097843

  8. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF UPSTREAM WATERSHED ACTIVITIES TO DOWNSTREAM STREAMFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking the impacts of upstream activities such as urban development to changes in downstream streamflow is critical to achieving a balance between economic development and environmental protection as a basis for sustainable watershed development. This paper presents a modeling a...

  9. Alternative Activation Mechanisms of Protein Kinase B Trigger Distinct Downstream Signaling Responses.

    PubMed

    Balzano, Deborah; Fawal, Mohamad-Ali; Velázquez, Jose V; Santiveri, Clara M; Yang, Joshua; Pastor, Joaquín; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Djouder, Nabil; Lietha, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is an important mediator of signals that control various cellular processes including cell survival, growth, proliferation, and metabolism. PKB promotes these processes by phosphorylating many cellular targets, which trigger distinct downstream signaling events. However, how PKB is able to selectively target its substrates to induce specific cellular functions remains elusive. Here we perform a systematic study to dissect mechanisms that regulate intrinsic kinase activity versus mechanisms that specifically regulate activity toward specific substrates. We demonstrate that activation loop phosphorylation and the C-terminal hydrophobic motif are essential for high PKB activity in general. On the other hand, we identify membrane targeting, which for decades has been regarded as an essential step in PKB activation, as a mechanism mainly affecting substrate selectivity. Further, we show that PKB activity in cells can be triggered independently of PI3K by initial hydrophobic motif phosphorylation, presumably through a mechanism analogous to other AGC kinases. Importantly, different modes of PKB activation result in phosphorylation of distinct downstream targets. Our data indicate that specific mechanisms have evolved for signaling nodes, like PKB, to select between various downstream events. Targeting such mechanisms selectively could facilitate the development of therapeutics that might limit toxic side effects. PMID:26286748

  10. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, Noriko; Kimura, Tohru; Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko; Shinohara, Takashi; Nakano, Toru

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  11. Activation of Akt Signaling in Prostate Induces a TGFβ Mediated Restraint on Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bjerke, Glen A.; Yang, Chun-Song; Frierson, Henry F.; Paschal, Bryce M.; Wotton, David

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene are found in a high proportion of human prostate cancers, and in mice, Pten deletion induces high-grade prostate intra-epithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). However, progression from HGPIN to invasive cancer occurs slowly, suggesting that tumorigenesis is subject to restraint. We show that Pten deletion, or constitutive activation of the downstream kinase AKT, activates the transforming growth factor (TGF) β pathway in prostate epithelial cells. TGFβ signaling is known to play a tumor suppressive role in many cancer types, and reduced expression of TGFβ receptors correlates with advanced human prostate cancer. We demonstrate that in combination either with loss of Pten, or expression of constitutively active AKT1, inactivation of TGFβ signaling by deletion of the TGFβ type II receptor gene relieves a restraint on tumorigenesis. This results in rapid progession to lethal prostate cancer, including metastasis to lymph node and lung. In prostate epithelium, inactivation of TGFβ signaling alone is insufficient to initiate tumorigenesis, but greatly accelerates cancer progression. The activation of TGFβ signaling by Pten loss or AKT activation suggests that the same signaling events that play key roles in tumor initiation also induce the activity of a pathway that restrains disease progression. PMID:23995785

  12. Regulation of neutrophil apoptosis by modulation of PKB/Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Rane, Madhavi J; Klein, Jon B

    2009-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase, Akt, also known as PKB (Protein Kinase B) is one important signal transduction pathway that mediates the delay of neutrophil apoptosis caused by inflammatory mediators. Proteins controlled by the PKB/Akt pathway have been reported to prevent or reverse apoptotic-signaling pathways and regulate cell survival. In this review we discuss the role of PKB/Akt activation in the regulation of neutrophil activation during inflammation, and the importance of resolving the inflammatory response by inhibiting PKB/Akt activation and neutrophil survival. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of a dynamic Akt signal complex that is altered when an extracellular signal is initiated such that changes in protein-protein interactions within the Akt signal complex regulates Akt activity and cell survival. Various substrates of PKB/Akt as well as positive and negative regulators of PKB/Akt activation are discussed which in turn inhibit or enhance cellular survival. PMID:19273208

  13. A Ral GAP complex links PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling to RalA activation in insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Leto, Dara; Xiong, Tingting; Yu, Genggeng; Cheng, Alan; Decker, Stuart; Saltiel, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose transport in muscle  and adipose tissue by translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. We previously reported that activation of the small GTPase RalA downstream of PI 3-kinase plays a critical role in this process by mobilizing the exocyst complex for GLUT4 vesicle targeting in adipocytes. Here we report the identification and characterization of a Ral GAP complex (RGC) that mediates the activation of RalA downstream of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway. The complex is composed of an RGC1 regulatory subunit and an RGC2 catalytic subunit (previously identified as AS250) that directly stimulates the guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis of RalA. Knockdown of RGC proteins leads to increased RalA activity and glucose uptake in adipocytes. Insulin inhibits the GAP complex through Akt2-catalyzed phosphorylation of RGC2 in vitro and in vivo, while activated Akt relieves the inhibitory effect of RGC proteins on RalA activity. The RGC complex thus connects PI 3-kinase/Akt activity to the transport machineries responsible for GLUT4 translocation. PMID:21148297

  14. Protein kinase B/Akt activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by increasing NO production in response to shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, Y. M.; Boo, Y. C.; Park, H.; Maland, M. C.; Patel, R.; Pritchard, K. A. Jr; Fujio, Y.; Walsh, K.; Darley-Usmar, V.; Jo, H.

    2001-01-01

    Laminar shear stress activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by the mechanisms involving both nitric oxide (NO) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Because protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream effector of PI3K, has been shown to phosphorylate and activate endothelial NO synthase, we hypothesized that Akt regulates shear-dependent activation of JNK by stimulating NO production. Here, we examined the role of Akt in shear-dependent NO production and JNK activation by expressing a dominant negative Akt mutant (Akt(AA)) and a constitutively active mutant (Akt(Myr)) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). As expected, pretreatment of BAEC with the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) prevented shear-dependent stimulation of Akt and NO production. Transient expression of Akt(AA) in BAEC by using a recombinant adenoviral construct inhibited the shear-dependent stimulation of NO production and JNK activation. However, transient expression of Akt(Myr) by using a recombinant adenoviral construct did not induce JNK activation. This is consistent with our previous finding that NO is required, but not sufficient on its own, to activate JNK in response to shear stress. These results and our previous findings strongly suggest that shear stress triggers activation of PI3K, Akt, and endothelial NO synthase, leading to production of NO, which (along with O(2-), which is also produced by shear) activates Ras-JNK pathway. The regulation of Akt, NO, and JNK by shear stress is likely to play a critical role in its antiatherogenic effects.

  15. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jia-Shiuan; Chao, Cheng-Han; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins. PMID:26751215

  16. Lovastatin Inhibits VEGFR and AKT Activation: Synergistic Cytotoxicity in Combination with VEGFR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Christina L.; Dimitroulakos, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Background In a recent study, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to inhibit the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Lovastatin attenuated ligand-induced receptor activation and downstream signaling through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Combining lovastatin with gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, induced synergistic cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor derived cell lines. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and EGFR share similar activation, internalization and downstream signaling characteristics. Methodology/Principal Findings The VEGFRs, particularly VEGFR-2 (KDR, Flt-1), play important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Certain tumors, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM), also express both the VEGF ligand and VEGFRs that act in an autocrine loop to directly stimulate tumor cell growth and survival. In this study, we have shown that lovastatin inhibits ligand-induced VEGFR-2 activation through inhibition of receptor internalization and also inhibits VEGF activation of AKT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and H28 MM cells employing immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Combinations of lovastatin and a VEGFR-2 inhibitor showed more robust AKT inhibition than either agent alone in the H28 MM cell line. Furthermore, combining 5 µM lovastatin treatment, a therapeutically relevant dose, with two different VEGFR-2 inhibitors in HUVEC and the H28 and H2052 mesothelioma derived cell lines demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity as demonstrated by MTT cell viability and flow cytometric analyses. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight a novel mechanism by which lovastatin can regulate VEGFR-2 function and a potential therapeutic approach for MM through combining statins with VEGFR-2 inhibitors. PMID:20838437

  17. Radiation-induced Akt activation modulates radioresistance in human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Fang; Kim, Jung-Sik; Waldman, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation (IR) therapy is a primary treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a common and devastating brain tumor in humans. IR has been shown to induce PI3K-Akt activation in many cell types, and activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway has been correlated with radioresistance. Methods Initially, the effects of IR on Akt activation were assessed in multiple human GBM cell lines. Next, to evaluate a potential causative role of IR-induced Akt activation on radiosensitivity, Akt activation was inhibited during IR with several complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches, and radiosensitivity measured using clonogenic survival assays. Results Three of the eight cell lines tested demonstrated IR-induced Akt activation. Further studies revealed that IR-induced Akt activation was dependent upon the presence of a serum factor, and could be inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Inhibition of PI3K activation with LY294002, or with inducible wild-type PTEN, inhibition of EGFR, as well as direct inhibition of Akt with two Akt inhibitors during irradiation increased the radiosensitivity of U87MG cells. Conclusion These results suggest that Akt may be a central player in a feedback loop whereby activation of Akt induced by IR increases radioresistance of GBM cells. Targeting the Akt signaling pathway may have important therapeutic implications when used in combination with IR in the treatment of a subset of brain tumor patients. PMID:19828040

  18. Feedback loops blockade potentiates apoptosis induction and antitumor activity of a novel AKT inhibitor DC120 in human liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Deng, R; Qian, X-J; Chang, S-H; Wu, X-Q; Qin, J; Feng, G-K; Ding, K; Zhu, X-F

    2014-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase AKT is generally accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. However, the relief of feedback inhibition and enhancement of other survival pathways often attenuate the anticancer effects of AKT inhibitors. These compensatory mechanisms are very complicated and remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found a novel 2-pyrimidyl-5-amidothiazole compound, DC120, as an ATP competitive AKT kinase inhibitor that suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. DC120 blocked the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway in dose- and time-dependent manners both in vitro and in vivo. However, unexpectedly, DC120 activated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway that was suggested by increased phosphorylation of 70KD ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The activated mTORC1 signal was because of increase of intracellular Ca(2+) via Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/ signaling to human vacuolar protein sorting 34 (hVps34) upon AKT inhibition. Meanwhile, DC120 attenuated the inhibitory effect of AKT on CRAF by decreasing phosphorylation of CRAF at Ser259 and thus activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The activation of the mTORC1 and MAPK pathways by DC120 was not mutually dependent, and the combination of DC120 with mTORC1 inhibitor and/or MEK inhibitor induced significant apoptosis and growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the combination of AKT, mTORC1 and/or MEK inhibitors would be a promising therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24625973

  19. The Akt switch model: Is location sufficient?

    PubMed

    Gray, Catheryn W; Coster, Adelle C F

    2016-06-01

    Akt/PKB is a biochemical regulator that functions as an important cross-talk node between several signalling pathways in the mammalian cell. In particular, Akt is a key mediator of glucose transport in response to insulin. The phosphorylation (activation) of only a small percentage of the Akt pool of insulin-sensitive cells results in maximal translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane (PM). This enables the diffusion of glucose into the cell. The dysregulation of Akt signalling is associated with the development of diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Akt is synthesised in the cytoplasm in the inactive state. Under the influence of insulin, it moves to the PM, where it is phosphorylated to form pAkt. Although phosphorylation occurs only at the PM, pAkt is found in many cellular locations, including the PM, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. Indeed, the spatial distribution of pAkt within the cell appears to be an important determinant of downstream regulation. Here we present a simple, linear, four-compartment ordinary differential equation (ODE) model of Akt activation that tracks both the biochemical state and the physical location of Akt. This model embodies the main features of the activation of this important cross-talk node and is consistent with the experimental data. In particular, it allows different downstream signalling motifs without invoking separate feedback pathways. Moreover, the model is computationally tractable, readily analysed, and elucidates some of the apparent anomalies in insulin signalling via Akt. PMID:26992575

  20. Akt2 and Akt3 play a pivotal role in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Mure, Hideo; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    Akt, one of the major downstream effectors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, is hyper-expressed and activated in a variety of cancers including glioblastoma. However, the expression profiles of the Akt isoforms Akt1/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ, and Akt3/PKBγ and their functional roles in malignant glioma are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the protein and mRNA expression patterns of Akt isoforms in tissues from human astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and non-neoplastic regions. We also explored the biological role of each Akt isoform in malignant glioma cells using RNA interference-mediated knock-down and the over-expression of plasmid DNA of each isoform. The expression of Akt1 protein and mRNA was similar in glioma and normal control tissues. Although the protein and mRNA level of Akt2 increased with the pathological grade of malignancy, the expression of Akt3 mRNA and protein decreased as the malignancy grade increased. In U87MG, T98G, and TGB cells, the down-regulation of Akt2 or Akt3 by RNA interference reduced the expression of the phosphorylated form of Bad, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Akt1 knock-down did not affect cell growth or survival. We first demonstrate that the over-expression of Akt2 or Akt3 down-regulated the expression of the other protein and that endogenous Akt3 protein showed high kinase activity in U87MG cells. Our data suggest that Akt2 and Akt3 play an important role in the viability of human malignant glioma cells. Targeting Akt2 and Akt3 may hold promise for the treatment of patients with gliomas. PMID:20167810

  1. Activated AKT/PKB signaling in C. elegans uncouples temporally distinct outputs of DAF-2/insulin-like signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2006-01-01

    Background In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway controls larval development, stress resistance and adult lifespan. AGE-1, a homolog of the p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) comprises the major known effector pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Phospholipid products of AGE-1/PI3K activate AKT/PKB kinase signaling via PDK-1. AKT/PKB signaling antagonizes nuclear translocation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduced AGE-1/PI3K signaling permits DAF-16 to direct dauer larval arrest and promote long lifespan in adult animals. In order to study the downstream effectors of AGE-1/PI3K signaling in C. elegans, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations that suppress the constitutive dauer arrest phenotype of age-1(mg109) animals. Results This report describes mutations recovered in a screen for suppressors of the constitutive dauer arrest (daf-C) phenotype of age-1(mg109). Two mutations corresponded to alleles of daf-16. Two mutations were gain-of-function alleles in the genes, akt-1 and pdk-1, encoding phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinases. A fifth mutation, mg227, located on chromosome X, did not correspond to any known dauer genes, suggesting that mg227 may represent a new component of the insulin pathway. Genetic epistasis analysis by RNAi showed that reproductive development in age-1(mg109);akt-1(mg247) animals was dependent on the presence of pdk-1. Similarly, reproductive development in age-1(mg109);pdk-1(mg261) animals was dependent on akt-1. However, reproductive development in age-1(mg109); mg227 animals required only akt-1, and pdk-1 activity was dispensable in this background. Interestingly, while mg227 suppressed dauer arrest in age-1(mg109) animals, it enhanced the long lifespan phenotype. In contrast, akt-1(mg247) and pdk-1(mg261) did not affect lifespan or stress resistance, while both daf-16 alleles fully suppressed these phenotypes. Conclusion A

  2. Cell-cycle-regulated activation of Akt kinase by phosphorylation at its carboxyl terminus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengda; Begley, Michael; Michowski, Wojciech; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Ginzberg, Miriam; Gao, Daming; Tsou, Peiling; Gan, Wenjian; Papa, Antonella; Kim, Byeong Mo; Wan, Lixin; Singh, Amrik; Zhai, Bo; Yuan, Min; Wang, Zhiwei; Gygi, Steven P.; Lee, Tae Ho; Lu, Kun-Ping; Toker, Alex; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Asara, John M.; Kirschner, Marc W.; Sicinski, Piotr; Cantley, Lewis; Wei, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Akt, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in cell proliferation, survival and metabolism. Akt hyperactivation contributes to many pathophysiological conditions, including human cancers1–3, and is closely associated with poor prognosis and chemo- or radio-therapeutic resistance4. Phosphorylation of Akt at S473 (ref. 5) and T308 (ref. 6) activates Akt. However, it remains unclear whether further mechanisms account for full Akt activation, and whether Akt hyperactivation is linked to misregulated cell cycle progression, another cancer hallmark7. Here we report that Akt activity fluctuates across the cell cycle, mirroring cyclin A expression. Mechanistically, phosphorylation of S477 and T479 at the Akt extreme carboxy terminus by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2)/cyclin A or mTORC2, under distinct physiological conditions, promotes Akt activation through facilitating, or functionally compensating for, S473 phosphorylation. Furthermore, deletion of the cyclin A2 allele in the mouse olfactory bulb leads to reduced S477/T479 phosphorylation and elevated cellular apoptosis. Notably, cyclin A2-deletion-induced cellular apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells is partly rescued by S477D/T479E-Akt1, supporting a physiological role for cyclin A2 in governing Akt activation. Together, the results of our study show Akt S477/T479 phosphorylation to be an essential layer of the Akt activation mechanism to regulate its physiological functions, thereby providing a new mechanistic link between aberrant cell cycle progression and Akt hyperactivation in cancer. PMID:24670654

  3. BCL-3 expression promotes colorectal tumorigenesis through activation of AKT signalling

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Bettina C; Collard, Tracey J; Eagle, Catherine J; Southern, Samantha L; Greenhough, Alexander; Hamdollah-Zadeh, Maryam; Ghosh, Anil; Paraskeva, Christos; Silver, Andrew; Williams, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Here we investigate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) co-factor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL-3) in promoting colorectal tumour cell survival. Design Immunohistochemistry was carried out on 47 tumour samples and normal tissue from resection margins. The role of BCL-3/NF-κB complexes on cell growth was studied in vivo and in vitro using an siRNA approach and exogenous BCL-3 expression in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells. The question whether BCL-3 activated the AKT/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway in colorectal tumour cells was addressed by western blotting and confocal microscopy, and the ability of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to suppress BCL-3 expression was also investigated. Results We report increased BCL-3 expression in human colorectal cancers and demonstrate that BCL-3 expression promotes tumour cell survival in vitro and tumour growth in mouse xenografts in vivo, dependent on interaction with NF-κB p50 or p52 homodimers. We show that BCL-3 promotes cell survival under conditions relevant to the tumour microenvironment, protecting both colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells from apoptosis via activation of the AKT survival pathway: AKT activation is mediated via both PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, leading to phosphorylation of downstream targets GSK-3β and FoxO1/3a. Treatment with 5-ASA suppressed BCL-3 expression in colorectal cancer cells. Conclusions Our study helps to unravel the mechanism by which BCL-3 is linked to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer; we suggest that targeting BCL-3 activity represents an exciting therapeutic opportunity potentially increasing the sensitivity of tumour cells to conventional therapy. PMID:26033966

  4. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. - Highlights: • COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, could enhance radiosensitization. • Radiation induced PTEN inactivation (phosphorylation) and AKT activation. • COX-2 inhibitor induced PTEN expression and activation, and inactivated AKT. • COX-2 inhibitor enhanced radiosensitization through activating PTEN.

  5. Akt phosphorylates myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ), releases P-MAZ from the p53 promoter, and activates p53 transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ping; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2016-05-28

    The p53 protein is a cell cycle regulator. When the cell cycle progresses, p53 plays an important role in putting a brake on the G1 phase to prevent unwanted errors during cell division. Akt is a downstream kinase of receptor tyrosine kinase. Upon activation, Akt phorphorylates IKK that then phosphorylates IκB and releases NF-κB, leading to transcriptional activation of Dmp1. Dmp1 is a transcriptional activator of Arf. It has been known that oncogene activation stabilizes p53 through transcriptional activation of Arf, which then binds and inhibits Mdm2. In the current study, we show that myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ) is a transcriptional repressor of the p53 promoter. Akt phosphorylates MAZ at Thr385, and the phosphorylated MAZ is released from the p53 promoter, leading to transcriptional activation of p53, a new mechanism that contributes to increased p53 protein pool during oncogene activation. PMID:26902421

  6. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tung O.; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C.; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M.; Armen, Roger S.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr308 in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr308 dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser473) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr308) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr308 phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. PMID:26201515

  7. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Nihata, Yuma; Satoh, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling. PMID:27163697

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for integrin-stimulated AKT and Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed Central

    King, W G; Mattaliano, M D; Chan, T O; Tsichlis, P N; Brugge, J S

    1997-01-01

    Cell attachment to fibronectin stimulates the integrin-dependent interaction of p85-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase with integrin-dependent focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. However, it is not known if this PI 3-kinase-FAK interaction increases the synthesis of the 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides (3-PPIs) or what role, if any, is played by activated PI 3-kinase in integrin signaling. We demonstrate here the integrin-dependent accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products, PI 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, as well as activation of AKT kinase, a serine/threonine kinase that can be stimulated by binding of PI(3,4)P2. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased the integrin-induced accumulation of the 3-PPIs and activation of AKT kinase, without having significant effects on the levels of PI(4,5)P2 or tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. These inhibitors also reduced cell adhesion/spreading onto fibronectin but had no effect on attachment to polylysine. Interestingly, integrin-mediated Erk-2, Mek-1, and Raf-1 activation, but not Ras-GTP loading, was inhibited at least 80% by wortmannin and LY294002. In support of the pharmacologic results, fibronectin activation of Erk-2 and AKT kinases was completely inhibited by overexpression of a dominant interfering p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. We conclude that integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin results in the accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as the PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of the kinases Raf-1, Mek-1, Erk-2, and AKT and that PI 3-kinase may function upstream of Raf-1 but downstream of Ras in integrin activation of Erk-2 MAP and AKT kinases. PMID:9234699

  9. Interdomain conformational changes in Akt activation revealed by chemical cross-linking and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bill X; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2006-06-01

    Akt, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a critical role in cell survival. Upon growth factor receptor stimulation, cytosolic Akt is recruited to the plasma membrane by phospholipid binding and activated through phosphorylation at Thr(308) and Ser(473). Although crystal structures for the parts of Akt have been reported, neither the three-dimensional structure of the whole molecule nor sequential conformational changes during activation have been demonstrated. In this study, we demonstrated that Akt undergoes dramatic interdomain conformational changes during activation processes by probing the three-dimensional structure of full-length Akt in solution using chemical cross-linking and tandem mass spectrometry. The cross-linking results not only provided new structural information but also revealed distinctive spatial arrangements of individual domains in the Akt molecule in resting, membrane-interacted, phosphorylated, and substrate-bound states. Our data allowed a new model for stepwise interdomain conformational changes in Akt activation sequence, setting a stage for the further investigation on Akt-membrane, Akt-protein, and/or Akt-drug interactions in solution to understand molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes of cell survival. PMID:16531397

  10. PI3K/Akt promotes feedforward mTORC2 activation through IKKα

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Han C.; Antonia, Ricardo J.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2016-01-01

    The ser-thr Akt plays a critical role in the regulation of cell survival, cell growth and proliferation, as well as energy metabolism and is dysregulated in many cancers. The regulation of Akt activity depends on the phosphorylation at two sites: (i) Thr308 in the activation loop by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and (ii) Ser473 hydrophobic motif at the carboxyl terminus by a second activity termed PDK2, which is the mTORC2 complex composed of mTOR, rictor, and Sin1. Previously we demonstrated that IKKα, a component of the IKK complex that controls NF-κB activation, participates in the Akt-dependent regulation of mTORC1. Here we have explored a potential involvement of IKKα in controlling Akt activity and whether this may involve mTORC2. The experiments show that IKKα associates with mTORC2 in several cancer cells in a manner dependent on PI3K/Akt activity and that IKKα positively promotes Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and at Thr308. Moreover, IKKα enhances mTORC2 kinase activity directed to Akt on Ser473 and Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO3a and GSK3β, but not other Akt-associated targets such as TSC2 and PRAS40, indicating the existence of multiple mechanisms of Akt activation in cells. In addition, loss of IKKα suppresses growth factor-induced Akt activation associated with mTORC1 inhibition. These results indicate that IKKα serves as a feedforward regulator of mTORC2 and that IKKα could serve as a key therapeutic target to block mTORC2 and Akt activation in some cancers. PMID:27027448

  11. Caveolin-1 is critical in the proliferative effect of leptin on osteoblasts through the activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lin; Zhang, Guichun; Liu, Lifeng; Chen, Chen; Cao, Xuecheng; Cai, Jinfang

    2016-09-01

    Osteoblasts are critical in bone remodeling and the repair of bone fractures. Leptin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoblast survival through the downstream signaling pathway, however, the exact mechanism of the effect of leptin on osteoblasts remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, hFOB 1.19 cells were used to observe the effects of leptin on cell proliferation and apoptosis, and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The results confirmed that treatment of hFOB 1.19 cells with leptin significantly induced cell proliferation. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of caveolin‑1 and the activation of Akt in the cells treated with leptin were significantly increased, compared with the control cells. Additionally, inhibiting Akt activation eliminated the effects on cell proliferation induced by leptin. The rates of cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined using flow cytometry, which revealed a decrease in the apoptotic rate and an increase in the proportion of cells in the S phase. This indicated that leptin was capable of inducing cell proliferation by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating cell progression to the S phase. Transfection of the cells with caveolin‑1 small interfering RNA showed that the activation of Akt induced by leptin was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, caveolin‑1 knockdown and inhibiting Akt activation eliminated the increased proliferation, increased proportion of cells in the S phase and increased anti‑apoptotic effects induced by leptin. Taken together, the data obtained in the present study demonstrated that caveolin‑1 was critical in the proliferative effect of leptin on osteoblasts via the activation of Akt. PMID:27430651

  12. 17β-estradiol activates mTOR in chondrocytes by AKT-dependent and AKT-independent signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yulei; Sun, Haibiao; Sun, Hongyan; Qiu, Xianxing; Xu, Changbo; Shi, Changxiu; Du, Jiahui

    2015-01-01

    To confirm whether 17β-estradiol (E2) activates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in chondrocytes and in what way activates mTOR. Human immortalized chondrocytes cell lines TC28a2 and C28/I2 were subjected to incubate with or without E2, LY294002 (the inhibitor of PI3K), rapamycin (the inhibitor of mTOR), or E2 in combination with LY294002 or rapamycin. Thereafter, protein levels of S6K1, p-S6K1, protein kinase B (AKT), and p-AKT were determined by Western blot analysis. Matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 3 or MMP13 mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed to verify the interaction between ERα and mTOR. Both p-S6K1 and p-AKT protein levels in TC28a2 and C28/I2E2 cells were significantly increased by incubation with E2 (0.5 h and 1 h) (P < 0.05). Rapamycin did not affect the levels of p-AKT, but were significantly reduced by LY294002 or E2 in combination with LY294002. The levels of p-S6K1 were significantly decreased by incubation with LY294002, but the effect could be reversed by E2 in combination with LY294002. Rabbit anti-mTOR antibody was able to immunoprecipitate ERα after incubation with E2. Moreover, E2 inhibited the mRNA levels of MMP3 and MMP13 by mTOR pathway. E2 actives mTOR in chondrocytes through AKT-dependent and independent ways. PMID:26884863

  13. Gastrointestinal growth factors and hormones have divergent effects on Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Marc J.; Tapia, Jose A.; Sancho, Veronica; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Lauro; Jensen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Akt is a central regulator of apoptosis, cell growth and survival. Growth factors and some G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) regulate Akt. Whereas growth-factor activation of Akt has been extensively studied, the regulation of Akt by GPCR's, especially gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters, remains unclear. To address this area, in this study the effects of GI growth factors and hormones/neurotransmitters were investigate in rat pancreatic acinar cells which are high responsive to these agents. Pancreatic acini expressed Akt and 5 of 7 known pancreatic growth-factors stimulate Akt phosphorylation (T308, S473) and translocation. These effects are mediated by p85 phosphorylation and activation of PI3K. GI hormones increasing intracellular cAMP had similar effects. However, GI-hormones/neurotransmitters[CCK, bombesin,carbachol] activating phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited basal and growth-factor-stimulated Akt activation. Detailed studies with CCK, which has both physiological and pathophysiological effects on pancreatic acinar cells at different concentrations, demonstrated CCK has a biphasic effect: at low concentrations(pM) stimulating Akt by a Src-dependent mechanism and at higher concentrations(nM) inhibited basal and stimulated Akt translocation, phosphorylation and activation, by de-phosphorylating p85 resulting in decreasing PI3K activity. This effect required activation of both limbs of the PLC-pathway and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, but was not mediated by p44/42 MAPK, Src or activation of a serine phosphatase. Akt inhibition by CCK was also found in vivo and in Panc-1 cancer cells where it inhibited serum-mediated rescue from apoptosis. These results demonstrate that GI growth factors as well as gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters with different cellular basis of action can all regulate Akt phosphorylation in pancreatic acinar cells. This regulation is complex with phospholipase C agents such as CCK, because both stimulatory and inhibitory

  14. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Wada, Eiji; Zammit, Peter S.; Shiozuka, Masataka; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  15. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as “S-mercuration”, potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  16. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as "S-mercuration", potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Breast Cancer: Role of TIMP-1 in NO-mediated Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ridnour, Lisa A.; Barasch, Kimberly M.; Windhausen, Alisha N.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Lizardo, Michael M.; Yfantis, Harris G.; Lee, Dong H.; Switzer, Christopher H.; Cheng, Robert Y. S.; Heinecke, Julie L.; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hines, Harry B.; Khanna, Chand; Glynn, Sharon A.; Ambs, Stefan; Wink, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of therapeutic response and cancer patient survival can be improved by the identification of molecular markers including tumor Akt status. A direct correlation between NOS2 expression and elevated Akt phosphorylation status has been observed in breast tumors. Tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) has been proposed to exert oncogenic properties through CD63 cell surface receptor pathway initiation of pro-survival PI3k/Akt signaling. We employed immunohistochemistry to examine the influence of TIMP-1 on the functional relationship between NOS2 and phosphorylated Akt in breast tumors and found that NOS2-associated Akt phosphorylation was significantly increased in tumors expressing high TIMP-1, indicating that TIMP-1 may further enhance NO-induced Akt pathway activation. Moreover, TIMP-1 silencing by antisense technology blocked NO-induced PI3k/Akt/BAD phosphorylation in cultured MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. TIMP-1 protein nitration and TIMP-1/CD63 co-immunoprecipitation was observed at NO concentrations that induced PI3k/Akt/BAD pro-survival signaling. In the survival analysis, elevated tumor TIMP-1 predicted poor patient survival. This association appears to be mainly restricted to tumors with high NOS2 protein. In contrast, TIMP-1 did not predict poor survival in patient tumors with low NOS2 expression. In summary, our findings suggest that tumors with high TIMP-1 and NOS2 behave more aggressively by mechanisms that favor Akt pathway activation. PMID:22957045

  18. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Tang, Yonghong

    2009-08-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) can modulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Recently, LPLI has been applied to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The protective role of LPLI against the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), a major constituent of AD plaques, has not been studied. PI3K/Akt pathway is extremely important in protecting cells from apoptosis caused by diverse stress stimuli. However, whether LPLI can inhibit Aβ-induced apoptosis through Akt activation is still unclear. In current study, using FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) technique, we investigated the activity of Akt in response to LPLI treatment. B kinase activity reporter (BKAR), a recombinant FRET probe of Akt, was utilized to dynamically detect the activation of Akt after LPLI treatment. The results show that LPLI promoted the activation of Akt. Moreover, LPLI inhibits apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 and the apoptosis inhibition can be abolished by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that LPLI can inhibit Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation.

  19. The Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor, OSU-T315, Suppresses Vestibular Schwannoma and Meningioma Growth by Inhibiting PDK2 Function in the AKT Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Pimentel, ME; Igarashi, S; Dunn, AM; Behbahani, M; Miller, C; Read, CM; Jacob, A

    2016-01-01

    Activation of PKB/AKT signaling, which requires PDK1 and PDK2 function, drives Vestibular Schwannoma (VS) and meningioma growth. PDK2 function is defined as a molecule that phosphorylates AKT-Ser473. Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) functions as PDK2 in PKB/AKT activation in many cancers; therefore, we hypothesized that OSU-T315, a small molecule ILK inhibitor, will inhibit the ILK-PDK2 function in PKB/AKT signaling activation in VS and meningioma cell growth. OSU-T315 decreased cell viability at IC50 < 2μM in VS (HEI193) and meningioma (Ben-Men-1) cell lines, in primary cells at < 3.5μM, while in normal primary Schwann cells at 7.1μM. OSU-T315 inhibits AKT signaling by decreasing phosphorylation at AKT-Ser473, AKT-Thr308, ILK-Ser246 and ILK-Thr173. In addition, OSU-T315 affected the phosphorylation or expression levels of AKT downstream proliferation effectors as well as autophagy markers. Flow cytometry shows that OSU-T315 increased the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M for both, HEI193 (39.99%) and Ben-Men-1 (26.96%) cells, compared to controls (21.54%, 8.47%). Two hours of OSU-T315 treatment increased cell death in both cell lines (34.3%, 9.1%) versus untreated (12.1%, 8.1%). Though longer exposure increased cell death in Ben-Men-1, TUNEL assays showed that OSU-T315 does not induce apoptosis. OSU-T315 was primarily cytotoxic for HEI193 and Ben-Men-1 inducing a dysregulated autophagy. Our studies suggest that OSU-T315 has translational potential as a chemotherapeutic agent against VS and meningioma.

  20. Prediabetes Linked to Excess Glucagon in Transgenic Mice with Pancreatic Active AKT1

    PubMed Central

    Albury-Warren, Toya M.; Pandey, Veethika; Spinel, Lina P.; Masternak, Michal M.; Altomare, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Protein Kinase B/AKT, has three isoforms (AKT1-3) and is renowned for its central role in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, due to its constitutive activation in various cancers. AKT2, which is highly expressed in insulin responsive tissues, has been identified as a primary regulator of glucose metabolism as Akt2 knockout mice (Akt2−/−) are glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. However, the role of AKT1 in glucose metabolism is not as clearly defined. We previously showed that mice with myristoylated Akt1 (AKT1Myr) expressed through a bicistronic Pdx1-TetA and TetO-MyrAkt1 system were susceptible to islet cell carcinomas, and in this study we characterized an early onset, prediabetic phenotype. Beginning at weaning (3 weeks of age), the glucose intolerant AKT1Myr mice exhibited non-fasted hyperglycemia, which progressed to fasted hyperglycemia by 5 months of age. The glucose intolerance was attributed to a fasted hyperglucagonemia, and hepatic insulin resistance detectable by reduced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor following insulin injection into the inferior vena cava. In contrast, treatment with doxycycline diet to turn-off the transgene, caused attenuation of the non-fasted and fasted hyperglycemia, thus affirming AKT1 hyperactivation as the trigger. Collectively, this model highlights a novel glucagon-mediated mechanism by which AKT1 hyperactivation affects glucose homeostasis, and provides an avenue to better delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible for diabetes mellitus and the potential association with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26487674

  1. Prediabetes linked to excess glucagon in transgenic mice with pancreatic active AKT1.

    PubMed

    Albury-Warren, Toya M; Pandey, Veethika; Spinel, Lina P; Masternak, Michal M; Altomare, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B/AKT has three isoforms (AKT1-3) and is renowned for its central role in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, due to its constitutive activation in various cancers. AKT2, which is highly expressed in insulin-responsive tissues, has been identified as a primary regulator of glucose metabolism as Akt2 knockout mice (Akt2(-/-)) are glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant. However, the role of AKT1 in glucose metabolism is not as clearly defined. We previously showed that mice with myristoylated Akt1 (AKT1(Myr)) expressed through a bicistronic Pdx1-TetA and TetO-MyrAkt1 system were susceptible to islet cell carcinomas, and in this study we characterized an early onset, prediabetic phenotype. Beginning at weaning (3 weeks of age), the glucose-intolerant AKT1(Myr) mice exhibited non-fasted hyperglycemia, which progressed to fasted hyperglycemia by 5 months of age. The glucose intolerance was attributed to a fasted hyperglucagonemia, and hepatic insulin resistance detectable by reduced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor following insulin injection into the inferior vena cava. In contrast, treatment with doxycycline diet to turn off the transgene caused attenuation of the non-fasted and fasted hyperglycemia, thus affirming AKT1 hyperactivation as the trigger. Collectively, this model highlights a novel glucagon-mediated mechanism by which AKT1 hyperactivation affects glucose homeostasis and provides an avenue to better delineate the molecular mechanisms responsible for diabetes mellitus and the potential association with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26487674

  2. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Regulatory Factor SLUG (SNAI2) Is a Downstream Target of SPARC and AKT in Promoting Melanoma Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Fenouille, Nina; Tichet, Mélanie; Dufies, Maeva; Pottier, Anaïs; Mogha, Ariane; Soo, Julia K.; Rocchi, Stéphane; Mallavialle, Aude; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; Khammari, Amir; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Deckert, Marcel; Tartare-Deckert, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    During progression of melanoma, malignant melanocytes can be reprogrammed into mesenchymal-like cells through a process similar to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with downregulation of the junctional protein E-cadherin and acquisition of a migratory phenotype. Recent evidence supports a role for SLUG, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin, as a melanocyte lineage transcription factor that predisposes to melanoma metastasis. However, the signals responsible for SLUG expression in melanoma are unclear and its role in the invasive phenotype is not fully elucidated. Here, we report that SLUG expression and activation is driven by SPARC (also known as osteonectin), a secreted extracellular matrix-associated factor that promotes EMT-like changes. Ectopic expression or knockdown of SPARC resulted in increased or reduced expression of SLUG, respectively. SLUG increase occurred concomitantly with SPARC-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin and P-cadherin, and induction of mesenchymal traits in human melanocytes and melanoma cells. Pharmacological blockade of PI3 kinase/AKT signaling impeded SPARC-induced SLUG levels and cell migration, whereas adenoviral introduction of constitutively active AKT allowed rescue of SLUG and migratory capabilities of SPARC knockdown cells. We also observed that pharmacological inhibition of oncogenic BRAFV600E using PLX4720 did not influence SLUG expression in melanoma cells harboring BRAFV600E. Furthermore, SLUG is a bona fide transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin as well as a regulator of P-cadherin in melanoma cells and its knockdown attenuated invasive behavior and blocked SPARC-enhanced cell migration. Notably, inhibition of cell migration in SPARC-depleted cells was rescued by expression of a SLUG transgene. In freshly isolated metastatic melanoma cells, a positive association between SPARC and SLUG mRNA levels was also found. These findings reveal that autocrine SPARC maintains heightened SLUG

  3. Repression of AKT signaling by ARQ 092 in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Yourick, Miranda R.; Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E.; Ferrari, Dora; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    A somatic activating mutation in AKT1, c.49G>A, pGlu17Lys, that results in elevated AKT signaling in mutation-positive cells, is responsible for the mosaic overgrowth condition, Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 is an allosteric pan-AKT inhibitor under development for treatment in cancer. We tested the efficacy of this drug for suppressing AKT signaling in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 reduced phosphorylation of AKT and downstream targets of AKT in a concentration-dependent manner in as little as two hours. While AKT signaling was suppressed with ARQ 092 treatment, cells retained their ability to respond to growth factor stimulation by increasing pAKT levels proportionally to untreated cells. At concentrations sufficient to decrease AKT signaling, little reduction in cell viability was seen. These results indicate that ARQ 092 can suppress AKT signaling and warrants further development as a therapeutic option for patients with Proteus syndrome. PMID:26657992

  4. Akt-dependent NF-kappaB activation is required for bile acids to rescue colon cancer cells from stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shant, Jasleen; Cheng, Kunrong; Marasa, Bernard S; Wang, Jian-Ying; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2009-02-01

    Conjugated secondary bile acids promote human colon cancer cell proliferation by activating EGF receptors (EGFR). We hypothesized that bile acid-induced EGFR activation also mediates cell survival by downstream Akt-regulated activation of NF-kappaB. Deoxycholyltaurine (DCT) treatment attenuated TNF-alpha-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis, and stimulated rapid and sustained NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity (detected by NF-kappaB binding to an oligonucleotide consensus sequence and by activation of luciferase reporter gene constructs). Both DCT-induced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and attenuation of TNF-alpha-stimulated apoptosis were dependent on EGFR activation. Inhibitors of nuclear translocation, proteosome activity, and IkappaBalpha kinase attenuated NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Cell transfection with adenoviral vectors encoding a non-degradable IkappaBalpha 'super-repressor' blocked the actions of DCT on both NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Likewise, transfection with mutant akt and treatment with a chemical inhibitor of Akt attenuated effects of DCT on NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Chemical inhibitors of Akt and NF-kappaB activation also attenuated DCT-induced rescue of H508 cells from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these observations indicate that, downstream of EGFR, bile acid-induced colon cancer cell survival is mediated by Akt-dependent NF-kappaB activation. These findings provide a mechanism whereby bile acids increase resistance of colon cancer to chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:19056378

  5. Akt-dependent NF-{kappa}B activation is required for bile acids to rescue colon cancer cells from stress-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shant, Jasleen; Cheng, Kunrong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Wang Jianying; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2009-02-01

    Conjugated secondary bile acids promote human colon cancer cell proliferation by activating EGF receptors (EGFR). We hypothesized that bile acid-induced EGFR activation also mediates cell survival by downstream Akt-regulated activation of NF-{kappa}B. Deoxycholyltaurine (DCT) treatment attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis, and stimulated rapid and sustained NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity (detected by NF-{kappa}B binding to an oligonucleotide consensus sequence and by activation of luciferase reporter gene constructs). Both DCT-induced NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and attenuation of TNF-{alpha}-stimulated apoptosis were dependent on EGFR activation. Inhibitors of nuclear translocation, proteosome activity, and I{kappa}B{alpha} kinase attenuated NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. Cell transfection with adenoviral vectors encoding a non-degradable I{kappa}B{alpha} 'super-repressor' blocked the actions of DCT on both NF-{kappa}B activation and TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Likewise, transfection with mutant akt and treatment with a chemical inhibitor of Akt attenuated effects of DCT on NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity and TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Chemical inhibitors of Akt and NF-{kappa}B activation also attenuated DCT-induced rescue of H508 cells from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these observations indicate that, downstream of EGFR, bile acid-induced colon cancer cell survival is mediated by Akt-dependent NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings provide a mechanism whereby bile acids increase resistance of colon cancer to chemotherapy and radiation.

  6. T Cells Expressing Constitutively Active Akt Resist Multiple Tumor-associated Inhibitory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiali; Dotti, Gianpietro; Huye, Leslie E; Foster, Aaron E; Savoldo, Barbara; Gramatges, Maria M; Spencer, David M; Rooney, Cliona M

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes has shown promise for the therapy of cancer. However, tumor-specific T cells are susceptible to diverse inhibitory signals from the tumor microenvironment. The Akt/protein kinase B plays a central role in T-cell proliferation, function, and survival and we hypothesized that expression of constitutively active Akt (caAkt) in T cells could provide resistance to many of these tumor-associated inhibitory mechanisms. caAkt expression in activated human T cells increased proliferation and cytokine production, a likely result of their sustained expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and provided resistance to apoptosis by upregulating antiapoptotic molecules. caAkt expressing T cells (caAkt-T-cells) were also relatively resistant to suppression by and conversion into regulatory T cells (Tregs). These characteristics provided a survival advantage to T cells cocultured with tumor cells in vitro; CD3/28-stimulated T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for disialoganglioside (GD2) that redirected their activity to the immunosuppressive, GD2-expressing neuroblastoma cell line, LAN-1, resisted tumor-induced apoptosis when co-expressing transgenic caAkt. In conclusion, caAkt-transduced T cells showed resistance to several evasion strategies employed by tumors and may therefore enhance the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred T lymphocytes. PMID:20842106

  7. PP2A inhibition results in hepatic insulin resistance despite Akt2 activation.

    PubMed

    Galbo, Thomas; Perry, Rachel J; Nishimura, Erica; Samuel, Varman T; Quistorff, Bjørn; Shulman, Gerald I

    2013-10-01

    In the liver, insulin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating Akt, which inactivates the key gluconeogenic transcription factor FoxO1 (Forkhead Box O1). Recent studies have implicated hyperactivity of the Akt phosphatase Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and impaired Akt signaling as a molecular defect underlying insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that PP2A inhibition would enhance insulin-stimulated Akt activity and decrease glucose production. PP2A inhibitors increased hepatic Akt phosphorylation and inhibited FoxO1in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes. Paradoxically, PP2A inhibition exacerbated insulin resistance in vivo. This was explained by phosphorylation of both hepatic glycogen synthase (GS) (inactivation) and phosphorylase (activation) resulting in impairment of glycogen storage. Our findings underline the significance of GS and Phosphorylase as hepatic PP2A substrates and importance of glycogen metabolism in acute plasma glucose regulation. PMID:24150286

  8. Sustained Akt Activity Is Required to Maintain Cell Viability in Seborrheic Keratosis, a Benign Epithelial Tumor.

    PubMed

    Neel, Victor A; Todorova, Kristina; Wang, Jun; Kwon, Eunjeong; Kang, Minjeong; Liu, Qingsong; Gray, Nathanael; Lee, Sam W; Mandinova, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Seborrheic keratoses (SKs) are common benign skin tumors that share many morphological features with their malignant counterpart, squamous cell carcinoma. SKs frequently have acquired oncogenic mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascade. We developed a reliable culture system to study SKs in vitro and screened these cells using a library of selective kinase inhibitors to evaluate effects on cell survival. These benign tumors are sensitive to inhibition by ATP-competitive Akt inhibitors, including A-443654 and GSK690693. RNA interference-mediated Akt suppression mimicked the effects of enzyme inhibition in cultured cells. Akt inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of downstream targets of Akt kinase that are critical for cell survival, including MDM2 and FOXO3a, and induced apoptosis. Cell death was also dependent on p53, mutations in which, although common in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, have not been identified in SKs. Intact explants of SKs were also sensitive to Akt inhibition. In addition to the obvious therapeutic implications of these findings, identifying the signaling characteristics that differentiate benign and malignant tumors may inform our understanding of the malignant state. PMID:26739095

  9. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3} production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity.

  10. Activation of the PI3K/AKT Pathway in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baeurle, Anne; Ritter, Cathrin; Schrama, David; Landthaler, Michael; Becker, Juergen C.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with an increasing incidence. The understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis of MCC is limited. Here, we scrutinized the PI3K/AKT pathway, one of the major pathways activated in human cancer, in MCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of 41 tumor tissues and 9 MCC cell lines revealed high levels of AKT phosphorylation at threonine 308 in 88% of samples. Notably, the AKT phosphorylation was not correlated with the presence or absence of the Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV). Accordingly, knock-down of the large and small T antigen by shRNA in MCV positive MCC cells did not affect phosphorylation of AKT. We also analyzed 46 MCC samples for activating PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations. Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations were found in 2/46 (4%) MCCs whereas mutations in exon 4 of AKT1 were absent. MCC cell lines demonstrated a high sensitivity towards the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002. This finding together with our observation that the PI3K/AKT pathway is activated in the majority of human MCCs identifies PI3K/AKT as a potential new therapeutic target for MCC patients. PMID:22363598

  11. Novel roles of Akt and mTOR in suppressing TGF-β/ALK5-mediated Smad3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung; Wang, Hui; Krebs, Tracy L; Danielpour, David

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by blocking activation of Smad3 (S3), via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent pathway. Here we provide the first report that the kinase activity of Akt is necessary for its ability to suppress many TGF-β responses, including S3 activation and induction of apoptosis. Wild-type and myristoylated Akts (AktWT and AktMyr) suppress TGF-β-induced phospho-activation of S3 but not Smad2 (S2), whereas kinase-dead Akt1 (Akt1K179M) or dominant-negative PI3K enhances TGF-β-induced phospho-activation of both S2 and S3. Using siRNA, rapamycin (Rap), and adenoviral expression for FKBP12-resistant and constitutively active TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5), we demonstrate that mammalian target of Rap (mTOR) mediates Akt1 suppression of phospho-activation of S3. These and further data on Akt1-S3 binding do not support a recently proposed model that Akt blocks S3 activation through physical interaction and sequestration of S3 from TGF-β receptors. We propose a novel model whereby Akt suppresses activation of S3 in an Akt kinase-dependent manner through mTOR, a likely route for loss of tumor suppression by TGF-β in cancers. PMID:16362038

  12. Rapid accumulation of Akt in mitochondria following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Bijur, Gautam N; Jope, Richard S

    2003-12-01

    We describe here a new component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway that directly impacts mitochondria. Akt (protein kinase B) was shown for the first time to be localized in mitochondria, where it was found to reside in the matrix and the inner and outer membranes, and the level of mitochondrial Akt was very dynamically regulated. Stimulation of a variety of cell types with insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, or stress (induced by heat shock), induced translocation of Akt to the mitochondria within only several minutes of stimulation, causing increases of nearly eight- to 12-fold, and the mitochondrial Akt was in its phosphorylated, active state. Two mitochondrial proteins were identified to be phosphorylated following stimulation of mitochondrial Akt, the beta-subunit of ATP synthase and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. The finding that mitochondrial glycogen synthase kinase-3beta was rapidly and substantially modified by Ser9 phosphorylation, which inhibits its activity, following translocation of Akt to the mitochondria is the first evidence for a regulatory mechanism affecting mitochondrial glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. These results demonstrate that signals emanating from plasma membrane receptors or generated by stress rapidly modulate Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in mitochondria. PMID:14713298

  13. Fangchinoline suppresses the growth and invasion of human glioblastoma cells by inhibiting the kinase activity of Akt and Akt-mediated signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingyu; Xie, Peng; Su, Jingyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Xiaoming; Liang, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most palindromic and malignant central nervous system neoplasms, and the current treatment is not effectual for GBM. Research of specific medicine for GBM is significant. Fangchinoline possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities and attracts more attentions due to its anti-tumor effects. In this study, two WHO grade IV human GBM cell lines (U87 MG and U118 MG) were exposed to fangchinoline, and we found that fangchinoline specifically inhibits the kinase activity of Akt and markedly suppresses the phosphorylation of Thr308 and Ser473 of Akt in human GBM cells. We also observed that fangchinoline inhibits tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness and induces apoptosis through suppressing the Akt-mediated signaling cascades, including Akt/p21, Akt/Bad, and Akt/matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). These data demonstrated that fangchinoline exerts its anti-tumor effects in human glioblastoma cells, at least partly by inhibiting the kinase activity of Akt and suppressing Akt-mediated signaling cascades. PMID:26408176

  14. DNA-PK mediates AKT activation and apoptosis inhibition in clinically acquired platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Chen, Michelle; Maginn, Elaina N; Agarwal, Roshan; Mills, Gordon B; Wasan, Harpreet; Gabra, Hani

    2011-11-01

    Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors. PMID:22131882

  15. DNA-PK Mediates AKT Activation and Apoptosis Inhibition in Clinically Acquired Platinum Resistance12

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A; Chen, Michelle; Maginn, Elaina N; Agarwal, Roshan; Mills, Gordon B; Wasan, Harpreet; Gabra, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors. PMID:22131882

  16. Optogenetic activation reveals distinct roles of PIP3 and Akt in adipocyte insulin action.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingke; Nan, Di; Fan, Jiannan; Bogan, Jonathan S; Toomre, Derek

    2016-05-15

    Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4; also known as SLC2A4) resides on intracellular vesicles in muscle and adipose cells, and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway plays a major role in GLUT4 translocation; however, a challenge has been to unravel the potentially distinct contributions of PI3K and Akt (of which there are three isoforms, Akt1-Akt3) to overall insulin action. Here, we describe new optogenetic tools based on CRY2 and the N-terminus of CIB1 (CIBN). We used these 'Opto' modules to activate PI3K and Akt selectively in time and space in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We validated these tools using biochemical assays and performed live-cell kinetic analyses of IRAP-pHluorin translocation (IRAP is also known as LNPEP and acts as a surrogate marker for GLUT4 here). Strikingly, Opto-PIP3 largely mimicked the maximal effects of insulin stimulation, whereas Opto-Akt only partially triggered translocation. Conversely, drug-mediated inhibition of Akt only partially dampened the translocation response of Opto-PIP3 In spatial optogenetic studies, focal targeting of Akt to a region of the cell marked the sites where IRAP-pHluorin vesicles fused, supporting the idea that local Akt-mediated signaling regulates exocytosis. Taken together, these results indicate that PI3K and Akt play distinct roles, and that PI3K stimulates Akt-independent pathways that are important for GLUT4 translocation. PMID:27076519

  17. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. PMID:25770423

  18. AKT activation controls cell survival in response to HDAC6 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kaliszczak, M; Trousil, S; Ali, T; Aboagye, E O

    2016-01-01

    HDAC6 is emerging as an important therapeutic target for cancer. We investigated mechanisms responsible for survival of tumor cells treated with a HDAC6 inhibitor. Expression of the 20 000 genes examined did not change following HDAC6 treatment in vivo. We found that HDAC6 inhibition led to an increase of AKT activation (P-AKT) in vitro, and genetic knockdown of HDAC6 phenocopied drug-induced AKT activation. The activation of AKT was not observed in PTEN null cells; otherwise, PTEN/PIK3CA expression per se did not predict HDAC6 inhibitor sensitivity. Interestingly, HDAC6 inhibitor treatment led to inactivating phosphorylation of PTEN (P-PTEN Ser380), which likely led to the increased P-AKT in cells that express PTEN. Synergy was observed with phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor treatment in vitro, accompanied by increased caspase 3/7 activity. Furthermore, combination of HDAC6 inhibitor with a PI3K inhibitor caused substantial tumor growth inhibition in vivo compared with either treatment alone, also detectable by Ki-67 immunostaining and (18)F-FLT positron emission tomography (PET). In aggregate AKT activation appears to be a key survival mechanism for HDAC6 inhibitor treatment. Our findings indicate that dual inhibition of HDAC6 and P-AKT may be necessary to substantially inhibit growth of solid tumors. PMID:27362804

  19. Activation of PI3-kinase stimulates endocytosis of ROMK via Akt1/SGK1-dependent phosphorylation of WNK1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Huang, Chou-Long

    2011-03-01

    WNK kinases stimulate endocytosis of ROMK channels to regulate renal K+ handling. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-activating hormones, such as insulin and IGF 1, phosphorylate WNK1, but how this affects the regulation of ROMK abundance is unknown. Here, serum starvation of ROMK-transfected HEK cells led to an increase of ROMK current density; subsequent addition of insulin or IGF1 inhibited ROMK currents in a PI3K-dependent manner. Serum and insulin also increased phosphorylation of the downstream kinases Akt1 and SGK1 as well as WNK1. A biotinylation assay suggested that insulin and IGF1 inhibit ROMK by enhancing its endocytosis, a process that WNK1 may mediate. Knockdown of WNK1 with siRNA or expression of a phospho-deficient WNK1 mutant (T58A) both prevented insulin-induced inhibition of ROMK currents, suggesting that phosphorylation at Threonine-58 of WNK1 is important to mediate the inhibition of ROMK by PI3K-activating hormones or growth factors. In vitro and in vivo kinase assays supported the notion that Akt1 and SGK1 can phosphorylate WNK1 at this site, and we established that Akt1 and SGK1 synergistically inhibit ROMK through WNK1. We used dominant-negative intersectin and dynamin constructs to show that SGK1-mediated phosphorylation of WNK1 inhibits ROMK by promoting its endocytosis. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K-activating hormones inhibit ROMK by enhancing its endocytosis via a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of WNK1 by Akt1 and SGK1. PMID:21355052

  20. Potential role of AKT/mTOR signalling proteins in hairy cell leukaemia: association with BRAF/ERK activation and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Levidou, Georgia; Angelopoulou, Maria K.; Adamopoulos, Christos; Pangalis, Gerassimos; Rassidakis, George; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Gainaru, Gabriella; Flevari, Pagona; Sachanas, Sotirios; Saetta, Angelica A.; Sepsa, Athanasia; Moschogiannis, Maria; Kalpadakis, Christina; Tsesmetzis, Nikolaos; Milionis, Vassilios; Chatziandreou, Ilenia; Thymara, Irene; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Dimopoulou, Maria; Plata, Eleni; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Piperi, Christina; Korkolopoulou, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of AKT/mTOR signalling proteins and its association with the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway was investigated in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL). BRAFV600E expression and activated forms of AKT, mTOR, ERK1/2, p70S6k and 4E-BP1 were immunohistochemically assessed in 77 BM biopsies of HCL patients and correlated with clinicopathological and BM microvascular characteristics, as well as with c-Caspase-3 levels in hairy cells. Additionally, we tested rapamycin treatment response of BONNA-12 wild-type cells or transfected with BRAFV600E. Most HCL cases expressed p-p70S6K and p-4E-BP1 but not p-mTOR, being accompanied by p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT. AKT/mTOR activation was evident in BONNA-12 cells irrespective of the presence of BRAFV600E mutation and was implicated in cell proliferation enhancement. In multivariate analysis p-AKT/p-mTOR/p-4E-BP1 overexpression was an adverse prognostic factor for time to next treatment conferring earlier relapse. When p-AKT, p-mTOR and p-4E-BP1 were examined separately only p-4E-BP1 remained significant. Our findings indicate that in HCL, critical proteins up- and downstream of mTOR are activated. Moreover, the strong associations with Raf-MEK-ERK signalling imply a possible biologic interaction between these pathways. Most importantly, expression of p-4E-BP1 alone or combined with p-AKT and p-mTOR is of prognostic value in patients with HCL. PMID:26893254

  1. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li2CO3 significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li2CO3 did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P3 production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li2CO3 on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li2CO3 significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li2CO3 significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity. PMID:24950409

  2. Activation of Akt by the Bacterial Inositol Phosphatase, SopB, is Wortmannin Insensitive

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Kendal G.; Winfree, Seth; Malik-Kale, Preeti; Jolly, Carrie; Ireland, Robin; Knodler, Leigh A.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica uses effector proteins translocated by a Type III Secretion System to invade epithelial cells. One of the invasion-associated effectors, SopB, is an inositol phosphatase that mediates sustained activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt in infected cells. Canonical activation of Akt involves membrane translocation and phosphorylation and is dependent on phosphatidyl inositide 3 kinase (PI3K). Here we have investigated these two distinct processes in Salmonella infected HeLa cells. Firstly, we found that SopB-dependent membrane translocation and phosphorylation of Akt are insensitive to the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Similarly, depletion of the PI3K regulatory subunits p85α and p85ß by RNAi had no inhibitory effect on SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Nevertheless, SopB-dependent phosphorylation does depend on the Akt kinases, PDK1 and rictor-mTOR. Membrane translocation assays revealed a dependence on SopB for Akt recruitment to Salmonella ruffles and suggest that this is mediated by phosphoinositide (3,4) P2 rather than phosphoinositide (3,4,5) P3. Altogether these data demonstrate that Salmonella activates Akt via a wortmannin insensitive mechanism that is likely a class I PI3K-independent process that incorporates some essential elements of the canonical pathway. PMID:21779406

  3. Microcystin-LR promotes proliferation by activating Akt/S6K1 pathway and disordering apoptosis and cell cycle associated proteins phosphorylation in HL7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghui; Wang, Hao; Wang, Beilei; Chen, Tao; Wang, Xiaofeng; Huang, Pu; Xu, Lihong; Guo, Zonglou

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies had shown that MC-LR inhibited PP2A activity and hyperphosphorylated PP2A substrates at 24 h exposure in HL7702 cells. Although the cytoskeleton was rearranged, the cellular effects were not observed. The purpose of the present study with HL7702 cell exposed to MC-LR for 1-72 h was to further uncover the adverse effects of MC-LR comprehensively. The results showed that there were no obvious difference in apoptosis rate and cell-cycle distribution but the cell proliferation was changed since 36 h exposure while the uptake of MC-LR and its binding to PP2A/C kept unchanged since 1h exposure. PP2A activity had not manifested continued decline compare to 24h exposure and PP2A regulator α4 was found to release its associated PP2A/C since 1h exposure. The increasing of p-Akt-T308, p-Akt-S473, p-S6K1, p-S6, and p-4E-BP1 since 1h MC-LR exposure indicated that Akt/S6K1 cascade had been activated as early as 1h MC-LR treatment. And, PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) blocked MC-LR-induced Akt/S6K1 activation and proliferation. Besides, MC-LR also led to hyperphosphorylation of c-Myc, c-Jun, Bcl-2 and Bad and activation of Cdk1. Our study indicated that MC-LR exposure promoted HL7702 cell proliferation and the main mechanism was the activation of Akt/S6K1 cascade. Meanwhile, hyperphosphorylation of Bcl-2, Bad, c-Myc and c-Jun might also be involved. And, the inhibition of PP2A was the major reason for these molecular changes. PMID:26506538

  4. An optogenetic system for interrogating the temporal dynamics of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kunida, Katsuyuki; Kanno, Akira; Kuroda, Shinya; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic activity of the serine/threonine kinase Akt is crucial for the regulation of diverse cellular functions, but the precise spatiotemporal control of its activity remains a critical issue. Herein, we present a photo-activatable Akt (PA-Akt) system based on a light-inducible protein interaction module of Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome2 (CRY2) and CIB1. Akt fused to CRY2phr, which is a minimal light sensitive domain of CRY2 (CRY2-Akt), is reversibly activated by light illumination in several minutes within a physiological dynamic range and specifically regulates downstream molecules and inducible biological functions. We have generated a computational model of CRY2-Akt activation that allows us to use PA-Akt to control the activity quantitatively. The system provides evidence that the temporal patterns of Akt activity are crucial for generating one of the downstream functions of the Akt-FoxO pathway; the expression of a key gene involved in muscle atrophy (Atrogin-1). The use of an optical module with computational modeling represents a general framework for interrogating the temporal dynamics of biomolecules by predictive manipulation of optogenetic modules. PMID:26423353

  5. Osteopontin induces {beta}-catenin signaling through activation of Akt in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brian W.; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A.

    2010-01-01

    Secretion of osteopontin (OPN) by cancer cells is a known mediator of tumorigenesis and cancer progression in both experimental and clinical studies. Our work demonstrates that OPN can activate Akt, an important step in cancer progression. Both ILK and PI3K are integral proteins in the OPN/Akt pathway, as inhibition of either kinase leads to a loss of OPN-mediated Akt activation. Subsequent to OPN-induced Akt activation, we observe inactivation of GSK-3{beta}, a regulator of {beta}-catenin. Osteopontin stimulation leads to an overall increase in {beta}-catenin protein levels with a resultant transfer of {beta}-catenin to the nucleus. Through the nuclear import of {beta}-catenin, OPN increases both the transcription and protein levels of MMP-7 and CD44, which are known TCF/LEF transcription targets. This work describes an important aspect of cancer progression induced by OPN.

  6. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Duanwen; Bai, Mingfeng; Tang, Rui; Xu, Baogang; Ju, Xiaoming; Pestell, Richard G.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) dye that fluoresces at two different wavelengths (dichromic fluorescence, DCF), we discovered a new fluorescent substrate for Akt, also known as protein kinase B, and a method to quantitatively report this enzyme's activity in real time. Upon insulin activation of cellular Akt, the enzyme multi-phosphorylated a single serine residue of a diserine DCF substrate in a time-dependent manner, culminating in monophospho- to triphospho-serine products. The NIR DCF probe was highly selective for the Akt1 isoform, which was demonstrated using Akt1 knockout cells derived from MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice. The DCF mechanism provides unparalleled potential to assess the stimulation, sustainability, and reversibility of Akt activation longitudinally. Importantly, NIR fluorescence provides a pathway to translate findings from cells to living organisms, a condition that could eventually facilitate the use of these probes in humans.

  7. The majority of early primordial germ cells acquire pluripotency by AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhisa; Takehara, Asuka; Tokitake, Yuko; Ikeda, Makiko; Obara, Yuka; Morita-Fujimura, Yuiko; Kimura, Tohru; Nakano, Toru

    2014-12-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are undifferentiated germ cells in embryos, the fate of which is to become gametes; however, mouse PGCs can easily be reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic germ cells (EGCs) in culture in the presence of particular extracellular factors, such as combinations of Steel factor (KITL), LIF and bFGF (FGF2). Early PGCs form EGCs more readily than do later PGCs, and PGCs lose the ability to form EGCs by embryonic day (E) 15.5. Here, we examined the effects of activation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT in PGCs during EGC formation; notably, AKT activation, in combination with LIF and bFGF, enhanced EGC formation and caused ∼60% of E10.5 PGCs to become EGCs. The results indicate that the majority of PGCs at E10.5 could acquire pluripotency with an activated AKT signaling pathway. Importantly, AKT activation did not fully substitute for bFGF and LIF, and AKT activation without both LIF and bFGF did not result in EGC formation. These findings indicate that AKT signal enhances and/or collaborates with signaling pathways of bFGF and of LIF in PGCs for the acquisition of pluripotency. PMID:25359722

  8. Akt activation enhances ribosomal RNA synthesis through casein kinase II and TIF-IA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Le Xuan Truong; Mitchell, Beverly S.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription initiation factor I (TIF-IA) plays an essential role in regulating ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis by tethering RNA polymerase I (Pol I) to the rDNA promoter. We have found that activated Akt enhances rRNA synthesis through the phosphorylation of casein kinase IIα (CK2α) on a threonine residue near its N terminus. CK2 in turn phosphorylates TIF-IA, thereby increasing rDNA transcription. Activated Akt also stabilizes TIF-IA, induces its translocation to the nucleolus, and enhances its interaction with Pol I. Treatment with AZD8055, an inhibitor of both Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, but not with rapamycin, disrupts Akt-mediated TIF-IA stability, translocation, and activity. These data support a model in which activated Akt enhances rRNA synthesis both by preventing TIF-IA degradation and phosphorylating CK2α, which in turn phosphorylates TIF-IA. This model provides an explanation for the ability of activated Akt to promote cell proliferation and, potentially, transformation. PMID:24297901

  9. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT Pathway and Survival in Solid Tumors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ocana, Alberto; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Al-Mubarak, Mustafa; Templeton, Arnoud J.; Corrales-Sanchez, Verónica; Diez-Gonzalez, Laura; Cuenca-Lopez, María D.; Seruga, Bostjan; Pandiella, Atanasio; Amir, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/AKT pathway are common in solid tumors. Numerous drugs have been developed to target different components of this pathway. However the prognostic value of these aberrations is unclear. Methods PubMed was searched for studies evaluating the association between activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway (defined as PI3K mutation [PIK3CA], lack of phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN] expression by immunohistochemistry or western-blot or increased expression/activation of downstream components of the pathway by immunohistochemistry) with overall survival (OS) in solid tumors. Published data were extracted and computed into odds ratios (OR) for death at 5 years. Data were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effect model. Results Analysis included 17 studies. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway was associated with significantly worse 5-year survival (OR:2.12, 95% confidence intervals 1.42–3.16, p<0.001). Loss of PTEN expression and increased expression/activation of downstream components were associated with worse survival. No association between PIK3CA mutations and survival was observed. Differences between methods for assessing activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway were statistically significant (p = 0.04). There was no difference in the effect of up-regulation of the pathway on survival between different cancer sites (p = 0.13). Conclusion Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, especially if measured by loss of PTEN expression or increased expression/activation of downstream components is associated with poor survival. PIK3CA mutational status is not associated with adverse outcome, challenging its value as a biomarker of patient outcome or as a stratification factor for patients treated with agents acting on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. PMID:24777052

  10. ALTERATION OF AKT ACTIVITY INCREASES CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUG AND HORMONAL RESISTANCE IN BREAST CANCER YET CONFERS AN ACHILLES HEEL BY SENSITIZATION TO TARGETED THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sokolosky, Melissa L.; Lehmann, Brian D.; Taylor, Jackson R.; Navolanic, Patrick M.; Chappell, William H.; Abrams, Stephen L.; Stadelman, Kristin M.; Wong, Ellis WT; Misaghian, Negin; Horn, Stefan; Bäsecke, Jörg; Libra, Massimo; Stivala, Franca; Ligresti, Giovanni; Tafuri, Agostino; Milella, Michele; Zarzycki, Marek; Dzugaj, Andrzej; Chiarini, Francesca; Evangelisti, Camilla; Martelli, Alberto M.; Terrian, David M.; Franklin, Richard A.; Steelman, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    to potential therapeutic targets, mTOR and MEK. These studies indicate that activation of the Akt kinase or disruption of the normal activity of the PTEN phosphatase can have dramatic effects on activity of p70S6K and other downstream substrates and thereby altering the therapeutic sensitivity of breast cancer cells. The effects of doxorubicin and tamoxifen on induction of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt survival pathways were examined in unmodified MCF-7 breast cells. Doxorubicin was a potent inducer of activated ERK and to a lesser extent Akt. Tamoxifen also induced ERK. Thus a consequence of doxorubicin and tamoxifen therapy of breast cancer is the induction of a pro-survival pathway which may contribute to the development of drug resistance. Unmodified MCF-7 cells were also sensitive to MEK and mTOR inhibitors which synergized with both tamoxifen and doxorubicin to induce death. In summary, our results point to the key interactions between the PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR and Raf/MEK/ERK pathways in regulating chemotherapeutic drug resistance/sensitivity in breast cancer and indicate that targeting these pathways may prevent drug and hormonal resistance. PMID:18423407

  11. ERK2-dependent reactivation of Akt mediates the limited response of tumor cells with constitutive K-RAS activity to PI3K inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Minjgee, Minjmaa; Saki, Mohammad; Holler, Marina; Meier, Friedegund; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Rodemann, H Peter

    2014-01-01

    K-RAS mutated (K-RASmut) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells are resistant to EGFR targeting strategies. We investigated the impact of K-RAS activity irrespective of mutational status in the EGFR-independent increase in clonogenic cell survival. An analysis of the K-RAS activity status revealed a constitutively high K-RAS activity in K-RASmut NSCLC cells and also in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells overexpressing wild-type K-RAS (K-RASwt). Similar to K-RAS-mutated cells, increased K-RAS activity in HNSCC cells overexpressing K-RASwt was associated with the stimulated production of the EGFR ligand amphiregulin and resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors such as erlotinib. Expression of mutated K-RAS stimulated Akt phosphorylation and increased plating efficiency. Conversely, knockdown of K-RAS in K-RASmut NSCLC cells and in HNSCC cells presenting overexpression of K-RASwt resulted in sensitization to the anti-clonogenic activity of erlotinib. K-RAS activity results in EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent Akt activity. The short-term treatment (2 h) of cells with EGFR-TK or PI3K inhibitors (erlotinib and PI-103) resulted in the repression of Akt activation, whereas long-term treatment (24 h) with inhibitors led to the reactivation of Akt and improved clonogenicity. The Akt re-activation was MAPK-ERK2-dependent and associated with a lack of complete response to anti-clonogenic activity of PI-103. A complete response was observed when PI-103 was combined with MEK inhibitor PD98059. Together, clonogenicity inhibition in tumor cells presenting constitutive K-RAS activity independent of K-RAS mutational status can be achieved by targeting of EGFR downstream pathways, i.e., PI3K alone or the combination of PI3K and MAPK inhibitors. PMID:24351425

  12. Protein kinase Cδ regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression via Akt activation and nitric oxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Neetu; Wedgwood, Stephen; Black, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explore the roles of the delta isoform of PKC (PKCδ) in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells isolated from fetal lambs (FPAECs). Pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ with either rottlerin or with the peptide, δV1-1, acutely attenuated NO production, and this was associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 (S1177). The chronic effects of PKCδ inhibition using either rottlerin or the overexpression of a dominant negative PKCδ mutant included the downregulation of eNOS gene expression that was manifested by a decrease in both eNOS promoter activity and protein expression after 24 h of treatment. We also found that PKCδ inhibition blunted Akt activation as observed by a reduction in phosphorylated Akt at position Ser473. Thus, we conclude that PKCδ is actively involved in the activation of Akt. To determine the effect of Akt on eNOS signaling, we overexpressed a dominant negative mutant of Akt and determined its effect of NO generation, eNOS expression, and phosphorylation of eNOS at S1177. Our results demonstrated that Akt inhibition was associated with decreased NO production that correlated with reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at S1177, and decreased eNOS promoter activity. We next evaluated the effect of endogenously produced NO on eNOS expression by incubating FPAECs with the eNOS inhibitor 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETU). ETU significantly inhibited NO production, eNOS promoter activity, and eNOS protein levels. Together, our data indicate involvement of PKCδ-mediated Akt activation and NO generation in maintaining eNOS expression. PMID:18192589

  13. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide attenuates the cytotoxicity of mutant huntingtin and increases the activity of AKT.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Peng, Ting; Yang, Shiming; Wang, Weixi; Zhang, Yinong; Li, He

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that is caused by the abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in the gene encoding huntingtin (Htt). Reduced AKT phosphorylation and inhibited AKT activity have been shown to be involved in mutant Htt (mHtt)-induced cell death. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the main bioactive component of Lycium barbarum, reportedly has neuroprotective roles in neural injuries, including neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that treatment with LBP can increased the viability of HEK293 cells that stably expressed mHtt containing 160 glutamine repeats and significantly improved motor behavior and life span in HD-transgenic mice. Furthermore, we found that in LBP-treated HEK293 cells expressing mHtt, mHtt levels were reduced and the phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 (p-AKT-Ser473) was significantly increased. We also found that treatment with LBP increased p-AKT-Ser473 and decreased mHtt in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum in HD-transgenic mice. The level of phosphorylation of p-GSK3β-Ser9 remained unchanged in both cultured cells and HD-transgenic mice. Our findings suggest that LBP alleviates the cytotoxicity of mHtt by activating AKT and reducing mHtt levels, indicating that LBP may be potentially useful for treating HD. PMID:27196502

  14. Apocynin and Diphenyleneiodonium Induce Oxidative Stress and Modulate PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk Activity in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kučera, Jan; Binó, Lucia; Štefková, Kateřina; Jaroš, Josef; Vašíček, Ondřej; Večeřa, Josef; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important regulators of cellular functions. In embryonic stem cells, ROS are suggested to influence differentiation status. Regulated ROS formation is catalyzed primarily by NADPH-dependent oxidases (NOXs). Apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium are frequently used inhibitors of NOXs; however, both exhibit uncharacterized effects not related to NOXs inhibition. Interestingly, in our model of mouse embryonic stem cells we demonstrate low expression of NOXs. Therefore we aimed to clarify potential side effects of these drugs. Both apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium impaired proliferation of cells. Surprisingly, we observed prooxidant activity of these drugs determined by hydroethidine. Further, we revealed that apocynin inhibits PI3K/Akt pathway with its downstream transcriptional factor Nanog. Opposite to this, apocynin augmented activity of canonical Wnt signaling. On the contrary, diphenyleneiodonium activated both PI3K/Akt and Erk signaling pathways without affecting Wnt. Our data indicates limits and possible unexpected interactions of NOXs inhibitors with intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:26788250

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Couples Localised Calcium Influx to Activation of Akt in Central Nerve Terminals.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Cousin, Michael A; Smillie, Karen J

    2016-03-01

    The efficient retrieval of synaptic vesicle membrane and cargo in central nerve terminals is dependent on the efficient recruitment of a series of endocytosis modes by different patterns of neuronal activity. During intense neuronal activity the dominant endocytosis mode is activity-dependent endocytosis (ADBE). Triggering of ADBE is linked to calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation since the same stimulation intensities trigger both. Dynamin I dephosphorylation is maximised by a simultaneous inhibition of its kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) by the protein kinase Akt, however it is unknown how increased neuronal activity is transduced into Akt activation. To address this question we determined how the activity-dependent increases in intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) control activation of Akt. This was achieved using either trains of high frequency action potentials to evoke localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at active zones, or a calcium ionophore to raise [Ca(2+)]i uniformly across the nerve terminal. Through the use of either non-specific calcium channel antagonists or intracellular calcium chelators we found that Akt phosphorylation (and subsequent GSK3 phosphorylation) was dependent on localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at the active zone. In an attempt to determine mechanism, we antagonised either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or calmodulin. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK3 was arrested on inhibition of PI3K, but not calmodulin. Thus localised calcium influx in central nerve terminals activates PI3K via an unknown calcium sensor to trigger the activity-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3. PMID:26198194

  16. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  17. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  18. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A.; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  19. Escin activates AKT-Nrf2 signaling to protect retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaijun; Jiang, Yiqian; Wang, Wei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Min

    2015-12-25

    Here we explored the anti-oxidative and cytoprotective potentials of escin, a natural triterpene-saponin, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. We showed that escin remarkably attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of established (ARPE-19) and primary murine RPE cells. Meanwhile, ROS production and lipid peroxidation by H2O2 were remarkably inhibited by escin. Escin treatment in RPE cells resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by transcription of anti-oxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes, including HO-1, NQO-1 and SRXN-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 through targeted shRNAs/siRNAs alleviated escin-mediated ARE gene transcription, and almost abolished escin-mediated anti-oxidant activity and RPE cytoprotection against H2O2. Reversely, escin was more potent against H2O2 damages in Nrf2-over-expressed ARPE-19 cells. Further studies showed that escin-induced Nrf2 activation in RPE cells required AKT signaling. AKT inhibitors (LY294002 and perifosine) blocked escin-induced AKT activation, and dramatically inhibited Nrf2 phosphorylation, its cytosol accumulation and nuclear translocation in RPE cells. Escin-induced RPE cytoprotection against H2O2 was also alleviated by the AKT inhibitors. Together, these results demonstrate that escin protects RPE cells from oxidative stress possibly through activating AKT-Nrf2 signaling. PMID:26505797

  20. Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhiwei; Yu Xinyuan; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast caner cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17{beta}-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ER{alpha}, ER{beta} and GPR30, to 0.5-10 {mu}M Cd for only 2.5 min resulted in transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cd also triggered a gradual increase and sustained activation of AKT during the 60 min treatment period. In SK-BR-3 cells, that express only GPR30, Cd also caused a transient activation of ERK1/2, but not of AKT. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231 cells, that express only ER{beta}, Cd was unable to cause rapid activation of either ERK1/2 or AKT. A transient phosphorylation of ER{alpha} was also observed within 2.5 min of Cd exposure in the MCF-7 cells. While the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, did not prevent the effect of Cd on these signals, specific siRNA against hER{alpha} significantly reduced Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked the activation of AKT. It is concluded that Cd, like estradiol, can cause rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and that these signaling events are mediated by possible interaction with membrane ER{alpha} and GPR30, but not ER{beta}.

  1. Antitumor Effects of Fucoidan on Human Colon Cancer Cells via Activation of Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    We identified a novel Akt signaling mechanism that mediates fucoidan-induced suppression of human colon cancer cell (HT29) proliferation and anticancer effects. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth, induced G1-phase-associated upregulation of p21WAF1 expression, and suppressed cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Additionally, fucoidan treatment activated the Akt signaling pathway, which was inhibited by treatment with an Akt inhibitor. The inhibition of Akt activation reversed the fucoidan-induced decrease in cell proliferation, the induction of G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction in cell cycle regulatory protein expression. Intraperitoneal injection of fucoidan reduced tumor volume; this enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis. These data suggest that the activation of Akt signaling is involved in the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells treated with fucoidan. Thus, fucoidan may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer. PMID:25995820

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E. . E-mail: methompson@mmc.edu

    2007-05-15

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin {beta}1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin {beta}1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin {beta}1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin β1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin β1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin β1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function. PMID:17428466

  4. EB-virus latent membrane protein 1 potentiates the stemness of nasopharyngeal carcinoma via preferential activation of PI3K/AKT pathway by a positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-F; Yang, G-D; Huang, T-J; Li, R; Chu, Q-Q; Xu, L; Wang, M-S; Cai, M-D; Zhong, L; Wei, H-J; Huang, H-B; Huang, J-L; Qian, C-N; Huang, B-J

    2016-06-30

    Our previous study reported that Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) could induce development of CD44(+/High) stem-like cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie modulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in NPC remain unclear. Here, we show that LMP1 induced CSC-like properties through promotion of the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like cellular markers and through alterations in differentiation markers. Furthermore, LMP1 activated and triggered phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway, which subsequently stimulated expression of CSC markers, development of side population and tumor sphere formation. This suggests that PI3K/AKT pathway has an important role in the induction and maintenance of CSC properties in NPC. Similarly, PI3K/AKT pathway was also activated by phosphorylase in LMP1-induced CD44(+/High) cells. In addition, LMP1 greatly increased expression of miR-21 and downregulated expression of the miR-21 target, PTEN. Overexpression of miR-21 by transfection of miR-21 mimics into LMP1-transformed cells led to phosphorylase-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and induction of CSCs. On the contrary, phosphorylation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and the expression of CSC were reversed by an miR-21 inhibitor. The specific inhibitor (Ly294002) of PI3K/AKT pathway significantly decreased expression of miR-21 and CSC markers and upregulated the expression of PTEN, which indicates that miR-21 and PTEN are the downstream effectors of PI3K/AKT and that expression of these two effectors are related to the development of NPC CSCs. Taken together, our novel findings indicate that LMP1, PI3K/AKT, miR-21 and PTEN constitute a positive feedback loop and have a key role in LMP1-induced CSCs in NPC. PMID:26568302

  5. Mechanical Stimulation and IGF-1 Enhance mRNA Translation Rate in Osteoblasts Via Activation of the AKT-mTOR Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Astrid D; Gakes, Tom; Hogervorst, Jolanda M A; de Wit, Gerard M J; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T

    2016-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is anabolic for muscle by enhancing the rate of mRNA translation via activation of AKT and subsequent activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTOR), thereby increasing cellular protein production. IGF-1 is also anabolic for bone, but whether the mTOR pathway plays a role in the rate of bone matrix protein production by osteoblasts is unknown. We hypothesized that anabolic stimuli such as mechanical loading and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in osteoblasts via activation of the AKT-mTOR pathway. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were either or not subjected for 1 h to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) or treated with or without human recombinant IGF-1 (1-100 ng/ml) for 0.5-6 h, to determine phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K (downstream of mTOR) by Western blot. After 4 days of culture with or without the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, total protein, DNA, and gene expression were quantified. IGF-1 (100 ng/ml) reduced IGF-1 gene expression, although PFF enhanced IGF-1 expression. IGF-1 did not affect collagen-I gene expression. IGF-1 dose-dependently enhanced AKT and p70S6K phosphorylation at 2 and 6 h. PFF enhanced phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K already within 1 h. Both IGF-1 and PFF enhanced total protein per cell by ∼30%, but not in the presence of rapamycin. Our results show that IGF-1 and PFF activate mTOR, thereby stimulating the rate of mRNA translation in osteoblasts. The known anabolic effect of mechanical loading and IGF-1 on bone may thus be partly explained by mTOR-mediated enhanced protein synthesis in osteoblasts. PMID:26505782

  6. Physiological activation of Akt by PHLPP1 deletion protects against pathological hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Moc, Courtney; Taylor, Amy E.; Chesini, Gino P.; Zambrano, Cristina M.; Barlow, Melissa S.; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Gustafsson, Åsa B.; Purcell, Nicole H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the role of physiological Akt signalling in pathological hypertrophy through analysis of PHLPP1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase) knock-out (KO) mice. Methods and results To investigate the in vivo requirement for ‘physiological’ control of Akt activation in cardiac growth, we examined the effect of deleting the Akt phosphatase, PHLPP, on the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. Basal Akt phosphorylation increased nearly two-fold in the cardiomyocytes from PHLPP1 KO mice and physiological hypertrophy induced by swimming exercise was accentuated as assessed by increased heart size and myocyte cell area. In contrast, the development of pathophysiological hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and assessed by increases in heart size, myocyte cell area, and hypertrophic gene expression was attenuated. This attenuation coincided with decreased fibrosis and cell death in the KO mice. Cast moulding revealed increased capillary density basally in the KO hearts, which was further elevated relative to wild-type mouse hearts in response to pressure overload. In vitro studies with isolated myocytes in co-culture also demonstrated that PHLPP1 deletion in cardiomyocytes can enhance endothelial tube formation. Expression of the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF was also elevated basally and accentuated in response to transverse aortic constriction in hearts from KO mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that enhancing Akt activity by inhibiting its PHLPP1-mediated dephosphorylation promotes processes associated with physiological hypertrophy that may be beneficial in attenuating the development of pathological hypertrophy. PMID:25411382

  7. Inhibition of Rb Phosphorylation Leads to mTORC2-Mediated Activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfang; Xu, Kai; Liu, Pengda; Geng, Yan; Wang, Bin; Gan, Wenjian; Guo, Jianping; Wu, Fei; Chin, Y Rebecca; Berrios, Christian; Lien, Evan C; Toker, Alex; DeCaprio, James A; Sicinski, Piotr; Wei, Wenyi

    2016-06-16

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein exerts its tumor suppressor function primarily by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors that govern cell-cycle progression. However, it remains largely elusive whether the hyper-phosphorylated, non-E2F1-interacting form of Rb has any physiological role. Here we report that hyper-phosphorylated Rb directly binds to and suppresses the function of mTORC2 but not mTORC1. Mechanistically, Rb, but not p107 or p130, interacts with Sin1 and blocks the access of Akt to mTORC2, leading to attenuated Akt activation and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. As such, inhibition of Rb phosphorylation by depleting cyclin D or using CDK4/6 inhibitors releases Rb-mediated mTORC2 suppression. This, in turn, leads to elevated Akt activation to confer resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in Rb-proficient cells, which can be attenuated with Akt inhibitors. Therefore, our work provides a molecular basis for the synergistic usage of CDK4/6 and Akt inhibitors in treating Rb-proficient cancer. PMID:27237051

  8. Subcutaneous Adipocytes Promote Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating the Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt. PMID:25228694

  9. Dichloromethane fraction of Cimicifuga heracleifolia decreases the level of melanin synthesis by activating the ERK or AKT signaling pathway in B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jun Hyuk; Kang, Byoung Won; Chung, Kyung Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Choi, Byung Tae

    2009-03-01

    Cimicifuga rhizoma has long been used in traditional Korean medicine. In particular, a Cimicifuga heracleifolia extract (CHE) was reported to inhibit the formation of glutamate and the glutamate dehydrogenase activity in cultured rat islet. Glutamate activates melanogenesis by activating tyrosinase. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that a CHE might inhibit the melanogenesis-related signal pathways including the inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF)-tyrosinase signaling and/or the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-Akt signaling. The results showed that CHE inhibits the cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity and expression of melanogenesis-related proteins including MITF, tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)s in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulated B16 cells. Moreover, CHE phosphorylates MEK, ERK1/2 and Akt, which are melanogenesis inhibitory proteins. The data suggest that CHE inhibits melanogenesis signaling by both inhibiting the tyrosinase directly and activating the MEK-ERK or Akt signal pathways-mediated suppression of MITF and its downstream signal pathway, including tyrosinase and TRPs. Therefore, C. heracleifolia would be a useful therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation and an effective component in whitening and/or lightening cosmetics. PMID:18803655

  10. Acid sphingomyelinase regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes through AKT activation and AMP-activated protein kinase suppression

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yosuke; Seki, Ekihiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Miura, Kouichi; Adachi, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Shiratori, Yoshimune; Banno, Yoshiko; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Nagaki, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Brenner, David A.; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) regulates the homeostasis of sphingolipids, including ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Because sphingolipids regulate AKT activation, we investigated the role of ASM in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Initially, we overexpressed ASM in the livers of wild-type and diabetic db/db mice by adenovirus vector (Ad5ASM). In these mice, glucose tolerance was improved, and glycogen and lipid accumulation in the liver were increased. Using primary cultured hepatocytes, we confirmed that ASM increased glucose uptake, glycogen deposition, and lipid accumulation through activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. In addition, ASM induced up-regulation of glucose transporter 2 accompanied by suppression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Loss of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) diminished ASM-mediated AKT phosphorylation, but exogenous S1P induced AKT activation in hepatocytes. In contrast, SphK1 deficiency did not affect AMPK activation. These results suggest that the SphK/S1P pathway is required for ASM-mediated AKT activation but not for AMPK inactivation. Finally, we found that treatment with high-dose glucose increased glycogen deposition and lipid accumulation in wild-type hepatocytes but not in ASM−/− cells. This result is consistent with glucose intolerance in ASM−/− mice. In conclusion, ASM modulates AKT activation and AMPK inactivation, thus regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver.—Osawa, Y., Seki, E., Kodama, Y., Suetsugu, A., Miura, K., Adachi, M., Ito, H., Shiratori, Y., Banno, Y., Olefsky, J. M., Nagaki, M., Moriwaki, H., Brenner, D. A., Seishima, M. Acid sphingomyelinase regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes through AKT activation and AMP-activated protein kinase suppression. PMID:21163859

  11. Tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 Is the Major Site of Association of p85 and Is Required for Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Christopher D.; Stauffer, Thomas P.; Yang, Wen-Pin; York, John D.; Huang, Liwen; Blanar, Michael A.; Meyer, Tobias; Peters, Kevin G.

    1998-01-01

    Tie2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for both normal embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis and is thought to play a role in vascular maintenance. However, the signaling pathways responsible for the function of Tie2 remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) associates with Tie2 and that this association confers functional lipid kinase activity. Mutation of tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 abrogated p85 association both in vitro and in vivo in yeast. Tie2 was found to activate PI3-kinase in vivo as demonstrated by direct measurement of increases in cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, by plasma membrane translocation of a green fluorescent protein-Akt pleckstrin homology domain fusion protein, and by downstream activation of the Akt kinase. Activation of PI3-kinase was abrogated in these assays by mutation of Y1101 to phenylalanine, consistent with a requirement for this residue for p85 association with Tie2. These results suggest that activation of PI3-kinase and Akt may in part account for Tie2’s role in both embryonic vascular development and pathologic angiogenesis, and they are consistent with a role for Tie2 in endothelial cell survival. PMID:9632797

  12. v-Crk activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway in transformation

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Shishido, Tomoyuki; Murata, Kazutaka; Hanafusa, Hidesaburo

    2000-01-01

    v-Crk induces cellular tyrosine phosphorylation and transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). We studied the molecular mechanism of the v-Crk-induced transformation. Experiments with Src homology (SH)2 and SH3 domain mutants revealed that the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins requires only the SH2 domain, but both the SH2 and SH3 domains are required for complete transformation. Analysis of three well defined signaling pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, demonstrated that only the PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively activated in v-Crk-transformed CEF. Both the SH2 and SH3 domains are required for this activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in CEF. We also found that the colony formation of CEF is strongly induced by a constitutively active PI3K mutant, and that a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, suppresses the v-Crk-induced transformation. These results strongly suggest that constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway plays an essential role in v-Crk-induced transformation of CEF. PMID:10852971

  13. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Shailly; Shrivastav, Anuraag; Changela, Sheena; Khandelwal, Ramji L.

    2008-04-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-{alpha} (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity.

  14. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling as a key mediator of tumor cell responsiveness to radiation.

    PubMed

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Rodemann, H Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is a key cascade downstream of several protein kinases, especially membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members. Hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is correlated with tumor development, progression, poor prognosis, and resistance to cancer therapies, such as radiotherapy, in human solid tumors. Akt/PKB (Protein Kinase B) members are the major kinases that act downstream of PI3K, and these are involved in a variety of cellular functions, including growth, proliferation, glucose metabolism, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and survival. Accumulating evidence indicates that activated Akt is one of the major predictive markers for solid tumor responsiveness to chemo/radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSB), are the prime cause of cell death induced by ionizing radiation. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that constitutive activation of Akt and stress-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway accelerate the repair of DNA-DSB and, consequently, lead to therapy resistance. Analyzing dysregulations of Akt, such as point mutations, gene amplification or overexpression, which results in the constitutive activation of Akt, might be of special importance in the context of radiotherapy outcomes. Such studies, as well as studies of the mechanism(s) by which activated Akt1 regulates repair of DNA-DSB, might help to identify combinations using the appropriate molecular targeting strategies with conventional radiotherapy to overcome radioresistance in solid tumors. In this review, we discuss the dysregulation of the components of upstream regulators of Akt as well as specific modifications of Akt isoforms that enhance Akt activity. Likewise, the mechanisms by which Akt interferes with repair of DNA after exposure to ionizing radiation, will be reviewed. Finally, the current status of Akt targeting in combination with radiotherapy will

  15. Sustained Activation of Akt Elicits Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Block Plasmodium falciparum Infection in the Mosquito Host

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Anna L.; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Napoli, Eleonora; Wong, Sarah; Price, Mark S.; Eigenheer, Richard; Phinney, Brett S.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Pietri, Jose E.; Cheung, Kong; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS) rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d), energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3–5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial function in the

  16. Sustained activation of Akt elicits mitochondrial dysfunction to block Plasmodium falciparum infection in the mosquito host.

    PubMed

    Luckhart, Shirley; Giulivi, Cecilia; Drexler, Anna L; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Napoli, Eleonora; Wong, Sarah; Price, Mark S; Eigenheer, Richard; Phinney, Brett S; Pakpour, Nazzy; Pietri, Jose E; Cheung, Kong; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS) rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d), energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3-5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial function in the

  17. Potassium uptake supporting plant growth in the absence of AKT1 channel activity: Inhibition by ammonium and stimulation by sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalding, E. P.; Hirsch, R. E.; Lewis, D. R.; Qi, Z.; Sussman, M. R.; Lewis, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    A transferred-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks AKT1 inward-rectifying K+ channel activity in root cells was obtained previously by a reverse-genetic strategy, enabling a dissection of the K+-uptake apparatus of the root into AKT1 and non-AKT1 components. Membrane potential measurements in root cells demonstrated that the AKT1 component of the wild-type K+ permeability was between 55 and 63% when external [K+] was between 10 and 1,000 microM, and NH4+ was absent. NH4+ specifically inhibited the non-AKT1 component, apparently by competing for K+ binding sites on the transporter(s). This inhibition by NH4+ had significant consequences for akt1 plants: K+ permeability, 86Rb+ fluxes into roots, seed germination, and seedling growth rate of the mutant were each similarly inhibited by NH4+. Wild-type plants were much more resistant to NH4+. Thus, AKT1 channels conduct the K+ influx necessary for the growth of Arabidopsis embryos and seedlings in conditions that block the non-AKT1 mechanism. In contrast to the effects of NH4+, Na+ and H+ significantly stimulated the non-AKT1 portion of the K+ permeability. Stimulation of akt1 growth rate by Na+, a predicted consequence of the previous result, was observed when external [K+] was 10 microM. Collectively, these results indicate that the AKT1 channel is an important component of the K+ uptake apparatus supporting growth, even in the "high-affinity" range of K+ concentrations. In the absence of AKT1 channel activity, an NH4+-sensitive, Na+/H+-stimulated mechanism can suffice.

  18. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Synovial Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: Evidence of Akt Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Bozzi, Fabio; Ferrari, Andrea; Negri, Tiziana; Conca, Elena; Luca, Da Riva; Losa, Marco; Casieri, Paola; Orsenigo, Marta; Lampis, Andrea; Meazza, Cristina; Casanova, Michela; Pierotti, Marco A; Tamborini, Elena; Pilotti, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the most frequent nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcoma encountered in adolescents and young adults, and despite advances in the treatment of local disease, metastases remain the main cause of death. The aim of this study was to characterize a single-center series of pediatric SS molecularly to seek any biomarkers or pathways that might make suitable targets for new agents. Seventeen cases of pediatric SS showing the SYT-SSX fusion transcript were screened immunohistochemically, biochemically, molecularly, and cytogenetically (depending on the available material) to investigate any expression/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), PDGFRβ, Akt, and deregulated Wnt pathway. The most relevant outcome was the finding of activated epidermal growth factor receptor, PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ, which activated Akt in both the monophasic and biphasic histologic subtypes. Consistently, Akt activation was completely abolished in an SS cell line assay when stimulated by PDGF-AA and treated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Our results also showed the nuclear localization of β-catenin and cyclin D1 gene products in monophasic SS and the movement of β-catenin into the cytoplasm in the glandular component of the biphasic subtype. Although they need to be confirmed in larger series, these preliminary data suggest that therapeutic strategies including specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway might be exploited in SS. PMID:18633459

  20. Ribonuclease 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Woo; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Jae Chan

    2016-01-01

    To maintain corneal transparency, corneal endothelial cells (CECs) exert a pump function against aqueous inflow. However, human CECs are arrested in the G1-phase and non-proliferative in vivo. Thus, treatment of corneal endothelial decompensation is limited to corneal transplantation, and grafts are vulnerable to immune rejection. Here, we show that ribonuclease (RNase) 5 is more highly expressed in normal human CECs compared to decompensated tissues. Furthermore, RNase 5 up-regulated survival of CECs and accelerated corneal endothelial wound healing in an in vitro wound of human CECs and an in vivo cryo-damaged rabbit model. RNase 5 treatment rapidly induced accumulation of cytoplasmic RNase 5 into the nucleus, and activated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in human CECs. Moreover, inhibition of nuclear translocation of RNase 5 using neomycin reversed RNase 5-induced Akt activation. As a potential strategy for proliferation enhancement, RNase 5 increased the population of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated proliferating CECs with concomitant PI3-kinase/Akt activation, especially in CECs deprived of contact-inhibition. Specifically, RNase 5 suppressed p27 and up-regulated cyclin D1, D3, and E by activating PI3-kinase/Akt in CECs to initiate cell cycle progression. Together, our data indicate that RNase 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing, and identify RNase 5 as a novel target for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:27526633

  1. Calpain-2 activates Akt via TGF-β1-mTORC2 pathway in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Abeyrathna, Prasanna; Kovacs, Laszlo; Han, Weihong; Su, Yunchao

    2016-07-01

    Calpain is a family of calcium-dependent nonlysosomal neutral cysteine endopeptidases. Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to AGC kinases and plays important roles in cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell metabolism. Both calpain and Akt are the downstream signaling molecules of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and mediate PDGF-induced collagen synthesis and proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. We found that inhibitions of calpain-2 by using calpain inhibitor MDL28170 and calpain-2 small interfering RNA attenuated Akt phosphorylations at serine-473 (S473) and threonine-308 (T308), as well as collagen synthesis and cell proliferation of PASMCs induced by PDGF. Overexpression of calpain-2 in PASMCs induced dramatic increases in Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308. Moreover, knockout of calpain attenuated Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308 in smooth muscle of pulmonary arterioles of mice with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The cell-permeable-specific transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 attenuated Akt phosphorylations at both S473 and T308 induced by PDGF and by overexpressed calpain-2 in PASMCs. Furthermore, SB-431452 and knocking down activin receptor-like kinase-5 significantly reduced PDGF-induced collagen synthesis and cell proliferation of PASMCs. Nevertheless, neutralizing extracellular TGF-β1 using a cell-impermeable TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody did not affect PDGF-induced Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308. Furthermore, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) by knocking down its component protein Rictor prevented Akt phosphorylations at S473 and T308 induced by PDGF and by overexpressed calpain-2. These data provide first evidence supporting that calpain-2 upregulates PDGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in pulmonary vascular remodeling via an intracrine TGF-β1/mTORC2 mechanism. PMID:27099352

  2. Polydatin improves glucose and lipid metabolism in experimental diabetes through activating the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Kaipeng; Huang, Junying; Li, Jie; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2014-12-15

    Recently, the effect of polydatin on lipid regulation has gained considerable attention. And previous study has demonstrated that polydatin has hypoglycemic effect on experimental diabetic rats. Repressed Akt pathway contributes to glucose and lipid disorders in diabetes. Thus, whether polydatin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in experimental diabetic models through the Akt pathway arouses interest. The purpose was to explore the regulatory mechanism of polydain on glucose and lipid through Akt pathway. We used a diabetic rat model induced by high-fat and -sugar diet with low-dose of streptozocin and an insulin resistant HepG2 cell model induced by palmitic acid to clarify the role of polydatin on glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that polydatin significantly attenuated fasting blood–glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycosylated serum protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats. Furthermore, polydatin significantly increased glucose uptake and consumption and decreased lipid accumulation in insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Polydatin markedly increased serum insulin levels in diabetic rats, and obviously activated the Akt signaling pathway in diabetic rat livers and insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Polydatin markedly increased phosphorylated GSK-3β, decreased the protein levels of G6Pase and SREBP-1c, and increased protein levels of GCK, LDLR, and phosphorylated IRS in livers and HepG2 cells. Overall, the results indicate that polydatin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in experimental diabetic models, the underlying mechanism is probably associated with regulating the Akt pathway. The effect of polydatin on increased Akt phosphorylation is independent of prompting insulin secretion, but dependent of increasing IRS phosphorylation. PMID:25310908

  3. Activation of Akt pathway by transcription-independent mechanisms of retinoic acid promotes survival and invasion in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is currently being used in clinical trials for cancer treatment. The use of ATRA is limited because some cancers, such as lung cancer, show resistance to treatment. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate resistance to ATRA treatment. Akt is a kinase that plays a key role in cell survival and cell invasion. Akt is often activated in lung cancer, suggesting its participation in resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that activation of the Akt pathway promotes resistance to ATRA treatment at the inhibition of cell survival and invasion in lung cancer. We aimed to provide guidelines for the proper use of ATRA in clinical trials and to elucidate basic biological mechanisms of resistance. Results We performed experiments using the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. We found that ATRA treatment promotes PI3k-Akt pathway activation through transcription-independent mechanisms. Interestingly, ATRA treatment induces the translocation of RARα to the plasma membrane, where it colocalizes with Akt. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that ATRA promotes Akt activation mediated by RARα-Akt interaction. Activation of the PI3k-Akt pathway by ATRA promotes invasion through Rac-GTPase, whereas pretreatment with 15e (PI3k inhibitor) or over-expression of the inactive form of Akt blocks ATRA-induced invasion. We also found that treatment with ATRA induces cell survival, which is inhibited by 15e or over-expression of an inactive form of Akt, through a subsequent increase in the levels of the active form of caspase-3. Finally, we showed that over-expression of the active form of Akt significantly decreases expression levels of the tumor suppressors RARβ2 and p53. In contrast, over-expression of the inactive form of Akt restores RARβ2 expression in cells treated with ATRA, indicating that activation of the PI3k-Akt pathway inhibits the expression of ATRA target genes

  4. Notch1 Receptor Regulates AKT Protein Activation Loop (Thr308) Dephosphorylation through Modulation of the PP2A Phosphatase in Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-null T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Eric C.; Orr, Steven M.; Larson Gedman, Amanda; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Matherly, Larry H.

    2013-01-01

    Notch1 activating mutations occur in more than 50% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases and increase expression of Notch1 target genes, some of which activate AKT. HES1 transcriptionally silences phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), resulting in AKT activation, which is reversed by Notch1 inhibition with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs). Mutational loss of PTEN is frequent in T-ALL and promotes resistance to GSIs due to AKT activation. GSI treatments increased AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation and signaling in PTEN-deficient, GSI-resistant T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat, CCRF-CEM, and MOLT3), suggesting that Notch1 represses AKT independent of its PTEN transcriptional effects. AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation and downstream signaling were also increased by knocking down Notch1 in Jurkat (N1KD) cells. This was blocked by treatment with the AKT inhibitor perifosine. The PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and the protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibitor okadaic acid both impacted AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation to a greater extent in nontargeted control than N1KD cells, suggesting decreased dephosphorylation of AKT-Thr308 by PP2A in the latter. Phosphorylations of AMP-activated protein kinaseα (AMPKα)-Thr172 and p70S6K-Thr389, both PP2A substrates, were also increased in both N1KD and GSI-treated cells and responded to okadaic acid treatment. A transcriptional regulatory mechanism was implied because ectopic expression of dominant-negative mastermind-like protein 1 increased and wild-type HES1 decreased phosphorylation of these PP2A targets. This was independent of changes in PP2A subunit levels or in vitro PP2A activity, but was accompanied by decreased association of PP2A with AKT in N1KD cells. These results suggest that Notch1 can regulate PP2A dephosphorylation of critical cellular regulators including AKT, AMPKα, and p70S6K. PMID:23788636

  5. Diverse heterocyclic scaffolds as allosteric inhibitors of AKT.

    PubMed

    Kettle, Jason G; Brown, Simon; Crafter, Claire; Davies, Barry R; Dudley, Phillippa; Fairley, Gary; Faulder, Paul; Fillery, Shaun; Greenwood, Hannah; Hawkins, Janet; James, Michael; Johnson, Keith; Lane, Clare D; Pass, Martin; Pink, Jennifer H; Plant, Helen; Cosulich, Sabina C

    2012-02-01

    Wide-ranging exploration of potential replacements for a quinoline-based inhibitor of activation of AKT kinase led to number of alternative, novel scaffolds with potentially improved potency and physicochemical properties. Examples showed predictable DMPK properties, and one such compound demonstrated pharmacodynamic knockdown of phosphorylation of AKT and downstream biomarkers in vivo and inhibition of tumor growth in a breast cancer xenograft model. PMID:22248236

  6. BRAFV600E Negatively Regulates the AKT Pathway in Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F.; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. PMID:22880048

  7. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. PMID:22880048

  8. p62 modulates Akt activity via association with PKC{zeta} in neuronal survival and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, Insil . E-mail: ijoung@hanseo.ac.kr; Kim, Hak Jae; Kwon, Yunhee Kim . E-mail: kimyh@khu.ac.kr

    2005-08-26

    p62 is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules and a major component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been implicated in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have addressed the potential role of p62 during neuronal differentiation and survival using HiB5, a rat neuronal progenitor cell. We generated a recombinant adenovirus encoding T7-epitope tagged p62 to reliably transfer p62 cDNA into the neuronal cells. The results show that an overexpression of p62 led not only to neuronal differentiation, but also to decreased cell death induced by serum withdrawal in HiB5 cells. In this process p62-dependent Akt phosphorylation occurred via the release of Akt from PKC{zeta} by association of p62 and PKC{zeta}, which is known as a negative regulator of Akt activation. These findings indicate that p62 facilitates cell survival through novel signaling cascades that result in Akt activation. Furthermore, we found that p62 expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the data suggest p62 is a regulator of neuronal cell survival and differentiation.

  9. miR-302 Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Neurotoxicity through Activation of Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsin-Hua; Lin, Shi-Lung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chiu, Pai-Yi; Huang, Wen-Nung; Lai, Te-Jen; Lin, Chih-Li

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of insulin signaling has been linked to diabetes and ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, brains exhibit defective insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and hence result in alteration of insulin signaling in progression of AD, the most common cause of dementia. Consequently, dysregulation of insulin signaling plays an important role in amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity. As the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) involves cell reprogramming, it may provide a means for regaining the control of ageing-associated dysfunction and neurodegeneration via affecting insulin-related signaling. To this, we found that an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific microRNA, miR-302, silences phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) to activate Akt signaling, which subsequently stimulates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) elevation and hence inhibits Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. miR-302 is predominantly expressed in iPSCs and is known to regulate several important biological processes of anti-oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, and anti-aging through activating Akt signaling. In addition, we also found that miR-302-mediated Akt signaling further stimulates Nanog expression to suppress Aβ-induced p-Ser307 IRS-1 expression and thus enhances tyrosine phosphorylation and p-Ser 473-Akt/p-Ser 9-GSK3β formation. Furthermore, our in vivo studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of both Nanog and miR-302-encoding LARP7 genes were significantly reduced in AD patients' blood cells, providing a novel diagnosis marker for AD. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that miR-302 is able to inhibit Aβ-induced cytotoxicity via activating Akt signaling to upregulate Nrf2 and Nanog expressions, leading to a marked restoration of insulin signaling in AD neurons. PMID:26890744

  10. Denbinobin induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells via Akt inactivation, Bad activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chen-Tzu; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Bing-Chang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Lin, Chien-Huang

    2008-02-28

    Increasing evidence demonstrated that denbinobin, isolated from Ephemerantha lonchophylla, exert cytotoxic effects in cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether denbinobin induces apoptosis and the apoptotic mechanism of denbinobin in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Denbinobin (1-20microM) caused cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis and annexin V labeling demonstrated that denbinobin increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. A549 cells treated with denbinobin showed typical characteristics of apoptosis including morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Denbinobin induced caspase 3 activation, and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, prevented denbinobin-induced cell death. Denbinobin induced the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins including cytochrome c, second mitochondria derived activator of caspase (Smac), and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In addition, denbinobin-induced Bad activation was accompanied by the dissociation of Bad with 14-3-3 and the association of Bad with Bcl-xL. Furthermore, denbinobin induced Akt inactivation in a time-dependent manner. Transfection of A549 cells with both wild-type and constitutively active Akt significantly suppressed denbinobin-induced Bad activation and cell apoptosis. These results suggest that Akt inactivation, followed by Bad activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase 3 activation, and AIF release, contributes to denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis. PMID:18262737

  11. Antibiotic drug tigecycline reduces neuroblastoma cells proliferation by inhibiting Akt activation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Erhu; Tang, Chunling; Zhang, Weibo; Tan, Juan; Dong, Zhen; Ding, Han-Fei; Cui, Hongjuan

    2016-06-01

    As the first member of glycylcycline bacteriostatic agents, tigecycline is approved as a novel expanded-spectrum antibiotic, which is clinically available. However, accumulating evidence indicated that tigecycline was provided with the potential application in cancer therapy. In this paper, tigecycline was shown to exert an anti-proliferative effect on neuroblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, it was found that tigecycline induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest instead of apoptosis by means of Akt pathway inhibition. In neuroblastoma cell lines, the Akt activator insulin-like growth factor-1 (hereafter referred to as IGF-1) reversed tigecycline-induced cell cycle arrest. Besides, tigecycline inhibited colony formation and suppressed neuroblastoma cells xenograft formation and growth. After tigecycline treatment in vivo, the Akt pathway inhibition was confirmed as well. Collectively, our data provided strong evidences that tigecycline inhibited neuroblastoma cells growth and proliferation through the Akt pathway inhibition in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these results were supported by previous studies concerning the application of tigecycline in human tumors treatment, suggesting that tigecycline might act as a potential candidate agent for neuroblastoma treatment. PMID:26687647

  12. CD133 promotes gallbladder carcinoma cell migration through activating Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Jiaojiao; Ai, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the fifth most common malignancy of gastrointestinal tract. The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is extremely terrible partially due to metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying gallbladder carcinoma metastasis remain largely unknown. CD133 is a widely used cancer stem cell marker including in gallbladder carcinoma. Here, we found that CD133 was highly expressed in gallbladder carcinoma as compared to normal tissues. CD133 was located in the invasive areas in gallbladder carcinoma. Down-regulation expression of CD133 inhibited migration and invasion of gallbladder carcinoma cell without obviously reducing cell proliferation. Mechanism analysis revealed that down-regulation expression of CD133 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and increased PTEN protein level. The inhibitory effect of CD133 down-regulation on gallbladder carcinoma cell migration could be rescued by Akt activation. Consistent with this, addition of Akt inhibitor Wortmannin markedly inhibited the migration ability of CD133-overexpressing cells. Thus, down-regulation of CD133 inhibits migration of gallbladder carcinoma cells through reducing Akt phosphorylation. These findings explore the fundamental biological aspect of CD133 in gallbladder carcinoma progression, providing insights into gallbladder carcinoma cell migration. PMID:26910892

  13. Hypoxia and classical activation limits Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival by Akt-dependent glycolytic shift in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Matta, S K; Kumar, D

    2016-01-01

    Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major antibacterial defense mechanism used by macrophages upon activation. Exposure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected macrophages to hypoxia is known to compromise the survival of the pathogen. Here we report that the hypoxia-induced control of intracellular Mtb load in RAW 264.7 macrophages was mediated by regulating the cellular ROS levels. We show that similar to classical activation, hypoxia incubation of macrophages resulted in decreased mitochondrial outer membrane potential (MOMP) and a concomitant increase in the cellular ROS levels. Mitochondrial depolarization and consequently higher ROS could be blocked by knocking down Akt using siRNAs, which acted by inhibiting the switch to glycolytic mode of metabolism, an essential adaptive response upon classical activation or hypoxic incubation of macrophages. Moreover, in the classically activated macrophages or in the macrophages under hypoxia incubation, supplementation with additional glucose had similar effects as Akt knockdown. Interestingly, in both the cases, the reversal of phenotype was linked with the ability of the mitochondrial F0–F1 ATP synthase activity to maintain the MOMP in the absence of oxidative phosphorylation. Both Akt knockdown and glucose supplementation were also able to rescue Mtb survival in these macrophages upon classical activation or hypoxia incubation. These results provide a framework for better understanding of how the interplay between oxygen supply, which is limiting in the human tubercular granulomas, and nutrient availability could together direct the outcome of infections in vivo. PMID:27551515

  14. Notch signaling regulates the phosphorylation of Akt and survival of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages via regulator of G protein signaling 19 (RGS19)

    PubMed Central

    Sangphech, Naunpun; Osborne, Barbara A.; Palaga, Tanapat

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play critical roles in innate immune defense by sensing microbes using pattern-recognition receptors. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages via TLR, which leads to activation of downstream signaling cascades. In this study, we investigated the roles of a conserved signaling pathway, Notch signaling, in regulating the downstream signaling cascades of the LPS/TLR4 pathways in macrophages. Using a phosphoproteomic approach and a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to suppress the processing and activation of Notch signaling, we identified regulator of G protein signaling 19 (RGS19) as a target protein whose phosphorylation was affected by GSI treatment. RGS19 is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein that functions to negatively regulate G protein-coupled receptors via Gαi/Gαq-linked signaling. Stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with LPS increased the level of the phosphorylated form of RGS19, while LPS stimulation in the presence of GSI decreased its level. GSI treatment did not alter the mRNA level of rgs19. Treatment with GSI or silencing of rgs19 in macrophages impaired the phosphorylation of Akt Thr308 upon LPS stimulation. Furthermore, targeted deletion of a DNA-binding protein and binding partner of the Notch receptor, RBP-Jκ/CSL, in macrophages resulted in delayed and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Because the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates cell survival in various cell types, the cell cycle and cell death were assayed upon GSI treatment, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor treatment or silencing of rgs19. GSI treatment resulted in decreased cell populations in the G1 and S phases, while it increased the cell population of cell death. Similarly, silencing of rgs19 resulted in a decreased cell population in the G1 phase and an increased cell population in the subG1 phase. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by PI3K inhibitor in LPS-stimulated macrophages increased cell population in G1 phase, suggesting a possible cell cycle

  15. PI3K and AKT: Unfaithful Partners in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Faes, Seraina; Dormond, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes. An overactivation of the pathway is frequently present in human malignancies and plays a key role in cancer progression. Hence, its inhibition has become a promising approach in cancer therapy. However, the development of resistances, such as the abrogation of negative feedback mechanisms or the activation of other proliferative signaling pathways, has considerably limited the anticancer efficacy of PI3K/AKT inhibitors. In addition, emerging evidence points out that although AKT is acknowledged as the major downstream effector of PI3K, both PI3K and AKT can operate independently of each other in cancer, revealing another level of complexity in this pathway. Here, we highlight the complex relationship between PI3K and AKT in cancer and further discuss the consequences of this relationship for cancer therapy. PMID:26404259

  16. PI3K and AKT: Unfaithful Partners in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Faes, Seraina; Dormond, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes. An overactivation of the pathway is frequently present in human malignancies and plays a key role in cancer progression. Hence, its inhibition has become a promising approach in cancer therapy. However, the development of resistances, such as the abrogation of negative feedback mechanisms or the activation of other proliferative signaling pathways, has considerably limited the anticancer efficacy of PI3K/AKT inhibitors. In addition, emerging evidence points out that although AKT is acknowledged as the major downstream effector of PI3K, both PI3K and AKT can operate independently of each other in cancer, revealing another level of complexity in this pathway. Here, we highlight the complex relationship between PI3K and AKT in cancer and further discuss the consequences of this relationship for cancer therapy. PMID:26404259

  17. RUNX2 and the PI3K/AKT axis reciprocal activation as a driving force for tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Solal, Karine A; Boregowda, Rajeev K; Lasfar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    From the first reported role of the transcription factor RUNX2 in osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation and migration to its involvement in promigratory/proinvasive behavior of breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer cells, osteosarcoma, or melanoma cells, RUNX2 currently emerges as a key player in metastasis. In this review, we address the interaction of RUNX2 with the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, one of the critical axes controlling cancer growth and metastasis. AKT, either by directly phosphorylating/activating RUNX2 or phosphorylating/inactivating regulators of RUNX2 stability or activity, contributes to RUNX2 transcriptional activity. Reciprocally, the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway by RUNX2 regulation of its different components has been described in non-transformed and transformed cells. This mutual activation in the context of cancer cells exhibiting constitutive AKT activation and high levels of RUNX2 might constitute a major driving force in tumor progression and aggressiveness. PMID:26204939

  18. Autophagy fosters myofibroblast differentiation through MTORC2 activation and downstream upregulation of CTGF.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Monique; Dieudé, Mélanie; Yang, Bing; Hamelin, Katia; Underwood, Katy; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that autophagy may favor fibrosis through enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts in myofibroblasts. Here, we sought to characterize the mediators and signaling pathways implicated in autophagy-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Fibroblasts, serum starved for up to 4 d, showed increased LC3-II/-I ratios and decreased SQSTM1/p62 levels. Autophagy was associated with acquisition of markers of myofibroblast differentiation including increased protein levels of ACTA2/αSMA (actin, α 2, smooth muscle, aorta), enhanced gene and protein levels of COL1A1 (collagen, type I, α 1) and COL3A1, and the formation of stress fibers. Inhibiting autophagy with 3 different class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) inhibitors or through ATG7 silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Autophagic fibroblasts showed increased expression and secretion of CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), and CTGF silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Phosphorylation of the MTORC1 target RPS6KB1/p70S6K kinase was abolished in starved fibroblasts. Phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, a MTORC2 target, was reduced after initiation of starvation but was followed by spontaneous rephosphorylation after 2 d of starvation, suggesting the reactivation of MTORC2 with sustained autophagy. Inhibiting MTORC2 activation with long-term exposure to rapamycin or by silencing RICTOR, a central component of the MTORC2 complex abolished AKT rephosphorylation. Both RICTOR silencing and rapamycin treatment prevented CTGF and ACTA2 upregulation, demonstrating the central role of MTORC2 activation in CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. Finally, inhibition of autophagy with PtdIns3K inhibitors or ATG7 silencing blocked AKT rephosphorylation. Collectively, these results identify autophagy as a novel activator of MTORC2 signaling leading to CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:25495560

  19. Autophagy fosters myofibroblast differentiation through MTORC2 activation and downstream upregulation of CTGF

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Monique; Dieudé, Mélanie; Yang, Bing; Hamelin, Katia; Underwood, Katy; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that autophagy may favor fibrosis through enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts in myofibroblasts. Here, we sought to characterize the mediators and signaling pathways implicated in autophagy-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Fibroblasts, serum starved for up to 4 d, showed increased LC3-II/-I ratios and decreased SQSTM1/p62 levels. Autophagy was associated with acquisition of markers of myofibroblast differentiation including increased protein levels of ACTA2/αSMA (actin, α 2, smooth muscle, aorta), enhanced gene and protein levels of COL1A1 (collagen, type I, α 1) and COL3A1, and the formation of stress fibers. Inhibiting autophagy with 3 different class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) inhibitors or through ATG7 silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Autophagic fibroblasts showed increased expression and secretion of CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), and CTGF silencing prevented myofibroblast differentiation. Phosphorylation of the MTORC1 target RPS6KB1/p70S6K kinase was abolished in starved fibroblasts. Phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, a MTORC2 target, was reduced after initiation of starvation but was followed by spontaneous rephosphorylation after 2 d of starvation, suggesting the reactivation of MTORC2 with sustained autophagy. Inhibiting MTORC2 activation with long-term exposure to rapamycin or by silencing RICTOR, a central component of the MTORC2 complex abolished AKT rephosphorylation. Both RICTOR silencing and rapamycin treatment prevented CTGF and ACTA2 upregulation, demonstrating the central role of MTORC2 activation in CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. Finally, inhibition of autophagy with PtdIns3K inhibitors or ATG7 silencing blocked AKT rephosphorylation. Collectively, these results identify autophagy as a novel activator of MTORC2 signaling leading to CTGF induction and myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:25495560

  20. AMIGO2, a novel membrane anchor of PDK1, controls cell survival and angiogenesis via Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Sungwoon; Shrestha, Pravesh; Kim, Jihye; Park, Jeong Ae; Ko, Yeongrim; Ban, Young Ho; Park, Dae-Young; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Hong, Victor Sukbong; Mochizuki, Naoki; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Weontae

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase–Akt signaling pathway is essential to many biological processes, including cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, and angiogenesis, under pathophysiological conditions. Although 3-phosphoinositide–dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is a primary activator of Akt at the plasma membrane, the optimal activation mechanism remains unclear. We report that adhesion molecule with IgG-like domain 2 (AMIGO2) is a novel scaffold protein that regulates PDK1 membrane localization and Akt activation. Loss of AMIGO2 in endothelial cells (ECs) led to apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis with Akt inactivation. Amino acid residues 465–474 in AMIGO2 directly bind to the PDK1 pleckstrin homology domain. A synthetic peptide containing the AMIGO2 465–474 residues abrogated the AMIGO2–PDK1 interaction and Akt activation. Moreover, it effectively suppressed pathological angiogenesis in murine tumor and oxygen-induced retinopathy models. These results demonstrate that AMIGO2 is an important regulator of the PDK1–Akt pathway in ECs and suggest that interference of the PDK1–AMIGO2 interaction might be a novel pharmaceutical target for designing an Akt pathway inhibitor. PMID:26553931

  1. Repetitive exposure to low-dose X-irradiation attenuates testicular apoptosis in type 2 diabetic rats, likely via Akt-mediated Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuguang; Kong, Chuipeng; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Wan, Zhiqiang; Jia, Lin; Liu, Qiuju; Wang, Yuehui; Li, Wei; Cui, Jiuwei; Han, Fujun; Cai, Lu

    2016-02-15

    To determine whether repetitive exposure to low-dose radiation (LDR) attenuates type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-induced testicular apoptotic cell death in a T2DM rat model, we examined the effects of LDR exposure on diabetic and age-matched control rats. We found that testicular apoptosis and oxidative stress levels were significantly higher in T2DM rats than in control rats. In addition, glucose metabolism-related Akt and GSK-3β function was downregulated and Akt negative regulators PTP1B and TRB3 were upregulated in the T2DM group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase content were also found to be decreased in T2DM rats. These effects were partially prevented or reversed by repetitive LDR exposure. Nrf2 and its downstream genes NQO1, SOD, and catalase were significantly upregulated by repetitive exposure to LDR, suggesting that the reduction of T2DM-induced testicular apoptosis due to repetitive LDR exposure likely involves enhancement of testicular Akt-mediated glucose metabolism and anti-oxidative defense mechanisms. PMID:26704079

  2. Livers with Constitutive mTORC1 Activity Resist Steatosis Independent of Feedback Suppression of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kenerson, Heidi L.; Subramanian, Savitha; McIntyre, Rebecca; Kazami, Machiko; Yeung, Raymond S.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is an important contributing factor in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AKT and mTORC1 are key components of the insulin pathway, and play a role in promoting de novo lipogenesis. However, mTORC1 hyperactivity per se does not induce steatosis in mouse livers, but instead, protects against high-fat diet induced steatosis. Here, we investigate the in vivo mechanism of steatosis-resistance secondary to mTORC1 activation, with emphasis on the role of S6K1-mediated feedback inhibition of AKT. Mice with single or double deletion of Tsc1 and/or S6k1 in a liver-specific or whole-body manner were generated to study glucose and hepatic lipid metabolism between the ages of 6–14 weeks. Following 8 weeks of high-fat diet, the Tsc1-/-;S6k1-/- mice had lower body weights but higher liver TG levels compared to that of the Tsc1-/- mice. However, the loss of S6k1 did not relieve feedback inhibition of Akt activity in the Tsc1-/- livers. To overcome Akt suppression, Pten was deleted in Tsc1-/- livers, and the resultant mice showed improved glucose tolerance compared with the Tsc1-/- mice. However, liver TG levels were significantly reduced in the Tsc1-/-;Pten-/- mice compared to the Pten-/- mice, which was restored with rapamycin. We found no correlation between liver TG and serum NEFA levels. Expression of lipogenic genes (Srebp1c, Fasn) were elevated in the Tsc1-/-;Pten-/- livers, but this was counter-balanced by an up-regulation of Cpt1a involved in fatty acid oxidation and the anti-oxidant protein, Nrf2. In summary, our in vivo models showed that mTORC1-induced resistance to steatosis was dependent on S6K1 activity, but not secondary to AKT suppression. These findings confirm that AKT and mTORC1 have opposing effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in vivo. PMID:25646773

  3. Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH2-terminal (sites 2 + 2a) phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Birk, Jesper B.; Richter, Erik A.; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Pehmøller, Christian; Hansen, Bo Falck; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Vaag, Allan; Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced muscle glycogen synthesis. The key enzyme in this process, glycogen synthase (GS), is activated via proximal insulin signaling, but the exact molecular events remain unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of Thr308 on Akt (p-Akt-Thr308), Akt2 activity, and GS activity in muscle were positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Here, in the same study population, we determined the influence of several upstream elements in the canonical PI3K signaling on muscle GS activation. One-hundred eighty-one nondiabetic twins were examined with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with excision of muscle biopsies. Insulin signaling was evaluated at the levels of the insulin receptor, IRS-1-associated PI3K (IRS-1-PI3K), Akt, and GS employing activity assays and phosphospecific Western blotting. The insulin-stimulated GS activity was positively associated with p-Akt-Thr308 (P = 0.01) and Akt2 activity (P = 0.04) but not p-Akt-Ser473 or IRS-1-PI3K activity. Furthermore, p-Akt-Thr308 and Akt2 activity were negatively associated with NH2-terminal GS phosphorylation (P = 0.001 for both), which in turn was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated GS activity (P < 0.001). We found no association between COOH-terminal GS phosphorylation and Akt or GS activity. Employing whole body Akt2-knockout mice, we validated the necessity for Akt2 in insulin-mediated GS activation. However, since insulin did not affect NH2-terminal phosphorylation in mice, we could not use this model to validate the observed association between GS NH2-terminal phosphorylation and Akt activity in humans. In conclusion, our study suggests that although COOH-terminal dephosphorylation is likely necessary for GS activation, Akt2-dependent NH2-terminal dephosphorylation may be the site for “fine-tuning” insulin-mediated GS activation in humans. PMID:23321478

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) Activates NFATc1 Transcription Factor via an Autoregulatory Loop Involving Smad/Akt/Ca2+ Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chandi C; Das, Falguni; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Harris, Stephen E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini

    2016-01-15

    Bone remodeling is controlled by dual actions of osteoclasts (OCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). The calcium-sensitive nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 transcription factor, as an OC signature gene, regulates differentiation of OCs downstream of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-stimulated osteoblast-coded factors. To analyze a functional link between BMP-2 and NFATc1, we analyzed bones from OB-specific BMP-2 knock-out mice for NFATc1 expression by immunohistochemical staining and found significant reduction in NFATc1 expression. This indicated a requirement of BMP-2 for NFATc1 expression in OBs. We showed that BMP-2, via the receptor-specific Smad pathway, regulates expression of NFATc1 in OBs. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling acting downstream of BMP-2 also drives NFATc1 expression and transcriptional activation. Under the basal condition, NFATc1 is phosphorylated. Activation of NFAT requires dephosphorylation by the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin. We examined the role of calcium in BMP-2-stimulated regulation of NFATc1 in osteoblasts. 1,2Bis(2aminophenoxy)ethaneN,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester, an inhibitor of intracellular calcium abundance, blocked BMP-2-induced transcription of NFATc1. Interestingly, BMP-2 induced calcium release from intracellular stores and increased calcineurin phosphatase activity, resulting in NFATc1 nuclear translocation. Cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin upstream of NFATc1, blocked BMP-2-induced NFATc1 mRNA and protein expression. Expression of NFATc1 directly increased its transcription and VIVIT peptide, an inhibitor of NFATc1, suppressed BMP-2-stimulated NFATc1 transcription, confirming its autoregulation. Together, these data show a role of NFATc1 downstream of BMP-2 in mouse bone development and provide novel evidence for the presence of a cross-talk among Smad, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and Ca(2+) signaling for BMP-2-induced NFATc1 expression through

  5. Avian reovirus σA and σNS proteins activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Zeng, Tingting; Zhang, Yanfang; Wang, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to identify avian reovirus (ARV) proteins that can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent Akt pathway. Based on ARV protein amino acid sequence analysis, σA, σNS, μA, μB and μNS were identified as putative proteins capable of mediating PI3K/Akt pathway activation. The recombinant plasmids σA-pcAGEN, σNS-pcAGEN, μA-pcAGEN, μB-pcAGEN and μNS-pcAGEN were constructed and used to transfect Vero cells, and the expression levels of the corresponding genes were quantified by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) levels in the transfected cells were measured by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The results showed that the σA, σNS, μA, μB and μNS genes were expressed in Vero cells. σA-expressing and σNS-expressing cells had higher P-Akt levels than negative control cells, pcAGEN-expressing cells and cells designed to express other proteins (i.e., μA, μB and μNS). Pre-treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited Akt phosphorylation in σA- and σNS-expressing cells. These results indicate that the σA and σNS proteins can activate the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:27233800

  6. Calorie restriction leads to greater Akt2 activity and glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from old rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B; Cartee, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with many common age-related diseases, but moderate calorie restriction (CR) can substantially elevate glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from both young and old rats. The current study evaluated the isolated epitrochlearis muscle from ∼24.5-mo-old rats that were either fed ad libitum (AL) or subjected to CR (consuming ∼65% of ad libitum, AL, intake beginning at ∼22.5 mo old). Some muscles were also incubated with MK-2206, a potent and selective Akt inhibitor. The most important results were that in isolated muscles, CR vs. AL resulted in 1) greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake 2) that was accompanied by significantly increased insulin-mediated activation of Akt2, as indicated by greater phosphorylation on both Thr(309) and Ser(474) along with greater Akt2 activity, 3) concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of several Akt substrates, including an Akt substrate of 160 kDa on Thr(642) and Ser(588), filamin C on Ser(2213) and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa on Thr(246), but not TBC1D1 on Thr(596); and 4) each of the CR effects was eliminated by MK-2206. These data provide compelling new evidence linking greater Akt2 activation to the CR-induced elevation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle from old animals. PMID:26739650

  7. miR-10b expression in breast cancer stem cells supports self-renewal through negative PTEN regulation and sustained AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Bahena-Ocampo, Ivan; Espinosa, Magali; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Lizarraga, Floria; Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Schwarz, Angela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are linked to metastasis. Moreover, a discrete group of miRNAs (metastamiRs) has been shown to promote metastasis. Accordingly, we propose that miRNAs that function as metastatic promoters may influence the CSC phenotype. To study this issue, we compared the expression of 353 miRNAs in CSCs enriched from breast cancer cell lines using qRT-PCR analysis. One of the most altered miRNAs was miR-10b, which is a reported promoter of metastasis and migration. Stable overexpression of miR-10b in MCF-7 cells (miR-10b-OE cells) promoted higher self-renewal and expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. In agreement with these results, inhibiting miR-10b expression using synthetic antisense RNAs resulted in a decrease in CSCs self-renewal. Bioinformatics analyses identified several potential miR-10b mRNA targets, including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a key regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway involved in metastasis, cell survival, and self-renewal. The targeting of PTEN by miR-10b was confirmed using a luciferase reporter, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analyses. Lower PTEN levels were observed in CSCs, and miR-10b depletion not only increased PTEN mRNA and protein expression but also decreased the activity of AKT, a downstream PTEN target kinase. Correspondingly, PTEN knockdown increased stem cell markers, whereas AKT inhibitors compromised the self-renewal ability of CSCs and breast cancer cell lines overexpressing miR-10b. In conclusion, miR-10b regulates the self-renewal of the breast CSC phenotype by inhibiting PTEN and maintaining AKT pathway activation. PMID:27113763

  8. FoxO1-Mediated Activation of Akt Plays a Critical Role in Vascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lei; Dupuis, Dylan; Beeler, David; Spokes, Katherine C.; Janes, Lauren; Sciuto, Tracey; Kang, Peter M.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.; Dvorak, Ann; Grant, Marianne A.; Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Aird, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Forkhead box-O transcription factors (FoxOs) transduce a wide range of extracellular signals, resulting in changes in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and a number of cell type-specific responses. FoxO1 is expressed in many cell types, including endothelial cells. Previous studies have shown that FoxO1 knockout in mice results in embryonic lethality at E11 due to impaired vascular development. In contrast, somatic deletion of FoxO1 is associated with hyperproliferation of endothelial cells. Thus, the precise role of FoxO1 in the endothelium remains enigmatic. Objective To determine the effect of endothelial-specific knockout and overexpression of FoxO1 on vascular homeostasis. Methods and Results We show that endothelial cell (EC)-specific disruption of FoxO1 in mice phenocopies the full knockout. While endothelial expression of FoxO1 rescued otherwise FoxO-null animals, overexpression of constitutively active FoxO1 resulted in increased EC size, occlusion of capillaries, elevated peripheral resistance, heart failure and death. Knockdown of FoxO1 in ECs resulted in marked inhibition of basal and VEGF-induced Akt-mTOR1 signaling. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in mice endothelial expression of FoxO1 is both necessary and sufficient for embryonic development. Moreover, FoxO1-mediated feedback activation of Akt maintains growth factor-responsive Akt/mTORC1 activity within a homeostatic range. PMID:24874427

  9. Essential role of AKT in tumor cells addicted to FGFR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Lu, Huiru; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Jun; Chai, Zhifang; Zhang, Jingxin

    2014-02-01

    Tumor cells with genetic amplifications or mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family are often addicted to FGFR and heavily dependent on its signaling to survive. Although it is critical to understand which signaling pathway downstream of FGFR plays an essential role to guide the research and development of FGFR inhibitors, it has remained unclear partly because the tool compounds used in the literature also hit many other kinases, making the results difficult to interpret. With the development of a potent FGFR-specific inhibitor, BGJ398, we are now able to dissect various pathways with low drug concentrations to minimize multiple-target effects. Importantly, here, we show that inhibition of FGFR signaling by BGJ398 leads to only transient inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas the inhibitory effect on AKT phosphorylation is sustainable, indicating that AKT, not ERK as commonly believed, serves as an appropriate pharmacodynamic biomarker for BGJ398. Although AKT inhibition by a pan-PI3K inhibitor alone has almost no effect on cell growth, heterologous expression of myr-AKT, an active form of AKT, rescues BGJ398-mediated suppression of tumor cell proliferation. These results indicate that AKT is an essential component downstream of FGFR. Finally, combination of the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 with rapamycin significantly inhibits AKT phosphorylation and enhances their antiproliferative effects in FGFR-addicted cells, suggesting an effective combination strategy for clinical development of FGFR inhibitors. PMID:24100276

  10. Induction of Autophagic Death in Cancer Cells by Agonizing TR3 and Attenuating Akt2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-jia; Wang, Yuan; Hou, Pei-pei; Li, Feng-wei; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Hang-zi; Bian, Xue-li; Cai, Qi-xu; Xing, Yong-zhen; He, Jian-ping; Zhang, Hongkui; Huang, Pei-qiang; Lin, Tianwei; Wu, Qiao

    2015-08-20

    Apoptotic resistance is becoming a significant obstacle for cancer therapy as the majority of treatment takes the route of apoptotic induction. It is of great importance to develop an alternative strategy to induce cancer cell death. We previously reported that autophagic cell death mediated by nuclear receptor TR3 and driven by a chemical agonist, 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)nonan-1-one (THPN), is highly effective in the therapy of melanoma but not any other cancer types. Here, we discovered that the insensitivity of cancer cells to THPN originated from a high cellular Akt2 activity. Akt2 phosphorylation interferes with TR3 export to cytoplasm and targeting to mitochondria, which lead to the autophagic induction. Therefore, the TR3-mediated autophagy could be effectively induced in the otherwise insensitive cells by downregulating Akt2 activity. Highly effective antineoplastic compounds are developed through optimizing the structure of THPN. This study implicates a general strategy for cancer therapy by the induction of autophagic cell death. PMID:26235054

  11. Dormancy of Cancer Cells with Suppression of AKT Activity Contributes to Survival in Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Hiroko; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Ohue, Masayuki; Inoue, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    A hypoxic microenvironment in tumors has been recognized as a cause of malignancy or resistance to various cancer therapies. In contrast to recent progress in understanding the acute response of cancer cells to hypoxia, the characteristics of tumor cells in chronic hypoxia remain elusive. We have identified a pancreatic cancer cell line, AsPC-1, that is exceptionally able to survive for weeks under 1% oxygen conditions while most tested cancer cell lines die after only some days under these conditions. In chronic hypoxia, AsPC-1 cells entered a state of dormancy characterized by no proliferation, no death, and metabolic suppression. They reversibly switched to active status after being placed again in optimal culture conditions. ATP turnover, an indicator of energy demand, was markedly decreased and accompanied by reduced AKT phosphorylation. Forced activation of AKT resulted in increased ATP turnover and massive cell death in vitro and a decreased number of dormant cells in vivo. In contrast to most cancer cell lines, primary-cultured colorectal cancer cells easily entered the dormant status with AKT suppression under hypoxia combined with growth factor–depleted conditions. Primary colorectal cancer cells in dormancy were resistant to chemotherapy. Thus, the ability to survive in a deteriorated microenvironment by entering into dormancy under chronic hypoxia might be a common property among cancer cells. Targeting the regulatory mechanism inducing this dormant status could provide a new strategy for treating cancer. PMID:24905002

  12. Antiplatelet activity of loureirin A by attenuating Akt phosphorylation: In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hong-Zhen; He, Ao-Di; Wang, Dao-Chun; Yin, Zhao; Zhou, Ya-Jun; Liu, Gang; Liang, Ming-Lu; Da, Xing-Wen; Yao, Guang-Qiang; Xie, Wen; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Ming, Zhang-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Loureirin A is a flavonoid extracted from Dragon׳s Blood that has been used to promote blood circulation and remove stasis in Chinese traditional medicine. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. We explored the anti-platelet activity and underlying mechanism of loureirin A in vitro. Our results indicated that loureirin A negatively affected agonist-induced platelet aggregation such as collagen, collagen-related peptide (CRP), ADP and thrombin. Loureirin A inhibited collagen-induced platelet ATP secretion and thrombin-stimulated P-selectin expression in a dose-dependent manner. Platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen was significantly impaired in the presence of loureirin A. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that 100μM of loureirin A almost completely eliminated collagen-induced Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. Interestingly, a submaximal dose (50μM) of loureirin A had an additive inhibitory effect with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Ly294002 on collage-induced Akt phosphorylation in platelets. Taken together, loureirin A had an inhibitory effect on platelet activation, perhaps through an impairment of PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:25445049

  13. Akt Specific Activator SC79 Protects against Early Brain Injury following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingding; Zhang, Huasheng; Hao, Shuangying; Yan, Huiying; Zhang, Zihuan; Hu, Yangchun; Zhuang, Zong; Li, Wei; Zhou, Mengliang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chunhua

    2016-06-15

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that Akt may serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Akt specific activator SC79 in an experimental rat model of SAH. SAH was induced by injecting 300 μL of blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of SC79 (30 min post-SAH) induced the p-Akt (Ser473) expression in a dose-dependent manner. A single ICV dose treatment of SC79 (100 μg/rat) significantly increased the expression of Bcl-2 and p-GSK-3β (Ser9), decreased the protein levels of Bax, cytoplasm cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3, indicating the antiapoptotic effect of SC79. As a result, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced 24 h post SAH. Moreover, SC79 treatment alleviated SAH-induced oxidative stress, restored mitochondrial morphology, and improved neurological deficits. Strikingly, treatment of SC79 provided a beneficial outcome against neurologic deficit with a therapeutic window of at least 4 h post SAH by ICV injection and 30 min post SAH by intraperitoneal injection. Collectively, SC79 exerts its neuroprotective effect likely through the dual activities of antioxidation and antiapoptosis. These data provide a basic platform to consider SC79 as a novel therapeutic agent for treatment of SAH. PMID:26983552

  14. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-pil; Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chung, Sung Woon; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  15. PDGF-D/PDGFRβ promotes tongue squamous carcinoma cell (TSCC) progression via activating p38/AKT/ERK/EMT signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Sun, Jia-Dong; Yan, Ling-Jian; Zhao, Xiao-Peng

    2016-09-16

    Platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF-D) signaling plays significant roles during the development and progression of human malignancies via interacting with the receptor of PDGF-D (PDGFR). Meanwhile, the majority of human tumor metastasis is closely associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanism between PDGF-D/PDGFR signaling and EMT which involved in tumor metastasis remain dismal. This study aimed to investigate the role of PDGF-D signaling during EMT process of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). In our study, the expression of PDGF-D and PDGFR were examined in primary TSCC samples and the expression of PDGF-D was also determined in TSCC cell lines. In addition, the correlation between PDGF-D expression and TSCC aggressive histopathological features was analyzed. Our results implied that upregulation of PDGFRβ in UM1 cells induced with exogenous PDGF-D can remarkably promote tumor cells invasiveness; conversely, when using small interfering RNA (siRNA), the invasiveness can be severely prohibited. Furthermore, PDGF-D downstream signal molecules p38, AKT, ERK and EMT biomarkers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin and snail) were measured using Western blot. Our results showed that PDGF-D can induce p38, AKT and ERK phosphorylation; downregulate epithelial markers and upregulate mesenchymal markers. On the contrary, PDGFRβ siRNA significantly prohibited p38, AKT and ERK phosphorylation; inhibited EMT process. Function analysis revealed that PDGFRβ siRNA obviously interfered with UM1 cell migration and invasion, according to transwell and wound healing assay. In conclusion, this study suggested that EMT process can be triggered by the PDGF-D/PDGFRβ axis in TSCC, and then involved in the tumor cell invasion via activation of p38/AKT/ERK/EMT pathway. PMID:27507215

  16. The antioxidant compound tert-butylhydroquinone activates Akt in myocardium, suppresses apoptosis and ameliorates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongtao; Fang Liu, Fang; Bi, Xiaolei; Wang, Shuangxi; Wu, Xiao; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) is an antioxidant compound which shows multiple cytoprotective actions. We evaluated the effects of TBHQ on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by chronic overload. Pressure overload was created by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in male C57BL/6 mice. TBHQ was incorporated in the diet and administered for 4 weeks. TBHQ treatment prevented left ventricular dilatation and cardiac dysfunction induced by TAC, and decreased the prevalence of myocardial apoptosis. The beneficial effects of TBHQ were associated with an increase in Akt activation, but not related to activations of Nrf2 or AMP-activated protein kinase. TBHQ-induced Akt activation was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Bad, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Mechanistically, we showed that in cultured H9c2 cells and primary cardiac myocytes, TBHQ stimulated Akt phosphorylation and suppressed oxidant-induced apoptosis; this effect was abolished by wortmannin or an Akt inhibitor. Blockade of the Akt pathway in vivo accelerated cardiac dysfunction, and abrogated the protective effects of TBHQ. TBHQ also reduced the reactive aldehyde production and protein carbonylation in stressed myocardium. We suggest that TBHQ treatment may represent a novel strategy for timely activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in stressed myocardium. PMID:26260024

  17. MECHANISMS OF SPHINGOSINE-1-PHOSPHATE INDUCED AKT DEPENDENT SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL MIGRATION

    PubMed Central

    Roztocil, Elisa; Nicholl, Suzanne M.; Davies, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) is a bioactive sphingolipid released from activated platelets, which stimulates migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro. S-1-P will activate akt, which can regulate multiple cellular functions including cell migration. Akt activation is downstream of phosphatidyl-inositol 3′ kinase (PI3-K) and Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Objective To examine the regulation of akt signaling during smooth muscle cell migration in response to S-1-P. Methods Murine arterial SMCs were cultured in vitro. Linear wound and Boyden microchemotaxis assays of migration were performed in the presence of S-1-P with and without an akt inhibitor (aktI). Assays were performed for PI3-K, PDK1, akt and GSK3β activation in the presence of various inhibitors and after transfection with the Gβγ inhibitor. βARKCT. Results S-1-P induced time dependent PI3-K, PDK1 and akt activation. The migratory responses in both assays to S-1-P were blocked by akt inhibitor (aktI). Activation of akt and dephosphorylation of its downstream kinase, GSK3 β, were inhibited by aktI. Inhibition of PI3-K with LY294002 significantly reduced both PI3-K and akt activation. Inhibition of G βγ inhibited akt activation through a reduction in both PI3-K and PDK1 activation. While inhibition of the ras with manumycin A had no effect, inhibition of rho with C3 limited both PI3K and akt activation. PDK1 responses were unchanged by inhibition of GTPases. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation with N-acetylcysteine and of EGFR with AG1478 inhibited PDK1 activation in response to S-1-P. Conclusion S-1-P mediated migration is akt dependent. S-1-P mediated akt phosphorylation is controlled by G βγ dependent, PI3-K activation, which requires the GTPase rho and Gβγ. PDK1 activation requires Gβγ reactive oxygen species generation and EGFR activation. PMID:19081473

  18. Protein Kinase B (AKT) Mediates Phospholipase D Activation via ERK1/2 and Promotes Respiratory Burst Parameters in Formylpeptide-stimulated Neutrophil-like HL-60 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Satyananda; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Raoul-Des-Essarts, Yannick; Dang, Pham My-Chan; El-Benna, Jamel; Périanin, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD), a major source of lipid second messengers (phosphatidic acid, diglycerides) in many cell types, is tightly regulated by protein kinases, but only a few of them have been identified. We show here that protein kinase B (AKT) is a novel major signaling effector of PLD activity induced by the formylpeptide f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) in human neutrophil-like HL-60 cells (dHL-60 cells). AKT inhibition with the selective antagonist AKTib1/2 almost completely prevented fMLP-mediated activity of PLD, its upstream effector ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK. Immunoprecipitation studies show that phosphorylated AKT, ERK, and PLD2 form a complex induced by fMLP, which can be prevented by AKTib1/2. In cell-free systems, AKT1 stimulated PLD activity via activation of ERK. AKT1 actually phosphorylated ERK2 as a substrate (Km 1 μm). Blocking AKT activation with AKTib1/2 also prevented fMLP- but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-mediated NADPH oxidase activation (respiratory burst, RB) of dHL-60 cells. Impaired RB was associated with defective membrane translocation of NADPH oxidase components p67phox and p47phox, ERK, AKT1, AKT2, but not AKT3. Depletion of AKT1 or AKT2 with antisense oligonucleotides further indicates a partial contribution of both isoforms in fMLP-induced activation of ERK, PLD, and RB, with a predominant role of AKT1. Thus, formylpeptides induce sequential activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and PLD, which represents a novel signaling pathway. A major primarily role of this AKT signaling pathway also emerges in membrane recruitment of NOX2 components p47phox, p67phox, and ERK, which may contribute to assembly and activation of the RB motor system, NADPH oxidase. PMID:20693286

  19. The Timing of Raf/ERK and AKT Activation in Protecting PC12 Cells against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Qunxiang; Guo, Shunling; Duan, Liting; Zhang, Kai; Collier, Eleanor Ann; Cui, Bianxiao

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain injuries such as ischemic stroke or traumatic brain injury often cause massive neural death and irreversible brain damage with grave consequences. Previous studies have established that a key participant in the events leading to neural death is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Protecting neuronal cells by activating their endogenous defense mechanisms is an attractive treatment strategy for acute brain injuries. In this work, we investigate how the precise timing of the Raf/ERK and the AKT pathway activation affects their protective effects against oxidative stress. For this purpose, we employed optogenetic systems that use light to precisely and reversibly activate either the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway. We find that preconditioning activation of the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway immediately before oxidant exposure provides significant protection to cells. Notably, a 15-minute transient activation of the Raf/ERK pathway is able to protect PC12 cells against oxidant strike that is applied 12 hours later, while the transient activation of the AKT pathway fails to protect PC12 cells in such a scenario. On the other hand, if the pathways are activated after the oxidative insult, i.e. postconditioning, the AKT pathway conveys greater protective effect than the Raf/ERK pathway. We find that postconditioning AKT activation has an optimal delay period of 2 hours. When the AKT pathway is activated 30min after the oxidative insult, it exhibits very little protective effect. Therefore, the precise timing of the pathway activation is crucial in determining its protective effect against oxidative injury. The optogenetic platform, with its precise temporal control and its ability to activate specific pathways, is ideal for the mechanistic dissection of intracellular pathways in protection against oxidative stress. PMID:27082641

  20. Selective and potent Akt inhibition triggers anti-myeloma activities and enhances fatal endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Naoya; Hideshima, Teru; Shimomura, Toshiyasu; Suzuki, Rikio; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Rizq, Ola; Kikuchi, Shohei; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Cottini, Francesca; Jakubikova, Jana; Cirstea, Diana; Gorgun, Gullu; Minami, Jiro; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Richardson, Paul G.; Utsugi, Teruhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. However, efficacy of selective and potent Akt inhibition has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we therefore examined the biologic impact of selective and potent Akt inhibition by a novel allosteric inhibitor TAS-117. TAS-117 induced significant growth inhibition, associated with downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), selectively in MM cell lines with high baseline p-Akt. Cytotoxicity of TAS-117 was also observed in patients MM cells, but not in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, TAS-117 induced significant cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of BM stromal cells, associated with inhibition of IL-6 secretion. Oral administration of TAS-117 significantly inhibited human MM cell growth in murine xenograft models. TAS-117 triggered apoptosis and autophagy, as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response with minimal expression of CHOP, a fatal ER-stress marker. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity, associated with increased CHOP and PARP cleavage and blockade of bortezomib-induced p-Akt, suggesting that TAS-117 augments bortezomib-induced ER stress and apoptotic signaling. Carfilzomib-induced cytotoxicity was similarly enhanced by TAS-117. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity in vivo, associated with prolonged host survival. Our results show that selective and potent Akt inhibition by TAS-117 triggers anti-MM activities in vitro and in vivo, as well as enhances cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition, providing the preclinical framework for clinical evaluation of selective Akt inhibitors, alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in MM. PMID:24934808

  1. Selective and potent Akt inhibition triggers anti-myeloma activities and enhances fatal endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Naoya; Hideshima, Teru; Shimomura, Toshiyasu; Suzuki, Rikio; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Rizq, Ola; Kikuchi, Shohei; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Cottini, Francesca; Jakubikova, Jana; Cirstea, Diana; Gorgun, Gullu; Minami, Jiro; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Richardson, Paul G; Utsugi, Teruhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2014-08-15

    The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. However, efficacy of selective and potent Akt inhibition has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we, therefore, examined the biologic impact of selective and potent Akt inhibition by a novel allosteric inhibitor TAS-117. TAS-117 induced significant growth inhibition, associated with downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), selectively in MM cell lines with high baseline p-Akt. Cytotoxicity of TAS-117 was also observed in patient MM cells, but not in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, TAS-117 induced significant cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of BM stromal cells, associated with inhibition of IL6 secretion. Oral administration of TAS-117 significantly inhibited human MM cell growth in murine xenograft models. TAS-117 triggered apoptosis and autophagy, as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response with minimal expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a fatal ER stress marker. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity, associated with increased CHOP and PARP cleavage and blockade of bortezomib-induced p-Akt, suggesting that TAS-117 augments bortezomib-induced ER stress and apoptotic signaling. Carfilzomib-induced cytotoxicity was similarly enhanced by TAS-117. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity in vivo, associated with prolonged host survival. Our results show that selective and potent Akt inhibition by TAS-117 triggers anti-MM activities in vitro and in vivo, as well as enhances cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition, providing the preclinical framework for clinical evaluation of selective Akt inhibitors, alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in MM. PMID:24934808

  2. Withaferin-A suppress AKT induced tumor growth in colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P.; Sirimulla, Suman; Alatassi, Houda; Ankem, Murali K.; Damodaran, Chendil

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic activation of AKT gene has emerged as a key determinant of the aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC); hence, research has focused on targeting AKT signaling for the treatment of advanced stages of CRC. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic effects of withaferin A (WA) on CRC cells overexpressing AKT in preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) models. Our results indicated that WA, a natural compound, resulted in significant inhibition of AKT activity and led to the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion by downregulating the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in CRC cells overexpressing AKT. The oral administration of WA significantly suppressed AKT-induced aggressive tumor growth in a xenograft model. Molecular analysis revealed that the decreased expression of AKT and its downstream pro-survival signaling molecules may be responsible for tumor inhibition. Further, significant inhibition of some important EMT markers, i.e., Snail, Slug, β-catenin and vimentin, was observed in WA-treated human CRC cells overexpressing AKT. Significant inhibition of micro-vessel formation and the length of vessels were evident in WA-treated tumors, which correlated with a low expression of the angiogenic marker RETIC. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the crucial role of AKT activation in inducing cell proliferation, angiogenesis and EMT in CRC cells and suggests that WA may overcome AKT-induced cell proliferation and tumor growth in CRC. PMID:26883103

  3. Withaferin-A suppress AKT induced tumor growth in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P; Sirimulla, Suman; Alatassi, Houda; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2016-03-22

    The oncogenic activation of AKT gene has emerged as a key determinant of the aggressiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC); hence, research has focused on targeting AKT signaling for the treatment of advanced stages of CRC. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic effects of withaferin A (WA) on CRC cells overexpressing AKT in preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) models. Our results indicated that WA, a natural compound, resulted in significant inhibition of AKT activity and led to the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion by downregulating the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in CRC cells overexpressing AKT. The oral administration of WA significantly suppressed AKT-induced aggressive tumor growth in a xenograft model. Molecular analysis revealed that the decreased expression of AKT and its downstream pro-survival signaling molecules may be responsible for tumor inhibition. Further, significant inhibition of some important EMT markers, i.e., Snail, Slug, β-catenin and vimentin, was observed in WA-treated human CRC cells overexpressing AKT. Significant inhibition of micro-vessel formation and the length of vessels were evident in WA-treated tumors, which correlated with a low expression of the angiogenic marker RETIC. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the crucial role of AKT activation in inducing cell proliferation, angiogenesis and EMT in CRC cells and suggests that WA may overcome AKT-induced cell proliferation and tumor growth in CRC. PMID:26883103

  4. AKT upregulates B-Raf Ser445 phosphorylation and ERK1/2 activation in prostate cancer cells in response to androgen depletion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Keun; Jeong, Joseph H.; Chan, Andrew M.; Park, Jong-In

    2013-01-01

    Upregulated ERK1/2 activity is often correlated with AKT activation during prostate cancer (PCa) progression, yet their functional relation needs elucidation. Using androgen-deprived LNCaP cells, in which ERK1/2 activation occurs in strong correlation with AKT activation, we found that AKT-mediated B-Raf regulation is necessary for ERK1/2 activation. Specifically, in response to androgen deprivation, AKT upregulated B-Raf phosphorylation at Ser445 without affecting A-Raf or C-Raf-1. This effect of AKT was abolished by Arg25 to Ala mutation or truncating (Δ4-129) the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT, indicating that the canonical AKT regulation is important for this signaling. Intriguingly, although a constitutively active AKT containing N-terminal myristoylation signal could sufficiently upregulate B-Raf phosphorylation at Ser445 in LNCaP cells, subsequent MEK/ERK activation still required hormone deprivation. In contrast, AKT activity was sufficient to induce not only B-Raf phosphorylation but also MEK/ERK activation in the hormone refractory LNCaP variant, C4-2. These data indicate that androgen depletion may induce MEK/ERK activation through a synergy between AKT-dependent and -independent mechanisms and that the latter may become deregulated in association with castration resistance. In support, consistent AKT-mediated BRaf regulation was also detected in a panel of PCa lines derived from the cPten-/- L mice before and after castration. Our results also demonstrate that AKT regulates androgen receptor levels partly via the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. This study reveals a novel crosstalk between ERK1/2 and AKT in PCa cells. PMID:23701950

  5. A Hot-spot of In-frame Duplications Activates the Oncoprotein AKT1 in Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bessière, Laurianne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Auguste, Aurélie; Sarnacki, Sabine; Flatters, Delphine; Legois, Bérangère; Sultan, Charles; Kalfa, Nicolas; Galmiche, Louise; Veitia, Reiner A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian granulosa cell tumors are the most common sex-cord stromal tumors and have juvenile (JGCTs) and adult forms. In a previous study we reported the occurrence of activating somatic mutations of Gαs, which transduces mitogenic signals, in 30% of the analyzed JGCTs. Methods We have searched for alterations in other proteins involved in ovarian mitogenic signaling. We focused on the PI3K–AKT axis. As we found mutations in AKT1, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the mutated proteins and performed functional explorations using Western-blot and luciferase assays. Findings We detected in-frame duplications affecting the pleckstrin-homology domain of AKT1 in more than 60% of the tumors occurring in girls under 15 years of age. The somatic status of the mutations was confirmed when peritumoral DNA was available. The JGCTs without duplications carried point mutations affecting highly conserved residues. Several of these substitutions were somatic lesions. The mutated proteins carrying the duplications had a non-wild-type subcellular distribution, with a marked enrichment at the plasma membrane. This led to a striking degree of AKT1 activation demonstrated by a strong phosphorylation level and by reporter assays. Interpretation Our study incriminates somatic mutations of AKT1 as a major event in the pathogenesis of JGCTs. The existence of AKT inhibitors currently tested in clinical trials opens new perspectives for targeted therapies for these tumors, which are currently treated with standard non-specific chemotherapy protocols. PMID:26137586

  6. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin is associated with constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and represents a favorable prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-López, Juana; Serrano, Josefina; Figueroa, Vianihuini; Torres-Gomez, Antonio; Tabares, Salvador; Casaño, Javier; Fernandez-Escalada, Noemi; Sánchez-Garcia, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Survivin is over-expressed in most hematologic malignancies but the prognostic significance of the subcompartmental distribution of wild-type or splicing variants in acute myeloid leukemia has not been addressed yet. Using western blotting, we assessed the expression of wild-type survivin and survivin splice variants 2B and Delta-Ex3 in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein extracts in samples taken from 105 patients at the time of their diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Given that survivin is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, survivin expression was also correlated with pSer473-Akt. Wild-type survivin and the 2B splice variant were positive in 76.3% and 78.0% of samples in the nucleus, cytoplasm or both, whereas the Delta-Ex3 isoform was only positive in the nucleus in 37.7% of samples. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin was significantly associated with the presence of high levels of pSer473-Akt (P<0.001). Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway with wortmannin and Ly294002 caused a significant reduction in the expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin. The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt was associated with a lower fraction of quiescent leukemia stem cells (P=0.02). The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt were favorable independent prognostic factors. Moreover, the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway with expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin identified a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia patients with an excellent outcome (overall survival rate of 60.0±21.9% and relapse-free survival of 63.0±13.5%). Our findings suggest that cytoplasmic wild-type survivin is a critical downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway leading to more chemosensitive cells and a more favorable outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23812937

  7. Activation of AKT negatively regulates the pro-apoptotic function of death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Trinath P; Suman, Suman; Papu John, A M Sashi; Pal, Deeksha; Edwards, Angelena; Alatassi, Houda; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2016-07-28

    The activation of AKT governs many signaling pathways and promotes cell growth and inhibits apoptosis in human malignancies including prostate cancer (CaP). Here, we investigated the molecular association between AKT activation and the function of death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) in CaP. An inverse correlation of pAKT and DAPK3 expression was seen in a panel of CaP cell lines. Inhibition of AKT by wortmannin/LY294002 or overexpression of DAPK3 reverts the proliferative function of AKT in CaP cells. On the other hand, ectopic expression of AKT inhibited DAPK3 function and induced proliferation of CaP cells. In addition, AKT over-expressed tumors exhibit aggressive growth when compared to control vector in xenograft models. The immunohistochemistry results revealed a down-regulation of DAPK3 expression in AKT over-expressed tumors as compared to control tumors. Finally, we examined the expression pattern of AKT and DAPK3 in human CaP specimens - the expected gradual increase and nuclear localization of pAKT was seen in higher Gleason score samples versus benign hyperplasia (BPH). On the contrary, reduced expression of DAPK3 was seen in higher Gleason stages versus BPH. This suggests that inhibition of DAPK3 may be a contributing factor to the carcinogenesis of the prostate. Understanding the mechanism by which AKT negatively regulates DAPK3 function may suggest whether DAPK3 can be a therapeutic target for CaP. PMID:27126362

  8. Reactivation of AKT signaling following treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors attenuates their antitumor effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, Marc; Dormond-Meuwly, Anne; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •PI3K inhibitors inhibit AKT only transiently. •Re-activation of AKT limits the anti-cancer effect of PI3K inhibitors. •The results suggest to combine PI3K and AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: Targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a promising approach in cancer therapy. In particular, PI3K blockade leads to the inhibition of AKT, a major downstream effector responsible for the oncogenic activity of PI3K. However, we report here that small molecule inhibitors of PI3K only transiently block AKT signaling. Indeed, treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors results in a rapid inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and signaling which is followed by the reactivation of AKT signaling after 48 h as observed by Western blot. Reactivation of AKT signaling occurs despite effective inhibition of PI3K activity by PI3K inhibitors. In addition, wortmannin, a broad range PI3K inhibitor, did not block AKT reactivation suggesting that AKT signals independently of PI3K. In a therapeutical perspective, combining AKT and PI3K inhibitors exhibit stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects compared to AKT or PI3K inhibitors alone. Similarly, in a tumor xenograft mouse model, concomitant PI3K and AKT blockade results in stronger anti-cancer activity compared with either blockade alone. This study shows that PI3K inhibitors only transiently inhibit AKT which limits their antitumor activities. It also provides the proof of concept to combine PI3K inhibitors with AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy.

  9. Dimethyloxaloylglycine Promotes the Angiogenic Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from iPSCs via Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jieyuan; Guan, Junjie; Qi, Xin; Ding, Hao; Yuan, Hong; Xie, Zongping; Chen, Chunyuan; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Changqing; Huang, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    The vascularization of tissue-engineered bone is a prerequisite step for the successful repair of bone defects. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an essential role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone regeneration and can activate the expression of angiogenic factors in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) is an angiogenic small molecule that can inhibit prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes and thus regulate the stability of HIF-1α in cells at normal oxygen tension. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (hiPSC-MSCs) are promising alternatives for stem cell therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DMOG on promoting hiPSC-MSCs angiogenesis in tissue-engineered bone and simultaneously explored the underlying mechanisms in vitro. The effectiveness of DMOG in improving the expression of HIF-1α and its downstream angiogenic genes in hiPSC-MSCs demonstrated that DMOG significantly enhanced the gene and protein expression profiles of angiogenic-related factors in hiPSC-MSCs by sustaining the expression of HIF-1α. Further analysis showed that DMOG-stimulated hiPSC-MSCs angiogenesis was associated with the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and with an increase in VEGF production. The effects could be blocked by the addition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. In a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats, DMOG-treated hiPSC-MSCs showed markedly improved angiogenic capacity in the tissue-engineered bone, leading to bone regeneration. Collectively, the results indicate that DMOG, via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, promotes the angiogenesis of hiPSC-MSCs in tissue-engineered bone for bone defect repair and that DMOG-treated hiPSC-MSCs can be exploited as a potential therapeutic tool in bone regeneration. PMID:27194942

  10. microRNA-29b prevents liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation and inducing apoptosis through targeting PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Chu, Eagle S.H.; Chen, Hai-Yong; Man, Kwan; Go, Minnie Y.Y.; Huang, Xiao Ru; Lan, Hui Yao; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    microRNA-29b (miR-29b) is known to be associated with TGF-β-mediated fibrosis, but the mechanistic action of miR-29b in liver fibrosis remains unclear and is warranted for investigation. We found that miR-29b was significantly downregulated in human and mice fibrotic liver tissues and in primary activated HSCs. miR-29b downregulation was directly mediated by Smad3 through binding to the promoter of miR-29b in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX1, whilst miR-29b could in turn suppress Smad3 expression. miR-29b transduction in the liver of mice prevented CCl4 induced-fibrogenesis, concomitant with decreased expression of α-SMA, collagen I and TIMP-1. Ectopic expression of miR-29b in activated HSCs (LX-1, HSC-T6) inhibited cell viability and colony formation, and caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase by downregulating cyclin D1 and p21cip1. Further, miR-29b induced apoptosis in HSCs mediated by caspase-9 and PARP. miR-29b inhibited its downstream effectors of PIK3R1 and AKT3 through direct targeting their 3′UTR regions. Moreover, knockdown of PIK3R1 or AKT3 suppressed α-SMA and collagen I and induced apoptosis in both HSCs and in mice. In conclusion, miR-29b prevents liver fibrogenesis by inhibiting HSC activation and inducing HSC apoptosis through inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathway. These results provide novel mechanistic insights for the anti-fibrotic effect of miR-29b. PMID:25356754

  11. Downstream Effect of Ramping Neuronal Activity through Synapses with Short-Term Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-04-01

    Ramping neuronal activity refers to spiking activity with a rate that increases quasi-linearly over time. It has been observed in multiple cortical areas and is correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work, we investigated the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtained an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD and numerically investigated the general case when a synapse displays both STF and STD. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation of many inputs converging onto a postsynaptic neuron, even when fluctuations in the ramping input are strong. Activation of a synapse with STF shows an initial cubical increase with time, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD grows in time to a maximum before falling and reaching a plateau, and this steady state is independent of the slope of the ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, an increase in the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τ(F) to a value much larger than τ(F) leads to a transition from facilitation dominance to depression dominance. Therefore, our work provides insights into the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses that display short-term plasticity. In a perceptual decision-making process, ramping activity has been observed in the parietal and prefrontal cortices, with a slope that decreases with task difficulty. Our work predicts that neurons downstream from such a decision circuit could instead display a firing plateau independent of the task difficulty, provided that the synaptic connection is endowed with short-term depression. PMID:26890350

  12. Inflammasome-independent role of AIM2 in suppressing colon tumorigenesis by interfering with DNA-PK–dependent Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Justin E; Petrucelli, Alex S; Chen, Liang; Koblansky, A Alicia; Truax, Agnieszka D; Oyama, Yoshitaka; Rogers, Arlin B; Brickey, W June; Wang, Yuli; Schneider, Monika; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Chou, Wei-Chun; Barker, Brianne R; Jobin, Christian; Allbritton, Nancy L; Ramsden, Dale A; Davis, Beckley K; Ting, Jenny P Y

    2015-01-01

    The inflammasome activates caspase-1 and the release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, and several inflammasomes protect against intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) in animal models. The absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome is activated by double-stranded DNA, and AIM2 expression is reduced in several types of cancer, but the mechanism by which AIM2 restricts tumor growth remains unclear. We found that Aim2-deficient mice had greater tumor load than Asc-deficient mice in the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) model of colorectal cancer. Tumor burden was also higher in Aim2−/−/ApcMin/+ than in APCMin/+ mice. The effects of AIM2 on CAC were independent of inflammasome activation and IL-1β and were primarily mediated by a non–bone marrow source of AIM2. In resting cells, AIM2 physically interacted with and limited activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a PI3K-related family member that promotes Akt phosphorylation, whereas loss of AIM2 promoted DNA-PK–mediated Akt activation. AIM2 reduced Akt activation and tumor burden in colorectal cancer models, while an Akt inhibitor reduced tumor load in Aim2−/− mice. These findings suggest that Akt inhibitors could be used to treat AIM2-deficient human cancers. PMID:26107252

  13. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  14. Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, Halil Ibrahim; Yu, Jiujiu; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Worth, Andrew J; Iyer, Shankar S; Wang, Jiawei; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Byles, Vanessa; Polynne-Stapornkul, Tiffany; Espinosa, Erika C; Lamming, Dudley; Manning, Brendan D; Zhang, Yijing; Blair, Ian A; Horng, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular proliferation and chemokine production. Moreover, metabolic signals impinge on the Akt-mTORC1 axis for such control of M2 activation. We propose that Akt-mTORC1 signaling calibrates metabolic state to energetically demanding aspects of M2 activation, which may define a new role for metabolism in supporting macrophage activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11612.001 PMID:26894960

  15. Measurement of constitutive MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling activity in human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Paraiso, Kim H.T.; Van Der Kooi, Kaisa; Messina, Jane L.; Smalley, Keiran S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The growth and survival of cancer cells is often driven by constitutive activity in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-inositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Activity in these signal transduction cascades is known to contribute to the uncontrolled growth and resistance to apoptosis that characterizes tumor progression. There is now a great deal of interest in therapeutically targeting these pathways in cancer using small molecule inhibitors. In this chapter we describe methods to measure constitutive MAPK and AKT activity in melanoma cell lines, with a focus upon Western blotting, phospho-flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining techniques. PMID:21036250

  16. TGF-{beta}2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-{beta}2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-{beta}2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-{beta}2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-{beta}2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-{beta}2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-{beta}2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-{beta}2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-{beta}2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway.

  17. Bufalin Reverses Resistance to Sorafenib by Inhibiting Akt Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Bo; Hu, Fengli; Yan, Haijiang; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Xin; Fang, Taishi; Pan, Shangha; Sun, Xueying; Xu, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard first-line therapeutic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its use is hampered by the development of drug resistance. The activation of Akt by sorafenib is thought to be responsible for this resistance. Bufalin is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan su, which inhibits Akt activation; therefore, Chan su is currently used in the clinic to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of bufalin to reverse both inherent and acquired resistance to sorafenib. Bufalin synergized with sorafenib to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. This effect was at least partially due to the ability of bufalin to inhibit Akt activation by sorafenib. Moreover, the ability of bufalin to inactivate Akt depended on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Silencing IRE1 with siRNA blocked the bufalin-induced Akt inactivation, but silencing eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) or C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) did not have the same effect. Additionally, silencing Akt did not influence IRE1, CHOP or phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, which were established from human HCC HepG2 and Huh7 cells, were refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition but were sensitive to bufalin. Thus, Bufalin reversed acquired resistance to sorafenib by downregulating phosphorylated Akt in an ER-stress-dependent manner via the IRE1 pathway. These findings warrant further studies to examine the utility of bufalin alone or in combination with sorafenib as a first- or second-line treatment after sorafenib failure for advanced HCC. PMID:26381511

  18. Bufalin Reverses Resistance to Sorafenib by Inhibiting Akt Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Bo; Hu, Fengli; Yan, Haijiang; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Xin; Fang, Taishi; Pan, Shangha; Sun, Xueying; Xu, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard first-line therapeutic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its use is hampered by the development of drug resistance. The activation of Akt by sorafenib is thought to be responsible for this resistance. Bufalin is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan su, which inhibits Akt activation; therefore, Chan su is currently used in the clinic to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of bufalin to reverse both inherent and acquired resistance to sorafenib. Bufalin synergized with sorafenib to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. This effect was at least partially due to the ability of bufalin to inhibit Akt activation by sorafenib. Moreover, the ability of bufalin to inactivate Akt depended on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Silencing IRE1 with siRNA blocked the bufalin-induced Akt inactivation, but silencing eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) or C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) did not have the same effect. Additionally, silencing Akt did not influence IRE1, CHOP or phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, which were established from human HCC HepG2 and Huh7 cells, were refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition but were sensitive to bufalin. Thus, Bufalin reversed acquired resistance to sorafenib by downregulating phosphorylated Akt in an ER-stress-dependent manner via the IRE1 pathway. These findings warrant further studies to examine the utility of bufalin alone or in combination with sorafenib as a first- or second-line treatment after sorafenib failure for advanced HCC. PMID:26381511

  19. Angiotensin II Signaling in Human Preadipose Cells: Participation of ERK1,2-Dependent Modulation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Dünner, Natalia; Quezada, Carolina; Berndt, F. Andrés; Cánovas, José; Rojas, Cecilia V.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system expressed in adipose tissue has been implicated in the modulation of adipocyte formation, glucose metabolism, triglyceride accumulation, lipolysis, and the onset of the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. As we investigated angiotensin II signal transduction mechanisms in human preadipose cells, an interplay of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and Akt/PKB became evident. Angiotensin II caused attenuation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), at serine 473; the p-Akt/Akt ratio decreased to 0.5±0.2-fold the control value without angiotensin II (p<0.001). Here we report that the reduction of phosphorylated Akt associates with ERK1,2 activities. In the absence of angiotensin II, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 or PD98059 resulted in a 2.1±0.5 (p<0.001) and 1.4±0.2-fold (p<0.05) increase in the p-Akt/Akt ratio, respectively. In addition, partial knockdown of ERK1 protein expression by the short hairpin RNA technique also raised phosphorylated Akt in these cells (the p-Akt/Akt ratio was 1.5±0.1-fold the corresponding control; p<0.05). Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 prevented the reduction of p-Akt/Akt by angiotensin II. An analogous effect was found on the phosphorylation status of Akt downstream effectors, the forkhead box (Fox) proteins O1 and O4. Altogether, these results indicate that angiotensin II signaling in human preadipose cells involves an ERK1,2-dependent attenuation of Akt activity, whose impact on the biological functions under its regulation is not fully understood. PMID:24098385

  20. 5-epi-Torrubiellutin C shows antiproliferative activity on DU145 prostate cancer cells through inactivation of the AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashita; Mahipal, Bodugam; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Cell-based assays for evaluation of the anticancer potential of a focused small molecule library have identified a few potential hit molecules. Among the hits identified, Torrubiellutins (3a) showed good anticancer potential across the cells used in screening assays. Torrubiellutins are isolated from fungal insects Torrubiella luteorostrata and diverse pharmacological effects for these have been reported. However, it is not known as to how Torrubiellutins act through signaling pathways inhibiting the growth of eukaryotic cells. The current study aimed to determine the anticancer potential of Torrubiellutins by defining the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity using DU145 cells. The results showed that the inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by 3a was associated with inhibition of anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and, to a small extent, apoptosis-mediated cell death by caspase activation. The growth-inhibitory effects of 3a are supported by inactivation of prosurvival pathways. Immunoblot analysis showed that the treatment of DU145 cells with 3a resulted in specific downregulation of AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream effector proteins p70S6K, GSK3β, and STAT3. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the changes observed in the AKT/mTOR signaling axis are new targets of 3a that are involved in its inhibitory activity on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, suggesting its potential for further investigation as a promising anticancer agent. PMID:24445589

  1. Akt activation is a common event in pediatric malignant gliomas and a potential adverse prognostic marker: a report from the children’s oncology group

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Ronald L.; Murdoch, Geoffrey H.; Burger, Peter C.; Brat, Daniel J.; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Holmes, Emiko J.; Zhou, Tianni; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Jakacki, Regina I.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Akt is a common finding in adult malignant gliomas, resulting in most cases from mutations or deletions involving PTEN, which allows constitutive Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, we have previously reported that pediatric malignant gliomas, which are morphologically similar to lesions arising in adults, have a substantially lower incidence of genomic alterations of PTEN. The objective of this study was to determine whether Akt activation was also an uncommon finding in childhood malignant gliomas and whether this feature was associated with survival. To address this issue, we examined the frequency of Akt activation, determined by overexpression of the activated phosphorylated form of Akt (Se473) on immunohistochemical analysis, in a series of 53 childhood malignant gliomas obtained from newly diagnosed patients treated on the Children’s Oncology Group ACNS0126 and 0423 studies. The relationship between Akt activation and p53 over-expression, MIB1 labeling, and tumor histology was evaluated. The association between Akt activation and survival was also assessed. Overexpression of activated Akt was observed in 42 of 53 tumors, far in excess of the frequency of PTEN mutations we have previously observed. There was no association between Akt activation and either histology, p53 overexpression, or MIB1 proliferation indices. Although tumors that lacked Akt overexpression had a trend toward more favorable event-free survival and overall survival (p = 0.06), this association reflected that non-overexpressing tumors were significantly more likely to have undergone extensive tumor removal, which was independently associated with outcome. Activation of Akt is a common finding in pediatric malignant gliomas, although it remains uncertain whether this is an independent adverse prognostic factor. In view of the frequency of Akt activation, the evaluation of molecularly targeted therapies that inhibit this pathway warrants consideration for these tumors

  2. Downregulation of RSK2 influences the biological activities of human osteosarcoma cells through inactivating AKT/mTOR signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Quanhe; Jiang, Jing; Lin, Liangbo; Cheng, Si; Xin, Daqi; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Jieliang; Hu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    RSK2 (90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase) is a downstream effector of the Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling pathway that has major functions in cell biological activities, including regulating nuclear signaling, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell growth, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell survival, and is expressed in most types of human malignant tumors, including lung cancer, prostate and breast tumors, skin cancer and osteosarcomas (OS). RSK2 was found to be essential for osteosarcoma formation. To investigate whether RSK2 is expressed at high levels in human osteosarcome tissues and whether its expression is correlated with the aggressive biological behavior of osteosarcoma cell line (OCLs), we assessed the association between RSK2 expression and OS cell progression, as well as the effects of RSK2 inhibition on the biological activities of osteosarcoma cells. We performed immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of RSK2 in specimens from 30 humans with osteosarcoma, and 15 normal tissues. RSK2 gene expression levels in 30 specimens with osteosarcoma were significantly higher than those of normal tissues. We performed RNA interference on three OCLs to evaluate cell apoptosis, cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, chemosensitivity and oncogenicity. After transfection with RSK2 shRNA, increased cell apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, cell cycle progression, weaker cell proliferation, cell migration and weaker tumor formation were observed in all OCLs. These results suggested that RSK2 expression may mediate the biological activities of OS cells and RSK2 may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcomas. The AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK/c-Fos and Bcl2/Bax pathways were analysed to clarify the mechanisms involved. PMID:27082640

  3. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta; Delogu, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giampiero; Farace, Cristiano; Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Olivero, Martina; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT.

  4. All Akt Isoforms (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) Are Involved in Normal Hearing, but Only Akt2 and Akt3 Are Involved in Auditory Hair Cell Survival in the Mammalian Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Yves; Levano, Soledad; Radojevic, Vesna; Naldi, Arianne Monge; Setz, Cristian; Ryan, Allen F.; Pak, Kwang; Hemmings, Brian A.; Bodmer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The kinase Akt is a key downstream mediator of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling pathway and participates in a variety of cellular processes. Akt comprises three isoforms each encoded by a separate gene. There is evidence to indicate that Akt is involved in the survival and protection of auditory hair cells in vitro. However, little is known about the physiological role of Akt in the inner ear—especially in the intact animal. To elucidate this issue, we first analyzed the mRNA expression of the three Akt isoforms in the inner ear of C57/BL6 mice by real-time PCR. Next, we tested the susceptibility to gentamicin-induced auditory hair cell loss in isoform-specific Akt knockout mice compared to wild-types (C57/BL6) in vitro. To analyze the effect of gene deletion in vivo, hearing and cochlear microanatomy were evaluated in Akt isoform knockout animals. In this study, we found that all three Akt isoforms are expressed in the cochlea. Our results further indicate that Akt2 and Akt3 enhance hair cell resistance to ototoxicity, while Akt1 does not. Finally, we determined that untreated Akt1 and Akt2/Akt3 double knockout mice display significant hearing loss, indicating a role for these isoforms in normal hearing. Taken together, our results indicate that each of the Akt isoforms plays a distinct role in the mammalian inner ear. PMID:25811375

  5. miR-93 Promotes Cell Proliferation in Gliomas through Activation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Wang, Chanjuan; Lei, Fangyong; Zhang, Longjuan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Aibin; Wu, Geyan; Zhu, Jinrong; Song, Libing

    2015-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently activated in various human cancer types and plays essential roles in development and progression of cancers. Multiple regulators, such as phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and PH domain leucine rich repeat protein phosphatases (PHLPP), have also found to be involved in suppression of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. However, how suppressive effects mediated by these regulators are concomitantly disrupted in cancers, which display constitutively activated PI3K/Akt signaling, remains puzzling. In the present study, we reported that the expression of miR-93 was markedly upregulated in glioma cell lines and clinical glioma tissues. Statistical analysis revealed that miR-93 levels significantly correlated with clinicopathologic grade and overall survival in gliomas. Furthermore, we found that overexpressing miR-93 promoted, but inhibition of miR-93 reduced, glioma cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression. We demonstrated that miR-93 activated PI3K/Akt signaling through directly suppressing PTEN, PHLPP2 and FOXO3 expression via targeting their 3′UTRs. Therefore, our results suggest that miR-93 might play an important role in glioma progression and uncover a novel mechanism for constitutive PI3K/Akt activation in gliomas. PMID:25823655

  6. Phosphorylation and activation of ubiquitin-specific protease-14 by Akt regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daichao; Shan, Bing; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Zhu, Kezhou; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Huawang; Liu, Min; Shi, Linyu; Liang, Wei; Qian, Lihui; Xiao, Juan; Wang, Lili; Pan, Lifeng; Finley, Daniel; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), which controls the turnover of short-lived proteins in eukaryotic cells, is critical in maintaining cellular proteostasis. Here we show that USP14, a major deubiquitinating enzyme that regulates the UPS, is a substrate of Akt, a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase critical in mediating intracellular signaling transducer for growth factors. We report that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of USP14 at Ser432, which normally blocks its catalytic site in the inactive conformation, activates its deubiquitinating activity in vitro and in cells. We also demonstrate that phosphorylation of USP14 is critical for Akt to regulate proteasome activity and consequently global protein degradation. Since Akt can be activated by a wide range of growth factors and is under negative control by phosphoinosotide phosphatase PTEN, we suggest that regulation of UPS by Akt-mediated phosphorylation of USP14 may provide a common mechanism for growth factors to control global proteostasis and for promoting tumorigenesis in PTEN-negative cancer cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10510.001 PMID:26523394

  7. Non-canonical Activation of Akt in Serum-Stimulated Fibroblasts, Revealed by Comparative Modeling of Pathway Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nim, Tri Hieu; Luo, Le; White, Jacob K.; Clément, Marie-Véronique; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behaviors of signaling pathways can provide clues to pathway mechanisms. In cancer cells, excessive phosphorylation and activation of the Akt pathway is responsible for cell survival advantages. In normal cells, serum stimulation causes brief peaks of extremely high Akt phosphorylation before reaching a moderate steady-state. Previous modeling assumed this peak and decline behavior (i.e., “overshoot”) was due to receptor internalization. In this work, we modeled the dynamics of the overshoot as a tool for gaining insight into Akt pathway function. We built an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model describing pathway activation immediately upstream of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 (Aktp308). The model was fit to experimental measurements of Aktp308, total Akt, and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), from mouse embryonic fibroblasts with serum stimulation. The canonical Akt activation model (the null hypothesis) was unable to recapitulate the observed delay between the peak of PIP3 (at 2 minutes), and the peak of Aktp308 (at 30–60 minutes). From this we conclude that the peak and decline behavior of Aktp308 is not caused by PIP3 dynamics. Models for alternative hypotheses were constructed by allowing an arbitrary dynamic curve to perturb each of 5 steps of the pathway. All 5 of the alternative models could reproduce the observed delay. To distinguish among the alternatives, simulations suggested which species and timepoints would show strong differences. Time-series experiments with membrane fractionation and PI3K inhibition were performed, and incompatible hypotheses were excluded. We conclude that the peak and decline behavior of Aktp308 is caused by a non-canonical effect that retains Akt at the membrane, and not by receptor internalization. Furthermore, we provide a novel spline-based method for simulating the network implications of an unknown effect, and we demonstrate a process of hypothesis management for guiding efficient

  8. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling mediates sorafenib-induced invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Litao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Chi, Huiying; Meng, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Sorafenib, an antiangiogenic agent, can promote tumor invasion and metastasis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Yet, little is known concerning the role of the PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway in sorafenib‑induced invasion and metastasis of hepatic carcinoma (HCC). A human HCC orthotopic xenograft model was established, and sorafenib (30 mg/kg/day) was administered orally. Tumor growth and intrahepatic metastasis were assessed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the activation of the PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway. HCC cell lines were treated with sorafenib (1, 5 and 10 µM), and proliferation, migration and invasion were assessed. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to examine the related gene expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and the PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway. Sorafenib inhibited tumor growth and promoted intrahepatic invasion and metastasis of the orthotopic tumors grown from SMMC7721-GFP cells in vivo. Additionally, sorafenib promoted EMT and invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro. Importantly, sorafenib enhanced PI3K and Akt activation and upregulation of the expression of transcription factor Snail, a critical EMT mediator. The upregulation of transcription factor Snail expression by sorafenib may be related to activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway may mediate the pro-invasive and pro-metastatic effects of sorafenib on HCC by inducing EMT. PMID:25070581

  9. Non-canonical Activation of Akt in Serum-Stimulated Fibroblasts, Revealed by Comparative Modeling of Pathway Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nim, Tri Hieu; Luo, Le; White, Jacob K; Clément, Marie-Véronique; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The dynamic behaviors of signaling pathways can provide clues to pathway mechanisms. In cancer cells, excessive phosphorylation and activation of the Akt pathway is responsible for cell survival advantages. In normal cells, serum stimulation causes brief peaks of extremely high Akt phosphorylation before reaching a moderate steady-state. Previous modeling assumed this peak and decline behavior (i.e., "overshoot") was due to receptor internalization. In this work, we modeled the dynamics of the overshoot as a tool for gaining insight into Akt pathway function. We built an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model describing pathway activation immediately upstream of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 (Aktp308). The model was fit to experimental measurements of Aktp308, total Akt, and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), from mouse embryonic fibroblasts with serum stimulation. The canonical Akt activation model (the null hypothesis) was unable to recapitulate the observed delay between the peak of PIP3 (at 2 minutes), and the peak of Aktp308 (at 30-60 minutes). From this we conclude that the peak and decline behavior of Aktp308 is not caused by PIP3 dynamics. Models for alternative hypotheses were constructed by allowing an arbitrary dynamic curve to perturb each of 5 steps of the pathway. All 5 of the alternative models could reproduce the observed delay. To distinguish among the alternatives, simulations suggested which species and timepoints would show strong differences. Time-series experiments with membrane fractionation and PI3K inhibition were performed, and incompatible hypotheses were excluded. We conclude that the peak and decline behavior of Aktp308 is caused by a non-canonical effect that retains Akt at the membrane, and not by receptor internalization. Furthermore, we provide a novel spline-based method for simulating the network implications of an unknown effect, and we demonstrate a process of hypothesis management for guiding efficient

  10. Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 regulates EGF-induced AKT activation through interaction with EGFR and PTEN.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junfang; Dai, Yuanping; Yang, Zhiyu; Yang, Longyan; Peng, Zhiqiang; Meng, Ran; Xiong, Ying; He, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, especially EGFR/AKT signaling, plays important roles in tumorigenesis and progression, the study on intracellular regulation of this signaling pathway has great clinical significance. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is an important antagonist of AKT activity. Its regulation of AKT activity can be enhanced by ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50)-mediated PTEN/EBP50/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) complex. EBP50 was reported to bind to EGFR, and that it may also mediate the formation of PTEN/EGFR complex to regulate EGFR/AKT signaling. In this study, experiments were performed to verify the hypothesis. Results showed that PTEN co-immunoprecipitated with EGFR, demonstrating PTEN/EGFR complex can form in tissue. Further studies showed that EBP50 knockdown decreased the amount of PTEN/EGFR complex by GST pull-down assay, and EBP50 overexpression increased the amount of PTEN/EGFR complex in a dose-dependent manner. While PTEN mutant (V403A), which can not bind with EBP50, only slightly mediated the formation of PTEN/EGFR complex, confirming that EBP50 specifically mediated the formation of the PTEN/EGFR complex. Both PTEN (V403A) and EGFR (L1043/1063F) mutants can not bind with EBP50. The expression of PTEN (V403A) or EGFR (L1043/1063F) mutant in cells resulted in higher AKT activation level than their respective wild-types by EGF stimulation, indicating that EBP50-mediated PTEN/EGFR complex can effectively inhibit EGF-induced AKT activation. EGF stimulation of siEBP50 cells induced higher AKT activation level compared with control cells, further confirming EBP50-mediated PTEN/EGFR complex can more effectively inhibit EGF-induced AKT activation. These results demonstrated the PTEN/EGFR complex formed under the mediation of EBP50, revealing a novel mechanism for negative regulation of EGF-induced AKT pathway, which may be an important molecular

  11. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lifen; Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Fei

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  12. Recombinant TCR ligand induces early TCR signaling and a unique pattern of downstream activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhe; Mooney, Jeffery L; Meza-Romero, Roberto; Chou, Yuan K; Huan, Jianya; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina; Burrows, Gregory G

    2003-08-15

    Recombinant TCR ligands (RTLs) consisting of covalently linked alpha(1) and beta(1) domains of MHC class II molecules tethered to specific antigenic peptides represent minimal TCR ligands. In a previous study we reported that the rat RTL201 construct, containing RT1.B MHC class II domains covalently coupled to the encephalitogenic guinea pig myelin basic protein (Gp-MBP(72-89)) peptide, could prevent and treat actively and passively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in vivo by selectively inhibiting Gp-MBP(72-89) peptide-specific CD4(+) T cells. To evaluate the inhibitory signaling pathway, we tested the effects of immobilized RTL201 on T cell activation of the Gp-MBP(72-89)-specific A1 T cell hybridoma. Activation was exquisitely Ag-specific and could not be induced by RTL200 containing the rat MBP(72-89) peptide that differed by a threonine for serine substitution at position 80. Partial activation by RTL201 included a CD3zeta p23/p21 ratio shift, ZAP-70 phosphorylation, calcium mobilization, NFAT activation, and transient IL-2 production. In comparison, anti-CD3epsilon treatment produced stronger activation of these cellular events with additional activation of NF-kappaB and extracellular signal-regulated kinases as well as long term increased IL-2 production. These results demonstrate that RTLs can bind directly to the TCR and modify T cell behavior through a partial activation mechanism, triggering specific downstream signaling events that deplete intracellular calcium stores without fully activating T cells. The resulting Ag-specific activation of the transcription factor NFAT uncoupled from the activation of NF-kappaB or extracellular signal-regulated kinases constitutes a unique downstream activation pattern that accounts for the inhibitory effects of RTL on encephalitogenic CD4(+) T cells. PMID:12902496

  13. Acinus integrates AKT1 and subapoptotic caspase activities to regulate basal autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K.; Stenesen, Drew

    2014-01-01

    How cellular stresses up-regulate autophagy is not fully understood. One potential regulator is the Drosophila melanogaster protein Acinus (Acn), which is necessary for autophagy induction and triggers excess autophagy when overexpressed. We show that cell type–specific regulation of Acn depends on proteolysis by the caspase Dcp-1. Basal Dcp-1 activity in developing photoreceptors is sufficient for this cleavage without a need for apoptosis to elevate caspase activity. On the other hand, Acn was stabilized by loss of Dcp-1 function or by the presence of a mutation in Acn that eliminates its conserved caspase cleavage site. Acn stability also was regulated by AKT1-mediated phosphorylation. Flies that expressed stabilized forms of Acn, either the phosphomimetic AcnS641,731D or the caspase-resistant AcnD527A, exhibited enhanced basal autophagy. Physiologically, these flies showed improvements in processes known to be autophagy dependent, including increased starvation resistance, reduced Huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration, and prolonged life span. These data indicate that AKT1 and caspase-dependent regulation of Acn stability adjusts basal autophagy levels. PMID:25332163

  14. Elevated autocrine chemokine ligand 18 expression promotes oral cancer cell growth and invasion via Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yun; Wu, Tong; Chen, Xiaobing; Xia, Juan; Cheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various cancers; however, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the role of CCL18 is unknown. In this study, we found that CCL18 was overexpressed in primary OSCC tissues and was associated with an advanced clinical stage. CCL18 was found in both the cytoplasm and cell membrane of OSCC cells and was predominantly produced by cancer epithelial cells, as opposed to tumor-infiltrating macrophages. In vitro studies indicated that the effects of endogenous CCL18 on OSCC cell growth, migration, and invasion could be blocked by treatment with a neutralizing anti-CCL18 antibody or CCL18 knockdown, while exogenous recombinant CCL18 (rCCL18) rescued those effects. Akt was activated in rCCL18-treated OSCC cells, while LY294002, a pan-PI3K inhibitor, abolished both endogenous and exogenous CCL18-induced OSCC cell invasion. In vivo, LY294002 treatment attenuated rCCL18-induced OSCC cell growth. Our results indicate that CCL18 acts in an autocrine manner via Akt activation to stimulate OSCC cell growth and invasion during OSCC progression. They also provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of oral cancer. PMID:26919103

  15. Shikonin Derivative DMAKO-05 Inhibits Akt Signal Activation and Melanoma Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Yao; He, Hui-Qiong; Cui, Jia-Hua; Nie, Yun-Juan; Wu, Ya-Xian; Wang, Rui; Wang, Gang; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Ye, Richard D; Wu, Qiong; Li, Shao-Shun; Qian, Feng

    2016-06-01

    DMAKO-05((S)-1-((5E,8E)-5,8-bis(hydroxyimino)-1,4-dimethoxy-5,8-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)-4-methylpent-3-enyl 3-methylbutanoate) is a novel oxime derivative of shikonin, the major component extracted from Chinese herb Lithospermun erythrorhizon. Here, we report that DMAKO-05 had an antitumor activity against mouse melanoma cell line B16F0. Our studies indicated that DMAKO-05 not only inhibited B16F0 proliferation and migration but also led to cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and cell apoptosis, in which DMAKO-05 triggered mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis signal including caspase-9/3 and PARP. In response to DMAKO-05 treatment, the Akt-mediated survival signals were remarkably attenuated in B16F0 cells. Collectively, DMAKO-05 has a strong cytotoxicity in B16F0 cells via inhibiting Akt activation, inducing G1 arrest, and promoting B16F0 cell apoptosis. DMAKO-05 might serve as a potential candidate lead compound for melanoma. PMID:26804061

  16. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng; Yue, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi; Qing, Guoliang; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway.

  17. Overexpression of the autoimmunity-associated phosphatase PTPN22 promotes survival of antigen-stimulated CLL cells by selectively activating AKT

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Roberto; Gobessi, Stefania; Longo, Pablo G.; He, Yantao; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Laurenti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    A polymorphic variant of the phosphatase PTPN22 has been associated with increased risk for multiple autoimmune diseases. The risk allele is thought to function by diminishing antigen-receptor signals responsible for negative selection of autoreactive lymphocytes. We now show that PTPN22 is markedly overexpressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a common malignancy of autoreactive B lymphocytes. We also show that overexpression of PTPN22 significantly inhibits antigen-induced apoptosis of primary CLL cells by blocking B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathways that negatively regulate lymphocyte survival. More importantly, we show that PTPN22 positively regulates the antiapoptotic AKT kinase, which provides a powerful survival signal to antigen-stimulated CLL cells. This selective uncoupling of AKT from other downstream BCR signaling pathways is a result of inhibition of a negative regulatory circuit involving LYN, CD22, and SHIP. Finally, we show that PTPN22 can be effectively down-regulated by the PKC inhibitors ruboxistaurin and sotrastaurin, resulting in enhanced killing of CLL cells exposed to proapoptotic BCR stimuli. Collectively, these data suggest that PTPN22 overexpression represents a protective mechanism that allows autoantigen-activated CLL cells to escape from negative selection and indicate that this mechanism could be exploited for therapeutic purposes by targeting PTPN22 with PKC inhibitors. PMID:22569400

  18. Pyrrolidinium fullerene induces apoptosis by activation of procaspase-9 via suppression of Akt in primary effusion lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ono, Toshiya; Ui, Sadaharu; Yagi, Syota; Kagawa, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hisami; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Mashino, Tadahiko; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Seven fullerenes were evaluated in terms of their cytotoxic effects on B-lymphomas. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene induced apoptosis of KSHV-infected B-lymphoma PEL cells. • The activation of Akt is essential for PEL cell survival. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene activated caspase-9 by inactivating Akt in PEL cells. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene have potential as novel drugs for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma and is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients. In general, PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B-cells and are infected with KSHV. To evaluate potential novel anti-tumor compounds against KSHV-associated PEL, seven water-soluble fullerene derivatives were evaluated as potential drug candidates for the treatment of PEL. Herein, we discovered a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative, 1,1,1′,1′-tetramethyl [60]fullerenodipyrrolidinium diiodide, which induced apoptosis of PEL cells via a novel mechanism, the caspase-9 activation by suppressing the caspase-9 phosphorylation, causing caspase-9 inactivation. Pyrrolidinium fullerene treatment reduced significantly the viability of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected lymphoma cells, and induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-9 via procaspase-9 cleavage. Pyrrolidinium fullerene additionally reduced the Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt and Ser196 of procaspase-9. Ser473-phosphorylated Akt (i.e., activated Akt) phosphorylates Ser196 in procaspase-9, causing inactivation of procaspase-9. We also demonstrated that Akt inhibitors suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected cells. Our data therefore suggest that Akt activation is essential for cell survival in PEL and a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative induced apoptosis by activating caspase-9 via suppression of Akt in PEL cells. In addition, we evaluated

  19. Curcumin Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Via Activation of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, You-Ling; Li, Heng-Chang; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Hui-Hua; Huang, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Hang; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Bupivacaine is widely used for regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and pain management. However, bupivacaine could cause neuronal injury. Curcumin, a low molecular weight polyphenol, has a variety of bioactivities and may exert neuroprotective effects against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study, we tested whether curcumin could attenuate bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell injury was evaluated by examining cell viability, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. We also investigated the levels of activation of the Akt signaling pathway and the effect of Akt inhibition by triciribine on cell injury following bupivacaine and curcumin treatment. Our findings showed that the bupivacaine treatment could induce neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of the SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin significantly attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the curcumin treatment increased the levels of Akt phosphorylation. More significantly, the pharmacological inhibition of Akt abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against bupivacaine-induced cell injury. Our data suggest that pretreating SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin provides a protective effect on bupivacaine-induced neuronal injury via activation of the Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27233246

  20. Complement membrane attack complexes activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming an Akt+ NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes.

    PubMed

    Jane-wit, Dan; Surovtseva, Yulia V; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Liu, Rebecca; Clark, Pamela; Manes, Thomas D; Wang, Chen; Kashgarian, Michael; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy C; Tellides, George; Pober, Jordan S

    2015-08-01

    Complement membrane attack complexes (MACs) promote inflammatory functions in endothelial cells (ECs) by stabilizing NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) and activating noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Here we report a novel endosome-based signaling complex induced by MACs to stabilize NIK. We found that, in contrast to cytokine-mediated activation, NIK stabilization by MACs did not involve cIAP2 or TRAF3. Informed by a genome-wide siRNA screen, instead this response required internalization of MACs in a clathrin-, AP2-, and dynamin-dependent manner into Rab5(+)endosomes, which recruited activated Akt, stabilized NIK, and led to phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)-α. Active Rab5 was required for recruitment of activated Akt to MAC(+) endosomes, but not for MAC internalization or for Akt activation. Consistent with these in vitro observations, MAC internalization occurred in human coronary ECs in vivo and was similarly required for NIK stabilization and EC activation. We conclude that MACs activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming a novel Akt(+)NIK(+) signalosome on Rab5(+) endosomes. PMID:26195760

  1. Modification of Caffeic Acid with Pyrrolidine Enhances Antioxidant Ability by Activating AKT/HO-1 Pathway in Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Yang, Kai-Chien; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to an interest in using antioxidant therapy. Activating an endogenous antioxidant signaling pathway is more important due to the fact that the free radical scavenging behavior in vitro does not always correlate with a cytoprotection effect in vivo. Caffeic acid (CA), an antioxidant, is a major phenolic constituent in nature. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a derivative of CA, was compared with CA for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. Our results indicate that CA and PLCA exert the same ability to scavenge DPPH in vitro. In response to myocardial I/R stress, PLCA was shown to attenuate lipid peroxydation and troponin release more than CA. These responses were accompanied with a prominent elevation in AKT and HO-1 expression and a preservation of mnSOD expression and catalase activity. PLCA also improved cell viability and alleviated the intracellular ROS level more than CA in cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2. When inhibiting the AKT or HO-1 pathways, PLCA lost its ability to recover mnSOD expression and catalase activity to counteract with oxidative stress, suggesting AKT/HO-1 pathway activation by PLCA plays an important role. In addition, inhibition of AKT signaling further abolished HO-1 activity, while inhibition of HO-1 signaling attenuated AKT expression, indicating cross-talk between the AKT and HO-1 pathways. These protective effects may contribute to the cardiac function improvement by PLCA. These findings provide new insight into therapeutic approaches using a modified natural compound against oxidative stress from myocardial injuries. PMID:26845693

  2. Modification of Caffeic Acid with Pyrrolidine Enhances Antioxidant Ability by Activating AKT/HO-1 Pathway in Heart.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Yang, Kai-Chien; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to an interest in using antioxidant therapy. Activating an endogenous antioxidant signaling pathway is more important due to the fact that the free radical scavenging behavior in vitro does not always correlate with a cytoprotection effect in vivo. Caffeic acid (CA), an antioxidant, is a major phenolic constituent in nature. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a derivative of CA, was compared with CA for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. Our results indicate that CA and PLCA exert the same ability to scavenge DPPH in vitro. In response to myocardial I/R stress, PLCA was shown to attenuate lipid peroxydation and troponin release more than CA. These responses were accompanied with a prominent elevation in AKT and HO-1 expression and a preservation of mnSOD expression and catalase activity. PLCA also improved cell viability and alleviated the intracellular ROS level more than CA in cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2. When inhibiting the AKT or HO-1 pathways, PLCA lost its ability to recover mnSOD expression and catalase activity to counteract with oxidative stress, suggesting AKT/HO-1 pathway activation by PLCA plays an important role. In addition, inhibition of AKT signaling further abolished HO-1 activity, while inhibition of HO-1 signaling attenuated AKT expression, indicating cross-talk between the AKT and HO-1 pathways. These protective effects may contribute to the cardiac function improvement by PLCA. These findings provide new insight into therapeutic approaches using a modified natural compound against oxidative stress from myocardial injuries. PMID:26845693

  3. Insulin sensitizes FGF21 in glucose and lipid metabolisms via activating common AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Ye, Xianlong; Wu, Qiang; Li, Shujie; Yang, Yongbi; He, Jinjiao; Liu, Yunye; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Qingyan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies reveal that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) sensitizes insulin to achieve a synergy in regulating glucose metabolism. Here, we report that insulin sensitizes FGF21 in regulating both glucose and lipid metabolisms. db/db diabetic mice were subcutaneously administrated once a day for 6 weeks. Effective dose of insulin (1 U) could control blood glucose level of the db/db mice for maximum of 2 h, increased the body weight of the db/db mice and did not improve serum lipid parameters. In contrast, effective dose of FGF21 (0.5 mg/kg) could maintain blood glucose of the db/db mice at normal level for at least 24 h, repressed the weight gain of the mice and significantly improved lipid parameters. Ineffective doses of FGF21 (0.125 mg/kg) and insulin had no effect on blood glucose level of the db/db mice after 24 h administration, body weight or lipid parameters. However, combination of the two ineffective doses could maintain blood glucose level of the db/db mice for at least 24 h, suppressed weight gain and significantly improved lipid parameters. These results suggest that insulin sensitizes FGF21 in regulating both glucose and lipid metabolism. The results aimed to study the molecular basis of FGF21 sensitization indicates that combination of the two ineffective doses increased the mRNA expression of glut1, glut4, β-Klotho, sirt1, pgc-1α, ucp-1 and AKT phosphorylation, decreased fasn. The results demonstrate that insulin sensitizes FGF21 through elevating the phosphorylation of common gene Akt and amplifying FGF21 downstream signaling, including increasing expression of glut1 sirt1, pgc-1α, ucp-1, and decreasing fasn expression. In summary, we reports herein for the first time that insulin sensitizes FGF21 to achieve a synergy in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Along with previous studies, we conclude that the synergistic effect between FGF21 and insulin is realized through mutual sensitization. PMID:26607153

  4. Targeting cytosolic phospholipase A2 α in colorectal cancer cells inhibits constitutively activated protein kinase B (AKT) and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chanlu; Hua, Sheng; Li, Jianfang; Wang, Tingfeng; Yao, Mu; Vignarajan, Soma; Teng, Ying; Hejazi, Leila; Liu, Bingya; Dong, Qihan

    2014-01-01

    A constitutive activation of protein kinase B (AKT) in a hyper-phosphorylated status at Ser473 is one of the hallmarks of anti-EGFR therapy-resistant colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to examine the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) on AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and cell proliferation in CRC cells with mutation in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 was resistant to EGF stimulation in CRC cell lines of DLD-1 (PIK3CAE545K mutation) and HT-29 (PIK3CAP499T mutation). Over-expression of cPLA2α by stable transfection increased basal and EGF-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in DLD-1 cells. In contrast, silencing of cPLA2α with siRNA or inhibition with Efipladib decreased basal and EGF-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in HT-29. Treating animals transplanted with DLD-1 with Efipladib (10 mg/kg, i.p. daily) over 14 days reduced xenograft growth by >90% with a concomitant decrease in AKT phosphorylation. In human CRC tissue, cPLA2α expression and phosphorylation were increased in 63% (77/120) compared with adjacent normal mucosa determined by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that cPLA2α is required for sustaining AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and cell proliferation in CRC cells with PI3K mutation, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of CRC resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. PMID:25365190

  5. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy as demonstrated by measuring the activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Joshua A; Rappaz, Benjamin; Webb, Donna J; Brown, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    This protocol describes procedures for performing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy analysis by three different methods: acceptor photobleaching, sensitized emission and spectral imaging. We also discuss anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy–based FRET techniques. By using the specific example of the FRET probe Akind (Akt indicator), which is a version of Akt modified such that FRET occurs when the probe is activated by phosphorylation, indicating Akt activation. The protocol provides a detailed step-by-step description of sample preparation, image acquisition and analysis, including control samples, image corrections and the generation of quantitative FRET/CFP ratio images for both sensitized emission and spectral imaging. The sample preparation takes 2 d, equipment setup takes 2–3 h and image acquisition and analysis take 6–8 h. PMID:23306460

  6. Similar requirement for clathrin in EGF- and HGF- stimulated Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Stefanie; Pandey, Rohan; Judge, Gurjeet; Antonescu, Costin N

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and Met lead to activation of intracellular signals including Akt, a critical regulator of cell survival, metabolism and proliferation. Upon binding their respective ligands, each of these receptors is recruited into clathrin coated pits (CCPs) eventually leading to endocytosis. We have recently shown that phosphorylation of Gab1 and Akt following EGFR activation requires clathrin, but does not require receptor endocytosis. We examined whether clathrin regulates Akt signaling downstream of Met, as it does for EGFR signaling. Stimulation with the Met ligand Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) leads to enrichment of phosphorylated Gab1 (pGab1) within CCPs in ARPE-19 cells. Perturbation of clathrin using the inhibitor pitstop2 decreases HGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that clathrin may regulate Met signaling leading to Akt phosphorylation similarly as it does for EGFR signaling. PMID:27489582

  7. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J.; Aksoylar, H. Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26360589

  8. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC. PMID:23924858

  9. Targeting the glucose-regulated protein-78 abrogates Pten-null driven AKT activation and endometrioid tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y G; Shen, J; Yoo, E; Liu, R; Yen, H-Y; Mehta, A; Rajaei, A; Yang, W; Mhawech-Fauceglia, P; DeMayo, F J; Lydon, J; Gill, P; Lee, A S

    2015-10-01

    Rates of the most common gynecologic cancer, endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC), continue to rise, mirroring the global epidemic of obesity, a well-known EAC risk factor. Thus, identifying novel molecular targets to prevent and/or mitigate EAC is imperative. The prevalent Type 1 EAC commonly harbors loss of the tumor suppressor, Pten, leading to AKT activation. The major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, GRP78, is a potent pro-survival protein to maintain ER homeostasis, and as a cell surface protein, is known to regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To determine whether targeting GRP78 could suppress EAC development, we created a conditional knockout mouse model using progesterone receptor-Cre-recombinase to achieve Pten and Grp78 (cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f)) deletion in the endometrial epithelium. Mice with a single Pten (cPten(f/f)) deletion developed well-differentiated EAC by 4 weeks. In contrast, no cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) mice developed EAC, even after more than 8 months of observation. Histologic examination of uteri from cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) mice also revealed no complex atypical hyperplasia, a well-established EAC precursor. These histologic observations among the cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) murine uteri also corresponded to abrogation of AKT activation within the endometrium. We further observed that GRP78 co-localized with activated AKT on the surface of EAC, thus providing an opportunity for therapeutic targeting. Consistent with previous findings that cell surface GRP78 is an upstream regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling, we show here that in vivo short-term systemic treatment with a highly specific monoclonal antibody against GRP78 suppressed AKT activation and increased apoptosis in the cPten(f/f) tumors. Collectively, these findings present GRP78-targeting therapy as an efficacious therapeutic option for EAC. PMID:25684138

  10. EGFR inhibition evokes innate drug resistance in lung cancer cells by preventing Akt activity and thus inactivating Ets-1 function

    PubMed Central

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W.; Tetsu, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About 14% of NSCLCs harbor mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite remarkable progress in treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), only 5% of patients achieve tumor reduction >90%. The limited primary responses are attributed partly to drug resistance inherent in the tumor cells before therapy begins. Recent reports showed that activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is an important determinant of this innate drug resistance. In contrast, we demonstrate that EGFR inhibition promotes innate drug resistance despite blockade of RTK activity in NSCLC cells. EGFR TKIs decrease both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt protein kinase pathways for a short time, after which the Ras/MAPK pathway becomes reactivated. Akt inhibition selectively blocks the transcriptional activation of Ets-1, which inhibits its target gene, dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a negative regulator specific for ERK1/2. As a result, ERK1/2 is activated. Furthermore, elevated c-Src stimulates Ras GTP-loading and activates Raf and MEK kinases. These observations suggest that not only ERK1/2 but also Akt activity is essential to maintain Ets-1 in an active state. Therefore, despite high levels of ERK1/2, Ets-1 target genes including DUSP6 and cyclins D1, D3, and E2 remain suppressed by Akt inhibition. Reduction of DUSP6 in combination with elevated c-Src renews activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, which enhances cell survival by accelerating Bim protein turnover. Thus, EGFR TKIs evoke innate drug resistance by preventing Akt activity and inactivating Ets-1 function in NSCLC cells. PMID:26150526

  11. EGFR inhibition evokes innate drug resistance in lung cancer cells by preventing Akt activity and thus inactivating Ets-1 function.

    PubMed

    Phuchareon, Janyaporn; McCormick, Frank; Eisele, David W; Tetsu, Osamu

    2015-07-21

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About 14% of NSCLCs harbor mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite remarkable progress in treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), only 5% of patients achieve tumor reduction >90%. The limited primary responses are attributed partly to drug resistance inherent in the tumor cells before therapy begins. Recent reports showed that activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is an important determinant of this innate drug resistance. In contrast, we demonstrate that EGFR inhibition promotes innate drug resistance despite blockade of RTK activity in NSCLC cells. EGFR TKIs decrease both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt protein kinase pathways for a short time, after which the Ras/MAPK pathway becomes reactivated. Akt inhibition selectively blocks the transcriptional activation of Ets-1, which inhibits its target gene, dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a negative regulator specific for ERK1/2. As a result, ERK1/2 is activated. Furthermore, elevated c-Src stimulates Ras GTP-loading and activates Raf and MEK kinases. These observations suggest that not only ERK1/2 but also Akt activity is essential to maintain Ets-1 in an active state. Therefore, despite high levels of ERK1/2, Ets-1 target genes including DUSP6 and cyclins D1, D3, and E2 remain suppressed by Akt inhibition. Reduction of DUSP6 in combination with elevated c-Src renews activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, which enhances cell survival by accelerating Bim protein turnover. Thus, EGFR TKIs evoke innate drug resistance by preventing Akt activity and inactivating Ets-1 function in NSCLC cells. PMID:26150526

  12. Oncogenic AKT1(E17K) mutation induces mammary hyperplasia but prevents HER2-driven tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Maria L.; Lien, Evan C.; Toker, Alex

    2016-01-01

    One of the most frequently deregulated signaling pathways in breast cancer is the PI 3-K/Akt cascade. Genetic lesions are commonly found in PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT, which lead to excessive and constitutive activation of Akt and downstream signaling that results in uncontrolled proliferation and increased cellular survival. One such genetic lesion is the somatic AKT1(E17K) mutation, which has been identified in 4-8% of breast cancer patients. To determine how this mutation contributes to mammary tumorigenesis, we constructed a genetically engineered mouse model that conditionally expresses human AKT1(E17K) in the mammary epithelium. Although AKT1(E17K) is only weakly constitutively active and does not promote proliferation in vitro, it is capable of escaping negative feedback inhibition to exhibit sustained signaling dynamics in vitro. Consistently, both virgin and multiparous AKT1(E17K) mice develop mammary gland hyperplasia that do not progress to carcinoma. This hyperplasia is accompanied by increased estrogen receptor expression, although exposure of the mice to estrogen does not promote tumor development. Moreover, AKT1(E17K) prevents HER2-driven mammary tumor formation, in part through negative feedback inhibition of RTK signaling. Analysis of TCGA breast cancer data revealed that the mRNA expression, total protein levels, and phosphorylation of various RTKs are decreased in human tumors harboring AKT1(E17K). PMID:27004402

  13. Seasonal, tissue-specific regulation of Akt/protein kinase B and glycogen synthase in hibernators.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Kyle L; Hudachek, Susan F; Summers, Scott A; Florant, Gregory L

    2004-03-01

    Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) exhibit a circannual cycle of hyperphagia and nutrient storage in the summer followed by hibernation in the winter. This annual cycle of body mass gain and loss is primarily due to large-scale accumulation of lipid in the summer, which is then mobilized and oxidized for energy during winter. The rapid and predictable change in body mass makes these animals ideal for studies investigating the molecular basis for body weight regulation. In the study described herein, we monitored seasonal changes in the protein levels and activity of a central regulator of anabolic metabolism, the serine-threonine kinase Akt-protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), during the months accompanying maximal weight gain and entry into hibernation (June-November). Interestingly, under fasting conditions, Akt/PKB demonstrated a tissue-specific seasonal activation. Specifically, although Akt/PKB levels did not change, the activity of Akt/PKB (isoforms 1/alpha and 2/beta) in white adipose tissue (WAT) increased significantly in July. Moreover, glycogen synthase, which lies downstream of Akt/PKB on a linear pathway linking the enzyme to the stimulation of glycogen synthesis, demonstrated a similar pattern of seasonal activation. By contrast, Akt/PKB activity in skeletal muscle peaked much later (i.e., September). These data suggest the existence of a novel, tissue-specific mechanism regulating Akt/PKB activation during periods of marked anabolism. PMID:14656767

  14. Nek7 is an essential mediator of NLRP3 activation downstream of potassium efflux

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Zeng, Melody Y.; Yang, Dahai; Motro, Benny; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that drive the activation of inflammatory caspases1. To date, four inflammasomes involving NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 have been described that recruit the common adaptor ASC to activate caspase-1, leading to the secretion of mature IL-1β and IL-182,3. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acquired inflammatory diseases4,5 as well as Cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS) caused by inherited NLRP3 mutations6,7. Potassium efflux is a common step that is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by multiple stimuli8,9. Despite extensive investigation, the molecular mechanism leading to NLRP3 activation in response to potassium efflux remains unknown. We report here the identification of Nek7, a member of the family of mammalian NIMA-related kinases (Neks)10, as an NLRP3-binding protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to regulate NLRP3 oligomerization and activation. In the absence of Nek7, caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release were abrogated in response to signals that activate NLRP3, but not NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasome. NLRP3-activating stimuli promoted the NLRP3-Nek7 interaction in a process dependent on potassium efflux. NLRP3 associated with the catalytic domain of Nek7, but the catalytic activity of Nek7 was dispensable for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Activated macrophages formed a high-molecular-mass NLRP3-Nek7 complex, which along with ASC oligomerization and ASC speck formation were abrogated in the absence of Nek7. Nek7 was required for macrophages harboring the CAPS-associated NLRP3R258W activating mutation to activate caspase-1. Mouse chimeras reconstituted with wild-type, Nek7−/− or Nlrp3−/− hematopoietic cells revealed that Nek7 was required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo. These studies demonstrate that Nek7 is an essential protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to mediate NLRP3 inflammasome

  15. NEK7 is an essential mediator of NLRP3 activation downstream of potassium efflux.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Zeng, Melody Y; Yang, Dahai; Motro, Benny; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-02-18

    Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that drive the activation of inflammatory caspases. So far, four inflammasomes involving NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 have been described that recruit the common adaptor protein ASC to activate caspase-1, leading to the secretion of mature IL-1β and IL-18 proteins. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acquired inflammatory diseases as well as cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS) caused by inherited NLRP3 mutations. Potassium efflux is a common step that is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by many stimuli. Despite extensive investigation, the molecular mechanism leading to NLRP3 activation in response to potassium efflux remains unknown. Here we report the identification of NEK7, a member of the family of mammalian NIMA-related kinases (NEK proteins), as an NLRP3-binding protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to regulate NLRP3 oligomerization and activation. In the absence of NEK7, caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release were abrogated in response to signals that activate NLRP3, but not NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasomes. NLRP3-activating stimuli promoted the NLRP3-NEK7 interaction in a process that was dependent on potassium efflux. NLRP3 associated with the catalytic domain of NEK7, but the catalytic activity of NEK7 was shown to be dispensable for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Activated macrophages formed a high-molecular-mass NLRP3-NEK7 complex, which, along with ASC oligomerization and ASC speck formation, was abrogated in the absence of NEK7. NEK7 was required for macrophages containing the CAPS-associated NLRP3(R258W) activating mutation to activate caspase-1. Mouse chimaeras reconstituted with wild-type, Nek7(-/-) or Nlrp3(-/-) haematopoietic cells showed that NEK7 was required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vivo. These studies demonstrate that NEK7 is an essential protein that acts downstream of potassium efflux to

  16. The hepatocyte growth factor isoform NK2 activates motogenesis and survival but not proliferation due to lack of Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Mungunsukh, Ognoon; Lee, Young H; Bottaro, Donald P; Day, Regina M

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotrophic factor involved in cellular proliferation, migration and morphogenesis. HGF is required for normal tissue and organ development during embryogenesis, but in the adult HGF has been demonstrated to drive normal tissue repair and inhibit fibrotic remodeling. HGF has two naturally occurring human isoforms as a result of alternative splicing, NK1 and NK2. While NK1 has been defined as an agonist for HGF receptor, Met, NK2 is defined as a partial Met antagonist. Furthermore, under conditions of fibrotic remodeling, NK2 is still expressed while full length HGF is suppressed. Furthermore, the mechanism by which NK2 partially signals through Met is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the mitogenic, motogenic, and anti-apoptotic activities of NK2 compared with full length HGF in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BEpC) and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC). In human BEpC, NK2 partial activated Met, inducing Met phosphorylation at Y1234/1235 in the tyrosine-kinase domain but not at Y1349 site in the multifunctional docking domain. Partial phosphorylation of Met by NK2 resulted in activation of MAPK and STAT3, but not AKT. This correlated with motogenesis and survival in a MAPK-dependent manner, but not cell proliferation. Overexpression of a constitutively active AKT complemented NK2 signaling, allowing NK2 to induce cell proliferation. These data indicate that NK2 and HGF drive motogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling but only HGF drives cell proliferation by activating AKT-pathway signaling. These results have implications for the biological consequences of differential regulation of the two isoforms under pro-fibrotic conditions. PMID:27224506

  17. Expression of constitutively activated Akt in the mammary gland leads to excess lipid synthesis during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Schwertfeger, Kathryn L; McManaman, James L; Palmer, Carol A; Neville, Margaret C; Anderson, Steven M

    2003-06-01

    Expression of constitutively activated Akt in the mammary glands of transgenic mice results in a delay in post-lactational involution. We now report precocious lipid accumulation in the alveolar epithelium of mouse mammary tumor virus-myr-Akt transgenic mice accompanied by a lactation defect that results in a 50% decrease in litter weight over the first 9 days of lactation. Although ductal structures and alveolar units develop normally during pregnancy, cytoplasmic lipid droplets appeared precociously in mammary epithelial cells in early pregnancy and were accompanied by increased expression of adipophilin, which is associated with lipid droplets. By late pregnancy the lipid droplets had become significantly larger than in nontransgenic mice, and they persisted into lactation. The fat content of milk from lactating myr-Akt transgenic mice was 65-70% by volume compared to 25-30% in wild-type mice. The diminished growth of pups nursed by transgenic mothers could result from the high viscosity of the milk and the inability of the pups to remove sufficient quantities of milk by suckling. Transduction of the CIT3 mammary epithelial cell line with a recombinant human adenovirus encoding myr-Akt resulted in an increase in glucose transport and lipid biosynthesis, suggesting that Akt plays an important role in regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:12700340

  18. EGFR Activation Leads to Cell Death Independent of PI3K/AKT/mTOR in an AD293 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Popeda, Marta; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena; Grzela, Dawid P.; Walczak, Maciej P.; Banaszczyk, Mateusz; Peciak, Joanna; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Rieske, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and its mutations contribute in various ways to tumorigenesis and biology of human cancers. They are associated with tumor proliferation, progression, drug resistance and the process of apoptosis. There are also reports that overexpression and activation of wild-type EGFR may lead to cell apoptosis. To study this phenomenon, we overexpressed in an AD293 cell line two most frequently observed forms of the EGFR receptor: wild-type and the constitutively active mutant–EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII). Then, we compared the effect of EGF stimulation on cell viability and downstream EGFR signaling. AD293 cells overexpressing wild-type EGFR, despite a significant proliferation increase in serum supplemented medium, underwent apoptosis after EGF stimulation in serum free conditions. EGFRvIII expressing cells, however, were unaffected by either serum starvation or EGF treatment. The effect of EGF was completely neutralized by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), indicating the specificity of this observation. Moreover, apoptosis was not prevented by inhibiting EGFR downstream proteins (PI3K, AKT and mTOR). Here we showed another EGFR function, dependent on environmental factors, which could be employed in therapy and drug design. We also proposed a new tool for EGFR inhibitor analysis. PMID:27153109

  19. EGFR Activation Leads to Cell Death Independent of PI3K/AKT/mTOR in an AD293 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Treda, Cezary; Popeda, Marta; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena; Grzela, Dawid P; Walczak, Maciej P; Banaszczyk, Mateusz; Peciak, Joanna; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Rieske, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and its mutations contribute in various ways to tumorigenesis and biology of human cancers. They are associated with tumor proliferation, progression, drug resistance and the process of apoptosis. There are also reports that overexpression and activation of wild-type EGFR may lead to cell apoptosis. To study this phenomenon, we overexpressed in an AD293 cell line two most frequently observed forms of the EGFR receptor: wild-type and the constitutively active mutant-EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII). Then, we compared the effect of EGF stimulation on cell viability and downstream EGFR signaling. AD293 cells overexpressing wild-type EGFR, despite a significant proliferation increase in serum supplemented medium, underwent apoptosis after EGF stimulation in serum free conditions. EGFRvIII expressing cells, however, were unaffected by either serum starvation or EGF treatment. The effect of EGF was completely neutralized by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), indicating the specificity of this observation. Moreover, apoptosis was not prevented by inhibiting EGFR downstream proteins (PI3K, AKT and mTOR). Here we showed another EGFR function, dependent on environmental factors, which could be employed in therapy and drug design. We also proposed a new tool for EGFR inhibitor analysis. PMID:27153109

  20. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta; Delogu, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giampiero; Farace, Cristiano; Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Olivero, Martina; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. PMID:23948303

  1. Transcription factor network downstream of protease activated receptors (PARs) modulating mouse bladder inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Ricardo; Simpson, Cindy; Davis, Carole A; Dozmorov, Igor; Maier, Julie; Fowler, Ben; Ihnat, Michael A; Hurst, Robert E; Wershil, Barry K; Saban, Marcia R

    2007-01-01

    Background All four PARs are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered during inflammation. In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders. Methods For this purpose, we used a protein/DNA combo array containing 345 different TF consensus sequences. Next, the TF selected was validated by EMSA and IHC. As mast cells seem to play a fundamental role in bladder inflammation, we determined whether c-kit receptor deficient (Kitw/Kitw-v) mice have an abrogated response to PAR stimulation. Finally, TFEB antibody was used for CHIP/Q-PCR assay and revealed up-regulation of genes known to be downstream of TFEB. Results TFEB, a member of the MiTF family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper, was the only TF commonly up-regulated by all PAR-APs. IHC results confirm a correlation between inflammation and TFEB expression in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, Kitw/Kitw-v mice did not exhibit inflammation in response to PAR activation. EMSA results confirmed the increased TFEB binding activity in C57BL/6 but not in Kitw/Kitw-v mice. Conclusion This is the first report describing the increased expression of TFEB in bladder inflammation in response to PAR activation. As TFEB belongs to a family of TFs essential for mast cell survival, our findings suggest that this molecule may influence the participation of mast cells in PAR-mediated inflammation and that targeting TFEB/MiTF activity may be a novel approach for the treatment of bladder inflammatory disorders. PMID:17705868

  2. The basal level of intracellular calcium gates the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase - Akt signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Soellner, Deborah; Nunez, Joseph; Wang, Hongbing

    2008-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates survival and neuroplasticity through the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. Although previous studies suggested the roles of MAPK, PLC-γ-mediated intra-cellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) increase, and extra-cellular calcium influx in regulating Akt activation, the cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. We demonstrated that sub-nanomolar BDNF significantly induced Akt activation in developing cortical neurons. The TrkB-dependent Akt phosphorylation at S473 and T308 required only PI3K, but not PLC and MAPK activity. Blocking NMDA receptors, L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and chelating extra-cellular calcium by EGTA failed to block BDNF-induced Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, chelating [Ca2+]i by BAPTA-AM abolished Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, sub-nanomolar BDNF did not stimulate [Ca2+]i increase under our culture conditions. Together with that NMDA- and membrane depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i increase did not activate Akt, we conclude that the basal level of [Ca2+]i gates BDNF function. Furthermore, inhibiting calmodulin by W13 suppressed Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by okadaic acid and tautomycin rescued Akt phosphorylation in BAPTA- and W13-treated neurons. We further demonstrated that the phosphorylation of PDK1 did not correlate with Akt phosphorylation at T308. Our results suggested novel roles of basal [Ca2+]i, rather than activity-induced calcium elevation, in BDNF-Akt signaling. PMID:18485103

  3. SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival by stabilizing DJ-1 and thus activating Akt

    SciTech Connect

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar Pandey, Shweta; Goswami, Shyamal K.

    2015-08-07

    SG2NA in association with striatin and zinedin forms a striatin family of WD-40 repeat proteins. This family of proteins functions as scaffold in different signal transduction pathways. They also act as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We have shown that SG2NA which evolved first in the metazoan evolution among the striatin family members expresses different isoforms generated out of alternative splicing. We have also shown that SG2NA protects cells from oxidative stress by recruiting DJ-1 and Akt to mitochondria and membrane in the post-mitotic neuronal cells. DJ-1 is both cancer and Parkinson's disease related protein. In the present study we have shown that SG2NA protects DJ-1 from proteasomal degradation in cancer cells. Hence, downregulation of SG2NA reduces DJ-1/Akt colocalization in cancer cells resulting in the reduction of anchorage dependent and independent growth. Thus SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival. Reactive oxygen species enhances SG2NA, DJ-1 and Akt trimerization. Removal of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine thus reduces cancer cell growth. - Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play potential role in cancer cell proliferation. • It enhances the association between DJ-1 and Akt mediated by SG2NA. • In cancer cells SG2NA stabilizes DJ-1 by inhibiting it from proteosomal degradation. • DJ-1 then activates Akt and cancer cells get their property of enhanced proliferation by sustained activation of Akt. • Further study on this field could lead to new target for cancer therapy.

  4. Activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways antagonized sinomenine-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liping; Luan, Hong; Liu, Qingpeng; Jiang, Tingshu; Liang, Hongyuan; Dong, Xihua; Shang, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive component derived from a Chinese medicinal plant. Our previous studies demonstrated that SIN has cytotoxic effects on human lung cancer cells. However, the antitumor molecular mechanisms of SIN have yet to be elucidated in detail. In the present study, we further explored the effects of SIN on NCI-H460 human lung cancer cell viability and apoptosis and investigated the regulation and function of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways during SIN-induced apoptosis in various lung cancer cell lines. NCI-H460 cells were incubated with 200 µg/ml SIN for the indicated times (0, 24, 48 or 72 h). Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Akt, p-Akt, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 protein levels were detected by western blotting, respectively. Two different selective inhibitors (LY294002 for the PI3K pathway; PD98059 for the MEK/ERK pathway) were used to characterize the relative roles of PI3K/Akt and ERK in SIN-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. SIN inhibited the proliferation of NCI-H460 cells in a time-dependent manner, which was accompanied with significant activation of pAkt and pERK. LY294002 and PD98059 both significantly increased SIN-induced apoptosis in NCI-H460, NCI-H226 and NCI-H522 cells. Our findings suggest that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways antagonize SIN-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis and molecules that inhibit these pathways should potentiate the effects of SIN. This study represents a significant step forward in our understanding of the signal transduction pathways associated with the apoptosis elicited by SIN. PMID:22367396

  5. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Lianyong; He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang; Tian, Jianqing

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:27342662

  6. Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gary S.; Aznar, Nicolas; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas; Midde, Krishna K.; Lopez-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Sato, Emi; Dunkel, Ying; Gallo, Richard L.; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and trimeric G proteins are two major signaling hubs. Signal transduction via trimeric G proteins has long been believed to be triggered exclusively by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This paradigm has recently been challenged by several studies on a multimodular signal transducer, Gα-Interacting Vesicle associated protein (GIV/Girdin). We recently demonstrated that GIV’s C terminus (CT) serves as a platform for dynamic association of ligand-activated RTKs with Gαi, and for noncanonical transactivation of G proteins. However, exogenous manipulation of this platform has remained beyond reach. Here we developed cell-permeable GIV-CT peptides by fusing a TAT-peptide transduction domain (TAT-PTD) to the minimal modular elements of GIV that are necessary and sufficient for activation of Gi downstream of RTKs, and used them to engineer signaling networks and alter cell behavior. In the presence of an intact GEF motif, TAT-GIV-CT peptides enhanced diverse processes in which GIV’s GEF function has previously been implicated, e.g., 2D cell migration after scratch-wounding, invasion of cancer cells, and finally, myofibroblast activation and collagen production. Furthermore, topical application of TAT-GIV-CT peptides enhanced the complex, multireceptor-driven process of wound repair in mice in a GEF-dependent manner. Thus, TAT-GIV peptides provide a novel and versatile tool to manipulate Gαi activation downstream of growth factors in a diverse array of pathophysiologic conditions. PMID:25926659

  7. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  8. Clinical prognostic significance and pro-metastatic activity of RANK/RANKL via the AKT pathway in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Wang, Lihua; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yudong

    2016-02-01

    RANK/RANKL plays a key role in metastasis of certain malignant tumors, which makes it a promising target for developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer. However, the prognostic value and pro-metastatic activity of RANK in endometrial cancer (EC) remain to be determined. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of RANK on the prognosis of EC patients, as well as the pro-metastatic activity of EC cells. The results indicated that those with high expression of RANK showed decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analysis revealed the positive correlations between RANK/RANKL expression and metastasis-related factors. Additionally, RANK/RANKL significantly promoted cell migration/invasion via activating AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway in vitro. However, RANK/RANKL-induced AKT activation could be suppressed after osteoprotegerin (OPG) treatment. Furthermore, the combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and RANKL could in turn attenuate the effect of RANKL alone. Similarly, MPA could partially inhibit the RANK-induced metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model via suppressing AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway. Therefore, therapeutic inhibition of MPA in RANK/RANKL-induced metastasis was mediated by AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target of RANK for gene-based therapy for EC. PMID:26734994

  9. Clinical prognostic significance and pro-metastatic activity of RANK/RANKL via the AKT pathway in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Wang, Lihua; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    RANK/RANKL plays a key role in metastasis of certain malignant tumors, which makes it a promising target for developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer. However, the prognostic value and pro-metastatic activity of RANK in endometrial cancer (EC) remain to be determined. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of RANK on the prognosis of EC patients, as well as the pro-metastatic activity of EC cells. The results indicated that those with high expression of RANK showed decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analysis revealed the positive correlations between RANK/RANKL expression and metastasis-related factors. Additionally, RANK/RANKL significantly promoted cell migration/invasion via activating AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway in vitro. However, RANK/RANKL-induced AKT activation could be suppressed after osteoprotegerin (OPG) treatment. Furthermore, the combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and RANKL could in turn attenuate the effect of RANKL alone. Similarly, MPA could partially inhibit the RANK-induced metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model via suppressing AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway. Therefore, therapeutic inhibition of MPA in RANK/RANKL-induced metastasis was mediated by AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target of RANK for gene-based therapy for EC. PMID:26734994

  10. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-08-29

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development.

  11. Optimal Classes of Chemotherapeutic Agents Sensitized by Specific Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Akt In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Liu, Xuesong; Han, Edward K.; Guan, Ran; Shoemaker, Alexander R.; Oleksijew, Anatol; Woods, Keith W.; Fisher, John P.; Klinghofer, Vered; Lasko, Loren; McGonigal, Thomas; Li, Qun; Rosenberg, Saul H.; Giranda, Vincent L.; Luo, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that transduces survival signals from survival/growth factors. Deregulation and signal imbalance in cancer cells make them prone to apoptosis. Upregulation or activation of Akt to aid the survival of cancer cells is a common theme in human malignancies. We have developed small-molecule Akt inhibitors that are potent and specific. These Akt inhibitors can inhibit Akt activity and block phosphorylation by Akt on multiple downstream targets in cells. Synergy in apoptosis induction was observed when Akt inhibitors were combined with doxorubicin or camptothecin. Akt inhibitor–induced enhancement of topoisomerase inhibitor cytotoxicity was also evident in long-term cell survival assay. Synergy with paclitaxel in apoptosis induction was evident in cells pretreated with paclitaxel, and enhancement of tumor delay by paclitaxel was demonstrated through cotreatment with Akt inhibitor Compound A (A-443654). Combination with other classes of chemotherapeutic agents did not yield any enhancement of cytotoxicity. These findings provide important guidance in selecting appropriate classes of chemotherapeutic agents for combination with Akt inhibitors in cancer treatment. PMID:16331885

  12. K-RAS(V12) Induces Autocrine Production of EGFR Ligands and Mediates Radioresistance Through EGFR-Dependent Akt Signaling and Activation of DNA-PKcs

    SciTech Connect

    Minjgee, Minjmaa; Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Giehl, Klaudia; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: It is known that postirradiation survival of tumor cells presenting mutated K-RAS is mediated through autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study the molecular mechanism of radioresistance of cells overexpressing mutated K-RAS(V12) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) presenting wild-type K-RAS were transfected with empty vector or vector expressing mutated K-RAS(V12). The effect of K-RAS(V12) on autocrine production of EGFR ligands, activation of EGFR downstream pathways, DNA damage repair, and postirradiation survival was analyzed. Results: Conditioned medium collected from K-RAS(V12)-transfected cells enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway and increased postirradiation survival of wild-type K-RAS parental cells when compared with controls. These effects were reversed by amphiregulin (AREG)-neutralizing antibody. In addition, secretion of the EGFR ligands AREG and transforming growth factor {alpha} was significantly increased upon overexpression of K-RAS(V12). Expression of mutated K-RAS(V12) resulted in an increase in radiation-induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation at S2056. This increase was accompanied by increased repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Abrogation of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation by serum depletion or AREG-neutralizing antibody underscored the role of autocrine production of EGFR ligands, namely, AREG, in regulating DNA-PKcs activation in K-RAS mutated cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that radioresistance of K-RAS mutated tumor cells is at least in part due to constitutive production of EGFR ligands, which mediate enhanced repair of DNA double-strand breaks through the EGFR-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt cascade.

  13. Rapamycin protects livers from ischemia and reperfusion Injury via both autophagy induction and mTORC2-Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianjun; Lu, Tianfei; Yue, Shi; Shen, Xiuda; Gao, Feng; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Xia, Qiang; Zhai, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Rapamycin (RPM) have been studied extensively in ischemia models, its functional mechanisms remains to be defined. Methods We determined how RPM impacted the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, with emphasis on its regulation of hepatocyte death. Results RPM protected livers from IRI in the presence of fully developed liver inflammatory immune response. RPM enhanced liver autophagy induction at the reperfusion stage. Dual mTOR1/2 inhibitor Torin 1, despite its ability to induced autophagy, failed to protect livers from IRI. The treatment with RPM, but not Torin 1, resulted in the enhanced activation of the mTORC2-Akt signaling pathway activation in livers post reperfusion. Inactivation of Akt by Triciribine abolished liver protective effect of RPM. The differential cytoprotective effect of RPM and Torin 1 was confirmed in vitro in hepatocyte cultures. RPM, but not Trin 1, protected hepatocytes from stress and TNF-α induced cell death; and inhibition of either autophagy by chloroquine or Akt by Triciribine abolished RPM-mediated cytoprotection. Conclusion RPM protected livers from IRI via both autophagy and mTORC2-Akt activation mechanisms. PMID:25340604

  14. A Common Variant at the 14q32 Endometrial Cancer Risk Locus Activates AKT1 through YY1 Binding.

    PubMed

    Painter, Jodie N; Kaufmann, Susanne; O'Mara, Tracy A; Hillman, Kristine M; Sivakumaran, Haran; Darabi, Hatef; Cheng, Timothy H T; Pearson, John; Kazakoff, Stephen; Waddell, Nicola; Hoivik, Erling A; Goode, Ellen L; Scott, Rodney J; Tomlinson, Ian; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; French, Juliet D; Salvesen, Helga B; Pollock, Pamela M; Thompson, Deborah J; Spurdle, Amanda B; Edwards, Stacey L

    2016-06-01

    A recent meta-analysis of multiple genome-wide association and follow-up endometrial cancer case-control datasets identified a novel genetic risk locus for this disease at chromosome 14q32.33. To prioritize the functional SNP(s) and target gene(s) at this locus, we employed an in silico fine-mapping approach using genotyped and imputed SNP data for 6,608 endometrial cancer cases and 37,925 controls of European ancestry. Association and functional analyses provide evidence that the best candidate causal SNP is rs2494737. Multiple experimental analyses show that SNP rs2494737 maps to a silencer element located within AKT1, a member of the PI3K/AKT/MTOR intracellular signaling pathway activated in endometrial tumors. The rs2494737 risk A allele creates a YY1 transcription factor-binding site and abrogates the silencer activity in luciferase assays, an effect mimicked by transfection of YY1 siRNA. Our findings suggest YY1 is a positive regulator of AKT1, mediating the stimulatory effects of rs2494737 increasing endometrial cancer risk. Identification of an endometrial cancer risk allele within a member of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, more commonly activated in tumors by somatic alterations, raises the possibility that well tolerated inhibitors targeting this pathway could be candidates for evaluation as chemopreventive agents in individuals at high risk of developing endometrial cancer. PMID:27259051

  15. A mathematical model of phosphorylation AKT in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi, Y. A.; Kusumo, F. A.; Aryati, L.; Hardianti, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model of PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in phosphorylation AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway is an important mediator of cytokine signaling implicated in regulation of hematopoiesis. Constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway has been observed in Acute Meyloid Leukemia (AML) it caused by the mutation of Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 in internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), the most common molecular abnormality associated with AML. Depending upon its phosphorylation status, protein interaction, substrate availability, and localization, AKT can phosphorylate or inhibite numerous substrates in its downstream pathways that promote protein synthesis, survival, proliferation, and metabolism. Firstly, we present a mass action ordinary differential equation model describing AKT double phosphorylation (AKTpp) in a system with 11 equations. Finally, under the asumtion enzyme catalyst constant and steady state equilibrium, we reduce the system in 4 equation included Michaelis Menten constant. Simulation result suggested that a high concentration of PI3K and/or a low concentration of phospatase increased AKTpp activation. This result also indicates that PI3K is a potential target theraphy in AML.

  16. Urocortin 3 activates AMPK and AKT pathways and enhances glucose disposal in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Roustit, Manon M; Vaughan, Joan M; Jamieson, Pauline M; Cleasby, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle is an important component of both type 2 diabetes and the syndrome of sarcopaenic obesity, for which there are no effective therapies. Urocortins (UCNs) are not only well established as neuropeptides but also have their roles in metabolism in peripheral tissues. We have shown recently that global overexpression of UCN3 resulted in muscular hypertrophy and resistance to the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. Herein, we aimed to establish whether short-term local UCN3 expression could enhance glucose disposal and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. UCN3 was found to be expressed in right tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats by in vivo electrotransfer and the effects studied vs the contralateral muscles after 1 week. No increase in muscle mass was detected, but test muscles showed 19% larger muscle fibre diameter (P=0.030), associated with increased IGF1 and IGF1 receptor mRNA and increased SER256 phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor. Glucose clearance into the test muscles after an intraperitoneal glucose load was increased by 23% (P=0.018) per unit mass, associated with increased GLUT1 (34% increase; P=0.026) and GLUT4 (48% increase; P=0.0009) proteins, and significantly increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, AKT, AKT substrate of 160 kDa, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, AMP-activated protein kinase and its substrate acetyl coA carboxylase. Thus, UCN3 expression enhances glucose disposal and signalling in muscle by an autocrine/paracrine mechanism that is separate from its pro-hypertrophic effects, implying that such a manipulation may have promised for the treatment of IR syndromes including sarcopaenic obesity. PMID:25122003

  17. Suppression or Induction of Apoptosis by Opposing Pathways Downstream from Calcium-Activated Calcineurin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotem, Joseph; Kama, Rachel; Sachs, Leo

    1999-10-01

    Ca2+-mobilizing compounds such as the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 or the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin can suppress or induce apoptosis in the same cells. The use of different calcineurin inhibitors has shown that both suppression and induction of apoptosis by the Ca2+-mobilizing compounds were mediated by calcineurin activation. Ca2+-mobilizing compounds activated p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Induction of apoptosis by the Ca2+-mobilizing compounds was suppressed by an inhibitor of p38 MAPK but not by an inhibitor of p44/42 MAPK. These MAPK inhibitors did not suppress apoptosis induction by wild-type p53 or by withdrawal of IL-6 from IL-6-dependent cells that are mediated by calcineurin-independent pathways. These MAPK inhibitors also did not affect the ability of Ca2+-mobilizing compounds to suppress apoptosis. The results indicate that (i) Ca2+-mobilizing compounds activate different and opposing pathways that diverge downstream from calcineurin activation that can either suppress or induce apoptosis in the same cells; (ii) p38 MAPK but not p44/42 MAPK is involved in induction of apoptosis but not in its suppression by the Ca2+-mobilizing compounds; and (iii) neither p38 nor p44/42 MAPKs mediate induction of apoptosis by some calcineurin-independent pathways.

  18. PKN3 is required for malignant prostate cell growth downstream of activated PI 3-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Frauke; Möpert, Kristin; Schmiedeknecht, Anett; Santel, Ansgar; Czauderna, Frank; Aleku, Manuela; Penschuck, Silke; Dames, Sibylle; Sternberger, Maria; Röhl, Thomas; Wellmann, Axel; Arnold, Wolfgang; Giese, Klaus; Kaufmann, Jörg; Klippel, Anke

    2004-01-01

    Chronic activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN signal transduction pathway contributes to metastatic cell growth, but up to now effectors mediating this response are poorly defined. By simulating chronic activation of PI3K signaling experimentally, combined with three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions and gene expression profiling, we aimed to identify novel effectors that contribute to malignant cell growth. Using this approach we identified and validated PKN3, a barely characterized protein kinase C-related molecule, as a novel effector mediating malignant cell growth downstream of activated PI3K. PKN3 is required for invasive prostate cell growth as assessed by 3D cell culture assays and in an orthotopic mouse tumor model by inducible expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We demonstrate that PKN3 is regulated by PI3K at both the expression level and the catalytic activity level. Therefore, PKN3 might represent a preferred target for therapeutic intervention in cancers that lack tumor suppressor PTEN function or depend on chronic activation of PI3K. PMID:15282551

  19. Distinct Pathways Regulate Syk Protein Activation Downstream of Immune Tyrosine Activation Motif (ITAM) and hemITAM Receptors in Platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Dangelmaier, Carol; Eble, Johannes A.; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Kahn, Mark; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase pathways are known to play an important role in the activation of platelets. In particular, the GPVI and CLEC-2 receptors are known to activate Syk upon tyrosine phosphorylation of an immune tyrosine activation motif (ITAM) and hemITAM, respectively. However, unlike GPVI, the CLEC-2 receptor contains only one tyrosine motif in the intracellular domain. The mechanisms by which this receptor activates Syk are not completely understood. In this study, we identified a novel signaling mechanism in CLEC-2-mediated Syk activation. CLEC-2-mediated, but not GPVI-mediated, platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation were abolished by inhibition of PI3K, which demonstrates that PI3K regulates Syk downstream of CLEC-2. Ibrutinib, a Tec family kinase inhibitor, also completely abolished CLEC-2-mediated aggregation and Syk phosphorylation in human and murine platelets. Furthermore, embryos lacking both Btk and Tec exhibited cutaneous edema associated with blood-filled vessels in a typical lymphatic pattern similar to CLEC-2 or Syk-deficient embryos. Thus, our data show, for the first time, that PI3K and Tec family kinases play a crucial role in the regulation of platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation downstream of the CLEC-2 receptor. PMID:25767114

  20. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt. PMID:15525798

  1. Denervation atrophy is independent from Akt and mTOR activation and is not rescued by myostatin inhibition.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Elizabeth M; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; Simmers, Jessica L; Mi, Ruifa; Park, Jae-Sung; Ying, Stephanie; Hoke, Ahmet; Lee, Se-Jin; Cohn, Ronald D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization) and denervation (sciatic nerve resection) atrophy. We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. Our results suggest that this protection from disuse atrophy is regulated by serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK) rather than by Akt. Denervation atrophy, however, was not protected by ActRIIB treatment, yet resulted in an upregulation of the pro-growth factors Akt, SGK and components of the mTOR pathway. We then treated the denervated mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and found that, despite a reduction in mTOR activation, there is no alteration of the atrophy phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin prevented the denervation-induced upregulation of the mTORC2 substrates Akt and SGK. Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy. PMID:24504412

  2. Erbin loss promotes cancer cell proliferation through feedback activation of Akt-Skp2-p27 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Song, Yuhua; Wu, Yan; Guo, Ning; Ma, Yuanfang; Qian, Lu

    2015-07-31

    Erbin localizes at the basolateral membrane to regulate cell junctions and polarity in epithelial cells. Dysregulation of Erbin has been implicated in tumorigenesis, and yet it is still unclear if and how disrupted Erbin regulates the biological behavior of cancer cells. We report here that depletion of Erbin leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Erbin deficiency accelerates S-phase entry by down-regulating CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 via two independent mechanisms. Mechanistically, Erbin loss promotes p27 degradation by enhancing E3 ligase Skp2 activity though augmenting Akt signaling. Interestingly, we also show that Erbin is an unstable protein when the Akt-Skp2 signaling is aberrantly activated, which can be specifically destructed by SCF-Skp2 ligase. Erbin loss facilitates cell proliferation and migration in Skp2-dependent manner. Thus, our finding illustrates a novel negative feedback loop between Erbin and Akt-Skp2 signaling. It suggests disrupted Erbin links polarity loss, hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • Erbin loss leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Erbin loss accelerates cell cycle though down-regulating p21 and p27 expression. • Erbin is a novel negative modulator of Akt1-Skp2-p27 signaling pathway. • Our study suggests that Erbin loss contributes to Skp2 oncogenic function.

  3. CX3CR1-Mediated Akt1 Activation Contributes to the Paclitaxel-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Dai; Chen, Hui; Luo, Xiao-Huan; Sun, Yang; Xia, Wei; Xiong, Yuan-Chang

    2016-06-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy is a serious dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel therapy, which unfortunately often happens during the optimal clinical management of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Currently the underlying mechanisms of the painful peripheral neuropathy remain largely unknown. Here, we found that paclitaxel treatment (3 × 8 mg/kg, cumulative dose 24 mg/kg) upregulated the expression of CX3CR1 and phosphorylated Akt1 in DRG and spinal dorsal horn. Blocking of Akt1 pathway activation with different inhibitor (MK-2206 or LY294002) significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by paclitaxel. Furthermore, inhibition of CX3CR1 by using neutralizing antibody not only prevented Akt1 activation in DRG and spinal dorsal horn but also alleviated pain-related behavior induced by paclitaxel treatment. This study suggested that CX3CR1/Akt1 signaling pathway may be a potential target for prevention and reversion of the painful peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel. PMID:26961886

  4. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing of Akt Isoforms Identifies Highly Dynamic Phosphorylation in Neuronal Cells and Brain Tissue.

    PubMed

    Schrötter, Sandra; Leondaritis, George; Eickholt, Britta J

    2016-05-01

    The PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway has been established as a core signaling pathway that is crucial for the integration of neurons into neuronal circuits and the maintenance of the architecture and function of neurons in the adult brain. Akt1-3 kinases are specifically activated by two phosphorylation events on residues Thr(308) and Ser(473) upon growth factor signaling, which subsequently phosphorylate a vast cohort of downstream targets. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the complexity and regulation of isoform specificity within the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway. We utilized a capillary-based isoelectric focusing method to study dynamics of Akt phosphorylation in neuronal cells and the developing brain and identify previously undescribed features of Akt phosphorylation and activation. First, we show that the accumulation of multiple phosphorylation events on Akt forms occur concurrently with Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation upon acute PI3K activation and provide evidence for uncoupling of Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation, as well as differential sensitivities of Akt1 forms upon PI3K inhibition. Second, we detect a transient shift in Akt isoform phosphorylation and activation pattern during early postnatal brain development, at stages corresponding to synapse development and maturation. Third, we show differential sensitivities of Ser(473)-Akt species to PTEN deletion in mature neurons, which suggests inherent differences in the Akt pools that are accessible to growth factors as compared with the pools that are controlled by PTEN. Our study demonstrates the presence of complex phosphorylation events of Akt in a time- and signal-dependent manner in neurons. PMID:26945062

  5. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing of Akt Isoforms Identifies Highly Dynamic Phosphorylation in Neuronal Cells and Brain Tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Schrötter, Sandra; Leondaritis, George; Eickholt, Britta J.

    2016-01-01

    The PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway has been established as a core signaling pathway that is crucial for the integration of neurons into neuronal circuits and the maintenance of the architecture and function of neurons in the adult brain. Akt1–3 kinases are specifically activated by two phosphorylation events on residues Thr308 and Ser473 upon growth factor signaling, which subsequently phosphorylate a vast cohort of downstream targets. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the complexity and regulation of isoform specificity within the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway. We utilized a capillary-based isoelectric focusing method to study dynamics of Akt phosphorylation in neuronal cells and the developing brain and identify previously undescribed features of Akt phosphorylation and activation. First, we show that the accumulation of multiple phosphorylation events on Akt forms occur concurrently with Ser473 and Thr308 phosphorylation upon acute PI3K activation and provide evidence for uncoupling of Ser473 and Thr308 phosphorylation, as well as differential sensitivities of Akt1 forms upon PI3K inhibition. Second, we detect a transient shift in Akt isoform phosphorylation and activation pattern during early postnatal brain development, at stages corresponding to synapse development and maturation. Third, we show differential sensitivities of Ser473-Akt species to PTEN deletion in mature neurons, which suggests inherent differences in the Akt pools that are accessible to growth factors as compared with the pools that are controlled by PTEN. Our study demonstrates the presence of complex phosphorylation events of Akt in a time- and signal-dependent manner in neurons. PMID:26945062

  6. β-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways and ROS-mediated MAPKs activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ran; Nam, Dongwoo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2011-12-22

    Both PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells. In the present report, we investigated the effects of β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK activation pathways in human prostate and breast cancer cells. We found that CPO not only inhibited the constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascade; but also caused the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in tumor cells. CPO induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from mitochondria, which is associated with the induction of apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V binding and TUNEL staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly prevented CPO-induced apoptosis. Subsequently, CPO also down-regulated the expression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, survivin, IAP-1, and IAP-2), metastasis (COX-2), angiogenesis (VEGF), and increased the expression of p53 and p21. Interestingly, we also observed that CPO can significantly potentiate the apoptotic effects of various pharmacological PI3K/AKT inhibitors when employed in combination in tumor cells. Overall, these findings suggest that CPO can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and used as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:21924548

  7. Membrane-tethered AKT kinase regulates basal synaptic transmission and early phase LTP expression by modulation of post-synaptic AMPA receptor level.

    PubMed

    Pen, Y; Borovok, N; Reichenstein, M; Sheinin, A; Michaelevski, I

    2016-09-01

    The serine/threonine kinase AKT/PKB plays a fundamental role in a wide variety of neuronal functions, including neuronal cell development, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Multiple evidence link AKT signaling pathways to regulation of late phase long-term synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and spinogenesis, as well as long-term memory formation. Nevertheless, the downstream effectors mediating the effects of AKT on early phase long-term potentiation (eLTP) are currently unknown. Here we report that using different regimes of pharmacological activation and inhibition of AKT activity in acute hippocampal slices, we found that AKT regulates the post-synaptic expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA) receptors affecting solely the expression of eLTP, with no effect on its induction and maintenance. We further show that both maintenance of basal synaptic activity and expression of eLTP require plasma membrane tethering by activated AKT and that basal synaptic activity may be regulated via the direct effects of AKT1 on the expression level of post-synaptic AMPA receptors bypassing the canonical AKT signaling. Finally, we establish that eLTP expression requires the involvement of both the canonical AKT signaling pathways and the direct effect of AKT1 on AMPA receptor activity/expression in the post-synaptic membrane. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27068236

  8. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  9. MAT2B promotes adipogenesis by modulating SAMe levels and activating AKT/ERK pathway during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cunzhen; Chen, Xiaochang; Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Wusu; Pang, Weijun; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-05-15

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) has been demonstrated as one of the crucial factors of livestock meat quality. The MAT2B protein with MAT2α catalyzes the formation of methyl donor S- adenosylmethionine (SAMe) to mediate cell metabolism including proliferation and apoptosis. However, the regulatory effect of MAT2B on IMF deposition is still unclear. In this study, the effect of MAT2B on adipogenesis and its potential mechanism during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation was studied. The results showed that overexpression of MAT2B promoted adipogenesis and significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic marker genes including FASN, PPARγ and aP2, consistently, knockdown of MAT2B inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of the above genes. Furthermore, flow cytometry and EdU-labeling assay indicated that MAT2B regulate adipogenesis was partly due to influence intracellular SAMe levels and further affect cell clonal expansion. Also, increased expression of MAT2B activated the phosphorylations of AKT and ERK1/2, whereas knockdown of MAT2B blocked AKT signaling and repressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of LY294002 (a specific PI3K inhibitor) on the activities of AKT and ERK1/2 was partially recovered by overexpression of MAT2B in porcine intramuscular adipocytes. Finally, Co-IP experiments showed that MAT2B can directly interact with AKT. Taken together, our findings suggested that MAT2B acted as a positive regulator through modifying SAMe levels as well as activating AKT/ERK signaling pathway to promote porcine intramuscular adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26940012

  10. Krüppel-like factor 14 increases insulin sensitivity through activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Ren, Yan; Lin, Zhimin; Tang, Chenchen; Jia, Yanjun; Lai, Yerui; Zhou, Tingting; Wu, Shaobo; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no report has demonstrated a relationship between KLF14 and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLF14 is associated with glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in vitro. The mRNA and protein expressions of KLF14 were determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting. Glucose uptake was assessed by 2-[(3)H]-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. Western blotting was used to identify the activation of insulin signaling proteins. KLF14 mRNA and protein in fat and muscle were significantly decreased in HFD-fed mice, db/db mice and T2DM patients. Overexpression of KLF14 enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the activation of Akt kinase in Hepa1-6 cells. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR), insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Akt also elevated significantly by up-regulation of KLF14. KLF14 overexpression in Hepa1-6 cells prevented the inhibition of glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation induced by high glucose and/or high insulin, or T2DM serum. However, KLF14's ability to increase glucose uptake and Akt activation was significantly attenuated by LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor. These data suggested that KLF14 could increase insulin sensitivity probably through the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26226221

  11. A Switch in Akt Isoforms Is Required for Notch-Induced Snail1 Expression and Protection from Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Alex; Lambies, Guillem; Viñas-Castells, Rosa; Martínez-Guillamon, Catalina; Dave, Natàlia

    2015-01-01

    Notch activation in aortic endothelial cells (ECs) takes place at embryonic stages during cardiac valve formation and induces endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Using aortic ECs, we show here that active Notch expression promotes EndMT, resulting in downregulation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and upregulation of mesenchymal genes such as those for fibronectin and Snail1/2. In these cells, transforming growth factor β1 exacerbates Notch effects by increasing Snail1 and fibronectin activation. When Notch-downstream pathways were analyzed, we detected an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation and inactivation that facilitates Snail1 nuclear retention and protein stabilization. However, the total activity of Akt was downregulated. The discrepancy between Akt activity and GSK-3β phosphorylation is explained by a Notch-induced switch in the Akt isoforms, whereby Akt1, the predominant isoform expressed in ECs, is decreased and Akt2 transcription is upregulated. Mechanistically, Akt2 induction requires the stimulation of the β-catenin/TCF4 transcriptional complex, which activates the Akt2 promoter. Active, phosphorylated Akt2 translocates to the nucleus in Notch-expressing cells, resulting in GSK-3β inactivation in this compartment. Akt2, but not Akt1, colocalizes in the nucleus with lamin B in the nuclear envelope. In addition to promoting GSK-3β inactivation, Notch downregulates Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), another Akt2 nuclear substrate. Moreover, Notch protects ECs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through an Akt2- and Snail1-dependent mechanism. PMID:26711268

  12. Galectin-1 induces hepatocellular carcinoma EMT and sorafenib resistance by activating FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, P-F; Li, K-S; Shen, Y-h; Gao, P-T; Dong, Z-R; Cai, J-B; Zhang, C; Huang, X-Y; Tian, M-X; Hu, Z-Q; Gao, D-M; Fan, J; Ke, A-W; Shi, G-M

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is involved in several pathological activities associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance, however, the role and molecular mechanism of Gal-1 activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and sorafenib resistance remain enigmatic. In the present study, forced Gal-1 expression promoted HCC progression and sorafenib resistance. Gal-1 elevated αvβ3-integrin expression, leading to AKT activation. Moreover, Gal-1 overexpression induced HCC cell EMT via PI3K/AKT cascade activation. Clinically, our data revealed that Gal-1 overexpression is correlated with poor HCC survival outcomes and sorafenib response. These data suggest that Gal-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC and a biomarker for predicting response to sorafenib treatment. PMID:27100895

  13. Galectin-1 induces hepatocellular carcinoma EMT and sorafenib resistance by activating FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P-F; Li, K-S; Shen, Y-H; Gao, P-T; Dong, Z-R; Cai, J-B; Zhang, C; Huang, X-Y; Tian, M-X; Hu, Z-Q; Gao, D-M; Fan, J; Ke, A-W; Shi, G-M

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is involved in several pathological activities associated with tumor progression and chemoresistance, however, the role and molecular mechanism of Gal-1 activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and sorafenib resistance remain enigmatic. In the present study, forced Gal-1 expression promoted HCC progression and sorafenib resistance. Gal-1 elevated αvβ3-integrin expression, leading to AKT activation. Moreover, Gal-1 overexpression induced HCC cell EMT via PI3K/AKT cascade activation. Clinically, our data revealed that Gal-1 overexpression is correlated with poor HCC survival outcomes and sorafenib response. These data suggest that Gal-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC and a biomarker for predicting response to sorafenib treatment. PMID:27100895

  14. Totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro and ameliorates brain ischemic stroke: Potential roles of Akt activation and HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanxue; Xu, Xiaojun; Chang, Sai; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yazhou; Ran, Siqi; Huang, Zhangjian; Li, Ping; Li, Jia; Zhang, Luyong; Saavedra, Juan M; Liao, Hong; Pang, Tao

    2015-12-01

    The natural product totarol, a phenolic diterpenoid and a major constituent isolated from the sap of Podocarpus totara, has been reported to have a potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether totarol possessed an additional neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that totarol prevented glutamate- and oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death in primary rat cerebellar granule neuronal cells and cerebral cortical neurons. Totarol increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions and suppressed oxidative stress by increasing GSH and SOD activities. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 prevented totarol neuroprotective effect by suppressing the totarol-induced changes in HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. The HO-1 inhibitor ZnPPIX also prevented totarol-increased GSH and SOD activities. In a model of acute cerebral ischemic injury in Sprague-Dawley rats, produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2h followed by 22 h or 46 h of reperfusion, totarol significantly reduced infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit. In this model, totarol increased HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. These observations suggest that totarol may be a novel activator of the Akt/HO-1 pathway protecting against ischemic stroke through reduction of oxidative stress. PMID:26440581

  15. B Cell Receptor Activation Predominantly Regulates AKT-mTORC1/2 Substrates Functionally Related to RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Dara K.; Ali, Raja H.; Turunen, Janne J.; Nore, Beston F.; Smith, C. I. Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylates numerous substrates on the consensus motif RXRXXpS/T, a docking site for 14-3-3 interactions. To identify novel AKT-induced phosphorylation events following B cell receptor (BCR) activation, we performed proteomics, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses. Phosphorylated consensus motif-specific antibody enrichment, followed by tandem mass spectrometry, identified 446 proteins, containing 186 novel phosphorylation events. Moreover, we found 85 proteins with up regulated phosphorylation, while in 277 it was down regulated following stimulation. Up regulation was mainly in proteins involved in ribosomal and translational regulation, DNA binding and transcription regulation. Conversely, down regulation was preferentially in RNA binding, mRNA splicing and mRNP export proteins. Immunoblotting of two identified RNA regulatory proteins, RBM25 and MEF-2D, confirmed the proteomics data. Consistent with these findings, the AKT-inhibitor (MK-2206) dramatically reduced, while the mTORC-inhibitor PP242 totally blocked phosphorylation on the RXRXXpS/T motif. This demonstrates that this motif, previously suggested as an AKT target sequence, also is a substrate for mTORC1/2. Proteins with PDZ, PH and/or SH3 domains contained the consensus motif, whereas in those with an HMG-box, H15 domains and/or NF-X1-zinc-fingers, the motif was absent. Proteins carrying the consensus motif were found in all eukaryotic clades indicating that they regulate a phylogenetically conserved set of proteins. PMID:27487157

  16. B Cell Receptor Activation Predominantly Regulates AKT-mTORC1/2 Substrates Functionally Related to RNA Processing.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Dara K; Ali, Raja H; Turunen, Janne J; Nore, Beston F; Smith, C I Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylates numerous substrates on the consensus motif RXRXXpS/T, a docking site for 14-3-3 interactions. To identify novel AKT-induced phosphorylation events following B cell receptor (BCR) activation, we performed proteomics, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses. Phosphorylated consensus motif-specific antibody enrichment, followed by tandem mass spectrometry, identified 446 proteins, containing 186 novel phosphorylation events. Moreover, we found 85 proteins with up regulated phosphorylation, while in 277 it was down regulated following stimulation. Up regulation was mainly in proteins involved in ribosomal and translational regulation, DNA binding and transcription regulation. Conversely, down regulation was preferentially in RNA binding, mRNA splicing and mRNP export proteins. Immunoblotting of two identified RNA regulatory proteins, RBM25 and MEF-2D, confirmed the proteomics data. Consistent with these findings, the AKT-inhibitor (MK-2206) dramatically reduced, while the mTORC-inhibitor PP242 totally blocked phosphorylation on the RXRXXpS/T motif. This demonstrates that this motif, previously suggested as an AKT target sequence, also is a substrate for mTORC1/2. Proteins with PDZ, PH and/or SH3 domains contained the consensus motif, whereas in those with an HMG-box, H15 domains and/or NF-X1-zinc-fingers, the motif was absent. Proteins carrying the consensus motif were found in all eukaryotic clades indicating that they regulate a phylogenetically conserved set of proteins. PMID:27487157

  17. Protein kinase B (AKT) regulates SYK activity and shuttling through 14-3-3 and importin 7.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Dara K; Nore, Beston F; Gustafsson, Manuela O; Mohamed, Abdalla J; Smith, C I Edvard

    2016-09-01

    The Protein kinase B (AKT) regulates a plethora of intracellular signaling proteins to fine-tune signaling of multiple pathways. Here, we found that following B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase SYK and the adaptor BLNK, the AKT/PKB enzyme strongly induced BLNK (>100-fold) and SYK (>100-fold) serine/threonine phosphorylation (pS/pT). Increased phosphorylation promoted 14-3-3 binding to BLNK (37-fold) and SYK (2.5-fold) in a pS/pT-concentration dependent manner. We also demonstrated that the AKT inhibitor MK2206 reduced pS/pT of both BLNK (3-fold) and SYK (2.5-fold). Notably, the AKT phosphatase, PHLPP2 maintained the activating phosphorylation of BLNK at Y84 and increased protein stability (8.5-fold). In addition, 14-3-3 was required for the regulation SYK's interaction with BLNK and attenuated SYK binding to Importin 7 (5-fold), thereby perturbing shuttling to the nucleus. Moreover, 14-3-3 proteins also sustained tyrosine phosphorylation of SYK and BLNK. Furthermore, substitution of S295 or S297 for alanine abrogated SYK's binding to Importin 7. SYK with S295A or S297A replacements showed intense pY525/526 phosphorylation, and BLNK pY84 phosphorylation correlated with the SYK pY525/526 phosphorylation level. Conversely, the corresponding mutations to aspartic acid in SYK reduced pY525/526 phosphorylation. Collectively, these and previous results suggest that AKT and 14-3-3 proteins down-regulate the activity of several BCR-associated components, including BTK, BLNK and SYK and also inhibit SYK's interaction with Importin 7. PMID:27381982

  18. Angiogenesis effect of therapeutic ultrasound on HUVECs through activation of the PI3K-Akt-eNOS signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Li, Rui-Lin; Hu, An; Lu, Zhao-Yang; Weng, Liang; Wang, Shen-Qi; Han, Yi-Peng; Zhang, Lan; Li, Bao; Hao, Chang-Ning; Duan, Jun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenic effects of low-intensity ultrasound have been reported in endothelial cells and animal models of hind limb ischemia. It has been shown that the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells play critical roles in angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the underlying mechanism of low-intensity continuous therapeutic ultrasound on angiogenesis in endothelial cells. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were simulated of low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (TUS, 1 MHz, 0.3 W/cm(2), 9 minute per day) for 3 days, and we observed migration, tube formation, and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) in HUVECs. Specific inhibitors of eNOS and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) were added to the culture medium and TUS-induced changes in the pathways that mediate angiogenesis were investigated. After exposure to TUS, HUVECs tube formation and migration were significantly promoted, which was blocked by the eNOS inhibitor Immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting analysis demonstrated that eNOS expression in the HUVECs was significantly increased after TUS exhibition. Proteins of phosphorylated eNOS and Akt were both up-regulated after TUS stimulation. However, the specific inhibitor of PI3K not only significantly decreased the expression of p-Akt, but also down-regulated the p-eNOS. This suggested that the PI3K/Akt signal pathway might participate in modulating the activity of eNOS. In short, TUS therapy promotes angiogenesis through activation of the PI3K-Akt-eNOS signal cascade in HUVECs. PMID:26279754

  19. AG and UAG induce β-casein expression via activation of ERK1/2 and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Sunan; Liu, Juxiong; Lv, Qingkang; Zhang, Chuan; Xu, Shiyao; Yang, Dongxue; Huang, Bingxu; Zeng, Yalong; Gao, Yingjie; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The ghrelin peptides were found to circulate in two major forms: acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG). Previous studies showed that AG regulates β-casein (CSN2) expression in mammary epithelial cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which AG regulates CSN2 gene and protein expression. Evidence suggests that UAG has biological activity through GHSR1a-independent mechanisms. Here, we investigated the possible GHSR1a-mediated effect of UAG on the expression of CSN2 in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMECs) isolated from lactating cow. We found that both AG and UAG increase the expression of CSN2 in a dose-dependent manner in pbMECs in comparison with the control group. Increased expression of CSN2 was blocked by [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (an antagonist of the GHSR1a) and NF449 (a Gs-α subunit inhibitor) in pbMECs. In addition, both AG and UAG activated AKT/protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways, whereas [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and NF449 inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in pbMECs respectively. Blockade of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways prevented the expression of CSN2 induced by AG or UAG. Finally, we found that both AG and UAG cause cell proliferation through identical signaling pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both AG and UAG act on ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways to facilitate the expression of CSN2 in a GHSR1a-dependent manner. PMID:26873999

  20. FoxM1 promotes breast tumorigenesis by activating PDGF-A and forming a positive feedback loop with the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanzhen; Zhou, Aidong; Xue, Jianfei; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tan, Christina; Xie, Keping; Wang, Jiejun; Huang, Suyun

    2015-05-10

    The autocrine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms for its dysregulation in breast cancer are largely unknown. In the study, we identified PDGF-A as a novel transcriptional target of FoxM1. FoxM1 directly binds to two sites in the promoter of PDGF-A and activates its transcription. Mutation of these FoxM1-binding sites diminished PDGF-A promoter activity. Increased FoxM1 resulted in the upregulation of PDGF-A, which led to activation of the AKT pathway and increased breast cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas knockdown of FoxM1 does the opposite. Blocking AKT activation with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT inhibitor decreased FoxM1-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, PDGF/AKT pathway upregulates the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-A or blockade of AKT activation inhibited the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of FoxM1 significantly correlated with the expression of PDGF-A and the activated AKT signaling pathway in human breast cancer specimens. Our study demonstrates a novel positive regulatory feedback loop between FoxM1 and the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway; this loop contributes to breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis. PMID:25869208

  1. TIMP-2 Interaction with MT1-MMP Activates the AKT Pathway and Protects Tumor Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Valacca, Cristina; Tassone, Evelyne; Mignatti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a transmembrane proteinase with an extracellular catalytic domain and a short cytoplasmic tail, degrades a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. In addition, MT1-MMP activates intracellular signaling through proteolysis-dependent and independent mechanisms. We have previously shown that binding of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) to MT1-MMP controls cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor growth in vivo by activating the Ras—extracellular signal regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) pathway through a mechanism that requires the cytoplasmic but not the proteolytic domain of MT1-MMP. Here we show that in MT1-MMP expressing cells TIMP-2 also induces rapid and sustained activation of AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner and by a mechanism independent of the proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 mediates TIMP-2 induction of ERK1/2 but not of AKT activation; however, Ras activation is necessary to transduce the TIMP-2-activated signal to both the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. ERK1/2 and AKT activation by TIMP-2 binding to MT1-MMP protects tumor cells from apoptosis induced by serum starvation. Conversely, TIMP-2 upregulates apoptosis induced by three-dimensional type I collagen in epithelial cancer cells. Thus, TIMP-2 interaction with MT1-MMP provides tumor cells with either pro- or anti-apoptotic signaling depending on the extracellular environment and apoptotic stimulus. PMID:26331622

  2. Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Aoki, Masahiro; Zheng, Jenny Z.; Li, Jian; Vogt, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation. PMID:10051597

  3. Transglutaminase inhibition protects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal death downstream of pathological ERK activation

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Manuela; Berlin, Jill; Li, Xia; Sleiman, Sama F.; Ko, Brendan; Haskew-Layton, Renee; Kim, Eunhee; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Iismaa, Siiri E.; Willis, Dianna; Cho, Sunghee; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular deletion of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been shown to improve function and survival in a host of neurological conditions including stroke, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. However, unifying schemes by which these crosslinking or polyaminating enzymes participate broadly in neuronal death have yet to be presented. Unexpectedly, we found that in addition to TG2, TG1 gene expression level is significantly induced following stroke in vivo or due to oxidative stress in vitro. Forced expression of TG1 or TG2 proteins is sufficient to induce neuronal death in Rattus novergicus cortical neurons in vitro. Accordingly, molecular deletion of TG2 alone is insufficient to protect Mus musculus neurons from oxidative death. By contrast, structurally diverse inhibitors used at concentrations that inhibit TG1 and TG2 simultaneously are neuroprotective. These small molecules inhibit increases in neuronal transamidating activity induced by oxidative stress; they also protect neurons downstream of pathological ERK activation when added well after the onset of the death stimulus. Together, these studies suggest that multiple TG isoforms, not only TG2, participate in oxidative stress-induced cell death signaling; and that isoform non-selective inhibitors of TG will be most efficacious in combating oxidative death in neurological disorders. PMID:22573678

  4. Group I p21-Activated Kinases (PAKs) Promote Tumor Cell Proliferation and Survival Through the AKT1 and Raf-MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Menges, Craig W.; Sementino, Eleonora; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Xu, Jinfei; Chernoff, Jonathan; Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Testa, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Group I p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important effectors of the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42, which regulate cell motility/migration, survival, proliferation and gene transcription. Hyperactivation of these kinases have been reported in many tumor types, making PAKs attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. PAKs are activated by growth factor-mediated signaling and are negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor NF2/Merlin. Thus, tumors characterized by NF2 inactivation would be expected to show hyperactivated PAK signaling. Based on this rationale, we evaluated the status of PAK signaling in malignant mesothelioma (MM), an aggressive neoplasm that is resistant to current therapies and shows frequent inactivation of NF2. We demonstrate that group I PAKs are activated in most MMs and MM cell lines and that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PAKs is sufficient to inhibit MM cell proliferation and survival. We also identify downstream effectors and signaling pathways that may contribute mechanistically to PAK-related tumorigenesis. Specifically, we show that inhibition of PAK results in attenuation of AKT and Raf-MAPK signaling and decreased tumor cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of group I PAKs may have therapeutic efficacy in tumors characterized by PAK activation. PMID:22798428

  5. Age-related decrease in constructive activation of Akt/PKB in SAMP10 hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kun; Yu, Jian-Chun; Fu, Yu; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Chen, Fu-Yan; Qu, You; Han, Jing-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Aging is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-dependent alterations of cell signaling play an important role in the onset of AD. The serine/threonine kinase Akt is a critical cell signaling to neuronal survival. Using the senescence-accelerated mouse SAMP10, we investigated the effect of aging on AKT signaling in hippocampus tissue. During aging, the expression of Akt mRNA and protein remained stable. However, the constructive phosphorylation of Akt(Ser473) displayed a continuous decrease after 6 months in SAMP10. When compared with the control SAMR1, aged SAMP10 mice showed significant reduced phosphorylation of Akt(Ser473). SAMP10 at the age of 6 months showed obvious deterioration in performance of learning and memory tasks. Thus, the data reported here suggested a potential link between the age-related alteration of Akt(Ser473) and the deterioration in performance of learning and memory tasks in SAMP10 mouse. PMID:19013131

  6. Xenon-delayed postconditioning attenuates spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation AKT and ERK signaling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyao; Yang, Yanwei; Jin, Mu; Hou, Siyu; Dong, Xiuhua; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have shown that xenon-delayed postconditioning for up to 2h after reperfusion provides protection against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. This study was designed to determine the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in this neuroprotection. The rats were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n=16∗9): 1) I/R+N2 group, 2) I/R+Xe group, 3) I/R+PD98059+N2 group (ERK blocking agent), 4) I/R+wortmannin+N2 group (PI3K-Akt blocking agent), 5) I/R+PD98059+Xe group, 6) I/R+wortmannin+Xe group, 7) I/R+DMSO+Xe group (dimethyl sulfoxide, vehicle control), 8) I/R+DMSO+N2 group, and 9) sham group (no spinal cord ischemia and no xenon). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 25min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor scale at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after reperfusion. Histological examination of the lumbar spinal cord was performed using Nissl staining and TUNEL staining at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8)h after reperfusion. Western blotting was performed to evaluate p-Akt and p-ERK expression in the spinal cord at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8) h after reperfusion. Compared with the sham group, all rats in the I/R groups had lower BBB scores, fewer normal motor neurons, more apoptotic neurons and lower p-Akt and p-ERK levels at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, rats in the I/R+Xe group had higher neurological scores, more normal motor neurons, fewer apoptotic neurons and significantly higher levels of p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+Xe group, the I/R+PD98059+Xe and I/R+wortmannin+Xe groups showed worse neurological outcomes and less p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). These results suggest that xenon-delayed postconditioning improves neurological outcomes to spinal cord I/R injury in rats through the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling

  7. ATM increases activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity at downstream S regions during class-switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Khair, Lyne; Guikema, Jeroen E J; Linehan, Erin K; Ucher, Anna J; Leus, Niek G J; Ogilvie, Colin; Lou, Zhenkun; Schrader, Carol E; Stavnezer, Janet

    2014-05-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ab class-switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells resulting in exchanging the IgH C region and improved Ab effector function. During CSR, AID instigates DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in switch (S) regions located upstream of C region genes. DSBs are necessary for CSR, but improper regulation of DSBs can lead to chromosomal translocations that can result in B cell lymphoma. The protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important proximal regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and translocations involving S regions are increased in its absence. ATM phosphorylates H2AX, which recruits other DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, including mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DNA damage. As these DDR proteins all function to promote repair and recombination of DSBs during CSR, we examined whether mouse splenic B cells deficient in these proteins would show alterations in S region DSBs when undergoing CSR. We find that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs are increased, whereas DSBs in downstream Sγ regions are decreased. We also find that mutations in the unrearranged Sγ3 segment are reduced in atm(-/-) cells. Our data suggest that ATM increases AID targeting and activity at downstream acceptor S regions during CSR and that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs accumulate as they lack a recombination partner. PMID:24729610

  8. Vorinostat Enhances Cytotoxicity of SN-38 and Temozolomide in Ewing Sarcoma Cells and Activates STAT3/AKT/MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Valerie B.; Vetter, Nancy S.; Kamara, Davida F.; Collier, Anderson B.; Gresh, Renee C.; Kolb, E. Anders

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been evaluated in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS) but demonstrated limited activity. To better understand the potential for HDACi in EWS, we evaluated the combination of the HDACi vorinostat, with DNA damaging agents SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan and topoisomerase 1 inhibitor) plus the alkylating agent temozolomide (ST). Drugs were evaluated in sequential and simultaneous combinations in two EWS cell lines. Results demonstrate that cell viability, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are dependent on the sequence of drug administration. Enhanced cytotoxicity is exhibited in vitro in EWS cell lines treated with ST administered before vorinostat, which was modestly higher than concomitant treatment and superior to vorinostat administered before ST. Drug combinations downregulate cyclin D1 to induce G0/G1 arrest and promote apoptosis by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. When ST is administered before or concomitantly with vorinostat there is activation of STAT3, MAPK and the p53 pathway. In contrast, when vorinostat is administered before ST, there is DNA repair, increased AKT phosphorylation and reduced H2B acetylation. Inhibition of AKT using the small molecule inhibitor MK-2206 did not restore H2B acetylation. Combining ST with the dual ALK and IGF-1R inhibitor, AZD3463 simultaneously inhibited STAT3 and AKT to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ST and further reduce cell growth suggesting that STAT3 and AKT activation were in part mediated by ALK and IGF-1R signaling. In summary, potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity were demonstrated for ST induced DNA damage before or simultaneous with HDAC inhibition and cell death was mediated through the p53 pathway. These observations may aid in designing new protocols for treating pediatric patients with high-risk EWS. PMID:26571493

  9. MiR-221 and miR-26b Regulate Chemotactic Migration of MSCs Toward HGF Through Activation of Akt and FAK.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Aisi; Kang, Naixin; He, Lihong; Li, Xianyang; Xu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2016-06-01

    The chemotactic migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is fundamental for their use in cell-based therapies, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate their directed migration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the regulation of a large variety of cellular processes. However, their roles in regulating the responses of MSCs to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) remain elusive. Here, we found that microRNA-221 (miR-221) and microRNA-26b (miR-26b) were upregulated in MSCs subjected to HGF. Overexpression of miR-221 or miR-26b enhanced MSC migration through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) was identified as a potential target of miR-221 and miR-26b; overexpression of miR-221 or miR-26b decreased PTEN expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of miR-221 or miR-26b in MSCs increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream effector of PTEN, which regulates cell migration through assembly and distribution of focal adhesions (FAs), and more dot-like FAs were localized at the periphery of these cells. Altering miR-221 or miR-26b expression influenced the directed migration of MSCs toward HGF. Inhibition of miR-221 or miR-26b suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and FAK and upregulated PTEN expression, which was partly restored by HGF treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-26b participate in regulating the chemotactic response of MSCs toward HGF. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1370-1383, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26538296

  10. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-09-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. These proteins increased the Annexin-V staining and the amount of condensed chromatin, demonstrating that the Gecko proteinsinduced cell death was caused by apoptosis. Gecko proteins suppressed Akt activation, and the overexpression of constitutively active form of myristoylated Akt prevented Gecko proteins-induced death of 5637 cells. Furthermore, Gecko proteins activated caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Gecko proteins suppressed the Akt pathway and activated the intrinsic caspase pathway, leading to the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 531-536]. PMID:26246284

  11. Comparative analysis of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation and inhibition in human and canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fowles, J S; Denton, C L; Gustafson, D L

    2015-09-01

    The lack of advanced animal models of human cancers is considered a barrier to developing effective therapeutics. Canine and human melanomas are histologically disparate but show similar disease progression and response to therapies. The purpose of these studies was to compare human and canine melanoma tumours and cell lines regarding MAPK and PI3K/AKT signalling dysregulation, and response to select molecularly targeted agents. Pathway activation was investigated via microarray and mutational analysis. Growth inhibition and cell cycle effects were assessed for pathway inhibitors AZD6244 (MAPK) and rapamycin (PI3K/AKT) in human and canine melanoma cells. Human and canine melanoma share similar differential gene expression patterns within the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Constitutive pathway activation and similar sensitivity to AZD6244 and rapamycin was observed in human and canine cells. These results show that human and canine melanoma share activation and sensitivity to inhibition of cancer-related signalling pathways despite differences in activating mutations. PMID:23745794

  12. PPAR-γ agonist stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; He, Ming; Guo, Zong-wei; Wen, Jin-kun

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •PPAR-γ increases KLF4 protein level but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. •The increase of KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. •Pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) plays important roles in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. Both KLF4 and PPAR-γ are involved in VSMC proliferation and differentiation. However, the actual relationship between KLF4 and PPAR-γ in VSMCs is not clear. In this study, we found that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone increases KLF4 protein levels but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. PPAR-γ overexpression increases, while PPAR-γ knockdown reduces KLF4 expression, suggesting that the increase in KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. Further study showed that pioglitazone enhances KLF4 protein stability through reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that stabilization of KLF4 by pioglitazone was related to the activation of Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, we revealed that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination, providing further insights into PPAR-γ and KLF4 in regulating each other’s expression in VSMCs.

  13. Genistein activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase in broiler pulmonary arterial endothelial cells by an Akt-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Nie, Wei; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhang, Bingkun; Wang, Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Deregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in the development of multiple cardiovascular diseases. Our recent study demonstrated that genistein supplementation attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in broilers by restoration of endothelial function. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by using broiler pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs). Our results showed that genistein stimulated a rapid phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179 which was associated with activation of eNOS/NO axis. Further study indicated that the activation of eNOS was not mediated through estrogen receptors or tyrosine kinase inhibition, but via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent signaling pathway, as the eNOS activity and related NO release were largely abolished by pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K or Akt. Thus, our findings revealed a critical function of Akt in mediating genistein-stimulated eNOS activity in PAECs, partially accounting for the beneficial effects of genistein on the development of cardiovascular diseases observed in animal models. PMID:20926919

  14. Anthocyanins protected hearts against ischemic injury by reducing MMP-2 activity via Akt/P38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jie; Du, Hong; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Fan; Lu, Jingchao; Yang, Xiuchun; Cui, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidences suggest that there are close associations between anthocyanins and cardiac protection. However, little is known about the detailed roles of anthocyanins in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Incubation of primary cultured fibroblasts with anthocyanins reduced both intracellular collagen expression and extracellular collagen secretion. Down-regulation of collagen production was also shown in infarcted cardiac tissues after permanent coronary artery ligation in mice treated with anthocyanins. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and/or P-38 were significantly increased by anthocyanins supplementation in primary cultured fibroblasts. Gelatin zymography analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in conditioned medium collected from fibroblasts demonstrated that anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced MMP-2 activity. These results demonstrated that anthocyanins play a role in mediating myocardial ECM remodeling and that the Akt/P-38 pathways mediate these protective effects on hearts. PMID:27158396

  15. Morphine peripheral analgesia depends on activation of the PI3Kγ/AKT/nNOS/NO/KATP signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Thiago M.; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Lotufo, Celina M.; Duarte, Hugo L.; Souza, Guilherme R.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Funez, Mani I.; Dias, Quintino M.; Schivo, Ieda R.; Domingues, Andressa C.; Sachs, Daniela; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Hothersall, John S.; Cruz, Jader S.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ferreira, Sergio H.

    2010-01-01

    Morphine is one of the most prescribed and effective drugs used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions. In addition to its central effects, morphine can also produce peripheral analgesia. However, the mechanisms underlying this peripheral action of morphine have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the peripheral antinociceptive effect of morphine is lost in neuronal nitric-oxide synthase null mice and that morphine induces the production of nitric oxide in primary nociceptive neurons. The activation of the nitric-oxide pathway by morphine was dependent on an initial stimulation of PI3Kγ/AKT protein kinase B (AKT) and culminated in increased activation of KATP channels. In the latter, this intracellular signaling pathway might cause a hyperpolarization of nociceptive neurons, and it is fundamental for the direct blockade of inflammatory pain by morphine. This understanding offers new targets for analgesic drug development. PMID:20147620

  16. Chronic resistance training activates autophagy and reduces apoptosis of muscle cells by modulating IGF-1 and its receptors, Akt/mTOR and Akt/FOXO3a signaling in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Lu, A-Ming; Wang, Yan; Hong, An; Chen, Yulan; Hu, Juan; Li, Xiaoning; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2013-04-01

    Resistance exercise training (RET) remains the most effective treatment for the loss of muscle mass and strength in elderly people. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that autophagic signaling is altered in aged skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate if RET affects IGF-1 and its receptors, the Akt/mTOR, and Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathways and regulates autophagy and apoptosis in the gastrocnemius muscles of 18-20 month old rats. The results showed that 9 weeks of RET prevented the loss of muscle mass and improved muscle strength, accompanied by reduced LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, reduced p62 protein levels, and increased levels of autophagy regulatory proteins, including Beclin 1, Atg5/12, Atg7, and the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin L. RET also reduced cytochrome c level in the cytosol but increased its level in mitochondrial fraction, and inhibited cleaved caspase 3 production and apoptosis. Furthermore, RET upregulated the expression of IGF-1 and its receptors but downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR. In addition, RET upregulated the expression of total AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK, and FOXO3a. Taken together, these results suggest that the benefits of RET are associated with increased autophagy activity and reduced apoptosis of muscle cells by modulating IGF-1 and its receptors, the Akt/mTOR and Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathways in aged skeletal muscles. PMID:23419688

  17. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells activate the survival protein Akt in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells that limits apoptosis and necrosis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Dennis, Steve; Sawmiller, Darrell; Hunter, Lorynn; Sanberg, Paul; Miller, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    We have previously reported that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and endothelial stem cells, can significantly reduce acute myocardial infarction size. To determine the mechanism whereby HUCBC increase myocyte and vascular endothelial cell survival, we treated cardiac myocytes and coronary artery endothelial cells in separate experiments with HUCBC plus culture media or culture media alone and subjected the cells to 24 h of hypoxia or normoxia. We then determined in myocytes and endothelial cells activation of the cell survival protein Akt by Western blots. We also determined in these cells apoptosis by annexin V staining and necrosis by propidium iodide staining. Thereafter, we inhibited with API, a specific and sensitive Akt inhibitor, Akt activation in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia and determined cell apoptosis and necrosis. In cells cultured without HUCBC, hypoxia only slightly activated Akt. Moreover, hypoxia increased myocyte apoptosis by ≥ 226% and necrosis by 58% in comparison with myocytes in normoxia. Hypoxic treatment of endothelial cells without HUCBC increased apoptosis by 94% and necrosis by 59%. In contrast, hypoxia did not significantly affect HUCBC. Moreover, in myocyte + HUCBC cultures in hypoxia, HUCBC induced a ≥ 135% increase in myocyte phospho-Akt. Akt activation decreased myocyte apoptosis by 76% and necrosis by 35%. In endothelial cells, HUCBC increased phospho-Akt by 116%. HUCBC also decreased endothelial cell apoptosis by 58% and necrosis by 42%. Inhibition of Akt with API in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia nearly totally prevented the HUCBC-induced decrease in apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that HUCBC can significantly decrease hypoxia-induced myocyte and endothelial cell apoptosis and necrosis by activating Akt in these cells and in this manner HUCBC can limit myocardial ischemia and injury. PMID

  18. p51/p63 Inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis via Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, E; Okuyama, R; Ikawa, S; Nagoshi, H; Egawa, T; Kurihara, A; Yabuki, M; Tagami, H; Obinata, M; Aiba, S

    2008-01-31

    The epidermis must be protected against excess apoptotic cell death in response to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation. p53 is known to be critical for this protection. Although the p53 family member DeltaNp51B/DeltaNp63alpha (an N terminal-deleted form of p51/p63) is abundantly expressed in keratinocytes, its contribution to UV-B-dependent apoptosis is largely unknown. We found that, after a transient increase, DeltaNp51B is downregulated in UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis, whereas p53 is upregulated with delayed kinetics. Furthermore, the reduction of DeltaNp51B by small interfering RNAs augmented UV-B-dependent apoptosis in keratinocytes, indicating that DeltaNp51B blocks keratinocyte apoptosis. Although the exogenous expression of DeltaNp51B in keratinocytes did not further block the UV-B-dependent apoptosis, to our surprise the expression of TAp51B (an isoform with a full NH(2)-terminal transactivation domain that is structurally and functionally similar to p53) decreased apoptosis significantly. The blockade of keratinocyte apoptosis by the p51 was dependent on the phosphorylation of Akt, resulting in the activation of a survival pathway. Thus, in addition to its indispensable roles in epithelial development, p51 acts in adult cells to protect the epidermis against UV-B irradiation by preventing excess depletion of keratinocytes. PMID:17653081

  19. Discovery of 3-(3-(4-(1-Aminocyclobutyl)phenyl)-5-phenyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine (ARQ 092): An Orally Bioavailable, Selective, and Potent Allosteric AKT Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jean-Marc; Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Vensel, David; Liu, Yanbin; Bull, Cathy O; Cornell-Kennon, Susan; Iimura, Shin; Kelleher, Eugene W; Kizer, Darin E; Koerner, Steffi; Makhija, Sapna; Matsuda, Akihisa; Moussa, Magdi; Namdev, Nivedita; Savage, Ronald E; Szwaya, Jeff; Volckova, Erika; Westlund, Neil; Wu, Hui; Schwartz, Brian

    2016-07-14

    The work in this paper describes the optimization of the 3-(3-phenyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine chemical series as potent, selective allosteric inhibitors of AKT kinases, leading to the discovery of ARQ 092 (21a). The cocrystal structure of compound 21a bound to full-length AKT1 confirmed the allosteric mode of inhibition of this chemical class and the role of the cyclobutylamine moiety. Compound 21a demonstrated high enzymatic potency against AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, as well as potent cellular inhibition of AKT activation and the phosphorylation of the downstream target PRAS40. Compound 21a also served as a potent inhibitor of the AKT1-E17K mutant protein and inhibited tumor growth in a human xenograft mouse model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. PMID:27305487

  20. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship.

    PubMed

    Arik, Anam J; Hun, Lewis V; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25550465

  1. Akt Activation Correlates with Snail Expression and Potentially Determines the Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients at Stage T2 after a Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Yung-Wei; Liu, Yen-Nien; Chen, Chi-Long; Wen, Yu-Ching; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor, Snail, is a potential marker for predicting the recurrence of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Akt activation is important for Snail stabilization and transcription in PCa. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated level of Akt (p-Akt) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens and cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR). Using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry, the expression of p-Akt was measured in benign and neoplastic tissues from RP specimens in 53 patients whose cancer was pathologically defined as T2 without positive margins. Herein, we observed that the p-Akt level was higher in PCa than in benign tissues and was significantly associated with the Snail level. A high p-Akt image score (≥8) was significantly correlated with a higher histological Gleason sum, Snail image score, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. Moreover, the high p-Akt image score and Gleason score sum (≥7) showed similar discriminatory abilities for BCR according to a receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis and were correlated with worse recurrence-free survival according to a log-rank test (p < 0.05). To further determine whether a high p-Akt image score could predict the risk of BCR, a Cox proportional hazard model showed that only a high p-Akt image score (hazard ratio (HR): 3.12, p = 0.05) and a high Gleason score sum (≥7) (HR: 1.18, p = 0.05) but not a high preoperative PSA value (HR: 0.62, p = 0.57) were significantly associated with a higher risk of developing BCR. Our data indicate that, for localized PCa patients after an RP, p-Akt can serve as a potential prognostic marker that improves predictions of BCR-free survival. PMID:27455254

  2. Role of mechanical strain-activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    LI, BING-SHU; GUO, WEN-JUN; HONG, LI; LIU, YAO-DAN; LIU, CHENG; HONG, SHA-SHA; WU, DE-BIN; MIN, JIE

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading on pelvic supports contributes to pelvic organ prolapse (POP). However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Our previous study identified that mechanical strain induced oxidative stress (OS) and promoted apoptosis and senescence in pelvic support fibroblasts. The aim of the present study is to investigate the molecular signaling pathway linking mechanical force with POP. Using a four-point bending device, human uterosacral ligament fibroblasts (hUSLF) were exposed to mechanical tensile strain at a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 5333 µε, in the presence or absence of LY294002. The applied mechanical strain on hUSLF resulted in apoptosis and senescence, and decreased expression of procollagen type I α1. Mechanical strain activated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and resulted in downregulated expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 and Mn-superoxide dismutase, and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. These effects were blocked by administration of LY294002. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PI3K/Akt was activated in the uterosacral ligaments of POP patients, and that OS was increased and collagen type I production reduced. The results from the present study suggest that mechanical strain promotes apoptosis and senescence, and reduces collagen type I production via activation of PI3K/Akt-mediated OS signaling pathway in hUSLF. This process may be involved in the pathogenesis of POP as it results in relaxation and dysfunction of pelvic supports. PMID:27176043

  3. Neutrophil elastase enhances the proliferation and decreases apoptosis of leukemia cells via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    YANG, RONG; ZHONG, LIANG; YANG, XIAO-QUN; JIANG, KAI-LING; LI, LIU; SONG, HAO; LIU, BEI-ZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a neutrophil-derived serine proteinase with specificity for a broad range of substrates. NE has been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of several conditions, particularly that of pulmonary diseases. Previous studies have shown that NE can cleave the pro-myelocyte - retinoic acid receptor-alpha chimeric protein and is important for the development of acute pro-myelocytic leukemia. To further elucidate the role of NE in acute pro-myelocytic leukemia, the present study successfully constructed a lentiviral vector containing the NE gene (LV5-NE), which was transfected into NB4 acute pro-myelocytic leukemia cells. The effects of NE overexpression in NB4 cells were detected using a Cell-Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NE significantly promoted the proliferation of NB4 cells, inhibited cell apoptosis and apoptotic signaling, and led the activation of Akt. In an additional experiment, a vector expressing small hairpin RNA targeting NE was constructed to assess the effects of NE knockdown in U937 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that apoptotic signaling was increased, while Akt activation was decreased following silencing of NE. The results of the present study may indicate that NE activates the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway in leukemia cells to inhibit apoptosis and enhance cell proliferation, and may therefore represent a molecular target for the treatment of pro-myelocytic leukemia. PMID:27035679

  4. Myricitrin Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis through Activating Akt-Nrf2 Signaling in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yaping; Shen, Qiang; Liu, Guiyan; Ye, Jingxue; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, as well as diabetes mellitus, has been shown to trigger cardiac cell apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that myricitrin prevents endothelial cell apoptosis. However, whether myricitrin can attenuate H9c2 cell apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we established an experiment model in H9c2 cells exposed to high glucose. We tested the hypothesis that myricitrin may inhibit high glucose (HG)-induced cardiac cell apoptosis as determined by TUNEL staining. Furthermore, myricitrin promoted antioxidative enzyme production, suppressed high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in H9c2 cells. This agent significantly inhibited apoptotic protein expression, activated Akt and facilitated the transcription of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) expression as determined by Western blotting. Significantly, an Akt inhibitor (LY294002) or HO-1 inhibitor (ZnPP) not only inhibited myricitrin-induced HO-1/NQO-1 upregulation but also alleviated its anti-apoptotic effects. In summary, these observations demonstrate that myricitrin activates Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidant signaling and attenuates H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by high glucose via activation of Akt signaling. PMID:27399653

  5. Active Akt and functional p53 modulate apoptosis in Abelson virus-transformed pre-B cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Li; Unnikrishnan, Indira; Raghavan, Anuradha; Parmar, Kalindi; Rosenberg, Naomi

    2004-02-01

    Suppression of apoptosis is an important feature of the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) transformation process. During multistep transformation, Ab-MLV-infected pre-B cells undergo p53-dependent apoptosis during the crisis phase of transformation. Even once cells are fully transformed, an active v-Abl protein tyrosine kinase is required to suppress apoptosis because cells transformed by temperature-sensitive (ts) kinase mutants undergo rapid apoptosis after a shift to the nonpermissive temperature. However, inactivation of the v-Abl protein by a temperature shift interrupts signals transmitted via multiple pathways, making it difficult to identify those that are critically important for the suppression of apoptosis. To begin to dissect these pathways, we tested the ability of an SH2 domain Ab-MLV mutant, P120/R273K, to rescue aspects of the ts phenotype of pre-B cells transformed by the conditional kinase domain mutant. The P120/R273K mutant suppressed apoptosis at the nonpermissive temperature, a phenotype correlated with its ability to activate Akt. Apoptosis also was suppressed at the nonpermissive temperature by constitutively active Akt and in p53-null pre-B cells transformed with the ts kinase domain mutant. These data indicate that an intact Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is not critical for apoptosis suppression and suggest that signals transmitted through Akt and p53 play an important role in the response. PMID:14747529

  6. Single Cell Chemical Cytometry of Akt Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Normal Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes in Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor α.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Emilie R; Serafin, D Stephen; Nguyen, Tuong T; Tarrant, Teresa K; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2016-08-01

    The etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is poorly understood, and 30% of patients are unresponsive to established treatments targeting tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Akt kinase is implicated in TNFα signaling and may act as a barometer of patient responses to biologic therapies. Fluorescent peptide sensors and chemical cytometry were employed to directly measure Akt activity as well as proteolytic activity in individual fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from RA and normal subjects. The specificity of the peptide reporter was evaluated and shown to be a valid measure of Akt activity in single cells. The effect of TNFα treatment on Akt activity was highly heterogeneous between normal and RA subjects, which was not observable in bulk analyses. In 2 RA subjects, a bimodal distribution of Akt activity was observed, primarily due to a subpopulation (21.7%: RA Subject 5; 23.8%: RA Subject 6) of cells in which >60% of the reporter was phosphorylated. These subjects also possessed statistically elevated proteolytic cleavage of the reporter relative to normal subjects, suggesting heterogeneity in Akt and protease activity that may play a role in the RA-affected joint. We expect that chemical cytometry studies pairing peptide reporters with capillary electrophoresis will provide valuable data regarding aberrant kinase activity from small samples of clinical interest. PMID:27391352

  7. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  8. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Activation Status of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 Signaling Pathway in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Prodromidis, Georgios; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Aberrations of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 pathway have been linked to various types of human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation status of Akt, mTOR, and pS6 in oral lichen planus (OLP) in comparison with oral premalignant and malignant lesions and normal oral mucosa (NM). Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry for p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 was performed in 40 OLP, 20 oral leukoplakias (OL), 10 OSCC, and 10 control samples of NM. Results. Nuclear p-Akt expression was detected in the vast majority of cases in all categories, being significantly higher in OL. Cytoplasmic p-Akt and p-mTOR staining was present only in a minority of OLP cases, being significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Phospho-pS6 showed cytoplasmic positivity in most OLP cases, which however was significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Conclusions. Overall, cytoplasmic p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 levels appear to be significantly lower in OLP compared to OL and OSCC. However, the expression of these molecules in a subset of OLP cases suggests that activation of Akt/mTOR/pS6 may occur in the context of OLP, possibly contributing to the premalignant potential of individual cases. PMID:24228033

  9. Loss of desmocollin-2 confers a tumorigenic phenotype to colonic epithelial cells through activation of Akt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kolegraff, Keli; Nava, Porfirio; Helms, My N.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2011-01-01

    Desmocollin-2 (Dsc2) and desmoglein-2 (Dsg2) are transmembrane cell adhesion proteins of desmosomes. Reduced expression of Dsc2 has been reported in colorectal carcinomas, suggesting that Dsc2 may play a role in the development and/or progression of colorectal cancer. However, no studies have examined the mechanistic contribution of Dsc2 deficiency to tumorigenesis. Here we report that loss of Dsc2 promotes cell proliferation and enables tumor growth in vivo through the activation of Akt/β-catenin signaling. Inhibition of Akt prevented the increase in β-catenin–dependent transcription and proliferation following Dsc2 knockdown and attenuated the in vivo growth of Dsc2-deficient cells. Taken together, our results provide evidence that loss of Dsc2 contributes to the growth of colorectal cancer cells and highlight a novel mechanism by which the desmosomal cadherins regulate β-catenin signaling. PMID:21325624

  10. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in cancer stem cells: from basic research to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pu; Xu, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that possess unique self-renewal activity and mediate tumor initiation and propagation. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can be considered as a master regulator for cancer. More and more recent studies have shown the links between PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and CSC biology. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of signaling components upstream and downstream of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in CSC. In addition, we also summarize various classes of small molecule inhibitors of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and their clinical potential in CSC. Overall, the current available data suggest that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway could be a promising target for development of CSC-target drugs. PMID:26175931

  11. Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway correlates with prognosis in stage II colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malinowsky, K; Nitsche, U; Janssen, K-P; Bader, F G; Späth, C; Drecoll, E; Keller, G; Höfler, H; Slotta-Huspenina, J; Becker, K-F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with UICC/AJCC stage II colon cancer have a high 5-year overall survival rate after surgery. Nevertheless, a significant subgroup of patients develops tumour recurrence. Currently, there are no clinically established biomarkers available to identify this patient group. We applied reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPA) for phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase pathway activation mapping to stratify patients according to their risk of tumour recurrence after surgery. Methods: Full-length proteins were extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 118 patients who underwent curative resection. RPPA technology was used to analyse expression and/or phosphorylation levels of six major factors of the phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase pathway. Oncogenic mutations of KRAS and BRAF, and DNA microsatellite status, currently discussed as prognostic markers, were analysed in parallel. Results: Expression of phospho-AKT (HR=3.52; P=0.032), S6RP (HR=6.3; P=0.044), and phospho-4E-BP1 (HR=4.12; P=0.011) were prognostic factors for disease-free survival. None of the molecular genetic alterations were significantly associated with prognosis. Conclusions: Our data indicate that activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway evidenced on the protein level might be a valuable prognostic marker to stratify patients for their risk of tumour recurrence. Beside adjuvant chemotherapy targeting of upregulated PI3K/AKT signalling may be an attractive strategy for treatment of high-risk patients. PMID:24619078

  12. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Bo; Chen, Chun-Ming; Zhong, Hong; Zhu, Li-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell apoptosis is attributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, Annona glabra, has displayed significant cyto-protective activity. In the current study, we explored the pro-survival effect of FLZ in oxidative stressed-RPE cells and studied the underlying signaling mechanisms. Our results showed that FLZ attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced viability decrease and apoptosis in the RPE cell line (ARPE-19 cells) and in primary mouse RPE cells. Western blotting results showed that FLZ activated AKT signaling in RPE cells. The AKT-specific inhibitor, MK-2206, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pan inhibitor, wortmannin, and AKT1-shRNA (short hairpin RNA) depletion almost abolished FLZ-mediated pro-survival/anti-apoptosis activity. We discovered that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trans-activation mediated FLZ-induced AKT activation and the pro-survival effect in RPE cells, and the anti-apoptosis effect of FLZ against H2O2 was inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor, PD153035, or by EGFR shRNA-knockdown. In conclusion, FLZ protects RPE cells from oxidative stress through activation of EGFR-AKT signaling, and our results suggest that FLZ might have therapeutic values for AMD. PMID:25329617

  13. Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) promotes the progression of OSCC via the AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Na; Ma, Danhua; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Xin; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-08-01

    Our previous study suggested that receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) contribute to the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which RACK1 regulates cell growth in OSCC using in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of RACK1 knockdown with lentivirus based shRNA in stable cell lines were evaluated by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. RACK1 silencing effects on the cell cycle in OSCC cells were detected by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. The effect of RACK1 silencing on inhibiting the progression of OSCC was illustrated using a xenografted mouse model. RACK1 and relevant signaling pathways were investigated in tissues and cells using immunohistochemistry and/or western blot analysis. Stable silencing of the RACK1 gene resulted in a distinct G1 and G2 phase arrest by downregulating Cyclin B1 and Cyclin D1. Depleted RACK1 led to markedly decreased tumor volume and the expression of Ki67, CD34, and VEGF in vivo. The expression of RACK1 and p-AKT has a parallel pattern in different stages of oral carcinogenesis tissues. In addition, the protein level of RACK1 was positively correlated with p-AKT in OSCC tissue samples and cell lines. We found specific transient knockdown of RACK1 could downregulate the protein levels of p-AKT, p-mTOR, and p-S6 in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that RACK1-dependent OSCC growth and survival may be related to the increased activation of the AKT/mTOR/S6 pathway. PMID:27279145

  14. ADAM17 promotes breast cancer cell malignant phenotype through EGFR-PI3K-AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuguang; Jiang, Feng; Katakowski, Mark; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Lu, Qing-e; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) is involved in proteolytic ectodomain shedding of several membrane-bound growth factors and cytokines. The expression and activity of ADAM17 increase under some pathological conditions such as stroke and glioma. ADAM17 promotes neural progenitor cell migration and contributes to stroke-induced neurogenesis after stroke and brain tumor growth and invasion. In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether ADAM17 contributes to breast cancer progression and its mechanisms. To this end, we examined the role of ADAM17 in the proliferation, invasion, and tube formation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. Stable transfection of the MDA-MB-231 cell line with either a plasmid for over-expression of human ADAM17, or a siRNA to ADAM17 was employed in this study to establish high or low ADAM17 expression in breast cancer cells, respectively. For study of mechanism, the ADAM17 inhibitor TAPI-2 and the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 were used to counteract high ADAM17 expression or the activated PI3K-AKT pathway. Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were tested by MTT, Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, growth curve, and sulforhodamine B assay. Matrigel invasion assays were used to assess the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells to penetrate the Extra Cellular Matrix. A Matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway activation in MDA-MB-231 cells under different ADAM17 expression levels were tested by Western blot and ELISA. Our data show that ADAM17 promotes the MDA-MB-231 malignant phenotype by increased proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. TGF-α, VEGF secretion and VEGF expression was increasing by ADAM17 and counteracted by ADAM17 siRNA, TAPI-2, and LY294002 in MDA-MB-231 cells. ADAM17 activated, whereas ADAM17 siRNA, TAPI-2, and LY294002 deactivated the EGFR-PI3K-AKT signal pathway, which correlated with MDA-MB-231 cell malignant phenotype

  15. Angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation is necessary for angiogenesis but is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Kang, Dong-Ku; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Chang, Soo-Ik . E-mail: sichang@cbnu.ac.kr

    2007-01-12

    Angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. In this study, we report that angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. LY294002 inhibits the angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation and also angiogenin-induced cell migration in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in vivo without affecting nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells. These results suggest that cross-talk between angiogenin and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways is essential for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and that angiogenin-induced PKB/Akt activation is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells.

  16. Protracted Upregulation of Leptin and IGF1 is Associated with Activation of PI3K/Akt and JAK2 Pathway in Mouse Intestine after Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies including cancer. Hormones and related signaling crosstalk, which could contribute to radiation-induced persistent pathophysiologic changes in the small intestine and colon, remain to be explored. The current study assessed perturbation of GI homeostasis-related hormones and signaling pathways at the systemic as well as at the tissue level in small intestine and colon. Mice (6-8 week old C57BL/6J) were exposed to 2 Gy γ radiation, serum and tissue samples were collected, and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin signaling were assessed two or twelve months after radiation exposure. Serum levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), leptin, and adiponectin were altered at these times after irradiation. Radiation was associated with increased IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) and obesity (leptin) receptor (Ob-R), decreased adiponectin receptor 1 (Adipo-R1) and 2 (Adipo-R2), and increased Ki-67 levels in small intestine and colon at both time points. Immunoblot analysis further showed increased IGF1R and Ob-R, and decreased Adipo-R2. Additionally, upregulation of PI3K/Akt and JAK2 signaling, which are downstream of IGF1 and leptin, was also observed in irradiated samples at both time points. These results when considered along with increased cell proliferation in the small intestine and colon demonstrate for the first time that ionizing radiation can persistently increase IGF1 and leptin and activate downstream proliferative pathways, which may contribute to GI functional alterations and carcinogenesis. PMID:25678846

  17. Platelets promote osteosarcoma cell growth through activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-Akt signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Satoshi; Takemoto, Ai; Takami, Miho; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of tumor cells with platelets contribute to the progression of tumor malignancy, and the expression levels of platelet aggregation-inducing factors positively correlate with the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells. However, it is unclear how tumor-platelet interaction contributes to the proliferation of osteosarcomas. We report here that osteosarcoma-platelet interactions induce the release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from platelets, which promotes the proliferation of osteosarcomas. Co-culture of platelets with MG63 or HOS osteosarcoma cells, which could induce platelet aggregation, enhanced the proliferation of each cell line in vitro. Analysis of phospho-antibody arrays revealed that co-culture of MG63 cells with platelets induced the phosphorylation of platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and Akt. The addition of supernatants of osteosarcoma-platelet reactants also increased the growth of MG63 and HOS cells as well as the level of phosphorylated-PDGFR and -Akt. Sunitinib or LY294002, but not erlotinib, significantly inhibited the platelet-induced proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, indicating that PDGF released from platelets plays an important role in the proliferation of osteosarcomas by activating the PDGFR and then Akt. Our results suggest that inhibitors that specifically target osteosarcoma-platelet interactions may eradicate osteosarcomas. PMID:24974736

  18. Combined inhibition of the EGFR/AKT pathways by a novel conjugate of quinazoline with isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Tarozzi, Andrea; Marchetti, Chiara; Nicolini, Benedetta; D'Amico, Massimo; Ticchi, Nicole; Pruccoli, Letizia; Tumiatti, Vincenzo; Simoni, Elena; Lodola, Alessio; Mor, Marco; Milelli, Andrea; Minarini, Anna

    2016-07-19

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) represent a class of compounds widely used in anticancer therapy. An increasing number of studies reports on combination therapies in which the block of the EGFR-TK activity is associated with inhibition of its downstream pathways, as PI3K-Akt. Sulforaphane targets the PI3K-Akt pathway whose dysregulation is implicated in many functions of cancer cells. According to these considerations, a series of multitarget molecules have been designed by combining key structural features derived from an EGFR-TKI, PD168393, and the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Among the obtained molecules 1-6, compound 6 emerges as a promising lead compound able to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in A431 epithelial cancer cell line by covalently binding to EGFR-TK, and reducing the phosphorylation of Akt without affecting the total Akt levels. PMID:27135370

  19. Tanshinone IIA Prevents Leu27IGF-II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Mediated by Estrogen Receptor and Subsequent Akt Activation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Pai, Pei-Ying; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chung, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; HsuanDay, Cecilia; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    IGF-IIR plays important roles as a key regulator in myocardial pathological hypertrophy and apoptosis, which subsequently lead to heart failure. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound in Danshen and is structurally similar to 17[Formula: see text]-estradiol (E[Formula: see text]. However, whether tanshinone IIA improves cardiomyocyte survival in pathological hypertrophy through estrogen receptor (ER) regulation remains unclear. This study investigates the role of ER signaling in mediating the protective effects of tanshinone IIA on IGF-IIR-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Leu27IGF-II (IGF-II analog) was shown in this study to specifically activate IGF-IIR expression and ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist used to investigate tanshinone IIA estrogenic activity. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation through ER activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin expression and subsequent NFATc3 nuclear translocation to suppress myocardial hypertrophy. Tanshinone IIA reduced the cell size and suppressed ANP and BNP, inhibiting antihypertrophic effects induced by Leu27IGF-II. The cardioprotective properties of tanshinone IIA that inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and promote cell survival were reversed by ICI. Furthermore, ICI significantly reduced phospho-Akt, Ly294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and PI3K siRNA significantly reduced the tanshinone IIA-induced protective effect. The above results suggest that tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which was mediated through ER, by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin and NFATC3. Tanshinone IIA exerted strong estrogenic activity and therefore represented a novel selective ER modulator that inhibits IGF-IIR signaling to block cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26621443

  20. c-Src activation promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway: a new and promising target for NPC.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liangru; Xiang, Yanqun; Guo, Xiang; Lu, Jinping; Xia, Weixiong; Yu, Yahui; Peng, Yongjian; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Ye, Yanfang; Yang, Jing; Liang, Hu; Kang, Tiebang; Lv, Xing

    2016-05-10

    Aberrant activation of cellular Src (c-Src), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, could promote cancer progression through activating its downstream signaling pathways. However, the roles of c-Src and phosphorylated-Src (p-Src) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression are rarely investigated. Herein, we have identified high c-Src concentrations in the serum of NPC patients with distant metastasis using high-throughput protein microarrays. Levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in human primary NPC samples were unfavorable independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. Depletion or inactivation of c-Src in NPC cells using sgRNA with CRISPR/Cas9 system or PP2 decreased cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, these malignancies could be up-regulated by overexpressed c-Src in a NPC cell line with low-metastasis potential. Furthermore, p-Src was involved in promoting NPC cell metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and cytoskeleton remodeling. The p-Src-induced EMT process could be retarded by PP2, which mediated by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, elevated levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in primary NPC tissue correlated with poor outcomes of NPC patients. And aberrant activation of c-Src facilitated NPC cells with malignant potential, especially metastasis ability, which mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation and sequentially induced the EMT process. These findings unveiled a promising approach for targeted therapy of advanced NPC. PMID:27078847

  1. Marine lipopeptide Iturin A inhibits Akt mediated GSK3β and FoxO3a signaling and triggers apoptosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dey, Goutam; Bharti, Rashmi; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Sen, Ramkrishna; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-01-01

    Akt kinase is a critical component of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which is frequently over expressed in human cancers including breast. Therapeutic regimens for inhibiting breast cancer with aberrant Akt activity are essential. Here, we evaluated antitumor effect of a marine bacteria derived lipopeptide 'Iturin A' on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo through disrupting Akt pathway. Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were significantly inhibited by Iturin A and it induced apoptosis as confirmed by increased Sub G1 populations, DNA fragmentation, morphological changes and western blot analysis. Furthermore, Iturin A inhibited EGF induced Akt phosphorylation (Ser473 and Thr308) and its downstream targets GSK3β and FoxO3a. Iturin A inactivated MAPK as well as Akt kinase leading to the translocation of FoxO3a to the nucleus. Gene silencing of Akt in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells reduced the sensitivity of cancer cells to Iturin A. Interestingly, overexpression of Akt with Akt plasmid in cancer cells caused highly susceptible to induce apoptosis by Iturin A treatment. In a xenograft model, Iturin A inhibited tumor growth with reduced expressions of Ki-67, CD-31, P-Akt, P-GSK3β, P-FoxO3a and P-MAPK. Collectively, these findings imply that Iturin A has potential anticancer effect on breast cancer. PMID:25974307

  2. Marine lipopeptide Iturin A inhibits Akt mediated GSK3β and FoxO3a signaling and triggers apoptosis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Goutam; Bharti, Rashmi; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Sen, Ramkrishna; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-01-01

    Akt kinase is a critical component of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which is frequently over expressed in human cancers including breast. Therapeutic regimens for inhibiting breast cancer with aberrant Akt activity are essential. Here, we evaluated antitumor effect of a marine bacteria derived lipopeptide ‘Iturin A’ on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo through disrupting Akt pathway. Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were significantly inhibited by Iturin A and it induced apoptosis as confirmed by increased Sub G1 populations, DNA fragmentation, morphological changes and western blot analysis. Furthermore, Iturin A inhibited EGF induced Akt phosphorylation (Ser473 and Thr308) and its downstream targets GSK3β and FoxO3a. Iturin A inactivated MAPK as well as Akt kinase leading to the translocation of FoxO3a to the nucleus. Gene silencing of Akt in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells reduced the sensitivity of cancer cells to Iturin A. Interestingly, overexpression of Akt with Akt plasmid in cancer cells caused highly susceptible to induce apoptosis by Iturin A treatment. In a xenograft model, Iturin A inhibited tumor growth with reduced expressions of Ki-67, CD-31, P-Akt, P-GSK3β, P-FoxO3a and P-MAPK. Collectively, these findings imply that Iturin A has potential anticancer effect on breast cancer. PMID:25974307

  3. Dual inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway by nab-rapamycin and perifosine induces anti-tumor activity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cirstea, Diana; Hideshima, Teru; Rodig, Scott; Santo, Loredana; Pozzi, Samantha; Vallet, Sonia; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Perrone, Giulia; Patel, Kishan; Desai, Neil; Sportelli, Peter; Kapoor, Shweta; Vali, Shireen; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Raje, Noopur

    2011-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates multiple myeloma (MM) cell proliferation, survival, and development of drug resistance, underscoring the role of mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin with potential anti-MM activity. However, recent data demonstrate a positive feedback loop from mTOR/S6K1 to Akt, whereby Akt activation confers resistance to mTOR inhibitors. We confirmed that suppression of mTOR signaling in MM cells by rapamycin was associated with upregulation of Akt phosphorylation. We hypothesized that inhibiting this positive feedback by a potent Akt inhibitor perifosine would augment rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity in MM cells. Perifosine inhibited rapamycin-induced p-Akt, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity in MM.1S cells even in the presence of IL-6, IGF-1 or bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, rapamycin induced autophagy in MM.1S MM cells as evidenced by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, was augmented by perifosine. Combination therapy increased apoptosis detected by Annexin/PI analysis and caspase/PARP cleavage. Importantly, in vivo antitumor activity and prolongation of survival in a MM mouse xenograft model after treatment was enhanced with combination of nab-rapamycin and perifosine. Utilizing the in silico predictive analysis we confirmed our experimental findings of this drug combination on PI3K, Akt, mTOR kinases, and the caspases. Our data suggests that mutual suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway by rapamycin and perifosine combination induces synergistic MM cell cytotoxicity, providing the rationale for clinical trials in patients with relapsed / refractory MM. PMID:20371718

  4. Silymarin prevents palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in HepG2 cells: involvement of maintenance of Akt kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenyuan; Song, Ming; Lee, David Y W; Liu, Yanze; Deaciuc, Ion V; McClain, Craig J

    2007-10-01

    Whereas adipocytes have a unique capacity to store excess free fatty acids in the form of triglyceride in lipid droplets, non-adipose tissues, such as liver, have a limited capacity for storage of lipids. Saturated long-chain fatty acids, such as palmitate, are the major contributors to lipotoxicity. Silymarin is a mixture of flavonolignans, extracted from the milk thistle (Silibum marianum). Its hepatoprotective properties have been studied both in vitro and in vivo; however, its effect on palmitate-induced lipotoxicity has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate (i) whether silymarin could protect HepG2 cells from palmitate-induced cell death in an in vitro model, and (ii) possible mechanisms involved in this hepatoprotective role of silymarin. HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate in the absence or presence of silymarin and supernatants or cell lysates were collected at varying time-points. Cell death was assayed by measuring DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Akt kinase activity was also measured. Incubation with palmitate caused significant death in HepG2 cells. Palmitate incubation did not cause significant changes in reactive oxygen species production or intracellular glutathione content, but markedly inhibited Akt kinase activity. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with silymarin prevented palmitate-induced inhibition of Akt kinase activity and attenuated cell death. Our results suggest that silymarin may be an effective agent in protecting hepatocytes from saturated fatty acids-induced cell death. These data also provide a further rationale for exploration of the use of silymarin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:17845508

  5. Nitric oxide activates intradomain disulfide bond formation in the kinase loop of Akt1/PKBα after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, X-M; Tompkins, R G; Fischman, A J

    2013-03-01

    Severe burn injury is an acute inflammatory state with massive alterations in gene expression and levels of growth factors, cytokines and free radicals. During the catabolic processes, changes in insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle wasting (unintended loss of 5-15% of lean body mass) are observed clinically. Here, we reveal a novel molecular mechanism of Akt1/protein kinase Bα (Akt1/PKBα) regulated via cross-talking between dephosphorylation of Thr308 and S-nitrosylation of Cys296 post severe burn injury, which were characterized using nano-LC interfaced with tandem quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF)micro tandem mass spectrometry in both in vitro and in vivo studies. For the in vitro studies, Akt1/PKBα was S-nitrosylated with S-nitrosoglutathione and derivatized by three methods. The derivatives were isolated by SDS-PAGE, trypsinized and analyzed by the tandem MS. For the in vivo studies, Akt1/PKBα in muscle lysates from burned rats was immunoprecipitated, derivatized with HPDP-Biotin and analyzed as above. The studies demonstrated that the NO free radical reacts with the free thiol of Cys296 to produce a Cys296-SNO intermediate which accelerates interaction with Cys310 to form Cys296-Cys310 in the kinase loop. MS/MS sequence analysis indicated that the dipeptide, linked via Cys296-Cys310, underwent dephosphorylation at Thr308. These effects were not observed in lysates from sham animals. As a result of this dual effect of burn injury, the loose conformation that is slightly stabilized by the Lys297-Thr308 salt bridge may be replaced by a more rigid structure which may block substrate access. Together with the findings of our previous report concerning mild IRS-1 integrity changes post burn, it is reasonable to conclude that the impaired Akt1/PKBα has a major impact on FOXO3 subcellular distribution and activities. PMID:23314241

  6. On–off system for PI3-kinase–Akt signaling through S-nitrosylation of phosphatase with sequence homology to tensin (PTEN)

    PubMed Central

    Numajiri, Naoki; Takasawa, Kumi; Nishiya, Tadashi; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Ohno, Kazuki; Hayakawa, Wataru; Asada, Mariko; Matsuda, Hiromi; Azumi, Kaoru; Kamata, Hideaki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Hara, Hideaki; Minami, Masabumi; Lipton, Stuart A.; Uehara, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) physiologically regulates numerous cellular responses through S-nitrosylation of protein cysteine residues. We performed antibody-array screening in conjunction with biotin-switch assays to look for S-nitrosylated proteins. Using this combination of techniques, we found that phosphatase with sequence homology to tensin (PTEN) is selectively S-nitrosylated by low concentrations of NO at a specific cysteine residue (Cys-83). S-nitrosylation of PTEN (forming SNO-PTEN) inhibits enzymatic activity and consequently stimulates the downstream Akt cascade, indicating that Cys-83 is a critical site for redox regulation of PTEN function. In ischemic mouse brain, we observed SNO-PTEN in the core and penumbra regions but found SNO-Akt, which is known to inhibit Akt activity, only in the ischemic core. These findings suggest that low concentrations of NO, as found in the penumbra, preferentially S-nitrosylate PTEN, whereas higher concentrations of NO, known to exist in the ischemic core, also S-nitrosylate Akt. In the penumbra, inhibition of PTEN (but not Akt) activity by S-nitrosylation would be expected to contribute to cell survival by means of enhanced Akt signaling. In contrast, in the ischemic core, SNO-Akt formation would inhibit this neuroprotective pathway. In vitro model systems support this notion. Thus, we identify unique sites of PTEN and Akt regulation by means of S-nitrosylation, resulting in an “on–off” pattern of control of Akt signaling. PMID:21646525

  7. Hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation of oral cancer through activation of the COX2/AKT/ERK1/2 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Bian, Huan; Li, Xiaoxu; Wu, Huanhuan; Bi, Qingwei; Yan, Yingbin; Wang, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, the third gaseous transmitter, is one of the main causes of halitosis in the oral cavity. It is generally considered as playing a deleterious role in many oral diseases including oral cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oral cancer growth remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms through CCK-8 assay, EdU incorporation, real-time PCR, western blot and pathway blockade assays. Our results showed that hydrogen sulfide promoted oral cancer cell proliferation through activation of the COX2, AKT and ERK1/2 pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking any of the three above pathways inhibited hydrogen sulfide-induced oral cancer cell proliferation. Meanwhile, blockade of COX2 by niflumic acid downregulated NaHS-induced p-ERK and p-AKT expression. Inactivation of the AKT pathway by GSK690693 significantly decreased NaHS‑induced p-ERK1/2 expression, and inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway by U0126 markedly increased NaHS-induced p-AKT expression. Either the AKT or ERK1/2 inhibitor did not significantly alter the COX2 expression level. Our data revealed, for the first time, that hydrogen sulfide promotes oral cancer cell proliferation through activation of the COX2/AKT/ERK1/2 axis, suggesting new potential targets to eliminate the effect of hydrogen sulfide on the development of oral cancer. PMID:26987083

  8. Ablation of Akt2 Induces Autophagy through Cell Cycle Arrest, the Downregulation of p70S6K, and the Deregulation of Mitochondria in MDA-MB231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Stacey A.; Lee, Hoyun

    2011-01-01

    Background Akt/PKB is a promising anticancer therapeutic target, since abnormally elevated Akt activity is directly correlated to tumor development, progression, poor prognosis and resistance to cancer therapies. Currently, the unique role of each Akt isoform and their relevance to human breast cancer are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We previously found that Akt1, 2 and 3 are localized at specific subcellular compartments (the cytoplasm, mitochondria and nucleus, respectively), raising the possibility that each isoform may have unique functions and employ different regulation mechanisms. By systematically studying Akt-ablated MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells with isoform-specific siRNA, we here show that Akt2 is the most relevant isoform to cell proliferation and survival in our cancer model. Prolonged ablation of Akt2 with siRNA resulted in cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 by downregulating Cdk2 and cyclin D, and upregulating p27. The analysis of the Akt downstream signaling pathways suggested that Akt2 specifically targets and activates the p70S6K signaling pathway. We also found that Akt2 ablation initially resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial volume concomitantly with the upregulation of PGC-1α, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Prolonged ablation of Akt2, but not Akt1 or Akt3, eventually led to cell death by autophagy of the mitochondria (i.e., mitophagy). Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our data demonstrates that Akt2 augments cell proliferation by facilitating cell cycle progression through the upregulation of the cell cycle engine, and protects a cell from pathological autophagy by modulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Our data, thus, raises the possibility that Akt2 can be an effective anticancer target for the control of (breast) cancer. PMID:21297943

  9. Computational Model of Gab1/2-Dependent VEGFR2 Pathway to Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wan Hua; Popel, Aleksander S.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signal transduction is central to angiogenesis in development and in pathological conditions such as cancer, retinopathy and ischemic diseases. However, no detailed mass-action models of VEGF receptor signaling have been developed. We constructed and validated the first computational model of VEGFR2 trafficking and signaling, to study the opposing roles of Gab1 and Gab2 in regulation of Akt phosphorylation in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells. Trafficking parameters were optimized against 5 previously published in vitro experiments, and the model was validated against six independent published datasets. The model showed agreement at several key nodes, involving scaffolding proteins Gab1, Gab2 and their complexes with Shp2. VEGFR2 recruitment of Gab1 is greater in magnitude, slower, and more sustained than that of Gab2. As Gab2 binds VEGFR2 complexes more transiently than Gab1, VEGFR2 complexes can recycle and continue to participate in other signaling pathways. Correspondingly, the simulation results show a log-linear relationship between a decrease in Akt phosphorylation and Gab1 knockdown while a linear relationship was observed between an increase in Akt phosphorylation and Gab2 knockdown. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated the importance of initial-concentration ratios of antagonistic molecular species (Gab1/Gab2 and PI3K/Shp2) in determining Akt phosphorylation profiles. It also showed that kinetic parameters responsible for transient Gab2 binding affect the system at specific nodes. This model can be expanded to study multiple signaling contexts and receptor crosstalk and can form a basis for investigation of therapeutic approaches, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), overexpression of key signaling proteins or knockdown experiments. PMID:23805312

  10. Downregulation of Rab25 activates Akt1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SEVEN, DIDEM; DOGAN, SOYDAN; KILIÇ, ERKAN; KARAMAN, EMIN; KOSEOGLU, HIKMET; BUYRU, NUR

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that Ras-associated binding 25 protein (Rab25) is involved in the pathogenesis of human cancer. Although it has been demonstrated that the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the result of an accumulation of multiple sequential genetic and epigenetic alterations in key genes with important functions in cell growth and the cell cycle, recent studies have indicated that HNSCC is a complex and heterogenous disease. To the best of our knowledge, there is no data regarding the regulation of the Rab25 gene at the mRNA or protein level in HNSCC. Furthermore, available data on Rab25 expression in other types of cancer are conflicting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Rab25 is involved in the development and/or progression of HNSCC, and to analyze the mechanisms underlying its effects in this type of cancer. The expression of Rab25 mRNA in HNSCC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissue samples was measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while the level of the Rab25, Akt1 and phosphorylated-Akt1 proteins was measured using western blotting. Expression of Rab25 mRNA and protein was downregulated in 69.1% and 56.1% of tumor tissue samples, respectively. This downregulation was associated with an increase in p-Akt1 expression, in the absence of a change in total Akt1 protein levels, in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. The current findings suggest that Rab25 acts as a tumor suppressor in HNSCC. PMID:26622777

  11. Role of mechanical strain-activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Shu; Guo, Wen-Jun; Hong, Li; Liu, Yao-Dan; Liu, Cheng; Hong, Sha-Sha; Wu, De-Bin; Min, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical loading on pelvic supports contributes to pelvic organ prolapse (POP). However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Our previous study identified that mechanical strain induced oxidative stress (OS) and promoted apoptosis and senescence in pelvic support fibroblasts. The aim of the present study is to investigate the molecular signaling pathway linking mechanical force with POP. Using a four‑point bending device, human uterosacral ligament fibroblasts (hUSLF) were exposed to mechanical tensile strain at a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 5333 µε, in the presence or absence of LY294002. The applied mechanical strain on hUSLF resulted in apoptosis and senescence, and decreased expression of procollagen type I α1. Mechanical strain activated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and resulted in downregulated expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 and Mn‑superoxide dismutase, and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. These effects were blocked by administration of LY294002. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PI3K/Akt was activated in the uterosacral ligaments of POP patients, and that OS was increased and collagen type I production reduced. The results from the present study suggest that mechanical strain promotes apoptosis and senescence, and reduces collagen type I production via activation of PI3K/Akt-mediated OS signaling pathway in hUSLF. This process may be involved in the pathogenesis of POP as it results in relaxation and dysfunction of pelvic supports. PMID:27176043

  12. CpG-ODN Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure by Activation of PI3Kα-Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Cai, Xiangyu; Liu, Jie; Jia, Zhe; Jiao, Jinjin; Zhang, Jincai; Li, Changlin; Li, Jing; Tang, Xiang D.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase α (PI3Kα) represents a potential novel drug target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH) and heart failure. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) are classic agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which typically activates PI3K-Akt signaling in immune cells; however, the role of the nucleotide TLR9 agonists in cardiac myocytes is largely unknown. Here we report that CpG-ODN C274 could both attenuate PCH and improve cardiac dysfunction by activating PI3Kα-Akt signaling cascade. In vitro studies indicated that C274 could blunt reactivation of fetal cardiac genes and cell enlargement induced by a hypertrophic agent, isoproterenol. The anti-hypertrophic effect of C274 was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, or a small interfering RNA targeting PI3Kα. In vivo studies demonstrated that PCH, as marked by increased heart weight (HW) and cardiac ANF mRNA, was normalized by pre-administration with C274. In addition, Doppler echocardiography detected cardiac ventricular dilation, and contractile dysfunction in isoproterenol-treated animals, consistent with massive replacement fibrosis, reflecting cardiac cell death. As expected, pre-treatment of mice with C274 could prevent cardiac dysfunction associated with diminished cardiac cell death and fibrosis. In conclusion, CpG-ODNs are novel cardioprotective agents possessing antihypertrophic and anti-cell death activity afforded by engagement of the PI3Kα-Akt signaling. CpG-ODNs may have clinical use curbing the progression of PCH and preventing heart failure. PMID:23638055

  13. Erythropoietin pretreatment suppresses inflammation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    RONG, REN; XIJUN, XIAO

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein originally known for its important role in the stimulation of erythropoiesis, has recently been shown to have significant protective effects in animal models of kidney and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the mechanism underlying these protective effects remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of EPO on myocardial IRI and to investigate the mechanism underlying these effects. A total of 18 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the sham, IRI-saline and IRI-EPO groups. Rats in the IRI-EPO group were administered 5,000 U/kg EPO intraperitoneally 24 h prior to the induction of IRI. IRI was induced by ligating the left descending coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue were observed and scored. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were evaluated in the serum and myocardial tissue. Furthermore, the effects of EPO on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling and EPO receptor (EPOR) phosphorylation were measured. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue, increased expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in the myocardium, and increased serum levels of these mediators, as a result of IRI, were significantly decreased by EPO pretreatment. The effects of EPO were found to be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, which suppressed the inflammatory responses, following the initiation of EPOR activation by EPO. Therefore, EPO pretreatment was demonstrated to decrease myocardial IRI, which was associated with activation of EPOR, subsequently increasing PI3K/Akt signaling to inhibit the production and release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that EPO may be useful for preventing myocardial IRI. PMID:26622330

  14. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Prevents Phencyclidine-induced Apoptosis in Developing Brain by Parallel Activation of both the ERK and PI-3K/Akt Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Cheng Z.; Liu, Jie; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Johnson, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Phencyclidine is an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker that has been reported to induce neuronal apoptosis during development and schizophrenia-like behaviors in rats later in life. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to prevent neuronal death caused by NMDAR blockade, but the precise mechanism is unknown. This study examined the role of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in BDNF protection of PCP-induced apoptosis in corticostriatal organotypic cultures. It was observed that BDNF inhibited PCP-induced apoptosis in a concentration dependent fashion. BDNF effectively prevented PCP-induced inhibition of the ERK and PI-3K/Akt pathways and suppressed GSK-3β activation. Blockade of either PI-3K/Akt or ERK activation abolished BDNF protection. Western blot analysis revealed that the PI-3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented the stimulating effect of BDNF on the PI-3K/Akt pathway, but had no effect on the ERK pathway. Similarly, the ERK inhibitor PD98059 prevented the stimulating effect of BDNF on the ERK pathway, but not the PI-3K/Akt pathway. Co-application of LY294002 and PD98059 had no additional effect on BDNF-evoked activation of Akt or ERK. However, concurrent exposure to PD98059 and LY294002 caused much greater inhibition of BDNF-evoked phosphorylation of GSK-3β at serine 9 than did LY294002 alone. Finally, either BDNF or GSK-3β inhibition prevented PCP-induced suppression of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. These data demonstrate that the protective effect of BDNF against PCP-induced apoptosis is mediated by parallel activation of the PI-3K/Akt and ERK pathways, most likely involves inhibition of GSK-3β and activation of CREB. PMID:19887077

  15. BAI, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induces apoptosis in A549 cells through activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin; Lee, Jinho; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jong-Wook

    2013-02-01

    Previously, we have synthesized a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1'biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1λ(6) -isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]acetamide (BAI) and reported its anti-cancer activity in head and neck cancer cells. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of BAI on growth of various human cancer cell lines, including A549 (nonsmall cell lung cancer), HCT116 (colon), and Caki (kidney). Profoundly, results of XTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BAI at nanomolar concentrations (20-60 nM) inhibited growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, suggesting the anti-cancer potency. We show that BAI induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in these human cancer cells, as measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Interestingly, further biochemical analysis showed that treatment with BAI at 20 nM induced apoptosis in A549 cells in association with activation of caspases, cleavage of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), and inhibition of Akt in A549 cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition study revealed that pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor strongly blocked the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Transfection analysis with Akt cDNA encoding constitutively active Akt further addressed the significance of Akt inhibition in the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Notably, disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor potentiated apoptosis in A549 cells by BAI at a subcytotoxic concentration. These findings collectively suggest that BAI potently inhibits growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, and that the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells is associated with activation of caspases, and inhibition of Akt. PMID:22887215

  16. Excess iodide downregulates Na(+)/I(-) symporter gene transcription through activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Teixeira, Silvania da Silva; Poyares, Leonice Lourenço; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bordin, Silvana; Masini-Repiso, Ana Maria; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2016-05-01

    Transcriptional mechanisms associated with iodide-induced downregulation of NIS expression remain uncertain. Here, we further analyzed the transcriptional regulation of NIS gene expression by excess iodide using PCCl3 cells. NIS promoter activity was reduced in cells treated for 12-24 h with 10(-5) to 10(-3) M NaI. Site-directed mutagenesis of Pax8 and NF-κB cis-acting elements abrogated the iodide-induced NIS transcription repression. Indeed, excess iodide (10(-3) M) excluded Pax8 from the nucleus, decreased p65 total expression and reduced their transcriptional activity. Importantly, p65-Pax8 physical interaction and binding to NIS upstream enhancer were reduced upon iodide treatment. PI3K/Akt pathway activation by iodide-induced ROS production is involved in the transcriptional repression of NIS expression. In conclusion, the results indicated that excess iodide transcriptionally represses NIS gene expression through the impairment of Pax8 and p65 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the data presented herein described novel roles for PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and oxidative status in the thyroid autoregulatory phenomenon. PMID:26872612

  17. Baf60c drives glycolytic metabolism in the muscle and improves systemic glucose homeostasis through Deptor-mediated Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Li, Siming; Wang, Lin; Ko, Hwi Jin; Lee, Yongjin; Jung, Dae Young; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Yan, Zhen; Kim, Jason K; Lin, Jiandie D

    2013-05-01

    A shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism has been associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. However, whether this metabolic switch is deleterious or adaptive remains under debate, in part because of a limited understanding of the regulatory network that directs the metabolic and contractile specification of fast-twitch glycolytic muscle. Here we show that Baf60c (also called Smarcd3), a transcriptional cofactor enriched in fast-twitch muscle, promotes a switch from oxidative to glycolytic myofiber type through DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (Deptor)-mediated Akt activation. Muscle-specific transgenic expression of Baf60c activates a program of molecular, metabolic and contractile changes characteristic of glycolytic muscle. In addition, Baf60c is required for maintaining glycolytic capacity in adult skeletal muscle in vivo. Baf60c expression is significantly lower in skeletal muscle from obese mice compared to that from lean mice. Activation of the glycolytic muscle program by transgenic expression of Baf60c protects mice from diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Deptor is induced by the Baf60c-Six4 transcriptional complex and mediates activation of Akt and glycolytic metabolism by Baf60c in a cell-autonomous manner. This work defines a fundamental mechanism underlying the specification of fast-twitch glycolytic muscle and illustrates that the oxidative-to-glycolytic metabolic shift in skeletal muscle is potentially adaptive and beneficial in the diabetic state. PMID:23563706

  18. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Macrophage Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT Activation and HO-1 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Guibo; Dong, Xi; Wang, Min; Qin, Meng; Yu, Yingli; Sun, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Isorhamnetin (Iso) is a flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Hippophae rhamnoides L. Previous studies have revealed its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. This study investigated the ability of Iso to inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1-derived macrophages. The effects of Iso on atherosclerosis in vivo were also evaluated in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high fat diet. Methods and Results Iso showed significant inhibitory effects on ox-LDL-induced THP-1-derived macrophage injuries via decreasing reactive oxygen species levels, lipid deposition, and caspase-3 activation, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, reducing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and regulating apoptosis-related proteins. We also determined the protective effects of Iso by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. Iso reduced the atherosclerotic plaque size in vivo in ApoE-/- mice as assessed by oil red O, Sudan IV staining, and CD68-positive cells, and reduced macrophage apoptosis as assessed by caspase-3 and TUNEL assays in lesions. Conclusion In conclusion, our results show that Iso inhibited atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-/- mice by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. PMID:25799286

  19. YB-1 overexpression promotes a TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition via Akt activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Bin; Lee, Eun Byul; Cui, Jun; Kim, Yosup; Jang, Ho Hee

    2015-03-06

    The Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a transcription/translation regulatory protein, and the expression thereof is associated with cancer aggressiveness. In the present study, we explored the regulatory effects of YB-1 during the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Downregulation of YB-1 increased E-cadherin promoter activity, and upregulation of YB-1 decreased promoter activity, suggesting that the YB-1 level may be correlated with the EMT. TGF-β1 induced YB-1 expression, and TGF-β1 translocated cytosolic YB-1 into the nucleus. YB-1 overexpression promoted TGF-β1-induced downregulation of epithelial markers, upregulation of mesenchymal markers, and cell migration. Moreover, YB-1 overexpression enhanced the expression of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors via TGF-β1-induced Akt activation. Our findings afford new insights into the role played by YB-1 in the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • YB-1 regulates E-cadherin expression in A549 cells. • TGF-β1 induces upregulating and nuclear localization of YB-1. • YB-1 overexpression accelerates TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. • YB-1 regulates Snail and Slug expression via Akt activation.

  20. Activated α2-macroglobulin binding to cell surface GRP78 induces T-loop phosphorylation of Akt1 by PDK1 in association with Raptor.

    PubMed

    Misra, Uma Kant; Pizzo, Salvatore Vincent

    2014-01-01

    PDK1 phosphorylates multiple substrates including Akt by PIP3-dependent mechanisms. In this report we provide evidence that in prostate cancer cells stimulated with activated α2-macroglobulin (α2M*) PDK1 phosphorylates Akt in the T-loop at Thr(308) by using Raptor in the mTORC1 complex as a scaffold protein. First we demonstrate that PDK1, Raptor, and mTOR co-immunoprecipitate. Silencing the expression, not only of PDK1, but also Raptor by RNAi nearly abolished Akt phosphorylation at Akt(Thr308) in Raptor-immunoprecipitates of α2M*-stimulated prostate cancer cells. Immunodepleting Raptor or PDK from cell lysates of cells treated with α2M* drastically reduced Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308), which was recovered by adding the supernatant of Raptor- or PDK1-depleted cell lysates, respectively. Studies of insulin binding to its receptor on prostate cancer cells yielded similar results. We thus demonstrate that phosphorylating the T-loop Akt residue Thr(308) by PDK1 requires Raptor of the mTORC1 complex as a platform or scaffold protein. PMID:24516643

  1. Distinct Time Course of the Decrease in Hepatic AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Akt Phosphorylation in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Okubo, Hirofumi; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Monzen, Yuko; Kishimoto, Rui; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Asano, Tomoichiro; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in insulin resistance, which is characterized by the impairment of the insulin-Akt signaling pathway. However, the time course of the decrease in AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in the liver during the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by feeding a high fat diet (HFD) remains controversial. Moreover, it is unclear whether the impairment of AMPK and Akt signaling pathways is reversible when changing from a HFD to a standard diet (SD). Male ddY mice were fed the SD or HFD for 3 to 28 days, or fed the HFD for 14 days, followed by the SD for 14 days. We examined the time course of the expression and phosphorylation levels of AMPK and Akt in the liver by immunoblotting. After 3 days of feeding on the HFD, mice gained body weight, resulting in an increased oil red O staining, indicative of hepatic lipid accumulation, and significantly decreased AMPK phosphorylation, in comparison with mice fed the SD. After 14 days on the HFD, systemic insulin resistance occurred and Akt phosphorylation significantly decreased. Subsequently, a change from the HFD to SD for 3 days, after 14 days on the HFD, ameliorated the impairment of AMPK and Akt phosphorylation and systemic insulin resistance. Our findings indicate that AMPK phosphorylation decreases early upon feeding a HFD and emphasizes the importance of prompt lifestyle modification for decreasing the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:26266809

  2. Seabuckthorn Pulp Oil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Activation of Akt/eNOS.

    PubMed

    Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Malik, Salma; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Gamad, Nanda; Goyal, Sameer; Nag, Tapas C; Arya, Dharamvir S; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT) pulp oil obtained from the fruits of seabuckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)] has been used traditionally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, its role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium in rats has not been elucidated so far. The present study reports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil in IR-induced model of myocardial infarction in rats and underlying mechanism mediating activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Male albino Wistar rats were orally administered SBT pulp oil (5, 10, and 20 ml/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. On the day 31, ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. SBT pulp oil pretreatment at the dose of 20 ml/kg observed to stabilize cardiac function and myocardial antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibited lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to IR-control group. SBT pulp oil also improved hemodynamic and contractile function and decreased tumor necrosis factor and activities of myocyte injury marker enzymes; lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. Additionally, a remarkable rise in expression of pAkt-eNOS, Bcl-2 and decline in expression of IKKβ/NF-κB and Bax was observed in the myocardium. The histopathological and ultrastructural salvage of cardiomyocytes further supports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil. Based on findings, it can be concluded that SBT pulp oil protects against myocardial IR injury mediating favorable modulation of Akt-eNOS and IKKβ/NF-κB expression. PMID:27445803

  3. Fractionated Ionizing Radiation Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Esophageal Cancer Cells through PTEN Deficiency-Mediated Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    He, Enhui; Pan, Fei; Li, Guangchao; Li, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    In some esophageal cancer patients, radiotherapy may not prevent distant metastasis thus resulting in poor survival. The underlying mechanism of metastasis in these patients is not well established. In this study, we have demonstrated that ionizing radiation may induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied with increased cell migration and invasion, through downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and activation of Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. We developed a radioresistant (RR) esophageal squamous cancer cell line, KYSE-150/RR, by fractionated ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, and confirmed its radioresistance using a clonogenic survival assay. We found that the KYSE-150/RR cell line displayed typical morphological and molecular characteristics of EMT. In comparison to the parental cells, KYSE-150/RR cells showed an increase in post-IR colony survival, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, a decrease in PTEN in KYSE-150/RR cells was observed. We postulated that over-expression of PTEN may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition in KYSE-150/RR cells and restore IR-induced increase of cell migration. Mechanistically, fractionated IR inhibits expression of PTEN, which leads to activation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling and is associated with the elevated levels of Snail protein, a transcription factor involved in EMT. Correspondingly, treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, mimicked PTEN overexpression effect in KYSE-150/RR cells, further suggesting a role for the Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling in effects mediated through PTEN. Together, these results strongly suggest that fractionated IR-mediated EMT in KYSE-150/RR cells is through PTEN-dependent pathways, highlighting a direct proinvasive effect of radiation treatment on tumor cells. PMID:26000878

  4. DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates low-dose X-ray irradiation (LDI)-induced Akt activation and osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Shi-ji; Zhu, Li-juan; Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhou, Xiao-zhong

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • LDI increases ALP activity, promotes type I collagen (Col I)/Runx2 mRNA expression. • LDI induces DNA–PKcs activation, which is required for osteoblast differentiation. • Akt activation mediates LDI-induced ALP activity and Col I/Runx2 mRNA increase. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation is important for osteoblast differentiation. - Abstract: Low-dose irradiation (LDI) induces osteoblast differentiation, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the potential role of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA–PKcs)–Akt signaling in LDI-induced osteoblast differentiation. We confirmed that LDI promoted mouse calvarial osteoblast differentiation, which was detected by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as mRNA expression of type I collagen (Col I) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In mouse osteoblasts, LDI (1 Gy) induced phosphorylation of DNA–PKcs and Akt (mainly at Ser-473). The kinase inhibitors against DNA–PKcs (NU-7026 and NU-7441) or Akt (LY294002, perifosine and MK-2206), as well as partial depletion of DNA–PKcs or Akt1 by targeted-shRNA, dramatically inhibited LDI-induced Akt activation and mouse osteoblast differentiation. Further, siRNA-knockdown of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also inhibited LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation as well as ALP activity increase and Col I/Runx2 expression in mouse osteoblasts. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay results demonstrated that LDI-induced DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation, which was inhibited by NU-7441 or SIN1 siRNA-knockdown in mouse osteoblasts. In summary, our data suggest that DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation-mediated Akt activation (Ser-473 phosphorylation) is required for mouse osteoblast differentiation.

  5. Sestrin 3 Protein Enhances Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity by Direct Activation of the mTORC2-Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rongya; Xiong, Xiwen; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2015-01-01

    Sestrin proteins have been implicated in multiple biological processes including resistance to oxidative and genotoxic stresses, protection against aging-related pathologies, and promotion of metabolic homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Some evidence suggests that sestrins may inhibit mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) through inhibition of RagA/B GTPases or activation of AMPK; however, whether sestrins are also involved in mTORC2 regulation and function is unclear. To investigate the functions and mechanisms of Sestrin 3 (Sesn3), we generated Sesn3 liver-specific transgenic and knockout mice. Our data show that Sesn3 liver-specific knockout mice exhibit insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and Sesn3 transgenic mice were protected against insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. Using AMPK liver-specific knockout mice, we demonstrate that the Sesn3 insulin-sensitizing effect is largely independent of AMPK. Biochemical analysis reveals that Sesn3 interacts with and activates mTORC2 and subsequently stimulates Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. These findings suggest that Sesn3 can activate Akt via mTORC2 to regulate hepatic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. PMID:25377878

  6. The small GTPase Rap1b negatively regulates neutrophil chemotaxis and transcellular diapedesis by inhibiting Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sachin; Xu, Juying; Kumar, Rupali Sani; Lakshmikanthan, Sribalaji; Kapur, Reuben; Kofron, Matthew; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are the first line of cellular defense in response to infections and inflammatory injuries. However, neutrophil activation and accumulation into tissues trigger tissue damage due to release of a plethora of toxic oxidants and proteases, a cause of acute lung injury (ALI). Despite its clinical importance, the molecular regulation of neutrophil migration is poorly understood. The small GTPase Rap1b is generally viewed as a positive regulator of immune cell functions by controlling bidirectional integrin signaling. However, we found that Rap1b-deficient mice exhibited enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed lungs and enhanced susceptibility to endotoxin shock. Unexpectedly, Rap1b deficiency promoted the transcellular route of diapedesis through endothelial cell. Increased transcellular migration of Rap1b-deficient neutrophils in vitro was selectively mediated by enhanced PI3K-Akt activation and invadopodia-like protrusions. Akt inhibition in vivo suppressed excessive Rap1b-deficient neutrophil migration and associated endotoxin shock. The inhibitory action of Rap1b on PI3K signaling may be mediated by activation of phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, this study reveals an unexpected role for Rap1b as a key suppressor of neutrophil migration and lung inflammation. PMID:25092872

  7. Notoginsenoside R1-mediated neuroprotection involves estrogen receptor-dependent crosstalk between Akt and ERK1/2 pathways: a novel mechanism of Nrf2/ARE signaling activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Sun, G; Ye, J; Xu, H; Wang, H; Sun, X

    2014-04-01

    Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1), a novel phytoestrogen isolated from Panax notoginseng, has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases. To mimic oxidative stress in neurons and explore the neuroprotection of NGR1, H₂O₂-induced neurotoxicity in NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells was used. In this study, NGR1 preconditioning provided neuroprotective effects via suppressing H₂O₂-induced the intracellular ROS accumulation, the increase in the product of lipid peroxidation (MDA), protein oxidation (protein carbonyl), and DNA fragmentation (8-OHdG), and mitochondrial membrane depolarization as well as caspase-3 activation. Moreover, NGR1 treatment alone potently increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, augmented ARE enhancer activity, and upregulated the expression and activity of phase II antioxidant enzymes including HO-1, NQO-1, and γ-GCSc. NGR1 could also increase the ERE activity and activate Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. NGR1-mediated activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling and neuroprotection were abolished by genetic silencing of Nrf2 using siRNA or the pharmacological blockade of estrogen receptors using ICI-182780, and partially inhibited by Akt siRNA or ERK siRNA transfection. In addition, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 mediated by NGR1 was markedly inhibited in PC12 cells transfected with Akt siRNA. On the contrary, ERK1/2 siRNA transfection hardly had any effect on the phosphorylation of Akt mediated by NGR1. NGR1-mediated activation of Akt and ERK1/2 pathways was blocked by ICI-182780. In conclusion, NGR1 provided neuroprotection via inducing an estrogen receptor-dependent crosstalk between Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, subsequently activating Nrf2/ARE signaling and thereby up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24437944

  8. Cell surface protein C23 affects EGF-EGFR induced activation of ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shunzeng; Dai, Congxin; Liu, Yuting; Sun, Bowen; Shi, Ranran; Han, Mingzhi; Bian, Ruixiang; Wang, Renzhi

    2015-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway has been reported as canonical causes in cancer development. Meanwhile, the involvement of C23 in multiple signaling pathways has been also investigated (Lv et al., 2014). However, the effect of C23 on EGF pathway in glioblastoma is not fully characterized. In the present study, C23 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of U251 cell line were inhibited by C23 and EGFR antibodies, respectively; and then C23 and EGFR siRNAs were used to knock down endogenous C23 and EGFR, respectively. In addition, soft-agar and MTT assay were also introduced. Compared with control, either C23 or EGFR antibodies efficiently repressed the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 (p<0.000) and AKT (p<0.000). Similarly, either C23 or EGFR siRNAs indeed resulted in C23 and EGFR knockdown, and further suppressed the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT. Most importantly, immunoprecipitation revealed C23 interacted with EGFR once U251 was exposed to EGF treatment. In addition, the MTT and soft-agar assay also identified that C23 or EGFR siRNAs could obviously affected cell growth (p=0.004) and invasiveness, as cell viability and colony formation decreased markedly. Our results suggest that C23 plays a crucial role in activation of EGF-induced ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways via interacting with EGFR; furthermore, C23 could be indicative of an important factor in glioblastoma development and a useful target for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:25015231

  9. Naringenin induces apoptosis through downregulation of Akt and caspase-3 activation in human leukemia THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Hee; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Lee, Bok Kyu; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jeong, Yong Kee

    2008-12-01

    Naringenin (NGEN), one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits, has been shown to inhibit in vitro growth of in human cancer cells, although the mechanism of action is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated NEGN's pro-apoptotic effect on human leukemia THP-1 cells. NGEN treatment inhibited THP-1 cells' growth a concentration-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies and the accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. NGEN-induced apoptosis was accompanied by increased hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, activation of caspases and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavages. z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, significantly inhibited both the cytotoxic effect and apoptotic characteristics induced by NGEN treatment demonstrating caspase-3's important role in the observed cytotoxic effect. The induction of apoptosis was also associated with the inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increases NGEN-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence that NEGN's pro-apoptotic effect is mediated by the activation of caspases and mitochondria dysfunctions that correlate with the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in THP-1 cells. Therefore, NGEN has a strong potential as a therapeutic agent for preventing cancers such as leukemia. PMID:18930780

  10. The mRNA-edited form of GABRA3 suppresses GABRA3-mediated Akt activation and breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Sakurai, Masayuki; Yan, Jinchun; Li, Yan; Xu, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Paul J.; Zhang, Lin; Showe, Louise C.; Nishikura, Kazuko; Huang, Qihong

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is a critical event affecting breast cancer patient survival. To identify molecules contributing to the metastatic process, we analysed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data and identified 41 genes whose expression is inversely correlated with survival. Here we show that GABAA receptor alpha3 (Gabra3), normally exclusively expressed in adult brain, is also expressed in breast cancer, with high expression of Gabra3 being inversely correlated with breast cancer survival. We demonstrate that Gabra3 activates the AKT pathway to promote breast cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Importantly, we find an A-to-I RNA-edited form of Gabra3 only in non-invasive breast cancers and show that edited Gabra3 suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. A-to-I-edited Gabra3 has reduced cell surface expression and suppresses the activation of AKT required for cell migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates a significant role for mRNA-edited Gabra3 in breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26869349

  11. The sonic hedgehog signaling pathway stimulates anaplastic thyroid cancer cell motility and invasiveness by activating Akt and c-Met.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ashley J; Doscas, Michelle E; Ye, Jin; Heiden, Katherine B; Xing, Mingzhao; Li, Yi; Prinz, Richard A; Xu, Xiulong

    2016-03-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is highly activated in thyroid neoplasms and promotes thyroid cancer stem-like cell phenotype, but whether the Shh pathway regulates thyroid tumor cell motility and invasiveness remains unknown. Here, we report that the motility and invasiveness of two anaplastic thyroid tumor cell lines, KAT-18 and SW1736, were inhibited by two inhibitors of the Shh pathway (cyclopamine and GANT61). Consistently, the cell motility and invasiveness was decreased by Shh and Gli1 knockdown, and was increased by Gli1 overexpression in KAT-18 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that Akt and c-Met phosphorylation was decreased by a Gli1 inhibitor and by Shh and Gli1 knockdown, but was increased by Gli1 overexpression. LY294002, a PI-3 kinase inhibitor, and a c-Met inhibitor inhibited the motility and invasiveness of Gli1-transfected KAT-18 cells more effectively than the vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of Snail, a transcription factor regulated by the Shh pathway, led to decreased cell motility and invasiveness in KAT-18 and SW1736 cells. However, key epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin and vimentin as well as Slug were not affected by cyclopamine and GANT61 in either SW1736 or WRO82, a well differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line. Our data suggest that the Shh pathway-stimulated thyroid tumor cell motility and invasiveness is largely mediated by AKT and c-Met activation with little involvement of EMT. PMID:26859575

  12. TCDD promotes lung tumors via attenuation of apoptosis through activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Jane; Siao, Shih-He; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Chang, Chu-Yung; Chang, Louis W; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Lin, Pinpin; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2014-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a multiple-site, multiple-species carcinogen that induces cancer in multiple organs. The molecular mechanisms underlying TCDD-induced lung tumorigenesis remain unclear. In the present study, a two-stage lung tumorigenesis model was established by administrating a single low dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) combined with TCDD to female A/J mice. The results indicated that TCDD combined with low-dose NNK has a significant tumor-promoting effect compared with TCDD or low-dose NNK alone. Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and is thought to be one of the tumor-promoting mechanisms regulated by TCDD. We performed an additional series of experiments in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell line Beas2B cells, in which TCDD was combined with the apoptosis inducer staurosporine. Our in vitro results confirmed that TCDD could rescue cells from apoptosis induced by staurosporine. The inhibition of apoptosis is likely mediated by the activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, as determined by the effectiveness of pathway-specific inhibitors in abrogating the anti-apoptotic activity of TCDD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that TCDD promoted NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and revealed that TCDD inhibits staurosporine-induced apoptosis, at least in part, through the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:24927102

  13. Inhibition of LN-308 glioma cell proliferation and migration by retinoic acid amide through activation of Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Lu, Xiang-Dong; Si, Feng; Song, Chun-Yu; Meng, Qing-Hai

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retinoic acid amide (RAA) on the expression of integrin α3β1, rate of cell proliferation and migration in p53-deficient glioma cell line, LN-308. The results revealed promotion of integrin α3 expression, reduction in proliferation and migration in RAA treated cells compared to the control LN-308 glioma cells. Promotion of RAA induced integrin α3β1 expression led to the enhancement in cyclin-dependent kinase nuclear localization and activation of Akt pathway. In addition, RAA treatment inhibited the expression of nuclear factor-κB, Bcl-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These factors are responsible for promoting the rate of cell proliferation and survival in the carcinoma cells. Thus RAA treatment inhibits rate of LN-308 glioma cell proliferation and migration through increase in integrin α3β1 expression and activation of Akt pathway. Therefore, RAA can be of therapeutic importance for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26823704

  14. The sonic hedgehog signaling pathway stimulates anaplastic thyroid cancer cell motility and invasiveness by activating Akt and c-Met

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Ashley J.; Doscas, Michelle E.; Ye, Jin; Heiden, Katherine B.; Xing, Mingzhao; Li, Yi; Prinz, Richard A.; Xu, Xiulong

    2016-01-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is highly activated in thyroid neoplasms and promotes thyroid cancer stem-like cell phenotype, but whether the Shh pathway regulates thyroid tumor cell motility and invasiveness remains unknown. Here, we report that the motility and invasiveness of two anaplastic thyroid tumor cell lines, KAT-18 and SW1736, were inhibited by two inhibitors of the Shh pathway (cyclopamine and GANT61). Consistently, the cell motility and invasiveness was decreased by Shh and Gli1 knockdown, and was increased by Gli1 overexpression in KAT-18 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that Akt and c-Met phosphorylation was decreased by a Gli1 inhibitor and by Shh and Gli1 knockdown, but was increased by Gli1 overexpression. LY294002, a PI-3 kinase inhibitor, and a c-Met inhibitor inhibited the motility and invasiveness of Gli1-transfected KAT-18 cells more effectively than the vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of Snail, a transcription factor regulated by the Shh pathway, led to decreased cell motility and invasiveness in KAT-18 and SW1736 cells. However, key epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin and vimentin as well as Slug were not affected by cyclopamine and GANT61 in either SW1736 or WRO82, a well differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line. Our data suggest that the Shh pathway-stimulated thyroid tumor cell motility and invasiveness is largely mediated by AKT and c-Met activation with little involvement of EMT. PMID:26859575

  15. TCDD Promotes Lung Tumors via Attenuation of Apoptosis through Activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Siao, Shih-He; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Chang, Chu-Yung; Chang, Louis W.; Lin, Pinpin; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2014-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a multiple-site, multiple-species carcinogen that induces cancer in multiple organs. The molecular mechanisms underlying TCDD-induced lung tumorigenesis remain unclear. In the present study, a two-stage lung tumorigenesis model was established by administrating a single low dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) combined with TCDD to female A/J mice. The results indicated that TCDD combined with low-dose NNK has a significant tumor-promoting effect compared with TCDD or low-dose NNK alone. Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and is thought to be one of the tumor-promoting mechanisms regulated by TCDD. We performed an additional series of experiments in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell line Beas2B cells, in which TCDD was combined with the apoptosis inducer staurosporine. Our in vitro results confirmed that TCDD could rescue cells from apoptosis induced by staurosporine. The inhibition of apoptosis is likely mediated by the activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, as determined by the effectiveness of pathway-specific inhibitors in abrogating the anti-apoptotic activity of TCDD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that TCDD promoted NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and revealed that TCDD inhibits staurosporine-induced apoptosis, at least in part, through the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:24927102

  16. A computational model on the modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in heregulin-induced ErbB signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kimura, Shuhei; Naka, Takashi; Kawasaki, Takuji; Yumoto, Noriko; Ichikawa, Mio; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Saito, Kazuki; Saeki, Mihoro; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Konagaya, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    ErbB tyrosine kinase receptors mediate mitogenic signal cascade by binding a variety of ligands and recruiting the different cassettes of adaptor proteins. In the present study, we examined heregulin (HRG)-induced signal transduction of ErbB4 receptor and found that the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway negatively regulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade by phosphorylating Raf-1 on Ser(259). As the time-course kinetics of Akt and ERK activities seemed to be transient and complex, we constructed a mathematical simulation model for HRG-induced ErbB4 receptor signalling to explain the dynamics of the regulation mechanism in this signal transduction cascade. The model reflected well the experimental results observed in HRG-induced ErbB4 cells and in other modes of growth hormone-induced cell signalling that involve Raf-Akt cross-talk. The model suggested that HRG signalling is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A as well as Raf-Akt cross-talk, and protein phosphatase 2A modulates the kinase activity in both the PI3K-Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways. PMID:12691603

  17. Crude Preparations of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicles Induce Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Activating Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR–IκB Kinase–NF-κB Pathways in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Rho, Da Jeong; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori sheds outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain many surface elements of bacteria. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in directing the nature of adaptive immune responses against H. pylori, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in regulating function of DCs. In addition, HO-1 is important for adaptive immunity and the stress response. Although H. pylori-derived OMVs may contribute to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection, responses of DCs to OMVs have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of H. pylori-derived crude OMVs in modulating the expression of HO-1 in DCs. Exposure of DCs to crude H. pylori OMVs upregulated HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs obtained from a cagA-negative isogenic mutant strain induced less HO-1 expression than OMVs obtained from a wild-type strain. Crude H. pylori OMVs activated signals of transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2. Suppression of NF-κB or Nrf2 resulted in significant attenuation of crude OMV-induced HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs increased the phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target molecules of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), such as S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Suppression of Akt resulted in inhibition of crude OMV-induced Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. Furthermore, suppression of mTOR was associated with inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK), NF-κB, and HO-1 expression in crude OMV-exposed DCs. These results suggest that H. pylori-derived OMVs regulate HO-1 expression through two different pathways in DCs, Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR–IKK–NF-κB signaling. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression in DCs may modulate inflammatory responses in H. pylori infection. PMID:27185786

  18. Crude Preparations of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicles Induce Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Activating Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR-IκB Kinase-NF-κB Pathways in Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Rho, Da Jeong; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jung Mogg

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori sheds outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain many surface elements of bacteria. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in directing the nature of adaptive immune responses against H. pylori, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in regulating function of DCs. In addition, HO-1 is important for adaptive immunity and the stress response. Although H. pylori-derived OMVs may contribute to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection, responses of DCs to OMVs have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of H. pylori-derived crude OMVs in modulating the expression of HO-1 in DCs. Exposure of DCs to crude H. pylori OMVs upregulated HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs obtained from a cagA-negative isogenic mutant strain induced less HO-1 expression than OMVs obtained from a wild-type strain. Crude H. pylori OMVs activated signals of transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2. Suppression of NF-κB or Nrf2 resulted in significant attenuation of crude OMV-induced HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs increased the phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target molecules of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), such as S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Suppression of Akt resulted in inhibition of crude OMV-induced Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. Furthermore, suppression of mTOR was associated with inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK), NF-κB, and HO-1 expression in crude OMV-exposed DCs. These results suggest that H. pylori-derived OMVs regulate HO-1 expression through two different pathways in DCs, Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR-IKK-NF-κB signaling. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression in DCs may modulate inflammatory responses in H. pylori infection. PMID:27185786

  19. HC toxin (a HDAC inhibitor) enhances IRS1-Akt signalling and metabolism in mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hayden Weng Siong; Sim, Arthur Yi Loong; Huang, Su Ling; Leng, Ying; Long, Yun Chau

    2015-12-01

    Exercise enhances numerous signalling pathways and activates substrate metabolism in skeletal muscle. Small molecule compounds that activate these cellular responses have been shown to recapitulate the metabolic benefits of exercise. In this study, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, HC toxin, was investigated as a small molecule compound that activates exercise-induced adaptations. In C2C12 myotubes, HC toxin treatment activated two exercise-stimulated pathways: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt pathways. HC toxin increased the protein content and phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 as well as the activation of downstream Akt signalling. The effects of HC toxin on IRS1-Akt signalling were PI3K-dependent as wortmannin abolishes its effects on IRS1 protein accumulation and Akt phosphorylation. HC toxin-induced Akt activation was sufficient to enhance downstream mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling including p70S6K and S6, which were consistently abolished by PI3K inhibition. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation were also enhanced in HC toxin-treated myotubes. When myotubes were challenged with serum starvation for the induction of atrophy, HC toxin treatment prevented the induction of genes that are involved in autophagy and proteasomal proteolysis. Conversely, IRS1-Akt signalling was not induced by HC toxin in several hepatoma cell lines, providing evidence for a favourable safety profile of this small molecule. These data highlight the potential of HDAC inhibitors as a novel class of small molecules for the induction of exercise-like signalling pathways and metabolism. PMID:26373795

  20. MiRNA-486 regulates angiogenic activity and survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia through modulating Akt signal.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue-Feng; Wang, Hua; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Yin, Yue; Xu, Qin-Qin; Ge, Ri-Li; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2016-02-12

    MicroRNA-486 (miR-486) was first identified from human fetal liver cDNA library and validated as a regulator of hematopoiesis. Its roles in regulating the biological function of bone marrow-derived mesnechymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) under hypoxia have not been explored yet. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure to hypoxia upregulates miR-486 expression in BM-MSCs. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-486 resulted in increase of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in both mRNA and protein levels. MiR-486 expression also promotes proliferation and reduces apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Whereas MiR-486 knockdown downregulated the secretion of HGF and VEGF and induced apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Furthermore, PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling was validated to be involved in changes of BM-MSC biological functions regulated by miR-486. These results suggested that MiR-486 mediated the hypoxia-induced angiogenic activity and promoted the proliferation and survival of BM-MSCs through regulating PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings might provide a novel understanding of effective therapeutic strategy for hypoxic-ischemic diseases. PMID:26801559

  1. IL-8 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells through the activation of AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Lu, Fuding; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Kewei; Huang, Jian; Yu, Dexin; Bi, Liangkuan

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process has increasingly been examined due to its role in the progression of human tumors. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common urological tumors that results in patient mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that the EMT process is closely associated with the metastasis of RCC; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. The present study revealed that interleukin (IL)-8 was highly expressed in metastatic RCC. IL-8 could induce the EMT of an RCC cell line by enhancing N-cadherin expression and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, IL-8 could induce AKT phosphorylation, and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 could inhibit the EMT of RCC cells that was induced by IL-8. Therefore, these results suggest that IL-8 is able to promote the EMT of RCC through the activation of the AKT signal transduction pathway, and this may provide a possible molecular mechanism for RCC metastasis. PMID:27588140

  2. The inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells proliferation by arctigenin through G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest: persistent p27(Kip1) induction by interfering with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Mingjun; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-15

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is vital for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. In this study, we describe that arctigenin (ATG), a major bioactive component of Fructus Arctii, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity via inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-activated HSCs proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which could not be observed in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activities could be strongly inhibited by ATG through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression in early G1 phase arrest. In the ATG-treated HSCs, the expression level of p27(Kip1) and the formation of CDK2-p27(Kip1) complex were also increased. p27(Kip1) silencing significantly attenuated the effect of ATG, including cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation in activated HSCs. We also found that ATG suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream transcription factor Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a), decreased binding of FOXO3a to 14-3-3 protein, and stimulated nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in activated HSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO3a expression by FOXO3a siRNA attenuated ATG-induced up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in activated HSCs. All the above findings suggested that ATG could increase the levels of p27(Kip1) protein through inhibition of Akt and improvement of FOXO3a activity, in turn inhibited the CDK2 kinase activity, and eventually caused an overall inhibition of HSCs proliferation. PMID:25498792

  3. Complement membrane attack complexes activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming an Akt+NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Jane-wit, Dan; Surovtseva, Yulia V.; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Liu, Rebecca; Clark, Pamela; Manes, Thomas D.; Wang, Chen; Kashgarian, Michael; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy C.; Tellides, George; Pober, Jordan S.

    2015-01-01

    Complement membrane attack complexes (MACs) promote inflammatory functions in endothelial cells (ECs) by stabilizing NF-κB–inducing kinase (NIK) and activating noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Here we report a novel endosome-based signaling complex induced by MACs to stabilize NIK. We found that, in contrast to cytokine-mediated activation, NIK stabilization by MACs did not involve cIAP2 or TRAF3. Informed by a genome-wide siRNA screen, instead this response required internalization of MACs in a clathrin-, AP2-, and dynamin-dependent manner into Rab5+endosomes, which recruited activated Akt, stabilized NIK, and led to phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)-α. Active Rab5 was required for recruitment of activated Akt to MAC+ endosomes, but not for MAC internalization or for Akt activation. Consistent with these in vitro observations, MAC internalization occurred in human coronary ECs in vivo and was similarly required for NIK stabilization and EC activation. We conclude that MACs activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming a novel Akt+NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes. PMID:26195760

  4. Basal and treatment-induced activation of AKT mediates resistance to cell death by AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) in Braf-mutant human cutaneous melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Y.N. Vashisht; Deng, Wanleng; Woodman, Scott E.; Komurov, Kakajan; Ram, Prahlad; Smith, Paul D.; Davies, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of melanomas demonstrate constitutive activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK pathway. AZD6244 is a selective MEK1/2 inhibitor which markedly reduces tumor P-MAPK levels, but it produced few clinical responses in melanoma patients. An improved understanding of the determinants of resistance to AZD6244 may lead to improved patient selection and effective combinatorial approaches. The effects of AZD6244 on cell growth and survival were tested in a total of 14 Braf-mutant and 3 wild-type human cutaneous melanoma cell lines. Quantitative assessment of phospho-protein levels in the Braf-mutant cell lines by reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis showed no significant association between P-MEK or P-MAPK levels and AZD6244 sensitivity, but activation-specific markers in the PI3K-AKT pathway correlated with resistance. We also identified resistant cell lines without basal activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. RPPA characterization of the time-dependent changes in signaling pathways revealed that AZD6244 produced durable and potent inhibition of P-MAPK in sensitive and resistant Braf-mutant cell lines, but several resistant lines demonstrated AZD6244-induced activation of AKT. In contrast, sensitive cell lines demonstrated AZD6244 treatment-induced upregulation of PTEN protein and mRNA expression. Inhibition of AKT, TORC1/2, or IGF1R blocked AZD6244-induced activation of AKT and resulted in synergistic cell killing with AZD6244. These findings identify basal and treatment-induced regulation of the PI3K-AKT pathway as a critical regulator of AZD6244 sensitivity in Braf-mutant cutaneous melanoma cells, the novel regulation of PTEN expression by AZD6244 in sensitive cells, and suggest new combinatorial approaches for patients. PMID:20959481

  5. Akt and MAPK signaling mediate pregnancy-induced cardiac adaptation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eunhee; Yeung, Fan; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2012-05-01

    Although the signaling pathways underlying exercise-induced cardiac adaptation have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that result in the response of the heart to pregnancy. The objective of this study was to define the morphological, functional, and gene expression patterns that define the hearts of pregnant mice, and to identify the signaling pathways that mediate this response. Mice were divided into three groups: nonpregnant diestrus control, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy. Both time points of pregnancy were associated with significant cardiac hypertrophy. The prosurvival signaling cascades of Akt and ERK1/2 were activated in the hearts of pregnant mice, while the stress kinase, p38, was decreased. Given the activation of Akt in pregnancy and its known role in cardiac hypertrophy, the hypertrophic response to pregnancy was tested in mice expressing a cardiac-specific activated (myristoylated) form of Akt (myrAkt) or a cardiac-specific constitutively active (antipathologic hypertrophic) form of its downstream target, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (caGSK3β). The pregnancy-induced hypertrophic responses of hearts from these mice were significantly attenuated. Finally, we tested whether pregnancy-associated sex hormones could induce hypertrophy and alter signaling pathways in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). In fact, progesterone, but not estradiol treatment increased NRVM cell size via phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Inhibition of MEK1 effectively blocked progesterone-induced cellular hypertrophy. Taken together, our study demonstrates that pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by activation of Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. PMID:22345431

  6. IGF-I Signaling Is Essential for FSH Stimulation of AKT and Steroidogenic Genes in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Wu, Yanguang; Bennett, Jill; Winston, Nicola; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    FSH and IGF-I synergistically stimulate gonadal steroid production; conversely, silencing the FSH or the IGF-I genes leads to infertility and hypogonadism. To determine the molecular link between these hormones, we examined the signaling cross talk downstream of their receptors. In human and rodent granulosa cells (GCs), IGF-I potentiated the stimulatory effects of FSH and cAMP on the expression of steroidogenic genes. In contrast, inhibition of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) activity or expression using pharmacological, genetic, or biochemical approaches prevented the FSH- and cAMP-induced expression of steroidogenic genes and estradiol production. In vivo experiments demonstrated that IGF-IR inactivation reduces the stimulation of steroidogenic genes and follicle growth by gonadotropins. FSH or IGF-I alone stimulated protein kinase B (PKB), which is also known as AKT and in combination synergistically increased AKT phosphorylation. Remarkably, blocking IGF-IR expression or activity decreased AKT basal activity and abolished AKT activation by FSH. In GCs lacking IGF-IR activity, FSH stimulation of Cyp19 expression was rescued by overexpression of constitutively active AKT. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that in human, mouse, and rat GCs, the well-known stimulatory effect of FSH on Cyp19 and AKT depends on IGF-I and on the expression and activation of the IGF-IR. PMID:23340251

  7. Cell Type-Specific Activation of AKT and ERK Signaling Pathways by Small Negatively-Charged Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Jens; Kolch, Walter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with living organisms has become a focus of public and scientific debate due to their potential wide applications in biomedicine, but also because of unwanted side effects. Here, we show that superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with different surface coatings can differentially affect signal transduction pathways. Using isogenic pairs of breast and colon derived cell lines we found that the stimulation of ERK and AKT signaling pathways by SPIONs is selectively dependent on the cell type and SPION type. In general, cells with Ras mutations respond better than their non-mutant counterparts. Small negatively charged SPIONs (snSPIONs) activated ERK to a similar extent as epidermal growth factor (EGF), and used the same upstream signaling components including activation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, snSPIONs stimulated the proliferation of Ras transformed breast epithelial cells as efficiently as EGF suggesting that NPs can mimic physiological growth factors. PMID:23162692

  8. Cell Type-Specific Activation of AKT and ERK Signaling Pathways by Small Negatively-Charged Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Jens; Kolch, Walter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with living organisms has become a focus of public and scientific debate due to their potential wide applications in biomedicine, but also because of unwanted side effects. Here, we show that superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with different surface coatings can differentially affect signal transduction pathways. Using isogenic pairs of breast and colon derived cell lines we found that the stimulation of ERK and AKT signaling pathways by SPIONs is selectively dependent on the cell type and SPION type. In general, cells with Ras mutations respond better than their non-mutant counterparts. Small negatively charged SPIONs (snSPIONs) activated ERK to a similar extent as epidermal growth factor (EGF), and used the same upstream signaling components including activation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, snSPIONs stimulated the proliferation of Ras transformed breast epithelial cells as efficiently as EGF suggesting that NPs can mimic physiological growth factors.

  9. Gardenamide A Protects RGC-5 Cells from H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Insults by Activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rikang; Peng, Lizhi; Zhao, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Laitao; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Wenhua; Chen, Heru

    2015-01-01

    Gardenamide A (GA) protects the rat retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells against cell apoptosis induced by H2O2. The protective effect of GA was completely abrogated by the specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, and the specific protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor Akt VIII respectively, indicating that the protective mechanism of GA is mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 could not block the neuroprotection of GA. GA attenuated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by H2O2. Western blotting showed that GA promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), respectively, and effectively reversed the H2O2-inhibited phosphorylation of these three proteins. LY294002 completely inhibited the GA-activated phosphorylation of Akt, while only partially inhibiting eNOS. This evidence implies that eNOS may be activated directly by GA. PD98059 attenuated only partially the GA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 with/without the presence of H2O2, indicating that GA may activate ERK1/2 directly. All these results put together confirm that GA protects RGC-5 cells from H2O2 insults via the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Whether the ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved requires further investigations. PMID:26389892

  10. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-08-15

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  11. Coactivation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in PCB153-induced NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjiang; Yang, Jixin; Fu, Wenjuan; Qi, Suqin; Wang, Chenmin; Quan, Chao; Yang, Kedi

    2014-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent and widely distributed environmental pollutants that have various deleterious effects, e.g., neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive abnormalities. In order to verify the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by PCBs, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg for five consecutive days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 h. Results indicated that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were activated in vivo and in vitro after exposure to PCB153, and protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK were significantly increased. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibition caused by PCB153 were also observed. Inhibiting the ERK pathway significantly attenuated PCB153-induced NF-κB activation, whereas inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway hardly influenced phospho-NF-κB level. However, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway significantly elevated caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, while the ERK pathway only synergistically regulated caspase-9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a reliable indicator of cell proliferation, was also induced. Moreover, PCB153 led to hepatocellular hypertrophy and elevated liver weight. Taken together, PCB153 leads to aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition, and coactivated PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways play critical roles in PCB153-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • PCB153 led to hepatotoxicity through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition. • The PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were coactivated in vivo and in vitro by PCB153. • The ERK pathway regulated levels of phospho-NF-κB and caspase-9. • The PI3K/Akt pathway regulated levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9.

  12. S9, a Novel Anticancer Agent, Exerts Its Anti-Proliferative Activity by Interfering with Both PI3K-Akt-mTOR Signaling and Microtubule Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-hao; Ding, Hua-sheng; Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Mao-jiang; Zhang, Xiong-wen; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hua-liang; Meng, Ling-hua; Ding, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Background Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a central role in tumor formation and progression, providing validated targets for cancer therapy. S9, a hybrid of α-methylene-γ-lactone and 2-phenyl indole compound, possessed potent activity against this pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Effects of S9 on PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining and in vitro kinas assay. The interactions between tubulin and S9 were investigated by polymerization assay, CD, and SPR assay. The potential binding modes between S9 and PI3K, mTOR or tubulin were analyzed by molecular modeling. Anti-tumor activity of S9 was evaluated in tumor cells and in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts. S9 abrogated EGF-activated PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling cascade and Akt translocation to cellular membrane in human tumor cells. S9 possessed inhibitory activity against both PI3K and mTOR with little effect on other tested 30 kinases. S9 also completely impeded hyper-phosphorylation of Akt as a feedback of inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin. S9 unexpectedly arrested cells in M phase other than G1 phase, which was distinct from compounds targeting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. Further study revealed that S9 inhibited tubulin polymerization via binding to colchicine-binding site of tubulin and resulted in microtubule disturbance. Molecular modeling indicated that S9 could potentially bind to the kinase domains of PI3K p110α subunit and mTOR, and shared similar hydrophobic interactions with colchicines in the complex with tubulin. Moreover, S9 induced rapid apoptosis in tumor cell, which might reflect a synergistic cooperation between blockade of both PI3-Akt-mTOR signaling and tubulin cytoskeleton. Finally, S9 displayed potent antiproliferative activity in a panel of tumor cells originated from different tissue types including drug-resistant cells and in nude mice bearing human tumor

  13. Human Helicase RECQL4 Drives Cisplatin Resistance in Gastric Cancer by Activating an AKT-YB1-MDR1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mo, Dongliang; Fang, Hongbo; Niu, Kaifeng; Liu, Jing; Wu, Meng; Li, Shiyou; Zhu, Tienian; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Arora, Arvind; Lobo, Dileep N; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Chi, Zhenfen; Zhao, Yongliang

    2016-05-15

    Elevation of the DNA-unwinding helicase RECQL4, which participates in various DNA repair pathways, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenicity of various human cancers, including gastric cancer. In this study, we addressed the prognostic and chemotherapeutic significance of RECQL4 in human gastric cancer, which has yet to be determined. We observed significant increases in RECQL4 mRNA or protein in >70% of three independent sets of human gastric cancer specimens examined, relative to normal gastric tissues. Strikingly, high RECQL4 expression in primary tumors correlated well with poor survival and gastric cancer lines with high RECQL4 expression displayed increased resistance to cisplatin treatment. Mechanistic investigations revealed a novel role for RECQL4 in transcriptional regulation of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1, through a physical interaction with the transcription factor YB1. Notably, ectopic expression of RECQL4 in cisplatin-sensitive gastric cancer cells with low endogenous RECQL4 was sufficient to render them resistant to cisplatin, in a manner associated with YB1 elevation and MDR1 activation. Conversely, RECQL4 silencing in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells with high endogenous RECQL4 suppressed YB1 phosphorylation, reduced MDR1 expression, and resensitized cells to cisplatin. In establishing RECQL4 as a critical mediator of cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells, our findings provide a therapeutic rationale to target RECQL4 or the downstream AKT-YB1-MDR1 axis to improve gastric cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 76(10); 3057-66. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27013200

  14. Estrogen receptor alpha transcriptionally activates casein kinase 2 alpha: A pivotal regulator of promyelocytic leukaemia protein (PML) and AKT in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjana; Datta, Neerajana; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2016-06-01

    Protein kinase CK2α is frequently upregulated in different cancers. Alteration of CK2α expression and its activity is sufficient to induce dramatic changes in cell fate. It has been established that CK2α induces oncogenesis through modulation of both AKT and PML. CK2α has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. In contrary, statistical reports have shown low level of PML. However, the regulation of CK2α gene expression is not fully understood. In the current study, we found that CK2α and activated AKT positively correlate with ERα, whereas PML follows an inverse correlation in human breast cancer tissues. Modulation of ERα signalling leads to recruitment of activated ERα on the ERE sites of CK2α promoter, resulting in CK2α transactivation. Furthermore, the DMBA induced tumours in rat showed elevated level of active CK2α. Consequently it mediates enhancement of AKT activity and PML degradation, resulting in increased cellular proliferation, migration and metastasis. Syngeneic ERα overexpressing stable mouse 4T1 cells produce larger primary tumours and metastatic lung nodules in mice, corroborating our in vitro findings. Hence, our study provides a novel route of ERα dependent CK2α mediated oncogenesis that causes upregulation and consequent AKT activation along with degradation of tumour suppressor PML. PMID:27012497

  15. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway Is Necessary for Induction of Select Protein Markers of Follicular Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hena; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Park, Youngkyu; Ghaey, Shail; Feiger, Zachary J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of AKT in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated granulosa cell (GC) differentiation. Our results define a signaling pathway in GCs whereby the inactivating phosphorylation of tuberin downstream of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/AKT activity leads to Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain) and subsequent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation. mTOR then stimulates translation by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase and, consequently, the 40 S ribosomal protein S6. Activation of this pathway is required for FSH-mediated induction of several follicular differentiation markers, including luteinizing-hormone receptor (LHR), inhibin-α, microtubule-associated protein 2D, and the PKA type IIβ regulatory subunit. FSH also promotes activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). FSH-stimulated HIF-1 activity is inhibited by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, the Rheb inhibitor FTI-277 (farne-syltransferase inhibitor-277), and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Finally, we find that the FSH-mediated up-regulation of reporter activities for LHR, inhibin-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor is dependent upon HIF-1 activity, because a dominant negative form of HIF-1α interferes with the up-regulation of these genes. These results show that FSH enhances HIF-1 activity downstream of the PI 3-kinase/AKT/Rheb/mTOR pathway in GCs and that HIF-1 activity is necessary for FSH to induce multiple follicular differentiation markers. PMID:14982927

  16. MYOCARDIAL AKT: THE OMNIPRESENT NEXUS

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Mark A.; Völkers, Mirko; Fischer, Kimberlee; Bailey, Brandi; Cottage, Christopher T.; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie; Avitabile, Daniele; Alvarez, Roberto; Sundararaman, Balaji; Quijada, Pearl; Mason, Matt; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Malhowski, Amy; Cheng, Zhaokang; Khan, Mohsin; McGregor, Michael

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest examples of integrated signal transduction is revealed by examination of effects mediated by AKT kinase in myocardial biology. Positioned at the intersection of multiple afferent and efferent signals, AKT exemplifies a molecular sensing node that coordinates dynamic responses of the cell in literally every aspect of biological responses. The balanced and nuanced nature of homeostatic signaling is particularly essential within the myocardial context, where regulation of survival, energy production, contractility, and response to pathological stress all flow through the nexus of AKT activation or repression. Equally important, the loss of regulated AKT activity is primarily the cause or consequence of pathological conditions leading to remodeling of the heart and eventual decompensation. This review presents an overview compendium of the complex world of myocardial AKT biology gleaned from more than a decade of research. Summarization of the widespread influence that AKT exerts upon myocardial responses leaves no doubt that the participation of AKT in molecular signaling will need to be reckoned with as a seemingly omnipresent regulator of myocardial molecular biological responses. PMID:21742795

  17. β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Transactivation Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Decreases Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis Through Differential Subcellular Activation of ERK1/2 and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Grisanti, Laurel A.; Talarico, Jennifer A.; Carter, Rhonda L.; Yu, Justine E.; Repas, Ashley A.; Radcliffe, Scott W.; Tang, Hoang-ai; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Houser, Steven R.; Tilley, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to relay pro-survival effects via unknown mechanisms. Objective We hypothesized that acute βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation in the heart promotes differential subcellular activation of ERK1/2 and Akt, promoting cell survival through modulation of apoptosis. Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice underwent acute i.p. injection with isoproterenol (ISO) ± AG 1478 (EGFR antagonist) to assess the impact of βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation on phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (P-ERK1/2) and Akt (P-Akt) in distinct cardiac subcellular fractions. Increased P-ERK1/2 and P-Akt were observed in cytosolic, plasma membrane and nuclear fractions following ISO stimulation. Whereas the P-ERK1/2 response was EGFR-sensitive in all fractions, the P-Akt response was EGFR-sensitive only in the plasma membrane and nucleus, results confirmed in primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (RNCM). βAR-mediated EGFR-transactivation also decreased apoptosis in serum-depleted RNCM, as measured via TUNEL as well as caspase 3 activity/cleavage, which were sensitive to inhibition of either ERK1/2 (PD184352) or Akt (LY-294002) signaling. Caspase 3 activity/cleavage was also sensitive to inhibition of transcription, which, with an increase in nuclear P-ERK1/2 and P-Akt in response to ISO, suggested that βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation may regulate apoptotic gene transcription. An Apoptosis PCR Array identified tnfsf10 (TRAIL) to be altered by ISO in an EGFR-sensitive manner, results confirmed via RT-PCR and ELISA measurement of both membrane-bound and soluble cardiomyocyte TRAIL levels. Conclusions βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation induces differential subcellular activation of ERK1/2 and Akt leading to increased cell survival through the modulation of caspase 3 activity and apoptotic gene expression in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24566221

  18. Propofol protects hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in ischemic brain injury by increasing GLT-1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hong-Yan; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Xi-Yan; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yue, Xiu-Qin

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic brain injury (IBI) can cause nerve injury and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The neuroprotective effects of propofol against IBI have been previously demonstrated. However, the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons are not yet entirely clear. In the present study, models of IBI were established in hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells. Cell viability assay and apoptosis assay were performed to examine the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons in IBI. A significant decrease in cell viability and a significant increase in cell apoptosis were observed in the IBI group compared with the control group, accompanied by a decrease in glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT‑1) expression as determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The effects of IBI were reversed by propofol treatment. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of GLT‑1 in the hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells led to an increase in cell apoptosis, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR1 and NR2B) activation, as well as to a decrease in cell viability and a decrease in Akt activation. The effects of RNA interference-mediated GLT‑1 gene silencing on cell viability, JNK activation, NMDAR activation, cell apoptosis and Akt activation in the hippocampal neuronal cells were slightly reversed by propofol treatment. The JNK agonist, anisomycin, and the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, both significantly blocked the effects of propofol on hippocampal neuronal cell viability and apoptosis in IBI. The decrease in JNK activation and the increase in Akt activation caused by GLT‑1 overexpression were reversed by NMDA. Collectively, our findings suggest that propofol treatment protects hippocampal neurons against IBI by enhancing GLT‑1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27430327

  19. PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fresno Vara, Juan Angel; Casado, Enrique; de Castro, Javier; Cejas, Paloma; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; González-Barón, Manuel

    2004-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases, PI3Ks, constitute a lipid kinase family characterized by their ability to phosphorylate inositol ring 3'-OH group in inositol phospholipids to generate the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI-3,4,5-P(3)). RPTK activation results in PI(3,4,5)P(3) and PI(3,4)P(2) production by PI3K at the inner side of the plasma membrane. Akt interacts with these phospholipids, causing its translocation to the inner membrane, where it is phosphorylated and activated by PDK1 and PDK2. Activated Akt modulates the function of numerous substrates involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell cycle progression and cellular growth. In recent years, it has been shown that PI3K/Akt signalling pathway components are frequently altered in human cancers. Cancer treatment by chemotherapy and gamma-irradiation kills target cells primarily by the induction of apoptosis. However, the development of resistance to therapy is an important clinical problem. Failure to activate the apoptotic programme represents an important mode of drug resistance in tumor cells. Survival signals induced by several receptors are mediated mainly by PI3K/Akt, hence this pathway may decisively contribute to the resistant phenotype. Many of the signalling pathways involved in cellular transformation have been elucidated and efforts are underway to develop treatment strategies that target these specific signalling molecules or their downstream effectors. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in many of the mechanisms targeted by these new drugs, thus a better understanding of this crossroad can help to fully exploit the potential benefits of these new agents. PMID:15023437

  20. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-11-14

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy.

  1. Metformin inhibits growth of eutopic stromal cells from adenomyotic endometrium via AMPK activation and subsequent inhibition of AKT phosphorylation: a possible role in the treatment of adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Liu, Ming; Shi, Min; Wen, Zeqing; Li, Changzhong

    2013-10-01

    Adenomyosis is a finding that is associated with dysmenorrhea and heavy menstrual bleeding, associated with PI3K/AKT signaling overactivity. To investigate the effect of metformin on the growth of eutopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from patients with adenomyosis and to explore the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PI3K/AKT pathways. Primary cultures of human ESCs were derived from normal endometrium (normal endometrial stromal cells (N-ESCs)) and adenomyotic eutopic endometrium (adenomyotic endometrial stroma cells (A-ESCs)). Expression of AMPK was determined using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays were used to determine the effects of metformin and compound C on ESCs and also to detect growth and proliferation of ESCs. AMPK and PI3K/AKT signaling was determined by western blotting. A-ECSs exhibited greater AMPK expression than N-ESCs. Metformin inhibited proliferation of ESCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 was 2.45 mmol/l for A-ESCs and 7.87 mmol/l for N-ESCs. Metformin increased AMPK activation levels (p-AMPK/AMPK) by 2.0±0.3-fold in A-ESCs, 2.3-fold in A-ESCs from the secretory phase, and 1.6-fold in the proliferation phase. The average reduction ratio of 17β-estradiol on A-ESCs was 2.1±0.8-fold in proliferative phase and 2.5±0.5-fold in secretory phase relative to the equivalent groups not treated with 17β-estradiol. The inhibitory effects of metformin on AKT activation (p-AKT/AKT) were more pronounced in A-ESCs from the secretory phase (3.2-fold inhibition vs control) than in those from the proliferation phase (2.3-fold inhibition vs control). Compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor, abolished the effects of metformin on cell growth and PI3K/AKT signaling. Metformin inhibits cell growth via AMPK activation and subsequent inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling in A-ESCs, particularly during the secretory phase, suggesting a greater

  2. mTORC1 is necessary but mTORC2 and GSK3β are inhibitory for AKT3-induced axon regeneration in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Linqing; Yang, Liu; Huang, Haoliang; Liang, Feisi; Ling, Chen; Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Injured mature CNS axons do not regenerate in mammals. Deletion of PTEN, the negative regulator of PI3K, induces CNS axon regeneration through the activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling. We have conducted an extensive molecular dissection of the cross-regulating mechanisms in axon regeneration that involve the downstream effectors of PI3K, AKT and the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2). We found that the predominant AKT isoform in CNS, AKT3, induces much more robust axon regeneration than AKT1 and that activation of mTORC1 and inhibition of GSK3β are two critical parallel pathways for AKT-induced axon regeneration. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of T308 and S473 of AKT play opposite roles in GSK3β phosphorylation and inhibition, by which mTORC2 and pAKT-S473 negatively regulate axon regeneration. Thus, our study revealed a complex neuron-intrinsic balancing mechanism involving AKT as the nodal point of PI3K, mTORC1/2 and GSK3β that coordinates both positive and negative cues to regulate adult CNS axon regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14908.001 PMID:27026523

  3. Neuroprotective effects of salidroside through PI3K/Akt pathway activation in Alzheimer’s disease models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei; Wang, Ying; Li, Hui; Xiong, Ran; Zhao, Zongbo; Chu, Xingkun; Li, Qiongqiong; Sun, Suya; Chen, Shengdi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposits of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain parenchyma. Despite considerable research to elucidate the pathological mechanisms and identify therapeutic strategies for AD, effective treatments are still lacking. In the present study, we found that salidroside (Sal), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., can protect against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in four transgenic Drosophila AD models. Both longevity and locomotor activity were improved in Sal-fed Drosophila. Sal also decreased Aβ levels and Aβ deposition in brain and ameliorated toxicity in Aβ-treated primary neuronal culture. The neuroprotective effect of Sal was associated with upregulated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Our findings identify a compound that may possess potential therapeutic benefits for AD and other forms of neurodegeneration. PMID:27103787

  4. Seabuckthorn Pulp Oil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury in Rats through Activation of Akt/eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Malik, Salma; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Gamad, Nanda; Goyal, Sameer; Nag, Tapas C.; Arya, Dharamvir S.; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (SBT) pulp oil obtained from the fruits of seabuckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)] has been used traditionally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, its role in ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury of myocardium in rats has not been elucidated so far. The present study reports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil in IR-induced model of myocardial infarction in rats and underlying mechanism mediating activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Male albino Wistar rats were orally administered SBT pulp oil (5, 10, and 20 ml/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. On the day 31, ischemia was induced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. SBT pulp oil pretreatment at the dose of 20 ml/kg observed to stabilize cardiac function and myocardial antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and inhibited lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels as compared to IR-control group. SBT pulp oil also improved hemodynamic and contractile function and decreased tumor necrosis factor and activities of myocyte injury marker enzymes; lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. Additionally, a remarkable rise in expression of pAkt–eNOS, Bcl-2 and decline in expression of IKKβ/NF-κB and Bax was observed in the myocardium. The histopathological and ultrastructural salvage of cardiomyocytes further supports the cardioprotective effect of SBT pulp oil. Based on findings, it can be concluded that SBT pulp oil protects against myocardial IR injury mediating favorable modulation of Akt-eNOS and IKKβ/NF-κB expression. PMID:27445803

  5. Expansion and long-term culture of human spermatogonial stem cells via the activation of SMAD3 and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Liu, Linhong; Sun, Min; Hai, Yanan; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2015-08-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can differentiate into spermatids, reflecting that they could be used in reproductive medicine for treating male infertility. SSCs are able to become embryonic stem-like cells with the potentials of differentiating into numerous cell types of the three germ layers and they can transdifferentiate to mature and functional cells of other lineages, highlighting significant applications of human SSCs for treating human diseases. However, human SSCs are very rare and a long-term culture system of human SSCs has not yet established. This aim of study was to isolate, identify and culture human SSCs for a long period. We isolated GPR125-positive spermatogonia with high purity and viability from adult human testicular tissues utilizing the two-step enzymatic digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting with antibody against GPR125. These freshly isolated cells expressed a number of markers for SSCs, including GPR125, PLZF, GFRA1, RET, THY1, UCHL1 and MAGEA4, but not the hallmarks for spermatocytes and spermatozoa, e.g. SYCP1, SYCP3, PRM1, and TNP1. The isolated human SSCs could be cultured for two months with a significant increase of cell number with the defined medium containing growth factors and hydrogel. Notably, the expression of numerous SSC markers was maintained during the cultivation of human SSCs. Furthermore, SMAD3 and AKT phosphorylation was enhanced during the culture of human SSCs. Collectively, these results suggest that human SSCs can be cultivated for a long period and expanded whilst retaining an undifferentiated status via the activation of SMAD3 and AKT pathways. This study could provide sufficient cells of SSCs for their basic research and clinic applications in reproductive and regenerative medicine. PMID:26088866

  6. Downregulation of Foxc2 enhances apoptosis induced by 5-fluorouracil through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, CHAO; CUI, XIAOXIAN; DAI, XIAOQIN; LIAO, WENTING

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is fundamental for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, drug resistance to 5-FU may occasionally occur. Abnormal expression of Forkhead box C2 gene (Foxc2) has been identified in several human cancers, but the role of Foxc2 in the progression of CRC remains unclear. The present study established a stable Foxc2-short hairpin (sh)RNA cell line, which was confirmed by western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Foxc2-shRNA cells were treated with 5-FU and the cell viability was determined by an MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the signaling pathway involved in 5-FU treatment. The present study identified that 5-FU increased the percentage of apoptotic CRC cells among the Foxc2/RNA interference-transfected cells compared with cells transfected with an empty vector. Therefore, the downregulation of Foxc2, induced by 5-FU, may enhance apoptosis by the downregulation of apoptotic factors, including B cell lymphoma-2 and pro-caspase-3, in Foxc2-shRNA CRC cells. Furthermore, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathways were essential for the sensitization effect of Foxc2 to 5-FU treatment. Overall, these findings reveal the mechanisms behind Foxc2 depletion and 5-FU treatment of CRC and suggest that Foxc2 enhances resistance to apoptosis, induced by 5-FU, through the activation of MAPK and P13K/AKT pathways, and may serve as a valuable clinical prognostic marker for CRC. PMID:26893778

  7. Transglutaminase 2 Promotes PDGF-Mediated Activation of PDGFR/Akt1 and β-catenin Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Supports Neointima Formation

    PubMed Central

    Nurminskaya, Maria; Beazley, Kelly E.; Smith, Elizabeth P.; Belkin, Alexey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) accompanies neointima formation and associates with vascular diseases. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced activation of PDGFR/Akt1 and β-catenin signaling pathways in VSMCs has been implicated in vessel occlusion. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) regulates these pathways and its levels are increased in the neointima. Objective To evaluate the role of TG2 in PDGF/β-catenin signaling cross-talk and assess its contribution to neointima. Methods Aortic VSMCs from wild-type and TG2 knockout mice were tested in vitro for levels of VSMC markers, proliferation, migration, and PDGF-induced activation of PDGFR/Akt1 and β-catenin pathways. Neointima in these mice was studied ex vivo in coronary vessels using heart slice model and in vivo using carotid artery ligation (CAL) model. Results Genetic deletion of TG2 attenuated the PDGF-induced phenotypic switch of aortic VSMCs, reduced their proliferation and migration rates, and inhibited PDGF-induced activation of PDGFR/Akt1 and β-catenin pathways in both ex vivo and in vivo neointima models. Importantly, genetic deletion of TG2 also markedly attenuated vessel occlusion. Conclusions TG2 promotes neointima formation by mediating the PDGF-induced activation of the PDGFR/Akt1 and β-catenin pathways in VSMCs. This study identifies TG2 as a potential therapeutic target for blocking neointima in blood vessels. PMID:25612735

  8. Weight Loss Upregulates the Small GTPase DIRAS3 in Human White Adipose Progenitor Cells, Which Negatively Regulates Adipogenesis and Activates Autophagy via Akt-mTOR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asim; Mitterberger, Maria C; Lu, Zhen; Mattesich, Monika; Zwierzina, Marit E; Hörl, Susanne; Kaiser, Andreas; Viertler, Hans-Peter; Rostek, Ursula; Meryk, Andreas; Khalid, Sana; Pierer, Gerhard; Bast, Robert C; Zwerschke, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Long-term weight-loss (WL) interventions reduce insulin serum levels, protect from obesity, and postpone age-associated diseases. The impact of long-term WL on adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (ASCs) is unknown. We identified DIRAS3 and IGF-1 as long-term WL target genes up-regulated in ASCs in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of formerly obese donors (WLDs). We show that DIRAS3 negatively regulates Akt, mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling in ASCs undergoing adipogenesis and acts as a negative regulator of this pathway and an activator of autophagy. Studying the IGF-1-DIRAS3 interaction in ASCs of WLDs, we demonstrate that IGF-1, although strongly up-regulated in these cells, hardly activates Akt, while ERK1/2 and S6K1 phosphorylation is activated by IGF-1. Overexpression of DIRAS3 in WLD ASCs completely inhibits Akt phosphorylation also in the presence of IGF-1. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and S6K1 is lesser reduced under these conditions. In conclusion, our key findings are that DIRAS3 down-regulates Akt-mTOR signaling in ASCs of WLDs. Moreover, DIRAS3 inhibits adipogenesis and activates autophagy in these cells. PMID:27211557

  9. Cisplatin triggers atrophy of skeletal C2C12 myotubes via impairment of Akt signalling pathway and subsequent increment activity of proteasome and autophagy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fanzani, Alessandro Zanola, Alessandra; Rovetta, Francesca; Rossi, Stefania; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2011-02-01

    Cisplatin (cisPt) is an antineoplastic drug which causes an array of adverse effects on different organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In this work we show that cisPt behaves as a potent trigger to activate protein hypercatabolism in skeletal C2C12 myotubes. Within 24 h of 50 {mu}M cisPt administration, C2C12 myotubes displayed unchanged cell viability but showed a subset of hallmark signs typically recognized during atrophy, including severe reduction in body size, repression of Akt phosphorylation, transcriptional up-regulation of atrophy-related genes, such as atrogin-1, gabarap, beclin-1 and bnip-3, and loss of myogenic markers. As a consequence, proteasomal activity and formation of autophagosomes were remarkably increased in cisPt-treated myotubes, but forced stimulation of Akt pathway, as obtained through insulin administration or delivery of a constitutively activated Akt form, was sufficient to counter the cisPt-induced protein breakdown, leading to rescue of atrophic size. Overall, these results indicate that cisPt induces atrophy of C2C12 myotubes via activation of proteasome and autophagy systems, suggesting that the Akt pathway represents one sensitive target of cisPt molecular action in skeletal muscle.

  10. Inositol hexaphosphate represses telomerase activity and translocates TERT from the nucleus in mouse and human prostate cancer cells via the deactivation of Akt and PKC{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesh, Shankar; Banerjee, Partha P. . E-mail: ppb@georgetown.edu

    2006-11-03

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has anti-proliferative effects on a variety of cancer cells, including prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of anti-proliferative effects of IP6 is not entirely understood. Since the activation of telomerase is crucial for cells to gain immortality and proliferation ability, we examined the role of IP6 in the regulation of telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that IP6 represses telomerase activity in mouse and human prostate cancer cells dose-dependently. In addition, IP6 prevents the translocation of TERT to the nucleus. Since phosphorylation of TERT by Akt and/or PKC{alpha} is necessary for nuclear translocation, we examined phosphorylation of Akt and PKC{alpha} after IP6 treatments. Our results show that IP6 inhibits phosphorylation of Akt and PKC{alpha}. These results show for the first time that IP6 represses telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells by posttranslational modification of TERT via the deactivation of Akt and PKC{alpha}.

  11. Fn14, a Downstream Target of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway, Regulates Fibroblast Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Lai, Wen; Ye, Litong; Chen, Jing; Hou, Xinghua; Ding, Hong; Zhang, Wenwei; Wu, Yueheng; Liu, Xiaoying; Huang, Shufang; Yu, Xiyong; Xiao, Dingzhang

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis, the hallmark of human injuries and diseases such as serious burns, is characterized by excessive collagen synthesis and myofibroblast accumulation. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a potent inducer of collagen synthesis, has been implicated in fibrosis in animals. In addition to TGF-β, fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14) has been reported to play an important role in fibrotic diseases, such as cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of Fn14 in fibrosis are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of Fn14 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. In normal dermal fibroblasts, TGF-β signaling increased collagen production and Fn14 expression. Furthermore, Fn14 siRNA blocked extracellular matrix gene expression; even when TGF-β signaling was activated by TGF-β1, fibroblast activation remained blocked in the presence of Fn14 siRNA. Overexpressing Fn14 increased extracellular matrix gene expression. In determining the molecular regulatory mechanism, we discovered that SMAD4, an important TGF-β signaling co-mediator, bound to the Fn14 promoter and activated Fn14 transcription. Taken together, these results indicate that the TGF-β signaling pathway activates Fn14 expression through the transcription factor SMAD4 and that activated Fn14 expression increases extracellular matrix synthesis and fibroblast activation. Therefore, Fn14 may represent a promising approach to preventing the excessive accumulation of collagen or ECM in skin fibrosis. PMID:26625141

  12. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  13. Differential Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-Akt-mTOR Activation by Semliki Forest and Chikungunya Viruses Is Dependent on nsP3 and Connected to Replication Complex Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Biasiotto, Roberta; Eng, Kai; Neuvonen, Maarit; Götte, Benjamin; Rheinemann, Lara; Mutso, Margit; Utt, Age; Varghese, Finny; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Merits, Andres; Ahola, Tero; McInerney, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses affect or exploit the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a crucial prosurvival signaling cascade. We report that this pathway was strongly activated in cells upon infection with the Old World alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), even under conditions of complete nutrient starvation. We mapped this activation to the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain in the C-terminal tail of SFV nonstructural protein nsP3. Viruses with a deletion of this domain (SFV-Δ50) but not of other regions in nsP3 displayed a clearly delayed and reduced capacity of Akt stimulation. Ectopic expression of the nsP3 of SFV wild type (nsP3-wt), but not nsP3-Δ50, equipped with a membrane anchor was sufficient to activate Akt. We linked PI3K-Akt-mTOR stimulation to the intracellular dynamics of viral replication complexes, which are formed at the plasma membrane and subsequently internalized in a process blocked by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Replication complex internalization was observed upon infection of cells with SFV-wt and SFV mutants with deletions in nsP3 but not with SFV-Δ50, where replication complexes were typically accumulated at the cell periphery. In cells infected with the closely related chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was only moderately activated. Replication complexes of CHIKV were predominantly located at the cell periphery. Exchanging the hypervariable C-terminal tail of nsP3 between SFV and CHIKV induced the phenotype of strong PI3K-Akt-mTOR activation and replication complex internalization in CHIKV. In conclusion, infection with SFV but not CHIKV boosts PI3K-Akt-mTOR through the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain of nsP3 to drive replication complex internalization. IMPORTANCE SFV and CHIKV are very similar in terms of molecular and cell biology, e.g., regarding replication and molecular interactions, but are strikingly different regarding pathology: CHIKV is a relevant human

  14. Quantitative Single-Cell Analysis of Signaling Pathways Activated Immediately Downstream of Histamine Receptor Subtypes.

    PubMed

    van Unen, Jakobus; Rashidfarrokhi, Ali; Hoogendoorn, Eelco; Postma, Marten; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Goedhart, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can visualize responses of individual cells in real time. Here, we evaluated whether FRET-based biosensors provide sufficient contrast and specificity to measure activity of G-protein-coupled receptors. The four histamine receptor subtypes (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R) respond to the ligand histamine by activating three canonical heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated signaling pathways with a reported high degree of specificity. Using FRET-based biosensors, we demonstrate that H1R activates Gαq. We also observed that H1R activates Gαi, albeit at a 10-fold lower potency. In addition to increasing cAMP levels, most likely via Gαs, we found that the H2R induces Gαq-mediated calcium release. The H3R and H4R activated Gαi with high specificity and a high potency. We demonstrate that a number of FRET sensors provide sufficient contrast to: 1) analyze the specificity of the histamine receptor subtypes for different heterotrimeric G-protein families with single-cell resolution, 2) probe for antagonist specificity, and 3) allow the measurement of single-cell concentration-response curves. PMID:27358232

  15. MiT/TFE transcription factors are activated during mitophagy downstream of Parkin and Atg5

    PubMed Central

    Nezich, Catherine L.; Wang, Chunxin; Fogel, Adam I.

    2015-01-01

    The kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin can regulate the selective elimination of damaged mitochondria through autophagy (mitophagy). Because of the demand on lysosomal function by mitophagy, we investigated a role for the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, in this process. We show that during mitophagy TFEB translocates to the nucleus and displays transcriptional activity in a PINK1- and Parkin-dependent manner. MITF and TFE3, homologues of TFEB belonging to the same microphthalmia/transcription factor E (MiT/TFE) family, are similarly regulated during mitophagy. Unlike TFEB translocation after starvation-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibition, Parkin-mediated TFEB relocalization required Atg9A and Atg5 activity. However, constitutively active Rag guanosine triphosphatases prevented TFEB translocation during mitophagy, suggesting cross talk between these two MiT/TFE activation pathways. Analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–generated TFEB/MITF/TFE3/TFEC single, double, and triple knockout cell lines revealed that these proteins partly facilitate Parkin-mediated mitochondrial clearance. These results illuminate a pathway leading to MiT/TFE transcription factor activation, distinct from starvation-induced autophagy, which occurs during mitophagy. PMID:26240184

  16. Phosphorylation of Akt Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Activity of 1-p-Coumaroyl β-D-Glucoside Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Van Anh; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Jun-Ho; Lee, Hee Jae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids have been reported to possess numerous pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. However, the biological activity of 1-p-coumaroyl β-D-glucoside (CG), a glucose ester derivative of p-coumaric acid, has not been clearly examined. The objective of this study is to elucidate the anti-inflammatory action of CG in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In the present study, CG significantly suppressed LPS-induced excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 and the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2. CG also inhibited LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, CG significantly suppressed LPS-induced degradation of IκB. To elucidate the underlying mechanism by which CG exerts its anti-inflammatory action, involvement of various signaling pathways were examined. CG exhibited significantly increased Akt phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner, although MAPKs such as Erk, JNK, and p38 appeared not to be involved. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt/PI3K signaling pathway with wortmannin significantly, albeit not completely, abolished CG-induced Akt phosphorylation and anti-inflammatory actions. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that Akt signaling pathway might play a major role in CG-mediated anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:24634601

  17. PI3k/Akt signalling pathway plays a crucial role in the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in LPS-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Porro, Chiara; Trotta, Teresa; Salvatore, Rosaria; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) deputed to defend against pathogens. Persistent or acute inflammation of microglia leads to CNS disorders, so regulation of pro-inflammatory responses of microglial cells is thought to be a promising therapeutic strategy to attenuate abnormal inflammatory responses observed in neurodegenerative disease. We hypothesized that curcumin supplementation could reduce the inflammatory responses of activated microglial cells modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. Different curcumin concentrations were administered as BV-2 microglia pre-treatment 1h prior to LPS stimulation. Nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were determined by Griess reagent and western blotting, respectively. Inflammatory cytokines release was evaluated by ELISA and qRT-PCR. PI3K/Akt expression was analyzed by western blotting analysis. Curcumin significantly attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, LPS-induced release of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as iNOS expression. Interestingly, curcumin was able to reduce, again in a dose-dependent manner, PI3K/Akt phosphorylation as well as NF-κB activation in LPS-activated microglial cells. Overall these results suggest that curcumin plays an important role in the attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells and that the mechanisms involve down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling. PMID:27208432

  18. Berberine Induced Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Inhibiting Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt) Signal Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid component in several Chinese herbs including Huanglian, has been shown to induce growth inhibition and the apoptosis of certain cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and its potential mechanism. Methods: The proliferation effect of U20S was exanimed by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and the percentage of apoptotic cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, cleavage-PARP and Caspase3 were detected by Western blott. Results: Berberine treatment caused dose-dependent inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of U20S cell. Mechanistically, berberine inhibits PI3K/AKT activation that, in turn, results in up-regulating the expression of Bax, and PARP and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase3. In all, berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Conclusion: Berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. PMID:27398330

  19. The Masticatory Contractile Load Induced Expression and Activation of Akt1/PKBα in Muscle Fibers at the Myotendinous Junction within Muscle-Tendon-Bone Unit

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Yüksel; Klinz, Franz J.; Moghbeli, Mehrnoush; Addicks, Klaus; Raab, Wolfgang H. -M.; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The cell specific detection of enzyme activation in response to the physiological contractile load within muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for understanding of the mechanical forces transmission from muscle cells via tendon to the bone. The hypothesis that the physiological mechanical loading regulates activation of Akt1/PKBα at Thr308 and at Ser473 in muscle fibers within muscle-tendon-bone unit was tested using quantitative immunohistochemistry, confocal double fluorescence analysis, and immunoblot analysis. In comparison to the staining intensities in peripheral regions of the muscle fibers, Akt1/PKBα was detected with a higher staining intensity in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) areas. In muscle fibers at the MTJ areas, Akt1/PKBα is dually phosphorylated at Thr308 and Ser473. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that contractile load generated by masticatory muscles induces local domain-dependent expression of Akt1/PKBα as well as activation by dually phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 in muscle fibers at the MTJ areas within muscle-tendon-bone unit. PMID:20454577

  20. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-04-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: >PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. >PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx and caspase-3 activity. >PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. >PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. >PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  1. Ochratoxin A activates opposing c-MET/PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK 1-2 pathways in human proximal tubule HK-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Zeynep; Gül, Gizem; Yaman, Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced as a secondary metabolite by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. Because OTA is a common contaminant of food and feeds, humans and animals are frequently exposed to OTA in daily life. It has been classified as a carcinogen in rodents and a possible carcinogen in humans. OTA has been shown to deregulate a variety of different signal transduction pathways in a cell type- and dosage-depending manner resulting in contrasting physiological effects, such as survival or cell death. While the ERK1-2 and JNK/SAPK MAPK pathways are major targets, knowledge about their role in OTA-mediated cell survival and death is fragmented. Similarly, the contribution of the PI3K/Akt pathway to the carcinogenic effect of OTA in proximal tubule cells has not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we demonstrated that OTA induced sustained activation of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1-2 signaling pathways in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HK-2 cells. Chemical inhibition of ERK1-2 activation or overexpression of dominant-negative and kinase-dead MEK1 leads to increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis in OTA-treated cells. Blockage of PI3K/Akt with Wortmannin aggravated the negative effect of OTA on cell viability and increased the levels of apoptosis. Moreover, we identified the c-MET proto-oncogene as an upstream receptor tyrosine kinase responsible for OTA-induced activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in HK-2 cells. Our data suggest that OTA may potentiate carcinogenesis by sustained activation of c-MET/PI3K/Akt signaling through suppression of apoptosis induced by MEK/ERK1-2 activation in damaged renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. PMID:25002221

  2. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hag Dong; Jang, Chang-Young; Choe, Jeong Min; Sohn, Jeongwon; Kim, Joon

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  3. Differential crosstalk between the AMPK and PI3K/Akt pathways in breast cancer cells of differing genotypes: Leptin inhibits the effectiveness of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, Omar S; Al-Sakkaf, Kaltoom; Brown, Barry L; Dobson, Pauline R M

    2015-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy, is widely reported as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of breast and other cancers. The activated enzyme has been shown to be a promising anti-proliferative agent in breast cancer cell lines. However, little data exist on crosstalk between AMPK and the cellular survival axis of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the impact of microenvironment on cellular responses to AMPK activation. We present results which show differential crosstalk between AMPK and Akt, dependent on the cellular genetics of each breast cancer cell type. We also show that leptin blocks activation of AMPK and partially or completely attenuates the anti-proliferative effect of AMPK activation depending on the cell type. This suggests that leptin within the local environment might impose limitations on therapeutic usage of AMPK activators in cancer, thereby attenuating their effective use in many obese subjects. PMID:26260992

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1–7)/Mas axis activates Akt signaling to ameliorate hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fangyuan; Shi, Tingting; Yuan, Mingxia; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rongrong; Li, Sen; Li, Hongbing; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The classical axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/AT1, contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of bypass axis of RAS (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1–7)/Mas) in hepatic steatosis is still unclear. Here we showed that deletion of ACE2 aggravates liver steatosis, which is correlated with the increased expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and the decreased expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver of ACE2 knockout (ACE2−/y) mice. Meanwhile, oxidative stress and inflammation were also aggravated in ACE2−/y mice. On the contrary, overexpression of ACE2 improved fatty liver in db/db mice, and the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes were up-regulated. In vitro, Ang-(1–7)/ACE2 ameliorated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced HepG2 cells, and what’s more, Akt inhibitors reduced ACE2-mediated lipid metabolism. Furthermore, ACE2-mediated Akt activation could be attenuated by blockade of ATP/P2 receptor/Calmodulin (CaM) pathway. These results indicated that Ang-(1–7)/ACE2/Mas axis may reduce liver lipid accumulation partly by regulating lipid-metabolizing genes through ATP/P2 receptor/CaM signaling pathway. Our findings support the potential role of ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis in prevention and treatment of hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:26883384

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis activates Akt signaling to ameliorate hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fangyuan; Shi, Tingting; Yuan, Mingxia; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rongrong; Li, Sen; Li, Hongbing; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The classical axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/AT1, contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of bypass axis of RAS (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas) in hepatic steatosis is still unclear. Here we showed that deletion of ACE2 aggravates liver steatosis, which is correlated with the increased expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and the decreased expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver of ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y)) mice. Meanwhile, oxidative stress and inflammation were also aggravated in ACE2(-/y) mice. On the contrary, overexpression of ACE2 improved fatty liver in db/db mice, and the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes were up-regulated. In vitro, Ang-(1-7)/ACE2 ameliorated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced HepG2 cells, and what's more, Akt inhibitors reduced ACE2-mediated lipid metabolism. Furthermore, ACE2-mediated Akt activation could be attenuated by blockade of ATP/P2 receptor/Calmodulin (CaM) pathway. These results indicated that Ang-(1-7)/ACE2/Mas axis may reduce liver lipid accumulation partly by regulating lipid-metabolizing genes through ATP/P2 receptor/CaM signaling pathway. Our findings support the potential role of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in prevention and treatment of hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:26883384

  6. PTH-related protein upregulates integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and activates Akt in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Xiaoli; Falzon, Miriam . E-mail: mfalzon@utmb.edu

    2006-11-15

    Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma that metastasizes to bone. Tumor-produced parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a known stimulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, is a major mediator of the osteolytic process in breast cancer. We have previously shown that PTHrP increases breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and pro-invasive integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. To determine the role of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 in these PTHrP-mediated effects, we utilized two strategies to modulate expression of the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits in parental and PTHrP-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells: overexpression of {alpha}6{beta}4 by transfection with constructs encoding the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits, and suppression of endogenous {alpha}6{beta}4 expression by transfection with siRNAs targeting these subunits. We now show that the effects of PTHrP are mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. We also show that integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression is modulated at the mRNA level, indicating a transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanism of action for PTHrP. PTHrP expression also increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt, with a consequent increase in the levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The role of PTHrP in breast cancer growth and metastasis may thus be mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and Akt activation, with consequent inactivation of GSK-3.

  7. Impaired exercise training-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy and Akt/mTOR pathway activation in hypoxemic patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Costes, Frédéric; Gosker, Harry; Feasson, Léonard; Desgeorges, Marine; Kelders, Marco; Castells, Josiane; Schols, Annemie; Freyssenet, Damien

    2015-04-15

    Exercise training (ExTr) is largely used to improve functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, ExTr only partially restores muscle function in patients with COPD, suggesting that confounding factors may limit the efficiency of ExTr. In the present study, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle adaptations triggered by ExTr could be compromised in hypoxemic patients with COPD. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from patients with COPD who were either normoxemic (n = 15, resting arterial Po2 = 68.5 ± 1.5 mmHg) or hypoxemic (n = 8, resting arterial Po2 = 57.0 ± 1.0 mmHg) before and after a 2-mo ExTr program. ExTr induced a significant increase in exercise capacity both in normoxemic and hypoxemic patients with COPD. However, ExTr increased citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activities only in skeletal muscle of normoxemic patients. Similarly, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased only in patients who were normoxemic. Expression of atrogenes (MuRF1, MAFbx/Atrogin-1) and autophagy-related genes (Beclin, LC3, Bnip, Gabarapl) remained unchanged in both groups. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), GSK-3β (Ser9), and p70S6k (Thr389) was nonsignificantly increased in normoxemic patients in response to ExTr, but it was significantly decreased in hypoxemic patients. We further showed on C2C12 myotubes that hypoxia completely prevented insulin-like growth factor-1-induced phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and p70S6K. Together, our observations suggest a role for hypoxemia in the adaptive response of skeletal muscle of patients with COPD in an ExTr program. PMID:25701004

  8. Curcumin activates autophagy and attenuates oxidative damage in EA.hy926 cells via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shouyu; Long, Mingzhi; Li, Xiuzhen; Zhu, Shushu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin, which is the effective component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has previously been shown to exert potent antioxidant, antitumor and anti‑inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism underlying the protective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage in endothelial cells remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced apoptosis and autophagy in EA.hy926 cells, and to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Cultured EA.hy926 cells were treated with curcumin (5‑20 µmol/l) 4 h prior to and for 4 h during exposure to H2O2 (200 µmol/l). Oxidative stress resulted in a significant increase in the rate of cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by an increase in the expression levels of caspase‑3 and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein (Bax), and a decrease in the expression levels of Bcl‑2. Treatment with curcumin (5 or 20 µmol/l) significantly inhibited apoptosis, and reversed the alterations in caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax expression. Furthermore, curcumin induced autophagy and microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3‑Ⅱ expression, and suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicated that curcumin may protect cells against oxidative stress‑induced damage through inhibiting apoptosis and inducing autophagy via the Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:26781771

  9. Application of activated charcoal in the downstream processing of bacterial olefinic poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates).

    PubMed

    Wampfler, Bruno; Ramsauer, Thomas; Kehl, Karl; Zinn, Manfred; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Medium chain length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) are bacterial thermoplastic elastomers with a large potential in medical applications. The present study provides a novel process to isolate and purify poly([R]-3-hydroxy-omega-undecenoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-nonenoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-heptenoate) (PHUE) and poly([R]-3-hydroxy-omega-undecenoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-nonenoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxy-omega-heptenoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHOUE) from Pseudomonas putida species. Three different types of activated charcoal were compared with regard to their capability to selectively remove impurities. The product 'Charcoal activated, powder, pure' from Merck was found to be most suitable. Using ethyl acetate as solvent, the polyesters were extracted from freeze-dried biomass at room temperature and simultaneously purified by addition of activated charcoal at the beginning of the extraction. The period of extraction was one hour and the ratio solvent to biomass was 15:1 (vol/wt). After extraction, the solids were separated by pressure filtration through a metallic lace tissue. The filtrate was again passed through the previously accumulated filter cake, followed by a second filtration through a 0.45 microm membrane to remove finest coal particles. The resulting filtrate was concentrated, thus yielding polyesters whose quality and yield depended on the quantity of activated charcoal applied. For highly pure PHUE and PHOUE with low endotoxin levels, the optimum ratio of activated charcoal to solvent for extraction (V/V) was found to be 0.5 for PHUE and 0.25 for PHOUE. The yields with regard to the raw polymers amounted to 55 wt% for PHUE and 75 wt% for PHOUE, which are acceptable for polymers that can be used for medical applications. PMID:21197841

  10. Guggulsterone Targets Smokeless Tobacco Induced PI3K/Akt Pathway in Head and Neck Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Macha, Muzafar A.; Matta, Ajay; Chauhan, Shyam Singh; Siu, K. W. Michael; Ralhan, Ranju

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological association of head and neck cancer with smokeless tobacco (ST) emphasizes the need to unravel the molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer development, and identify pharmacologically safe agents for early intervention and prevention of disease recurrence. Guggulsterone (GS), a biosafe nutraceutical, inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway that plays a critical role in HNSCC development. However, the potential of GS to suppress ST and nicotine (major component of ST) induced HNSCC remains unexplored. We hypothesized GS can abrogate the effects of ST and nicotine on apoptosis in HNSCC cells, in part by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and its downstream targets, Bax and Bad. Methods and Results Our results showed ST and nicotine treatment resulted in activation of PI3K, PDK1, Akt, and its downstream proteins - Raf, GSK3β and pS6 while GS induced a time dependent decrease in activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. ST and nicotine treatment also resulted in induction of Bad and Bax phosphorylation, increased the association of Bad with 14-3-3ζresulting in its sequestration in the cytoplasm of head and neck cancer cells, thus blocking its pro-apoptotic function. Notably, GS pre-treatment inhibited ST/nicotine induced activation of PI3K/Akt pathway, and inhibited the Akt mediated phosphorylation of Bax and Bad. Conclusions In conclusion, GS treatment not only inhibited proliferation, but also induced apoptosis by abrogating the effects of ST / nicotine on PI3K/Akt pathway in head and neck cancer cells. These findings provide a rationale for designing future studies to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of GS in ST / nicotine associated head and neck cancer. PMID:21383988

  11. Thrombin Receptor-Activating Protein (TRAP)-Activated Akt Is Involved in the Release of Phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1) from Platelets in DM Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    It is generally known that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is phosphorylated through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We have previously reported that HSP27 is released from human platelets associated with collagen-induced phosphorylation. In the present study, we conducted an investigation into the effect of thrombin receptor-activating protein (TRAP) on the release of HSP27 in platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The phosphorylated-HSP27 levels induced by TRAP were directly proportional to the aggregation of platelets. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 (Ser-78) were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylated-Akt in the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP but not with those of phosphorylated-p44/p42 MAP kinase. The levels of HSP27 released from the TRAP (10 µM)-stimulated platelets were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets. The released platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) levels were in parallel with the HSP27 levels released from the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP. Although the area under the curve (AUC) of small aggregates (9–25 µm) induced by 10 µM TRAP showed no significant correlation with the released HSP27 levels, AUC of medium aggregates (25–50 µm), large aggregates (50–70 µm) and light transmittance were significantly correlated with the released HSP27 levels. TRAP-induced phosphorylation of HSP27 was truly suppressed by deguelin, an inhibitor of Akt, in the platelets from a healthy subject. These results strongly suggest that TRAP-induced activation of Akt in addition to p38 MAP kinase positively regulates the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets, which is closely related to the platelet hyper-aggregation in type 2 DM patients. PMID:27187380

  12. Thrombin Receptor-Activating Protein (TRAP)-Activated Akt Is Involved in the Release of Phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1) from Platelets in DM Patients.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    It is generally known that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is phosphorylated through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We have previously reported that HSP27 is released from human platelets associated with collagen-induced phosphorylation. In the present study, we conducted an investigation into the effect of thrombin receptor-activating protein (TRAP) on the release of HSP27 in platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The phosphorylated-HSP27 levels induced by TRAP were directly proportional to the aggregation of platelets. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 (Ser-78) were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylated-Akt in the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP but not with those of phosphorylated-p44/p42 MAP kinase. The levels of HSP27 released from the TRAP (10 µM)-stimulated platelets were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets. The released platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) levels were in parallel with the HSP27 levels released from the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP. Although the area under the curve (AUC) of small aggregates (9-25 µm) induced by 10 µM TRAP showed no significant correlation with the released HSP27 levels, AUC of medium aggregates (25-50 µm), large aggregates (50-70 µm) and light transmittance were significantly correlated with the released HSP27 levels. TRAP-induced phosphorylation of HSP27 was truly suppressed by deguelin, an inhibitor of Akt, in the platelets from a healthy subject. These results strongly suggest that TRAP-induced activation of Akt in addition to p38 MAP kinase positively regulates the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets, which is closely related to the platelet hyper-aggregation in type 2 DM patients. PMID:27187380

  13. Aerosol delivery of kinase-deficient Akt1 attenuates Clara cell injury induced by naphthalene in the lungs of dual luciferase mice.

    PubMed

    Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Park, Young-Chan; Hwang, Soon-Kyung; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Chang, Seung-Hee; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kang, Bitna; Hong, Seong-Ho; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2011-12-01

    Conventional lung cancer therapies are associated with poor survival rates; therefore, new approaches such as gene therapy are required for treating cancer. Gene therapies for treating lung cancer patients can involve several approaches. Among these, aerosol gene delivery is a potentially more effective approach. In this study, Akt1 kinase-deficient (KD) and wild-type (WT) Akt1 were delivered to the lungs of CMV-LucR-cMyc-IRES-LucF dual reporter mice through a nose only inhalation system using glucosylated polyethylenimine and naphthalene was administrated to the mice via intraperitoneal injection. Aerosol delivery of Akt1 WT and naphthalene treatment increased protein levels of downstream substrates of Akt signaling pathway while aerosol delivery of Akt1 KD did not. Our results showed that naphthalene affected extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein levels, ERK-related signaling, and induced Clara cell injury. However, Clara cell injury induced by naphthalene was considerably attenuated in mice exposed to Akt1 KD. Furthermore, a dual luciferase activity assay showed that aerosol delivery of Akt1 WT and naphthalene treatment enhanced cap-dependent protein translation, while reduced cap-dependent protein translation was observed after delivering Akt1 KD. These studies demonstrated that our aerosol delivery is compatible for in vivo gene delivery. PMID:22122896

  14. The cleaved FAS ligand activates the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 through Akt/ROCK1 to stimulate cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Monet, Michael; Poët, Mallorie; Tauzin, Sébastien; Fouqué, Amélie; Cophignon, Auréa; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick; Counillon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane CD95L (Fas ligand) can be cleaved to release a promigratory soluble ligand, cl-CD95L, which can contribute to chronic inflammation and cancer cell dissemination. The motility signaling pathway elicited by cl-CD95L remains poorly defined. Here, we show that in the presence of cl-CD95L, CD95 activates the Akt and RhoA signaling pathways, which together orchestrate an allosteric activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt or ROCK1 independently blocks the cl-CD95L-induced migration. Confirming these pharmacologic data, disruption of the Akt and ROCK1 phosphorylation sites on NHE1 decreases cell migration in cells exposed to cl-CD95L. Together, these findings demonstrate that NHE1 is a novel molecular actor in the CD95 signaling pathway that drives the cl-CD95L-induced cell migration through both the Akt and RhoA signaling pathways. PMID:27302366

  15. pGlcNAc Nanofiber Treatment of Cutaneous Wounds Stimulate Increased Tensile Strength and Reduced Scarring via Activation of Akt1

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Haley Buff; Felmly, Lloyd McPherson; Demcheva, Marina; Seth, Arun; Norris, Russell; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Vournakis, John; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of cutaneous wounds with poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine containing nanofibers (pGlcNAc), a novel polysaccharide material derived from a marine diatom, results in increased wound closure, antibacterial activities and innate immune responses. We have shown that Akt1 plays a central role in the regulation of these activities. Here, we show that pGlcNAc treatment of cutaneous wounds results in a smaller scar that has increased tensile strength and elasticity. pGlcNAc treated wounds exhibit decreased collagen content, increased collagen organization and decreased myofibroblast content. A fibrin gel assay was used to assess the regulation of fibroblast alignment in vitro. In this assay, fibrin lattice is formed with two pins that provide focal points upon which the gel can exert force as the cells align from pole to pole. pGlcNAc stimulation of embedded fibroblasts results in cellular alignment as compared to untreated controls, by a process that is Akt1 dependent. We show that Akt1 is required in vivo for the pGlcNAc-induced increased tensile strength and elasticity. Taken together, our findings suggest that pGlcNAc nanofibers stimulate an Akt1 dependent pathway that results in the proper alignment of fibroblasts, decreased scarring, and increased tensile strength during cutaneous wound healing. PMID:25955155

  16. An integrin beta4-EGFR unit promotes hepatocellular carcinoma lung metastases by enhancing anchorage independence through activation of FAK-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chao; Zhang, Zhan-Guo; Chen, Wei-Xun; Luo, Hong-Ping; Song, Jia; Dong, Wei; Zhu, Xuan-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bi-Xiang

    2016-06-28

    Anoikis, a form of programmed cell death, occurs when the cells are detached from the appropriate extracellular matrix. Anoikis resistance or anchorage independence is necessary for distant metastases of cancer. The mechanisms by which hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells become resistant to anoikis are not fully understood. Integrin beta4 (ITGB4, also known as CD104) is associated with progression of many human cancers. In this study, we demonstrate that ITGB4 is over-expressed in HCC tissues and aggressive HCC cell lines. To explore the role of ITGB4 in HCC, we inhibited its expression using small interfering RNA in two HCC cell lines: HCCLM3 and HLF. We show that knockdown of ITGB4 significantly enhanced susceptibility to anoikis through inhibition of AKT/PKB signaling. Moreover, ITGB4 interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a ligand independent manner. Inactivation of EGFR inhibits the anchorage independence and AKT pathway promoted by ITGB4. Further investigation proved that the ITGB4-EGFR unit triggers the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to activate the AKT signaling pathway. Finally, we demonstrate that over-expression of ITGB4 is positively associated with tumor growth and lung metastases of HCC in vivo. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time that ITGB4 is overexpressed in HCC tissues and promotes metastases of HCC by conferring anchorage independence through EGFR-dependent FAK-AKT activation. PMID:26996299

  17. pGlcNAc Nanofiber Treatment of Cutaneous Wounds Stimulate Increased Tensile Strength and Reduced Scarring via Activation of Akt1.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Haley Buff; Felmly, Lloyd McPherson; Demcheva, Marina; Seth, Arun; Norris, Russell; Bradshaw, Amy D; Vournakis, John; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of cutaneous wounds with poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine containing nanofibers (pGlcNAc), a novel polysaccharide material derived from a marine diatom, results in increased wound closure, antibacterial activities and innate immune responses. We have shown that Akt1 plays a central role in the regulation of these activities. Here, we show that pGlcNAc treatment of cutaneous wounds results in a smaller scar that has increased tensile strength and elasticity. pGlcNAc treated wounds exhibit decreased collagen content, increased collagen organization and decreased myofibroblast content. A fibrin gel assay was used to assess the regulation of fibroblast alignment in vitro. In this assay, fibrin lattice is formed with two pins that provide focal points upon which the gel can exert force as the cells align from pole to pole. pGlcNAc stimulation of embedded fibroblasts results in cellular alignment as compared to untreated controls, by a process that is Akt1 dependent. We show that Akt1 is required in vivo for the pGlcNAc-induced increased tensile strength and elasticity. Taken together, our findings suggest that pGlcNAc nanofibers stimulate an Akt1 dependent pathway that results in the proper alignment of fibroblasts, decreased scarring, and increased tensile strength during cutaneous wound healing. PMID:25955155

  18. Substance P Inhibits Hyperosmotic Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Corneal Epithelial Cells through the Mechanism of Akt Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging via the Neurokinin-1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lingling; Sui, Wenjie; Li, Yunqiu; Qi, Xia; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Qingjun; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hyperosmolarity has been recognized as an important pathological factor in dry eye leading to ocular discomfort and damage. As one of the major neuropeptides of corneal innervation, substance P (SP) has been shown to possess anti-apoptotic effects in various cells. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity and mechanism of SP against hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis in cultured corneal epithelial cells. The cells were exposed to hyperosmotic stress by the addition of high glucose in the presence or absence of SP. The results showed that SP inhibited hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis of mouse corneal epithelial cells. Moreover, SP promoted the recovery of phosphorylated Akt level, mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+ contents, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels that impaired by hyperosmotic stress. However, the antiapoptotic capacity of SP was partially suppressed by Akt inhibitor or glutathione depleting agent, while the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist impaired Akt activation and ROS scavenging that promoted by SP addition. In conclusion, SP protects corneal epithelial cells from hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis through the mechanism of Akt activation and ROS scavenging via the NK-1 receptor. PMID:26901348

  19. NF-κB is activated in response to temozolomide in an AKT-dependent manner and confers protection against the growth suppressive effect of the drug

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents activate the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, NF-κB activation can either protect from or contribute to the growth suppressive effects of the agent. We previously showed that the DNA-methylating drug temozolomide (TMZ) activates AKT, a positive modulator of NF-κB, in a mismatch repair (MMR) system-dependent manner. Here we investigated whether NF-κB is activated by TMZ and whether AKT is involved in this molecular event. We also evaluated the functional consequence of inhibiting NF-κB on tumor cell response to TMZ. Methods AKT phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity, IκB-α degradation, NF-κB2/p52 generation, and RelA and NF-κB2/p52 nuclear translocation were investigated in TMZ-treated MMR-deficient (HCT116, 293TLα-) and/or MMR-proficient (HCT116/3-6, 293TLα+, M10) cells. AKT involvement in TMZ-induced activation of NF-κB was addressed in HCT116/3-6 and M10 cells transiently transfected with AKT1-targeting siRNA or using the isogenic MMR-proficient cell lines pUSE2 and KD12, expressing wild type or kinase-dead mutant AKT1. The effects of inhibiting NF-κB on sensitivity to TMZ were investigated in HCT116/3-6 and M10 cells using the NF-κB inhibitor NEMO-binding domain (NBD) peptide or an anti-RelA siRNA. Results TMZ enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity, activated AKT, induced IκB-α degradation and RelA nuclear translocation in HCT116/3-6 and M10 but not in HCT116 cells. In M10 cells, TMZ promoted NF-κB2/p52 generation and nuclear translocation and enhanced the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1. TMZ induced RelA nuclear translocation also in 293TLα+ but not in 293TLα- cells. AKT1 silencing inhibited TMZ-induced IκB-α degradation and NF-κB2/p52 generation. Up-regulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of RelA and NF-κB2/p52 in response to TMZ were impaired in KD12 cells. RelA silencing in HCT116/3-6 and M10 cells increased TMZ

  20. Akt signaling in platelets and thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Woulfe, Donna S

    2010-01-01

    Akt is a Ser–Thr kinase with pleiotropic effects on cell survival, growth and metabolism. Recent evidence from gene-deletion studies in mice, and analysis of human platelets treated with Akt inhibitors, suggest that Akt regulates platelet activation, with potential consequences for thrombosis. Akt activation is regulated by the level of phosphoinositide 3-phosphates, and proteins that regulate concentrations of this lipid also regulate Akt activation and platelet function. Although the effectors through which Akt contributes to platelet activation are not definitively known, several candidates are discussed, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, phosphodiesterase 3A and the integrin β3 tail. Selective inhibitors of Akt isoforms or of proteins that contribute to its activation, such as individual PI3K isoforms, may make attractive targets for antithrombotic therapy. This review summarizes the current literature describing Akt activity and its regulation in platelets, including speculation regarding the future of Akt or its regulatory pathways as targets for the development of antithrombotic therapies. PMID:20352060

  1. Renal cortical hexokinase and pentose phosphate pathway activation through the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway in endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay

    2014-01-01

    While disruption of energy production is an important contributor to renal injury, metabolic alterations in sepsis-induced AKI remain understudied. We assessed changes in renal cortical glycolytic metabolism in a mouse model of sepsis-induced AKI. A specific and rapid increase in hexokinase (HK) activity (∼2-fold) was observed 3 h after LPS exposure and maintained up to 18 h, in association with a decline in renal function as measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN). LPS-induced HK activation occurred independently of HK isoform expression or mitochondrial localization. No other changes in glycolytic enzymes were observed. LPS-mediated HK activation was not sufficient to increase glycolytic flux as indicated by reduced or unchanged pyruvate and lactate levels in the renal cortex. LPS-induced HK activation was associated with increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity but not glycogen production. Mechanistically, LPS-induced HK activation was attenuated by pharmacological inhibitors of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and Akt, indicating that EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling is responsible. Our findings reveal LPS rapidly increases renal cortical HK activity in an EGFR- and Akt-dependent manner and that HK activation is linked to increased pentose phosphate pathway activity. PMID:24990892

  2. NF-kB activation and its downstream target genes expression after heavy ions exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Schmitz, Claudia; Koch, Kristina; Feles, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    To enable long-term human space flight cellular radiation response to densely ionizing radiation needs to be better understood for developing appropriate countermeasures to mitigate acute effects and late radiation risks for the astronaut. The biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions (which constitute the most important radiation type in space) with high linear energy transfer (LET) for effecting DNA damage response pathways as a gateway to cell death or survival is of major concern not only for space missions but also for new regimes of tumor radiotherapy. In the current research study, the contribution of NF-κB in response to space-relevant radiation qualities was determined by a NF-κB reporter cell line (HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo L2). The NF-κB dependent reporter gene expression (d2EGFP) after ionizing radiation (X-rays and heavy ions) exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry. Because of differences in the extent of NF-κB activation after X-irradiation and heavy ions exposure, it was expected that radiation quality (LET) might play an important role in the cellular radiation response. In addition, the biological effectiveness (RBE) of NF-κB activation and reduction of cellular survival was examined for heavy ions having a broad range of LET (˜0.3 - 9674 keV/µm). Furthermore, the effect of LET on NF-κB target gene expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In this study it was proven that NF-κB activation and NF-κB dependent gene expression comprises an early step in cellular radiation response. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression by heavy ions are highest in the LET range of ˜50-200 keV/μupm. The up-regulated chemokines and cytokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL10, IL-8 and TNF) might be important for cell-cell communication among hit as well as unhit cells (bystander effect). The results obtained suggest the NF-κB pathway to be a

  3. Development of a new model system to dissect isoform specific Akt signalling in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajno, Esi; McGraw, Timothy E; Gonzalez, Eva

    2015-06-15

    Protein kinase B (Akt) kinases are critical signal transducers mediating insulin action. Genetic studies revealed that Akt1 and Akt2 signalling differentially contribute to sustain lipid and glucose homoeostasis; however Akt isoform-specific effectors remain elusive due to the lack of a suitable model system to mechanistically interrogate Akt isoform-specific signalling. To overcome those technical limitations we developed a novel model system that provides acute and specific control of signalling by Akt isoforms. We generated mutants of Akt1 and Akt2 resistant to the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206. We then developed adipocyte cell lines, in which endogenous Akt1 or Akt2 has been replaced by their corresponding drug-resistant Akt mutant. Treatment of those cells with MK-2206 allowed for acute and specific control of either Akt1 or Akt2 function. Our data showed that Akt1(W80A) and Akt2(W80A) mutants are resistant to MK-2206, dynamically regulated by insulin and able to signal to Akt downstream effectors. Analyses of insulin action in this cellular system showed that Akt1 and Akt2 are both able to mediate insulin regulation of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), revealing a redundant role for these Akt kinases in the control of glucose transport into fat cells. In contrast, Akt1 signalling is uniquely required for adipogenesis, by controlling the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) of pre-adipocytes that precedes white adipose cell differentiation. Our data provide new insights into the role of Akt kinases in glucose transport and adipogenesis and support our model system as a valuable tool for the biochemical characterization of signalling by specific Akt isoforms. PMID:25856301

  4. Suppression of Virulent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Proliferation by the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ning; Wu, Yongguang; Meng, Qiong; Wang, Zhongze; Zuo, Yewen; Pan, Xi; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Li, Guoxin; Yang, Shen; Yu, Hai; Zhou, En-Min; Shan, Tongling; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has recently caused high mortality in suckling piglets with subsequent large economic losses to the swine industry. Many intracellular signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, are activated by viral infection. The PI3K/Akt pathway is an important cellular pathway that has been shown to be required for virus replication. In the present study, we found that the PEDV JS-2013 strain activated Akt in Vero cells at early (5-15 min) and late stages (8-10 h) of infection. Inhibiting PI3K, an upstream activator of Akt, enhanced PEDV replication. Inhibiting GSK-3α/β, one of the downstream effectors of PI3K/Akt pathway and regulated by Akt during PEDV infected Vero cells, also enhanced PEDV replication. Collectively, our data suggest that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β signaling pathway is activated by PEDV and functions in inhibiting PEDV replication. PMID:27560518

  5. Suppression of Virulent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Proliferation by the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ning; Wu, Yongguang; Meng, Qiong; Wang, Zhongze; Zuo, Yewen; Pan, Xi; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Li, Guoxin; Yang, Shen; Yu, Hai; Zhou, En-min; Shan, Tongling; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has recently caused high mortality in suckling piglets with subsequent large economic losses to the swine industry. Many intracellular signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, are activated by viral infection. The PI3K/Akt pathway is an important cellular pathway that has been shown to be required for virus replication. In the present study, we found that the PEDV JS-2013 strain activated Akt in Vero cells at early (5–15 min) and late stages (8–10 h) of infection. Inhibiting PI3K, an upstream activator of Akt, enhanced PEDV replication. Inhibiting GSK-3α/β, one of the downstream effectors of PI3K/Akt pathway and regulated by Akt during PEDV infected Vero cells, also enhanced PEDV replication. Collectively, our data suggest that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β signaling pathway is activated by PEDV and functions in inhibiting PEDV replication. PMID:27560518

  6. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress. PMID:26649137

  7. Centrosome movements in vivo correlate with specific neurite formation downstream of LIM homeodomain transcription factor activity.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Erica F; Halloran, Mary C

    2012-10-01

    Neurons must develop complex structure to form proper connections in the nervous system. The initiation of axons in defined locations on the cell body and their extension to synaptic targets are critical steps in neuronal morphogenesis, yet the mechanisms controlling axon formation in vivo are poorly understood. The centrosome has been implicated in multiple aspects of neuronal morphogenesis; however, its function in axon development is under debate. Conflicting results from studies of centrosome function in axonogenesis suggest that its role is context dependent and underscore the importance of studying centrosome function as neurons develop in their natural environment. Using live imaging of zebrafish Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons in vivo, we discovered a spatiotemporal relationship between centrosome position and the formation of RB peripheral, but not central, axons. We tested centrosome function by laser ablation and found that centrosome disruption inhibited peripheral axon outgrowth. In addition, we show that centrosome position and motility are regulated by LIM homeodomain transcription factor activity, which is specifically required for the development of RB peripheral axons. Furthermore, we show a correlation between centrosome mislocalization and ectopic axon formation in bashful (laminin alpha 1) mutants. Thus, both intrinsic transcription factor activity and extracellular cues can influence centrosome position and axon formation in vivo. This study presents the first positive association between the centrosome and axon formation in vivo and suggests that the centrosome is important for differential neurite formation in neurons with complex axonal morphologies. PMID:22899847

  8. MiR-20a Induces Cell Radioresistance by Activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Lin; Ding, Yi; Li, Qi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Tongxin; Sun, Quanquan; Yang, Hua; Peng, Shunli; Wang, Wei; Chen, Longhua

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of miR-20a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell radioresistance, which may reveal potential strategies to improve treatment. Methods and Materials: The expression of miR-20a and PTEN were detected in HCC cell lines and paired primary tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell radiation combined with colony formation assays was administrated to discover the effect of miR-20a on radiosensitivity. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-20a. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 was used to inhibit phosphorylation of Akt, to verify whether miR-20a affects HCC cell radioresistance through activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Results: MiR-20a levels were increased in HCC cell lines and tissues, whereas PTEN was inversely correlated with it. Overexpression of miR-20a in Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 cells enhances their resistance to the effect of ionizing radiation, and the inhibition of miR-20a in HCCLM3 and QGY-7701 cells sensitizes them to it. PTEN was identified as a direct functional target of miR-20a for the induction of radioresistance. Overexpression of miR-20a activated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, the kinase inhibitor LY294002 could reverse the effect of miR-20a–induced radioresistance. Conclusion: MiR-20a induces HCC cell radioresistance by activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, which suggests that miR-20a/PTEN/PI3K/Akt might represent a target of investigation for developing effective therapeutic strategies against HCC.

  9. Role of PECAM-1 in the shear-stress-induced activation of Akt and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ingrid; Fisslthaler, Beate; Dixit, Madhulika; Busse, Rudi

    2005-09-15

    The application of fluid shear stress to endothelial cells elicits the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and phosphorylation of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Shear stress also elicits the enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of endothelial proteins, especially of those situated in the vicinity of cell-cell contacts. Since a major constituent of these endothelial cell-cell contacts is the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) we assessed the role of PECAM-1 in the activation of eNOS. In human endothelial cells, shear stress induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and enhanced the association of PECAM-1 with eNOS. Endothelial cell stimulation with shear stress elicited the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS as well as of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). While the shear-stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 as well as the serine phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS were abolished by the pre-treatment of cells with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 the phosphorylation of AMPK was unaffected. Down-regulation of PECAM-1 using a siRNA approach attenuated the shear-stress-induced phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, as well as the shear-stress-induced accumulation of cyclic GMP levels while the shear-stress-induced phosphorylation of AMPK remained intact. A comparable attenuation of Akt and eNOS (but not AMPK) phosphorylation and NO production was also observed in endothelial cells generated from PECAM-1-deficient mice. These data indicate that the shear-stress-induced activation of Akt and eNOS in endothelial cells is modulated by the tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 whereas the shear-stress-induced phosphorylation of AMPK is controlled by an alternative signaling pathway. PMID:16118242

  10. l-carnitine protects human hepatocytes from oxidative stress-induced toxicity through Akt-mediated activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlian; Zhang, Yanli; Luan, Haiyun; Chen, Xuehong; Han, Yantao; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-05-01

    In our previous study, l-carnitine was shown to have cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human normal HL7702 hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of l-carnitine was associated with the nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Our results showed that pretreatment with l-carnitine augmented Nrf2 nuclear translocation, DNA binding activity and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in H2O2-treated HL7702 cells, although l-carnitine treatment alone had no effect on them. Analysis using Nrf2 siRNA demonstrated that Nrf2 activation was involved in l-carnitine-induced HO-1 expression. In addition, l-carnitine-mediated protection against H2O2 toxicity was abrogated by Nrf2 siRNA, indicating the important role of Nrf2 in l-carnitine-induced cytoprotection. Further experiments revealed that l-carnitine pretreatment enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt in H2O2-treated cells. Blocking Akt pathway with inhibitor partly abrogated the protective effect of l-carnitine. Moreover, our finding demonstrated that the induction of Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression by l-carnitine directly correlated with the Akt pathway because Akt inhibitor showed inhibitory effects on the Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression. Altogether, these results demonstrate that l-carnitine protects HL7702 cells against H2O2-induced cell damage through Akt-mediated activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. PMID:26889770

  11. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-02-15

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt{sup ser473} and p-Akt{sup thr308}) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2–5 times more particulate pollutants (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), 72% mo