Science.gov

Sample records for dpm control strategies

  1. Application of microwave energy in the control of DPM, oxides of nitrogen and VOC emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavkar, Sameer M.

    The emissions of DPM (diesel particulate matter), NOx (oxides of nitrogen), and toxic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine exhaust gases and other sources such as chemical process industry and manufacturing industry have been a great environmental and health concern. Most control technologies for these emissions require elevated temperatures. The use of microwave energy as a source of heat energy, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, the microwave energy was used as the energy source in three separate emission control processes, namely, the regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) for DPM control, the NOx reduction using a platinum catalyst, and the VOC destruction involving a ceramic based material. The study has demonstrated that microwave heating is an effective method in providing heat for the studied processes. The control efficiencies associated with the microwave-assisted processes have been observed to be high and acceptable. Further research, however, is required for the commercial use of these technologies.

  2. DPM — efficient storage in diverse environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmich, Martin; Furano, Fabrizio; Smith, David; Brito da Rocha, Ricardo; Álvarez Ayllón, Alejandro; Manzi, Andrea; Keeble, Oliver; Calvet, Ivan; Regala, Miguel Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments, including low power devices, cluster file systems and cloud storage, represent an explosion in the possibilities for deploying and managing grid storage. In this paper we present how different technologies can be leveraged to build a storage service with differing cost, power, performance, scalability and reliability profiles, using the popular storage solution Disk Pool Manager (DPM/dmlite) as the enabling technology. The storage manager DPM is designed for these new environments, allowing users to scale up and down as they need it, and optimizing their computing centers energy efficiency and costs. DPM runs on high-performance machines, profiting from multi-core and multi-CPU setups. It supports separating the database from the metadata server, the head node, largely reducing its hard disk requirements. Since version 1.8.6, DPM is released in EPEL and Fedora, simplifying distribution and maintenance, but also supporting the ARM architecture beside i386 and x86_64, allowing it to run the smallest low-power machines such as the Raspberry Pi or the CuBox. This usage is facilitated by the possibility to scale horizontally using a main database and a distributed memcached-powered namespace cache. Additionally, DPM supports a variety of storage pools in the backend, most importantly HDFS, S3-enabled storage, and cluster file systems, allowing users to fit their DPM installation exactly to their needs. In this paper, we investigate the power-efficiency and total cost of ownership of various DPM configurations. We develop metrics to evaluate the expected performance of a setup both in terms of namespace and disk access considering the overall cost including equipment, power consumptions, or data/storage fees. The setups tested range from the lowest scale using Raspberry Pis with only 700MHz single cores and a 100Mbps network connections, over conventional multi-core servers to typical virtual machine instances in cloud settings. We evaluate the

  3. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  4. Web enabled data management with DPM & LFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Ayllon, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble and, Oliver; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and LCG File Catalog (LFC) are two grid data management components currently used in production with more than 240 endpoints. Together with a set of grid client tools they give the users a unified view of their data, hiding most details concerning data location and access. Recently we've put a lot of effort in developing a reliable and high performance HTTP/WebDAV frontend to both our grid catalog and storage components, exposing the existing functionality to users accessing the services via standard clients - e.g. web browsers, curl - present in all operating systems, giving users a simple and straight-forward way of interaction. In addition, as other relevant grid storage components (like dCache) expose their data using the same protocol, for the first time we had the opportunity of attempting a unified view of all grid storage using HTTP. We describe the HTTP redirection mechanism used to integrate the grid catalog(s) with the multiple storage components, including details on some assumptions made to allow integration with other implementations. We describe the way we hide the details regarding site availability or catalog inconsistencies by switching the standard HTTP client automatically between multiple replicas. We also present measurements of access performance, and the relevant factors regarding replica selection - current throughput and load, geographic proximity, etc. Finally, we report on some additional work done to have this system as a viable alternative to GridFTP, providing multi-stream transfers and exploiting some additional features of WebDAV to enable third party copies - essential for managing data movements between storage systems - with equivalent performance.

  5. Supervisory Control Strategy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic

    2007-02-28

    Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions.

  6. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  7. National Drug Control Strategy. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The first National Drug Control Strategy set ambitious two and five-year performance based goals: (1) to lower the rate of drug use by 10 percent over 2 years among both youth and adults; and (2) to lower the rate by 25 percent over 5 years. The chapters in this updated version are keyed to the strategies three priorities: (1) Stopping Use Before…

  8. National Drug Control Strategy. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    President Bush's new National Drug Control Strategy for 2003 focuses on three core priorities: stopping drug use before it starts; healing America's drug users; and disrupting the market. The 2003 strategy reports progress toward meeting the President's goals of reducing drug use by 10 percent over 2 years, and 25 percent over 5 years. With regard…

  9. National Drug Control Strategy, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the Fiscal Year 2007 Budget for the National Drug Control Strategy within the three key priority areas; education and community action, treatment and intervention, and disruption in the illegal drug market. The first chapter, "Stopping Drug Use Before It Starts," outlines the Administration's work to prevent the…

  10. Analysis of pilot control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hanson, G. D.; Jewell, W. F.; Clement, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for nonintrusive identification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics are presented along with examples based on flight data. The specific analysis technique is Nonintrusive Parameter Identification Procedure (NIPIP), which is described in a companion user's guide (NASA CR-170398). Quantification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics is discussed in general terms followed by a more detailed description of how NIPIP can be applied. The examples are based on flight data obtained from the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire airplane. These examples involve various piloting tasks and control axes as well as a demonstration of how the dynamics of the aircraft itself are identified using NIPIP. Application of NIPIP to the AFTI/F-16 flight test program is discussed. Recommendations are made for flight test applications in general and refinement of NIPIP to include interactive computer graphics.

  11. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  12. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  13. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  15. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  16. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  17. 2011 National Drug Control Strategy. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy", a comprehensive approach to combat the public health and safety consequences posed by drug use. Now, a year later, the Administration is releasing its update building upon that initial "Strategy". The "Strategy" establishes ambitious goals to…

  18. National Drug Control Strategy. 2008 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 National Drug Control Strategy of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The overarching goal of the President's Strategy is to reduce drug use in America through a balanced approach that focuses on stopping use before it starts, healing America's drug users, and disrupting the market for illegal…

  19. Distinct traces for appetitive versus aversive olfactory memories in DPM neurons of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; Davis, Ronald L

    2012-07-10

    The global logic used by the brain for differentially encoding positive and negative experiences remains unknown along with how such experiences are represented by collections of memory traces at the cellular level. Here we contrast the cellular memory traces that form in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons of Drosophila after conditioning flies with odors associated with aversive or appetitive unconditioned stimuli (US). Our results show that the appetitive DPM neuron trace is distinguished from the aversive in three fundamental ways: (1) The DPM neurons do not respond to an appetitive US of sucrose by itself, in contrast to their robust response to an aversive US. (2) The appetitive trace persists for twice as long as the aversive trace. (3) The appetitive trace is expressed in both neurite branches of the neuron, rather than being confined to a single branch like the aversive trace. In addition, we demonstrate that training flies with nonnutritive sugars that elicit a behavioral memory that decays within 24 hr generates, like aversive conditioning, a short-lived and branch-restricted memory trace. These results indicate that the persistence and breadth of the DPM neuron memory trace influences the duration of behavioral memory. PMID:22658595

  20. Optimal control of anthracnose using mixed strategies.

    PubMed

    Fotsa Mbogne, David Jaures; Thron, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose and study a spatial diffusion model for the control of anthracnose disease in a bounded domain. The model is a generalization of the one previously developed in [15]. We use the model to simulate two different types of control strategies against anthracnose disease. Strategies that employ chemical fungicides are modeled using a continuous control function; while strategies that rely on cultivational practices (such as pruning and removal of mummified fruits) are modeled with a control function which is discrete in time (though not in space). For comparative purposes, we perform our analyses for a spatially-averaged model as well as the space-dependent diffusion model. Under weak smoothness conditions on parameters we demonstrate the well-posedness of both models by verifying existence and uniqueness of the solution for the growth inhibition rate for given initial conditions. We also show that the set [0, 1] is positively invariant. We first study control by impulsive strategies, then analyze the simultaneous use of mixed continuous and pulse strategies. In each case we specify a cost functional to be minimized, and we demonstrate the existence of optimal control strategies. In the case of pulse-only strategies, we provide explicit algorithms for finding the optimal control strategies for both the spatially-averaged model and the space-dependent model. We verify the algorithms for both models via simulation, and discuss properties of the optimal solutions. PMID:26407644

  1. Control Strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    Deplazes, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of zoonotic alveolar echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control. Trimonthly baiting intervals were far less effective and did not prevent parasite recovery. PMID:18826831

  2. Control strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of zoonotic alveolar echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control. Trimonthly baiting intervals were far less effective and did not prevent parasite recovery. PMID:18826831

  3. SU-E-T-278: Realization of Dose Verification Tool for IMRT Plan Based On DPM

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jinfeng; Cao, Ruifen; Dai, Yumei; Pei, Xi; Hu, Liqin; LIN, Hui; Zhang, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To build a Monte Carlo dose verification tool for IMRT Plan by implementing a irradiation source model into DPM code. Extend the ability of DPM to calculate any incident angles and irregular-inhomogeneous fields. Methods: With the virtual source and the energy spectrum which unfolded from the accelerator measurement data,combined with optimized intensity maps to calculate the dose distribution of the irradiation irregular-inhomogeneous field. The irradiation source model of accelerator was substituted by a grid-based surface source. The contour and the intensity distribution of the surface source were optimized by ARTS (Accurate/Advanced Radiotherapy System) optimization module based on the tumor configuration. The weight of the emitter was decided by the grid intensity. The direction of the emitter was decided by the combination of the virtual source and the emitter emitting position. The photon energy spectrum unfolded from the accelerator measurement data was adjusted by compensating the contaminated electron source. For verification, measured data and realistic clinical IMRT plan were compared with DPM dose calculation. Results: The regular field was verified by comparing with the measured data. It was illustrated that the differences were acceptable (<2% inside the field, 2–3mm in the penumbra). The dose calculation of irregular field by DPM simulation was also compared with that of FSPB (Finite Size Pencil Beam) and the passing rate of gamma analysis was 95.1% for peripheral lung cancer. The regular field and the irregular rotational field were all within the range of permitting error. The computing time of regular fields were less than 2h, and the test of peripheral lung cancer was 160min. Through parallel processing, the adapted DPM could complete the calculation of IMRT plan within half an hour. Conclusion: The adapted parallelized DPM code with irradiation source model is faster than classic Monte Carlo codes. Its computational accuracy and

  4. Meningococcal meningitis outbreak control strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, S; Kumar, R; Roy, P; Varma, S; Sharma, B K

    2000-12-01

    Meningococcal meningitis has been occurring worldwide in both endemic and epidemic forms. Serogroup A accounts for majority of cases of epidemic as well as endemic Meningococcal meningitis in developing nations, whereas group C and group B causes epidemic and endemic meningococcal meningitis in developed countries. Person to person spread of N. meningitides generally occurs through inhalation of droplets of infected nasopharyngeal secretions by direct or indirect oral contact. Incubation period varies from 2 to 10 days. N. meningitides typically causes acute infective illness characterized by sequential development of upper respiratory tract infection, meningococcemia, meningitis and focal neurological deficit. Over 90 per cent cases of adult meningococcal infections have cerebrospinal meningitis, whereas in children prevalence of meningitis is much lower (50 per cent). Acute meningitis manifests with fever, severe headache, vomiting and neck stiffness. Presentations may be non-specific in infants, elderly and in patients with fulminant meningococcemia. Diagnosis is confirmed with cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Overall mortality due to meningitis is usually around 10 per cent. In meningococcal septicemia, the case fatality rate may exceed 50 per cent. Preventive strategies include vaccination, chemoprophylaxis and early detection and treatment. Mass vaccination campaign, if appropriately carried out, has been documented to halt an epidemic of meningococcal disease due to serogroup A or C. In the present review we have discussed the available evidence with regards to prevention at primary, secondary and tertiary level. Public health approach to an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis in a community or an organization is also outlined. PMID:11668937

  5. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  6. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  7. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  8. Control of DC Motor Using Different Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alasooly, Hedaya; Redha, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    A simple model of a DC motor driving an inertial load has the angular rate of the load, ω, as the output and applied voltage, νapp, as the input. The ultimate goal of this paper is to control the angular rate by varying the applied voltage using different control strategies for comparison purpose. The comparision is made between the proptional controller, integral controller, propotional and integral controller, phase lag compensator, derivitive controller, lead integral compensator, lead lag compensator, PID controller and the the linear quadratic tracker design based on the optimal control theory.

  9. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  11. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. PMID:26817725

  12. Environmental Strategies for Portion Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Matheson, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25485874

  13. RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunsheng; Shen, Jia; Sun, Yao; Ying, Na

    2015-01-01

    Time synchronization is essential for node localization, target tracking, data fusion, and various other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To improve the estimation accuracy of continuous clock offset and skew of mobile nodes in WSNs, we propose a novel time synchronization algorithm, the Rao-Blackwellised (RB) particle filter time synchronization algorithm based on the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) model. In a state-space equation with a linear substructure, state variables are divided into linear and non-linear variables by the RB particle filter algorithm. These two variables can be estimated using Kalman filter and particle filter, respectively, which improves the computational efficiency more so than if only the particle filter was used. In addition, the DPM model is used to describe the distribution of non-deterministic delays and to automatically adjust the number of Gaussian mixture model components based on the observational data. This improves the estimation accuracy of clock offset and skew, which allows achieving the time synchronization. The time synchronization performance of this algorithm is also validated by computer simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher time synchronization precision than traditional time synchronization algorithms. PMID:26404291

  14. RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunsheng; Shen, Jia; Sun, Yao; Ying, Na

    2015-01-01

    Time synchronization is essential for node localization, target tracking, data fusion, and various other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To improve the estimation accuracy of continuous clock offset and skew of mobile nodes in WSNs, we propose a novel time synchronization algorithm, the Rao-Blackwellised (RB) particle filter time synchronization algorithm based on the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) model. In a state-space equation with a linear substructure, state variables are divided into linear and non-linear variables by the RB particle filter algorithm. These two variables can be estimated using Kalman filter and particle filter, respectively, which improves the computational efficiency more so than if only the particle filter was used. In addition, the DPM model is used to describe the distribution of non-deterministic delays and to automatically adjust the number of Gaussian mixture model components based on the observational data. This improves the estimation accuracy of clock offset and skew, which allows achieving the time synchronization. The time synchronization performance of this algorithm is also validated by computer simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher time synchronization precision than traditional time synchronization algorithms. PMID:26404291

  15. Cigarette smoking: health effects and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    Active cigarette smoking causes a broad spectrum of diseases that extend to many different organ systems. Its numerous deleterious health effects, combined with the substantial prevalence of cigarette smoking, make it a major worldwide cause of death. Smoking contributes so heavily to the mortality burden because it is a major cause of vascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to these diseases, cigarette smoking also causes other respiratory symptoms, adversely affects reproductive outcomes and is a cause of diminished health status. Furthermore, exposure to secondhand smoke is an established cause of coronary heart disease and lung cancer, as well as a host of other adverse health effects. Given that cigarette smoking is such a major threat to global public health, controlling the worldwide epidemic of cigarette smoking would lead to enormous public health benefits. Strategies to control cigarette smoking at the societal level include smoke-free workplace legislation, increasing cigarette taxes and regulating cigarette advertising. On the individual level, preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking among youths is the optimal strategy; in practice, discovering efficacious primary prevention interventions has proven challenging. During the past two decades, major advances have been made in extending the menu of options available to assist dependent smokers in successfully quitting smoking. Successfully combating cigarette smoking requires a broad-based commitment to smoking control from multiple stakeholders, along with a multifaceted strategy that addresses both societal and individual factors. PMID:19198699

  16. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, Desineni S.

    1990-01-01

    The first part of the report concerns broadly the summary of the work done in the areas of singular perturbations and time scales (SPaTS), aerobraking technology, guidance and aerocruise. The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  17. Control strategies for planetary rover motion and manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.

    1973-01-01

    An unusual insect-like vehicle designed for planetary surface exploration is made the occasion for a discussion of control concepts in path selection, hazard detection, obstacle negotiation, and soil sampling. A control scheme which actively articulates the pitching motion between a single-loop front module and a dual loop rear module leads to near optimal behavior in soft soil; at the same time the vehicle's front module acts as a reliable tactile forward probe with a detection range much longer than the stopping distance. Some optimal control strategies are discussed, and the photos of a working scale model are displayed.

  18. Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods. PMID:22983293

  19. Implementation of the DPM Monte Carlo code on a parallel architecture for treatment planning applications.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Neelam; Bose, Abhijit; Chetty, Indrin J

    2004-09-01

    We have parallelized the Dose Planning Method (DPM), a Monte Carlo code optimized for radiotherapy class problems, on distributed-memory processor architectures using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Parallelization has been investigated on a variety of parallel computing architectures at the University of Michigan-Center for Advanced Computing, with respect to efficiency and speedup as a function of the number of processors. We have integrated the parallel pseudo random number generator from the Scalable Parallel Pseudo-Random Number Generator (SPRNG) library to run with the parallel DPM. The Intel cluster consisting of 800 MHz Intel Pentium III processor shows an almost linear speedup up to 32 processors for simulating 1 x 10(8) or more particles. The speedup results are nearly linear on an Athlon cluster (up to 24 processors based on availability) which consists of 1.8 GHz+ Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Athlon processors on increasing the problem size up to 8 x 10(8) histories. For a smaller number of histories (1 x 10(8)) the reduction of efficiency with the Athlon cluster (down to 83.9% with 24 processors) occurs because the processing time required to simulate 1 x 10(8) histories is less than the time associated with interprocessor communication. A similar trend was seen with the Opteron Cluster (consisting of 1400 MHz, 64-bit AMD Opteron processors) on increasing the problem size. Because of the 64-bit architecture Opteron processors are capable of storing and processing instructions at a faster rate and hence are faster as compared to the 32-bit Athlon processors. We have validated our implementation with an in-phantom dose calculation study using a parallel pencil monoenergetic electron beam of 20 MeV energy. The phantom consists of layers of water, lung, bone, aluminum, and titanium. The agreement in the central axis depth dose curves and profiles at different depths shows that the serial and parallel codes are equivalent in accuracy. PMID:15487756

  20. Intermittent locomotion as an optimal control strategy

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Birds, fish and other animals routinely use unsteady effects to save energy by alternating between phases of active propulsion and passive coasting. Here, we construct a minimal model for such behaviour that can be couched as an optimal control problem via an analogy to travelling with a rechargeable battery. An analytical solution of the optimal control problem proves that intermittent locomotion has lower energy requirements relative to steady-state strategies. Additional realistic hypotheses, such as the assumption that metabolic cost at a given power should be minimal (the fixed gear hypothesis), a nonlinear dependence of the energy storage rate on propulsion and/or a preferred average speed, allow us to generalize the model and demonstrate the flexibility of intermittent locomotion with implications for biological and artificial systems. PMID:24711718

  1. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  6. 40 CFR 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    1998-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 1998-07-01 1998-07-01 false 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. Section 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. AIR PROGRAMS-(CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois § 52.728Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  7. 40 CFR 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 1997-07-01 1997-07-01 false 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. Section 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. AIR PROGRAMS-(CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois § 52.728Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  8. 40 CFR 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    1996-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 1996-07-01 1996-07-01 false 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. Section 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois § 52.728Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  9. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer and photophysical characteristics of (2Z)-3-[4-(dimethylamino) phenyl]-2-(2-methylphenyl) prop-2-ene-nitrile (DPM) in different media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, Abdullah M.; El-Daly, Samy A.; Alamry, Khalid A.; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Pannipara, Mehboobali

    2015-10-01

    A new fluorophore, (2Z)-3-[4-(dimethylamino) phenyl]-2-(2-methylphenyl) prop-2-ene-nitrile (DPM), was synthesized by knoevenagel condensation of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde and 2-methylbenzyl cyanide in ethanol using NaOH as base. The electronic absorption and emission characteristic of DPM was studied in different solvents. The X-ray crystallographic structure of DPM was also investigated. A crystalline solid of DPM gives a strong green emission at about 533 nm; these phenomena are important for the application of DPM dye in organic photo emitting diode. DPM exhibits a red shift in its emission spectrum as solvent polarity increases, indicating a large change in the dipole moment of dye molecule upon excitation due to intramolecular charge transfer in excited DPM*. The fluorescence quantum yield depends strongly on the properties of the solvents, which was attributed to positive and negative solvatokinetic effects. The DPM dye displays solubilization in cationic (CTAB) micelle and could be used as a probe to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CTAB.

  10. Gorbachev's arms-control strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogee, J.L.

    1987-01-22

    Soviet foreign policy under the Gorbachev administration, along with domestic policy, has been in a state of flux, particularly in the realm of arms-control policy. Both in substance and style, Gorbachev introduced a new dynamic in arms-control policy. He has skillfully manipulated the issue for propaganda appeal. But also he has shown flexibility in modifying Soviet positions both to respond to U.S. demands and to exert pressure on the United States to reach an agreement. Soviet arms-control objectives (some of which are incompatible) may be realized either through a formal agreement with the United States or without an agreement. These objectives include: (a) to use arms control to build a new framework for relations with the United States to replace detente; (b) to kill the Strategic Defense Initiative; (c) to constrain U.S. development in manned aircraft and cruise missiles (d) to deligitimize nuclear weapons as an instrument of military strategy; (e) to exacerbate differences between the United States and Europe. During his first year in power, Gorbachev relied heavily on propaganda with calls for eliminating nuclear weapons by the 21st century, his test ban moratorium and denunciation of SDI. After the 21st Party Congress he significantly modified Soviet positions closer to those of the United States with his acceptance of the zero option for INF forces, deep cuts in strategic weapons and willingness to accept limited research on SDI. Gorbachev now sees an arms control agreement as essential to his program for domestic reform and is prepared to make genuine concessions to achieve it.

  11. A Composite PWM Control Strategy for Boost Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingfeng, Liu; Zhaoxia, Leng; Jinkun, Sun; Huamin, Wang

    In order to improve the control performance of boost converter with large signal disturbance, a composite PWM control strategy for boost converter operating in continuous condition mode (CCM) was proposed in this paper. The parasitical loss of Boost converter was analyzed and a loss compensation strategy was adopted to design feed-forward tracker for converter. The composite PWM controller consisted of the tracker and PID controller. Simulation and experiment results validated the validity of the control strategy presented in this paper.

  12. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    scale was steered by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and greatly supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Perhaps the most important contribution of this period was the development of malaria epidemiology, including the study of the genesis of epidemics and their possible forecasting and prevention. Although the great effectiveness of DDT was perhaps the main determinant for proposing the global eradication of the disease in the 1950s, it was the confidence in the epidemiological knowledge and the prestige of malariology, which gave credibility to the proposal at the political level. The second part deals with the global malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. It recognises the enormous impact of the eradication effort in the consolidation of the control successes of the first half of the century, as well as its influence in the development of planning of health programmes. Nevertheless, it also stresses the negative influence that the failure to achieve its utopian expectations had on the general disappointment and slow progress of malaria control, which characterised the last third of the century. The paper then analyses the evolution of malaria control funding, which often appears out of tune with political statements. The fourth part is devoted to the search for realistic approaches to malaria control, leading to the adoption of the global malaria control strategy in Amsterdam in 1992, and the challenge, at the end of the century, to rally forces commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, while aiming at realistic objectives. After discussing the conflicting views on the relations between malaria and socio-economic development and the desirable integration of malaria control into sustainable development, the paper ends with some considerations on the perspectives of malaria control, as seen by the author in early 1998, just before the launching of the current Roll Back Malaria initiative by WHO. PMID:11921521

  13. Strategies for the control of catheter encrustation.

    PubMed

    Stickler, D J; Evans, A; Morris, N; Hughes, G

    2002-06-01

    Two general strategies have been adopted to develop catheter materials that resist encrustaion by bacterial biofilms: (a) the incorporation of antimicrobial agents into the polymers and (b) the production of materials with surface properties which prevent the adherence of bacterial cells. Our experience to develop non-adherent surfaces which abstracts design from nature is reported. Compounds based on 2-methacryloloxyethylphosphorylcholine co-polymerised with long-chain alkyl methacrylates have been produced which have structural and surface properties similar to those of the outer membranes of erythrocytes. These PC-coatings have been applied onto catheter base materials where they produce polar surfaces that are extremely hydrophilic. In experiments using a laboratory model of the catheterised bladder we found that the PC-coatings did not reduce colonisation of latex or silicone catheters by crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilm. There were no significant difference between the amounts of calcium and magnesium salts deposited on coated and non-coated catheters. In a further set of experiments the PC-coatings did not significantly increase the mean times for which catheters drained freely. In a parallel clinical study, the performance of PC-coated ureteral stents was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and bacteriological analysis on 44 PC-coated stents that had been implanted in patients for 12-week periods and 28 control stents suggested that the PC-coated devices were less vulnerable to encrustation and colonisation by bacterial biofilm than normal stents. It was of interest that in contrast to encrusted catheters, urease producing species such as P. mirabilis were rarely isolated from the stents. The main organisms colonising the stents were enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. These results suggest that the mechanisms of catheter and stent encrustation may be different and require different strategies for control. PMID:12135840

  14. Intervention strategies for control of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneja, Vijay K.

    2004-03-01

    The increasing numbers of illnesses associated with foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has renewed concerns about food safety because of consumer preferences for minimally processed foods that offer convenience in availability and preparation. Accordingly, the need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Mechanical removal of microorganisms from food can be accomplished by centrifugation, filtration, trimming and washing. Cleaning and sanitation strategies can be used for minimizing the access of microorganisms in foods from various sources. Other strategies for control of foodborne pathogens include established physical microbiocidal treatments such as ionizing radiation and heating. Research has continued to demonstrate that food irradiation is a suitable process to control and possibly eliminate foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, from a number of raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Heat treatment is the most common method in use today for the inactivation of microorganisms. Microorganisms can also be destroyed by nonthermal treatments, such as application of high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields or a combination of physical processes such as heat-irradiation, or heat-high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Each of the non-thermal technologies has specific applications in terms of the types of food that can be processed. Both conventional and newly developed physical treatments can be used in combination for controlling foodborne pathogens and enhancing the safety and shelf life of foods. Recent research has focused on combining traditional preservation factors with emerging intervention technologies. However, many key issues still need to be addressed for combination preservation factors or technologies to be useful in the food industry to meet public demands for foods with enhanced safety

  15. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow? PMID:21926451

  16. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  6. Behavioral Self-Control Strategies for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…

  7. Improving epidemic control strategies by extended detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Paweł; Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Majority of epidemics eradication programs work in preventive responsive way. The lack of exact information about epidemiological status of individuals makes responsive actions less efficient. Here, we demonstrate that additional tests can significantly increase the efficiency of "blind" treatment (vaccination or culling). Eradication strategy consisting of "blind" treatment in very limited local neighborhood supplemented by extra tests in a little bit larger neighborhood is able to prevent invasion of even highly infectious diseases and to achieve this at a cost lower than for the "blind" strategy. The effectiveness of the extended strategy depends on such parameters as the test efficiency and test cost.

  8. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  9. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals. PMID:27586601

  10. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  11. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  12. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  13. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  14. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  15. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  16. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  17. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  18. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  19. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  1. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1582 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 52.11582, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... Control strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Subchapter 16 of the New Jersey Administrative Code,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  4. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  5. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  10. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  13. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  18. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  8. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  10. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are not consistent with the continuous monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring...

  12. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  13. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573 Section 52.573 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy:...

  14. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section 52.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State...

  16. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582 Section 52.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.582 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Approval—The Administrator approves...

  17. National Drug Control Strategy. FY 2009 Budget Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Control Budget Summary identifies resources and performance indicators for programs within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President's National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy, which is the Administration's plan for reducing drug use and availability, is based on three pillars: (1) Stopping Use Before It Starts,…

  18. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter....

  19. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...'s ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1126 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1126 Section 52.1126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1126 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC... nonattainment to attainment was approved on October 23, 2001. The motor vehicle emissions budgets for VOC...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885 Section 52.1885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1885 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  4. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  5. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  6. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  10. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  11. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  13. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  14. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  15. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  17. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  18. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  19. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  20. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  2. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  3. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  4. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  5. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  6. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  7. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General....

  8. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  10. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10. 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are not consistent with the continuous monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring...

  12. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General....

  13. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are not consistent with the continuous monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring...

  15. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  17. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  18. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  20. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  1. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  2. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  5. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  7. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  9. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... SIP on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  14. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  16. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  19. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  20. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... SIP on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  10. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  11. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  13. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  17. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  18. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  19. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  20. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  1. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1982 Control strategy... approximately 1,200 gasoline service stations where compliance is determined by observing whether...

  4. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  5. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  6. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1982 Control strategy... approximately 1,200 gasoline service stations where compliance is determined by observing whether...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1982 Control strategy... approximately 1,200 gasoline service stations where compliance is determined by observing whether...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1982 Control strategy... approximately 1,200 gasoline service stations where compliance is determined by observing whether...

  10. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1982 Control strategy... approximately 1,200 gasoline service stations where compliance is determined by observing whether...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2585 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2585 Section 52.2585 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2585 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Disapproval—On November 6,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1174 Section 52.1174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1174 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Part...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1174 Section 52.1174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1174 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Part...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1174 Section 52.1174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1174 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Part...

  16. Global lessons from Nigeria's ebolavirus control strategy.

    PubMed

    Elemuwa, Chris; Kutalek, Ruth; Ali, Mohammad; Mworozi, Edison; Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus disease outbreak challenged medical and public health systems in West Africa. In Nigeria, the existing infrastructure of the polio surveillance system was leveraged rapidly to contain the spread of Ebola virus. We highlight important lessons learnt from the successful implementation of Ebola virus disease surveillance strategies, which should be amplified further to prepare the ground for successful vaccination programs. Close collaboration between national and international stakeholders as well as public/private partnerships will be instrumental in future Ebola virus immunization strategies. PMID:26190046

  17. Step Coverage and Electrical Properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 Films Prepared by Liquid Source Chemical Vapor Deposition Using TiO(DPM)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Takaaki; Yamamuka, Mikio; Makita, Tetsuro; Naka, Jiro; Yuuki, Akimasa; Mikami, Noboru; Ono, Kouichi

    1994-09-01

    Thin films of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) with high dielectric constant were prepared on Pt/ SiO2/Si substrates of 6-inch-diameter by liquid source chemical vapor deposition using Ba(DPM)2, Sr(DPM)2 and TiO(DPM)2 (DPM=dipivaloylmethanato; C11H19O2) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The reproducibility of ±3 % for the film composition was achieved by optimizing the deposition procedures. It was found that the coverage of 72%, obtained at the substrate temperature T s=753 K, was better than those obtained using other Ti sources such as Ti(O-i-Pr)4 (TTIP) and Ti(O-i-Pr)2(DPM)2. The electrical properties of the 480-Å-thick BST film, deposited at T s=753 K using TiO(DPM)2, were as follows: dielectric constant ɛ=230, equivalent SiO2 thickness t eq=7.8 Å, leakage current density J L=6.7×10-6 A/cm2 at 1.65 V and dielectric loss tan δ=0.013.

  18. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  19. SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensive...

  20. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This federal document offers a comprehensive approach to reduce demand for illegal drugs and decrease their availability. Supported by statistical tables and graphs, the summary is divided into six sections. "The Purpose and Nature of the Strategy" outlines a 10-year plan for drug interdiction and reduction and identifies the elements of that…

  1. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  2. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  3. A multiple pointing-mount control strategy for space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A new disturbance-adaptive control strategy for multiple pointing-mount space platforms is proposed and illustrated by consideration of a simplified 3-link dynamic model of a multiple pointing-mount space platform. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new platform control strategy. The simulation results also reveal a system 'destabilization phenomena' that can occur if the set of individual platform-mounted experiment controllers are 'too responsive.'

  4. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  5. Adaptive bridge control strategy for opinion evolution on social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Cheng; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient opinion control strategy for complex networks, in particular, for social networks. The proposed adaptive bridge control (ABC) strategy calls for controlling a special kind of nodes named bridge and requires no knowledge of the node degrees or any other global or local knowledge, which are necessary for some other immunization strategies including targeted immunization and acquaintance immunization. We study the efficiency of the proposed ABC strategy on random networks, small-world networks, scale-free networks, and the random networks adjusted by the edge exchanging method. Our results show that the proposed ABC strategy is efficient for all of these four kinds of networks. Through an adjusting clustering coefficient by the edge exchanging method, it is found out that the efficiency of our ABC strategy is closely related with the clustering coefficient. The main contributions of this paper can be listed as follows: (1) A new high-order social network is proposed to describe opinion dynamic. (2) An algorithm, which does not require the knowledge of the nodes' degree and other global/local network structure information, is proposed to control the "bridges" more accurately and further control the opinion dynamics of the social networks. The efficiency of our ABC strategy is illustrated by numerical examples. (3) The numerical results indicate that our ABC strategy is more efficient for networks with higher clustering coefficient.

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    McNerney, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Early expensive in automatic operation of the Sandia 17-m vertical axis research wind turbine (VAWT) has demonstrated the need for a systematic study of control algorithms. To this end, a computer model has been developed that uses actual wind time series and turbine performance data to calculate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model has been used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long-term energy production. An attempt has been made to generalize these results from local site and turbine characteristics to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  7. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2012-12-01

    Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible-infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible-infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans.

  8. ACIS Thermal Control and Observing Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams-Wolk, Nancy; Plucinsky, P. P.; Alcroft, T. L.; Germain, G.

    2011-09-01

    Nearing its 13th observing cycle, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory continues to deliver excellent science to the High Energy community. The orbit of Chandra, and thermal conditions of the spacecraft and instruments have changed over time which has necessitated changes in observing strategies; particularly for the ACIS instrument. This poster focuses on expected changes to be implemented in Cycle 13 for observing with the ACIS instrument. We will focus on the thermal issues with ACIS, including warming of the PSMC, DEA, and Focal Plane. We discuss the causes of the warming of these components of ACIS based on past data, and how this warming can affect observations. Trending studies have strongly suggested changes to the future observing strategies for ACIS. We discuss these changes which include reducing the number of CCDs powered on for temperature sensitive observations, implementing an ACIS FP temperature model to predict temperatures, and the use of optional CCDs to reduce the number of CCDs during the planning of a particular week.

  9. ACIS Thermal Control and Observing Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams-Wolk, Nancy; Aldcroft, T.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Germain, G.

    2011-05-01

    Nearing its 13th observing cycle, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory continues to deliver excellent science to the High Energy community. The orbit of Chandra, and thermal conditions of the spacecraft and instruments have changed over time which has necessitated changes in observing strategies; particularly for the ACIS instrument. This poster focuses on expected changes to be implemented in Cycle 13 for observing with the ACIS instrument. We will focus on the thermal issues with ACIS, including warming of the PSMC, DEA, and Focal Plane. We discuss the causes of the warming of these components of ACIS based on past data, and how this warming can affect observations. Trending studies have strongly suggested changes to the future observing strategies for ACIS. We discuss these changes which include reducing the number of CCDs powered on for temperature sensitive observations, implementing an ACIS FP temperature model to predict temperatures based on spacecraft pitch and pointing, and the use of optional CCDs to reduce the number of CCDs during the planning of a particular week.

  10. CHOOSING OPTIMUM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar publication is addressed to managers and supervisors who have some responsibility for their plant's pollution control measures. The information and guidance provided to these decision personnel are drawn from case histories of working plants and include laws, regulat...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1779 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1779... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1779 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1779... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1779 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1779... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard and that the reasonable further progress and...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF INTEGRATED URBAN WET-WEATHER CONTROL STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optimization method for urban wet weather control (WWC) strategies is presented. The developed optimization model can be used to determine the most cost-effective strategies for the combination of centralized storage-release systems and distributed on-site WWC alternatives. T...

  15. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  16. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1576 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52... strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16346), are not met since the plan does not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... accordance with the schedule set forth below. (c)(1) Removal from service of a 12,000 BPD vacuum...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... accordance with the schedule set forth below. (c)(1) Removal from service of a 12,000 BPD vacuum...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... accordance with the schedule set forth below. (c)(1) Removal from service of a 12,000 BPD vacuum...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... accordance with the schedule set forth below. (c)(1) Removal from service of a 12,000 BPD vacuum...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... accordance with the schedule set forth below. (c)(1) Removal from service of a 12,000 BPD vacuum...

  18. A nonlinear strategy for sensor based vehicle path control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method of transverse control which makes use of nonlinear formulations is presented. The strategy is utilized to stabilize a vehicle. The vehicle is autonomously guided and takes its control inputs from an optical sensing system. Additionally, the velocity of the vehicle is dictated by a longitudinal controller, which is also discussed.

  19. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  20. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  5. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.573 Control strategy: General. The generic rules and procedures for emission trades (bubbles), submitted on October 27, 1982, by the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.573 Control strategy: General. The generic rules and procedures for emission trades (bubbles), submitted on October 27, 1982, by the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy: General... Georgia Department of Natural Resources, are disapproved because they do not meet the requirements of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.573 Control strategy: General. The generic rules and procedures for emission trades (bubbles), submitted on October 27, 1982, by the...

  9. Optimal control strategies for coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Esa; Putaja, Antti; Mardoukhi, Yousof

    2013-09-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are ideal candidates for quantum information applications in solid-state technology. However, advanced theoretical and experimental tools are required to coherently control, for example, the electronic charge in these systems. Here we demonstrate how quantum optimal control theory provides a powerful way to manipulate the electronic structure of coupled quantum dots with an extremely high fidelity. As alternative control fields we apply both laser pulses as well as electric gates, respectively. We focus on double and triple quantum dots containing a single electron or two electrons interacting via Coulomb repulsion. In the two-electron situation we also briefly demonstrate the challenges of timedependent density-functional theory within the adiabatic local-density approximation to produce comparable results with the numerically exact approach.

  10. Control strategies and algorithms for large astronomical optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shihai

    2010-07-01

    This paper gives a summary on control strategies and algorithms for contemporary large astronomical optical telescopes. The study lays emphasis on high precision tracking for large astronomical optical telescopes with large inertia, ultra-low speed and multi-disturbance. The control strategies and algorithms of some telescopes based on direct drive or friction drive are analyzed carefully. Finally, the future development in this field is presented.

  11. Control strategies for yellow nutsedge and nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow nutsedge is a perennial weed that is difficult to control in several crops once established. It is particularly problematic in onion production. Yellow nutsedge reproduces and is dispersed primarily by tubers that are formed at the apical ends of underground rhizomes. Tubers may remain viable...

  12. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  13. CHOOSING OPTIMUM FINANCIAL STRATEGIES: POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report alerts decision makers to qualifications for and availability of financial assistance from federal, state and local governments, and illustrates that it is well worth the time to analyze the special methods of financing pollution control expenditures and the available ...

  14. OPTIMAL COST CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ATTACHED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis for alternative programs intended for the control of the nuisance growth of an attached alga (Cladophora). Such analyses require that changes in water quality be quantitatively related to the cost of implementation for specific manageme...

  15. Control Strategies and Social Face in Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjosvold, Dean

    This study explores the effects of controlling influence attempts on social face and constructive conflict resolution. It also investigates the role of social face in how persons respond to evaluations by their peers. A sample of 90 college undergraduates randomly assigned to six conditions. The group's evaluation of the representative's relative…

  16. Synthesis of nonlinear control strategies from fuzzy logic control algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langari, Reza

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy control has been recognized as an alternative to conventional control techniques in situations where the plant model is not sufficiently well known to warrant the application of conventional control techniques. Precisely what fuzzy control does and how it does what it does is not quite clear, however. This important issue is discussed and in particular it is shown how a given fuzzy control scheme can resolve into a nonlinear control law and that in those situations the success of fuzzy control hinges on its ability to compensate for nonlinearities in plant dynamics.

  17. Unique strategies to control reproduction in camels.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, J A; Morton, K M; Billah, M

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive efficiency of camels is low under natural pastural conditions and so the use of artifical insemination and embryo transfer are becoming increasingly important to improve their breeding potential. Methods to control their reproductive cycle are therefore essential. This review describes characteristics of the ovarian follicular wave pattern in camels and exogenous hormonal control of ovulation. It also summarizes the difficulties involved with artifical insemination and analyzing the highly gelatinous semen, and reports on the latest methods used to try and reduce the viscosity and liquefy camel semen. In addition an account is given of different hormonal and physical methods used to synchronise follicular waves, and various hormone treatments used to broaden the availability of ovulated, asynchronous and non-ovulated recipients are discussed. PMID:21755692

  18. Flight penetration of wind shear: Control strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Amit S.

    1988-01-01

    Wind shear is a dangerous condition where there is a sharp change in the direction and magnitude of the wind velocity over a short distance or time. This condition is especially dangerous to aircraft during landing and takeoff and can cause a sudden loss of lift and thereby height at a critical time. A numerical simulation showed the effective performance of the Linear Quadratic Regulator and the Nonlinear Inverse Dynamics controllers. The major conclusions are listed and discussed.

  19. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method of matched asymptotic expansions was developed where the common part in composite solution is generated as a polynomial in stretched variable instead of actually evaluating the same from the outer solution. This methodology was applied to the solution of the exact equations for three dimensional atmospheric entry problems. Compared to previous works, the present simplified methodology yields explicit analytical expressions for various components of the composite solution without resorting to any type of transcendental equations to be solved only by numerical methods. The optimal control problem arising in the noncoplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassist was also addressed.

  20. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, Desineni S.; Hibey, Joseph L.

    1988-01-01

    The optimal control problem arising in coplanar, orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology is addressed. The maneuver involves the transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit. A performance index is chosen the minimize the fuel consumpltion for the transfer. Simulations are carried out for establishing a corridor of entry conditions which are suitable for flying the spacecraft through the atmosphere. A highlight of the paper is the application of an efficient multiple shooting method for taming the notorious nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem resulting from optimization procedure.

  1. Attention, intention, and strategy in preparatory control

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Hannes; Braver, Todd; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying different forms of preparatory control were examined using event-related fMRI. Preparatory brain activation was monitored in relation to different types of advance information: (1) random task cues indicating which of two possible tasks to perform upon subsequent target presentation, (2) task-ambiguous target stimuli, or 3) targets for which the correct response could be pre-determined. Three types of activation pattern were observed in different brain regions. First, more posterior regions of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and parietal cortex were activated by both advance task cues and advance targets, but with increased and more sustained activation for the latter. Second, more anterior regions of LPFC and parietal cortex were selectively activated by advance targets. Importantly, in these regions preparatory activation was not further modulated by the availability of advance response information. In contrast, preparatory activation in a third set of brain regions, including medial frontal cortex, reflected the utilization of advance response information, but by only a subset of participants. These results suggest three types of preparatory control: attentional (stimulus-oriented), intentional (action-oriented), and a possibly strategic component that might determine inter-individual differences in response readiness. Notably, the absence of regions selectively or even preferentially activated during cue-based preparation argues against certain conceptualizations of task-selective attention under cued task switching conditions. PMID:19397862

  2. Topographical strategies to control neural outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Roccasalvo, I Morana; Sergi, P N; Tonazzini, I; Cecchini, M; Micera, S

    2015-08-01

    In this work a synergistic approach is used to investigate how directional anisotropic surfaces (i.e., nanogratings) control the alignment of PC12 neurites. Finite Element models were used to assess the distribution of stresses in non-spread growth cones and filopodia. The stress field was assumed to be the main triggering cause fostering the increase and stabilization of filopodia, so the local stress maxima were directly related to the neuritic orientation. Moreover, a computational framework was implemented within an open source Java environment (CX3D), and in silico simulations were carried out to reproduce and predict biological experiments. No significant differences were found between biological experiments and in silico simulations (alignment angle, p = 0.4685; tortuosity, p = 0.9075) with a standard level of confidence (95%). PMID:26737940

  3. Control strategy for cooperating disparate manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jae Young

    1989-01-01

    To manipulate large payloads typical of space construction, the concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm is introduced. The main purposes of such a configuration are to increase the structural stiffness of the robot by bracing against or locking to a stationary frame, and to maintain a firm position constraint between the robot's base and workpieces by grasping them. Possible topologies for a combination of disparate large and small arms are discussed, and kinematics, dynamics, controls, and coordination of the two arms, especially when they brace at the tip of the small arm, are developed. The feasibility and improvement in performance are verified, not only with analytical work and simulation results but also with experiments on the existing arrangement Robotic Arm Large and Flexible and Small Articulated Manipulator.

  4. IMPACT OF POINT SOURCE CONTROL STRATEGIES ON NO2 LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives final results of a study of the effect of two point source NOx control strategies in the Chicago Air Quality Control Region (AQCR): combustion modification and flue gas treatment. The study involved the dispersion modeling of essentially all point and area source...

  5. Practical control strategy eliminates FCCU compressor surge problems

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, M.C.M.M.; Rodriques, P.S.B. )

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that the control system originally designed for the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) compressor at Petroleo Brasileiro SA's (Petrobras) Presidente Bernardes refinery, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, was inadequate. The system required almost permanent flow recirculation to prevent surge. An improved antisurge control strategy was implemented in mid-1990. Since then, the unit has operated without the former surge problems.

  6. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  7. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  12. Wetting-controlled strategies: from theories to bio-inspiration.

    PubMed

    Song, Cheng; Zheng, Yongmei

    2014-08-01

    Creatures have evolved the unique wetting-controlled strategies on their surfaces to collect water for the sake of survival, such as Beetle back, spider silk and plant leaf as well, which inspires us to open the area of novel researches. In this feature article, we review the theoretical basis of wetting-controlling regarding of wettability and highlight the biological wetting-controlled strategies in water transport, and water collection, and also introduce some bio-inspired materials with water collection properties. It is significant to design the novel materials that would be used in the fields of responsive, smart catalysis, filtration and sensing besides water collection. PMID:24290249

  13. Coordinated train control and energy management control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.P.; Lehrer, D.G.

    1998-05-01

    The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, in collaboration with Hughes Aircraft Company and Harmon Industries, as in the process of developing an Advanced Automatic Train Control (AATC) system to replace the current fixed-block automatic system. In the long run, the AATC system is expected to not only allow for safe short headway operation, but also to facilitate coordinated train control and energy management. This new system will employ spread spectrum radios, installed onboard trains, at wayside locations, and at control stations, to determine train locations and reliably transfer control information. Sandia National Laboratories has worked cooperatively with BART to develop a simulator of the train control and the power consumption of the AATC system. The authors are now in the process of developing enhanced train control algorithms to supplement the safety critical controller in order to smooth out train trajectories through coordinated control of multiple trains, and to reduce energy consumption and power infrastructure requirements. The control algorithms so far considered include (1) reducing peak power consumption to avoid voltage sags, especially during an outage or while clearing a backup, (2) rapid and smooth recovery from a backup, (3) avoiding oscillations due to train interference, (4) limiting needle peaks in power demand at substations to some specified level, (5) coasting, and (6) coordinating train movement, e.g., starts/stops and hills.

  14. Inhibitory control gains from higher-order cognitive strategy training.

    PubMed

    Motes, Michael A; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Rao, Neena K; Maguire, Mandy J; Brier, Matthew R; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control. Middle school students enrolled in a comprehension- and reasoning-focused cognitive strategy training program and passive controls participated. The training program taught students a set of steps for inferring essential gist or themes from materials. Both before and after training or a comparable duration in the case of the passive controls, participants completed a semantically cued Go/No-Go task that was designed to assess the effects of depth of semantic processing on response inhibition and components of event-related potentials (ERP) related to response inhibition. Depth of semantic processing was manipulated by varying the level of semantic categorization required for response selection and inhibition. The SMART-trained group showed inhibitory control gains and changes in fronto-central P3 ERP amplitudes on inhibition trials; whereas, the control group did not. The results provide evidence of the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control and modulation of ERPs associated with semantically cued inhibitory control. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for cognitive strategy training, models of cognitive abilities, and education. PMID:24286804

  15. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    PubMed Central

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  16. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    PubMed

    El-Helw, Hadi M; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  17. Resurgent malaria at the millennium: control strategies in crisis.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    2000-04-01

    Completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 marked the beginning of an era of vector control that achieved conspicuous success against malaria. In 1955 the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the controversial Global Eradication Campaign emphasising DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) spraying in homes. The incidence of malaria fell sharply where the programme was implemented, but the strategy was not applied in holoendemic Africa. This, along with the failure to achieve eradication in larger tropical regions, contributed to disillusionment with the policy. The World Health Assembly abandoned the eradication strategy in 1969. A resurgence of malaria began at about that time and today reaches into areas where eradication or control had been achieved. A global malaria crisis looms. In 1993 the WHO adopted a Global Malaria Control Strategy that placed priority in control of disease rather than infection. This formalises a policy that emphasises diagnosis and treatment in a primary healthcare setting, while de-emphasising spraying of residual insecticides. The new policy explicitly stresses malaria in Africa, but expresses the intent to bring control programmes around the world into line with the strategy. This review raises the argument that a global control strategy conceived to address the extraordinary malaria situation in Africa may not be suitable elsewhere. The basis of argument lies in the accomplishments of the Global Eradication Campaign viewed in an historical and geographical context. Resurgent malaria accompanying declining vector control activities in Asia and the Americas suggests that the abandonment of residual spraying may be premature given the tools now at hand. The inadequacy of vector control as the primary instrument of malaria control in holoendemic Africa does not preclude its utility in Asia and the Americas. PMID:10804031

  18. Optimal control strategy for abnormal innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jinying; Zou, Xiufen

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune response plays an important role in control and clearance of pathogens following viral infection. However, in the majority of virus-infected individuals, the response is insufficient because viruses are known to use different evasion strategies to escape immune response. In this study, we use optimal control theory to investigate how to control the innate immune response. We present an optimal control model based on an ordinary-differential-equation system from a previous study, which investigated the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways, and we prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem involving antiviral treatment or/and interferon therapy. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the treatment effects of different control strategies through varying the cost function and control efficiency. The results show that a separate treatment, that is, only inhibiting viral replication (u1(t)) or enhancing interferon activity (u2(t)), has more advantages for controlling viral infection than a mixed treatment, that is, controlling both (u1(t)) and (u2(t)) simultaneously, including the smallest cost and operability. These findings would provide new insight for developing effective strategies for treatment of viral infectious diseases. PMID:25949271

  19. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  20. Optimal charge control strategies for stationary photovoltaic battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiahao; Danzer, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    Battery systems coupled to photovoltaic (PV) modules for example fulfill one major function: they locally decouple PV generation and consumption of electrical power leading to two major effects. First, they reduce the grid load, especially at peak times and therewith reduce the necessity of a network expansion. And second, they increase the self-consumption in households and therewith help to reduce energy expenses. For the management of PV batteries charge control strategies need to be developed to reach the goals of both the distribution system operators and the local power producer. In this work optimal control strategies regarding various optimization goals are developed on the basis of the predicted household loads and PV generation profiles using the method of dynamic programming. The resulting charge curves are compared and essential differences discussed. Finally, a multi-objective optimization shows that charge control strategies can be derived that take all optimization goals into account.

  1. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  2. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-01-01

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  3. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  4. Modelling the control strategies against dengue in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    BURATTINI, M. N.; CHEN, M.; CHOW, A.; COUTINHO, F. A. B.; GOH, K. T.; LOPEZ, L. F.; MA, S.; MASSAD, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Notified cases of dengue infections in Singapore reached historical highs in 2004 (9459 cases) and 2005 (13 817 cases) and the reason for such an increase is still to be established. We apply a mathematical model for dengue infection that takes into account the seasonal variation in incidence, characteristic of dengue fever, and which mimics the 2004–2005 epidemics in Singapore. We simulated a set of possible control strategies and confirmed the intuitive belief that killing adult mosquitoes is the most effective strategy to control an ongoing epidemic. On the other hand, the control of immature forms was very efficient in preventing the resurgence of dengue epidemics. Since the control of immature forms allows the reduction of adulticide, it seems that the best strategy is to combine both adulticide and larvicide control measures during an outbreak, followed by the maintenance of larvicide methods after the epidemic has subsided. In addition, the model showed that the mixed strategy of adulticide and larvicide methods introduced by the government seems to be very effective in reducing the number of cases in the first weeks after the start of control. PMID:17540051

  5. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Vanja; Mangwiro, T. N. Clement; Vale, Glyn A.; Hastings, Ian; Solano, Philippe; Lehane, Michael J.; Torr, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT) outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT. Methods and Findings The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2). In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings. Interpretation The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment), covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures). One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised. PMID:26267814

  6. Estimating costs of sea lice control strategy in Norway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Bjelland, Hans Vanhauwaer

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the costs of sea lice control strategies associated with salmon aquaculture at a farm level in Norway. Diseases can cause reduction in growth, low feed efficiency and market prices, increasing mortality rates, and expenditures on prevention and treatment measures. Aquaculture farms suffer the most direct and immediate economic losses from diseases. The goal of a control strategy is to minimize the total disease costs, including biological losses, and treatment costs while to maximize overall profit. Prevention and control strategies are required to eliminate or minimize the disease, while cost-effective disease control strategies at the fish farm level are designed to reduce the losses, and to enhance productivity and profitability. Thus, the goal can be achieved by integrating models of fish growth, sea lice dynamics and economic factors. A production function is first constructed to incorporate the effects of sea lice on production at a farm level, followed by a detailed cost analysis of several prevention and treatment strategies associated with sea lice in Norway. The results reveal that treatments are costly and treatment costs are very sensitive to treatment types used and timing of the treatment conducted. Applying treatment at an early growth stage is more economical than at a later stage. PMID:25443395

  7. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  8. Two-DOF precision platform for spacecraft thrust vector control: control strategies and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents control strategies and simulations of a two-DOF precision platform as an adaptive thruster mount structure with precision positioning and active vibration suppression capabilities for thrust vector control of space satellites. First, the configuration of the two-DOF precision platform is introduced, which is an intelligent tripod with two in-plane rotational degrees of freedom for the top device-plate. Precision positioning of this platform is achieved using active members that extend or contract to tilt the top device-plate where the thruster is mounted. Kinematic analysis of the platform is then presented and followed by two control strategies; namely local control strategy and global control strategy. In the local control strategy, the motion of each active member is controlled locally according to the kinematical feature of the platform and the local sensor information to achieve the desired tilt of the top device-plate. In the global control strategy, the motion of each active member is adjusted according to the system level information from a tilt sensor. Fuzzy logic control is employed and the two control strategies are simulated and compared.

  9. THE CHOICE OF REAL-TIME CONTROL STRATEGY FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper focuses on the strategies used to operate a collection system in real-time control (RTC) in order to optimize use of system capacity and to reduce the cost of long-term combined sewer overflow (CSO) control. Three RTC strategies were developed and analyzed based on the...

  10. Control strategies for underactuated neural ensembles driven by optogenetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ching, ShiNung; Ritt, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by experiments employing optogenetic stimulation of cortical regions, we consider spike control strategies for ensembles of uncoupled integrate and fire neurons with a common conductance input. We construct strategies for control of spike patterns, that is, multineuron trains of action potentials, up to some maximal spike rate determined by the neural biophysics. We emphasize a constructive role for parameter heterogeneity, and find a simple rule for controllability in pairs of neurons. In particular, we determine parameters for which common drive is not limited to inducing synchronous spiking. For large ensembles, we determine how the number of controllable neurons varies with the number of observed (recorded) neurons, and what collateral spiking occurs in the full ensemble during control of the subensemble. While complete control of spiking in every neuron is not possible with a single input, we find that a degree of subensemble control is made possible by exploiting dynamical heterogeneity. As most available technologies for neural stimulation are underactuated, in the sense that the number of target neurons far exceeds the number of independent channels of stimulation, these results suggest partial control strategies that may be important in the development of sensory neuroprosthetics and other neurocontrol applications. PMID:23576956

  11. Control strategy for a dual-arm maneuverable space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1987-01-01

    A simple strategy for the attitude control and arm coordination of a maneuverable space robot with dual arms is proposed. The basic task for the robot consists of the placement of marked rigid solid objects with specified pairs of gripping points and a specified direction of approach for gripping. The strategy consists of three phases each of which involves only elementary rotational and translational collision-free maneuvers of the robot body. Control laws for these elementary maneuvers are derived by using a body-referenced dynamic model of the dual-arm robot.

  12. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  13. Active control strategy on a catenary-pantograph validated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Rebollo, C.; Jimenez-Octavio, J. R.; Carnicero, A.

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic simulation methods have become essential in the design process and control of the catenary-pantograph system, overall since high-speed trains and interoperability criteria are getting very trendy. This paper presents an original hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) strategy aimed at integrating a multicriteria active control within the catenary-pantograph dynamic interaction. The relevance of HIL control systems applied in the frame of the pantograph is undoubtedly increasing due to the recent and more demanding requirements for high-speed railway systems. Since the loss of contact between the catenary and the pantograph leads to arcing and electrical wear, and too high contact forces cause mechanical wear of both the catenary wires and the strips of the pantograph, not only prescribed but also economic and performance criteria ratify such a relevance. Different configurations of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller are proposed and applied to two different plant systems. Since this paper is mainly focused on the control strategy, both plant systems are simulation models though the methodology is suitable for a laboratory bench. The strategy of control involves a multicriteria optimisation of the contact force and the consumption of the energy supplied by the control force, a genetic algorithm has been applied for this purpose. Thus, the PID controller is fitted according to these conflicting objectives and tested within a nonlinear lumped model and a nonlinear finite element model, being the last one validated against the European Standard EN 50318. Finally, certain tests have been accomplished in order to analyse the robustness of the control strategy. Particularly, the relevance or the plant simulation, the running speed and the instrumentation time delay are studied in this paper.

  14. Control strategies used in the control software for the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Wang, Yan-Yu; Pan, Liang-Ming; Tu, Sheng-Pan

    2016-07-01

    Automation control systems are important for the operation of an accelerator. To ensure the reliable, stable and flexible operation of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), several control systems are developed. The developed control systems are the SECRAL control system, the LECR3 control system, the LAPECR1 control system and the Electro-Static septum control system. The corresponding control software systems are developed using Visual C++. To ensure the accuracy, stability and flexibility of the control systems, some special control strategies are developed in the control software systems. This paper provides a detailed description of the main control strategies used in the control software systems. The main control strategies are composed of a reliable communication mechanism, a correct data/command transmission mechanism, an efficient data storage mechanism and an interlock protection mechanism. To guarantee a reliable communication between the devices for the commercially purchased devices and the built in-house ones, a modified heartbeat method is developed. To provide flexible reconstitution function for the control systems, the command queue and the state machine are combined. The message mechanism and the multiple windows mechanism are also used for the module mechanism. The relevant control systems are introduced as examples of these control strategies. These systems have been running stably for several years.

  15. Self-control of epileptic seizures by nonpharmacological strategies.

    PubMed

    Kotwas, Iliana; McGonigal, Aileen; Trebuchon, Agnès; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille; Nagai, Yoko; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Despite the unpredictability of epileptic seizures, many patients report that they can anticipate seizure occurrence. Using certain alert symptoms (i.e., auras, prodromes, precipitant factors), patients can adopt behaviors to avoid injury during and after the seizure or may implement spontaneous cognitive and emotional strategies to try to control the seizure itself. From the patient's view point, potential means of enhancing seizure prediction and developing seizure control supports are seen as very important issues, especially when the epilepsy is drug-resistant. In this review, we first describe how some patients anticipate their seizures and whether this is effective in terms of seizure prediction. Secondly, we examine how these anticipatory elements might help patients to prevent or control their seizures and how the patient's neuropsychological profile, specifically parameters of perceived self-control (PSC) and locus of control (LOC), might impact these strategies and quality of life (QOL). Thirdly, we review the external supports that can help patients to better predict seizures. Finally, we look at nonpharmacological means of increasing perceived self-control and achieving potential reduction of seizure frequency (i.e., stress-based and arousal-based strategies). In the past few years, various approaches for detection and control of seizures have gained greater interest, but more research is needed to confirm a positive effect on seizure frequency as well as on QOL. PMID:26780213

  16. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning CommercialBuilding Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-05-01

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak pricing (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a new electricity tariff design to promote demand response. This paper begins with a brief review of terminology regarding energy management and demand response, followed by a discussion of DR control strategies and a preliminary overview of a forthcoming guide on DR strategies. The final section discusses experience to date with these strategies, followed by a discussion of the peak electric demand savings from the 2005 Automated CPP program. An important concept identified in the automated DR field tests is that automated DR will be most successful if the building commissioning industry improves the operational effectiveness of building controls. Critical peak pricing and even real time pricing are important trends in electricity pricing that will require new functional tests for building commissioning.

  17. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    PubMed

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies. PMID:25583867

  18. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oxides. On October 22, 1990, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a revision to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52.65 Section 52.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1342 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1342...: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of June 9, 2011, that the St. Louis...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1342 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1342...: Ozone. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of June 9, 2011, that the St. Louis...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.1885, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.1885, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1342 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1342...: Ozone. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of June 9, 2011, that the St. Louis...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1342 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1342...: Ozone. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of June 9, 2011, that the St. Louis...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  10. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has determined the Baton Rouge 1-hour ozone nonattainment area has attained the 1-hour ozone National Ambient Air...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.1885, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...

  12. SMOG CHAMBER EXPERIMENTS TO TEST OXIDANT RELATED CONTROL STRATEGY ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor smog chamber experiments were performed to address various issues relating to ozone (O3) production and oxidant control strategies. Temperature effects on single hydrocarbon-NOx systems were studied. Propylene-NOx systems were modeled with particular attention to peroxyni...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... area has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  15. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  16. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  18. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  1. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  2. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  3. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  4. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfies the criteria for listing under CWA section 304(l) and 40 CFR 130.10(d)(6). (e) If the Regional... CFR part 122, including § 122.44(d). At any time after the Regional Administrator disapproves an ICS... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Transfer of Information and Permit Review § 123.46 Individual control strategies....

  5. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... State demonstrates by December 31, 1981, through air quality modeling, attainment of the 24-hour and... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  6. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... State demonstrates by December 31, 1981, through air quality modeling, attainment of the 24-hour and... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... State demonstrates by December 31, 1981, through air quality modeling, attainment of the 24-hour and... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... State demonstrates by December 31, 1981, through air quality modeling, attainment of the 24-hour and... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State demonstrates by December 31, 1981, through air quality modeling, attainment of the 24-hour and... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  10. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section 52.930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... year 2012. (l) Disapproval. EPA is disapproving in part, the Commonwealth of Kentucky's...

  11. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section 52.930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... year 2012. (l) Disapproval. EPA is disapproving in part, the Commonwealth of Kentucky's...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129 Section 52.1129 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1129...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129 Section 52.1129 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1129...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and attainment... ozone standard. Under the provisions of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  17. EVALUATION OF FLEXIBLE AND INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR OZONE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Task provides the scientific understanding, evidence and tools needed by the Agency and States to evaluate the feasibility of using a reactivity-based control strategy for VOCs, based on the potential ozone and PM formation characteristics of individual VOCs. The research d...

  18. Adaptive Insecure Attachment and Resource Control Strategies during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…

  19. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  11. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... satisfies the criteria for listing under CWA section 304(l) and 40 CFR 130.10(d)(6). (e) If the Regional... CFR part 122, including § 122.44(d). At any time after the Regional Administrator disapproves an ICS... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Individual control strategies....

  12. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... satisfies the criteria for listing under CWA section 304(l) and 40 CFR 130.10(d)(6). (e) If the Regional... CFR part 122, including § 122.44(d). At any time after the Regional Administrator disapproves an ICS... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individual control strategies....

  13. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... satisfies the criteria for listing under CWA section 304(l) and 40 CFR 130.10(d)(6). (e) If the Regional... CFR part 122, including § 122.44(d). At any time after the Regional Administrator disapproves an ICS... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individual control strategies....

  14. Developing a Scale on the Usage of Learner Control Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlu, M. Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert-like scale in order to measure teachers' usage level of learner control strategy. This study was carried out with 219 State primary school teachers who were class teachers, Turkish teachers, English teachers, Mathematics teachers, Science teachers, Social Sciences teachers, Religion and Moral teachers…

  15. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did....04B (1) and (2) would not interfere with the attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  6. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan (SIP) codified at 40 CFR 52.1870(c)(128) is satisfied by Ohio's November 26, 2003, submittal of the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  9. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...'s ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further.... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377...

  10. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the State to provide for the establishment and maintenance of... area has attaining data for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582...

  11. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the State to provide for the establishment and maintenance of... area has attaining data for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582...

  12. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the State to provide for the establishment and maintenance of... area has attaining data for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone....

  16. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., into the Georgia State Implementation Plan. This submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the... data for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582...

  17. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxides. On October 22, 1990, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a revision to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52.65 Section 52.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  18. Managing Work and Family: Do Control Strategies Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2015-01-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping…

  19. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... satisfies the criteria for listing under CWA section 304(l) and 40 CFR 130.10(d)(6). (e) If the Regional... CFR part 122, including § 122.44(d). At any time after the Regional Administrator disapproves an ICS... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual control strategies....

  20. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  1. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  2. THE EFFECTS OF PARAMAGNETIC RELAXATION REAGENTS ON 15N SPIN RELAXATION AND THE USE OF GD(DPM)3 AS A NITROGEN-15 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPIN LABEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron-nuclear relaxation times (T(1) sup e's) for (15)N and (13)C in natural abundance are measured for a series of amines of a wide range of pK(a)s using four paramagnetic relaxation reagents that are soluable in organic solutions. Cr(acac)3 and Cr(dpm)3 are seen to affect th...

  3. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  4. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  5. Cadmium: Simulation of environmental control strategies to reduce exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, K. J.; Miles, L. J.; Greenkorn, R. A.

    1981-07-01

    The effects of selected environmental control strategies on human dietary and respiratory exposure to environmental cadmium (Cd) have been simulated. For each control strategy, mean Cd dietary and respiratory exposures are presented for a twenty-year simulation period. Human exposures related to cadmium are associated with both process waste disposal and product disposal. Dietary exposure is by far the dominant mechanism for Cd intake. Dietary exposure related to aqueous discharges is primarily a result of municipal sludge landspreading, whereas that associated with emissions to the atmosphere derives mainly from the deposition on cropland of airborne particulates from product incineration. Only relatively small dietary exposure reductions are possible through restrictions on any single Cd use. Combinations of waste management and environmental control measures promise greater reductions in dietary and respiratory exposure than those achievable through use restrictions.

  6. [Acceptance of alternative disease control strategies in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Nigsch, Annette; Depner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission intends to change its animal disease control strategy following the slogan "Prevention is better than cure". Vaccination and diagnostics should play a major role in emergency situations. A policy paper regarding the use of vaccines has been discussed with all Member States and the main aspects were evaluated in a questionnaire. In principle, the majority of Member States are in favour of a future strategy in which vaccination is replacing culling. However, questions regarding the pathogen freedom and the trade of vaccinated animals and animal products from vaccinated animals still remain open. PMID:22372318

  7. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research. PMID:25256398

  8. A new weed control strategy in onion culture.

    PubMed

    Thieron, M; Kerres, W; Schäffer, A

    2007-01-01

    A new strategy combining modem hoeing technique and spray application has been developed in order to reduce the amount of herbicides down to 20% compared to common practice. The effects on weed control have been investigated as well as the impact on qualitative and quantitative harvest. In two large scale field trials and two years of testing the authors evaluated different hoeing techniques combined with band spray application and standard spray application, the minimal lethal herbicide dose method (MLHD). All varieties have been calculated for environmental impact as well as practical and economical means. These studies reveal crop losses due to improper weed control as well as losses due to herbicide stress. Detailed information on concentration depending impact of several herbicides have been correlated to their control of different weeds and the achieved yield. Two contrary effects influencing the total yield have been identified. The novel strategy is based on the knowledge of these complex effects which finally led to a well practicable and highly economic strategy that enables onion farmers to control weeds while reducing the amounts of herbicides down to approximately 20%. PMID:18399447

  9. Optimal management strategies in variable environments: Stochastic optimal control methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic optimization was used to investigate the optimal defoliation of salt desert shrubs in north-western Utah. Management was formulated in the context of optimal stochastic control theory, with objective functions composed of discounted or time-averaged biomass yields. Climatic variability and community patterns of salt desert shrublands make the application of stochastic optimal control both feasible and necessary. A primary production model was used to simulate shrub responses and harvest yields under a variety of climatic regimes and defoliation patterns. The simulation results then were used in an optimization model to determine optimal defoliation strategies. The latter model encodes an algorithm for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Three questions were addressed: (i) What effect do changes in weather patterns have on optimal management strategies? (ii) What effect does the discounting of future returns have? (iii) How do the optimal strategies perform relative to certain fixed defoliation strategies? An analysis was performed for the three shrub species, winterfat (Ceratoides lanata), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). In general, the results indicate substantial differences among species in optimal control strategies, which are associated with differences in physiological and morphological characteristics. Optimal policies for big sagebrush varied less with variation in climate, reserve levels and discount rates than did either shadscale or winterfat. This was attributed primarily to the overwintering of photosynthetically active tissue and to metabolic activity early in the growing season. Optimal defoliation of shadscale and winterfat generally was more responsive to differences in plant vigor and climate, reflecting the sensitivity of these species to utilization and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves. Similarities could be seen in the influence of both

  10. Selecting alternative strategies for community health education in guineaworm control.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Ramakrishna, J; Akpovi, S U; Adeniyi, J D

    1984-01-01

    Community health education strategies in guineaworm control can be applied at several intervention levels. Community development mobilizes local resources to provide safe water supplies such as wells. Mass education in schools and communities can teach personal protection measures such as filtering water. Training of volunteer community health workers produces front line staff, who by being culturally in tune with the community can demonstrate and promote the use of appropriate prevention and treatment measures. Advocacy assists community members to express their needs to government and ministry decision makers. All of these strategies have been applied in a community health education/primary health care program in Idere, Ibarapa District, Oyo State. Community development for well construction was found to be a long-term strategy that first must overcome problems of village organization and resource location. Mass education, to be effective, must have a simple and acceptable technology to promote. Trained village health workers must overcome traditional beliefs that inhibit use of preventive and treatment measures. Advocacy requires basic political education of community leaders. A variety of health education strategies is needed to address short- and long-term priorities as well as to overcome the different barriers to guineaworm control. PMID:20841266

  11. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  12. Dynamic and kinematic strategies for head movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. W.; Choi, H.; Hain, T.; Keshner, E.; Peng, G. C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes our analysis of the complex head-neck system using a combination of experimental and modeling approaches. Dynamical analysis of head movements and EMG activation elicited by perturbation of trunk position has examined functional contributions of biomechanically and neurally generated forces in lumped systems with greatly simplified kinematics. This has revealed that visual and voluntary control of neck muscles and the dynamic and static vestibulocollic and cervicocollic reflexes preferentially govern head-neck system state in different frequency domains. It also documents redundant control, which allows the system to compensate for lesions and creates a potential for substantial variability within and between subjects. Kinematic studies have indicated the existence of reciprocal and co-contraction strategies for voluntary force generation, of a vestibulocollic strategy for stabilizing the head during body perturbations and of at least two strategies for voluntary head tracking. Each strategy appears to be executed by a specific muscle synergy that is presumably optimized to efficiently meet the demands of the task.

  13. An active control strategy for achieving weak radiator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, K. . Acoustics and Radar Technology Lab.); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration)

    1994-01-01

    A general control strategy is presented for active suppression of total radiated sound power from harmonically excited structures based on the measurement of their response. Using the measured response of the structure together with knowledge of its structural mobility, and equivalent primary excitation force is found at discrete points along the structure. Using this equivalent primary force and performing a quadratic optimization of the power radiated form the structure, a set of control forces is found at selected points on the structure that results in minimum radiated sound power. A numerical example of this strategy is presented for a simply supported beam in a rigid baffle excited by a harmonic plane wave incident at an oblique angle. A comparison of the response of the beam with and without control forces shows a large reduction in the controlled response displacement magnitude. In addition, as the result of the action of the control forces, the magnitude of the wave number spectrum of the beam's response in the supersonic region is decreased substantially. The effect of the number and location of the actuators on reductions in sound power level is also studied. The actuators located at the anti-nodes of structural modes within the supersonic region together with those located near boundaries are found to be the most effective in controlling the radiation of sound from a structure.

  14. Extreme value analysis for evaluating ozone control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Brian; Cooley, Daniel; Foley, Kristen; Napelenok, Sergey; Shaby, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of six criteria pollutants regulated by the US EPA, and has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular endpoints and adverse effects on vegetation and ecosystems. Regional photochemical models have been developed to study the impacts of emission reductions on ozone levels. The standard approach is to run the deterministic model under new emission levels and attribute the change in ozone concentration to the emission control strategy. However, running the deterministic model requires substantial computing time, and this approach does not provide a measure of uncertainty for the change in ozone levels. Recently, a reduced form model (RFM) has been proposed to approximate the complex model as a simple function of a few relevant inputs. In this paper, we develop a new statistical approach to make full use of the RFM to study the effects of various control strategies on the probability and magnitude of extreme ozone events. We fuse the model output with monitoring data to calibrate the RFM by modeling the conditional distribution of monitoring data given the RFM using a combination of flexible semiparametric quantile regression for the center of the distribution where data are abundant and a parametric extreme value distribution for the tail where data are sparse. Selected parameters in the conditional distribution are allowed to vary by the RFM value and the spatial location. Also, due to the simplicity of the RFM, we are able to embed the RFM in our Bayesian hierarchical framework to obtain a full posterior for the model input parameters, and propagate this uncertainty to the estimation of the effects of the control strategies. We use the new framework to evaluate three potential control strategies, and find that reducing mobile-source emissions has a larger impact than reducing point-source emissions or a combination of several emission sources. PMID:24587842

  15. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others. PMID:21794185

  16. Turkey industry strategies for control of respiratory and enteric diseases.

    PubMed

    Poss, P E

    1998-08-01

    Current strategies to control respiratory and enteric diseases of turkeys involve sanitation and biosecurity practices to prevent the introduction of infectious agents. In addition, proper husbandry and management practice reduce stress and help maintain a competent immune system. Industry-wide monitoring programs are used in conjunction with isolation, depopulation, and orderly marketing to eliminate pathogens that cause serious economic loss. Vaccines are available and utilized against some pathogens. Effective drug treatment is available and used for some diseases but is most commonly used to control secondary disease losses when treatment is not available for the primary disease. PMID:9706086

  17. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  18. Designing new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Ding, Hong-ming; Ren, Chun-lai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Orientation controllable DNA biosensors hold great application potentials in recognizing small molecules and detecting DNA hybridization. Though electric field is usually used to control the orientation of DNA molecules, it is also of great importance and significance to seek for other triggered methods to control the DNA orientation. Here, we design a new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors. The main idea is to copolymerize DNA molecules with responsive polymers that can show swelling/deswelling transitions due to the change of external stimuli, and then graft the copolymers onto an uncharged substrate. In order to highlight the responsive characteristic, we take thermo-responsive polymers as an example, and reveal multi-responsive behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism of the DNA orientation by combining dissipative particle dynamics simulation and molecular theory. Since swelling/deswelling transitions can be also realized by using other stimuli-responsive (like pH and light) polymers, the present strategy is universal, which can enrich the methods of controlling DNA orientation and may assist with the design of the next generation of biosensors. PMID:26400770

  19. Designing new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chao; Ding, Hong-ming; Ren, Chun-lai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Orientation controllable DNA biosensors hold great application potentials in recognizing small molecules and detecting DNA hybridization. Though electric field is usually used to control the orientation of DNA molecules, it is also of great importance and significance to seek for other triggered methods to control the DNA orientation. Here, we design a new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors. The main idea is to copolymerize DNA molecules with responsive polymers that can show swelling/deswelling transitions due to the change of external stimuli, and then graft the copolymers onto an uncharged substrate. In order to highlight the responsive characteristic, we take thermo-responsive polymers as an example, and reveal multi-responsive behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism of the DNA orientation by combining dissipative particle dynamics simulation and molecular theory. Since swelling/deswelling transitions can be also realized by using other stimuli-responsive (like pH and light) polymers, the present strategy is universal, which can enrich the methods of controlling DNA orientation and may assist with the design of the next generation of biosensors. PMID:26400770

  20. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Methods Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Results Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi‘s sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Conclusion Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore

  1. 76 FR 45864 - Shannon L. Gallentine, D.P.M.; Denial of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... 303. See Anthony D. Funches, 64 FR 14267, 14268 (1999); Alan R. Schankman, 63 FR 45260 (1998); Kuen H... the granting of an application is consistent with the public interest. See Peter H. Ahles, 71 FR 50097... prescribed controlled substances to six patients (M.P., H.G., D.C., P.P., K.B., N.B.), ``without a...

  2. Strategies of thought control in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Amir, N; Cashman, L; Foa, E B

    1997-08-01

    Intrusive anxiety-provoking thoughts are a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent research suggests that individuals use five different techniques of thought control including: distraction, punishment, re-appraisal, social control, and worry. The purpose of the present study was to examine the strategies of thought control used by OCD patients compared to those used by non-anxious controls. In addition, the relationship of method of thought control and domains of OCD-related psychopathology were investigated. Results revealed that OCD patients used punishment, worry, reappraisal, and social control more often than non-patients. Conversely, distraction was used more often by non-patients than OCDs. Interestingly, punishment was the strongest discriminator of OCDs and non-patients mostly because of the low frequency of its use by non-patients. Furthermore, punishment and worry were the only methods of thought control that correlated with OCD symptomatology. These results suggest that OCD patients may use maladaptive methods of thought control when faced with obsessions. PMID:9256520

  3. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further. PMID:23206287

  4. Control Strategies for Accurate Force Generation and Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics and motor strategies for force generation and force relaxation were examined using graded tasks during isometric force control. Ten female college students (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 1.1) were instructed to accurately control the force of isometric elbow flexion using their right arm to match a target force level as quickly as possible. They performed: (1) a generation task, wherein they increased their force from 0% maximum voluntary force to 20% maximum voluntary force (0%-20%), 40% maximum voluntary force (0%-40%), or 60% maximum voluntary force (0%-60%) and (2) and a relaxation task, in which they decreased their force from 60% maximum voluntary force to 40% maximum voluntary force (60%-40%), 20% maximum voluntary force (60%-20%), or to 0% maximum voluntary force (60%-0%). Produced force parameters of point of accuracy (force level, error), quickness (reaction time, adjustment time, rate of force development), and strategy (force wave, rate of force development) were analyzed. Errors of force relaxation were all greater, and reaction times shorter, than those of force generation. Adjustment time depended on the magnitude of force and peak rates of force development and force relaxation differed. Controlled relaxation of force is more difficult with low magnitude of force control. PMID:27555365

  5. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family. PMID:26322486

  6. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  7. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  8. Strategies to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry products.

    PubMed

    White, P L; Baker, A R; James, W O

    1997-08-01

    Foodborne illness is a major public health concern. The largest number of foodborne illness cases attributed to poultry and poultry products are caused by paratyphoid serotypes of Salmonella and by Campylobacter jejuni. The effective prevention of foodborne disease requires an understanding that contamination can be introduced into foods at numerous points along the food chain. Since multiple entry points exist for foodborne pathogens, multifaceted intervention approaches are required to successfully control contamination of poultry during the various phases of the growth period and processing procedure of broiler chickens. Strategies during the grow-out period (the period during which day-old chicks are raised to six- to seven-week-old broiler chickens) include sanitation, biosecurity, vaccine and drug therapy, and biological control procedures, such as those aimed at preventing colonisation. There are also many critical control points identified in the processing plant which reduce contamination. These include temperature controls (washer and product), chemical interventions, water replacements and counter-flow technology in the scalder and chiller, and equipment maintenance. Transportation and food handling at retail outlets and by the consumer (i.e., storage at the proper temperature and adequate cooking) are the final critical control points in the farm-to-table continuum. It is important to apply risk reduction strategies throughout the food chain. These include: easing the development and implementation of voluntary animal production 'best management practices', implementing in-plant hazard analysis and critical control point systems, developing effective transportation and refrigeration standards, working to facilitate adoption of the model Food Code in all States and providing educational materials and support for public health activities nationwide. PMID:9501366

  9. Advanced control strategy for plant heat rate improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.; Frerichs, D.K.; Kyr, D.

    1995-12-31

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) supplies electricity to about half of the population of Florida, roughly 6.5 million people. The load base is largely residential/business with the obvious seasonal extremes due to the climate. FPL`s generating capacity is 16,320 MW composed of 70% traditional fossil cycle, 18% nuclear, and 12% gas turbine. The system load profile coupled with bulk power purchases is such that the 400 MW class units (9 Foster Wheeler drum type units comprising 24% of total capacity) are now forced to cycle daily all year, and to come off line on weekends during the winter months. The current economic realities of power generation force utility companies to seek methods to improve plant heat rate, and FPL is no exception. FPL believed it possible to achieve the goal of lower heat rate and follow the required load demand with the 400 MW class units through the use of an advanced control strategy implemented totally within the unit`s Distributed Control System (DCS). As of the writing of this paper, the project is still ongoing. This paper will present the theory and methodology of the advanced control strategy along with the current design and implementation status and results obtained to date.

  10. Identifying main drivers and testing control strategies for CCHFV spread.

    PubMed

    Hoch, T; Breton, E; Josse, M; Deniz, A; Guven, E; Vatansever, Z

    2016-03-01

    Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an emerging zoonotic disease. The causative agent is a virus (CCHFV), mainly transmitted by ticks of the species Hyalomma marginatum in Eastern Europe and Turkey. In order to test potential scenarios for the control of pathogen spread, the basic reproduction number (R0) for CCHF was calculated. This calculation was based on a population dynamics model and parameter values from the literature for pathogen transmission. The tick population dynamics model takes into account the major processes involved and gives estimates for tick survival from one stage to the other and number of feeding ticks. It also considers the influence of abiotic (meteorological variables) and biotic factors (host densities) on model outputs, which were compared with data collected in Central Anatolia (Turkey). R0 computation was thereafter used to test control strategies and especially the effect of acaricide treatment. Simulation results indicate that such treatments could have valuable effects provided that the acaricide is applied regularly throughout the spring and summer, and over several years. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis to abiotic and biotic factors showed that, even though temperature has a strong impact on model outputs, host (mainly hare) densities also play a role. The kind of model we have developed provides insight into the ability of different strategies to prevent and control disease spread and has proved its relevance when associated with field trials. PMID:26174420

  11. Enhancing schistosomiasis control strategy for zimbabwe: building on past experiences.

    PubMed

    Chimbari, Moses J

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata) are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized. PMID:22655171

  12. Speed control of switched reluctance motor using sliding mode control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    John, G.; Eastham, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    A robust speed drive system for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) using sliding mode control strategy (SLMC) is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a SLMC based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is implemented using a micro-controller and a high resolution position sensor. The parameter insensitive characteristics are demonstrated through computer simulations and experimental verification.

  13. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Effects of MERV 16 filters and routine work practices on enclosed cabs for reducing respirable dust and DPM exposures in an underground limestone mine

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.D.; Cecala, A.B.; J.A.Organiscak; Rider, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    An effective technique to minimize miners’ respirable dust and diesel exposure on mobile mining equipment is to place mine operators in enclosed cabs with designed filtration and pressurization systems. Many factors affect the performance of these enclosed cab systems, and one of the most significant factors is the effectiveness of the filtration system. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-type filters are typically used because they are highly efficient at capturing all types and sizes of particles, including those in the submicron range such as diesel particulate matter (DPM). However, in laboratory tests, minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) 16 filters have proven to be highly efficient for capturing DPM and respirable dust. Also, MERV 16 filters can be less restrictive to cab airflow and less expensive than HEPA filters. To verify their effectiveness in the field, MERV 16 filters were used in the enclosed cab filtration system on a face drill and roof bolting mining machine and tested at an underground limestone mine. Test results showed that DPM and respirable dust concentrations were reduced by more than 90% when the cabs were properly sealed. However, when the cab door was opened periodically throughout the shift, the reduction efficiency of the MERV 16 filters was reduced to 80% on average. PMID:26236044

  15. Optimizing the mix of strategies for control of vehicular emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lejano, R.P.; Ayala, P.M.; Gonzales, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    A number of strategies for the control of vehicular emissions are being considered by the Philippine government to address Metropolitan Manila`s air quality problem. An analytical tool is needed for optimizing criteria pollutant reductions given the budgetary constraints. The simplest approach is to take costs and pollutant removals to be linear with each strategy`s scale of activity, and this is readily solved as a linear programming problem. Another approach is to use a dynamic system of weights which shift with progressive improvements in pollutant emissions. The two approaches yield somewhat different results, suggesting the sensitivity of the solution to the assumed weights. The study also illustrates the importance of a sound methodology for evaluating priorities given to different air quality goals. One such methodology may involve a polling of expert panels and the public to gain insight into the relative importance given to competing emissions reduction goals. An informal polling of resource agency staff was conducted and discussed in this paper. The authors take the position that proper planning involves tracing intermediate steps to the final outcome and not just focusing on the latter. 17 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  16. A rapid approach to rational water pollution control strategies.

    PubMed

    Economopoulos, A P

    1996-10-01

    The formulation of rational wastewater control strategies is becoming increasingly important in many countries where, exploding urbanization, industrialization and/or tourism, often combined with improved standards of living and better awareness of the environmental problems, are resulting in enlarged pollution problems, but also in the availability of expanding financial resources for environmental protection. However, more often than one tends to believe, lack of planning, or planning with limited understanding of the principles involved, has resulted in solutions that are both expensive and incapable of addressing the key problems.As rigorous planning is extremely resource intensive, and for this reason impractical for most study areas, the development of a much simplified analysis procedure, capable of generating rational, near-optimum, strategies and detailed action programs, is required, if proper environmental management is to be widely practiced.In an effort to achieve the above objectives, a systems analysis approach is selected as the most suitable at rationalizing the allocation of available resources and at producing detailed action programs that promote implementation. In the context of this approach, new, easy to use models have been developed, while others, have been selected, adapted and streamlined in their use. The entire problem analysis and strategy synthesis procedures have thus been simplified and defined to a degree appropriate for widespread use, and the resultant procedure is actively promoted by WHO and UNEP. PMID:24193733

  17. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  18. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  19. A new energy optimizing control strategy for switched reluctance motors

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, P.C.; Nielsen, P.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a new and machine-independent method to minimize the energy consumption of a speed controlled Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM). The control strategy is to vary the duty cycle of the applied dc voltage in order to obtain the desired speed quickly and when operating in steady-state vary the turn-on angle ({alpha}{sub on}) of the phase voltage to minimize the energy consumption. The power flow is measured in the dc-link and used to control the turn-on angle. Simulations carried out on a three-phase 6/4 pole SRM justify the algorithm and the physical implementation in a Siemens SAB 80C517A microcontroller is described. Measurements on two different load systems show it is possible to minimize the energy consumption on-line in a speed controlled Switched Reluctance Motor without losing the dynamic performance. A comparison with an ordinary mode-shift controlled SRM shows more than an 8% increase in overall efficiency for some operation points. The algorithm is fully applicable to other Switched Reluctance Motors at other power levels or with other pole configurations.

  20. A Hierarchical Control Strategy For 2-D Object Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Mark F.; Kuszmaul, Christopher L.; Ramsey, Timothy S.

    1988-02-01

    A control strategy for 2-D object recognition has been implemented on a hardware configuration which includes a Symbolics Lisp Machine (TM) as a front-end processor to a 16,384 processor Connection Machine (TM). The goal of this ongoing research program is to develop an image analysis system as an aid to human image interpretation experts. Our efforts have concentrated on 2-D object recognition in aerial imagery specifically, the detection and identification of aircraft near the Danbury, CT airport. Image processing functions to label and extract image features are implemented on the Connection Machine for robust computation. A model matching function was also designed and implemented on the CM for object recognition. In this paper we report on the integration of these algorithms on the CM, with a hierarchical control strategy to focus and guide the object recognition task to particular objects and regions of interest in imagery. It will be shown that these tech-nigues may be used to manipulate imagery on the order of 2k x 2k pixels in near-real-time.