Dynamic response of ramjet inlets to downstream perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajben, M.; Bogar, T. J.; Kroutil, J. C.
1983-01-01
An external-compression inlet with high-aspect-ratio, rectangular cross sections was investigated in a semi-freejet arrangement at M(infinity) = 1.84 and zero incidence, over a wide range of super- and subcritical conditions. The response of the inlet flows to periodic perturbations imposed at the downstream end was determined. The perturbations were created by mechanical modulation of the choked exhaust area at frequencies from 20 to 360 Hz. The amplitude of the pressure fluctuations induced at the downstream end of the inlet was varied up to 8% of the time-mean static pressure at the same location. The observed oscillations were categorized according to position ranges associated with the shock motion. In supercritical oscillations, the pressure fluctuation amplitudes within the inlet were found to be linearly proportional to the fluctuation intensity at the exit station, establishing the latter as the appropriate quantity for normalization. In subcritical conditions, the inlet displays a large-amplitude natural oscillation (buzz). Superimposed excitation may couple with the natural oscillations in two distinctly different ways, both strongly nonlinear. Combinations of mean flow condition, excitation amplitude, and frequency that cause the terminal shock to move upstream of the cowl or the ramp were determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Race Roberson, B.; Winglee, Robert; Ziemba, Tim; Prager, James
2010-11-01
The high power helicon (HPH) is a compact plasma source that can generate downstream densities of 10^17-10^18 m-3 and directed ion energies greater than 20 eV that continue to increase tens of centimeters downstream of the source. In order to understand the coupling mechanism between the helicon antenna and the plasma outside the immediate source region, measurements were made in the plasma plume downstream from the thruster of the propagating wave magnetic field and the perturbation of the axial bulk field. This magnetic field perturbation (δB) peaks at more than 15 gauss in strength downstream of the plasma source and propagates tens of centimeters downstream, cancelling the base magnetic field as it propagates. Taking the curl of this measured magnetic perturbation and assuming azimuthal symmetry suggests a peak current density of 20 kA m-2. Data will be presented that relates the cancellation of the base magnetic field to the propagation of the helicon wave and the region where the plasma current system closes.
Calculating nonadiabatic pressure perturbations during multifield inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huston, Ian; Christopherson, Adam J.
2012-03-01
Isocurvature perturbations naturally occur in models of inflation consisting of more than one scalar field. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of isocurvature perturbations generated at the end of inflation for three different inflationary models consisting of two canonical scalar fields. The amount of nonadiabatic pressure present at the end of inflation can have observational consequences through the generation of vorticity and subsequently the sourcing of B-mode polarization. We compare two different definitions of isocurvature perturbations and show how these quantities evolve in different ways during inflation. Our results are calculated using the open source Pyflation numerical package which is available to download.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberson, B. Race; Winglee, Robert; Prager, James
2011-05-01
The high power helicon (HPH) is capable of producing a high density plasma (1017-1018 m-3) and directed ion energies greater than 20 eV that continue to increase tens of centimeters downstream of the thruster. In order to understand the coupling mechanism between the helicon antenna and the plasma outside the immediate source region, measurements were made in the plasma plume downstream from the thruster of the propagating wave magnetic field and the perturbation of the axial bulk field using a type `R' helicon antenna. This magnetic field perturbation (ΔB) peaks at more than 15 G in strength downstream of the plasma source, and is 3-5 times larger than those previously reported from HPH. Taking the curl of this measured magnetic perturbation and assuming azimuthal symmetry suggests that this magnetic field is generated by a (predominantly) azimuthal current ring with a current density on the order of tens of kA m-2. At this current density the diamagnetic field is intense enough to cancel out the B0 axial magnetic field near the source region. The presence of the diamagnetic current is important as it demonstrates modification of the vacuum fields well beyond the source region and signifies the presence of a high density, collimated plasma stream. This diamagnetic current also modifies the propagation of the helicon wave, which facilitates a better understanding of coupling between the helicon wave and the resultant plasma acceleration.
Roberson, B. Race; Winglee, Robert; Prager, James
2011-05-15
The high power helicon (HPH) is capable of producing a high density plasma (10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) and directed ion energies greater than 20 eV that continue to increase tens of centimeters downstream of the thruster. In order to understand the coupling mechanism between the helicon antenna and the plasma outside the immediate source region, measurements were made in the plasma plume downstream from the thruster of the propagating wave magnetic field and the perturbation of the axial bulk field using a type 'R' helicon antenna. This magnetic field perturbation ({Delta}B) peaks at more than 15 G in strength downstream of the plasma source, and is 3-5 times larger than those previously reported from HPH. Taking the curl of this measured magnetic perturbation and assuming azimuthal symmetry suggests that this magnetic field is generated by a (predominantly) azimuthal current ring with a current density on the order of tens of kA m{sup -2}. At this current density the diamagnetic field is intense enough to cancel out the B{sub 0} axial magnetic field near the source region. The presence of the diamagnetic current is important as it demonstrates modification of the vacuum fields well beyond the source region and signifies the presence of a high density, collimated plasma stream. This diamagnetic current also modifies the propagation of the helicon wave, which facilitates a better understanding of coupling between the helicon wave and the resultant plasma acceleration.
Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris
2015-01-01
Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04640.001 PMID:26284497
Whalley, Richard D; Walsh, James L
2016-01-01
Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence. PMID:27561246
Whalley, Richard D.; Walsh, James L.
2016-01-01
Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence. PMID:27561246
Orbit Perturbations Due to Solar Radiation Pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, G. A.
1972-01-01
This disturbing force will be important for satellites with a large area to mass ratio and also for those whose orbits are high enough that atmospheric drag is not the more dominate force. The procedure for the analysis is to represent the radiation force as the gradient of a scalar function to be compatible with existing procedures for studying perturbations due to earth's oblateness. From this analysis, solar radiation pressure appears not to be responsible for any secular or long-periodic variations in the semi-major axis of the orbit nor does it provide any secular changes in the eccentricity of the orbit or the angle of inclination of the osculating plane. Solar radiation pressure does produce secular effects in the other orbital elements, but these are in the opposite sense of secularities caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and tend to reduce the total secularity.
Barothropic relaxing media under pressure perturbations: Nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuetche, Victor K.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we delve into the dynamics of a barothropic relaxing medium under pressure perturbations originating from blast wave explosions in the milieu. Analyzing the problem within the viewpoint of the Lyakhov formalism of geodynamic systems, we derive a complex-valued nonlinear evolution equation which models the wave propagation of the pressure perturbations within the barothropic medium. As a result, we find that the previous system can be circularly polarized and hence support traveling rotating pressure excitations which profiles strongly depend upon their angular momenta. In the wake of these results, we address some physical implications of the findings alongside their potential applications.
Plume diagnostics of SRM static firings for pressure perturbation studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sambamurthi, J. K.; Alvarado, Alexis; Mathias, Edward C.
1995-01-01
During the shuttle launches, the solid rocket motors (SRM) occasionally experience pressure perturbations (8-13 psi) between 65 and 75 seconds into the motor burn time. The magnitudes of these perturbations are very small in comparison with the operating motor chamber pressure, which is over 600 psi during this time frame. These SRM pressure perturbations are believed to be caused primarily by the expulsion of slag (aluminum oxide). Two SRM static tests, TEM-11 and FSM-4, were instrumented extensive]y for the study of the phenomenon associated with pressure perturbations. The test instrumentation used included nonintrusive optical and infrared diagnostics of the plume, such as high-speed photography, radiometers, and thermal image cameras. Results from all these nonintrusive observations strongly support the scenario that the pressure perturbation event in the shuttle SRM is caused primarily by the expulsion of molten slag. The slag was also expelled preferentially near the bottom of the nozzle due to slag accumulation at the bottom of the aft end of the horizontally oriented motor.
Pressure-driven amplification and penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Helander, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2016-05-01
We show that a resonant magnetic perturbation applied to the boundary of an ideal plasma screw-pinch equilibrium with nested surfaces can penetrate inside the resonant surface and into the core. The response is significantly amplified with increasing plasma pressure. We present a rigorous verification of nonlinear equilibrium codes against linear theory, showing excellent agreement.
Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allshouse, Michael R.; Lee, Frank M.; Morrison, Philip J.; Swinney, Harry L.
2016-05-01
Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field J =p u , which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields p and u , respectively. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous J (x ,z ,t ) from density perturbations alone: A Green's function-based calculation yields p ; u is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: The Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations and the result for J is found to agree typically to within 1% with J computed directly using p and u from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to density perturbation data from laboratory schlieren measurements of internal waves in a stratified fluid and the result for J agrees to within 6 % with results from Navier-Stokes simulations. Our method for determining the instantaneous velocity, pressure, and energy flux fields applies to any system described by a linear approximation of the density perturbation field, e.g., to small-amplitude lee waves and propagating vertical modes. The method can be applied using our matlab graphical user interface EnergyFlux.
Numerical Study of Unsteady Supercavitation Perturbed by a Pressure Wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, J. G.; Khoo, B. C.
2016-06-01
The unsteady features of supercavitation disturbed by an introduced pressure wave are investigated numerically using a one-fluid cavitation model. The supercavitating flow is assumed to be the homogeneous mixture of liquid and vapour which are locally under both kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium. The compressibility effects of liquid water are taken into account to model the propagation of pressure wave through flow and its interaction with supercavitation bubble. The interaction between supercavity enveloping an underwater flat-nose cylinder and pressure wave is simulated and the resulting unsteady behavior of supercavitation is illustrated. It is observed that the supercavity will become unstable under the impact of the pressure wave and may collapse locally, which depends on the strength of perturbation. The huge pressure surge accompanying the collapse of supercavitation may cause the material erosion, noise, vibration and efficiency loss of operating underwater devices.
Instability of black hole formation under small pressure perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Pankaj S.; Malafarina, Daniele
2013-02-01
We investigate here the spectrum of gravitational collapse endstates when arbitrarily small perfect fluid pressures are introduced in the classic black hole formation scenario as described by Oppenheimer, Snyder and Datt (OSD) (Oppenheimer and Snyder in Phys Rev 56:455, 1939; Datt in Zs f Phys 108:314, 1938). This extends a previous result on tangential pressures (Joshi and Malafarina Phys Rev D 83:024009, 2011) to the physically more realistic scenario of perfect fluid collapse. The existence of classes of pressure perturbations is shown explicitly, which has the property that injecting any smallest pressure changes the final fate of the dynamical collapse from a black hole to a naked singularity. It is therefore seen that any smallest neighborhood of the OSD model, in the space of initial data, contains collapse evolutions that go to a naked singularity outcome. This gives an intriguing insight on the nature of naked singularity formation in gravitational collapse.
Anisotropic Pressure, Transport, and Shielding of Magnetic Perturbations
H.E. Mynick and A.H. Boozer
2008-05-23
We compute the effect on a tokamak of applying a nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbation δΒ. An equilibrium with scalar pressure p yields zero net radial current, and therefore zero torque. Thus, the usual approach, which assumes scalar pressure, is not self-consistent, and masks the close connection which exists between that radial current and the in-surface currents, which provide shielding or amplification of δΒ. Here, we analytically compute the pressure anisoptropy, anisoptropy, pll, p⊥ ≠ p, and from this, both the radial and in-surface currents. The surface-average of the radial current recovers earlier expressions for ripple transport, while the in-surface currents provide an expression for the amount of self-consistent shielding the plasma provides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Insun
2016-05-01
The one-dimensional diffusion equation was solved to understand the pressure and flow behaviors along a cylindrical rock specimen for experimental boundary conditions of constant upstream pressure and constant downstream storage. The solution consists of a time-constant asymptotic part and a transient part that is a negative exponential function of time. This means that the transient flow exponentially decays with time and is eventually followed by a steady-state condition. For a given rock sample, the transient stage is shortest when the downstream storage is minimized. For this boundary condition, a simple equation was derived from the analytic solution to determine the hydraulic permeability from the initial flow rate during the transient stage. The specific storage of a rock sample can be obtained simply from the total flow into the sample during the entire transient stage if there is no downstream storage. In theory, both of these hydraulic properties could be obtained simultaneously from transient-flow stage measurements without a complicated curve fitting or inversion process. Sensitivity analysis showed that the derived permeability is more reliable for lower-permeability rock samples. In conclusion, the constant head method with no downstream storage might be more applicable to extremely low-permeability rocks if the upstream flow rate is measured precisely upstream.
Impact of blood pressure perturbations on arterial stiffness.
Lim, Jisok; Pearman, Miriam E; Park, Wonil; Alkatan, Mohammed; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi
2015-12-15
Although the associations between chronic levels of arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) have been fairly well studied, it is not clear whether and how much arterial stiffness is influenced by acute perturbations in BP. The primary aim of this study was to determine magnitudes of BP dependence of various measures of arterial stiffness during acute BP perturbation maneuvers. Fifty apparently healthy subjects, including 25 young (20-40 yr) and 25 older adults (60-80 yr), were studied. A variety of BP perturbations, including head-up tilt, head-down tilt, mental stress, isometric handgrip exercise, and cold pressor test, were used to encompass BP changes induced by physical, mental, and/or mechanical stimuli. When each index of arterial stiffness was plotted with mean BP, all arterial stiffness indices, including cardio-ankle vascular index or CAVI (r = 0.50), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity or cfPWV (r = 0.51), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity or baPWV (r = 0.61), arterial compliance (r = -0.42), elastic modulus (r = 0.52), arterial distensibility (r = -0.32), β-stiffness index (r = 0.19), and Young's modulus (r = 0.35) were related to mean BP (all P < 0.01). Changes in CAVI, cfPWV, baPWV, and elastic modulus were significantly associated with changes in mean BP in the pooled conditions, while changes in arterial compliance, arterial distensibility, β-stiffness index, and Young's modulus were not. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BP changes in response to various forms of pressor stimuli were associated with the corresponding changes in arterial stiffness indices and that the strengths of associations with BP varied widely depending on what arterial stiffness indices were examined. PMID:26468262
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Steven D.; Brungart, Timothy A.; Lauchle, Gerald C.; Howe, Michael S.
2005-12-01
An analytical and experimental investigation is made of the effect of a 2-D ventilated gas cavity on the spectrum of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure fluctuations upstream of a gas cavity on a plane rigid surface. The analytical model predicts the ratio of the wall pressure spectrum in the presence of the cavity to the blocked wall pressure spectrum that would exist if the cavity were absent. The ratio is found to oscillate in amplitude with upstream distance (-x) from the edge of the cavity. It approaches unity as -ωx/Uc-->∞, where ω is the radian frequency and Uc is the upstream turbulence convection velocity. To validate these predictions an experiment was performed in a water tunnel over a range of mean flow velocities. Dynamic wall pressure sensors were flush mounted to a flat plate at various distances upstream from a backward facing step. The cavity was formed downstream of the step by injecting carbon dioxide gas. The water tunnel measurements confirm the predicted oscillatory behavior of the spectral ratio, as well as its relaxation to unity as -ωx/Uc-->∞. For -ωx/Uc>7 the cavity has a negligible influence on the upstream wall pressure fluctuations.
A theoretical model for the cross spectra between pressure and temperature downstream of a combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, J. H.; Krejsa, E. A.
1984-01-01
A theoretical model developed to calculate pressure-temperature cross spectra, pressure spectra, temperature spectra and pressure cross spectra in a ducted combustion system is presented. The model assumes the presence of a fluctuating-volumetric-heat-release-rate disk source and takes into account the spatial distribution of the steady-state volumetric-heat flux. Using the model, pressure, velocity, and temperature perturbation relationships can be obtained. The theoretical results show that, at a given air mass flow rate, the calculated pressure-temperature cross spectra phase angle at the combustor exit depends on the model selected for the steady-state volumetric-heat flux in the combustor. Using measurements of the phase angle, an appropriate source region model was selected. The model calculations are compared with the data. The comparison shows good agreement and indicates that with the use of this model the pressure-temperature cross spectra measurements provide useful information on the physical mechanisms active at the combustion noise source.
Boutin, Henri; Fletcher, Neville; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe
2015-03-01
This experimental study investigates ten subjects playing the trombone in the lower and mid-high range of the instrument, B♭2 to F4. Several techniques are combined to show the pressures and the impedance spectra upstream and downstream of the lips, the acoustic and total flows into the instrument, the component of the acoustic flow due to the sweeping motion of the lips, and high speed video images of the lip motion and aperture. The waveforms confirm that the inertance of the air in the channel between the lips is usually negligible. For lower notes, the flow caused by the sweeping motion of the lips contributes substantially to the total flow into the mouthpiece. The phase relations among the waveforms are qualitatively similar across the range studied, with no discontinuous behavior. The players normally played at frequencies about 1.1% above that of the impedance peak of the bore, but could play below as well as above this frequency and bend from above to below without discontinuity. The observed lip motion is consistent with two-degree-of-freedom models having varying effective lengths. These provide insight into why lips can auto-oscillate with an inertive or compliant load, or without a downstream resonator. PMID:25786934
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patton, Edward G.; Katul, Gabriel G.
2009-11-01
How the spatial perturbations of the first and second moments of the velocity and pressure fields differ for flow over a train of gentle hills covered by either sparse or dense vegetation is explored using large-eddy simulation (LES). Two simulations are investigated where the canopy is composed of uniformly arrayed rods each with a height that is comparable to the hill height. In the first simulation, the rod density is chosen so that much of the momentum is absorbed within the canopy volume yet the canopy is not dense enough to induce separation on the lee side of the hill. In the second simulation, the rod density is large enough to induce recirculation inside the canopy on the lee side of the hill. For this separating flow case, zones of intense shear stress originating near the canopy-atmosphere interface persist all the way up to the middle layer, ‘contaminating’ much of the middle and outer layers with shear stress gradients. The implications of these persistent shear-stress gradients on rapid distortion theory and phase relationships between higher order velocity statistics and hill-induced mean velocity perturbations (Δ u) are discussed. Within the inner layer, these intense shear zones improve predictions of the spatial perturbation by K-theory, especially for the phase relationships between the shear stress ( ∂Δ u/∂ z) and the velocity variances, where z is the height. For the upper canopy layers, wake production increases with increasing leaf area density resulting in a vertical velocity variance more in phase with Δ u than with ∂Δ u/∂ z. However, background turbulence and inactive eddies may have dampened this effect for the longitudinal velocity variance. The increase in leaf area density does not significantly affect the phase relationship between mean surface pressure and topography for the two simulations, though the LES results here confirm earlier findings that the minimum mean pressure shifts downstream from the hill crest. The
Plume Diagnostics of the RSRM Static Firings for the Pressure Perturbation Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mathias, Edward C.; Sambamurthi, Jay K.; Alvarado, Alexis
1995-01-01
During the STS-54 launch (RSRM-29), the right hand solid rocket motor experienced a 13.9 psi chamber pressure perturbation at 67 seconds into the motor operation. This pressure augmentation equated to a thrust change of 51 klb. Concerns were raised regarding the adverse effects of this thrust imbalance on the shuttle system and the overall thrust into the external tank structural elements. Pressure perturbations have been observed in solid rocket motors due to expulsion of igniter or insulation materials; the motor thrust during such events drop abruptly before rising. However, the RSRM motors do not exhibit such behavior during the large chamber pressure perturbation events. Several scenarios were investigated to explain these pressure perturbations in the RSRM motors based on a fault tree developed after STS-54. Of these, the expulsion of the slag accumulated in the submerged nozzle region appeared to be the most plausible scenario to explain the observations. Slag is a natural combustion product of aluminized solid rocket motors. The RSRM propellant contains 16% by weight of aluminum. Any ejection of this slag mass during nozzle vectoring or other side loads on the motor will result in the chamber pressure perturbation. Two RSRM static firings were instrumented extensively to further understand the slag expulsion phenomenon in the RSRM and the associated pressure perturbations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, J. H.; Wasserbauer, C. A.; Krejsa, E. A.
1983-01-01
Pressure temperature cross spectra are necessary in predicting noise propagation in regions of velocity gradients downstream of combustors if the effect of convective entropy disturbances is included. Pressure temperature cross spectra and coherences were measured at spatially separated points in a combustion rig fueled with hydrogen. Temperature-temperature and pressure-pressure cross spectra and coherences between the spatially separated points as well as temperature and pressure autospectra were measured. These test results were compared with previous results obtained in the same combustion rig using Jet A fuel in order to investigate their dependence on the type of combustion process. The phase relationships are not consistent with a simple source model that assumes that pressure and temperature are in phase at a point in the combustor and at all other points downstream are related to one another by only a time delay due to convection of temperature disturbances. Thus these test results indicate that a more complex model of the source is required.
Cross spectra between temperature and pressure in a constant area duct downstream of a combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, J. H.; Wasserbauer, C. A.; Krejsa, E. A.
1983-01-01
The feasibility of measuring pressure temperature cross spectra and coherence and temperature-temperature cross spectra and coherence at spatially separated points along with pressure and temperature auto-spectra in a combustion rig was investigated. The measurements were made near the inlet and exit of a 6.44 m long duct attached to a J-47 combustor. The fuel used was Jet A. The cross spectra and coherence measurements show the pressure and temperature fluctuations correlate best at low frequencies. At the inlet the phenomena controlling the phase relationship between pressure and temperature could not be identified. However, at the duct exit the phase angle of the pressure is related to the phase angle of the temperature by the convected flow time delay.
Cross spectra between temperature and pressure in a constant area duct downstream of a combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, J. H.; Wasserbauer, C. A.; Krejsa, E. A.
1983-01-01
The feasibility of measuring pressure temperature cross spectra and coherence and temperature-temperature cross spectra and coherence at spatially separated points along with pressure and temperature auto-spectra in a combustion rig was investigated. The measurements were made near the inlet and exit of a 6.44 m long duct attached to a J-47 combustor. The fuel used was Jet A. The cross spectra and coherence measurements show the pressure and temperature fluctuations correlate best at low frequencies. At the inlet the phenomena controlling the phase relationship between pressure and temperature could not be identified. However, at the duct exit the phase angle of the pressure is related to the phase angle of the temperature by the convected flow time delay. Previously announced in STAR as N83-23116
Downstream pressure and elastic wall reflection of droplet flow in a T-junction microchannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Yan; Liu, Zhaomiao; Zhao, Fuwang
2016-08-01
This paper discusses pressure variation on a wall during the process of liquid flow and droplet formation in a T-junction microchannel. Relevant pressure in the channel, deformation of the elastic wall, and responses of the droplet generation are analyzed using a numerical method. The pressure difference between the continuous and dispersed phases can indicate the droplet-generation period. The pressure along the channel of the droplet flow is affected by the position of droplets, droplet-generation period, and droplet escape from the outlet. The varying pressures along the channel cause a nonuniform deformation of the wall when they are elastic. The deformation is a vibration and has the same period as the droplet generation arising from the process of droplet formation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beeler, G. B.
1986-01-01
An initial measurement of turbulent wall pressure fluctuations downstream of tandem large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs) indicates a significant reduction by comparison with the reference case of a flat plate; the average magnitude of the reduction is 12.5 percent. Peak reduction is at 7-8 kHz, and is of the order of the C(f) reduction due to the tandem LEBUs. These data indicate a secondary benefit derivable from LEBUs, in addition to their skin friction reduction effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y. H.; Li, W. M.; Chin, J. S.
1986-06-01
The variation of spray characteristics (Sauter Mean Diameter and Rosin-Rammler drop-size distribution parameter) downstream of a pressure swirl atomizer along radial distance has been measured by laser light scattering technology. An analytical model has been developed that is capable of predicting the variation of spray characteristics along radial distance. A comparison between the prediction and experimental data shows excellent agreement. It shows that the spray model proposed, although relatively simple, is correct and can be used with some expansion and modification to predict more complicated spray systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, A.; van der Schans, M.; Xu, C.; Cooke, M.; Wagenaars, E.
2016-04-01
In the semiconductor industry the plasma removal of photoresist (PR) between processing steps (so-called plasma ashing) is a critical issue in enabling the creation of advanced wafer architectures associated with the next generation of devices. We investigated the feasibility of a novel atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to remove PR. Our device operates at atmospheric pressure, eliminating the need for low-pressure operation used in conventional plasma ashing. Also, our method uses the downstream effluent of the source, avoiding issues relating to ion bombardment, a known hinderance to atomic precision manufacturing. Two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) measurements of the system has shown that the PR removal rate is directly correlated with the atomic oxygen flux to the surface. The maximum removal rates achieved were 10 μm min-1, a factor of 100 improvement over typical low-pressure methods, while the quality of the etch, as assessed by attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was found to be equal to low-pressure standards.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetterer, C.; Hill, K.; Jah, M.
2014-09-01
Recent research has highlighted the need for physically consistent radiation pressure and Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) models. This paper seeks to evaluate the impact of BRDF-consistent radiation pressure models compared to changes in the other BRDF parameters. The differences in orbital position arising because of changes in the shape, attitude, angular rates, BRDF parameters, and radiation pressure model are plotted as a function of time for simulated rocket bodies and debris at geo-synchronous orbit (GEO). The initial position and velocity of the space object is kept fixed, and the orbital position difference between a baseline or-bit and the perturbed orbit are plotted as a function of time. This is similar to how the effects of perturbations have been visualized in the past in commonly used astrodynamics references.
Ceolín, M
2000-09-11
The hydrodynamic behaviour of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by means of the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique as a function of the hydrostatic pressure (up to 4.1 kbar) applied to the sample. The results have clearly shown that at moderated pressures (around 1.5 kbar) the BSA molecule suffers structural modifications which produces an increase of the molecular volume and the rotational correlation time of the molecule. About the reversibility of the process, our results indicate that the changes are fully irreversible. Our experiments are the first devoted to the study of the high-pressure behaviour of biological molecules using the PAC technique. PMID:10989128
Frequency response of an axial-flow compressor exposed to inlet pressure perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milner, E. J.; Wenzel, L. M.; Paulovich, F. J.
1974-01-01
Experimental results of a series of engine tests designed to obtain the stage dynamics of an eight-stage axial-flow compressor over the frequency range of 0.5 to 200 hertz are presented. The total pressure at the compressor face was varied by means of a secondary air jet system installed in the engine inlet and positioned to oppose the primary airflow. Total-pressure probes located at each compressor stage were used to obtain the frequency response of each compressor-stage total pressure to the average compressor-inlet total pressure. The engine operating conditions were chosen to illustrate the effects of changing the rotor speed, changing the exhaust nozzle area, and isolating the compressor discharge pressure perturbations from the fuel control and hence, the fuel flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Rokibul; Lekobou, William; Wemlinger, Erik; Pedrow, Patrick
2012-10-01
An Atmospheric Pressure Weakly Ionized Plasma (APWIP) Reactor generates a significant number of charged particles and neutral radicals. In our work the carrier gas is argon and the precursor molecule is acetylene. The APWIP is generated by corona discharges associated with an array of high voltage metal needles facing a grounded metal screen. Neutral radical transport downstream from the grounded screen to the substrate via diffusion and convection will be modeled with COMSOL, a finite element software package. Substrates will include objects with various shapes and characteristic dimensions that range from nanometers to centimeters. After the model is validated against canonical problems with known solutions, thin film deposition rates will be compared with experimentally measured results. Substrate geometries will include discs, spheres, fibers and highly porous surfaces such as those found on asphalt road surfaces. A single generic neutral radical will be used to represent the entire family of neutral radicals resulting from acetylene bond scission by free electron impact.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlesinger, R. E.
1984-01-01
The physical roles of 'buoyant' and 'dynamic' pressure components, and the distinction between buoyant and hydrostatic pressure perturbations, are aspects of the pressure perturbation field in strongly sheared convective storms studied by means of two- and three-dimensional anelastic numerical modeling experiments with common environmental profiles. The pressure analysis clarifies the differences between two- and three-dimensional storms. In the main updraft, strong midlevel thermal buoyancy is partly opposed by a downward-perturbed vertical pressure gradient force. This, however, occurs to a much greater extent in two dimensions than in three, contributing to smaller net upward accelerations. While the buoyant and hydrostatic fields are intimately related to the total buoyancy distribution, the buoyant pressure perturbation is smoother and of lower amplitude than its hydrostatic counterpart. For the model experiments, this distinction is far greater in three dimensions than in two, in association with the smaller scale of the active convection in three dimensions.
Observations of height-dependent pressure-perturbation structure of a strong mesoscale gravity wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starr, David O'C.; Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Weng, Chi Y.
1992-01-01
Airborne observations using a downward-looking, dual-frequency, near-infrared, differential absorption lidar system provide the first measurements of the height-dependent pressure-perturbation field associated with a strong mesoscale gravity wave. A pressure-perturbation amplitude of 3.5 mb was measured within the lowest 1.6 km of the atmosphere over a 52-km flight line. Corresponding vertical displacements of 250-500 m were inferred from lidar-observed displacement of aerosol layers. Accounting for probable wave orientation, a horizontal wavelength of about 40 km was estimated. Satellite observations reveal wave structure of a comparable scale in concurrent cirrus cloud fields over an extended area. Smaller-scale waves were also observed. Local meteorological soundings are analyzed to confirm the existence of a suitable wave duct. Potential wave-generation mechanisms are examined and discussed. The large pressure-perturbation wave is attributed to rapid amplification or possible wave breaking of a gravity wave as it propagated offshore and interacted with a very stable marine boundary layer capped by a strong shear layer.
Perturbation Method for Study of Shear Strength of Materials at Pressures up to {approx}300 GPa
Lebedev, A. I.; Aprelkov, O. N.; Arinin, V. A.; Bulannikov, A. S.; Burtsev, V. V.; Golubev, V. A.; Davydov, N. B.; Zhernokletov, M. V.; Ignatova, O. N.; Igonin, V. V.; Makarov, Yu. M.; Manachkin, S. F.; Mochalov, M. A.; Nadezhin, S. S.; Nizovtsev, P. N.; Raevsky, V. A.; Sinitsyna, S. N.; Solov'ev, V. P.; Fadeev, L. A.
2006-07-28
The paper presents results of studies of shear strength of copper having various grain sizes under quasi-isentropic and shock-wave loading up to pressures 40 GPa and 70 GPa. The studies were performed for copper M1; large-grain copper with grain size 100 mm; and ultradispersed copper with grain size 0.5 mm. Basing on results of the experiments, the relaxation models of shear strength were developed. The model of shear strength of large -grain copper takes account for deformation heterogeneity. The first experimental data on strength properties of copper at pressure up to 300 GPa were obtained by the perturbation method.
Exospheric perturbations by radiation pressure. II - Solution for orbits in the ecliptic plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamberlain, J. W.
1980-01-01
A previous study (Chamberlain, 1979) gave solutions for the mean time rates of change of orbital elements of satellite atoms in an exosphere influenced by solar radiation pressure; each element was assumed to behave independently. In the present paper, the instantaneous rates of changes for three elements (e, Omega, and phi = omega + Omega) are integrated simultaneously for the case of the inclination i = 0. The results confirm the validity of using mean rates when the orbits are tighly bound to the planet, and serve as examples to be reproduced by the complicated numerical solutions required for arbitrary inclination. Strongly bound hydrogen atoms perturbed in earth orbit by radiation pressure do not seem a likely cause of the geotail extending in the anti-sun direction. Instead, radiation pressure will cause those particles' orbits to form a broad fan-shaped tail and to deteriorate into the earth's atmosphere.
Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Bryant, S.L.; Hovorka, S.D.
2009-07-01
We investigate the possibility that brine could be displaced upward into potable water through wells. Because of the large volumes of CO2 to be injected, the influence of the zone of elevated pressure on potential conduits such as well boreholes could extend many kilometers from the injection site-farther than the CO2 plume itself. The traditional approach to address potential brine leakage related to fluid injection is to set an area of fixed radius around the injection well/zone and to examine wells and other potentially open pathways located in the ''Area-of-Review'' (AoR). This suggests that the AoR eeds to be defined in terms of the potential for a given pressure perturbation to drive upward fluid flow in any given system rather than on some arbitrary pressure rise. We present an analysis that focuses on the changes in density/salinity of the fluids in the potentially leaking wellbore.
Conformational Mobility in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Explored by Pressure-Perturbation EPR Spectroscopy.
Davydov, Dmitri R; Yang, Zhongyu; Davydova, Nadezhda; Halpert, James R; Hubbell, Wayne L
2016-04-12
We used high hydrostatic pressure as a tool for exploring the conformational landscape of human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) by electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy. Site-directed incorporation of a luminescence resonance energy transfer donor-acceptor pair allowed us to identify a pressure-dependent equilibrium between two states of the enzyme, where an increase in pressure increased the spatial separation between the two distantly located fluorophores. This transition is characterized by volume change (ΔV°) and P1/2 values of -36.8 ± 5.0 mL/mol and 1.45 ± 0.33 kbar, respectively, which corresponds to a Keq° of 0.13 ± 0.06, so that only 15% of the enzyme adopts the pressure-promoted conformation at ambient pressure. This pressure-promoted displacement of the equilibrium is eliminated by the addition of testosterone, an allosteric activator. Using site-directed spin labeling, we demonstrated that the pressure- and testosterone-sensitive transition is also revealed by pressure-induced changes in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of a nitroxide side chain placed at position 85 or 409 of the enzyme. Furthermore, we observed a pressure-induced displacement of the emission maxima of a solvatochromic fluorophore (7-diethylamino-3-((((2-maleimidyl)ethyl)amino)carbonyl) coumarin) placed at the same positions, which suggests a relocation to a more polar environment. Taken together, the results reveal an effector-dependent conformational equilibrium between open and closed states of CYP3A4 that involves a pronounced change at the interface between the region of α-helices A/A' and the meander loop of the enzyme, where residues 85 and 409 are located. Our study demonstrates the high potential of pressure-perturbation strategies for studying protein conformational landscapes. PMID:27074675
A perturbation solution for transverse pressure-sensitive combustion instability in an annulus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Googerdy, A.; Peddieson, J., Jr.
1980-01-01
A method for analysis of combustion instability in rocket motors based on a combination of the Galerkin method and the two-variable (or multiple-scales) perturbation method is developed. The method is illustrated by applying it to the problem of pressure-sensitive combustion instability in a liquid-fuel annular combustion chamber. To the order of approximation inherent in the method it is found that the complete linear stability analysis and most of the nonlinear stability analysis can be carried out in closed form. The results thus obtained are used to clarify several aspects of the interpretation of numerical solutions obtained by previous investigators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishin, M. V.; Protopopova, V. S.; Uvarov, A. A.; Alexandrov, S. E.
2014-10-01
This paper presents the results from an experimental study of the ion flux characteristics behind the remote plasma zone in a vertical tube reaction chamber for atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma was generated in pure He and gas mixtures: He-Ar, He-O2, He-TEOS. We previously used the reaction system He-TEOS for the synthesis of self-assembled structures of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. It is likely that the electrical parameters of the area, where nanoparticles have been transported from the synthesis zone to the substrate, play a significant role in the self-organization processes both in the vapor phase and on the substrate surface. The results from the spatial distribution of the electrical potential and ion concentration in the discharge downstream area measured by means of the external probe of original design and the special data processing method are demonstrated in this work. Positive and negatives ions with maximum concentrations of 106-107 cm-3 have been found at 10-80 mm distance behind the plasma zone. On the basis of the revealed distributions for different gas mixtures, the physical model of the observed phenomena is proposed. The model illustrates the capability of the virtual ion emitter formation behind the discharge gap and the presence of an extremum of the electrical potential at the distance of approximately 10-2-10-1 mm from the grounded electrode.
Oyster Creek RETRAN model benchmark to pressure and level perturbation tests
Alammar, M.A.
1986-01-01
As part of GPU Nuclear's program to establish an in-house reload capability for Oyster Creek, the RETRAN-02 MOD4 SPL Computer Code has been chosen to analyze Chapter 15 Final Safety Analysis Report transients. To qualify Oyster Creek RETRAN model, a series of startup tests has been chosen to benchmark the model. Two of those tests, involved water level and vessel pressure perturbations at 100% power. Both tests were analyzed using point kinetics and one-dimensional kinetics with no noticeable impact on level or pressure. A small impact was noticed on power but was thought to be of minor significance. This is because for such mild transients the neutron flux shape function does not change appreciably throughout the transient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMahon, Jay W.
Solar radiation pressure is the largest non-gravitational perturbation for most satellites in the solar system, and can therefore have a significant influence on their orbital dynamics. This work presents a new method for representing the solar radiation pressure force acting on a satellite, and applies this theory to natural and artificial satellites. The solar radiation pressure acceleration is modeled as a Fourier series which depends on the Sun's location in a body-fixed frame; a new set of Fourier coefficients are derived for every latitude of the Sun in this frame, and the series is expanded in terms of the longitude of the Sun. The secular effects due to the solar radiation pressure perturbations are given analytically through the application of averaging theory when the satellite is in a synchronous orbit. This theory is then applied to binary asteroid systems to explain the Binary YORP effect. Long term predictions of the evolution of the near-Earth asteroid 1999 KW4 are discussed under the influence of solar radiation pressure, J2, and 3rd body gravitational effects from the Sun. Secular effects are shown to remain when the secondary asteroid becomes non-synchronous due to a librational motion. The theory is also applied to Earth orbiting spacecraft, and is shown to be a valuable tool for improved orbit determination. The Fourier series solar radiation pressure model derived here is shown to give comparable results for orbit determination of the GPS IIR-M satellites as JPL's solar radiation pressure model. The theory is also extended to incorporate the effects of the Earth's shadow analytically. This theory is briefly applied to the evolution of orbital debris to explain the assumptions that are necessary in order to use the cannonball model for debris orbit evolution, as is common in the literature. Finally, the averaging theory methodology is applied to a class of Earth orbiting solar sail spacecraft to show the orbital effects when the sails are made
Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature
Benilov, M. S.; Hechtfischer, U.
2012-04-01
We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferguson, T. V.; Havskjold, G. L.; Rojas, L.
1988-01-01
A laser two-focus velocimeter was used in an open-loop water test facility in order to map the flowfield downstream of the SSME's high-pressure oxidizer turbopump first-stage turbine nozzle; attention was given to the effects of the upstream strut-downstream nozzle configuration on the flow at the rotor inlet, in order to estimate dynamic loads on the first-stage rotor blades. Velocity and flow angles were plotted as a function of circumferential position, and were found to clearly display the periodic behavior of the wake flow field. The influence of the upstream centerbody-supporting struts on the vane nozzle wake pattern was evident.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmeeckle, M. W.
2015-02-01
Bed load transport over ripples and dunes in rivers exhibits strong spatial and temporal variability due to the complex turbulence field caused by flow separation at bedform crests. A turbulence-resolving flow model downstream of a backward-facing step, coupled with a model integrating the equations of motion of individual sand grains, is used to investigate the physical interaction between bed load motion and turbulence downstream of separated flow. Large bed load transport events are found to correspond to low-frequency positive pressure fluctuations. Episodic penetration of fluid into the bed increases the bed stress and moves grains. Fluid penetration events are larger in magnitude near the point of reattachment than farther downstream. Models of bed load transport over ripples and dunes must incorporate the effects of these penetration events of high stress and sediment flux.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmeeckle, M. W.
2014-07-01
Bed load transport over ripples and dunes in rivers exhibits strong spatial and temporal variability due to the complex turbulence field caused by flow separation at bedform crests. A turbulence-resolving flow model downstream of a backward-facing step, coupled with a model integrating the equations of motion of individual sand grains, is used to investigate the physical interaction between bed load motion and turbulence downstream of separated flow. Large bed load transport events are found to correspond to low-frequency, positive pressure fluctuations. Episodic penetration of fluid into the bed increases the bed stress and moves grains. Fluid penetration events are larger in magnitude near the point of reattachment than further downstream. Models of bed load transport over ripples and dunes must incorporate the effects of these penetration events of high stress and sediment flux.
Electric Current Filamentation at a Non-potential Magnetic Null-point Due to Pressure Perturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.; Murawski, K.
2015-10-01
An increase of electric current densities due to filamentation is an important process in any flare. We show that the pressure perturbation, followed by an entropy wave, triggers such a filamentation in the non-potential magnetic null-point. In the two-dimensional (2D), non-potential magnetic null-point, we generate the entropy wave by a negative or positive pressure pulse that is launched initially. Then, we study its evolution under the influence of the gravity field. We solve the full set of 2D time dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically, making use of the FLASH code. The negative pulse leads to an entropy wave with a plasma density greater than in the ambient atmosphere and thus this wave falls down in the solar atmosphere, attracted by the gravity force. In the case of the positive pressure pulse, the plasma becomes evacuated and the entropy wave propagates upward. However, in both cases, owing to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the electric current in a non-potential magnetic null-point is rapidly filamented and at some locations the electric current density is strongly enhanced in comparison to its initial value. Using numerical simulations, we find that entropy waves initiated either by positive or negative pulses result in an increase of electric current densities close to the magnetic null-point and thus the energy accumulated here can be released as nanoflares or even flares.
Bottom shear stress and pressure perturbations under an internal solitary wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, Gustavo; Diamessis, Peter
2014-11-01
The bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a mode-1 internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression propagating against an oncoming model barotropic current is examined using 2-D direct numerical simulation based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. Use of a postprocessing projection onto a modified set of divergence-free basis functions enables investigation of wave-based Reynolds numbers within the range [105 ,106 ] . At sufficiently high ISW amplitude, the BBL undergoes a global instability which produces intermittent vortex shedding from within the separation bubble in the lee of the wave. The interplay between the bottom shear stress field and pressure perturbations during vortex ejection events and the subsequent evolution of the vortices is the focus of this presentation. Implications for resuspension of bottom particulate matter are discussed in the context of specific sediment transport models. Support from the Cornell Sloan Diversity Fellowship program is gratefully acknowledged.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, R. D.; Jakubowski, A. K.
1974-01-01
Heat-transfer and pressure distributions were measured for laminar separated flows downstream of rearward-facing steps with and without mass suction. The flow conditions were such that the boundary-layer thickness was comparable to or larger than the step height. For both suction and no-suction cases, an increase in the step height resulted in a sharp decrease in the initial heat-transfer rates behind the step. Downstream, however, the heat transfer gradually recovered back to less than or near attached-flow values. Mass suction from the step base area increased the local heat-transfer rates; however, this effect was relatively weak for the laminar flows considered. Even removal of the entire approaching boundary layer raised the post-step heat-transfer rates only about 10 percent above the flatplate values. Post-step pressure distributions were found to depend on the entrainment conditions at separation. In the case of the solid-faced step, a sharp pressure drop behind the step was followed by a very short plateau and relatively fast recompression. For the slotted-step connected to a large plenum but without suction, the pressure drop at the base was much smaller and the downstream recompression more gradual than that for solid-faced step.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, J. S.; Li, W. M.; Wang, X. F.
1986-01-01
The variation of spray characteristics along a radial distance downstream of a pressure-swirl atomizer was measured by laser light-scattering technology. An analytical model was developed to predict the variation of spray characteristics along the radial distance. A comparison of the predicted and experimental data showed excellent agreement. Therefore, the spray model proposed, although relatively simple, is correct and can be used, with some expansion and modification of the prepared model, to predict more complicated spray systems.
Simulations of the folding/unfolding of biomolecules under solvent, and pressure perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, Angel
2012-02-01
Proteins exhibit marginal stability, determined by the balance of many competing effects. This stability can be perturbed by changes in temperature, pH, pressure, and other solvent conditions. Osmolytes are small organic compounds that modulate the conformational equilibrium, folded (F) and unfolded (U), of proteins as cosolvents. Protecting osmolytes such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), glycerol, and sugars that push the equilibrium toward F play a crucial role in maintaining the function of intracellular proteins in extreme environmental conditions. Urea is a denaturing osmolyte that shifts the equilibrium toward U. We will describe calculations of the reversible folding/unfolding equilibrium, under various solution conditions that include urea, high pressure, and different charge states of the Trp-cage miniprotein. The folding/unfolding equilibrium is studied using all-atom Replica exchange MD simulations. For urea, the simulations capture the experimentally observed linear dependence of unfolding free energy on urea concentration. We find that the denaturation is driven by favorable direct interaction of urea with the protein through both electrostatic and van der Waals forces and quantify their contribution. Though the magnitude of direct electrostatic interaction of urea is larger than van der Waals, the difference between unfolded and folded ensembles is dominated by the van der Waals interaction. We also find that hydrogen bonding of urea to the peptide backbone does not play a dominant role in denaturation. The unfolded ensemble sampled depends on urea concentration, with greater urea concentration favoring conformations with greater solvent exposure.
Fujimoto, Masahiro; Bair, Woei-Nan; Rogers, Mark W
2015-04-13
When balance is disturbed, location of the center of pressure (COP) contributes to a person's ability to recover from a perturbation. This study investigated COP control prior to first step lift-off (FSLO) during lateral perturbations in older non-fallers and fallers. 38 non-fallers and 16 fallers received lateral waist-pulls at 5 different intensities. Crossover stepping responses at the intensity level where the largest number of subjects responded with crossover steps were analyzed. Whole-body center of mass (COM) and COP positions in the medio-lateral (ML) direction with respect to the base of support (BOS), and COP velocity were calculated. An inverted pendulum model was used to define the BOS stability boundary at FSLO, which was also adjusted using the COP position at FSLO (functional boundary). No significant differences were found in the COP velocities between fallers and non-fallers (p>.093). However, the COP positions for fallers were located significantly more medial at FSLO (p≤.01), resulting in a significantly reduced functional boundary. Although the stability margins, measures of stability based on the BOS, were significantly larger than zero for fallers (p≤.004), they were not significantly different from zero for the functional boundary, i.e., reaching the functional stability limit. Fallers had reduced functional limits of stability in the ML direction, which would predispose them to more precarious stability conditions than non-fallers. This could be a cause for taking more steps than non-fallers for balance recovery as we observed. The functional boundary estimation may be a more sensitive marker of balance instability than the BOS boundary. PMID:25728580
Fujimoto, Masahiro; Bair, Woei-Nan; Rogers, Mark W.
2015-01-01
When balance is disturbed, location of the center of pressure (COP) contributes to a person’s ability to recover from a perturbation. This study investigated COP control prior to first step lift-off (FSLO) during lateral perturbations in older non-fallers and fallers. 38 Non-Fallers and 16 Fallers received lateral waist-pulls at 5 different intensities. Crossover stepping responses at the intensity level where the largest number of subjects responded with crossover steps were analyzed. Whole-body center of mass (COM) and COP positions in the medio-lateral (ML) direction with respect to the base of support (BOS), and COP velocity were calculated. An inverted pendulum model was used to define the BOS stability boundary at FSLO, which was also adjusted using the COP position at FSLO (functional boundary). No significant differences were found in the COP velocities between Fallers and Non-Fallers (p>.093). However, the COP positions for Fallers were located significantly more medial at FSLO (p≤.01), resulting in a significantly reduced functional boundary. Although the stability margins, measures of stability based on the BOS, were significantly larger than zero for Fallers (p≤.004), they were not significantly different from zero for the functional boundary, i.e., reaching the functional stability limit. Fallers had reduced functional limits of stability in the ML direction, which would predispose them to more precarious stability conditions than Non-Fallers. This could be a cause for taking more steps than Non-Fallers for balance recovery as we observed. The functional boundary estimation may be a more sensitive marker of balance instability than the BOS boundary. PMID:25728580
Heliotropic orbits at oblate asteroids: balancing solar radiation pressure and J2 perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lantukh, Demyan; Russell, Ryan P.; Broschart, Stephen
2015-02-01
The combined effect of significant solar radiation pressure and perturbations on spacecraft orbits is investigated using both singly and doubly-averaged disturbing potentials with the Lagrange Planetary Equations. The resulting dynamics are applied to a spacecraft around an oblate asteroid. Several Sun-frozen families of orbits are identified using the singly-averaged potential, including two new families of orbits and a previously-discovered equatorial heliotropic orbit family. Families of both stable and unstable Sun-frozen orbits are mapped and characterized in the singly-averaged case. In addition, a heliotropic constraint is implemented to locate heliotropic orbits out of the equatorial plane using a constrained, doubly-averaged potential. Dynamic bounds for these 3D heliotropic orbits are shown to have an inclination limit of approximately 46 degrees for oblate bodies, and this limit is independent of the value of and radiation parameters. The resulting heliotropic and related periodic families of orbits are good candidates to consider for low-altitude science orbits around small oblate bodies with low or near-180 degree obliquity like Bennu, the target for the OSIRIS-REx mission.
Pandharipande, Pranav P; Makhatadze, George I
2015-04-01
The main goal of this work was to provide direct experimental evidence that the expansivity of peptides, polypeptides and proteins as measured by pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC), can serve as a proxy to characterize relative compactness of proteins, especially the denatured state ensemble. This is very important as currently only small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), intrinsic viscosity and, to a lesser degree, fluorescence resonance transfer (FRET) experiments are capable of reporting on the compactness of denatured state ensembles. We combined the expansivity measurements with other biophysical methods (far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and small angle X-ray scattering). Three case studies of the effects of conformational changes on the expansivity of polypeptides in solution are presented. We have shown that expansivity appears to be insensitive to the helix-coil transition, and appears to reflect the changes in hydration of the side-chains. We also observed that the expansivity is sensitive to the global conformation of the polypeptide chain and thus can be potentially used to probe hydration of different collapsed states of denatured or even intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:25602591
Vasilchuk, Daniel; Pandharipande, Pranav P; Suladze, Saba; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Makhatadze, George I
2014-06-12
There is a growing interest in understanding how hydrostatic pressure (P) impacts the thermodynamic stability (ΔG) of globular proteins. The pressure dependence of stability is defined by the change in volume upon denaturation, ΔV = (∂ΔG/∂P)T. The temperature dependence of change in volume upon denaturation itself is defined by the changes in thermal expansivity (ΔE), ΔE = (∂ΔV/∂T)P. The pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) allows direct experimental measurement of the thermal expansion coefficient, α = E/V, of a protein in the native, αN(T), and unfolded, αU(T), states as a function of temperature. We have shown previously that αU(T) is a nonlinear function of temperature but can be predicted well from the amino acid sequence using α(T) values for individual amino acids (J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 16166-16170). In this work, we report PPC results on a diverse set of nine proteins and discuss molecular factors that can potentially influence the thermal expansion coefficient, αN(T), and the thermal expansivity, EN(T), of proteins in the native state. Direct experimental measurements by PPC show that αN(T) and EN(T) functions vary significantly for different proteins. Using comparative analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, we have eliminated the role of various structural or thermodynamic properties of these proteins such as the number of amino acid residues, secondary structure content, packing density, electrostriction, dynamics, or thermostability. We have also shown that αN(T) and EN,sp(T) functions for a given protein are rather insensitive to the small changes in the amino acid sequence, suggesting that αN(T) and EN(T) functions might be defined by a topology of a given protein fold. This conclusion is supported by the similarity of αN(T) and EN(T) functions for six resurrected ancestral thioredoxins that vary in sequence but have very similar tertiary structure. PMID:24849138
Poulsen, P; Kuklo, R M
2001-03-01
We have previously reported the degree of attenuation and perturbation by a Cu jet passing through Comp B explosive. Similar tests have now been performed with high explosive (HE) targets having CJ pressures higher than and lower than the CJ pressure of Comp B. The explosives were LX-14 and TNT, respectively. We found that the measured exit velocity of the jet where it transitions from perturbed to solid did not vary significantly as a function of HE type for each HE thickness. The radial momentum imparted to the perturbed jet segment did vary as a function of HE type, however, and we report the radial spreading of the jet and the penetration of a downstream target as a function of HE type and thickness.
Rose, Steven C. Kikolski, Steven G.; Chomas, James E.
2013-10-15
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate blood pressure changes caused by deployment of the Surefire antireflux expandable tip. The pressure measurements are relevant because they imply changes in hepatoenteric arterial blood flow within this liver compartment during hepatic artery delivery of cytotoxic agents. Methods: After positioning the Surefire antireflux system in the targeted hepatic artery, blood pressure was obtained initially with the tip collapsed (or through a femoral artery sheath), then again after the tip was expanded before chemoembolization or yttrium 90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization. Results: Eighteen patients with liver malignancy underwent 29 procedures in 29 hepatic arteries (3 common hepatic, 22 lobar, 4 segmental). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were all decreased by a mean of 29 mm Hg (p = 0.000004), 14 mm Hg (p = 0.0000004), and 22 mm Hg (p = 0.00000001), respectively. Conclusion: When the Surefire expandable tip is deployed to prevent retrograde reflux of agents, it also results in a significant decrease in blood pressure in the antegrade distribution, potentially resulting in hepatopedal blood flow in vessels that are difficult to embolize, such as the supraduodenal arteries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dussauge, J. P.; Debieve, J. F.
1980-01-01
The amplification or reduction of unsteady velocity perturbations under the influence of strong flow acceleration or deceleration was studied. Supersonic flows with large velocity, pressure gradients, and the conditions in which the velocity fluctuations depend on the action of the average gradients of pressure and velocity rather than turbulence, are described. Results are analyzed statistically and interpreted as a return to laminar process. It is shown that this return to laminar implies negative values in the turbulence production terms for kinetic energy. A simple geometrical representation of the Reynolds stress production is given.
Pressure dependence of the boson peak in glasses: Correlated and uncorrelated perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schober, H. R.; Buchenau, U.; Gurevich, V. L.
2014-01-01
The pressure dependence of the boson peak in glasses within the framework of the extended soft potential model is reconsidered, taking effects at small pressures into account. One of these is the pressure dependence of the elastic constants, changing the interaction between the soft localized modes and thus changing the quasilocalized vibrations (QLVs) of the boson peak. This and other effects require the introduction of additional parameters to describe all the different influences of the pressure in detail. As in the first treatment of the problem, the dominating high-pressure influence remains the creation of pressure forces, which have to be added to the random forces responsible for the boson peak formation. The pressure forces consist of a correlated and an uncorrelated part (correlated with respect to the already existing random forces). Both lead to the P1/3 dependence observed in high-pressure experiments, but the uncorrelated part vanishes at small pressure P. The comparison to experiment is divided into a small pressure part, accessible through low-temperature heat capacity and thermal expansion measurements, and the high-pressure part, mostly Raman scattering measurements of the boson peak under pressure. The results suggest that the latter are dominated by the uncorrelated part of the forces, probably due to pressure-induced relaxations.
Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.
2011-05-01
Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brumby, Paul E.; Haslam, Andrew J.; de Miguel, Enrique; Jackson, George
2011-01-01
An efficient and versatile method to calculate the components of the pressure tensor for hard-body fluids of generic shape from the perspective of molecular simulation is presented. After due consideration of all the possible repulsive contributions exerted by molecules upon their surroundings during an anisotropic system expansion, it is observed that such a volume change can, for non-spherical molecules, give rise to configurations where overlaps occur. This feature of anisotropic molecules has to be taken into account rigorously as it can lead to discrepancies in the calculation of tensorial contributions to the pressure. Using the condition of detailed balance as a basis, a perturbation method developed for spherical molecules has been extended so that it is applicable to non-spherical and non-convex molecules. From a series of 'ghost' anisotropic volume perturbations the residual contribution to the components of the pressure tensor may be accurately calculated. Comparisons are made with prior methods and, where relevant, results are evaluated against existing data. For inhomogeneous systems this method provides a particularly convenient route to the calculation of the interfacial tension (surface free energy) from molecular simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hubbard, W. B.; Dewitt, H. E.
1985-01-01
A model free energy is presented which accurately represents results from 45 high-precision Monte Carlo calculations of the thermodynamics of hydrogen-helium mixtures at pressures of astrophysical and planetophysical interest. The free energy is calculated using free-electron perturbation theory (dielectric function theory), and is an extension of the expression given in an earlier paper in this series. However, it fits the Monte Carlo results more accurately, and is valid for the full range of compositions from pure hydrogen to pure helium. Using the new free energy, the phase diagram of mixtures of liquid metallic hydrogen and helium is calculated and compared with earlier results. Sample results for mixing volumes are also presented, and the new free energy expression is used to compute a theoretical Jovian adiabat and compare the adiabat with results from three-dimensional Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. The present theory gives slightly higher densities at pressures of about 10 megabars.
RELAP5-3D Analysis of Pressure Perturbation at the Peach Bottom BWR During Low-Flow Stability Tests
Lombardi Costa, Antonella; Petruzzi, Alessandro; D'Auria, Francesco
2006-07-01
Experimental and theoretical studies about the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) stability have been performed to design a stable core configuration. BWR instabilities can be caused by inter-dependencies between thermal-hydraulic and reactivity feedback parameters such as the void-coefficient, for example, during a pressure perturbation event. In the present work, the pressure perturbation is considered in order to study in detail this type of transient. To simulate this event, including the strong feedback effects between core neutronic and reactor thermal-hydraulics, and to verify core behavior and evaluate parameters related to safety, RELAP5-3D code has been used in the analyses. The simulation was performed making use of Peach Bottom-2 BWR data to predict the dynamics of a real reactor during this type of event. Stability tests were conducted in the Peach Bottom 2 BWR, in 1977, and were done along the low-flow end of the rated power-flow line, and along the power-flow line corresponding to minimum recirculation pump speed. The calculated results are herein compared against the available experimental data. (authors)
Structural Plasticity of Staphylococcal Nuclease Probed by Perturbation with Pressure and pH
Kitahara, Ryo; Hata, Kazumi; Maeno, Akihiro; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Chimenti, Michael; Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, E; Schroer, Martin A.; Jeworrek, Christoph; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland; Roche, Julien; Roumestand, Christian; de Guillen, Karine Montet; Royer, Catherine A.
2012-01-01
The ionization of internal groups in proteins can trigger conformational change. Despite this being the structural basis of most biological energy transduction, these processes are poorly understood. SAXS and NMR spectroscopy experiments at ambient and high hydrostatic pressure were used to examine how the presence and ionization of Lys-66, buried in the hydrophobic core of a stabilized variant of staphylococcal nuclease, affect conformation and dynamics. NMR spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure showed previously that the neutral Lys-66 affects slow conformational fluctuations globally, whereas the effects of the charged form are localized to the region immediately surrounding position 66. Ab initio models from SAXS data suggest that when Lys-66 is charged the protein expands, which is consistent with results from NMR spectroscopy. The application of moderate pressure (< 2 kbar) at pH values where Lys-66 is normally neutral at ambient pressure left most of the structure unperturbed but produced significant non-linear changes in chemical shifts in the helix where Lys-66 is located. Above 2 kbar pressure at these pH values the protein with Lys-66 unfolded cooperatively adopting a relatively compact, albeit random structure according to Kratky analysis of the SAXS data. In contrast, at low pH and high pressure the unfolded state of the variant with Lys-66 is more expanded than that of the reference protein. The combined global and local view of the structural reorganization triggered by ionization of the internal Lys-66 reveals more detectable changes than were previously suggested by NMR spectroscopy at ambient pressure. PMID:21254234
Exospheric perturbations by radiation pressure. 2: Solution for orbits in the ecliptic plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamberlain, J. W.
1980-01-01
The instantaneous rates of change for the orbital elements eccentricity, longitude of perigee from the Sun, and longitude from the Sun of the ascending node are integrated simultaneously for the case of the inclination i = 0. The results confirm the validity of using mean rates when the orbits are tightly bound to the planet and serve as examples to be reproduced by the complicated numerical solutions required for arbitrary inclination. Strongly bound hydrogen atoms escaping from Earth due to radiation pressure do not seem a likely cause of the geotail extending in the anti-sun direction. Instead, radiation pressure will cause those particles' orbits to deteriorate into the Earth's atmosphere.
Grüneis, Andreas
2015-09-14
We employ Hartree–Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation, coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) as well as CCSD plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) theory to study the pressure induced transition from the rocksalt to the cesium chloride crystal structure in LiH. We show that the calculated transition pressure converges rapidly in this series of increasingly accurate many-electron wave function based theories. Using CCSD(T) theory, we predict a transition pressure for the structural phase transition in the LiH crystal of 340 GPa. Furthermore, we investigate the potential energy surface for this transition in the parameter space of the Buerger path.
Attenuation of Sinusoidal Perturbations Superimposed on Laminar Flow of a Liquid in a Long Line
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Carl M.; Blade, Robert J.; Dorsch, Robert G.
1965-01-01
The attenuation constant for sinusoidal pressure and flow perturbations superimposed on the laminar flow of a viscous liquid was measured in a system consisting of a long, straight, cylindrical hydraulic line. The upstream and downstream ends of the line were securely fastened t o the ground. A sinusoidal perturbation was imposed on the mean flow at the upstream end by means of a s m a l l oscillation of a throttle valve abmt a partly open mean position. The downstream end was terminated in a restricting orifice. Pressure perturbations were measured at three locations along the line for frequencies from 15 t o 100 cps. These pressure measurements were reduced by use of a pair of complex damped acoustic one-dimensional wave equations to obtain the attenuation constant along with the phase constant and the dimensionless downstream admittance. For the range of frequencies investigated, the experimental values of the attenuation constant are in good agreement with classical theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkholder, Michael B.; Litster, Shawn
2015-02-01
Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system efficiency can be decreased by instabilities resulting from the accumulation of water in the cathode as well as by excessive air delivery parasitic loads used to prevent liquid water accumulation. In this work, we present a new instability detection diagnostic tailored for the nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of PEFC operation with multi-phase flow in the gas channels. The instability statistic, the Lyapunov exponent of the reduced-order voltage return map, λ, is a measure of the exponential rate of divergence in the dynamic voltage signal measured from the fuel cell. A key advantage of this statistic for embedded control is that it is a self-referencing measure of the system stability for feedback and is not based on an a priori performance threshold. Our experiments demonstrate that the Lyapunov exponent statistic provides a warning typically 100 s in advance of significant power loss. Using this statistic as a control diagnostic, a new control scheme that detects PEFC instability in real time and mitigates it with pressure perturbations was applied experimentally to several fuel cell systems, including one that simulates stack operation. Our control scheme resulted in increased PEFC power, decreased cathode flooding leading to a lower parasitic load for air delivery, and stable PEFC performance.
Boundary Layer Instabilities Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.
2015-01-01
A controlled, laser-generated, freestream perturbation was created in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT). The freestream perturbation convected downstream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The geometry of the flared cone is a body of revolution bounded by a circular arc with a 3-meter radius. Fourteen PCB 132A31 pressure transducers were used to measure a wave packet generated in the cone boundary layer by the freestream perturbation. This wave packet grew large and became nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. Breakdown of this wave packet occurred when the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations was approximately 10% of the surface pressure for a nominally sharp nosetip. The initial amplitude of the second mode instability on the blunt flared cone is estimated to be on the order of 10 -6 times the freestream static pressure. The freestream laser-generated perturbation was positioned upstream of the model in three different configurations: on the centerline, offset from the centerline by 1.5 mm, and offset from the centerline by 3.0 mm. When the perturbation was offset from the centerline of a blunt flared cone, a larger wave packet was generated on the side toward which the perturbation was offset. The offset perturbation did not show as much of an effect on the wave packet on a sharp flared cone as it did on a blunt flared cone.
Grüneis, Andreas
2015-09-14
We employ Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation, coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) as well as CCSD plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) theory to study the pressure induced transition from the rocksalt to the cesium chloride crystal structure in LiH. We show that the calculated transition pressure converges rapidly in this series of increasingly accurate many-electron wave function based theories. Using CCSD(T) theory, we predict a transition pressure for the structural phase transition in the LiH crystal of 340 GPa. Furthermore, we investigate the potential energy surface for this transition in the parameter space of the Buerger path. PMID:26374010
Fujiwara, K.; Shibahara, M.
2014-07-21
A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a system composed of fluid molecules between two planar solid surfaces, and whose interactions are described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones form. This paper presents a general description of the pressure components and interfacial tension at a fluid-solid interface obtained by the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics, proposes a method to consider the pressure components tangential to an interface which are affected by interactions with solid atoms, and applies this method to the calculation system. The description of the perturbative method is extended to subsystems, and the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface are obtained and examined in one- and two-dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained by two alternative methods: (a) an evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane, and (b) the conventional method based on the virial expression. The accuracy of the numerical results is examined through the comparison of the results obtained by each method. The calculated local pressure components and interfacial tension of the fluid at a liquid-solid interface agreed well with the results of the two alternative methods at each local position in one dimension. In two dimensions, the results showed a characteristic profile of the tangential pressure component which depended on the direction tangential to the liquid-solid interface, which agreed with that obtained by the evaluation of the intermolecular force acting on a plane in the present study. Such good agreement suggests that the perturbative method on the basis of statistical thermodynamics used in this study is valid to obtain the local pressure components and interfacial tension at a liquid-solid interface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Stewart J.; Jouanna, Paul; Haines, Julien; Mainprice, David
2011-03-01
We predict the IR-TO, IR-LO and Raman modes (wave numbers and intensities) of magnesite (MgCO3) up to 50 GPa, at T = 0 K, using the density-functional perturbation theory up to a third order perturbation, under the harmonic assumption. The predicted IR-TO and Raman mode wave numbers, the mode Grüneisen parameters and the Davydov splittings are systematically compared with experimental data for all modes up to the pressures of 10-30 GPa and for some modes up to 50 GPa. Existing experiments allow extending this comparison only to IR-LO wave numbers of the E u (ν3) asymmetric-stretch mode, confirming the odd experimental behavior of this mode at very high pressures. Predicted IR-TO, IR-LO and Raman intensities up to 50 GPa are just tabulated, but data are missing for their comparison with precise experiments. However, the generally good agreement observed between numerical results and experimental data, when their comparison is possible, suggests that first-principles methods are a major help to predict the entire spectrum up to very high pressures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casanova, Daniel; Petit, Alexis; Lemaître, Anne
2015-10-01
The aim of this paper is the development of a model to propagate space debris in the geostationary ring considering the J_2 effect due to the Earth oblateness, the Sun and Moon perturbations, and the solar radiation pressure. We justify the importance of considering the J_2 effect when propagating space debris independently of the ratio A / m for short and long-term propagation. We study the role of the Sun and the Moon in the period and amplitude of the inclination for different values of A / m. Thanks to the Hamiltonian formulation of the problem and the use of Poincaré's variables it is possible to express the evolution of the space debris through a simplified dynamical system. We test and validate our obtained analytical solutions with the numerical ones, computed with a powerful integrator named NIMASTEP. We analyse the improvements obtained when we include the J_2 effect and the third body perturbations by a rigorous comparison with a previous model, which only considers the solar radiation pressure. Finally, we study the effect of the area-to-mass ratio on short and long-term propagation.
Samanta, Atanu; Singh, Abhishek K.; Jain, Manish
2015-08-14
The reported values of bandgap of rutile GeO{sub 2} calculated by the standard density functional theory within local-density approximation (LDA)/generalized gradient approximation (GGA) show a wide variation (∼2 eV), whose origin remains unresolved. Here, we investigate the reasons for this variation by studying the electronic structure of rutile-GeO{sub 2} using many-body perturbation theory within the GW framework. The bandgap as well as valence bandwidth at Γ-point of rutile phase shows a strong dependence on volume change, which is independent of bandgap underestimation problem of LDA/GGA. This strong dependence originates from a change in hybridization among O-p and Ge-(s and p) orbitals. Furthermore, the parabolic nature of first conduction band along X-Γ-M direction changes towards a linear dispersion with volume expansion.
Neutrino Factory Downstream Systems
Zisman, Michael S.
2009-12-23
We describe the Neutrino Factory accelerator systems downstream from the target and capture area. These include the bunching and phase rotation, cooling, acceleration, and decay ring systems. We also briefly discuss the R&D program under way to develop these systems, and indicate areas where help from CERN would be invaluable.
Industrial-scale storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO2 plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards al...
Calculation of unsteady fan rotor response caused by downstream flow distortions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, W. F.; Richardson, S. M.; Ng, W. F.
1984-01-01
The present model for fan rotor/support strut airfoil interaction uses a time-marching code for the rotor flow, coupled with a potential flow model for the stator-strut region. Study of the effect of strut design variables indicates that rotor flow disturbance is increased by the primary variables of larger strut thickness and circumferential spacing, while decreasing exponentially with increased rotor-strut separation. The time-marching code predicts local rotor pressure and flow perturbations in response to an unsteady downstream boundary condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoshgoftar, M. J.; Mirzaali, M. J.; Rahimi, G. H.
2015-11-01
Recently application of functionally graded materials(FGMs) have attracted a great deal of interest. These materials are composed of various materials with different micro-structures which can vary spatially in FGMs. Such composites with varying thickness and non-uniform pressure can be used in the aerospace engineering. Therefore, analysis of such composite is of high importance in engineering problems. Thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded cylinder with variable thickness under non-uniform pressure is considered. First order shear deformation theory and total potential energy approach is applied to obtain the governing equations of non-homogeneous cylinder. Considering the inner and outer solutions, perturbation series are applied to solve the governing equations. Outer solution for out of boundaries and more sensitive variable in inner solution at the boundaries are considered. Combining of inner and outer solution for near and far points from boundaries leads to high accurate displacement field distribution. The main aim of this paper is to show the capability of matched asymptotic solution for different non-homogeneous cylinders with different shapes and different non-uniform pressures. The results can be used to design the optimum thickness of the cylinder and also some properties such as high temperature residence by applying non-homogeneous material.
Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Chin-Fu
2008-07-15
A number of (semi-)analytical solutions are available to drawdown analysis and leakage estimation of shallow aquifer-aquitard systems. These solutions assume that the systems are laterally infinite. When a large-scale pumping from (or injection into) an aquifer-aquitard system of lower specific storativity occurs, induced pressure perturbation (or hydraulic head drawdown/rise) may reach the lateral boundary of the aquifer. We developed semi-analytical solutions to address the induced pressure perturbation and vertical leakage in a 'laterally bounded' system consisting of an aquifer and an overlying/underlying aquitard. A one-dimensional radial flow equation for the aquifer was coupled with a one-dimensional vertical flow equation for the aquitard, with a no-flow condition imposed on the outer radial boundary. Analytical solutions were obtained for (1) the Laplace-transform hydraulic head drawdown/rise in the aquifer and in the aquitard, (2) the Laplace-transform rate and volume of leakage through the aquifer-aquitard interface integrated up to an arbitrary radial distance, (3) the transformed total leakage rate and volume for the entire interface, and (4) the transformed horizontal flux at any radius. The total leakage rate and volume depend only on the hydrogeologic properties and thicknesses of the aquifer and aquitard, as well as the duration of pumping or injection. It was proven that the total leakage rate and volume are independent of the aquifer's radial extent and wellbore radius. The derived analytical solutions for bounded systems are the generalized solutions of infinite systems. Laplace-transform solutions were numerically inverted to obtain the hydraulic head drawdown/rise, leakage rate, leakage volume, and horizontal flux for given hydrogeologic and geometric conditions of the aquifer-aquitard system, as well as injection/pumping scenarios. Application to a large-scale injection-and-storage problem in a bounded system was demonstrated.
View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner ...
View downstream of timber guide wall downstream from SE corner of lock, view towards east - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Statnikov, Vladimir; Sayadi, Taraneh; Meinke, Matthias; Schmid, Peter; Schröder, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
A sparsity promoting dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) combined with a classical data-based statistical analysis is applied to the turbulent wake of a generic axisymmetric configuration of an Ariane 5-like launcher at Ma∞ = 6.0 computed via a zonal Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large-eddy simulation (RANS/LES) method. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the wake flow dynamics of the generic launcher by clarification and visualization of initially unknown pressure perturbation sources on its after-body in coherent flow patterns. The investigated wake topology is characterized by a subsonic cavity region around the cylindrical nozzle extension which is formed due to the displacement effect of the afterexpanding jet plume emanating from the rocket nozzle (Mae = 2.52, pe/p∞ = 100) and the shear layer shedding from the main body. The cavity region contains two toroidal counter-rotating large-scale vortices which extensively interact with the turbulent shear layer, jet plume, and rocket walls, leading to the shear layer instability process to be amplified. The induced velocity fluctuations in the wake and the ultimately resulting pressure perturbations on the after-body feature three global characteristic frequency ranges, depending on the streamwise position inside the cavity. The most dominant peaks are detected at SrD r3 = 0.85 ± 0.075 near the nozzle exit, while the lower frequency peaks, in the range of SrD r2 = 0.55 ± 0.05 and SrD r1 = 0.25 ± 0.05, are found to be dominant closer to the rocket's base. A sparse promoting DMD algorithm is applied to the time-resolved velocity field to clarify the origin of the detected peaks. This analysis extracts three low-frequency spatial modes at SrD = 0.27, 0.56, and 0.85. From the three-dimensional shape of the DMD modes and the reconstructed modulation of the mean flow in time, it is deduced that the detected most dominant peaks of SrD r3 ≈ 0.85 are caused by the radial flapping motion of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C.-C.; Kuo, H.-C.; Johnson, R. H.; Lee, C.-Y.; Huang, S.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H.
2015-03-01
This paper investigates the formation and evolution of deep convection inside the east-west oriented rainbands associated with a low-level jet (LLJ) in Typhoon Morakot (2009). With typhoon center to the northwest of Taiwan, the westerly LLJ was resulted from the interaction of typhoon circulation with the southwest monsoon flow, which supplied the water vapor for the extreme rainfall (of ~1000 mm) over southwestern Taiwan. The Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator with 1 km grid spacing was used to simulate the event, and it successfully reproduced the slow-moving rainbands, the embedded cells, and the dynamics of merger and back-building (BB) on 8 August as observed. Our model results suggest that the intense convection interacted strongly with the westerly LLJ that provided reversed vertical wind shear below and above the jet core. Inside mature cells, significant dynamical pressure perturbations (pd') are induced with positive (negative) pd' at the western (eastern) flank of the updraft near the surface and a reversed pattern aloft (>2 km). This configuration produced an upward directed pressure gradient force (PGF) to the rear side and favors new development to the west, which further leads to cell merger as the mature cells slowdown in eastward propagation. The strong updrafts also acted to elevate the jet and enhance the local vertical wind shear at the rear flank. Additional analysis reveals that the upward PGF there is resulted mainly by the shearing effect but also by the extension of upward acceleration at low levels. In the horizontal, the upstream-directed PGF induced by the rear-side positive pd' near the surface is much smaller, but can provide additional convergence for BB development upstream. Finally, the cold-pool mechanism for BB appears to be not important in the Morakot case, as the conditions for strong evaporation in downdrafts do not exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C.-C.; Kuo, H.-C.; Johnson, R. H.; Lee, C.-Y.; Huang, S.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H.
2015-10-01
This paper investigates the formation and evolution of deep convection inside the east-west oriented rainbands associated with a low-level jet (LLJ) in Typhoon Morakot (2009). With the typhoon center to the northwest of Taiwan, the westerly LLJ occurred as a result from the interaction of typhoon circulation with the southwest monsoon flow, which supplied the water vapor for the extreme rainfall (of ~ 1000 mm) over southwestern Taiwan. The Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator with 1 km grid spacing was used to simulate the event, and it successfully reproduced the slow-moving rainbands, the embedded cells, and the dynamics of merger and back-building (BB) on 8 August as observed. Our model results suggest that the intense convection interacted strongly with the westerly LLJ that provided reversed vertical wind shear below and above the jet core. Inside mature cells, significant dynamical pressure perturbations (p'd) are induced with positive (negative) p'd at the western (eastern) flank of the updraft near the surface and a reversed pattern aloft (> 2 km). This configuration produced an upward-directed pressure gradient force (PGF) to the rear side and favors new development to the west, which further leads to cell merging as the mature cells slowdown in eastward propagation. The strong updrafts also acted to elevate the jet and enhance the local vertical wind shear at the rear flank. Additional analysis reveals that the upward PGF there is resulted mainly by the shearing effect but also by the extension of upward acceleration at low levels. In the horizontal, the upstream-directed PGF induced by the rear-side positive p'd near the surface is much smaller, but can provide additional convergence for BB development upstream. Finally, the cold-pool mechanism for BB appears to be not important in the Morakot case, as the conditions for strong evaporation in downdrafts do not exist.
Downstream influence scaling of turbulent flow past expansion corners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Frank K.; Chung, Kung-Ming
1992-01-01
Previous studies of the high-speed viscous inviscid interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and an expansion at a convex corner have noted that surface pressure decreases toward the downstream inviscid value yielded by a Prandtl-Meyer expansion. A downstream influence on the corner is presently identified which is based on the mean surface pressure distribution; a scaling law is proposed for this distance.
Experimental investigation of unsteady fan flow interaction with downstream struts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, W. F.; Obrien, W. F.; Olsen, T. L.
1986-01-01
In the present study of the unsteady pressure field produced on fan rotor blades by interaction with downstream struts, a single stage, low speed axial-flow fan was instrumented with blade-mounted high frequency pressure transducers. In addition, stationary pressure problems were used to map out the flowfield. Fluctuating pressure measurements are presented for blade midspan and 85-percent span on both the suction and pressure surfaces of the rotor blades at several positions of the downstream struts, and for two different flow coefficients. The strut is found to produce an effect on the unsteady pressure field on the rotor blades; this effect exceeds that due to the stator at design rotor-stator-strut spacing, but it rapidly declines as the struts are moved downstream.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Perturbing lignification is possible in multiple and diverse ways. Without obvious growth/development phenotypes, transgenic angiosperms can have lignin levels reduced to half the normal level, can have compositions ranging from very high-guaiacyl/low-syringyl to almost totally syringyl, and can eve...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Cristiane Pardal, Paula; Koiti Kuga, Helio
The problem of orbit determination consists essentially of estimating parameter values that completely specify the body trajectory in the space, processing a set of information (measure-ments) from this body. Such observations can be collected through a conventional tracking network on Earth or through sensors like GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful and low cost way to allow the computation of orbits for artificial Earth satellites. The Topex/Poseidon satellite is normally used as a reference for analyzing this system for space positioning. The orbit determination of artificial satellites is a nonlinear problem in which the disturbing forces are not easily modeled, like geopotential and direct solar radiation pressure. Through an onboard GPS receiver it is possible to obtain measurements (pseudo-range and phase) that can be used to estimate the state of the orbit. One intends to analyze the modeling of the orbit of an artificial satellite, using signals of the GPS constellation and least squares algorithms as a method of estimation, with the aim of analyzing the performance of the orbit estimation process. Accuracy is not the main goal; one pursues to verify how differences of modeling can affect the final accuracy of the orbit determination. To accomplish that, the following effects were considered: perturbations up to high degree and order for the geopoten-tial coefficients; direct solar radiation pressure, Sun attraction, and Moon attraction. It was also considered the position of the GPS antenna on the satellite body that, lately, consists of the influence of the satellite attitude motion in the orbit determination process. Although not presenting the ultimate accuracy, pseudo-range measurements corrected from ionospheric effects were considered enough to such analysis. The measurements were used to feed the batch least squares orbit determination process, in order to yield conclusive results about the orbit modeling issue. An application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.
This false color image is from further downstream in Mawrth Valles than yesterday's image. The channel here is at the end of the vallis. This image was collected during the Northern Spring season.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.7, Longitude 340.2 East (19.8 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages
Limits of downstream hydraulic geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohl, Ellen
2004-10-01
Adjustments to flow width, depth, and velocity in response to changes in discharge are commonly characterized by using downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. The spatial limits of these relationships within a drainage basin have not been systematically quantified. Where the erosional resistance of the channel substrate is sufficiently large, hydraulic driving forces presumably will be unable to adjust channel form. Data sets from 10 mountain rivers in the United States, Panama, Nepal, and New Zealand are used in this study to explore the limits of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. Where the ratio of stream power to sediment size (Ω/D84) exceeds 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry is well developed; where the ratio falls below 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry relationships are poorly developed. These limitations on downstream hydraulic geometry have important implications for channel engineering and simulations of landscape change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesgourges, J.
2013-08-01
We present a self-contained summary of the theory of linear cosmological perturbations. We emphasize the effect of the six parameters of the minimal cosmological model, first, on the spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature anisotropies, and second, on the linear matter power spectrum. We briefly review at the end the possible impact of a few non-minimal dark matter and dark energy models.
Interaction of fan rotor flow with downstream struts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, W. F., Jr.; Reimers, S. L.; Richardson, S. W.
1983-01-01
The detailed unsteady pressure field produced on the rotor blades of an axial-flow fan by interaction with downstream struts was investigated. The experimental arrangement was similar to that found in the fan casings of turbofan aircraft engines. Acoustically significant pressure fluctuations were measured on both thy suction and pressure sides of the rotor blades for several positions of the downstream struts. The level of the observed interaction decreased with increased spacing of the struts behind the rotor. An inviscid flow analysis for the disturbance level is compared with trends of the measured results.
Cosmological perturbations: Vorticity, isocurvature and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christopherson, Adam J.
2014-10-01
In this paper, I review some recent, interlinked, work undertaken using cosmological perturbation theory — a powerful technique for modeling inhomogeneities in the universe. The common theme which underpins these pieces of work is the presence of nonadiabatic pressure, or entropy, perturbations. After a brief introduction covering the standard techniques of describing inhomogeneities in both Newtonian and relativistic cosmology, I discuss the generation of vorticity. As in classical fluid mechanics, vorticity is not present in linearized perturbation theory (unless included as an initial condition). Allowing for entropy perturbations, and working to second order in perturbation theory, I show that vorticity is generated, even in the absence of vector perturbations, by purely scalar perturbations, the source term being quadratic in the gradients of first order energy density and isocurvature, or nonadiabatic pressure perturbations. This generalizes Crocco's theorem to a cosmological setting. I then introduce isocurvature perturbations in different models, focusing on the entropy perturbation in standard, concordance cosmology, and in inflationary models involving two scalar fields. As the final topic, I investigate magnetic fields, which are a potential observational consequence of vorticity in the early universe. I briefly review some recent work on including magnetic fields in perturbation theory in a consistent way. I show, using solely analytical techniques, that magnetic fields can be generated by higher order perturbations, albeit too small to provide the entire primordial seed field, in agreement with some numerical studies. I close this paper with a summary and some potential extensions of this work.
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Pirner, H.-J.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Tarasov, A. V.
2008-03-01
The Berger model of perturbative fragmentation of quarks to pions is improved by providing an absolute normalization and keeping all terms in a (1-z) expansion, which makes the calculation valid at all values of fractional pion momentum z. We also replace the nonrelativistic wave function of a loosely bound pion by the more realistic procedure of projecting to the light-cone pion wave function, which in turn is taken from well known models. The full calculation does not confirm the (1-z){sup 2} behavior of the fragmentation function (FF) predicted in [E. L. Berger, Z. Phys. C 4, 289 (1980); Phys. Lett. 89B, 241 (1980] for z>0.5, and only works at very large z>0.95, where it is in reasonable agreement with phenomenological FFs. Otherwise, we observe quite a different z-dependence which grossly underestimates data at smaller z. The disagreement is reduced after the addition of pions from decays of light vector mesons, but still remains considerable. The process dependent higher twist terms are also calculated exactly and found to be important at large z and/or p{sub T}.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
Koshelev, N.A.
2011-04-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.
Fujiwara, K.; Shibahara, M.
2015-03-07
A classical molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for a liquid-solid interfacial system with a nanometer-scale slit pore in order to reveal local thermodynamic states: local pressure components and interfacial tensions of a liquid film in the vicinity of the slit. The simulation also examined the transition mechanism between the two states of the liquid film: (a) liquid film on the slit and (b) liquid film in the slit, based on the local thermodynamic quantities from a molecular point of view. An instantaneous expression of the local pressure components and interfacial tensions, which is based on a volume perturbation, was presented to investigate time-dependent phenomena in molecular dynamics simulations. The interactions between the particles were described by the 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential, and effects of the fluid-solid interaction intensity on the local pressure components and interfacial tensions of the fluid in the vicinity of the slit were examined in detail by the presented perturbative method. The results revealed that the local pressure components tangential to the solid surface in the vicinity of the 1st fluid layer from the solid surface are different in a two dimensional plane, and the difference became pronounced in the vicinity of the corner of the slit, for cases where the fluid-solid interaction intensities are relatively strong. The results for the local interfacial tensions of the fluid inside the slit suggested that the local interfacial tensions in the vicinity of the 2nd and 3rd layers of the solid atoms from the entrance of the slit act as a trigger for the transition between the two states under the influence of a varying fluid-solid interaction.
Chemical downstream etching of tungsten
Blain, M.G.; Jarecki, R.L.; Simonson, R.J.
1998-07-01
The downstream etching of tungsten and tungsten oxide has been investigated. Etching of chemical vapor deposited tungsten and e-beam deposited tungsten oxide samples was performed using atomic fluorine generated by a microwave discharge of argon and NF{sub 3}. Etching was found to be highly activated with activation energies approximated to be 6.0{plus_minus}0.5thinspkcal/mol and 5.4{plus_minus}0.4thinspkcal/mol for W and WO{sub 3}, respectively. In the case of F etching of tungsten, the addition of undischarged nitric oxide (NO) directly into the reaction chamber results in the competing effects of catalytic etch rate enhancement and the formation of a nearly stoichiometric WO{sub 3} passivating tungsten oxide film, which ultimately stops the etching process. For F etching of tungsten oxide, the introduction of downstream NO reduces the etch rate. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}
Chaston, Daniel J; Haddock, Rebecca E; Howitt, Lauren; Morton, Susan K; Brown, Russell D; Matthaei, Klaus I; Hill, Caryl E
2015-09-01
Mutant forms of connexin40 (Cx40) exist in the human population and predispose carriers to atrial fibrillation. Since endothelial expression of Cx40 is important for electrical and chemical communication within the arterial wall, carriers of mutant Cx40 proteins may be predisposed to peripheral arterial dysfunction and dysregulation of blood pressure. We have therefore studied mice expressing either a chemically dysfunctional mutant, Cx40T202S, or wild-type Cx40, with native Cx40, specifically in the endothelium. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry under normal conditions and during cardiovascular stress induced by locomotor activity, phenylephrine or nitric oxide blockade (N(ɷ)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydroxide, L-NAME). Blood pressure of Cx40T202STg mice was significantly elevated at night when compared with wild-type or Cx40Tg mice, without change in mean heart rate, pulse pressure or locomotor activity. Analysis over 24 h showed that blood pressure of Cx40T202STg mice was significantly elevated at rest and additionally during locomotor activity. In contrast, neither plasma renin concentration nor pressor responses to phenylephrine or L-NAME were altered, the latter indicating that nitric oxide bioavailability was normal. In isolated, pressurised mesenteric arteries, hyperpolarisation and vasodilation evoked by SKA-31, the selective modulator of SKCa and IKCa channels, was significantly reduced in Cx40T202STg mice, due to attenuation of the SKCa component. Acetylcholine-induced ascending vasodilation in vivo was also significantly attenuated in cremaster muscle arterioles of Cx40T202STg mice, compared to wild-type and Cx40Tg mice. We conclude that endothelial expression of the chemically dysfunctional Cx40T202S reduces peripheral vasodilator capacity mediated by SKCa-dependent hyperpolarisation and also increases blood pressure. PMID:25369777
Modeling Neutral Densities Downstream of a Gridded Ion Thruster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soulas, George C.
2010-01-01
The details of a model for determining the neutral density downstream of a gridded ion thruster are presented. An investigation of the possible sources of neutrals emanating from and surrounding a NEXT ion thruster determined that the most significant contributors to the downstream neutral density include discharge chamber neutrals escaping through the perforated grids, neutrals escaping from the neutralizer, and vacuum facility background neutrals. For the neutral flux through the grids, near- and far-field equations are presented for rigorously determining the neutral density downstream of a cylindrical aperture. These equations are integrated into a spherically-domed convex grid geometry with a hexagonal array of apertures for determining neutral densities downstream of the ion thruster grids. The neutrals escaping from an off-center neutralizer are also modeled assuming diffuse neutral emission from the neutralizer keeper orifice. Finally, the effect of the surrounding vacuum facility neutrals is included and assumed to be constant. The model is used to predict the neutral density downstream of a NEXT ion thruster with and without neutralizer flow and a vacuum facility background pressure. The impacts of past simplifying assumptions for predicting downstream neutral densities are also examined for a NEXT ion thruster.
Discrete Newtonian cosmology: perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, George F. R.; Gibbons, Gary W.
2015-03-01
In a previous paper (Gibbons and Ellis 2014 Discrete Newtonian cosmology Class. Quantum Grav. 31 025003), we showed how a finite system of discrete particles interacting with each other via Newtonian gravitational attraction would lead to precisely the same dynamical equations for homothetic motion as in the case of the pressure-free Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmological models of general relativity theory, provided the distribution of particles obeys the central configuration equation. In this paper we show that one can obtain perturbed such Newtonian solutions that give the same linearized structure growth equations as in the general relativity case. We also obtain the Dmitriev-Zel’dovich equations for subsystems in this discrete gravitational model, and show how it leads to the conclusion that voids have an apparent negative mass.
Experimental and analytical investigation of fan flow interaction with downstream struts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, T. L.; Ng, W. F.; Obrien, W. F., Jr.
1985-01-01
An investigation which was designed to provide insight into the fundamental aspects of fan rotor-downstream strut interaction was undertaken. High response, miniature pressure transducers were embedded in the rotor blades of an experimental fan rig. Five downstream struts were placed at several downstream locations in the discharge flow annulus of the single-stage machine. Significant interaction of the rotor blade surface pressures with the flow disturbance produced by the downstream struts was measured. Several numerical procedures for calculating the quasi-steady rotor response due to downstream flow obstructions were developed. A preliminary comparison of experimental and calculated fluctuating blade pressures on the rotor blades shows general agreement between the experimental and calculated values.
Gas phase oxidation downstream of a catalytic combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tien, J. S.; Anderson, D. N.
1979-01-01
Effect of the length available for gas-phase reactions downstream of the catalytic reactor on the emission of CO and unburned hydrocarbons was investigated. A premixed, prevaporized propane/air feed to a 12/cm/diameter catalytic/reactor test section was used. The catalytic reactor was made of four 2.5 cm long monolithic catalyst elements. Four water cooled gas sampling probes were located at positions between 0 and 22 cm downstream of the catalytic reactor. Measurements of unburned hydrocarbon, CO, and CO2 were made. Tests were performed with an inlet air temperature of 800 K, a reference velocity of 10 m/s, pressures of 3 and 600,000 Pa, and fuel air equivalence ratios of 0.14 to 0.24. For very lean mixtures, hydrocarbon emissions were high and CO continued to be formed downstream of the catalytic reactor. At the highest equivalence ratios tested, hydrocarbon levels were much lower and CO was oxidized to CO2 in the gas phase downstream. To achieve acceptable emissions, a downstream region several times longer than the catalytic reactor could be required.
Collisionless relaxation of downstream ion distributions in low-Mach number shocks
Gedalin, M.; Friedman, Y.; Balikhin, M.
2015-07-15
Collisionlessly formed downstream distributions of ions in low-Mach number shocks are studied. General expressions for the asymptotic value of the ion density and pressure are derived for the directly transmitted ions. An analytical approximation for the overshoot strength is suggested for the low-β case. Spatial damping scale of the downstream magnetic oscillations is estimated.
Phillips, Aaron A; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Ainslie, Philip N; Warburton, Darren E R
2014-03-15
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal segment suffer from orthostatic intolerance. How cerebral blood flow (CBF) responds to orthostatic challenges in SCI is poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear how interventions meant to improve orthostatic tolerance in SCI influence CBF. This study aimed to examine 1) the acute regional CBF responses to rapid changes in blood pressure (BP) during orthostatic stress in individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) individuals; and 2) the effect of midodrine (alpha1-agonist) on orthostatic tolerance and CBF regulation in SCI. Ten individuals with SCI >T6, and 10 age- and sex-matched AB controls had beat-by-beat BP and middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv, PCAv, respectively) recorded during a progressive tilt-test to quantify the acute CBF response and orthostatic tolerance. Dynamic MCAv and PCAv to BP relationships were evaluated continuously in the time domain and frequency domain (via transfer function analysis). The SCI group was tested again after administration of 10 mg midodrine to elevate BP. Coherence (i.e., linearity) was elevated in SCI between BP-MCAv and BP-PCAv by 35% and 22%, respectively, compared with AB, whereas SCI BP-PCAv gain (i.e., magnitudinal relationship) was reduced 30% compared with AB (all P < 0.05). The acute (i.e., 0-30 s after tilt) MCAv and PCAv responses were similar between groups. In individuals with SCI, midodrine led to improved PCAv responses 30-60 s following tilt (10 ± 3% vs. 4 ± 2% decline; P < 0.05), and a 59% improvement in orthostatic tolerance (P < 0.01). The vertebrobasilar region may be particularly susceptible to hypoperfusion in SCI, leading to increased orthostatic intolerance. PMID:24436297
Phillips, Aaron A.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.; Ainslie, Philip N.
2014-01-01
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal segment suffer from orthostatic intolerance. How cerebral blood flow (CBF) responds to orthostatic challenges in SCI is poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear how interventions meant to improve orthostatic tolerance in SCI influence CBF. This study aimed to examine 1) the acute regional CBF responses to rapid changes in blood pressure (BP) during orthostatic stress in individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) individuals; and 2) the effect of midodrine (alpha1-agonist) on orthostatic tolerance and CBF regulation in SCI. Ten individuals with SCI >T6, and 10 age- and sex-matched AB controls had beat-by-beat BP and middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv, PCAv, respectively) recorded during a progressive tilt-test to quantify the acute CBF response and orthostatic tolerance. Dynamic MCAv and PCAv to BP relationships were evaluated continuously in the time domain and frequency domain (via transfer function analysis). The SCI group was tested again after administration of 10 mg midodrine to elevate BP. Coherence (i.e., linearity) was elevated in SCI between BP-MCAv and BP-PCAv by 35% and 22%, respectively, compared with AB, whereas SCI BP-PCAv gain (i.e., magnitudinal relationship) was reduced 30% compared with AB (all P < 0.05). The acute (i.e., 0–30 s after tilt) MCAv and PCAv responses were similar between groups. In individuals with SCI, midodrine led to improved PCAv responses 30–60 s following tilt (10 ± 3% vs. 4 ± 2% decline; P < 0.05), and a 59% improvement in orthostatic tolerance (P < 0.01). The vertebrobasilar region may be particularly susceptible to hypoperfusion in SCI, leading to increased orthostatic intolerance. PMID:24436297
Regional Characterization of the Downstream Effects of Dams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, J. C.; Wilcock, P. R.
2006-05-01
Metrics with which to assess the causes of channel change downstream from dams permit regional and watershed-scale comparison of the challenge of environmental river management and rehabilitation. Metrics based on Henderson's approximation of the Lane balance, downstream hydraulic geometry, and the Shield's relation allow distinction of general categories of channel response downstream from dams: deficit with bed incision, deficit without incision, and surplus conditions. Each of these categories can occur with or without significant changes in channel width, and channel narrowing occurs in proportion to the degree to which the post-dam flood regime is reduced from that of pre-dam conditions. It is also possible to estimate the degree of perturbation of the watershed sediment delivery rate that causes sediment deficit or surplus, based on a relation between the watershed reservoir storage ratio and the degree of flood control. Estimates of channel change based on these metrics agree well with case studies for the Rio Grande, Colorado River, Missouri River, Trinity River, and Deschutes River. Regional distinction between sediment deficit and surplus conditions is useful, because the management strategies necessary to reverse undesirable conditions differ. Case studies indicate that rehabilitation of sediment deficit river segments is more costly than for sediment surplus segments.
Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.
Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes
2014-01-01
Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487
Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.
2015-07-28
Despite the fundamental importance of electron density in density functional theory, perturbations are still usually dealt with using Hartree-Fock-like orbital equations known as coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (CPKS). As an alternative, we develop a perturbation theory that solves for the perturbed density directly, removing the need for CPKS. This replaces CPKS with a true Hohenberg-Kohn density perturbation theory. In CPKS, the perturbed density is found in the basis of products of occupied and virtual orbitals, which becomes ever more over-complete as the size of the orbital basis set increases. In our method, the perturbation to the density is expanded in terms of a series of density basis functions and found directly. It is possible to solve for the density in such a way that it makes the total energy stationary even if the density basis is incomplete.
Closed-loop control of flow-induced sound in a flow duct with downstream resonant cavities.
Lu, Z B; Halim, D; Cheng, L
2013-03-01
A closed-loop-controlled surface perturbation technique was developed for controlling the flow-induced sound in a flow duct and acoustic resonance inside downstream cavities. The surface perturbation was created by piezo-ceramic THUNDER (THin layer composite UNimorph Driver and sEnsoR) actuators embedded underneath the surface of a test model with a semi-circular leading edge. A modified closed-loop control scheme based on the down-sampling theory was proposed and implemented due to the practical vibration characteristic limitation of THUNDER actuators. The optimally tuned control achieved a sound pressure reduction of 17.5 dB in the duct and 22.6 dB inside the cavity at the vortex shedding frequency, respectively. Changes brought up by the control in both flow and acoustic fields were analyzed in terms of the spectrum phase shift of the flow field over the upper surface of the test model, and a shift in the vortex shedding frequency. The physical mechanism behind the control was investigated in the view of developing an optimal control strategy. PMID:23464018
The symmetric turbulent plane wake downstream of a sharp trailing edge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bogucz, E. A.
1991-01-01
The analysis and modeling of the symmetric turbulent plane wake downstream of a sharp trailing edge is addressed. A compact description of the flow near the trailing edge is formulated using the results of a previous asymptotic analysis. The new description retains the two-layered structure identified in the previous work, and it clarifies the principal dynamics of the flow in the near-wake outer layer, away from the wake centerline. For zero-pressure-gradient flow, the near-wake outer layer is shown to be represented to leading order by the similarity solution that governs the outer region of the surface boundary layer. The leading perturbation in the outer layer due to the developing near-wake inner-layer flow is identified, and this is shown to be asymptotically smaller than undetermined higher-order terms associated with the surface boundary-layer flow. Results of the new near-wake analysis are used to formulate an algebraic eddy viscosity model for wake flow predictions at arbitrary distances from the trailing edge. The model is used in a numerical solution of the boundary layer equations, and computed velocity and Reynolds stress profiles are shown to compare well with experimental data.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
Non-gravitational perturbations and satellite geodesy
Milani, A.; Nobill, A.M.; Farinella, P.
1987-01-01
This book presents the basic ideas of the physics of non-gravitational perturbations and the mathematics required to compute their orbital effects. It conveys the relevance of the different problems that must be solved to achieve a given level of accuracy in orbit determination and in recovery of geophysically significant parameters. Selected Contents are: Orders of Magnitude of the Perturbing Forces, Tides and Apparent Forces, Tools from Celestial Mechanics, Solar Radiation Pressure-Direct Effects: Satellite-Solar Radiation Interaction, Long-Term Effects on Semi-Major Axis, Radiation Pressure-Indirect Effects: Earth-Reflected Radiation Pressure, Anisotropic Thermal Emission, Drag: Orbital Perturbations by a Drag-Like Force, and Charged Particle Drag.
Time-Frequency Analysis of Boundary-Layer Instabilites Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.
2015-01-01
A controlled disturbance is generated in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) by focusing a high-powered Nd:YAG laser to create a laser-induced breakdown plasma. The plasma then cools, creating a freestream thermal disturbance that can be used to study receptivity. The freestream disturbance convects down-stream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The adverse pressure gradient created by the flare of the model is capable of generating second-mode instability waves that grow large and become nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. The freestream laser perturbation generates a wave packet in the boundary layer at the same frequency as the natural second mode, complicating time-independent analyses of the effect of the laser perturbation. The data show that the laser perturbation creates an instability wave packet that is larger than the natural waves on the sharp flared cone. The wave packet is still difficult to distinguish from the natural instabilities on the blunt flared cone.
Frame independent cosmological perturbations
Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl
2013-09-01
We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.
Thermally unstable perturbations in stratified conducting atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reale, Fabio; Serio, Salvatore; Peres, Giovanni
1994-10-01
We investigate the thermal stability of isobaric perturbations in a stratified isothermal background atmosphere with solar abundances, as resulting from the competition of optically thin plasma radiative cooling and of heating conducted from the surrounding atmosphere. We have analyzed the threshold line between stable and unstable perturbations, in the plane of the two important control parameters: the initial size of the perturbation and the temperature of the unperturbed medium; this line changes with the pressure of the unperturbed atmosphere. We have extended the results of linear perturbation analysis by means of numerical calculations of the evolution of spherical isobaric perturbations, using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code including Spitzer heat conduction. We explore a wide range of the parameters appropriate to the solar and stellar upper atmospheres: the background uniform temperature is between 105 K and 107 K, the initial pressure betweeen 0.1 and 10 dyn/sq cm, and the perturbation size between 105 and 1010 cm. The numerical results are in substantial agreement with the linear analysis. We discuss possible implications of our results also in terms of observable effects, especially concerning plasma downflows, and propose thermal instability as a possible candidate to explain the observed redshifts in solar and stellar transition region lines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.
1987-01-01
An investigation of downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in two-dimensional, separated transonic diffuser flows has been conducted numerically by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation turbulence model. It was found that the unsteady diffuser flowfields are very sensitive to the location of the downstream boundary. Extension of the diffuser downstream boundary significantly reduces the frequency and amplitude of oscillations for pressure, velocity and shock. Computational results suggest that the mechanism causing the self-excited oscillation changes from viscous convective wave dominated oscillations to inviscid acoustic wave dominated oscillations when the location of downstream boundary varies from 8.66 to 134.7 throat height. The existence of a suction slot in the experimental setup obscures the physical downstream boundary and, therefore, presents a difficulty for quantitative comparisons between computation and experiment.
Whitehead, John C.; Dilgard, Lemoyne W.
1995-01-01
A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.
Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.
1995-10-10
A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu
2012-04-01
The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.
Turbulence downstream of subcoronary stentless and stented aortic valves.
Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Frost, Markus Winther; Wierup, Per; Klaaborg, Kaj-Erik; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Nygaard, Hans; Hasenkam, J Michael
2011-08-11
Regions of turbulence downstream of bioprosthetic heart valves may cause damage to blood components, vessel wall as well as to aortic valve leaflets. Stentless aortic heart valves are known to posses several hemodynamic benefits such as larger effective orifice areas, lower aortic transvalvular pressure difference and faster left ventricular mass regression compared with their stented counterpart. Whether this is reflected by diminished turbulence formation, remains to be shown. We implanted either stented pericardial valve prostheses (Mitroflow), stentless valve prostheses (Solo or Toronto SPV) in pigs or they preserved their native valves. Following surgery, blood velocity was measured in the cross sectional area downstream of the valves using 10MHz ultrasonic probes connected to a dedicated pulsed Doppler equipment. As a measure of turbulence, Reynolds normal stress (RNS) was calculated at two different blood pressures (baseline and 50% increase). We found no difference in maximum RNS measurements between any of the investigated valve groups. The native valve had significantly lower mean RNS values than the Mitroflow (p=0.004), Toronto SPV (p=0.008) and Solo valve (p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences between the artificial valve groups (p=0.3). The mean RNS was significantly larger when increasing blood pressure (p=0.0006). We, thus, found no advantages for the stentless aortic valves compared with stented prosthesis in terms of lower maximum or mean RNS values. Native valves have a significantly lower mean RNS value than all investigated bioprostheses. PMID:21696741
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, B. C. A.
1983-10-01
For the analysis of wind turbine low, it would be of great value to find a general relation between the local velocity fields far upstream, at the rotor disk and far downstream of a rotor inducing large perturbations in a shear flow. When the velocity perturbations of a parallel flow are small, the induced velocity at the obstacle causing the perturbation (disk or lifting line) is half the induced velocity far downstream at the same streamline. For a rotor in uniform flow, the mean induced velocity at the disk is also half the mean induced velocity far downstream, even if the perturbation velocities are not small. A first step was taken towards obtaining the desired general relation. A numerical example is calculated, which shows that the ratio one half has no general validity. Results are applicable not only to wind turbines, also to propellers, and helicopter rotors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tezduyar, T. E.; Liou, J.
1991-01-01
Downstream boundary conditions equivalent to the homogeneous form of the natural boundary conditions associated with the velocity-pressure formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are derived for the vorticity-stream function formulation of two-dimensional incompressible flows. Of particular interest are the zero normal and shear stress conditions at a downstream boundary.
Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth
Not Available
1992-05-11
This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiburzi, Brian C.
The era of high-precision lattice QCD has led to synergy between lattice computations and phenomenological input from chiral perturbation theory. We provide an introduction to chiral perturbation theory with a bent towards understanding properties of the nucleon and other low-lying baryons. Four main topics are the basis for this chapter. We begin with a discussion of broken symmetries and the procedure to construct the chiral Lagrangian. The second topic concerns specialized applications of chiral perturbation theory tailored to lattice QCD, such as partial quenching, lattice discretization, and finite-volume effects. We describe inclusion of the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory using a heavy-fermion Euclidean action. Issues of convergence are taken up as our final topic. We consider expansions in powers of the strange-quark mass, and the appearance of unphysical singularities in the heavy-particle formulation. Our aim is to guide lattice practitioners in understanding the predictions chiral perturbation theory makes for baryons, and show how the lattice will play a role in testing the rigor of the chiral expansion at physical values of the quark masses.
Downstream prediction using a nonlinear prediction method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adenan, N. H.; Noorani, M. S. M.
2013-11-01
The estimation of river flow is significantly related to the impact of urban hydrology, as this could provide information to solve important problems, such as flooding downstream. The nonlinear prediction method has been employed for analysis of four years of daily river flow data for the Langat River at Kajang, Malaysia, which is located in a downstream area. The nonlinear prediction method involves two steps; namely, the reconstruction of phase space and prediction. The reconstruction of phase space involves reconstruction from a single variable to the m-dimensional phase space in which the dimension m is based on optimal values from two methods: the correlation dimension method (Model I) and false nearest neighbour(s) (Model II). The selection of an appropriate method for selecting a combination of preliminary parameters, such as m, is important to provide an accurate prediction. From our investigation, we gather that via manipulation of the appropriate parameters for the reconstruction of the phase space, Model II provides better prediction results. In particular, we have used Model II together with the local linear prediction method to achieve the prediction results for the downstream area with a high correlation coefficient. In summary, the results show that Langat River in Kajang is chaotic, and, therefore, predictable using the nonlinear prediction method. Thus, the analysis and prediction of river flow in this area can provide river flow information to the proper authorities for the construction of flood control, particularly for the downstream area.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Criminale, W. O.; Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.
1995-01-01
An initial value approach is used to examine the dynamics of perturbations introduced into a vortex under strain. Both the basic vortex considered and the perturbations are taken as fully three-dimensional. An explicit solution for the time evolution of the vorticity perturbations is given for arbitrary initial vorticity. Analytical solutions for the resulting velocity components are found when the initial vorticity is assumed to be localized. For more general initial vorticity distributions, the velocity components are determined numerically. It is found that the variation in the radial direction of the initial vorticity disturbance is the most important factor influencing the qualitative behavior of the solutions. Transient growth in the magnitude of the velocity components is found to be directly attributable to the compactness of the initial vorticity.
Downstream Intensification Effects Associated with CO2 Laser Mitigation of Fused Silica
Matthews, M J; Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Widmayer, C C; Ravizza, F L
2007-10-29
Mitigation of 351nm laser-induced damage sites on fused silica exit surfaces by selective CO{sub 2} treatment has been shown to effectively arrest the exponential growth responsible for limiting the lifetime of optics in high-fluence laser systems. However, the perturbation to the optical surface profile following the mitigation process introduces phase contrast to the beam, causing some amount of downstream intensification with the potential to damage downstream optics. Control of the laser treatment process and measurement of the associated phase modulation is essential to preventing downstream 'fratricide' in damage-mitigated optical systems. In this work we present measurements of the surface morphology, intensification patterns and damage associated with various CO{sub 2} mitigation treatments on fused silica surfaces. Specifically, two components of intensification pattern, one on-axis and another off-axis can lead to damage of downstream optics and are related to rims around the ablation pit left from the mitigation process. It is shown that control of the rim structure around the edge of typical mitigation sites is crucial in preventing damage to downstream optics.
Downstream cumulative effects of land use on freshwater communities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuglerová, L.; Kielstra, B. W.; Moore, D.; Richardson, J. S.
2015-12-01
Many streams and rivers are subject to disturbance from intense land use such as urbanization and agriculture, and this is especially obvious for small headwaters. Streams are spatially organized into networks where headwaters represent the tributaries and provide water, nutrients, and organic material to the main stems. Therefore perturbations within the headwaters might be cumulatively carried on downstream. Although we know that the disturbance of headwaters in urban and agricultural landscapes poses threats to downstream river reaches, the magnitude and severity of these changes for ecological communities is less known. We studied stream networks along a gradient of disturbance connected to land use intensity, from urbanized watersheds to watersheds placed in agricultural settings in the Greater Toronto Area. Further, we compared the patterns and processes found in the modified watershed to a control watershed, situated in a forested, less impacted landscape. Preliminary results suggest that hydrological modifications (flash floods), habitat loss (drainage and sewer systems), and water quality issues of small streams in urbanized and agricultural watersheds represent major disturbances and threats for aquatic and riparian biota on local as well as larger spatial scales. For example, communities of riparian plants are dominated by species typical of the land use on adjacent uplands as well as the dominant land use on the upstream contributing area, instead of riparian obligates commonly found in forested watersheds. Further, riparian communities in disturbed environments are dominated by invasive species. The changes in riparian communities are vital for various functions of riparian vegetation. Bank erosion control is suppressed, leading to severe channel transformations and sediment loadings in urbanized watersheds. Food sources for instream biota and thermal regimes are also changed, which further triggers alterations of in-stream biological communities
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
Perturbation analysis of electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes
Ren, Haijun
2014-06-15
Lagrangian displacement and magnetic field perturbation response to the geodesic acoustic mode is analyzed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak. δB{sub θ}, the poloidal component of magnetic field perturbation, has poloidal wave number m = 2 created by the poloidal displacement ξ{sub θ}. The parallel perturbation of magnetic field, δB{sub ∥}, has a poloidally asymmetric structure with m = 1 and is on the same order of magnitude with δB{sub θ} to the leading order. The radial displacement ξ{sub r} is of order O(βϵξ{sub θ}) but plays a significant role in determining δB{sub ∥}, where β is the plasma/magnetic pressure ratio and ϵ is the inverse aspect ratio.
Development of a perturbation generator for vortex stability studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riester, J. E.; Ash, Robert L.
1991-01-01
Theory predicts vortex instability when subjected to certain types of disturbances. It was desired to build a device which could introduce controlled velocity perturbations into a trailing line vortex in order to study the effects on stability. A perturbation generator was designed and manufactured which can be attached to the centerbody of an airfoil type vortex generator. Details of design tests and manufacturing of the perturbation generator are presented. The device produced controlled perturbation with frequencies in excess of 250 Hz. Preliminary testing and evaluation of the perturbation generator performance was conducted in a 4 inch cylindrical pipe. Observations of vortex shedding frequencies from a centerbody were measured. Further evaluation with the perturbation generator attached to the vortex generator in a 2 x 3 foot wind tunnel were also conducted. Hot-wire anemometry was used to confirm the perturbation generator's ability to introduce controlled frequency fluctuations. Comparison of the energy levels of the disturbances in the vortex core was made between locations 42 chord lengths and 15 chord lengths downstream.
Cosmological perturbations of a perfect fluid and noncommutative variables
De Felice, Antonio; Gerard, Jean-Marc; Suyama, Teruaki
2010-03-15
We describe the linear cosmological perturbations of a perfect fluid at the level of an action, providing thus an alternative to the standard approach based only on the equations of motion. This action is suited not only to perfect fluids with a barotropic equation of state, but also to those for which the pressure depends on two thermodynamical variables. By quantizing the system we find that (1) some perturbation fields exhibit a noncommutativity quite analogous to the one observed for a charged particle moving in a strong magnetic field, (2) local curvature and pressure perturbations cannot be measured simultaneously, (3) ghosts appear if the null energy condition is violated.
Perturbations of the Robertson-Walker space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Jai Chan
This dissertation contains three parts consisting of thirteen chapters. Each chapter is self-contained, and can be read independently. In chapter 1, we have presented a complete set of cosmological perturbation equations using the covariant equations. We also present an explicit solution for the evolution of large scale cosmological density perturbations assuming a perfect fluid. In chapter 2, two independent gauge-invariant variables are derived which are continuous at any transition where there is a discontinuous change in pressure. In chapter 3, we present a Newtonian counterpart to the general relativistic covariant approach to cosmological perturbations. In chapter 4, we present a simple way of deriving cosmological perturbation equations in generalized gravity theories which accounts for metric perturbations in gauge-invariant way. We apply this approach to the f(phi,R)-omega(phi)phi, cphi;c Lagrangian. In chapter 5, we have derived second order differential equations for cosmological perturbations in a Robertson-Walker space, for each of the following gravity theories: f(R) gravity, generalized scalar-tensor gravity, gravity with non-minimally coupled scalar field, and induced gravity. Asymptotic solutions are derived for the large and small scale limits. In chapter 6, classical evolution of density perturbations in the large scale limit is clarified in the generalized gravity theories. In chapter 7, we apply our method to a theory with the Lagrangian L approximately f(R) + gamma RR;c;c. In chapter 8, T(M)ab;b equals 0 is shown in a general ground. In chapter 9, the origin of the Friedmann-like behavior of the perturbed model in the large scale limit is clarified in a comoving gauge. Thus, when the imperfect fluid contributions are negligible, the large scale perturbations in a nearly flat background evolve like separate Friedmann models. In chapter 10, we generalize the perturbation equations applicable to a class of generalized gravity theories with multi
DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Beamline
Westenskow, G A; Bertolini, L R; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C
2000-08-01
This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-{micro}sec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.
Liouvillian perturbations of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Couch, W. E.; Holder, C. L.
2007-10-01
We apply the well-known Kovacic algorithm to find closed form, i.e., Liouvillian solutions, to the differential equations governing perturbations of black holes. Our analysis includes the full gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild and Kerr, the full gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of Reissner-Nordstrom, and specialized perturbations of the Kerr-Newman geometry. We also include the extreme geometries. We find all frequencies ω, in terms of black hole parameters and an integer n, which allow Liouvillian perturbations. We display many classes of black hole parameter values and their corresponding Liouvillian perturbations, including new closed-form perturbations of Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom. We also prove that the only type 1 Liouvillian perturbations of Schwarzschild are the known algebraically special ones and that type 2 Liouvillian solutions do not exist for extreme geometries. In cases where we do not prove the existence or nonexistence of Liouvillian perturbations we obtain sequences of Diophantine equations on which decidability rests.
Non-hard sphere thermodynamic perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shiqi
2011-08-01
A non-hard sphere (HS) perturbation scheme, recently advanced by the present author, is elaborated for several technical matters, which are key mathematical details for implementation of the non-HS perturbation scheme in a coupling parameter expansion (CPE) thermodynamic perturbation framework. NVT-Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for a generalized Lennard-Jones (LJ) 2n-n potential to obtain routine thermodynamic quantities such as excess internal energy, pressure, excess chemical potential, excess Helmholtz free energy, and excess constant volume heat capacity. Then, these new simulation data, and available simulation data in literatures about a hard core attractive Yukawa fluid and a Sutherland fluid, are used to test the non-HS CPE 3rd-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and give a comparison between the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT and other theoretical approaches. It is indicated that the non-HS CPE 3rd-order TPT is superior to other traditional TPT such as van der Waals/HS (vdW/HS), perturbation theory 2 (PT2)/HS, and vdW/Yukawa (vdW/Y) theory or analytical equation of state such as mean spherical approximation (MSA)-equation of state and is at least comparable to several currently the most accurate Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theories. It is discovered that three technical issues, i.e., opening up new bridge function approximation for the reference potential, choosing proper reference potential, and/or using proper thermodynamic route for calculation of fex - ref, chiefly decide the quality of the non-HS CPE TPT. Considering that the non-HS perturbation scheme applies for a wide variety of model fluids, and its implementation in the CPE thermodynamic perturbation framework is amenable to high-order truncation, the non-HS CPE 3rd-order or higher order TPT will be more promising once the above-mentioned three technological advances are established.
Turbulent flow analysis on bend and downstream of the bend for different curvature ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, Rana Roy; Biswas, Suranjan; Alam, Md. Mahbubul; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul
2016-07-01
A CFD analysis on the bend and downstream of the bend has been carried out for turbulent flow through 90 degree bend pipe with different curvature ratios using standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with the existing experimental results, and then a detailed study has been performed to investigate the flow characteristics. For different curvature ratios, the static pressure distributions along inner, outer wall and pressure loss factor with different Reynolds number is analyzed. The obtained results show that pressure distribution and pressure loss factor are dependent for different Reynolds number and curvature ratio throughout the bend. Again, It is observed that the disturbance of the flow due to bend exists for a downstream distance of 50D from the central plane of the bend.
Flow downstream of the heliospheric terminal shock. I - Irrotational flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suess, Steven T.; Nerney, Steven
1990-01-01
Recent reports of remote detection of the heliospheric terminal shock place it near 50 AU. These conflict with standard models which, when combined with current data on the local interstellar medium, place the shock beyod 100 AU. Resolution of this discrepancy has led to hypotheses that invoke cosmic ray pressure, momentum exchange with interstellar neutrals, and magnetic field effects between the shock and the contact discontinuity dividing the solar wind from interstellar plasma. These hypotheses depend not only on properties of the interstellar medium, but also on the downstream three-dimensional flow between the shock and the contact discontinuity, in the region called the 'heliosheath'. The downstream flow field in the absence of magnetic fields is examined here under the assumptions that the flow everywhere outside the shock can be approximated as irrotational and incompressible. It is found, in particular, that the distance between the terminal shock and the contact discontinuity is less than the heliocentric distance to the terminal shock, effectively eliminating magnetic field effects in the heliosheath as being dynamically important.
Topology and perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjavidze, J.
2000-08-01
This paper contains description of the fields nonlinear modes successive quantization scheme. It is shown that the path integrals for absorption part of amplitudes are defined on the Dirac (δ-like) functional measure. This permits arbitrary transformation of the functional integral variables. New form of the perturbation theory achieved by mapping the quantum dynamics in the space WG of the (action, angle)-type collective variables. It is shown that the transformed perturbation theory contributions are accumulated exactly on the boundary ∂WG. Abilities of the developed formalism are illustrated by the Coulomb problem. This model is solved in the WC=(angle, angular momentum, Runge-Lentz vector) space and the reason of its exact integrability is emptiness of ∂WC.
Renormalized Lie perturbation theory
Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.
1981-07-01
A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another.
Intermolecular perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, I. C.; Hurst, G. J. B.; Stone, A. J.
The new intermolecular perturbation theory described in the preceding papers is applied to some van der Waals molecules. HeBe is used as a test case, and the perturbation method converges well at interatomic distances down to about 4 a0, giving results in excellent agreement with supermolecule calculations. ArHF and ArHCl have been studied using large basis sets, and the results agree well with experimental data. The ArHX configuration is favoured over the ArXH configuration mainly because of larger polarization and charge-transfer contributions. In NeH2 the equilibrium geometry is determined by a delicate balance between opposing effects; with a double-zeta-polarization basis the correct configuration is predicted.
Aspects of perturbative unitarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
2016-07-01
We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.
Flow downstream of the heliospheric terminal shock - Magnetic field kinematics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerney, S.; Suess, S. T.; Schmahl, E. J.
1991-01-01
A kinematic model of the interplanetary magnetic field in the heliosheath beyond the solar wind terminal shock is presented in order to evaluate the possible importance of MHD effects in that region of space. The need for this evaluation arises because the interplanetary magnetic field is compressed across the terminal shock and further amplified by the decreasing flow speed beyond the shock. Streamlines which approach the stagnation point before turning in the downstream direction lead to the strongest effects due to the extreme slowing of the solar wind and consequent compression of the embedded magnetic field. The magnetic volume force therefore cannot be neglected on streamlines that approach the heliopause in the upstream direction, where the volume containing them is a large fraction of the overall of the heliosheath in the upstream direction. The increase in the magnetic pressure may act to bring the upstream terminal shock significantly closer to the sun, potentially reconciling a conflict between models and observations.
High and low latitude types of the downstream influences of the North Atlantic Oscillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jie; Li, Chongyin; Zhou, Wen
2014-02-01
Using reanalysis data, we find that the downstream-propagating quasi-stationary Rossby wave train associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) generally propagates along a high (low)-latitude pathway during warm (cold) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) boreal winters. Consistent with the different propagation directions of the NAO-related downstream wave train, during the warm (cold) ENSO winters, the NAO is associated with significant 300 hPa geopotential height anomalies over eastern Siberia (the Arabian Sea, the east coast of Asia at around 40°N, and the North Pacific), and the near-surface air temperature perturbations associated with the NAO over the high latitudes of Asia are relatively strong (weak). Based on these differences, we argue that the NAO has two distinct types of downstream influence: a high-latitude type and a low-latitude type. Furthermore, we argue that the two types of NAO's downstream influence are modulated by the intensity of the subtropical potential vorticity (PV) meridional gradient over Africa. When this gradient is weak (strong), as in the warm (cold) ENSO winters, the NAO's downstream influence tends to be of the high (low)-latitude type. These results are further supported by analysis of intraseasonal NAO events. We separate NAO events into two categories in terms of the intensity of the subtropical PV gradient over Africa. Composites of the NAO events accompanied by a weak (strong) subtropical PV gradient show that the NAO-related downstream wave train tends to propagate along a high (low)-latitude pathway.
Linear effects models of signaling pathways from combinatorial perturbation data
Szczurek, Ewa; Beerenwinkel, Niko
2016-01-01
Motivation: Perturbations constitute the central means to study signaling pathways. Interrupting components of the pathway and analyzing observed effects of those interruptions can give insight into unknown connections within the signaling pathway itself, as well as the link from the pathway to the effects. Different pathway components may have different individual contributions to the measured perturbation effects, such as gene expression changes. Those effects will be observed in combination when the pathway components are perturbed. Extant approaches focus either on the reconstruction of pathway structure or on resolving how the pathway components control the downstream effects. Results: Here, we propose a linear effects model, which can be applied to solve both these problems from combinatorial perturbation data. We use simulated data to demonstrate the accuracy of learning the pathway structure as well as estimation of the individual contributions of pathway components to the perturbation effects. The practical utility of our approach is illustrated by an application to perturbations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Availability and Implementation: lem is available as a R package at http://www.mimuw.edu.pl/∼szczurek/lem. Contact: szczurek@mimuw.edu.pl; niko.beerenwinkel@bsse.ethz.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307630
Propagation characteristics of waves upstream and downstream of quasi-parallel shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krauss-Varban, D.; Omidi, N.
1993-01-01
The propagation characteristics of waves upstream and downstream of quasi-parallel shocks are investigated by using 2D hybrid simulations. At low Alfven Mach numbers, M(A) below about 2, the shock is initially associated with upstream phase-standing whistlers. At later times, backstreaming ions excite longer-wavelength whistlers via the right-hand resonant ion/ion instability. These waves propagate along the magnetic field at a group velocity no smaller than the upstream flow speed, so that the waves remain in the upstream region. At higher MA (above about 3), these waves are convected back into the shock, causing its reformation and downstream perturbations. Shock transmitted waves mode-convert into Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves which have a wave vector along the shock normal (pointing upstream) and convect downstream. The 2D simulation results confirm our earlier suggestion that the upstream waves should be field aligned, and that their convection into the downstream is associated with linear mode conversion into the Alfven/ion-cyclotron branch.
Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1993-01-01
In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.
DARHT-II Downstream Transport Beamline
Westenskow, G A; Bertolini, L R; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C
2001-06-06
This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 18.4-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-{micro}sec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is approximately 22-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 12 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.
Baryon chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherer, S.
2012-03-01
We provide a short introduction to the one-nucleon sector of chiral perturbation theory and address the issue of power counting and renormalization. We discuss the infrared regularization and the extended on-mass-shell scheme. Both allow for the inclusion of further degrees of freedom beyond pions and nucleons and the application to higher-loop calculations. As applications we consider the chiral expansion of the nucleon mass to order Script O(q6) and the inclusion of vector and axial-vector mesons in the calculation of nucleon form factors. Finally, we address the complex-mass scheme for describing unstable particles in effective field theory.
Discrete reductive perturbation technique
Levi, Decio; Petrera, Matteo
2006-04-15
We expand a partial difference equation (P{delta}E) on multiple lattices and obtain the P{delta}E which governs its far field behavior. The perturbative-reductive approach is here performed on well-known nonlinear P{delta}Es, both integrable and nonintegrable. We study the cases of the lattice modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation, the Hietarinta equation, the lattice Volterra-Kac-Van Moerbeke equation and a nonintegrable lattice KdV equation. Such reductions allow us to obtain many new P{delta}Es of the nonlinear Schroedinger type.
7. VIEW DOWNSTREAM FROM THE NEWHALEM INTAKE WITH NO WATER ...
7. VIEW DOWNSTREAM FROM THE NEWHALEM INTAKE WITH NO WATER BEING DIVERTED TO THE POWER TUNNEL, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Newhalem Powerhouse & Dam, On Skagit River, 0.3 mile downstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA
9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...
9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ
Canonical floquet perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pohlen, David J.
1992-12-01
Classical Floquet theory is examined in order to generate a canonical transformation to modal variables for periodic system. This transformation is considered canonical if the periodic matrix of eigenvectors is symplectic at the initial time. Approaches for symplectic normalization of the eigenvectors had to be examined for each of the different Poincare eigenvalue cases. Particular attention was required in the degenerate case, which depended on the solution of a generalized eigenvector. Transformation techniques to ensure real modal variables and real periodic eigenvectors were also needed. Periodic trajectories in the restricted three-body case were then evaluated using the canonical Floquet solution. The system used for analyses is the Sun-Jupiter system. This system was especially useful since it contained two of the more difficult Poincare eigenvalue cases, the degenerate case and the imaginary eigenvalue case. The perturbation solution to the canonical modal variables was examined using both an expansion of the Hamiltonian and using a representation that was considered exact. Both methods compared quite well for small perturbations to the initial condition. As expected, the expansion solution failed first due to truncation after the third order term of the expansion.
Quasilinear perturbed equilibria of resistively unstable current carrying plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Di; Zakharov, Leonid E.
2015-12-01
> A formalism for consideration of island formation is presented using a model of a cylindrical resistively unstable plasma. Both current and pressure driven island formation at resonant surfaces are considered. The proposed formalism of perturbed equilibria avoids problems typical for linear analysis of resistive magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities related to extraction of the so-called small solution near the resonant surfaces. The matching technique of this paper is not sensitive to configuration parameters near the resonant surfaces. The comparison of the perturbed equilibrium method with the frequently used quasilinear mode analysis based on a perturbed averaged current density profile shows that the latter is limited in its applicability and underestimates the stability. Presented here for a cylindrical case, the perturbed equilibrium technique can be used in toroidal perturbed equilibrium codes with minor modifications.
40 CFR 80.69 - Requirements for downstream oxygenate blending.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for downstream oxygenate... downstream oxygenate blending. The requirements of this section apply to all reformulated gasoline blendstock... annual compliance period; (D) A process for notifying oxygenate blenders and other downstream parties...
Air release measurements of V-oil 1404 downstream of a micro orifice at choked flow conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freudigmann, H.-A.; Iben, U.; Pelz, P. F.
2015-12-01
This study presents measurements on air release of V-oil 1404 in the back flow of a micro orifice at choked flow conditions using a shadowgraph imaging method. The released air was determined at three positions downstream of the orifice for different pressure conditions. It was found that more than 23% of the initially dissolved air is released and appears downstream of the orifice in the form of bubbles.
Turbulence decay downstream of an active grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bewley, Gregory; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2015-11-01
A grid in a wind tunnel stirs up turbulence that has a certain large-scale structure. The moving parts in a so-called ``active grid'' can be programmed to produce different structures. We use a special active grid in which each of 129 paddles on the grid has its own position-controlled servomotor that can move independently of the others. We observe among other things that the anisotropy in the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations and in the correlation lengths can be set and varied with an algorithm that oscillates the paddles in a specified way. The variation in the anisotropies that we observe can be explained by our earlier analysis of anisotropic ``soccer ball'' turbulence (Bewley, Chang and Bodenschatz 2012, Phys. Fluids). We define the influence of this variation in structure on the downstream evolution of the turbulence. with Eberhard Bodenschatz and others.
Channel changes downstream from a dam
Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.
1998-01-01
A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.
Downstream hydraulic geometry of alluvial rivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julien, P. Y.
2015-03-01
This article presents a three-level approach to the analysis of downstream hydraulic geometry. First, empirical concepts based on field observations of "poised" conditions in irrigation canals are examined. Second, theoretical developments have been made possible by combining basic relationships for the description of flow and sediment transport in alluvial rivers. Third, a relatively new concept of equivalent channel widths is presented. The assumption of equilibrium may describe a perpetual state of change and adjustments. The new concepts define the trade-offs between some hydraulic geometry parameters such as width and slope. The adjustment of river widths and slope typically follows a decreasing exponential function and recent developments indicate how the adjustment time scale can be quantified. Some examples are also presented to illustrate the new concepts presented and the realm of complex river systems.
Downstream process options for the ABE fermentation.
Friedl, Anton
2016-05-01
Butanol is a very interesting substance both for the chemical industry and as a biofuel. The classical distillation process for the removal of butanol is far too energy demanding, at a factor of 220% of the energy content of butanol. Alternative separation processes studied are hybrid processes of gas-stripping, liquid-liquid extraction and pervaporation with distillation and a novel adsorption/drying/desorption hybrid process. Compared with the energy content of butanol, the resulting energy demand for butanol separation and concentration of optimized hybrid processes is 11%-22% for pervaporation/distillation and 11%-17% for liquid-liquid extraction/distillation. For a novel adsorption/drying/desorption process, the energy demand is 9.4%. But all downstream process options need further proof of industrial applicability. PMID:27020411
Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto
1994-01-01
HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.
Control of Transport-Barrier Relaxations by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations
Leconte, M.; Beyer, P.; Benkadda, S.
2009-01-30
Transport-barrier relaxation oscillations in the presence of resonant magnetic perturbations are investigated using three-dimensional global fluid turbulence simulations from first principles at the edge of a tokamak. It is shown that resonant magnetic perturbations have a stabilizing effect on these relaxation oscillations and that this effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of both residual magnetic island chains and a stochastic layer.
The excitation of unstable perturbations in a laminar friction layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pretsch, Joachim
1952-01-01
With the aid of the method of small oscillations which was used successfully in the investigation of the stability of laminar velocity distributions in the presence of two-dimensional perturbations, the excitation of the unstable perturbations for the Hartree velocity distributions occurring in plane boundary-layer flow for decreasing and increasing pressure is calculated as a supplement to a former report. The results of this investigation are to make a contribution toward calculation of the transition point on cylindrical bodies.
An experimental study of turbine vane heat transfer with leading edge and downstream film cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nirmalan, V.; Hylton, L. D.
1989-01-01
This paper presents the effects of downstream film cooling, with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling, on turbine-vane external heat transfer. Steady-state experimental measurements were made in a three-vane linear two-dimensional cascade. The principal independent parameters were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions. The test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. The data obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The downstream film cooling process was shown to be a complex interaction of two competing mechanisms. The thermal dilution effect, associated with the injection of relatively cold fluid, results in a decrease in the heat transfer to the airfoil. Conversely, the turbulence augmentation, produced by the injection process, results in increased heat transfer to the airfoil.
An experimental study of turbine vane heat transfer with leading edge and downstream film cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nirmalan, V.; Hylton, L. D.
1989-06-01
This paper presents the effects of downstream film cooling, with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling, on turbine-vane external heat transfer. Steady-state experimental measurements were made in a three-vane linear two-dimensional cascade. The principal independent parameters were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions. The test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. The data obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The downstream film cooling process was shown to be a complex interaction of two competing mechanisms. The thermal dilution effect, associated with the injection of relatively cold fluid, results in a decrease in the heat transfer to the airfoil. Conversely, the turbulence augmentation, produced by the injection process, results in increased heat transfer to the airfoil.
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyses, Henrique W.; Bauer, Ross O.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers.
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes.
Moyses, Henrique W; Bauer, Ross O; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Grier, David G
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers. PMID:26172698
Flatbands under correlated perturbations.
Bodyfelt, Joshua D; Leykam, Daniel; Danieli, Carlo; Yu, Xiaoquan; Flach, Sergej
2014-12-01
Flatband networks are characterized by the coexistence of dispersive and flatbands. Flatbands (FBs) are generated by compact localized eigenstates (CLSs) with local network symmetries, based on destructive interference. Correlated disorder and quasiperiodic potentials hybridize CLSs without additional renormalization, yet with surprising consequences: (i) states are expelled from the FB energy E_{FB}, (ii) the localization length of eigenstates vanishes as ξ∼1/ln(E-E_{FB}), (iii) the density of states diverges logarithmically (particle-hole symmetry) and algebraically (no particle-hole symmetry), and (iv) mobility edge curves show algebraic singularities at E_{FB}. Our analytical results are based on perturbative expansions of the CLSs and supported by numerical data in one and two lattice dimensions. PMID:25526142
Flatbands under Correlated Perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Leykam, Daniel; Danieli, Carlo; Yu, Xiaoquan; Flach, Sergej
2014-12-01
Flatband networks are characterized by the coexistence of dispersive and flatbands. Flatbands (FBs) are generated by compact localized eigenstates (CLSs) with local network symmetries, based on destructive interference. Correlated disorder and quasiperiodic potentials hybridize CLSs without additional renormalization, yet with surprising consequences: (i) states are expelled from the FB energy EFB, (ii) the localization length of eigenstates vanishes as ξ ˜1 /ln (E -EFB) , (iii) the density of states diverges logarithmically (particle-hole symmetry) and algebraically (no particle-hole symmetry), and (iv) mobility edge curves show algebraic singularities at EFB . Our analytical results are based on perturbative expansions of the CLSs and supported by numerical data in one and two lattice dimensions.
Perturbed effects at radiation physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi
2013-09-01
Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer-Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables.
Kinetics of Hydrogen Oxidation Downstream of Lean Propane and Hydrogen Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fine, Burton
1961-01-01
The decay of hydrogen was measured downstream of lean, flat, premixed hydrogen and propane-air flames seated on cooled porous burners. Experimental variables included temperature, pressure, initial equivalence ratio and diluent. Sampling of burned gas was done through uncooled quartz orifice probes, and the analysis was based on gas chromatography. An approximate treatment of the data in which diffusion was neglected led to the following rate expression for the zone downstream of hydrogen flames d[H (sub 2)] divided by (d times t) equals 1.7 times 10 (sup 10) [H (sub 2)] (sup 3) divided by (sub 2) [O (sub 2)]e (sup (-8100 divided by RT)) moles per liters per second. On the basis of a rate expression of this form, the specific rate constant for the reaction downstream of hydrogen flames was about three times as great as that determined downstream of propane flames. This result was explained on the basis of the existence of a steady state between hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the burned gas downstream of propane flames.
Drug target prioritization by perturbed gene expression and network information
Isik, Zerrin; Baldow, Christoph; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Schroeder, Michael
2015-01-01
Drugs bind to their target proteins, which interact with downstream effectors and ultimately perturb the transcriptome of a cancer cell. These perturbations reveal information about their source, i.e., drugs’ targets. Here, we investigate whether these perturbations and protein interaction networks can uncover drug targets and key pathways. We performed the first systematic analysis of over 500 drugs from the Connectivity Map. First, we show that the gene expression of drug targets is usually not significantly affected by the drug perturbation. Hence, expression changes after drug treatment on their own are not sufficient to identify drug targets. However, ranking of candidate drug targets by network topological measures prioritizes the targets. We introduce a novel measure, local radiality, which combines perturbed genes and functional interaction network information. The new measure outperforms other methods in target prioritization and proposes cancer-specific pathways from drugs to affected genes for the first time. Local radiality identifies more diverse targets with fewer neighbors and possibly less side effects. PMID:26615774
The influence of downstream passage on the flow within an annular S-shaped duct
Sonoda, T.; Arima, T.; Oana, M.
1998-10-01
Experimental and numerical investigations were carried out to gain a better understanding of the flow characteristics within an annular S-shaped duct, including the influence of the shape of the downstream passage located at the exit of the duct on the flow. A duct with six struts and the same geometry as that used to connect the compressor spools on the new experimental small two-spool turbofan engine was investigated. Two types of downstream passage were used. One type had a straight annular passage and the other a curved annular passage with a meridional flow path geometry similar to that of the centrifugal compressor. Results showed that the total pressure loss near the hub is large due to instability of the flow, as compared with that near the casing. Also, a vortex related to the horseshoe vortex was observed near the casing. In the case of the curved annular passage, the total pressure loss near the hub was greatly increased compared with the case of the straight annular passage, and the spatial position of this vortex depends on the passage core pressure gradient. Furthermore, results of calculation using an in-house-developed three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model were in good qualitative agreement with experimental results. According to the simulation results, a region of very high pressure loss is observed near the hub at the duct exit with the increase of inlet boundary layer thickness. Such regions of high pressure loss may act on the downstream compressor as a large inlet distortion, and strongly affect downstream compressor performance.
Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity
Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G. E-mail: p.ferreira1@physics.ox.ac.uk
2014-12-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model.
Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.
Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias
2015-12-01
Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847
Stability of the flow in a soft tube deformed due to an applied pressure gradient.
Verma, M K S; Kumaran, V
2015-04-01
A linear stability analysis is carried out for the flow through a tube with a soft wall in order to resolve the discrepancy of a factor of 10 for the transition Reynolds number between theoretical predictions in a cylindrical tube and the experiments of Verma and Kumaran [J. Fluid Mech. 705, 322 (2012)]. Here the effect of tube deformation (due to the applied pressure difference) on the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient is incorporated in the stability analysis. The tube geometry and dimensions are reconstructed from experimental images, where it is found that there is an expansion and then a contraction of the tube in the streamwise direction. The mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations and the pressure gradient, determined using computational fluid dynamics, are found to be substantially modified by the tube deformation. The velocity profiles are then used in a linear stability analysis, where the growth rates of perturbations are calculated for the flow through a tube with the wall modeled as a neo-Hookean elastic solid. The linear stability analysis is carried out for the mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations using the parallel flow approximation. The analysis indicates that the flow first becomes unstable in the downstream converging section of the tube where the flow profile is more pluglike when compared to the parabolic flow in a cylindrical tube. The flow is stable in the upstream diverging section where the deformation is maximum. The prediction for the transition Reynolds number is in good agreement with experiments, indicating that the downstream tube convergence and the consequent modification in the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient could reduce the transition Reynolds number by an order of magnitude. PMID:25974574
Stability of the flow in a soft tube deformed due to an applied pressure gradient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, M. K. S.; Kumaran, V.
2015-04-01
A linear stability analysis is carried out for the flow through a tube with a soft wall in order to resolve the discrepancy of a factor of 10 for the transition Reynolds number between theoretical predictions in a cylindrical tube and the experiments of Verma and Kumaran [J. Fluid Mech. 705, 322 (2012), 10.1017/jfm.2011.55]. Here the effect of tube deformation (due to the applied pressure difference) on the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient is incorporated in the stability analysis. The tube geometry and dimensions are reconstructed from experimental images, where it is found that there is an expansion and then a contraction of the tube in the streamwise direction. The mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations and the pressure gradient, determined using computational fluid dynamics, are found to be substantially modified by the tube deformation. The velocity profiles are then used in a linear stability analysis, where the growth rates of perturbations are calculated for the flow through a tube with the wall modeled as a neo-Hookean elastic solid. The linear stability analysis is carried out for the mean velocity profiles at different downstream locations using the parallel flow approximation. The analysis indicates that the flow first becomes unstable in the downstream converging section of the tube where the flow profile is more pluglike when compared to the parabolic flow in a cylindrical tube. The flow is stable in the upstream diverging section where the deformation is maximum. The prediction for the transition Reynolds number is in good agreement with experiments, indicating that the downstream tube convergence and the consequent modification in the mean velocity profile and pressure gradient could reduce the transition Reynolds number by an order of magnitude.
Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Jie
Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Benton; Clemens, Noel; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel; Ueckermann, Mattheus
2015-11-01
Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow distortion and instability, structural fatigue, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. The current study investigates the effect of pulsed plasma jets on the recovering boundary layer downstream of a reflected shock wave-boundary layer interaction. The effects of pitch and skew angle of the jet as well as the heating parameter and discharge time scale are tested using several pulsing frequencies. In addition, the effect of the plasma jets on the undisturbed boundary layer at 6 mm and 11 mm downstream of the jets is measured. A pitot-static pressure probe is used to measure the velocity profile of the boundary layer 35 mm downstream of the plasma jets, and the degree of boundary layer distortion is compared between the different models and run conditions. Additionally, the effect of each actuator configuration on the shape of the mean separated region is investigated using surface oil flow visualization. Previous studies with lower energy showed a weak effect on the downstream boundary layer. The current investigation will attempt to increase this effect using a higher-energy discharge. Funded by AFRL through and SBIR in collaboration with Creare, LLC.
Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing
Castillo, Natalia A.; Valdez, Alejandra L.; Fariña, Julia I.
2015-01-01
Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259
Upstream/downstream: Issues in environmental ethics
Scherer, D.
1991-01-01
Upstream/Downstream reminds us that there are four issues that are more or less distinctive to environmental ethics. First, and most distinctively, environmental issues involve the standing of nonhuman living things and systems. Thus, environmental politics is only partly a clash among the interest of the parties involved; it often involves actions on behalf of the existence rights of nonhuman life forms. Second, environmental ethics concern the intergenerational distribution of benefits more explicitly than do most other ethical issues, which brings out serious weaknesses in legal frameworks that rely on claims for damages. Third, the complexity and indirectness of many environmental impacts introduces a high degree of uncertainty and thus technical as well as ethical issues of prudent behavior. Specifically, where science may not fully reveal environmental risks, should development proceed; should analysis proceed if it is known to have a Pollyanna bias Fourth, insofar as environmental damage is typically done to common property, and thus its regulation is generally a matter for governmental regulation, the obligations of private actors to make sacrifices beyond what government requires is at issue - an issue that one would expect to be taken up at length in the other volumes.
Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing.
Castillo, Natalia A; Valdez, Alejandra L; Fariña, Julia I
2015-01-01
Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259
Resumming the string perturbation series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassi, Alba; Mariño, Marcos; Zakany, Szabolcs
2015-05-01
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the resummation of a perturbative genus expansion appearing in the type II superstring dual of ABJM theory. Although the series is Borel summable, its Borel resummation does not agree with the exact non-perturbative answer due to the presence of complex instantons. The same type of behavior appears in the WKB quantization of the quartic oscillator in Quantum Mechanics, which we analyze in detail as a toy model for the string perturbation series. We conclude that, in these examples, Borel summability is not enough for extracting non-perturbative information, due to non-perturbative effects associated to complex instantons. We also analyze the resummation of the genus expansion for topological string theory on local , which is closely related to ABJM theory. In this case, the non-perturbative answer involves membrane instantons computed by the refined topological string, which are crucial to produce a well-defined result. We give evidence that the Borel resummation of the perturbative series requires such a non-perturbative sector.
Numerical simulation of small perturbation transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seebass, A. R.; Yu, N. J.
1976-01-01
The results of a systematic study of small perturbation transonic flows are presented. Both the flow over thin airfoils and the flow over wedges were investigated. Various numerical schemes were employed in the study. The prime goal of the research was to determine the efficiency of various numerical procedures by accurately evaluating the wave drag, both by computing the pressure integral around the body and by integrating the momentum loss across the shock. Numerical errors involved in the computations that affect the accuracy of drag evaluations were analyzed. The factors that effect numerical stability and the rate of convergence of the iterative schemes were also systematically studied.
Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus
Oakley, David J.
1987-01-01
Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.
Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus
Oakley, David J.
1987-02-03
Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.
Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus
Oakley, D.J.
1984-05-30
Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.
Computing singularities of perturbation series
Kvaal, Simen; Jarlebring, Elias; Michiels, Wim
2011-03-15
Many properties of current ab initio approaches to the quantum many-body problem, both perturbational and otherwise, are related to the singularity structure of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation series. A numerical procedure is presented that in principle computes the complete set of singularities, including the dominant singularity which limits the radius of convergence. The method approximates the singularities as eigenvalues of a certain generalized eigenvalue equation which is solved using iterative techniques. It relies on computation of the action of the Hamiltonian matrix on a vector and does not rely on the terms in the perturbation series. The method can be useful for studying perturbation series of typical systems of moderate size, for fundamental development of resummation schemes, and for understanding the structure of singularities for typical systems. Some illustrative model problems are studied, including a helium-like model with {delta}-function interactions for which Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory is considered and the radius of convergence found.
On dark energy isocurvature perturbation
Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin; Li, Mingzhe E-mail: limz@nju.edu.cn
2011-06-01
Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data.
Downstream Hydraulic Geometry of Mountain Rivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohl, E.
2003-12-01
The concept of downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) was developed for fully alluvial rivers that are presumed to be capable of continually adjusting their dimensions to changes in bankfull discharge. Mountain rivers, although mostly formed in alluvium, may behave differently because discharges along the channel lack the competence to move coarse clasts introduced from colluvial processes or glaciation, or because discontinuous bedrock exposures limit channel adjustment. Consequently, the DHG of mountain rivers could reflect bankfull flows; larger magnitude, less frequent flows; or non-fluvial processes such as debris flows. The research summarized here was designed to test whether traditional DHG concepts apply to mountain rivers, and to determine when correlations between velocity, flow depth, or width, and bankfull discharge, are strongly developed. Rivers with strongly developed DHG are defined here as those with r2 values > 0.5 for at least two of the correlations. I hypothesize that a quantifiable threshold separates mountain rivers with well-developed DHG from those with poorly-developed DHG. This threshold can be expressed using a ratio of hydraulic driving forces to substrate resisting forces. As the ratio increases, the ability of bankfull flows to adjust channel dimensions should also increase. The hypothesis was tested using 8 datasets from mountain rivers in Alaska, Montana, Colorado, Panama, Nepal, and New Zealand. A ratio of either total stream power/D84, or unit stream power/D84, separates rivers with and without well-developed DHG. This approach is a simplification which ignores the presence of bedrock; the duration and frequency of flows as these affect stream power; and non-fluvial processes. However, the results suggest that mountain rivers with greater hydraulic driving forces are more likely to behave like fully alluvial rivers in terms of having well-developed DHG relations.
Pyrvinium attenuates Hedgehog signaling downstream of smoothened.
Li, Bin; Fei, Dennis Liang; Flaveny, Colin A; Dahmane, Nadia; Baubet, Valérie; Wang, Zhiqiang; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Hang, Brian; Orton, Darren; Han, Lu; Wang, Baolin; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J
2014-09-01
The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway represents an important class of emerging developmental signaling pathways that play critical roles in the genesis of a large number of human cancers. The pharmaceutical industry is currently focused on developing small molecules targeting Smoothened (Smo), a key signaling effector of the HH pathway that regulates the levels and activity of the Gli family of transcription factors. Although one of these compounds, vismodegib, is now FDA-approved for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, acquired mutations in Smo can result in rapid relapse. Furthermore, many cancers also exhibit a Smo-independent activation of Gli proteins, an observation that may underlie the limited efficacy of Smo inhibitors in clinical trials against other types of cancer. Thus, there remains a critical need for HH inhibitors with different mechanisms of action, particularly those that act downstream of Smo. Recently, we identified the FDA-approved anti-pinworm compound pyrvinium as a novel, potent (IC50, 10 nmol/L) casein kinase-1α (CK1α) agonist. We show here that pyrvinium is a potent inhibitor of HH signaling, which acts by reducing the stability of the Gli family of transcription factors. Consistent with CK1α agonists acting on these most distal components of the HH signaling pathway, pyrvinium is able to inhibit the activity of a clinically relevant, vismodegib -resistant Smo mutant, as well as the Gli activity resulting from loss of the negative regulator suppressor of fused. We go on to demonstrate the utility of this small molecule in vivo, against the HH-dependent cancer medulloblastoma, attenuating its growth and reducing the expression of HH biomarkers. PMID:24994715
Statistical anisotropy of the curvature perturbation from vector field perturbations
Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Lyth, David H.; Rodriguez, Yeinzon E-mail: m.karciauskas@lancaster.ac.uk E-mail: yeinzon.rodriguez@uan.edu.co
2009-05-15
The {delta}N formula for the primordial curvature perturbation {zeta} is extended to include vector as well as scalar fields. Formulas for the tree-level contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum of {zeta} are given, exhibiting statistical anisotropy. The one-loop contribution to the spectrum of {zeta} is also worked out. We then consider the generation of vector field perturbations from the vacuum, including the longitudinal component that will be present if there is no gauge invariance. Finally, the {delta}N formula is applied to the vector curvaton and vector inflation models with the tensor perturbation also evaluated in the latter case.
1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT DOWNSTREAM FACE OF ...
1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY. VIEW TAKEN FROM WASHINGTON SHORELINE. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR
5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter ...
5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter pole); VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Auwaiakeakua Bridge, Spanning Auwaiakekua Gulch at Mamalahoa Highway, Waikoloa, Hawaii County, HI
7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL ...
7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV
The effect of catalyst length and downstream reactor distance on catalytic combustor performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, D.
1980-01-01
A study was made to determine the effects on catalytic combustor performance which resulted from independently varying the length of a catalytic reactor and the length available for gas-phase reactions downstream of the catalyst. Monolithic combustion catalysts from three manufacturers were tested in a combustion test rig with no. 2 diesel fuel. Catalytic reactor lengths of 2.5 and 5.4 cm, and downstream gas-phase reaction distances of 7.3, 12.4, 17.5, and 22.5 cm were evaluated. Measurements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and pressure drop were made. The catalytic-reactor pressure drop was less than 1 percent of the upstream total pressure for all test configurations and test conditions. Nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons emissions were less than 0.25 g NO2/kg fuel and 0.6 g HC/kg fuel, respectively. The minimum operating temperature (defined as the adiabatic combustion temperature required to obtain carbon monoxide emissions below a reference level of 13.6 g CO/kg fuel) ranged from 1230 K to 1500 K for the various conditions and configurations tested. The minimum operating temperature decreased with increasing total (catalytic-reactor-plus-downstream-gas-phase-reactor-zone) residence time but was independent of the relative times spent in each region when the catalytic-reactor residence time was greater than or equal to 1.4 ms.
Characterisation of turbulence downstream of a linear compressor cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Mare, Luca; Jelly, Thomas; Day, Ivor
2014-11-01
Characterisation of turbulence in turbomachinery remains one of the most complex tasks in fluid mechanics. In addition, current closure models required for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations do not accurately represent the action of turbulent forces against the mean flow. Therefore, the statistical properties of turbulence in turbomachinery are of significant interest. In the current work, single- and two-point hot-wire measurements have been acquired downstream of a linear compressor cascade in order to examine the properties of large-scale turbulent structures and to assess how they affect turbulent momentum and energy transfer in compressor passages. The cascade has seven controlled diffusion which are representative of high-pressure stator blades found in turbofan engines. Blade chord, thickness and camber are 0.1515 m, 9.3% and 42 degrees, respectively. Measurements were acquired at a chord Reynolds number of 6 . 92 ×105 . Single-point statistics highlight differences in turbulence structure when comparing mid-span and end-wall regions. Evaluation of two-point correlations and their corresponding spectra reveal the length-scales of the energy-bearing eddies in the cascade. Ultimately, these measurements can be used to calibrate future computational models. The authors gratefully acknowledge Rolls-Royce plc for funding this work and granting permission for its publication.
Revised Perturbation Statistics for the Global Scale Atmospheric Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.
1975-01-01
Magnitudes and scales of atmospheric perturbations about the monthly mean for the thermodynamic variables and wind components are presented by month at various latitudes. These perturbation statistics are a revision of the random perturbation data required for the global scale atmospheric model program and are from meteorological rocket network statistical summaries in the 22 to 65 km height range and NASA grenade and pitot tube data summaries in the region up to 90 km. The observed perturbations in the thermodynamic variables were adjusted to make them consistent with constraints required by the perfect gas law and the hydrostatic equation. Vertical scales were evaluated by Buell's depth of pressure system equation and from vertical structure function analysis. Tables of magnitudes and vertical scales are presented for each month at latitude 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 degrees.
Lunar fossil magnetism and perturbations of the solar wind.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonett, C. P.; Mihalov, J. D.
1972-01-01
Perturbations of the solar wind downstream of the moon and lying outside of the rarefaction wave that defines the diamagnetic cavity are used to define possible source regions comprised of intrinsically magnetized areas of the moon. A map of the moon is constructed showing that a model in which the sources are exposed to the grazing solar wind during the lunation yields a selenographically invariant set of regions strongly favoring the lunar highlands over the maria. An alternative model with the source due to electromagnetic induction is explored. The ages of the field sources should be consistent with those based on the basalt ages and possibly far older if the sources are connected with the formation of the highland rocks themselves. The perturbations are tentatively identified as weak shock waves, and a Mach angle in accord with nominal values for the solar wind is found.
Downstream boundary conditions for viscous flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fix, G.; Gunzburger, M.
1977-01-01
The problem of the specification of artificial outflow conditions in flow problems is studied. It is shown that for transport type equations incorrect outflow conditions will adversely affect the solution only in a small region near the outflow boundary, while for elliptic equations, e.g. those governing the streamfunction or pressure, a correct boundary specification is essential. In addition, integral outflow boundary conditions for fluid dynamical problems are considered. It is shown that such conditions are well posed, and their effect on the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations is also considered.
Cosmological perturbations during radion stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashcroft, P. R.; van de Bruck, C.; Davis, A.-C.
2005-01-01
We consider the evolution of cosmological perturbations during radion stabilization, which we assume to happen after a period of inflation in the early universe. Concentrating on the Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario, we find that, if matter is present both on the positive and negative tension branes, the coupling of the radion to matter fields could have significant impact on the evolution of the curvature perturbation and on the production of entropy perturbations. We investigate both the case of a long-lived and a short-lived radion and outline similarities and differences to the curvaton scenario.
Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations
Joiner, N.; Hirose, A.; Dorland, W.
2010-07-15
At low beta it is common to neglect parallel magnetic field perturbations on the basis that they are of order beta{sup 2}. This is only true if effects of order beta are canceled by a term in the nablaB drift also of order beta[H. L. Berk and R. R. Dominguez, J. Plasma Phys. 18, 31 (1977)]. To our knowledge this has not been rigorously tested with modern gyrokinetic codes. In this work we use the gyrokinetic code GS2[Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)] to investigate whether the compressional magnetic field perturbation B{sub ||} is required for accurate gyrokinetic simulations at low beta for microinstabilities commonly found in tokamaks. The kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) demonstrates the principle described by Berk and Dominguez strongly, as does the trapped electron mode, in a less dramatic way. The ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven modes do not typically exhibit this behavior; the effects of B{sub ||} are found to depend on the pressure gradients. The terms which are seen to cancel at long wavelength in KBM calculations can be cumulative in the ion temperature gradient case and increase with eta{sub e}. The effect of B{sub ||} on the ETG instability is shown to depend on the normalized pressure gradient beta{sup '} at constant beta.
Plasma actuator electron density measurement using microwave perturbation method
Mirhosseini, Farid; Colpitts, Bruce
2014-07-21
A cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma under five different pressures is generated in an evacuated glass tube. This plasma volume is located at the center of a rectangular copper waveguide cavity, where the electric field is maximum for the first mode and the magnetic field is very close to zero. The microwave perturbation method is used to measure electron density and plasma frequency for these five pressures. Simulations by a commercial microwave simulator are comparable to the experimental results.
1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE ...
1. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DIVERSION DAM ON THE SNAKE RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE HEADGATE STRUCTURE ON NORTH BANK, SPILLWAY ON LEFT SIDE OF DAM, AND SPLASH LOGS ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO
11. VIEW NORTH ALONG DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM FROM SOUTH ...
11. VIEW NORTH ALONG DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CHANNEL ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF RESERVOIR - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ
Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Stebbins, Albert
1990-01-01
A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe.
Isocurvature perturbations in extra radiation
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu E-mail: miyamone@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: oyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp
2012-02-01
Recent cosmological observations, including measurements of the CMB anisotropy and the primordial helium abundance, indicate the existence of an extra radiation component in the Universe beyond the standard three neutrino species. In this paper we explore the possibility that the extra radiation has isocurvatrue fluctuations. A general formalism to evaluate isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation is provided in the mixed inflaton-curvaton system, where the extra radiation is produced by the decay of both scalar fields. We also derive constraints on the abundance of the extra radiation and the amount of its isocurvature perturbation. Current observational data favors the existence of an extra radiation component, but does not indicate its having isocurvature perturbation. These constraints are applied to some particle physics motivated models. If future observations detect isocurvature perturbations in the extra radiation, it will give us a hint to the origin of the extra radiation.
Robust stability under additive perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.
1985-01-01
A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.
The effects of leading edge and downstream film cooling on turbine vane heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.
1988-11-01
The progress under contract NAS3-24619 toward the goal of establishing a relevant data base for use in improving the predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes, including the effect of downstream film cooling with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling. Experimental measurements were made in a two-dimensional cascade previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-22761 and leading edge showerhead film cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-23695. The principal independent parameters (Mach number, Reynolds number, turbulence, wall-to-gas temperature ratio, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio) were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions and the test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. Data provide a data base for downstream film cooled turbine vanes and extends the data bases generated in the two previous studies. The vane external heat transfer obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The data obtained and presented illustrate the interaction of the variables and should provide the airfoil designer and computational analyst the information required to improve heat transfer design capabilities for film cooled turbine airfoils.
The effects of leading edge and downstream film cooling on turbine vane heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.
1988-01-01
The progress under contract NAS3-24619 toward the goal of establishing a relevant data base for use in improving the predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes, including the effect of downstream film cooling with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling. Experimental measurements were made in a two-dimensional cascade previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-22761 and leading edge showerhead film cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-23695. The principal independent parameters (Mach number, Reynolds number, turbulence, wall-to-gas temperature ratio, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio) were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions and the test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. Data provide a data base for downstream film cooled turbine vanes and extends the data bases generated in the two previous studies. The vane external heat transfer obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The data obtained and presented illustrate the interaction of the variables and should provide the airfoil designer and computational analyst the information required to improve heat transfer design capabilities for film cooled turbine airfoils.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matjacic, Zlatko; Sok, David; Jakovljevic, Miroljub; Cikajlo, Imre
2013-01-01
The objective of the study was to assess functional postural responses by analyzing the center-of-pressure trajectories resulting from perturbations delivered in multiple directions to elderly fallers. Ten elderly individuals were standing quietly on two force platforms while an apparatus delivered controlled perturbations at the level of pelvis…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.
2016-01-01
Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.
2016-01-01
Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.
Structural fluctuation of proteins induced by thermodynamic perturbation
Hirata, Fumio; Akasaka, Kazuyuki
2015-01-28
A theory to describe structural fluctuations of protein induced by thermodynamic perturbations, pressure, temperature, and denaturant, is proposed. The theory is formulated based on the three methods in the statistical mechanics: the generalized Langevin theory, the linear response theory, and the three dimensional interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory. The theory clarifies how the change in thermodynamic conditions, or a macroscopic perturbation, induces the conformational fluctuation, which is a microscopic property. The theoretical results are applied, on the conceptual basis, to explain the experimental finding by Akasaka et al., concerning the NMR experiment which states that the conformational change induced by pressure corresponds to structural fluctuations occurring in the ambient condition. A method to evaluate the structural fluctuation induced by pressure is also suggested by means of the 3D-RISM and the site-site Kirkwood-Buff theories.
Phase-averaged measurements of perturbations introduced into boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1991-01-01
Large-scale structures in turbulent and transitional wall-bounded flows make a significant contribution to the Reynolds stress and turbulent energy. The behavior of these structures is examined. Small perturbations are introduced into a laminar and a turbulent boundary layer to trigger the formation of large-scale features. Both flows use the same inlet unit Reynolds number, and they experience the same pressure gradient history, i.e. a favorable pressure gradient (FPG) followed by an adverse pressure gradient (APG). The perturbation consists of a small short duration flow repetitively introduced through a hole in the wall located at the C(sub p) minimum. Hot-wire data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, and automation of the experiment was used to obtain measurements on large spatially dense grids. In the turbulent boundary, the perturbation evolves into a vortex loop which retains its identity for a considerable streamwise distance. In the laminar layer, the perturbation decays to a very small magnitude before growing rapidly and triggering the transition process in the APG. The 'time-like' animations of the phase-averaged data are used to gain insight into the naturally occurring physical mechanisms in each flow.
Gravitational waves from perturbed stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, V.
2011-12-01
Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance, in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.
Gravitational waves from perturbed stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, V.
2011-03-01
Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.
Perturbed motion at small eccentricities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emel'yanov, N. V.
2015-09-01
In the study of the motion of planets and moons, it is often necessary to have a simple approximate analytical motion model, which takes into account major perturbations and preserves almost the same accuracy at long time intervals. A precessing ellipse model is used for this purpose. In this paper, it is shown that for small eccentricities this model of the perturbed orbit does not correspond to body motion characteristics. There is perturbed circular motion with a constant zero mean anomaly. The corresponding solution satisfies the Lagrange equations with respect to Keplerian orbital elements. There are two families of solutions with libration and circulation changes in the mean anomaly close to this particular solution. The paper shows how the eccentricity and mean anomaly change in these solutions. Simple analytical models of the motion of the four closest moons of Jupiter consistent with available ephemerides are proposed, which in turn are obtained by the numerical integration of motion equations and are refined by observations.
2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. ...
2. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF THE SOUTH CHANNEL DAM, LOOKING WEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, South Channel Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID
VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST AT THE DOWNSTREAM ENTRANCE INTO LOCK ...
VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST AT THE DOWNSTREAM ENTRANCE INTO LOCK 67. NOTE THE BEDDING TIMBERS AT BASE OF STONE WORK. THEY ARE EXPOSED ONLY AT LOW WATER. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY
70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. ...
70. Downstream view of Waddell Dam spillway and taintor gates. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
42. View of emergency spillway excavation looking downstream from spillway. ...
42. View of emergency spillway excavation looking downstream from spillway. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: ADWR. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer ...
28. View of construction shops looking west and downstream. Photographer unknown, October 29, 1926. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer ...
57. Downstream side of left section of diversion dam. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark ...
55. Downstream face of diversion dam looking northwest. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of ...
51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice ...
49. Downstream face of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam with sluice opening at center. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
69. View of downstream face from west or right abutment. ...
69. View of downstream face from west or right abutment. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at ...
40. Reservoir behind Pleasant Dam, looking downstream, spillway is at right. Photographer unknown, c. late 1920s. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
23. INTAKE DIVERSION DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHWEST AND DOWNSTREAM ...
23. INTAKE DIVERSION DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHWEST AND DOWNSTREAM Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, September 17, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ
MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND ...
MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND SILT SLUICE GATE FOR DIVERSION DAM ON LEFT, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Main Canal Headworks, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA
25. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER DOWNSTREAM ...
25. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER DOWNSTREAM FROM THE DAM/SPILLWAY ON THE WASHINGTON SHORE. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR
2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF ...
2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY; PARKING LOT/WORK AREA ON WASHINGTON SHORE IS VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR
10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement ...
10. Downstream face of Mormon Flat Dam under construction. Cement storage shed is at center right. Photographer unknown, September 1924. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, ...
23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, No. 8, April 12, 1940. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA
28. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF ROCK PAVING OPERATIONS ON LEFT BANK ...
28. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF ROCK PAVING OPERATIONS ON LEFT BANK OF OUTLET CHANNEL.... Volume XVI, No. 18, September 29, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA
18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT ...
18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT WEST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVI, No. 13, July 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA
8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS ...
8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS CENTER (LEFT) AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE ON NORTH BANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL
6. DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF LOWER MITER GATES WITH FULL LOCK ...
6. DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF LOWER MITER GATES WITH FULL LOCK CHAMBER, VISITORS, AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL
View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot ...
View of Lake Sabrina Dam downstream face from parking lot showing concrete outlet structure on tow of dam at left edge of photo, view southeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT ...
14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT, COFFER DAM IS UPSTREAM OF PLACING TOWER. EAST DOME IS VISIBLE AT LEFT OF TOWER, c. 1927 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ
34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE ...
34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE TOWERS, WEST SPILLWAY CHANNEL AND DECORATIVE EAGLES ALL CLEARLY VISIBLE, c. 1928 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ
54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing ...
54. Downstream face of Agua Fria project's diversion dam showing initial masonry construction and poured concrete capping. Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
7. Contextual view to eastnortheast showing downstream (west) side of ...
7. Contextual view to east-northeast showing downstream (west) side of bridge in setting, depicting dense riparian nature of area. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA
65. Close up view of downstream face of arch, buttress ...
65. Close up view of downstream face of arch, buttress ties and roadway support work. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ
6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...
6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT
5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...
5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT
7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM ...
7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, SECTION 34, T2N, R37E - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID