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Sample records for dried distillers grains

  1. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  3. Particle heterogeneity of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Clementson, C L; Ileleji, K E

    2012-03-01

    In this study the physical, morphological and chemical characteristics of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced by mixing three levels of condensed distillers soluble (CDS) (0%, 3.69% and 7.39% volumetric basis, v.b.) with wet distillers grains and drying were characterized. Decreasing the CDS level from 7.39% to 0% v.b. resulted in a reduction of 13.9% in geometric mean particle size and 8.8% in bulk density while the compressibility of the material increased by 3%. As the CDS level increased, pore volume, particle porosity and effective bulk porosity decreased. Crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber and ash content showed distinct patterns for all three samples studied and suggest that US sieve no. 16 (1190 μm) may be an inflection point for the chemical characteristics of DDGS granules within a bulk. The observed heterogeneity could cause sampling errors and particle segregation, and as a consequence nutrient and bulk density variability. PMID:22226592

  4. Separation of fiber from distillers dried grains (DDG) using sieving and elutriation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently developed a new process that combined sieving and elutriation (upward air flow) to separate fiber from distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS). The current study was designed to evaluate the elusieve process for the first time using distillers dried grains (DDG) instead of DDGS. Be...

  5. Use of distiller's dried grains with solubles in tilapia diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are currently readily available and less expensive than other conventional protein sources. However, its nutrient content and nutritional value vary with the source and quality of grain, fermentation and drying processes and the quantity of distiller’s s...

  6. Distillers dried grains with solubles as an alternative protein source in fish feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of the dry-mill ethanol industry, are the dried residue that remains after the fermentation of corn (or other grains) mash by selected yeasts and enzymes to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. The nutrient composition of DDGS varies dependin...

  7. Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

  8. Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate

  9. Characterization of Physical, Chemical, and Flow Properties of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and DDGS Extrudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct from dry grind ethanol manufacturing. Significant quantities of distillers grains are being produced due to the increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive. Marketing of distillers grains, however, is hampered by inconsistencies ...

  10. Comparison of Methods for Extracting Kafirin Proteins from Sorghum Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of coproducts generated during fermentation is important to the overall economics of biofuel production. The main coproduct from grain-based ethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the residue left after the majority of starch has been converted to ethanol. High in pr...

  11. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein sources in diets of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research efforts by nutritionist to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other more expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains af...

  12. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein source in diets of tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research efforts by nutritionists to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains after ...

  13. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  14. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24...

  15. Resistant starch, total dietary fiber and antioxidants in distillers dried grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) is a cereal byproduct of the rapidly growing fuel ethanol industry in United States. Currently, DDG is used for livestock feed since it is high in protein. Because of the shear magnitude of agricultural crop biomass converted to fuel ethanol, large quantities of DDG a...

  16. Twin screw extrusion processing of feed blends containing distillers dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  17. On the physical properties of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a complex heterogeneous granular solid that exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties. This fact is one of the major reasons that livestock nutritionists often find it difficult to include it in their feed rations. The rapid growth of ...

  18. Gels of ferulated arabinoxylans extracted from distillers dried grains with solubles: rheology, structural parameters and microstructure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major by-products of bioethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Maize is one of the main sources for the production of this biofuel. In this way, dietary fiber represents the principal fraction of DDGS, which could be a potential source of added-value biomolecu...

  19. Mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene – dried distillers grains with solubles composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Injection molded composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of DDGS, and either 5% of 0% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding and injection mo...

  20. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  1. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  2. Fortifying Chapathis, an Asian Whole Wheat Unleavened Bread, using Corn Distillers Dried Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chapathi, an unleavened whole wheat flat bread, is widely consumed in Southern Asia. To improve the nutritional qualities of this product, we have investigated fortifying chapathi with different levels of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Food grade DDGS is an alternative sour...

  3. Improving flow ability of distillers dried grains by novel processing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillers dried grains (DDG) sample obtained from MCP Corporation was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Among the various fractions, free flowing particles were obtained that appear to have several opportunities for a range of industrial applications. Rheological p...

  4. Response of weeds and ornamental plants to potting soil amended with dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol produced from corn and developing new uses for DDGS could increase the profitability of ethanol production. This research evaluated DDGS as a soil amendment to container grown ornamentals to suppress weeds. Adding DDGS to a com...

  5. Improved solid phase extraction of ferulate phytosterol esters from corn distiller's dried grain extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently reported on the retention of valuable phytochemicals such as ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols (T), and tocotrienols (T3) in solvent and CO2 extracts of distillers dried grains (DDG). However, the extraction and purification of these phytochemicals, especially FPE, from the...

  6. Effectiveness of neutral detergent fiber in whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains compared with alfalfa haylage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa NDF with NDF from whole, linted cottonseed or dried distillers grains. Low and high fiber control diets (13 and 19% of dietary DM from alfalfa haylage NDF, respectively) were compared with diets designed to contain 13% of DM from alfalfa haylage NDF plus 6% of DM from either cottonseed NDF or distillers grains NDF. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield were lower from the high fiber control diet. Milk fat percentage was lower for the low fiber control diet. The cottonseed diet was equal to the high fiber control diet in stimulating rumination. Rumen acetate to propionate ratio was higher for the high fiber control and cottonseed diets. Replacing alfalfa with either of these high fiber by-product feeds increased feed intake and yields of milk fat and protein. The effectiveness of the NDF in distillers grains and cottonseed was not significantly different from that of alfalfa NDF for maintaining milk fat yield. Whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains appear to be good sources of effective fiber for maintaining milk fat test when they are substituted for alfalfa haylage fiber in lactating cow rations. PMID:8227666

  7. Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-06

    Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

  8. Process simulation of modified dry grind ethanol plant with recycle of pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    Distillers' grains (DG), a co-product of a dry grind ethanol process, is an excellent source of supplemental proteins in livestock feed. Studies have shown that, due to its high polymeric sugar contents and ease of hydrolysis, the distillers' grains have potential as an additional source of fermentable sugars for ethanol fermentation. The benefit of processing the distillers' grains to extract fermentable sugars lies in an increased ethanol yield without significant modification in the current dry grind technology. Three different potential configurations of process alternatives in which pretreated and hydrolyzed distillers' grains are recycled for an enhanced overall ethanol yield are proposed and discussed in this paper based on the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of distillers' grains. Possible limitations of each proposed process are also discussed. This paper presents a compositional analysis of distillers' grains, as well as a simulation of the modified dry grind processes with recycle of distillers' grains. Simulated material balances for the modified dry grind processes are established based on the base case assumptions. These balances are compared to the conventional dry grind process in terms of ethanol yield, compositions of its co-products, and accumulation of fermentation inhibitors. Results show that 14% higher ethanol yield is achievable by processing and hydrolyzing the distillers' grains for additional fermentable sugars, as compared to the conventional dry grind process. Accumulation of fermentation by-products and inhibitory components in the proposed process is predicted to be 2-5 times higher than in the conventional dry grind process. The impact of fermentation inhibitors is reviewed and discussed. The final eDDGS (enhanced dried distillers' grains) from the modified processes has 30-40% greater protein content per mass than DDGS, and its potential as a value-added process is also analyzed. While the case studies used to illustrate the

  9. Ileal and total tract digestibility of wet and dried wheat distillers grain products in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lyberg, K; Borling, J; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were evaluated in 2 commercially available products: wheat (Triticum aestivum) wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) and wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). Two diets included (DM basis) 50% basal diet with either 50% WDGS (W) or 50% DDGS (D). The basal diet included corn (Zea mays) starch, sugar, vitamins, and minerals. Seven castrated male pigs with post valve T-cecum cannulas were fed the diets according to a changeover design during two 14-d periods. In a pre- and postperiod, casein was given as the only protein source with the basal diet to estimate endogenous losses of N and AA for calculation of standardized ileal digestibility (SID). The AID of OM did not differ between diets, but ATTD of OM was higher (P < 0.05) for diet W. The AID (76.2 vs. 68.9%), SID, and ATTD of CP was higher (P < 0.05) in diet W than diet D. The SID for Lys (75.7 vs. 51.8%) and Met (75.8 vs. 70.1%) was higher (P < 0.01) in WDGS than DDGS. In conclusion, drying of wheat distillers grain products can markedly lower ileal digestibility of Lys and Met whereas negative effects on energy value are small. PMID:23365306

  10. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Price, Neil Pj

    2013-01-01

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune were examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan from agricultural biomass. Strains were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1% (w/v) distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by the dry grind process. Ten of 11 strains tested produced more than 2 g schizophyllan/L. Two strains, ATCC 20165 and CBS 266.60, produced more than 10 g schizophyllan/L. Schizophyllan from these strains was similar to commercial product in terms of solution viscosity, molecular weight, and surface tension properties, suggesting that they would be equivalent in biomaterial applications. PMID:24102042

  11. Relationships of Particle Size Distribution, Compositional and Color Properties between Ground Corn and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major process for making ethanol from corn is dry-grind method, by which, the first step is to grind corn into powder whereas the last step is to recover a co-product, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Oftentimes, corn processors believe that ground corn and DDGS are interrelated in c...

  12. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  13. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  14. Analysis of organic gas phase compounds formed by hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Madsen, René B; Christensen, Per S; Houlberg, Kasper; Lappa, Elpiniki; Mørup, Anders J; Klemmer, Maika; Olsen, Eva M; Jensen, Mads M; Becker, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B; Glasius, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive characterization of the gas phase from hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) collected during a 24-h continuous experiment. The gas consisted mainly of CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and C2H6 accounting for 96 v/v% while further analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed additionally 62 compounds of which 54 were tentatively identified. These products included methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, various olefins and several aromatic compounds. The composition provided clear indication of the steady state of the system. Apart from CO2, olefins were the most abundant compound class and could provide a source of revenue. PMID:26051525

  15. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Torres, M F; Ward, J M; Lye, G J

    2015-12-25

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains (DDG and Making Polyurethane Foams from Liquefied DDG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Le, Zhiping; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang; Ruan, Roger

    In this study, dried distillers grains (DDG) was liquefied in acidic conditions at atmospheric pressure, and polyurethane foams were subsequently prepared from the liquefied DDG. Liquefaction was examined over a range of conditions including liquefaction time of 1-3 h, temperature of 150-170 °C, sulfuric acid (as catalyst) concentration of 1.0-3.0 wt%, and liquefaction solvent (ethylene carbonate) to DDG ratio of 3:1-5:1. The bio-polyols in the liquefied DDG were rich in hydroxyl groups, which can react with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to form cross-linked polyurethane networks. The biodegradability of the prepared polyurethane foams was also evaluated. This study strives to broaden the application of DDG as a feedstock for bio-polyurethane preparation.

  17. Authentication of dried distilled grain with solubles (DDGS) by fatty acid and volatile profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tres, Alba; Heenan, Samuel P.; van Ruth, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Demand for ethanol substituted fuels from the utilisation of cereal based biofuel has resulted in an over production of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) that are now readily available on the animal feed market. With this rapid emerging availability comes potential variability in the nutritional value of DDGS and possible risks of feed contaminants. Subsequently, the authentication and traceability of alternative animal feed sources is of high priority. In this study and as part of the EU research project “Quality and Safety of Feeds and Food for Europe (QSAFFE FP7-KBBE-2010-4) an attempt was made to classify the geographical origin of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. DDGS material of wheat and corn origin were obtained from Europe, China, and the USA. Fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints were assessed by gas chromatography flame ionisation (GC-FID) and rapid proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) respectively. Chemometric analysis of fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints allowed for promising classifications of cereals used in DDGS material by geographical and botanical origin and enabled visual representation of the data. This objective analytical approach could be adapted for routine verification of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. PMID:25368433

  18. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) through a narrowing of particle size distribution followed by aspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve 3 screening and 3 air classification unit operatio...

  19. Effects of roughage source and dried corn distiller's grains concentration on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical attributes of roughages used in finishing diets may impact the extent of ruminal digestion of dried distiller's grains (DDG) and growth performance. Crossbred steers (n=380) were adapted to a common finishing diet, blocked by BW, implanted with Revalor-S (120 mg of trenbolone acetate and ...

  20. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are a major co-product of the ethanol industry, and are principally sold as animal fee...

  1. Digestible energy content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-d experiment to determine the DE content of corn- vs sorghum-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet or exceed all NRC sugges...

  2. Digestible energy content of corn- versus sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishings pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-day experiment to determine the digestible energy (DE) content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet o...

  3. Odor and gas emissions and nutrient excretion from pigs fed diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutrient composition of corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) may contribute to the production of odorous compounds from manure of pigs fed diets containing DDGS. A 10-wk trial was conducted to determine odor and gas characteristics of swine manure, and nitrogen and phosphorus balanc...

  4. Growth performance and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of the ethanol distillery industry is less expensive than soybeal meal (SBM) on a per unit protein basis, but its use in fish feed is limited due to the lack of information on its nutritional value in fish diets. Approximately 98% of the DD...

  5. The Effects of Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)-Based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the production of balanced diets for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) feeds. Six isocaloric (3.20 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (31.5% db) ingredient blends were formulated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at a feed...

  6. Effect of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles on indicators of oxidative stress and immune function in growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from corn contain relatively large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and some yeast components, which may increase oxidative stress and alter immune function when fed to pigs. Therefore, indicators of oxidative stress and immune status were determine...

  7. Formulation of a biodegradable, odor-reducing cat litter from solvent-extracted corn dried distillers grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are among the most popular pets in the U.S., and the majority of these animals are kept indoors where litter boxes containing some type of absorbent litter material are needed. Dried distillers grains (DDGs) are one of the two major co-products (with carbon dioxide) of the corn ethanol industry...

  8. Use of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SM) used in the diets of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Six isocaloric (3.22 ± 0.02 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (30.1 ± 0.2% SE) experimental diets were formulate...

  9. Characterization of Chemical and Physical Properties of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDSG) for Value Added Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fastest growing industries in the United States is the fuel ethanol industry. Since 2000 there has been an increase of more than 300%. There was production of 4.9 billion gallons of ethanol in the year 2006. The major coproducts from this industry include Distillers Dried Grains with Solu...

  10. Fate of Free and Conjugated Mycotoxins within the Production of Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Dzuman, Zbynek; Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Vaclavikova, Marta; Tomaniova, Monika; Veprikova, Zdenka; Slavikova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-06-22

    Contamination of feed with mycotoxins represents a serious worldwide problem concerning animal health and related economic losses. The present paper provides comprehensive knowledge about the fate of mycotoxins during the production of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The study was carried out using naturally infected maize material in five repetitions. For mycotoxin analysis, a QuEChERS-like ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") isolation approach and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used. A significant increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its glycosylated form, DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc), was observed during the first part of fermentation, when hydrolytic enzymes were added. After yeast addition, the total DON content rapidly decreased. An opposite trend was observed for fumonisin B1 (FB1), in which yeast addition contributed to increase of its content. Further considerable change in mycotoxin content occurred during the drying step, in which approximately two-thirds of the original content was lost. PMID:27244266

  11. FIBER SEPARATED FROM DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES AS A FEEDSTOCK FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION TO INCREASE OUTPUT FROM DRY GRIND CORN PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the dry grind process, corn starch is converted into sugars which are fermented into ethanol. The remaining corn components (protein, fiber, fat, and ash) form coproduct, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), known as elus...

  12. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  13. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by sieving and winnowing.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2009-12-01

    Four commercial samples of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were sieved. All sieved fractions except for the pan fraction, constituting about 90% of original mass, were then winnowed with an air blast seed cleaner. Sieving was effective in producing fractions with varying composition. As the particle size decreased, protein and ash contents increased, and total carbohydrate (CHO) decreased. Winnowing sieved fractions was also effective in shifting composition, particularly for larger particle classes. Heavy sub-fractions were enriched in protein, oil and ash, while light sub-fractions were enriched for CHO. For protein, the combination of the two procedures resulted in a maximum 56.4% reduction in a fraction and maximum 60.2% increase in another fraction. As airflow velocity increased, light sub-fraction mass increased, while the compositional difference between the heavy and light sub-fractions decreased. Winnowing three times at a lower velocity was as effective as winnowing one time at a medium velocity. Winnowing the whole DDGS was much less effective than winnowing sieved fractions in changing composition, but sieving winnowed fractions was more effective than sieving whole DDGS. The two combination sequences gave comparable overall effects but sieving followed by winnowing is recommended because it requires less time. Regardless of combinational sequence, the second procedure was more effective in shifting composition than the first procedure. PMID:19692227

  14. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E; Ruan, Roger

    2011-05-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

  15. Alterations in the Colonic Microbiota of Pigs Associated with Feeding Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Burrough, Eric R; Arruda, Bailey L; Patience, John F; Plummer, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species. In the present study, colonic contents collected at necropsy from pigs fed either 30% or no DDGS were analyzed to examine the relative abundance of bacterial taxa associated with feeding this ingredient. No difference in alpha diversity (richness) was detected between diet groups. However, the beta diversity was significantly different between groups with feeding of DDGS being associated with a decreased Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P = .004) and a significantly lower abundance of Lactobacillus spp. (P = .016). Predictive functional profiling of the microbiota revealed more predicted genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein digestion, and degradation of glycans in the microbiota of pigs fed DDGS. Taken together, these findings confirm that alterations in dietary insoluble fiber significantly alter the colonic microbial profile of pigs and suggest the resultant microbiome may predispose to the development of colitis. PMID:26555787

  16. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  17. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers' dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller grains with soluble (DDGS) have roughly three times the amount of oil as regular corn used in feeds, and several studies have shown that DDGS also have higher concentrations of lipophilic bioactives such as tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls, because the levels found in whole corn...

  18. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains and solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  19. Comparison of methods for extracting kafirin proteins from sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Tilley, Michael; Bean, Scott; Sun, X Susan; Wang, Donghai

    2009-09-23

    Use of coproducts generated during fermentation is important to the overall economics of biofuel production. The main coproduct from grain-based ethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). High in protein, DDGS is a potential source of protein for many bioindustrial applications such as adhesives and resins. The objective of this research was to characterize the composition as well as chemical and physical properties of kafirin proteins from sorghum DDGS with various extraction methods including use of acetic acid, HCl-ethanol and NaOH-ethanol under reducing conditions. Extraction conditions affected purity and thermal properties of the extracted kafirin proteins. Extraction yields of 44.2, 24.2, and 56.8% were achieved by using acetic acid, HCl-ethanol and NaOH-ethanol, respectively. Acetic acid and NaOH-ethanol produced protein with higher purity than kafirins extracted with the HCl-ethanol protocol. The acetic acid extraction protocol produced protein with the highest purity, 98.9%. Several techniques were used to evaluate structural, molecular and thermal properties of kairin extracts. FTIR showed alpha-helix dominated in all three samples, with only a small portion of beta-sheet present. Electrophoresis results showed alpha(1), alpha(2) band and beta kafirins were present in all three extracts. Glass transition peaks of the extracts were shown by DSC to be approximately 230 degrees C. Kafirin degraded at 270-290 degrees C. Size exclusion chromatography revealed that the acetic acid and HCl-ethanol based extraction methods tended to extract more high molecular weight protein than the NaOH-ethanol based method. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the gamma kafirins were found only in extracts from the NaOH-ethanol extraction method. PMID:19754169

  20. Economic analysis of a modified dry grind ethanol process with recycle of pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Perkis, David; Tyner, Wallace; Dale, Rhys

    2008-08-01

    A modification of the conventional dry grind process for producing ethanol from yellow dent corn is considered with respect to its economic value. Process modifications include recycling distillers' grains, after being pretreated and hydrolyzed, with the ground corn and water to go through fermentation again and increase ethanol yields from the corn starch. A dry grind financial model, which has been validated against other financial models in the industry, is utilized to determine the financial impact of the process changes. The hypothesis was that the enhanced process would yield higher revenues through additional ethanol sales, and higher valued dried distillers' grains (DDGS), due to its higher protein content, to mitigate the drop in DDGS yields. A 32% increase in net present value (NPV) for the overall operation is expected when applying the process modifications to a 100million gallon ethanol plant, and an enzyme cost of $0.20 for each additional gallon of ethanol produced. However, there may be no value added to the enhanced dried distillers' grains (eDDGS), even in light of its higher protein levels, as current pricing is expected to be more sensitive to the amino acid profile than the total protein level, and the eDDGS has lower lysine levels, a key amino acid. Thus, there is a decrease in revenue from eDDGS due to the combination of no price change and loss of DDGS yield to ethanol. The financial improvements are a result of the increased revenue from higher ethanol yields outpacing the sum of all added costs, which include higher capital costs, larger loan payments, increased operating costs, and decreased revenues from dried distillers' grains. PMID:18032032

  1. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  2. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing level of DDGS in diets. There was a main effect ( < 0.001) of phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P. PMID:26020749

  3. Phytosterol and Tocopherol Components in Extracts of Corn Distiller's Dried Grain (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn distiller’s dried grains (DDG) is the major by-product of ethanol fermentation from corn processed by dry-milling. DDG is high in fiber, protein, and fat, and is sold primarily for livestock feed. It is currently valued at approximately $85-110 per ton. The ethanol industry is expected to gr...

  4. Biodiesel from corn distillers dried grains with solubles: preparation, evaluation and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of dry-grind ethanol fermentation and represents a low-cost feedstock with potential to improve process economics and logistics of biodiesel manufacture through integration of biodiesel and ethanol production. Oil extracted from DDGS...

  5. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Foth, A J; Brown-Brandl, T; Hanford, K J; Miller, P S; Garcia Gomez, G; Kononoff, P J

    2015-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, 6.94% brome hay with either 22.9% rolled corn or 14.8% soybean meal (control), or 8.95% rolled corn, 28.8% RFDDGS, and 0% soybean meal [Co-P; dry-matter (DM) basis]. The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect DM intake, averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg of DM for all cows, but milk production tended to increase from 29.8 to 30.9 ± 1.46 kg/d for control and Co-P treatments, respectively. Milk fat percentage and energy-corrected milk did not differ between treatments, averaging 4.33 ± 0.14% and 34.1 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein was significantly decreased by the Co-P treatment (3.56 and 3.41 ± 0.08% for control and Co-P treatments), but protein yield was not affected. Milk energies were 1.40 Mcal/d greater with Co-P. Energy lost as methane was reduced by 0.31 Mcal/d with the addition of RFDDGS to the diet. Heat loss averaged 29.9 ± 0.55 Mcal/d and was not different between diets. Average energy retained as tissue energy was -2.99 ± 0.93 Mcal/d and did not differ between treatments. Intake of digestible and metabolizable energy were not different between the control and Co-P treatments, averaging 2.68 and 2.31 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. The net energy of lactation values of control and Co-P diets were calculated to be 1.43 and 1.47 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. These energy estimates suggest greater energy content of diets containing RFDDGS than diets containing a mixture of corn and soybean meal in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26233444

  6. Effect of process variables on the quality characteristics of pelleted wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Lope Tabil; Anthony Opoku; Maria Rosario Mosqueda; Olaniyi Fadeyi

    2011-04-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol processing plants in Canada has resulted in a significant increase in the production of wheat-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Transportation and flowability problems associated with DDGS necessitate investigations on pelleting. In the present study, the effect of process variables like die temperature (T) and feed moisture content (Mw) on the pellet properties like pellet moisture content, durability and pellet density was explored using a single pelleting machine; further studies on pelleting DDGS using a pilot-scale pellet mill were also conducted to understand the effect of die diameter and steam conditioning on durability and bulk density of pellets. Proximate analysis of DDGS indicated that crude protein and dry matter were in the range of 37.37–40.33% and 91.27–92.60%, respectively. Linear regression models developed for pellet quality attributes like pellet moisture content, pellet density and durability adequately described the single pelleting process with R2 value of 0.97, 0.99 and 0.7, respectively. ANOVA results have indicated that linear terms T and Mw and the interaction term T × Mw were statistically significant at P < 0.01 and P < 0.1 for pellet moisture content and pellet density. Based on the trends of the surface plots, a medium T of about 50–80 °C and a low Mw of about 5.1% resulted in maximum pellet density and durability and minimum pellet moisture content. Results from pilot-scale studies indicated that bulk density, durability and throughput values were 436.8–528.9 kg m-3, 60.3–92.7% and 45.52–68.77 kg h-1, respectively. It was observed that both die diameter and steam addition had a significant effect on the bulk density and the durability values. The highest bulk density and durability were achieved with 6.4 mm die diameter with steam addition compared to 7.9 mm die with or without steam addition.

  7. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles affects composition but not oxidative stability of milk.

    PubMed

    Testroet, E D; Li, G; Beitz, D C; Clark, S

    2015-05-01

    Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in dairy cow diets containing dried distillers grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Linke, P L; Rennich, D R; Abdelqader, M M; Yoon, I

    2010-06-01

    Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (127+/-52 d in milk) were used in 4 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods to evaluate interactions of dietary inclusion of a fermentation product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; XPC, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on production of milk and milk components when fed diets containing approximately 30% dietary neutral detergent fiber with calculated forage neutral detergent fiber of 19.3% of diet dry matter (DM). Treatments were a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with SC included at 0 or 14 g/d and DDGS at 0 or 20% of diet DM. Diets consisted of 27% corn silage, 18% alfalfa hay, and 55% concentrate mix on a DM basis. Diets not containing DDGS included additional corn, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, soyhulls, and rumen inert fat to remain isocaloric and isonitrogenous with DDGS diets. Dry matter intake (26.0 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production increased with the addition of SC to diets (43.6 vs. 42.0 kg/d for diets without SC) and decreased for cows fed diets containing DDGS (42.0 kg/d vs. 43.6 kg/d for diets not containing DDGS). Milk fat percentage (3.05 vs. 3.22% for DDGS and non-DDGS diets, respectively) and yield (1.27 vs. 1.41 kg/d) were decreased by the addition of DDGS but were not affected by the addition of SC. Concentrations of long-chain, polyunsaturated, trans-, and conjugated fatty acids in milk of cows fed DDGS were increased, but milk fatty acid profiles were not affected by SC. Milk true protein concentrations were similar for all diets; however, the addition of SC increased yield of true protein (1.32 vs. 1.27 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen increased when SC was included in the diet with DDGS. The DDGS decreased yields of energy-corrected milk (39.4 vs. 42.1 kg/d) and tended to decrease feed efficiency (1.53 vs. 1.61 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake). Body weights and condition scores were not affected by

  9. Dietary inclusion level effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on broiler meat quality.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Battula, V; Loar, R E; Jackson, V; Kin, S; Corzo, A

    2010-04-01

    A completely randomized design with 7 replications (n = 7, treatments = 5 with 8 subsamples per treatment) was used to evaluate the effects of feeding various levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24%) on broiler breast and thigh meat quality. Broilers were harvested in a pilot scale processing plant with commercial prototype equipment at 42 d of age. The right half of each breast was evaluated for pH, instrumental color, cooking loss, proximate analysis, and tenderness. The left half of each breast was used for consumer acceptability testing. Thigh meat was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and TBA reactive substances. Breast meat from broilers that were fed DDGS had a higher (P < 0.05) pH than those from the control diet. In addition, the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments yielded breast meat with higher (P < 0.05) pH values than the 6% DDGS treatment. No differences existed (P > 0.05) among breast meat from the different treatments with respect to cooking loss, instrumental color, and consumer acceptability, but breast meat from the control (0% DDGS) treatment had slightly lower (P < 0.05) shear force than breast meat from the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) existed among proximate composition of breast and thigh meat from the control and DDGS treatments. As DDGS concentration increased, there was a linear increase (P < 0.05) in linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which indicates a greater potential for lipid oxidation. The TBA reactive substances values were greater (P < 0.05) for the 18 and 24% DDGS treatments at d 5 when compared with the control and 6% DDGS treatments, which indicates increased oxidation. Overall, data suggest that all treatments yielded high-quality breast meat and that thigh meat quality was similar among treatments containing 0 to 12% DDGS, but higher inclusion levels led to thigh meat that was more susceptible to oxidation. PMID:20308408

  10. Survey of mycotoxins in U.S. distiller's dried grains with solubles from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Caupert, John

    2012-01-18

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a major coproduct of the fuel-ethanol industry and is becoming a popular low-cost ingredient for animal feed. Uncertainties regarding the risk factors in DDGS, such as level of mycotoxins, could limit its application in the animal feed industry. To provide a scientifically sound assessment of the prevalence and levels of mycotoxins in U.S. DDGS, we measured aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone in 67 DDGS samples collected from 8 ethanol plants in the midwestern United States from 2009 to 2011. Among the five mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol was the main focus of the study because the crop year of 2009 was favorable for deoxynivalenol occurrence in corn. We learned that no more than 12% of the samples contained deoxynivalenol levels higher than the minimum advisory level for use in animal feed provided by the U.S. FDA, and the deoxynivalenol levels in all DDGS collected in 2011 were <2 mg/kg. Besides, intensive study showed that the enrichment of deoxynivalenol from contaminated corn to DDGS was about 3.5 times. With regard to the other mycotoxins in DDGS, the study suggested that (1) almost none of the DDGS samples produced in 2010 contained detectable aflatoxins and the highest level of aflatoxins in DDGS was 5.7 μg/kg; (2) no more than 6% of the samples contained fumonisin levels higher than the guidance level for feeding equids and rabbits provided by the U.S. FDA; (3) none of the samples contained T-2 higher than the detection limit; (4) most samples contained zearalenone levels between 100 and 300 μg/kg. This study was based on representative DDGS samples from the U.S. ethanol industry, and the data were collected using state-of-the-art analytical methodology. This study provided a comprehensive and scientifically sound assessment of the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in DDGS produced from 2009 to early 2011 by the U.S. ethanol industry. PMID:22148386

  11. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of heat treatment on the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to develop regression equations that may be used to predict the concentration of SID AA in corn DDGS. A source of corn DDGS was divided into 4 batches that were either not autoclaved or autoclaved at 130°C for 10, 20, or 30 min. Four diets containing DDGS from each of the 4 batches were formulated with DDGS being the only source of AA and CP in the diets. A N-free diet also was formulated and used to determine the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Ten growing pigs (initial BW: 53.5 ± 3.9 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a replicated 5 × 4 Youden square design with 5 diets and 4 periods in each square. The SID of CP decreased linearly (P < 0.05) from 77.9% in non-autoclaved DDGS to 72.1, 66.1, and 68.5% in the DDGS samples that were autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The SID of lysine was quadratically reduced (P < 0.05) from 66.8% in the non-autoclaved DDGS to 54.9, 55.3, and 51.9% in the DDGS autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The concentrations of SID Arginine, Histidine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, or Threonine may be best predicted by equations that include the concentration of acid detergent insoluble N in the model (r2 = 0.76, 0.68, 0.67, 0.84, 0.76, 0.73, or 0.54, respectively). The concentrations of SID Isoleucine and Valine were predicted (r2 = 0.58 and 0.54, respectively) by the Lysine:CP ratio, whereas the concentration of SID Tryptophan was predicted (r2 = 0.70) by the analyzed concentration of Tryptophan in DDGS. In conclusion, the SID of AA is decreased as a result of heat damage and the concentration of SID AA in heat-damaged DDGS may be predicted by regression equations

  12. Processing method and corn cultivar affected anthocyanin concentration from dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Wang, Zhaoqin; West, Megan; Singh, Vijay; West, Leslie; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with health benefits and potential use as food colorants. The objectives of this work were to (1) determine optimum parameters for the extraction of anthocyanins from dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), (2) develop a method of anthocyanin extraction from DDGS, (3) quantify and identify the extracted anthocyanins, and (4) determine the effect of processing methods and corn cultivars on anthocyanin concentration. DDGS samples were prepared from purple (PC) and dark (DC) corn and processed using conventional enzymes (C) and granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GC). Three independent variables (ethanol concentration (0, 12.5, and 25%); liquid-to-solid ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1 mL/g); and extraction temperature (4, 22, and 40 °C)) and two dependent variables (anthocyanin concentration and a-value (redness)) were used. Results showed that dark corn DDGS gave anthocyanin concentration higher than that of purple corn. The GC process showed total anthocyanin concentration higher than that of the conventional method of DDGS production. The maximum anthocyanin concentration was obtained at 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C for C-PC [321.0 ± 37.3 μg cyanidin-3 glucoside (C3G) equivalent/g DDGS]. For GC-PC, 25% ethanol, 30:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C gave 741.4 ± 12.8 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. For GC-DC, 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 °C extraction gave 1573.4 ± 84.0 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. LC/MS-MS analysis showed that the major anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″-malonyl) glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6″malonyl) glucoside. In conclusion, anthocyanin extraction from colored corn DDGS can be optimized using 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 mL/g ratio, and 22 °C. PMID:25760759

  13. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Depenbusch, B E; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Reinhardt, C D; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and alfalfa hay (AH) or corn silage (CS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility in cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. In trial 1, crossbred heifers (n = 358; BW = 353 +/- 13 kg) were used in a finishing trial to evaluate interactions between corn-DDGS and roughage source (AH or CS) in terms of impact on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets (DM basis) consisted of SFC and 11% CS without DDGS (SFC-CS), SFC and 11% CS with 25% DDGS (DDGS-CS), SFC and 6% AH without DDGS (SFC-AH), and SFC with 25% DDGS and 6% AH (DDGS-AH). Heifers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily for 97 d. Results indicated no interaction between DDGS and roughage source with respect to animal performance. Feeding DDGS did not affect ADG (P = 0.19), DMI (P = 0.14), or feed conversion (P = 0.67). Heifers fed CS had greater DMI than those fed AH (P = 0.05), but ADG (P = 0.56) and G:F (P = 0.63) were not different. There were no differences among treatments with respect to HCW, dressing percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, quality grades, or yield grades (P > 0.20). Cattle fed CS tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores than those fed AH. There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between roughage and DDGS with respect to incidence of liver abscess. The greatest incidence was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when CS was fed, and the least was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when AH was used. In the second trial, ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility were examined in 12 cannulated Holstein steers fed similar diets to those fed in the finishing trial. Ruminal pH for all treatments was below 5.8 for 14 h after feeding. Acetate:propionate ratios were less (P = 0.02) in steers fed 25% DDGS but had greater (P = 0.02) ruminal lactate concentrations compared with cattle fed 0

  14. Growth and physiological responses of growing pigs to wheat-corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, D I; Kiarie, E; Slominski, B A; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-06-01

    Gaining a detailed knowledge on the impact of a feedstuff on pig growth and physiological responses is critical for its effective utilization. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles derived from co-fermentation of wheat and corn (wcDDGS) on performance, carcass and visceral organ weights, whole-body O2 consumption and heat production (HP) in growing barrows. The experimental diets were as follows: corn-soybean meal diet (Control), Control + 15% wcDDGS and Control + 30% wcDDGS. In Exp. 1, 48 pair-housed pigs of average BW 18.6 ± 1.5 kg (mean ± SD) were allotted to the 3 diets (n = 8). Pigs had free access to water and feed for a 28-day period during which ADG and ADFI were calculated weekly. Thereafter, 1 pig/pen was killed to measure carcass and visceral organ weights. Overall, wcDDGS linearly decreased (p < 0.05) ADFI and ADG but had no effect on G:F (p > 0.10). The ADFI was 1.55, 1.45 and 1.36 kg/day for diets containing 0, 15 and 30% wcDDGS respectively; corresponding values for ADG were 0.79, 0.75 and 0.67 kg/day respectively. A linear decline (p = 0.01) in eviscerated hot carcass weight was observed as dietary wcDDGS increased. In Exp. 2, 18 pigs of average BW 20.4 ± 2.4 kg (mean ± SD) were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed the 3 diets (n = 6) at 550 kcal ME kg BW(-0.60) day for a 16-day period followed by measurement of O2 consumption using an indirect calorimeter. Diet had no effect (p > 0.10) on whole-body O2 consumption and HP. In conclusion, increasing wcDDGS content in growing pig diets linearly reduced ADFI, ADG and eviscerated hot carcass weight but had no effect on G:F, visceral organ weights or HP. PMID:23931574

  15. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Distillers' Dried Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is an abundant source of phenolic acids; therefore, distillers’ dried grains (DDG), may exhibit important market value for its phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of extracting phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity from DDG ...

  16. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  17. Determination of P bioavailability in corn and sorghum distiller's dried grains with solubles for growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 barrows (29.6 kg BW) were used in a 34-day study to determine the effects of corn or sorghum distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, bone trains, and P bioavailability. One corn and three sorghum DDGS were each collected from different processing plants. Pi...

  18. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune, to our knowledge never before examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan, were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1.0% (w/v) distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by...

  19. Study of lipids and lipid components in corn dried distiller's grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extracted oil from corn dried distiller’s grains (DDG) with ethanol, hexane, and supercritical CO2 and found that it has a very large amount of some valuable nutraceutical phytochemicals including phytosterols, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The oil fatty acid ...

  20. Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that needs to be utilized beyond animal feeds. We evaluated cornbreads, which were formulated incorporating 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% corn DDGS into co...

  1. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: II. Effects on metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Clapper, J A; Perry, G A; Keisler, D H; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected metabolic profile, plasma fatty acid profile, and reproductive maturation. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d of age) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatment diets. Treatment diets were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn (15.9% of DM) and soybean products (17.9%), (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat DDGS (21.9%) and ground corn (11.9%), or (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS (33.8%). Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, but the HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets. All 3 diets were limit-fed to 2.45% of body weight on a dry matter basis, and resulted in a mean average daily gain of 0.96kg/d across treatments. Every 4wk, jugular blood was collected for analysis of metabolites and metabolic hormones. During wk20 of the feeding period, blood samples were collected for analysis of plasma fatty acid profiles. When heifers weighed between 200 and 300kg of body weight, coccygeal blood samples were taken twice weekly for analysis of progesterone to determine if puberty had been reached. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids were similar among treatments and consistent over the duration of the study. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and leptin were similar among heifers fed each treatment diet, but increased over the duration of the feeding period. Serum concentrations of glucose tended to be less in heifers fed HFDG compared with heifers fed the CON diet. Glucose concentrations fluctuated throughout the feeding period, but no treatment by time interactions were noted. Plasma urea N concentrations were less in heifers fed LFDG compared with heifers fed HFDG and CON diets. The concentrations of plasma urea N increased over the duration of the feeding

  2. The feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles to lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Greiner, L; Neill, C; Allee, G L; Wang, X; Connor, J; Touchette, K; Usry, J L

    2015-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in sow lactation diets. In Exp. 1, 168 multiparous sows (PIC, Camborough 22) were fed a 10% DDGS diet throughout gestation. Sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 corn-soybean meal lactation diets formulated to contain different levels of DDGS (0, 10, 20, and 30%, respectively). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric (3.46 Mcal ME/kg) and all other nutrients exceeded NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. Sow ADFI was not different ( > 0.10) as DDGS level increased. Increasing DDGS resulted in a linear ( < 0.03) increase in sow weight gain (7.5, 11.3, 20.3, and 17.2 kg, respectively) and a reduction in wean-to-first-service interval (7.1, 5.2, 5.0, and 4.9 d, respectively). Increasing DDGS did not affect subsequent total born per litter (13.7, 12.8, 13.3, and 12.3, respectively; > 0.10). In Exp. 2 and 3, lactation diets consisted of corn and 20, 30, 40, or 50% DDGS. Diets were formulated at 3.25 Mcal ME/kg, 1.05% standardized ileal digestible lysine, and all other nutrients to exceed NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. In both experiments, sows (PIC, Camborough) were fed 40% DDGS in gestation and allocated to a randomized complete block based on the parity of the sow at the time of entry into the farrowing house. In Exp. 2, 256 gilts and multiparous sows were fed the randomly assigned diets. As DDGS inclusion increased, sow feed intake (6.2, 6.2, 6.0, and 5.9 kg/d, respectively) and sow weight gain (10.5, 10.3, 8.2, and 6.2 kg, respectively) tended to linearly decrease ( < 0.06). Sow wean to estrus differed between 20 and 30% DDGS inclusion (4.9 vs. 6.9 d; < 0.01). Litter gain was not different (2.55, 2.53, 2.51, and 2.59 kg/d, respectively; > 0.10) as DDGS inclusion increased. In Exp. 3, 98 multiparous sows were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 experimental diets during the summer months. Sow feed intake, sow weight gain, and litter gain were not different

  3. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  4. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  5. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  6. Pretreatment of dried distillers grains with solubles by soaking in aqueous ammonia and subsequent enzymatic/dilute acid hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15% w/w NH4OH solution at a solid:liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied...

  7. Alterations in the Colonic Microbiota of Pigs Associated with Feeding Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Burrough, Eric R.; Arruda, Bailey L.; Patience, John F.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species. In the present study, colonic contents collected at necropsy from pigs fed either 30% or no DDGS were analyzed to examine the relative abundance of bacterial taxa associated with feeding this ingredient. No difference in alpha diversity (richness) was detected between diet groups. However, the beta diversity was significantly different between groups with feeding of DDGS being associated with a decreased Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P = .004) and a significantly lower abundance of Lactobacillus spp. (P = .016). Predictive functional profiling of the microbiota revealed more predicted genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein digestion, and degradation of glycans in the microbiota of pigs fed DDGS. Taken together, these findings confirm that alterations in dietary insoluble fiber significantly alter the colonic microbial profile of pigs and suggest the resultant microbiome may predispose to the development of colitis. PMID:26555787

  8. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) – A Key to the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  9. Short communication: The effect of feeding high protein distillers dried grains on milk production of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, K J; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Kelzer, J M; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG) on rumen degradability, dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous) averaging 80 +/- 14 d in milk were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 crossover design. A portion of forage and all soy-based protein in the control diet were replaced by HPDDG (20% dry matter). Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily and averaged for d 19 to 21 of each 21-d period. Milk samples were collected on d 20 to 21 of each period. Milk yield increased with the inclusion of HPDDG (33.4 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.13 kg/d), and 3.5% FCM was higher for the ration containing HPDDG (36.3 vs. 33.1 +/- 2.24 kg/d). Percentage protein was not affected by treatment (average 3.04 +/- 0.08%), but protein yield increased with inclusion of HPDDG (0.95 to 1.00 +/- 0.05 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was not different between treatments (average 3.95 +/- 0.20%), but fat yield increased for the ration containing HPDDG (1.35 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.09 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected and averaged 21.9 +/- 0.80 kg across treatments. Because of greater milk production, feed conversion was improved by the inclusion of HPDDG (1.47 to 1.73 +/- 0.09). Milk urea N was greater for the HPDDG ration than the control (14.5 vs. 12.8 +/- 0.67 mg/dL). This research suggests that HPDDG may effectively replace soy-based protein in lactating dairy cow diets. PMID:19448023

  10. Evaluation of prediction equations to estimate gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy content of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for swine based on chemical composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to cross-validate prediction equations to estimate the concentration of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) among sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with variable chemical composition in growing pigs. Publ...

  11. Fiber separation from distillers dried grains with solubles using a larger elutriation apparatus and use of fiber as a feedstock for corn fiber gum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier study, the combination of sieving and elutriation (air flow) was found to be effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); the elutriation column diameter used was 63 mm. Larger quantities of fractions were needed for carrying out studies on producti...

  12. High-shear, Jet-cooking, and Alkali Treatment of Corn Distillers' Dried Grains to Obtain Products with Enhanced Protein, Oil, and Phenolic Antioxidants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) have potential to be a nutritionally important source of protein, oil, and phenolic antioxidants. DDG was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking, with or without alkaline pH adjustment and autoclaving. Soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed for protein, oil, a...

  13. Growth response and feed utilization of juvenile hybrid catfish fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles to replace a combination of soybean meal and corn meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in aquaria with juveile hybrid catfish (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus X blue catfish I. furcatus) to evaluate distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for a combination of soybean meal (SBM) and corn meal (CM). Twenty-five 75-L glass aquaria ...

  14. Effects of corn- and sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 176 finishing pigs (avg BW of 64 kg) was used in a 72-d experiment to compare the effects of corn- and sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments were a corn-soybean meal-based control diet and diets with 40% h...

  15. Effects of corn- and sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 176 finishing pigs (avg BW of 64 kg) was used in a 72-day experiment to compare the effects of corn- and sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments were a corn-soybean meal-based control diet and diets with 40%...

  16. Effect of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and Eimeria acervulina infection on growth performance and the intestinal microbiota of young chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicks were used to determine whether dietary corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may prevent or ameliorate Eimeria acervulina (EA) infection. The experiment had a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 diets (inclusion of 0, 10, or 20% DDGS) × 2 challenge treat...

  17. Pond demonstration of production diets using high levels of distiller's dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increased availability and potential price advantage of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), there is considerable interest in utilizing this product in aquaculture diets. The response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to practical diets containing 20% and 30% DDGS with and...

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  19. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  20. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on animal performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-four crossbred steers (308 ± 8 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) and steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets with and without 35% wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) derived from corn to determine impacts of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on animal performance and carcass chara...

  1. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  2. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  3. The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk production, nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six Holstein cows, four of which were ruminally cannulated, (mean ± SD, 111 ± 35 DIM; 664 ± 76.5 kg BW) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of brown midrib (bm3) and conventional (DP) corn silages and the inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG...

  4. Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) containing variable ether extract (EE) concentrations and to develop DE and ME prediction equations based on nutritional measurements. Ether extract content of corn-DDGS ranged...

  5. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of ...

  6. Compositional effects of corn distillers dried grains with variable oil content on digestible, metabolizable, and net energy values in growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted in growing-finishing pigs to determine the DE and ME (Exp. 1, 96.3 kg BW) and NE (Exp. 2, 45.4 kg BW) content of corn-distillers dried grains with solubles (C-DDGS) in an effort to develop DE, ME, and NE prediction equations based on chemical composition of C-DDGS. Com...

  7. Effects of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles, high-protein distillers dried grains, and corn germ to growing-finishing pigs on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Wulf, D M; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate pig performance, carcass quality, and palatability of pork from pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG), and corn germ. Eighty-four pigs (initial BW, 22 +/- 1.7 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Diets were fed for 114 d in a 3-phase program. The control treatment was based on corn and soybean meal. Two treatments were formulated using 10 or 20% DDGS in each phase. Two additional treatments contained HP-DDG in amounts sufficient to substitute for either 50 or 100% of the soybean meal used in the control treatment. An additional 2 treatments contained 5 or 10% corn germ, which was calculated to provide the same amount of fat as 10 or 20% DDGS. Results showed that for the entire experiment, pig performance was not affected by DDGS or HP-DDG, but final BW increased (linear, P < 0.05) as corn germ was included in the diets. Carcass composition and muscle quality were not affected by DDGS, but LM area and LM depth decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as HP-DDG was added to the diets. Lean meat percentage increased and drip loss decreased as corn germ was included in the diets (quadratic, P < 0.05). There was no effect of DDGS on fat quality except that belly firmness decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary DDGS concentration increased. Including HP-DDG or corn germ in the diets did not affect fat quality, except that the iodine value increased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed HP-DDG diets and decreased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ diets. Cooking loss, shear force, and bacon distortion score were not affected by the inclusion of DDGS, HP-DDG, or corn germ in the diets, and the overall palatability of the bacon and pork chops was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS or high levels of HP-DDG to growing-finishing pigs did not negatively affect overall pig performance, carcass

  8. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  9. Determination of the Mycotoxin Content in Distiller's Dried Grain with Solubles Using a Multianalyte UHPLC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Campbell, Katrina; Magowan, Elizabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    There are more than 300 potential mycotoxins that can contaminate food and feed and cause adverse effects in humans and animals. The data on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in novel animal feed materials, such as distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), are limited. Thus, a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of 77 mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites was used to analyze 169 DDGS samples produced from wheat, maize, and barley and 61 grain samples. All DDGS samples analyzed were contaminated with 13-34 different mycotoxins. Fumonisins were present in all 52 maize DDGS samples (81.0-6890 μg/kg for fumonisin B1), and deoxynivalenol was present in all 99 wheat DDGS samples (39.3-1120 μg/kg). A number of co-occurring mycotoxins were also identified. Due to the high co-occurrence of mycotoxins, routine screening of the animal feed ingredients is highly recommended to allow the highlighted risks to be effectively managed. PMID:26449927

  10. Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  11. Triticale dried distillers' grain increases alpha-linolenic acid in subcutaneous fat of beef cattle fed oilseeds.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Sultana, H; Oba, M; Kastelic, J P; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of triticale dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS), flax (FS) and sunflower (SS) seed on growth and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous (SQ) fat in individually housed steers (n = 15 per diet) fed ad libitum (DM basis); (1) control (CON) 90% barley grain + 10% barley silage; or substitution of barley grain for: (2) 30% DDGS; (3) 10% FS; (4) 30% DDGS + 8.5% FS; (5) 10% SS and (6) 30% DDGS + 8.5% SS. Oilseeds in the combination diets were reduced to maintain diet lipid levels below 9% DM and to determine if favorable changes in the fatty acid profile could be maintained or enhanced at reduced levels of oilseed. Plasma and SQ fat biopsies were collected at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Inclusion of DDGS decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness. Feeding FS increased (P < 0.05) plasma ALA compared to CON and SS and consistently increased (P < 0.01) ALA and non-conjugated and non-methylene interrupted dienes (NCD), whereas SS tended to decrease ALA in fat. Inclusion of DDGS with FS further increased (P < 0.02) ALA and decreased (P < 0.05) NCD and 18:1-t10 in fat. The fact that the levels of n-3 fatty acids in SQ fat from steers fed DDGS + FS were higher than those obtained with FS alone, has obvious benefits to the practical cost of favorably manipulating fatty acid profiles in beef. PMID:23054550

  12. The effects of feeding sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality.

    PubMed

    Sotak, K M; Houser, T A; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goehring, B L; Skaar, G R; Nelssen, J L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in grain sorghum– or corn-based diets on pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. A total of 288 finishing pigs (BW 58.8 ± 4.43 kg; Line TR 4 × 1050, PIC, Hendersonville, TN) were used in a 73-d study. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 pens of 8 pigs per treatment. Treatments included grain sorghum–based diets with 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% sorghum DDGS (29.0% CP, 7.2% ether extract); a grain sorghum–based diet with 30% corn DDGS (25.7% CP, 8.7% ether extract); and a corn-based diet with 30% corn DDGS. The diets were formulated to 0.95%, 0.83%, and 0.71% standardized ileal digestible Lys in phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and were not balanced for energy. On d 73, a subsample of 72 pigs (1 barrow and 1 gilt/pen) was harvested at Kansas State University’s Meats Laboratory. Carcass traits were calculated, as well as 10th-rib LM color, marbling and firmness, and fat color score. Fat samples from the 10th rib were collected and analyzed for fatty acid profile, which was used to calculate iodine value (IV). The remaining pigs were transported to a commercial packing plant (Triumph Foods, St. Joseph, MO) for carcass measurement and jowl IV determinations. Overall, increasing the dietary sorghum DDGS reduced (linear, P < 0.01) ADG and increased (linear, P < 0.01) back fat IV. Pigs fed increasing sorghum DDGS had decreased 10th-rib fat a* (less red) and b* (less yellow; P < 0.01 and 0.06, respectively). No differences were observed in growth performance or back fat IV among pigs fed corn- or grain sorghum–based diets with 30% corn DDGS. Pigs fed the grain sorghum–based diet with 30% corn DDGS had fat color that was more yellow (b*; P < 0.03) than that of pigs fed the grain sorghum–based diet with 30% sorghum DDGS. Pigs fed the grain sorghum–based diet with 30% sorghum DDGS also had

  13. Energy and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibilities of Chinese Distillers Dried Grains, Produced from Different Regions and Grains Fed to Growing Pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, P. C.; Dong, B.; Zang, J. J.; Zhu, Z. P.; Gong, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein (CP), amino acids and energy in three Chinese corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), one rice DDGS, one American corn DDGS and one American high protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG). In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and amino acids in the six samples were determined using cannulated barrows (initial BW: 43.3±1.7 kg). In Exp. 2, the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content of these six samples were determined using crossbred barrows (initial BW: 46.0±2.5 kg). The results of the two experiments indicated that Chinese corn DDGS is generally similar to American DDGS in chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME. However, Chinese DDGS had a lower Lys concentration (0.50% vs. 0.74%) and SID Lys (52.3% vs. 57.0%, p<0.01). The DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS were 3,427 and 3,306 kcal/kg, respectively. Rice DDGS had a similar DE and ME (3,363 and 3,228 kcal/kg) but higher Lys concentration (0.64% vs. 0.50%) to corn DDGS, while the SID of Lys was quite low (61.8%, p<0.01). HP-DDG had high value of SID of Lys, DE and ME (79.8%, 3,899 and 3,746 kcal/kg). In conclusion, except for a lower Lys concentrations and availability, the chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS are similar to American corn DDGS. Additionally, the rice DDGS had lower Lys content and digestible Lys values than that in corn DDGS. Thirdly, HP-DDG has higher levels of digestible amino acids and energy than DDGS. PMID:25049485

  14. Efficacy of feed enzymes in pig and poultry diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles: a review.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Wlosek, A; Jozefiak, D

    2016-02-01

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of the ethanol industry, are often used as feed material in livestock and poultry nutrition. Results of many experiments have indicated, however, that a high dietary level of DDGS can negatively affect the digestibility of nutrients and the performance of monogastric animals due to their high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Nevertheless, using high levels of DDGS as a protein source in livestock diets can be still economically justifiable in view of the rising prices of soya bean meal and other protein sources. The aim of some recent experiments with poultry and pigs was to improve the nutritional efficacy of high-NSP diets through the addition of feed enzymes. As presented and discussed in this review article, the efficacy of feed enzymes added to poultry and pig diets containing DDGS is not consistent and depends on many factors. However, NSP-hydrolysing enzymes generally seemed to be more efficient than phytases in terms of the digestibility of nutrients and the growth performance of poultry and pigs fed high-DDGS diets. For this reason, supplementation with NSP-hydrolysing enzymes could be an efficient way to enable the use of increased levels of DDGS in poultry and pig diets. PMID:26122281

  15. Origin authentication of distillers' dried grains and solubles (DDGS)--application and comparison of different analytical strategies.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Philippe; Nietner, Thorben; Haughey, Simon A; Yang, Zengling; Tena, Noelia; Chmelarova, Hana; van Ruth, Saskia; Tomaniova, Monika; Boix, Ana; Han, Lujia; Elliott, Christopher T; Baeten, Vincent; Fauhl-Hassek, Carsten

    2015-08-01

    In the context of products from certain regions or countries being banned because of an identified or non-identified hazard, proof of geographical origin is essential with regard to feed and food safety issues. Usually, the product labeling of an affected feed lot shows origin, and the paper documentation shows traceability. Incorrect product labeling is common in embargo situations, however, and alternative analytical strategies for controlling feed authenticity are therefore needed. In this study, distillers' dried grains and solubles (DDGS) were chosen as the product on which to base a comparison of analytical strategies aimed at identifying the most appropriate one. Various analytical techniques were investigated for their ability to authenticate DDGS, including spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques combined with multivariate data analysis, as well as proven techniques for authenticating food, such as DNA analysis and stable isotope ratio analysis. An external validation procedure (called the system challenge) was used to analyze sample sets blind and to compare analytical techniques. All the techniques were adapted so as to be applicable to the DDGS matrix. They produced positive results in determining the botanical origin of DDGS (corn vs. wheat), and several of them were able to determine the geographical origin of the DDGS in the sample set. The maintenance and extension of the databanks generated in this study through the analysis of new authentic samples from a single location are essential in order to monitor developments and processing that could affect authentication. PMID:26123435

  16. Comparison of wheat- versus corn-based dried distillers' grains with solubles on meat quality of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Aldai, N; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Robertson, W M; McAllister, T A; Walter, L J; McKinnon, J J

    2010-03-01

    A considerable amount of information has been generated on the feeding value and impact of corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) on meat quality, whereas little is known about the effects of wheat DDGS on meat quality, and no direct comparison of these two sources of DDGS has been completed. The current study was conducted to examine the objective and subjective carcass and meat quality traits of cattle fed diets containing corn or wheat (20% or 40%) DDGS (DM basis) as compared to a standard barley-based finishing diet (control). In general, meat obtained from animals fed the barley-based control diet was slightly darker in colour (lower chroma and hue at 24 h, P<0.01) and less tender (highest proportion of tough shears at 2 d and lowest proportion of tender shears at 20 d). Meat from corn DDGS was rated as more tender and palatable than control samples (P<0.05), and 20% corn samples were rated better for beef flavour intensity (P<0.01) and desirability (P<0.05) than 40% corn DDGS samples. In contrast, meat from steers fed wheat DDGS showed intermediate characteristics between steers fed control and corn DDGS diets. Hence, feeding wheat DDGS had no negative effects, and feeding corn DDGS had some positive effects on meat quality characteristics of beef. PMID:20374826

  17. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs. PMID:27136158

  18. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  19. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P < 0.05) CH4. Total N excretion (g/d) differed (P < 0.001) among treatments with WDDGS resulting in the greatest total N excretion (303 g/d) followed by WDDGS+oil (259 g/d), CDDGS (206 g/d), and the control diet (170 g/d), respectively. Compared with the control diet, heifers offered WDDGS, CDDGS, and WDDGS+oil excreted less fecal N (P < 0.001) but more (P < 0.001) urinary N. Results suggest that high-fat CDDGS or WDDGS+oil can mitigate enteric

  20. The influence of sorghum grain decortication on bioethanol production and quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles using cold and conventional warm starch processing.

    PubMed

    Nkomba, Edouard Y; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Very high gravity hydrolysis-fermentation of whole and decorticated sorghum grains were compared using conventional and cold hydrolysis methods to assess the extent by which decortication could minimize enzymes dosages and affect the quality of the distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS). All processing configurations achieved ethanol concentrations between 126 and 132 g/L (16.0-16.7%v/v), although decortication resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Decortication resulted in a decreased volumetric productivity during warm processing from 1.55 to 1.25 g L(-1)h(-1), whereas the required enzyme dosage for cold processing was decreased from 250 to 221 μl/100 gstarch. Cold processing decreased the average acid detergent fibre (ADF) from 35.59% to 29.32% and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 44.04% to 32.28% in the DDGS compared to the conventional (warm) processing. Due to lower enzyme requirements, the use of decorticated grains combined with cold processing presents a favourable process configuration and source of DDGS for non-ruminants. PMID:26724549

  1. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  2. Microbial Characterization of Distillers Wet Grains: Results and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We have characterized the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG...

  3. Impact of synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation of distiller's dried grains with solubles and distiller's corn oil stored under high temperature and humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A R; Urriola, P E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-08-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of antioxidants, oil content in distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), quality of distiller's corn oil, and storage time on lipid peroxidation. A source of low-oil DDGS (LO-DDGS; 5.0% ether extract [EE], as-fed basis), high-oil DDGS (HO-DDGS; 13.0% EE, as-fed basis), and 2 sources of distiller's corn oil (DCO; 1.20, 0.08, and 0.48% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables [MIU], respectively [DCO-1], and 1.20, 0.01, and 0.10% MIU, respectively [DCO-2]) were obtained. Each of the 4 ingredients was divided into 18 representative subsamples (approximately 908 g for DDGS or 2 kg of DCO). Six subsamples of each ingredient were mixed with either no supplemental antioxidants (CON), Rendox-CQ (REN; 1,000 mg/kg EE; Kemin, Industries, Des Moines, IA), or Santoquin-Q4T (SAN; 1,500 mg/kg EE; Novus International, St. Louis, MO). Each mixture ( = 72) was split into thirds, and 1 portion was immediately frozen at -20°C (d 0). Two portions were stored under hot (38.6 ± 0.1°C) and humid conditions (94.0 ± 0.3% relative humidity) for 14 or 28 d. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to evaluate the effects of ingredient, antioxidant, storage time, and interactions, with d-0 values used as a covariate. From d 14 to 28, peroxide value (PV), -anisidine value (AnV), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of DCO and DDGS increased by 3- to 4-fold ( < 0.05). Over the entire storage period, PV of DCO-1 and HO-DDGS (12.3 ± 0.3 and 12.6 ± 0.3 mEq O/kg oil, respectively) exceeded ( < 0.05) that of DCO-2 and LO-DDGS (9.6 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.3 mEq O/kg oil, respectively). Adding REN or SAN ( < 0.05) reduced TBARS and AnV relative to CON (TBARS = 11.0 ± 0.2 mg malondialdehyde Eq/kg oil and AnV = 6.5 ± 0.2) over the entire period (mean of d 14 and 28), but TBARS and AnV did not differ ( > 0.05) between antioxidants (TBARS = 6.1 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.2 mg malondialdehyde Eq/kg oil, respectively, and AnV = 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8

  4. Estimation of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum of dried distillers' grains with solubles using a modified gas test.

    PubMed

    Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Steingass, Herbert; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the variation of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) for ruminants using a modified gas test and to predict the uCP in DDGS based on chemical composition. Thirteen samples originating from wheat, maize, barley or blends of different substrates were studied. The in vitro uCP was estimated using the modified Hohenheim gas test (moHGT). Samples were incubated in rumen fluid for 8 h, 24 h and 48 h followed by ammonia distillation. The obtained values were compared to reference values of uCP (based on the contents of crude protein (CP), in situ undegraded CP and metabolisable energy). The reference and in vitro values of uCP were calculated according to passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/h (i.e., uCP2, uCP5 and uCP8, respectively). The in vitro uCP8 ranged from 214 to 320 g/kg DM and reference values from 158 to 302 g/kg DM. The in vitro uCP2 was on average lower (by 7 g/kg DM) and in vitro uCP8 was higher (by 56 g/kg DM) than their respective reference values. The in vitro uCP5 and uCP8 were correlated with reference values and the correlations were improved with increasing passage rates. When the differences of uCP content between in vitro and reference values were related to CP fractions, they increased with increasing content of CP fraction A and decreasing content of CP fraction B3 for uCP8. The prediction of uCP values from chemical composition was not reliable. It was concluded that uCP can be predicted on the basis of the moHGT method and CP fractions. The accuracy of prediction improved upon the inclusion of CP fractions and neutral-detergent insoluble nitrogen. The present study revealed a significant variation in the uCP content of DDGS, which should be considered when formulating rations for dairy cows. PMID:26305384

  5. Evaluation of dried and wet distillers grains included at two concentrations in the diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lactation performance of dairy cows fed dried or wet distillers grains (DG) with solubles (DDGS or WDGS) at 2 dietary concentrations. A trial using 15 cows was designed as a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square with periods of 4 wk each and data collected during wk 3 and 4 of each period. Diets, on a dry matter basis, were: control, 10% DDGS, 20% DDGS, 10% WDGS, and 20% WDGS. All diets contained 25% corn silage, 25% alfalfa hay, and 50% of the respective concentrate mixes. Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for cows fed control than DG (23.4, 22.8, 22.5, 23.0, and 21.9 kg/d for control, 10% DDGS, 20% DDGS, 10% WDGS, and 20% WDGS). Milk yield (39.8, 40.9, 42.5, 42.5, and 43.5 kg/d) was greater for cows fed DG than control. Milk fat percentage (3.23, 3.16, 3.28, 3.55, and 3.40%) was similar for cows fed control and DG, but greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Milk fat yield was greater for cows fed DG than control and tended to be greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Milk fat from cows fed DG, especially 20% DG, was more unsaturated and contained more cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid than when fed the control diet. Milk protein percentage (3.05, 3.01, 3.02, 3.11, and 3.06%) was similar for cows fed control and DG but greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Milk protein yield was greater for cows fed DG than control, tended to be greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS, and tended to be greater for cows fed 20% DG than 10% DG. Milk urea nitrogen was similar for cows fed control and DG but greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS and tended to be higher for cows fed 20% DG than 10% DG. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Overall, feeding DG improved feed efficiency (1.70, 1.79, 1.87, 1.84, and 1.92 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI) by increasing yields of milk, protein, and fat while tending to decrease DMI. PMID:16840630

  6. Usability of rapeseed cake and wheat-dried distillers' grains with solubles in the feeding of growing Californian rabbits.

    PubMed

    Strychalski, Janusz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Gugołek, Andrzej; Wyczling, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Tomasz; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    By-products of biofuels production such as rapeseed cake and dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) may constitute valuable feedstuffs for livestock. The objectives of the study were to determine the usability of these components in the feeding of growing rabbits and to assess their impact on physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of the animals. Sixty-four rabbits were divided into four feeding groups: Control (5% soyabean meal [SBM] in the diet), R (5% rapeseed cake [RSC]), DDGS (5% wheat DDGS), and R/DDGS (2.5% RSC and 2.5% wheat DDGS). The study included a production experiment, a digestibility-balance experiment and physiological assessment of the functioning of animals' gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, caecum and colon). No statistically significant differences were determined in production results of the rabbits. Digestibility of nutrients and energy and nitrogen retention were the highest in the Control and the lowest in Group DDGS. Group DDGS was characterised by the highest relative weight of small intestine and digesta. In turn, Group R was characterised by the highest degree of caecal digesta hydration and bulking and by the highest pH value and the lowest concentration of VFA in caecum. The activity of selected bacterial enzymes released to the caecal environment was similar in all groups; however, the activity of α-arabinopyranosidase was significantly increased in Groups R and DDGS. Worthy of notice is the enhanced enzymatic activity of colonic microbiota in the R/DDGS group which has a positive effect upon increased utilisation of dietary nutrients compared to the DDGS group. The obtained results indicate that SBM from rabbit diets may be successfully replaced by 5% RSC as well as by 2.5% RSC + 2.5% wheat DDGS. PMID:24870270

  7. Effects of sex and inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles on slaughter yield and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Adamski, M P; Kowalczyk, A M; Lukaszewicz, E T; Korzeniowska, M

    2011-12-01

    1. The effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) dietary inclusion concentration, and sex, on body weight, slaughter efficiency and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica, strain P55) were studied. 2. Sexed ducklings (n = 160) were divided randomly into 4 groups (each with 4 replicates). From d 1 to d 21, all the birds received the same commercial feed, then from 22 to 49 d of age the ducks were fed in the following groups: control (commercial feed) and three experimental groups (15%, 25% and 30% inclusion of DDGS). All ducks were weighed individually at d 1, 21 and 49. On the day of slaughter, 5 males and 5 females, of body weight close to the average weight for group and sex, were selected from each group, slaughtered and the following parameters were evaluated: slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of particular elements of carcase, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. 3. The results obtained showed that DDGS included from 22 to 49 d of rearing, at concentrations up to 30%, in a commercial Pekin duck diet did not affect the live body weight, slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of breast and leg muscle, skin with subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat. There were no differences in physical characteristics (pH(15), pH(24,) meat colour values L*, a*and b*, and hygroscopicity) of breast muscle, as well as in cholesterol content. DDGS addition at 30% significantly increased fat content in male, and crude protein in female, breast meat. Sex effect was observed only in a few traits and was diet dependent. Final body weight of females fed 30% DDGS was significantly lower than males; in the control and 15% DDGS group females had higher percentage of skin with subcutaneous fat. 4. The results obtained, and relative costs of feeds produced, allows the recommendation of DDGS addition at up to 30% to commercial Pekin duck diets from 22 d of age. PMID:22221240

  8. Effects of increasing concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on chemical composition and nutrient content of egg.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Lee, E J; Samaraweera, H; Persia, M; Ahn, Dong U

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding high concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on chemical composition and selected nutrient content of egg yolk. Four isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0, 17, 35, or 50% corn DDGS. A total of two hundred forty 54-wk-old Single-Comb White Leghorn laying hens were randomly allotted to 2 birds per cage with 3 consecutive cages representing an experimental unit (EU). Each EU was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments according to a completely randomized design. Hens were fed for a 24-wk experimental period after transition feeding to gradually increase corn DDGS inclusion over a 4-wk period. Two sets of experimental diets were formulated to meet or exceed the NRC nutrient recommendations for laying hens. Each diet formula was fed for 12 wk. Chemical composition and nutritional components in egg yolk were measured every 2 wk. The results showed that egg yolk from hens fed a DDGS-containing diet tended to have higher fat content and lower protein content. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly increased by the DDGS diet. The contents of choline and cholesterol were initially higher in the 50% DDGS treatment group, but were not different in the later period, especially during the last 4 wk. Lutein content increased linearly as DDGS level increased. The results indicated that feeding a high level of DDGS can increase the content of lutein and polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk, but may not affect the content of cholesterol and choline. PMID:23243253

  9. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal. PMID:20308407

  10. Assessment of caecal parameters in layer hens fed on diets containing wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Richards, P J; Wu, S; Mellits, K H; Wiseman, J

    2015-01-01

    There is much interest in quantifying the nutritional value of UK wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (W-DDGS) for livestock species. A study was designed to evaluate caecal parameters (pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial diversity) in layer hens fed on balanced diets containing graded concentrations of W-DDGS. A total of 32 layer hens (Bovans Brown strain at 27 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments containing W-DDGS at 0, 60, 120 or 180 g/kg. Each treatment was fed to 8 replicate individually housed layer hens over a 5-d acclimatisation period, followed by a 4-week trial. Individual feed intakes were monitored and all eggs were collected daily for weeks 2, 3 and 4 of the trial, weighed and an assessment of eggshell "dirtiness" made. All hens were culled on d 29 and caecal pH and SCFAs measured. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16 S rDNA gene was used to assess total bacterial diversity of luminal caecal content from hens fed the 0 and 180 g W-DDGS/kg diets. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrograms were generated from DGGE banding patterns. Increasing W-DDGS dietary concentrations resulted in a more acidic caecal environment. Caecal SCFAs were unaffected by diet aside from a quadratic effect for molar proportions of isobutyric acid. Diversity profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from luminal caecal contents were unaffected by W-DDGS inclusion. The results of the current study suggest that W-DDGS can be successfully formulated into nutritionally balanced layer diets (supplemented with xylanase and phytase) at up to 180 g/kg with no detrimental effects to the caecal environment. PMID:26098705

  11. Evaluation of rumen-protected lysine supplementation to lactating dairy cows consuming increasing amounts of distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Paz, H A; de Veth, M J; Ordway, R S; Kononoff, P J

    2013-01-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in four 5 × 5 Latin squares to determine the effects of feeding increasing amounts of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without the supplementation (60 g/d) of a rumen-protected Lys (RPL) product (AminoShure-L, 38% l-Lys; Balchem Encapsulates, New Hampton, NY) on milk yield and composition and plasma concentration of AA. Dietary treatments were (1) control (CON; no DDGS), (2) 10% DDGS (10DG), (3) 20% DDGS (20DG), (4) 10% DDGS plus RPL (10DGRPL), and (5) 20% DDGS plus RPL (20DGRPL). Diets were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model (CPM v3.0; http://cahpwww.vet.upenn.edu/node/77) to provide a predicted decreasing supply of Lys (117, 99, and 91% of requirements) for the CON, 10DG, and 20DG diets, respectively. Addition of RPL to the 10DG and 20DG diets (unsupplemented diets) resulted in 2 additional treatments, 10DGRPL and 20DGRPL diets, respectively. The 10DGRPL and 20DGRPL diets met 110 and 100% of the Lys requirements, respectively. Periods lasted 21d, with the last 3d for data collection. Compared with cows fed the CON diet, cows fed diets with DDGS had a similar dry matter intake (DMI; 25.4 ± 0.88 kg/d), milk yield (30.7 ± 1.67 kg/d), and composition, except for protein percentage, which was higher (3.15 vs. 3.21 ± 0.05%) and resulted in higher (0.94 vs. 1.00 ± 0.05 kg/d) protein yield by cows fed diets containing 20% DDGS. Unexpectedly, despite diets being formulated based on predicted DMI of 23.3 kg/d and milk yield of 38.5 kg/d, cows had a greater DMI and lower milk yield across all treatments, which resulted in diets that were predicted by CPM Dairy to supply sufficient amounts of Lys (140, 118, and 104% of requirement for the CON, 10 DG, and 20 DG diet, respectively) and consequently, supplementation with RPL did not have an effect on milk production or composition. Plasma concentration of Lys decreased (11.8%) as DDGS inclusion increased. For other essential AA, plasma

  12. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  13. Effects of dried distillers grains with solubles on growing and finishing pig performance in a commercial environment.

    PubMed

    Linneen, S K; Derouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2008-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimal level of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) from a common ethanol manufacturing facility and to determine the potential interactions between dietary DDGS and added fat on performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing pigs. All experiments were conducted at the same commercial facility and used DDGS from the same ethanol manufacturing facility. In Exp. 1, a total of 1,050 pigs (average initial BW 47.6 kg), with 24 to 26 pigs per pen and 7 pens per treatment, were fed diets containing 0 or 15% DDGS and 0, 3, or 6% added choice white grease in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in a 28-d growth study. Overall, there were no DDGS x added fat interactions (P >/= 0.14). There was an improvement (linear, P < 0.01) in ADG and G:F as the percentage of added fat increased. There was no difference (P = 0.74) in growth performance between pigs fed 0 or 15% DDGS. In Exp. 2, a total of 1,038 pigs (average initial BW 46.3 kg), with 24 to 26 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment, were fed diets containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS in a 56-d growth study. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had a tendency for decreased ADG and ADFI (both linear, P = 0.09 and 0.05, respectively), but the greatest reduction seemed to occur between pigs fed 10 and 20% DDGS. In Exp. 3, a total of 1,112 pigs (average initial BW 49.7 kg), with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment, were used in a 78-d growth study to evaluate the effects of increasing DDGS (0, 5, 10, 15, or 20%) in the diet on pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. From d 0 to 78, ADG and ADFI decreased linearly (P

  14. Effect of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles and microbial enzymes on metabolizable and net energy values of broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Barekatain, M R; Noblet, J; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2014-11-01

    There is generally no information regarding the influence of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the net energy (NE) value of broiler diets. It was hypothesized that the ME content of DDGS may overestimate its productive energy, leading to higher heat increment when used in broiler diets. Furthermore, it was of interest to investigate the potential benefits of a mixture of carbohydrases and protease on energy partitioning in diets containing DDGS. In this study, 2 evaluations, comparative slaughter (CS) or indirect calorimetry (IC), were conducted using the same batch of birds and feed. Two levels of DDGS (0 or 30%) without or with an enzyme mixture were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The CS evaluation used 240 male Ross 308 broiler chicks with 6 replicates (10 birds each) per treatment from d 18 to 28. Carcass energy values were examined in 2 birds per replicate on each of d 18 and 28 to determine heat production (HP), NE, and ME. The IC evaluation used 32 birds acclimatized to 16 closed-circuit calorimeters (2 birds per chamber) following energy partitioning measurement by gaseous exchange and total excreta collection from 18 to 24 d. Birds fed DDGS had increased feed efficiency during starter and grower phases (P < 0.001). The CS showed no difference in HP between birds fed diets with or without DDGS. When measured by IC, birds fed diets containing DDGS had higher HP and lower NE (P < 0.01). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on HP, ME, or NE:ME ratio measured using CS or IC but increased NE and NE intake (P < 0.01) from d 18 to 28. Carcass fat retention was decreased (P < 0.05) and there was a lower NE (P < 0.01) in birds fed the DDGS-diets. This study showed that 30% dietary DDGS affects energy partitioning in broilers with more heat produced, decreased dietary NE, and less fat retained in the carcass. PMID:25214553

  15. Replacement of Soybean Meal in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Diets with Cottonseed Meal and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two pond experiments were conducted to evaluate cottonseed meal (CSM), distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and supplemental lysine as replacements for soybean meal (SBM) in channel catfish diets. In Experiment 1, fish fed diets in which SBM was totally replaced with CSM gained similar wei...

  16. Growth Responses and Resistance to Streptococccus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  17. Growth Responses and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  18. GROWTH RESPONSE AND RESISTANCE TO STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED DIETS CONTAINING DISTILLER'S DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  19. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain relatively high concentrations of NDF and ADF compared with other grains and concentrates it replaces in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the U. S. contain 8.3 and 9.0% rougha...

  20. Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Soares, J A; Stein, H H; Singh, V; Shurson, G S; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-04-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has low and variable AA digestibility. The variability is often attributed to damage during the heating process, and it has been suggested that the damage happens to the soluble components of DDGS such as reducing sugars. Combining solubles and grains sometimes produces syrup balls (SB); their digestibility is unknown. The objective of this experiment was to identify potential sources of poor and variable AA digestibility in DDGS. Specifically, our objective was to determine whether the problems are associated with the solubles component or with SB. The ingredients evaluated were DDGS, intact SB, ground SB, liquid condensed solubles (LCS), and pulse dried thin stillage (PDTS) obtained from the same ethanol plant. The LCS is produced by evaporation of thin stillage. Each ingredient was used as the only source of AA in an experimental diet. In a duplicate 6 × 6 Latin square design with 7-d adaptation and collection periods, the 6 treatments consisted of an N-free diet and the 5 test ingredients. Pigs had 5 d of adaptation to each diet, and on d 6 and 7 ileal digesta were collected from an ileal cannula for 8 h each day. Both SB treatments had apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA that were similar or greater (P < 0.05) than those of DDGS. The AID and SID values of Lys and a few other AA were similar in LCS (SID Lys: 63.1%) and DDGS (SID Lys: 61.5%), but the digestibility values of most AA in LCS were less than in DDGS (P < 0.05). The low digestibility of AA in LCS was most pronounced for Met (SID: LCS, 41.9% vs. DDGS, 82.8%). The LCS had less (P < 0.05) AID and SID of CP (SID: 67.8%) than intact SB (SID: 85.2%) and ground SB (SID: 85.9%) as well as all AA. The PDTS generally had the least AID and SID and had less (P < 0.05) CP (SID: 55.3%) and several AA, including Lys, compared with LCS. In conclusion, the presence of SB does not decrease AA digestibility of DDGS, and the LCS

  1. Digestibility of energy and phosphorus in ten samples of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, C; Boersma, M G; Stein, H H

    2007-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, N, and P in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. Ten sources of DDGS were obtained from ethanol plants in South Dakota and Minnesota, and 11 diets were formulated. One diet was based on corn (96.8%), limestone, salt, vitamins, and microminerals. Ten additional diets were formulated by mixing the corn diet and each of the 10 sources of DDGS in a 1:1 ratio. Eleven growing pigs (initial BW of 29.3 +/- 0.42 kg) were allotted to an 11 x 11 Latin square design, with 11 periods and 11 pigs. Each of the 11 diets was fed to each pig during 1 period. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. Samples were analyzed for GE, N, and P and energy and N balances, and the ATTD of GE, N, and P were calculated for each diet. By subtracting the contribution from the corn diet to the DDGS-containing diets, the energy and N balances and the ATTD for GE, N, and P for each source of DDGS were calculated. Results of the experiment showed that the DE and ME differed (P < 0.001) among the 10 sources of DDGS (3,947 to 4,593 kcal of DE/kg of DM and 3,674 to 4,336 kcal of ME/kg of DM). The average DE and ME in DDGS were 4,140 and 3,897 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. These values were not different from the DE and ME in corn (4,088 and 3,989 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). Based on the analyzed GE and nutrient composition of DDGS and the calculated values for DE and ME, prediction equations for DE and ME were developed. These equations showed that DE and ME in DDGS may be predicted from the concentration of ash, ether extract, ADF, and GE. The retention of N from DDGS was greater (P < 0.001) than from corn, but when calculated on a percentage basis, the N retention did not differ between DDGS and corn. The ATTD of P in DDGS was 59.1% on average for the 10 samples. This value was greater (P < 0

  2. Ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids in soybean meal, canola meal, corn, and wheat dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-08-01

    Different protein sources, such as canola meal (CM) or dried distillers grains (DDG), are currently used in dairy rations to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, little data exists comparing their rumen degradation in a single study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and AA of SBM, CM, high-protein corn DDG (HPDDG), and wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS). In situ studies were conducted with 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows fed a diet containing 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate. Each protein source was incubated in the rumen of each cow in nylon bags for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h to determine DM and CP rumen degradation kinetics, whereas additional bags were also incubated for 16 h to evaluate AA ruminal disappearance. Rumen DM and CP degradability was calculated from rumen-undegraded residues corrected or not for small particle loss. Data were fitted to an exponential model to estimate degradation parameters and effective degradability (ED) was calculated with a passage rate of 0.074 h(-1). The WDDGS and SBM had higher uncorrected ED (DM=75.0 and 72.6%; CP=84.8 and 66.0%, respectively) than CM and HPDDG (DM=57.2 and 55.5%; CP=59.3 and 48.2%, respectively), due to higher soluble fraction in WDDGS and a combination of higher potentially degradable fraction and rate of degradation in SBM. Correction for small particle loss from bags, higher for WDDGS than for the other protein sources, decreased estimated ED but did not alter feed ranking. The ruminal disappearance of AA after 16 h of incubation reflected the overall pattern of CP degradation between protein supplements, but the ruminal disappearance of individual AA differed between protein supplements. Overall, these results indicate that, in the current study, (1) SBM and WDDGS were more degradable in the rumen than CM and HPDDG, and (2) that small particle loss correction is relevant but does not alter this

  3. Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599±36 kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square with a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P<0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P<0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P<0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P<0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P<0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P<0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P<0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P<0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P<0.04) acetate and increased (P<0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH<5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These

  4. Changes in chemical and physical properties of Latin American wheat flour based tortillas substituted with different levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Pourafshar, Shirin; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Krishnan, Padmanaban G

    2015-08-01

    Tortilla is the most popular type of bread both in South and Central America. Since the demand for this bread among different classes of society is significant, improving its nutrient content could be important. Distillers dried grains with solubles is good source of fiber and protein, and can be used in the fortification of tortilla. In this study, three levels of DDGS (0, 10 and 20 %) were substituted for wheat flour and the physical and chemical properties of the resulting products were evaluated. Results showed that for the 20 % DDGS level, minimum force was required to rupture the tortilla. The color of the tortillas substituted with 10 and 20 % DDGS were darker, being 64.11 and 59.99, respectively (P < 0.05). As for chemical properties, the samples fortified with 10 and 20 % DDGS had higher protein (9.35 and 10.78 % dried basis), fiber (2.21 and 2.33 % dried basis) and fat (23.60 and 24.65 % dried basis) values at P < 0.05. Thus, it appeared that using DDGS in wheat tortillas can improve some of the nutritional values such as protein and fiber as well as the textural properties of these breads. Further work should examine consumer acceptability of these products. PMID:26243948

  5. Classification the geographical origin of corn distillers dried grains with solubles by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with chemometrics: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingfan; Yang, Zengling; Haughey, Simon A; Galvin-King, Pamela; Han, Lujia; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-12-15

    In this study, 137 corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) samples from a range of different geographical origins (Jilin Province of China, Heilongjiang Province of China, USA and Europe) were collected and analysed. Different near infrared spectrometers combined with different chemometric packages were used in two independent laboratories to investigate the feasibility of classifying geographical origin of DDGS. Base on the same dataset, one laboratory developed a partial least square discriminant analysis model and another laboratory developed an orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis model. Results showed that both models could perfectly classify DDGS samples from different geographical origins. These promising results encourage the development of larger scale efforts to produce datasets which can be used to differentiate the geographical origin of DDGS and such efforts are required to provide higher level food security measures on a global scale. PMID:26190595

  6. Temperature dependency of shelf and thermal stabilities of anthocyanins from corn distillers' dried grains with solubles in different ethanol extracts and a commercially available beverage.

    PubMed

    de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Dia, Vermont P; West, Leslie; West, Megan; Singh, Vijay; Wang, Zhaoqin; Allen, Charlotte

    2015-11-18

    The objective was to determine the shelf and thermal stabilities of anthocyanins from distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) extracted with different ethanol concentrations as well as a semi-purified Maiz Morado (purple corn) anthocyanin extract added to a commercially available beverage. Storage for 6 weeks of DDGS showed an overall reduction of anthocyanins from 6.8 to 73.7%. In DDGS, an ethanol increase from 0 to 25% resulted in less sensitivity of anthocyanin to temperature changes. Acylation resulted in faster degradation and higher reaction rate constants than their corresponding non-acylated forms. Anthocyanin changes were accompanied by an overall increase in lightness and a decrease in redness. Storage of beverage for 12 weeks at 4 °C resulted in a 25.5% reduction of anthocyanin. Results have important implications in selecting colored corn as an economical source of food colorants. PMID:26556543

  7. Origin identification of dried distillers grains with solubles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy after in situ oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ph; Fernández Pierna, J A; Abbas, O; Dardenne, P; Baeten, V

    2015-12-15

    The ban on using processed animal proteins in feedstuffs led the feed sector to look for other sources of protein. Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could be considered as an important source in this regard. They are imported into Europe mainly for livestock feed. Identifying their origin is essential when labelling is missing and for feed safety, particularly in a crisis situation resulting from contamination. This study investigated applying attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-MIR) to the oil fraction extracted from samples in situ in order to identify the origin of DDGS. The use of spectroscopic and chemometric tools enabled the botanical and geographical origins of DDGS, as well as the industrial process used to produce them, to be identified. The models developed during the study provided a classification higher than 95% using an external validation set. PMID:26190596

  8. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. PMID:25437451

  9. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat. PMID:26593480

  10. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  11. Effects of calcium oxide treatment of dry and modified wet corn distillers grains plus solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent digestibility of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A R; Duckworth, M J; Shike, D W; Schoonmaker, J P; Felix, T L

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding dried corn distillers grains (DDGS) or modified wet corn distillers grains (MDGS) with or without CaO treatment to feedlot steers on 1) growth performance and carcass characteristics and 2) diet digestibility, pattern of intake, and meal distribution. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 139; average initial BW = 336 ± 75 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): 1) 50% DDGS untreated, 2) 48.8% DDGS treated with 1.2% CaO, 3) 50% MDGS untreated, or 4) 48.8% MDGS treated with 1.2% CaO. The remainder of the diet was corn husklage, dry rolled corn, and vitamin and mineral supplement. In Exp. 2, fistulated steers (n = 8; average initial BW = 540 ± 250 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with the same dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.14) between distillers grains plus solubles (DGS) and CaO inclusion for DMI, ADG, final BW, or USDA yield and quality grades. However, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had decreased (P < 0.01) DMI, regardless of DGS type. Because CaO treatment decreased DMI without affecting (P = 0.66) ADG, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had increased (P < 0.01) G:F compared to steers not fed CaO. The variation in DMI found in this experiment could be explained by differences in meal size and distribution. Steers fed CaO-treated DGS ate a similar (P = 0.36) number of meals but ate smaller (P < 0.01) meals. No effects (P ≥ 0.55) of CaO treatment or its interaction with DGS type were found for apparent total tract DM or NDF digestibility. However, steers fed MDGS had increased (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility compared to steers fed DDGS. In conclusion, CaO treatment of DGS improved feed efficiency when DGS-based diets were fed but did not improve digestibility. PMID:25085391

  12. The effects of dry-rolled corn particle size on performance, carcass traits, and starch digestibility in feedlot finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, E F; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D

    2016-03-01

    Crossbred yearling steers ( = 360; 395 ± 33.1 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate the effects of dry-rolled corn (DRC) particle size in diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and starch digestibility. Steers were used in a randomized complete block design and allocated to 36 pens (9 pens/treatment, with 10 animals/pen). Treatments were coarse DRC (4,882 μm), medium DRC (3,760 μm), fine DRC (2,359 μm), and steam-flaked corn (0.35 kg/L; SFC). Final BW and ADG were not affected by treatment ( > 0.05). Dry matter intake was greater and G:F was lower ( < 0.05) for steers fed DRC vs. steers fed SFC. There was a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in DMI in the final 5 wk on feed with decreasing DRC particle size. Fecal starch decreased (linear, < 0.01) as DRC particle size decreased. In situ starch disappearance was lower for DRC vs. SFC ( < 0.05) and linearly increased ( < 0.05) with decreasing particle size at 8 and 24 h. Reducing DRC particle size did not influence growth performance but increased starch digestion and influenced DMI of cattle on finishing diets. No differences ( > 0.10) were observed among treatments for any of the carcass traits measured. Results indicate improved ruminal starch digestibility, reduced fecal starch concentration, and reduced DMI with decreasing DRC particle size in feedlot diets containing 20% wet distiller's grains on a DM basis. PMID:27065280

  13. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  14. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on fatty acids, sensory attributes, and shelf life of loins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-four crossbred steers were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) based finishing rations with or without 35% wet distiller's grain plus solubles (WDGS) to determine effects of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on marbling attributes, sensory attributes, and shelf-life of...

  15. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  16. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) with 25% and 45% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism, and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing beef steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed ...

  17. Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid peroxidation in animal feed can negatively affect growth performance and meat quality. Weanling pigs (n = 432; BW = 6.6 ± 0.4 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding a peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) source with three levels of vitamin E (a-tocopheryl acetate)...

  18. Effect of dietary inclusion of triticale dried distillers' grain and oilseeds on quality and fatty acid profile of meat from feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, M L; McAllister, T A; Hernandez-Calva, L M; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J

    2014-05-01

    This study compared carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of longissimus thoracis (LT) from feedlot cattle fed barley grain with or without oilseed (OS). Six diets containing no oilseed (No-OS), 10% ground flaxseed (FS), 10% high oleate sunflower seeds (SS) with or without 30% triticale dried distiller's grain (DDGS) were prepared. Feeding DDGS increased chroma at 24 and 144 h post mortem. Feeding FS increased weight% of LT PUFA (P<0.05) compared to No-OS or SS. An OS by DDGS interaction occurred for 18:3n-3 (P<0.05) where FS increased weight% of 18:3n-3 (P<0.05), a response accentuated (P<0.05) by DDGS. Feeding DDGS increased weight% of LT 18:2n-6 (P<0.05), but neither OS nor DDGS affected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, t7,c9 &c9,t11-18:2). Feeding FS increased weight% of n-3 FA, and both FS and SS increased t10-18:1 with no effect on CLA or t11-18:1. Combination feeding of DDGS and FS further increased weight% of n-3 FA and tempered increases in t10-18:1 with no effect on CLA or t11-18:1. The findings suggest a new strategy to increase beef omega-3 fatty acids efficiently through inclusion of a combination of DDGS and FS in feedlot diet. PMID:24530992

  19. Evaluation of enzyme activity and fiber content of soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengli; Lio, JunYi; Wang, Tong

    2012-05-01

    To increase the value of coproducts from corn ethanol fermentation and soybean aqueous processing, distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean cotyledon fiber were used as the substrates for solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve feed digestibility. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were chosen as they produce desirable enzymes and are widely used in SSF for feed. The results showed that the cellulase and xylanase activities were significantly increased after 7 days of fermentation, and cellulose and hemicellulose degradation was also greatly increased. When soybean fiber was used as SSF substrate, the maximum activities of the cellulase and xylanase were 10.3 and 84.2 IU/g substrate (dry weight basis) after SSF treatment, respectively. However, the enzyme activities were relatively low in DDGS, and the growth of the three fungi was poor. The fungi grew better when soybean cotyledon fiber was added to DDGS, and cellulase and xylanase activity increased with the increase of soybean fiber content. Porosity was identified as an important factor for SSF because the addition of inert soybean hull alone improved the fungi growth significantly. These data suggest that the nutritional value of DDGS and soybean cotyledon fiber as monogastric animal feed could be greatly enhanced by SSF treatment. PMID:22528656

  20. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets. PMID:26304783

  1. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  2. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers' dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve States in the U.S. In 2011.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; McMaster, Nicole J; Musser, Robert; Iii, David G Schmale

    2014-04-01

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g-1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g-1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g-1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g-1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g-1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g-1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g-1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g-1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products. PMID:24674933

  3. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions. PMID:26479012

  4. Monitoring real-time enzymatic hydrolysis of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) by dielectric spectroscopy following hydrothermal pre-treatment by steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Bryant, David N; Firth, Elliot; Kaderbhai, Naheed; Taylor, Stephen; Morris, Stephen M; Logan, Daniel; Garcia, Naroa; Ellis, Andrew; Martin, Steven M; Gallagher, Joe A

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) has been used to monitor the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass by measuring its dielectric state. However, it is unknown whether following steam explosion (SE) pre-treatment, lignocellulose would still maintain a dielectric state, and, if maintained, whether the dissipation during enzymatic hydrolysis could be monitored. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), pre-treated by SE, was found to have a capacitance (C = 580 kHz) of approximately 24 pF cm(-1). Following addition of full-strength cellulolytic cocktail A (CC-A; R(2) = 0.97) and 1/3 strength cocktail B (CC-B; R(2) = 0.96), a natural logarithmic decay in capacitance was determined. Furthermore, the DS biomass probes quantified the initial linear rate of dissipation in capacitance during hydrolysis. The rate of CC-B was 34% that of CC-A. These data extend scope and utility of DS biomass probes for monitoring the enzymatic hydrolysis of SE-pre-treated lignocellulosic substrates in real-time. PMID:23228453

  5. Effects of dried distillers grain on E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in pure culture and in mixed ruminal and fecal microorganism fermentation in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 5 years, the amount of corn processed to ethanol has more than doubled in the United States, with an additional doubling in ethanol production via corn fermentation expected by 2010. Distillers grain (DG) is a by-product from ethanol fermentation that is fed to cattle because of its...

  6. Short communication: Effects of molasses products on productivity and milk fatty acid profile of cows fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Siverson, A; Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Bradford, B J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that replacing up to 5% [of dietary dry matter (DM)] corn with cane molasses can partially alleviate milk fat depression when cows are fed high-concentrate, low-fiber rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary molasses alters milk fatty acid (FA) profile or improves solids-corrected milk yield in the context of a more typical lactation diet. A secondary objective was to assess production responses to increasing rumen-degradable protein supply when molasses was fed. Twelve primiparous and 28 multiparous Holstein cows (196 ± 39 d in milk) were blocked by parity and assigned to 4 pens. Pens were randomly allocated to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 21 d, with 17 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for sample and data collection. Treatments were a control diet, providing 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DM basis), 35% neutral detergent fiber, 30% starch, and 5% ether extract; a diet with 4.4% cane molasses replacing a portion of the corn grain; a diet with 2.9% molasses supplement containing 32% crude protein on a DM basis; and a diet with 5.8% (DM basis) molasses supplement. Animal-level data were analyzed using mixed models, including the fixed effect of treatment and the random effects of period, pen, period × pen interaction, and cow within pen to recognize pen as the experimental unit. Diets did not alter DM intake, milk production, milk component concentration or yield, feed efficiency (DM intake/milk yield), body weight change, or milk somatic cell count. Milk stearic acid content was increased by the diet containing 5.8% molasses supplement compared with the control diet and the diet containing 2.9% molasses supplement, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.27, 11.75, and 11.69 ± 0.29 g/100g of FA). Production data revealed a dramatic effect of period on milk fat

  7. MODELING EXTRUSION PROCESSING OF AQUACULTURE FEED INCORPORATING DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three ingredient blends containing 20, 30, and 40% Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), with a net protein adjusted to 28% were prepared. Extrusion studies were conducted at 3 levels of moisture content, 3 levels of barrel temperature profile, and 5 levels of screw speed in a single screw e...

  8. Effects of distillers grain on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) during the finishing phase on beef carcass quality and ribeye steak tenderness. Crossbred beef steers (n = 304) received finishing diets including 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a dry-matter basis. Steers...

  9. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion. PMID

  10. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  11. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (P<0.01) feed conversion ratio than those fed CON, and increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets tended (P<0.10) to linearly decrease feed conversion ratio. In assessing the effects of including WDG diets without FE, concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (P<0.10) for steers fed WDG than steers fed CON. In addition, inclusion of wheat DDGS into the diet increased (P<0.05) concentration of CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (P<0.05) ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA compared with that from steers fed CON diet. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets did not modify the concentrations of individual or total fatty acids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health. PMID

  12. Short communication: Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: III. Effects on posttrial reproductive and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the subsequent effects on lactation and reproductive performance from feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to growing dairy heifers. During the prepubertal growth phase, 33 Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments included (1) a control diet (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, 2) a diet with low-fat DDGS (LFDG), and (3) a higher-fat diet with traditional DDGS (HFDG). All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. Previous results demonstrated that growth performance was maintained across treatments, but plasma cholesterol and fatty acids were greater and puberty may occur earlier in heifers fed HFDG. It was hypothesized that differences among treatments in metabolic profile and puberty may influence reproductive and first-lactation performance. Posttrial data on reproductive performance and milk production for the first 4 mo of lactation were collected for each heifer from dairy herd records. At 3wk prepartum and at calving, body weights, body condition scores, and body measurements were taken. No differences were observed among treatments for age at conception or age at calving. At calving, heifers fed the HFDG were shorter in withers height compared with heifers fed the other diets. Milk yields and components were similar or improved in heifers fed the distillers grains diets compared with heifers fed CON. Heifers fed LFDG had greater milk production and a tendency for greater milk protein yields compared with the heifers fed CON. Energy-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Feeding increased dietary fat from DDGS during the prepubertal growth phase did not negatively affect milk production, despite earlier attainment of puberty compared with other treatments. The overall ADG for all 3 treatments was 0.96kg/d during the prepubertal period, which is greater than

  13. Effect of forage level and replacing canola meal with dry distillers grains with solubles in precision-fed heifer diets: Digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Rico, D E; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (DM basis). Diets were fed to allow for 800 g/d of body weight gain and fed 1×/d. Rumen contents were sampled at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 20 h after feeding for rumen fermentation measures. Low-forage rations had greater DM and organic matter apparent digestibility. We detected a quadratic effect for DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber apparent digestibility, with the 14% DDGS inclusion level having the highest values. Nitrogen retention decreased with increasing levels of DDGS. Molar proportions of acetate tended to be greater for HF and decreased as DDGS increased; propionate increased as DDGS increased, resulting in the opposite effect on acetate to propionate ratio. Rumen protozoa count decreased as DDGS increased. Moderate levels (14% of DM) of DDGS appear to enhance nutrient utilization and fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifers fed different F:C diets. PMID:26299163

  14. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed. PMID:26797927

  15. Properties of dried distillers grains with solubles, Paulownia wood, and pine wood reinforced high density polyethylene composites: Effect of maleation, chemical modification, and the mixing of fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to identify usable lignocellulosic materials that can be blended with thermoplastic resins to produced commercial lignocellulosic plastic composites (LPC) at lower costs with improved performance. The core objectives of this study are to: 1) evaluate the use of dried distillers grai...

  16. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( < 0.01), NDF ( = 0.04), and ADF ( = 0.03). Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased CP digestibility without affecting the digestibility of other nutrients. There were no effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed

  17. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health. PMID:24987082

  18. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  19. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    PubMed

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  20. Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the C:SH control treatment compared with most DDGS treatments. Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P < 0.05) for hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. PMID:24879692

  1. Influence of the in vivo method and basal dietary ingredients employed in the determination of the amino acid digestibility of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles in broilers.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H V Masey; White, G A; Li, D; Bedford, M R; Htoo, J K; Wiseman, J

    2014-05-01

    As distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) become increasingly available, it is important to determine their nutritional value for precise feed formulation. The accurate determination of digestibility is crucial, and it is known that the methods used will affect the values obtained. An experiment was designed to determine and compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids from wheat DDGS using a semisynthetic diet and a difference method using 4 further diets based on corn, wheat, corn DDGS, and wheat DDGS. Eighty 1-d-old male broilers were fed a commercial starter diet until d 21. Between d 21 and 23, they were fed test diets in order to adapt to those diets before the trial took place between d 24 and 27. The trial period took place between d 24 and 27. Feed intake was measured, excreta collected, and at d 27, all birds were culled and ileal digesta was collected for the determination of apparent ileal digestibility and SID of amino acids. Values determined were similar to those reported elsewhere in the literature, although SID values for lysine were particularly low, being 0.26, 0.27, or 0.32, measured in semisynthetic, corn, or wheat diet backgrounds, respectively. It appeared that diet type employed was influential in the values obtained. The SID values for methionine, cysteine, methionine plus cysteine, and arginine were significantly lower (P < 0.05) when measured in semisynthetic diet backgrounds than wheat- or corn-based diets. It appears that dextrose and possibly purified starch have a detrimental impact on the broiler digestive tract. This may affect all digestibility methodologies in which such a diet base is used. PMID:24795310

  2. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids. PMID:25075808

  3. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  4. Rice Distillers Dried Grain Is a Promising Ingredient as a Partial Replacement of Plant Origin Sources in the Diet for Juvenile Red Seabream (Pagrus major)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Lee, Sang-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of dietary distillers dried grain (DDG) level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidant activity of juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major). Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% DDG from rice (designated as DDG0, DDG5, DDG10, DDG15, DDG20, and DDG25), respectively. Juvenile red seabream averaging 10.1±0.05 g were randomly distributed into 400-L tanks in a flow through systems. Three replicate groups of fish were fed one of the experimental diets to visual satiation two times a day for 10 weeks. Survival, weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Proximate and amino acid composition of whole body in juvenile red seabream were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Plasma content of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, phospholipid and triglyceride were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and alkyl radical scavenging activities in plasma and liver of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that DDG has the potential to replace plant origin ingredients such as wheat flour and corn gluten meal and could be used up to 25% in diet without incurring negative effects on the growth performance of juvenile red seabream. PMID:25358367

  5. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and local innate immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rogiewicz, A; McMillan, E; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on growth performance, gut lesion score, intestinal population of Clostridium perfringens, and local innate immunity of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens. One-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments providing six replicate pens of 55 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of Control diets without and with C. perfringens challenge, and diets containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 55 g/tonne), nucleotides (150 g/tonne), yeast cell wall (YCW, 300 g/tonne), and a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus (1 kg/tonne) fed to chickens challenged with C. perfringens. Diets containing 10% distillers dried grains with solubles without and with C. perfringens challenge were also used. Birds were orally challenged with C. perfringens (10(8) colony-forming units (cfu)/bird) on day 14. On day 21, intestinal samples were collected for gene expression analysis. Pathogen challenge significantly (P < 0.05) impaired feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) shortly after the challenge (14-21 days). Increased C. perfringens counts and intestinal lesion scores were observed for challenged birds except the BMD-containing diet. Over the entire trial (1-35 days), no difference in growth performance was observed except the BMD diet which improved FCR over the Control, challenged group. Birds receiving nucleotides showed increased expression of toll-like receptors and cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-18 compared to the Control, challenged group. Expression of macrophage mannose receptor and IL-18 was upregulated in birds receiving YCW. Increased expression of cytokines and receptors involved in innate immunity in broilers receiving nucleotides and YCW suggests the immunomodulatory properties of these products under pathogen challenge conditions. PMID:26956683

  6. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  7. Feeding distillers dried grains in replacement of forage in limit-fed dairy heifer rations: Effects on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L; Perry, G A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing dietary concentration of distillers dried grains (DDGS) in dairy heifer rations. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 48 Holstein heifers [199±2 d of age; body weight (BW) 206±2kg] to evaluate effects of dietary treatment on dry matter (DM) intake, average daily gain, growth performance, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) 30% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.65% of BW, (2) 40% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.50% of BW, and (3) 50% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.35% of BW. The remainder of the diet consisted of grass hay and 1.5% mineral mix. Heifers were individually limit-fed using Calan gates. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and the ration amount offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 using fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were found for any of the growth parameters measured, and growth parameters did not differ among treatments. Heifer DM intake linearly decreased with increasing concentrations of DDGS. Body weight and average daily gain were similar among treatments, whereas gain:feed linearly increased across treatments, with a tendency for a treatment by time interaction. As the dietary concentrations of DDGS increased, rumen ammonia N linearly increased. Acetate proportion and acetate:propionate linearly decreased as DDGS increased, whereas propionate linearly increased. There were treatment by time interactions for propionate proportion and acetate:propionate. Increasing dietary concentrations of DDGS linearly increased total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein. Limit-feeding diets with greater concentrations of DDGS improved gain:feed and

  8. Effects of formulating growing pig diet with increasing levels of wheat-corn distillers dried grains with solubles on digestible nutrient basis on growth performance and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Agyekum, A K; Woyengo, T A; Slominski, B A; Yin, Y L; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-08-01

    Formulating swine diets containing fibrous coproducts based on net energy (NE) and standardized ileal digestible amino acid (SID AA) values is recommended for optimizing pig performance. However, the effects of applying this approach to diets with increasing dietary levels of wheat-corn-derived distillers dried grains with soluble (wcDDGS) on pig performance have not been evaluated. Thus, 48 pigs with an average body weight [BW] of 25.5 kg were used to determine the effects of increasing wcDDGS (1:1 wheat to corn ratio) content in grower diets on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients. Pigs were housed in pens of either 2 barrows or gilts balanced for BW and fed 4 diets within sex for 42 days. Diets were a nutrient adequate corn-barley-soybean meal-based diet with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% wcDDGS, and were similar in calculated NE and SID AA values. Acid insoluble ash was used as the indigestible marker. Final BW and overall average daily gain (ADG) linearly decreased (p < 0.05) and feed efficiency tended to decrease (p = 0.07) with increased dietary wcDDGS. Overall average daily feed intake was not affected (p > 0.10) by dietary treatment. The ATTD of dry matter and energy linearly decreased (p < 0.01), whereas the ATTD of neutral detergent fibre linearly increased (p < 0.01) with increasing dietary level of wcDDGS. Increasing dietary wcDDGS content did not affect (p > 0.10) ATTD of Ca and P. In conclusion, increasing dietary wcDDGS content reduced growth performance and ATTD of energy in growing pigs. Thus, the risks of high dietary wcDGGS content may not be completely alleviated by formulating growing pig diets on the basis of NE and SID AA systems. PMID:24028670

  9. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Jenkins, C J R; Aluthge, N D; Anderson, C; Fernando, S C; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-03-01

    Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, with (mean ± SD) 91 ± 19 d in milk and 595 ± 81 kg were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to compare the effects of feeding conventional dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and reduced-fat DDGS (RFDDGS) in combination with rumen-inert fat (RIF) on milk production and rumen fermentation; one square contained rumen cannulated animals for rumen measurements. In each 21-d period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (values on a dry matter basis): (1) control (CON) that contained 0% DDGS; (2) DG contained 30% DDGS; (3) RFDG contained 30% RFDDGS in substitution of DDGS; and (4) RFDG+RIF was similar to RFDG with the addition of 1.9% RIF. Unlike most practical diets in the dairy field, our diets had <22% forage neutral detergent fiber and >18.0% crude protein. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments with any form of DDGS averaging 26.0 ± 0.6 kg/d, whereas the CON diet resulted in less dry matter intake, 21.6 ± 0.6 kg/d. Milk yield tended to be 1.7 kg/d greater for diets with either type of DDGS. Concentration of milk protein was greatest for the DG and RFDG diets, intermediate for the RFDG+RIF diet, and least for the CON diet, namely 3.22, 3.21, 3.12, and 3.07 ± 0.05%. Reduced milk fat percentage and yield were observed when cows consumed the DG diet, 3.27 ± 0.10% and 1.11 ± 0.04 kg/d, respectively, whereas these responses were similar among CON, RFDG, and RFDG+RIF, which averaged 3.68 ± 0.10% and 1.22 ± 0.04 kg/d. The presence of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was only detected in milk from cows consuming the DG diet; similarly, concentration and yield of trans-10 18:1 were greater for cows consuming this diet. Rumen ammonia was similar across treatments averaging 27.0 ± 2.1mg/dL. The CON and RFDG+RIF diets had similar mean pH, 6.1 ± 0.11, whereas DG and RFDG resulted in lower pH averaging 5.79 ± 0.11. No effect on total concentration of volatile

  10. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P < 0.01) in IC when compared to PC. Bellies were thicker (P < 0.01) and tended to have greater belly flop distances (P = 0.07) in PC compared to IC, however iodine values (IV) were not altered (P = 0.84). Carcass traits (P ≥ 0.10), cutting yields (P ≥ 0.43), and fresh belly characteristics (P ≥ 0.08) were minimally affected by DDGS feeding strategy. Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P < 0.01) in IC compared with PC. At 7 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 1.57% units greater (P = 0.03) in IC compared with PC. Distiller's grains feeding strategy had no effect (P ≥ 0.83) on boneless carcass cutting yields in IC; while in PC, these yields were 2.32% units less (P < 0.02) in control-fed barrows when compared to other feeding strategies (castration method × feeding strategy; P = 0.03). Bellies from PC tended to be thicker (P = 0.07) and have similar flop distances (P = 0.44) and IV (P = 0.54) when compared with IC. Iodine value

  11. Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization (Book)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization, brings together cutting edge information on many aspects of DDGS. It consists of six major sections, having 26 chapters in total. Section 1 has six chapters and covers introduction, perspectives, history, structure and compositio...

  12. Nutrient database for sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles from ethanol plants in the Western Plains Region and their effects on nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    Sotak, K M; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Derouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2014-01-01

    Samples of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected and analyzed to establish a nutrient database and evaluate the quality and consistency between and within 5 ethanol plants in Kansas and Texas. Each sample (n = 21) was analyzed for AA, DM, CP, crude fiber, crude fat, ash, NDF, ADF, trace minerals, and starch. Mean values (DM basis) were 0.88% Lys, 10.49% crude fat, 34.21% CP, and 4,722 kcal/kg GE. The standard deviations among sorghum DDGS plants were similar to those within plants for most nutrients. Results of these analyses were used to formulate diets for 2 nursery trials. The 2 experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding sorghum DDGS (29.0% CP and 7.2% crude fat) to corn- or sorghum-based diets on nursery pig growth performance. In Exp. 1, 360 nursery barrows (6.8 kg and 26 d of age) were used in a 34-d study. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments with 5 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of grain source (corn vs. sorghum) and sorghum DDGS (0, 15, 30, or 45%). Diets were formulated to 1.30 and 1.25% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys in phases 1 and 2, respectively, but were not balanced for energy. Overall, there were no differences among pigs fed sorghum- or corn-based diets for ADG and ADFI; however, as sorghum DDGS increased from 0 to 45% of the diet, ADG decreased (linear, P < 0.01). There was a DDGS × grain source interaction (linear, P < 0.04) observed for G:F. In corn-based diets, pigs fed increasing sorghum DDGS had relatively similar G:F. However, in pigs fed sorghum-based diets, G:F was best for those fed 0% DDGS but was decreased in pigs fed 15, 30, or 45% sorghum DDGS. In Exp. 2, 180 nursery pigs (10.7 kg and 38 d of age) were used in a 21-d study with 6 pigs per pen and 5 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of grain source (corn vs. sorghum) and DDGS (0 vs. 30% corn or

  13. Microbial Development in Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production from Corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distill...

  14. Variation in Distillers Grains Quality and Investigation into Its Underlying Causes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major process for making ethanol from grains is the dry-grind method. The major co-product of the process is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which are widely used as a feed for animals and fish. Income from marketing of DDGS is important to the economic viability of the dry grind ind...

  15. Xylanase increased the ileal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides and concentration of low molecular weight nondigestible carbohydrates in pigs fed high levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M B; Yu, S; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Lærke, H N

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS-a control diet or 1 of 3 diets with CAX, EX, or EXP-in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 7 d; adaptation lasted 4 d, and the ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7, when spot samples of feces were also collected. Digesta samples were analyzed for NDC, total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), low molecular weight (LMW) NDC, OM, CP, fat, starch, and marker. Compared with the control diet, addition of CAX, EX, and EXP increased the AID of arabinoxylan by 32 (P < 0.001), 28 (P = 0.001), and 24% (P = 0.004), respectively. In addition, EXP increased the AID of noncellulosic polysaccharide glucose by 21% compared with the control (P = 0.005). Compared with the control, addition of EX, EXP, and CAX decreased the concentration of soluble arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P < 0.0001), 40 (P < 0.0001), and 21% (P = 0.022), respectively. Furthermore, addition of CAX, EXP, and EX increased the concentration of LMW arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P = 0.0001), 36 (P = 0.0006), and 24% (P = 0.023), respectively, compared with the control. Addition of EX and EXP decreased the concentration of soluble NSP of ileal digesta by 25 (P = 0.001) and 26% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the control diet. Addition of CAX (P < 0.0001) and EXP (P = 0.013) increased the arabinose-to-xylose ratio in the insoluble arabinoxylan fraction in ileal digesta compared with

  16. Evaluation of inclusion level of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles with and without protease or β-mannanase on performance and water intake of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Opoku, E Y; Classen, H L; Scott, T A

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming a common practice to use higher levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS) in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of level of inclusion of wDDGS with or without enzyme (E-, i.e., wDDGSE-) supplementation on performance and water consumption of turkey hens (0 to 72 d). Two diets (0 or 30% wDDGS) were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Hybrid Converter turkeys. Diets (0 or 30% wDDGS; starter, grower, and finisher) were then blended to obtain a different level of inclusion (15%) of wDDGS. The 30% wDDGS diet was divided into 3 fractions and 2 fractions supplemented with either protease (P+, i.e., wDDGSP+; 0.126 g/kg) or β-mannanase (M+, i.e., wDDGSM+; 0.05 g/kg). All 5 diets were fed ad libitum as mash. The 700 0-d turkey hens were randomly allocated into groups of 35 birds per replicate with 4 replicate floor pens per treatment, in a completely randomized design. Water consumption per pen was recorded beginning at 7 d. There was no effect of dietary treatment on feed intake. BW of turkey hens (52 d; grower) was significantly higher for 30% wDDGSP+ as compared to 0% wDDGSE- or 15% wDDGSE- diets; but was not different from 30% wDDGSE- or 30% wDDGSM+ diets. FCR (P < 0.01; 28 to 52 d), and total FCR (P < 0.05; 0 to 72 d) was significantly improved for birds fed 15 or 30% wDDGS regardless of enzyme treatment compared to 0% wDDGSE-. Water intake (WI, in mL per bird per day) tended to be higher (P = 0.08) between 7 and 28 d for 30% wDDGSP+ diets compared to other treatments. Similarly, WI of birds fed 30% wDDGSP+ was higher (P < 0.05; 28 to 52 and 52 to 72 d) and total WI (P = 0.07; 7 to 72 d) tended to be higher than other treatments. This study is the first to report the impact of wDDGS on WI. As high as 30% wDDGS can be substituted in turkey hen diets. No effect of P+ or M+ at the inclusion level tested was found on performance. PMID:25971948

  17. Effects of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without protease and β-mannanase on the performance of turkey hen poults.

    PubMed

    Opoku, E Y; Classen, H L; Scott, T A

    2015-02-01

    Expansion in bioethanol production has resulted in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) being readily available as a major protein source in the poultry industry. Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of wheat DDGS (wDDGS) and enzyme on nutrient digestibility and performance of turkey hen poults (7 to 21 d). Two starter diets (0 or 30% wDDGS) were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements for Hybrid Converter female turkeys. These diets were then mixed in different proportions to obtain 2 additional wDDGS inclusion levels (10 and 20%). In Experiment 1, 0 and 30% wDDGS diets were each subdivided into 3 portions and supplemented with no enzyme (E-), protease (P+; 0.125 g/kg) or β-mannanase (M+; 0.5 g/kg). A total of 144, 7-day-old poults were randomly distributed in groups of 4 in 6 replicate cages per treatment. There were no significant main effects or interactions on feed intake from 7 to 21 d. However, a positive (P<0.05) effect of 30% wDDGS was shown for weight gain and gain:feed. A significant interaction on nitrogen retention (NR) was found between enzymes and wDDGS level. There were significant main effects and interactions on the AME of the diets. The AME was higher (P<0.05) for 30% compared to 0% wDDGS. Supplementation of P+ decreased (P<0.05) AME for 0% diets as compared to 30% diets and vice versa for M+. In Experiment 2, 7-day-old poults (4 birds per 6 replications per treatment) were fed 4 levels of wDDGS (0, 10, 20, and 30%) with no enzyme. A linear (P<0.01) response was found for gain:feed with 30% wDDGS having a better response. Quadratic (P<0.01) responses were also found for NR and AME; both were highest for 10% wDDGS diets. In summary, no beneficial effects of P+ or M+ were demonstrated in diets containing 30% wDDGS. Wheat DDGS is a valuable energy source and as high as 30% can be incorporated in turkey hen poults (7 to 21 d) diets. PMID:26353159

  18. The effects of extrusion of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without an enzyme cocktail on performance of turkey hen poults.

    PubMed

    Opoku, E Y; Classen, H L; Scott, T A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if extrusion (EX) or enzymes (E) could overcome the restrictions (e.g., high fiber) of feeding wheat distillers dried grain with solubles (wDDGS) and improve its nutritional value for feeding turkeys. Two starter diets with either 0 or 30% wDDGS were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of the Hybrid Converter female turkeys. The 30% wDDGS diet was substituted with either non-extruded (EX-) or extruded (EX+) wDDGS to produce three basal diets [0% wDDGS (EX-) or 30% wDDGS (EX-/EX+)]. Diets were blended to obtain 15% wDDGS. In the respective treatments, only wDDGS was extruded (temperature; 118°C, retention; 15 sec, total moisture; 25% and pressure 33 bar). The respective experimental diets were supplemented with/without an enzyme cocktail (E; 0.5 g/kg). Test diets were fed from 7-21 d in a completely randomized design. In Experiment 1, a total of 210 turkey hen poults were fed diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wDDGS (EX-) with or without enzyme (E+/E-). Body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) were significantly higher for 0% wDDGSE-. Nitrogen retention (NR) and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) for the 30% wDDGSE- was significantly higher than other treatments at 21 d. The results indicated significant main effects of E and an interaction between wDDGS level and E. In Experiment 2, 280 turkey hen poults were fed 8 diets [15/30% wDDGS (E+/E-), (EX-/EX+)]. The level of wDDGS had a significant effect on BW, FI and gain:feed; 15% inclusion was superior to 30%. There were significant 2- and 3-way interactions for AME and NR at 21 d due to differences in enzyme response with 15 or 30% wDDGS inclusion and/or extrusion of wDDGS. As high as 15% wDDGS can be incorporated in turkey hen diets. There were no beneficial effects of EX or E on poult performance. PMID:25595482

  19. Effects of distillers' dried grains with solubles and soybean oil on dietary lipid, fiber, and amino acid digestibility in corn-based diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Patience, J F

    2016-04-01

    The use of corn coproducts increases the concentration of fiber and, often, the use of supplemental lipids in swine diets, which may affect energy and nutrient digestibility. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reduced-oil distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean oil (SBO) on dietary AA, acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), and NDF digestibility in corn-based diets fed to growing pigs. Eighteen growing pigs (33.8 ± 2.2 kg BW) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allocated to 1 of 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3-period incomplete Latin square design, with 9 observations per treatment. Six dietary treatments were obtained by adding 0, 20, and 40% DDGS to corn-casein diets formulated with 2 and 6% SBO. Ileal digesta and fecal samples were collected and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of AEE and NDF and the AID of AA were determined. Apparent values were corrected for endogenous losses of lipids, and true ileal (TID) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) values of lipids were calculated. Results showed that the AID of Lys decreased ( < 0.001) with the inclusion of DDGS but was not affected ( = 0.63) by the inclusion of SBO. An interaction between DDGS and SBO on the AID ( = 0.002) and ATTD ( = 0.009) of NDF was observed, where the AID and ATTD of NDF decreased with DDGS at 6% SBO but no effect was observed at 2% SBO. The AID of NDF increased with SBO at 0% DDGS, but no effect was observed at 20 or 40% DDGS. An interaction between DDGS and SBO on the AID ( = 0.011) and ATTD ( = 0.008) of AEE was observed, where the AID and ATTD of AEE increased with SBO. The AID and ATTD of AEE increased with DDGS at 2% SBO, but no effect was observed at 6% SBO. Correction by ileal and fecal endogenous loss of AEE (9.5 and 13.6 g/kg of DMI, respectively) showed that increasing dietary AEE had no effect on the TID and TTD of AEE ( > 0.05). In conclusion, the AID of

  20. Effects of selected feed additives on the performance of laying hens given a diet rich in maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS).

    PubMed

    Świątkiewicz, S; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Krawczyk, J; Puchała, M; Józefiak, D

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 192 ISA Brown hens were given diets containing a high concentration of maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and egg quality was determined. 2. Birds were allocated to 8 treatment groups with 12 replicates (cages) of two hens and were given, from week 26 to 55, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets with or without a high concentration of DDGS (200 g/kg). The diet containing DDGS was not supplemented or supplemented with enzymes (xylanase and phytase), sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius) and a mixture of herbal extracts (Taraxaci siccum, Urticae siccum and Salviae siccum), inulin or chitosan. 3. The inclusion of DDGS in the diet had no effect on number of eggs produced, total egg mass, mean egg weight, feed intake or feed conversion ratio. Egg and eggshell quality parameters were also unaffected by dietary DDGS. The yolk colour score (points in Roche scale) was significantly increased by DDGS inclusion. DDGS in the diet caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were rather unfavourable from a dietary perspective (an increase of cholesterol content, and PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio). 4. During the experimental period (26-55 weeks of age) supplementation of the diet containing a high concentration of DDGS with enzymes, inulin as well as chitosan, increased number of eggs produced and daily egg mass. In older hens (50 weeks of age) inulin positively affected eggshell quality parameters, i.e. shell percentage, thickness and density. Diet supplementation with herb extracts, inulin or chitosan, decreased the content of cholesterol in yolks. 5. The results of this study suggest that DDGS may be incorporated up to a concentration of 200 g/kg in the diet of laying hens without any negative effects on egg performance. Moreover, supplementation of xylanase and phytase, as well as inulin and chitosan, can positively affect the performance of

  1. In vivo determination of rumen undegradable protein of dried distillers grains with solubles and evaluation of duodenal microbial crude protein flow.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, E; Klopfenstein, T J; Fernando, S C; Kononoff, P J

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this trial were to determine the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), to compare the estimates of duodenal bacterial CP (BCP) flow using diaminopumelic acid (DAPA) or DNA as bacterial markers, and to estimate duodenal protozoal CP (PCP) and yeast CP (YCP) flow when DDGS are fed. Three crossbred steers fitted with ruminal and double L-shaped duodenal cannulae (average BW 780 ± 137 kg) were used in a 3 treatment, 6 period crossover design. Animals were housed in individual free stalls and fed twice daily at 0700 and 1900 h. Diets (DM basis) were 1) CONTROL, which is 0% DDGS but with 19.5% corn bran, 20% sorghum silage, 60% brome hay, 0.5% trace minerals, and 0.25% urea, 2) LOW DDGS, which is inclusion of 9.75% DDGS replacing equal percentage of corn bran, and 3) HIGH DDGS, which is inclusion of 19.5% DDGS completely replacing corn bran. Duodenal BCP flow was estimated using DAPA and DNA as bacterial markers. In addition, duodenal PCP and YCP flow were estimated using DNA markers. The value of DDGS RUP as a percent of CP was determined to be 63.0 ± 0.64%. Estimates of duodenal BCP flow using DAPA were 473, 393, and 357 ± 78 g/d (P = 0.09) for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. Estimates of duodenal BCP flow using DNA were 479, 397, and 368 ± 74 g/d (P = 0.14), respectively. Average BCP flow across treatments was unaffected (P = 0.71) by marker type and were 404 and 417 ± 83 g/d for DAPA and DNA markers, respectively. Estimates of duodenal PCP flow were 82, 80, and 78 ± 12 g/d (P = 0.64) for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. Estimates of duodenal YCP flow were 0.15, 1.94, and 4.80 ± 0.66 g/d (P < 0.01) for CONTROL, LOW DDGS, and HIGH DDGS, respectively. Duodenal BCP flow tended to decrease with DDGS inclusion, but estimates were not affected by marker type. In addition, DDGS did not affect duodenal PCP supply and provided small amounts of duodenal YCP. Overall, the value of

  2. Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 μm. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 μm improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 μm DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 μm had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 μm DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 μm. Compared with a 595 or 818 μm DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 μm reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of

  3. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  4. Ration formulations containing reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles and their effect on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, E; Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Klopfenstein, T J; Hostetler, D; Karges, K; Fernando, S C; Kononoff, P J

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 2 experiments to evaluate the effects of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDG) on milk production, rumen fermentation, intestinal microbial N flow, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. In experiment 1, RFDG was fed at 0, 10, 20, or 30% of diet dry matter (DM) to 12 noncannulated Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation: 89 ± 11 d in milk and 674 ± 68.2 kg of body weight) to determine effects on milk production. In experiment 2, the same diets were fed to 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 41 d in milk; 590 ± 61.14 kg of body weight) to evaluate the effects on rumen fermentation, intestinal flow of microbial N, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. In both experiments, cows were randomly assigned to 4 × 4 Latin squares over 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were (1) control (0% RFDG), (2) 10% RFDG, (3) 20% RFDG, and (4) 30% RFDG. Feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In both experiments, milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of milk components. In experiment 2, ruminal pH was measured; samples of rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, and feces were collected on d 18 to 21. Microbial N was estimated by using purines and DNA as microbial markers. Milk yield was not affected by treatment and averaged 34.0 ± 1.29 kg/d and 31.4 ± 2.81 kg/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Percentage of milk protein tended to increase in experiment 1; estimates were 3.08, 3.18, 3.15, and 3.19 ± 0.06% when RFDG increased from 0 to 30% in the diets. However, milk protein concentration was not affected in experiment 2 and averaged 3.02 ± 0.07%. Percentage of milk fat was not affected and averaged 3.66 ± 0.05% and 3.25 ± 0.14% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Total ruminal volatile fatty acids and ammonia concentrations were not affected by treatment and averaged 135.18 ± 6.45 mM and 18.66 ± 2.32 mg

  5. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunity, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile channel catfish were fed for 12 weeks with diets containing wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (diet 1), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) or with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation as substitutes of soybean and corn meal mixture. Fish fed diet 5 had th...

  6. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance and molasses in diets with corn-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance in nursery and finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two assays were conducted to determine the effects of dietary electrolyte balance dEB) and molasses in diets with corn-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, Sioux River Ethanol, Hudson, SD) on growth performance of nursery and finishing pigs. For the first experiment, 126 nursery pigs ...

  7. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  8. Effects of adding saturated fat to diets with sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 112 barrows (avg BW of 72 kg) was used in a 65-day growth assay to determine the effects of adding a source of saturated fat (beef tallow) into diets with sorghum-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The pigs were sorted by ancestry and blocked by BW with seven pigs/pen an...

  9. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  10. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI and ADG and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) G:F than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P < 0.008) as juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P < 0.05) and serum Ca and P and fecal P were similar (P > 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves

  11. Determination and prediction of energy values in corn distillers dried grains with solubles sources with varying oil content for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, D F; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z C; Zhao, P F; Zeng, Z K; Xu, X; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the DE and ME content of 25 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. The 25 samples included 15 full-oil (no oil extracted; ether extract [EE] > 8%) DDGS and 10 reduced-oil (oil extracted; EE < 8%) DDGS collected from 17 ethanol plants in China. A corn–soybean meal diet constituted the basal diet and the other 25 diets replaced a portion of the corn, soybean meal, and lysine of the basal diet with 28.8% of 1 of the 25 corn DDGS sources. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 42.6 ± 6.2 kg) were used in the experiment conducted over 2 consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomized design. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolism cages for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following a 7-d adaptation to the diets. Among the 25 corn DDGS samples, EE, NDF, DE, and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 2.8 to 14.2%, 31.0 to 46.6%, 3,255 to 4,103 kcal/kg, and 2,955 to 3,899 kcal/kg, respectively. Using a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were developed not only among all 25 DDGS but also only within 15 full-oil DDGS and 10 reduced-oil DDGS samples. The best fit equations of DE (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 2,064 – (38.51 × % NDF) + (0.64 × % GE) – (39.70 × % ash), –(87.53 × % ADF) + (1.02 × % GE) – (22.99 × % hemicellulose), and 3,491 – (40.25 × % NDF) + (46.95 × % CP), respectively. The best fit equations for ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 1,554 – (44.11 × % NDF) + (0.77 × % GE) – (68.51 × % ash), 7,898 – (42.08 × % NDF) – (136.17 × % ash) + (101.19 × % EE) (103.83 × % CP), and 4,066 – (46.30 × % NDF) + (45.80 × % CP) – (106.19 × % ash), respectively. Using the sum of squared

  12. Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers' dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing-finishing barrows and gilts.

    PubMed

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Arkfeld, E K; Grossman, I M; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    Pigs (192 total) were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.75 ± 2.29 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen). Within blocks, pens were randomly allotted to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 diet forms (meal vs. pellet) and 2 distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion levels (0 vs. 30%). Pigs were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of each feeding phase (d 35, 70, and 91) and daily feed allotments were recorded. Pigs were slaughtered at the end of the 91-d experiment, and full gastrointestinal (GI) tract and GI tract component weights were recorded immediately following evisceration. Carcass characteristics and meat quality were determined after a 24-h chill. Overall ADG was increased ( < 0.01) 3.2% when pigs were fed pelleted diets rather than meal diets, but there was no effect ( = 0.46) of DDGS inclusion on overall ADG. Overall ADFI of meal-fed pigs fed 30% DDGS was 4.7% greater ( < 0.01) than that of pigs fed 0% DDGS in meal form, but overall ADFI did not differ ( ≥ 0.19) between DDGS inclusion level in pellet-fed pigs (diet form × DDGS inclusion, < 0.01). When fed meal diets, pigs fed 0% DDGS had 2.7% greater ( = 0.02) overall G:F than pigs fed 30% DDGS; however, there was no difference ( = 0.42) in overall G:F between DDGS inclusion levels in pigs fed pelleted diets (diet form × DDGS inclusion, < 0.03). Pigs fed pelleted diets had 2.9% heavier HCW ( = 0.01), 10.4% greater 10th-rib back fat ( = 0.01), and 1.8 percentage units less estimated lean percentage ( = 0.04) than meal-fed pigs. Full GI tracts of pigs fed pelleted diets were 0.33 percentage units less ( = 0.03) of the ending live weight than that of meal-fed pigs due to decreased ( < 0.01) GI tract contents. Inclusion of DDGS increased ( = 0.03) full GI tract weight, large intestine weight ( < 0.01), and GI tract contents ( = 0.02). Severity of parakeratosis of the pars esophagea was greater ( < 0.01) in pellet-fed pigs than in

  13. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  14. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, steers fed 0% CaO had the greatest prefeeding ruminal pH, steers fed 0 and 0.8% CaO exhibited the most rapid postfeeding decline in ruminal pH, and steers fed 2.4% CaO exhibited a relatively stable ruminal pH throughout the 24-h period (treatment × time; P ≤ 0.01). Acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentrations increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding with increasing CaO. Propionate at 3 h postfeeding increased from 0 to 1.6% CaO and decreased from 1.6 to 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.10). Urine pH increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) while urine output and urine ammonia decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as CaO inclusion increased

  15. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  16. Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid- to late gestation.

    PubMed

    Klein, S I; Steichen, P L; Islas, A; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Dahlen, C R

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six nonlactating beef cows were used to examine effects of dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DG) supplementation strategies to cows fed grass hay during mid- to late gestation on BW, ultrasound body composition characteristics, concentrations of serum NEFA and urea, feeding behavior, and calf birth weight. Cows were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) control, where hay was fed each day of the week (CON), 2) both hay and DG fed daily during the week (DG7), 3) hay fed daily but DG fed 3 d of the week (DG3), and 4) hay fed 4 d of the week alternating with DG fed on the remaining 3 d (DGA). Hay was offered ad libitum on days it was fed. The DG were fed at 0.40% of BW when offered daily and 0.93% of BW when offered 3 d per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday). Feed intake was monitored continuously over the 84-d feeding period. Hay intake and total DMI were reduced (P < 0.05) in DGA compared with DG7 and DG3. Gain and G:F were decreased (P < 0.05) for CON compared with other treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed among treatments for change in BCS, intramuscular fat, rib fat, or rump fat from d 1 to 84. On a day when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG (Friday), DGA had reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of urea compared with DG3 and DG7. On a day when only DG7 received DG (Saturday), urea was greater (P < 0.01) for DG3 and DGA compared with DG7, and concentrations of NEFA were greater (P < 0.01) in CON and DGA compared with DG7. On the second consecutive day when only DG7 received DG (Sunday), concentrations of NEFA were less (P < 0.001) for DG7 compared with other treatments. On days when all cows received hay, DGA spent more time eating (P < 0.05) compared with DG7 and DG3. Cows fed DGA had greater (P < 0.05) hay intake per meal and time per meal compared with other treatments. On days when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG, cows in the DG3 and DGA treatments had greater (P < 0.05) number of DG meals, time spent

  17. Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Dozier, W A; Shurson, G C

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) containing variable ether extract (EE) concentrations and to develop DE and ME prediction equations based on chemical composition. Ether extract content of corn-DDGS ranged from 4.88 to 10.88% (DM basis) among 4 corn-DDGS samples in Exp. 1 and from 8.56 to 13.23% (DM basis) among 11 corn-DDGS samples in Exp. 2. The difference in concentration of total dietary fiber (TDF) and NDF among the 4 corn-DDGS sources was 2.25 and 3.40 percentage units, respectively, in Exp. 1 but was greater among the 11 corn-DDGS sources evaluated in Exp. 2, where they differed by 6.46 and 15.18 percentage units, respectively. The range in CP and ash were from 28.97 to 31.19% and 5.37 to 6.14%, respectively, in Exp. 1 and from 27.69 to 32.93% and 4.32 to 5.31%, respectively, in Exp. 2. Gross energy content among corn-DDGS samples varied from 4,780 to 5,113 kcal/kg DM in Exp. 1 and from 4,897 to 5,167 kcal/kg DM in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the range in DE content was from 3,500 to 3,870 kcal/kg DM and ME content varied from 3,266 to 3,696 kcal/kg DM. There were no differences in ME:DE content among the 4 corn-DDGS sources in Exp. 1, but ME:GE content differed (P = 0.04) among sources (66.82 to 74.56%). In Exp. 2, the range in DE content among the 11 corn-DDGS sources was from 3,474 to 3,807 kcal/kg DM and ME content varied from 3,277 to 3,603 kcal/kg DM. However, there were no differences in DE:GE, ME:DE, or ME:GE among sources in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, no ingredient physical or chemical measurement [bulk density (BD), particle size, GE, CP, starch, TDF, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, EE, or ash)] was statistically significant at P ≤ 0.15 to predict DE or ME content in corn-DDGS. In Exp. 2, the best fit DE equation was DE (kcal/kg DM) = 1,601 - (54.48 × % TDF) + (0.69 × % GE) + (731.5 × BD) [R(2) = 0.91, SE = 41.25]. The best fit ME equation was ME (kcal/kg DM) = 4,558 + (52.26

  18. Supplementation of dried distillers grains with solubles to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Winterholler, S J; McMurphy, C P; Mourer, G L; Krehbiel, C R; Horn, G W; Lalman, D L

    2012-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate supplementation of dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS) to spring-calving beef cows (n = 120; 541 kg of initial BW; 5.1 initial BCS) consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation. Supplemental treatments included (DM basis) 1) 0.77 kg/d DGS (DGSL); 2) 1.54 kg/d DGS (DGSI); 3) 2.31 kg/d DGS (DGSH); 4) 1.54 kg/d of a blend of 49% wheat middlings and 51% cottonseed meal (POS); and 5) 0.23 kg/d of a cottonseed hull-based pellet (NEG). Feeding rate and CP intake were similar for DGSI and POS. In Exp. 1, cows were individually fed 3 d/wk until calving and 4 d/wk during lactation; total supplementation period was 119 d, encompassing 106 d of gestation and 13 d of lactation. Tall-grass prairie hay (5.6% CP, 50% TDN, 73% NDF; DM basis) was fed for ad libitum intake throughout the supplementation period. Change in cow BW and BCS during gestation was similar for DGSI and POS (-5.0 kg, P = 0.61 and -0.13, P = 0.25, respectively) and linearly increased with increasing DGS level (P < 0.01). Likewise, during the 119-d supplementation period, BW and BCS change were similar for DGSI and POS (-72 kg, P = 0.22 and -0.60, P = 0.10) and increased linearly with respect to increasing DGS (P < 0.01). The percentage of cows exhibiting luteal activity at the beginning of breeding season (56%, P = 0.31), AI conception rate (57%, P = 0.62), or pregnancy rate at weaning (88%, P = 0.74) were not influenced by supplementation. In Exp. 2, 30 cows from a separate herd were used to evaluate the effect of DGS on hay intake and digestion. Supplementation improved all digestibility measures compared with NEG. Hay intake was not influenced by DGS (P > 0.10); digestibility of NDF, ADF, CP, and fat linearly increased with increasing DGS. In Exp. 3, milk production and composition were determined for cows (n = 16/treatment) of similar days postpartum from Exp. 1. Daily milk production was not influenced by supplementation (6.3 kg

  19. Enzymes enhance degradation of the fiber-starch-protein matrix of distillers dried grains with solubles as revealed by a porcine in vitro fermentation model and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jha, R; Woyengo, T A; Li, J; Bedford, M R; Vasanthan, T; Zijlstra, R T

    2015-03-01

    Effects of treating corn and wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with a protease on porcine in vitro fermentation characteristics and the matrix structure of the DGGS before and after the fermentation were studied. Three DDGS samples (wheat DDGS sample 1 [wDDGS1], wheat DDGS sample 2 [wDDGS2], and corn DDGS [cDDGS]) were predigested with pepsin and pancreatin. Residues were then subjected to in vitro fermentation using buffered mineral solution inoculated with fresh pig feces without or with a multicarbohydrase alone or in combination with protease in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Accumulated gas production was measured for up to 72 h. Concentration of VFA was measured in fermented solutions. The matrix of native DDGS and their residues after fermentation was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine internal and external structures, respectively. On a DM basis, wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS contained 35.5, 43.4, and 29.0% CP; 2.23, 0.51, and 6.40% starch; 0.82, 0.80, and 0.89% available Lys; and 24.8, 22.5, and 23.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides, respectively. The in vitro digestibility of DM for wDDGS1, wDDGS2, and cDDGS was 67.7, 72.1, and 59.6%, respectively. The cDDGS had greater ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA production than both wheat DDGS. The wDDGS2 had lower ( < 0.05) total gas production than wDDGS1. Multicarbohydrase increased ( < 0.05) total gas production for cDDGS and total VFA production for wDGGS1 but did not increase gas or VFA production for wDDGS2. Addition of protease with multicarbohydrase to DDGS reduced ( < 0.05) total gas and VFA productions and increased ( < 0.05) branched-chain VFA regardless of DDGS type. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that DDGS were mainly aggregates of resistant and nonfermentable starchy and nonstarchy complexes formed during DDGS production. After in vitro

  20. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

    2014-08-01

    Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar

  1. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  2. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased. PMID:22952356

  3. FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES TO CONCENTRATE NUTRIENT STREAMS IN DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounts for more than 90% of the total value and production of feed grains. It is also used for food, industrial materials, and fuel ethanol production. Distillers grains, the major coproduct from ethanol manufacturing, are used as li...

  4. Physical properties of extrudates containing distillers grains extruded in a twin screw extruder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  5. Modification of an AOCS Official Method for Crude Oil Content in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study at author’s lab showed that the AOCS official method Am 5-04, based on filter bag technology developed by Ankom Technology Inc. has to be modified in order to have accurate measurement of oil content in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The areas of modification recomme...

  6. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-four individually-fed steers (308 +/- 9 kg initial BW) were used in an unbalanced, randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine the effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets contai...

  7. Effects of twenty percent corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on heifer performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred sixty-four crossbred heifers (initial body weight = 354 kg +/- 0.5) were used to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, and manure characteristics. The study w...

  8. Effects of feeding dry-rolled corn-based diets with and without wet distillers grains with solubles and zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance characteristics, and heat stress in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) has been approved for use since 2006; however, there is no research on any interactions between ZH and co-products such as wet distillers grains and solubles (WDGS). Additionally, there is no published information on the potential effects of ZH on heat stress in fee...

  9. Investigation of the impact of increased dietary insoluble fiber through the feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the incidence and severity of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wilberts, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Tim S; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R; Madson, Darin M; Patience, John F; Burrough, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including "B. hampsonii" has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or "B. hampsonii") and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the "B. hampsonii" groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery. PMID:25485776

  10. Investigation of the Impact of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber through the Feeding of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) on the Incidence and Severity of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wilberts, Bailey L.; Arruda, Paulo H.; Kinyon, Joann M.; Frana, Tim S.; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R.; Madson, Darin M.; Patience, John F.; Burrough, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or “B. hampsonii”) and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the “B. hampsonii” groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery. PMID:25485776

  11. Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

  12. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  13. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  14. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) N flow to the small intestine. The undegradable intake protein (UIP) value of DDGS was 35%. Postruminal digestion of OM (linear effect, P = 0.04) and fatty acids (linear effect, P = 0.03) and total tract digestion of OM and GE decreased (linear effect, P < 0.03) with increasing level of DDGS substitution. Substitution with DDGS did not affect (P = 0.80) ruminal pH but increased (linear effect, P = 0.01) acetate:propionate molar ratio. In Exp.2, 144 Holsteins steer (112 ± 6 kg) were used in a 305-d trial to evaluate treatment effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. During the initial 126 d, DDGS substitution increased ADG (linear effect, P = 0.03), G:F (quadratic effect, P = 0.03), and dietary NE (quadratic effect, P = 0.02), maximal for both at 20% DDGS inclusion rate. Based on estimated indispensable AA supply to the small intestine as a percentage of requirements during the initial 126-d period, histidine was first limiting followed by methionine. During the final 179-d period and overall (305-d feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf

  15. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, gut morphology, and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of yeast-derived products and distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and innate immune response in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Nine replicates of 5 birds each were assigned to dietary treatments consisting of a control diet without antibiotic (C), and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus, 0.025% of nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On d 21, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and approximately 5-cm long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum segments were collected for intestinal morphology measurements. Cecal tonsils and spleen were collected to measure the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, and IL-4. No significant difference was observed for growth performance parameters. However, diets containing 0.05% of nucleotides and YCW significantly increased (P < 0.05) villus height in the jejunum. Furthermore, the number of the goblet cells per unit area in the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) in diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. The expression of TLR2b in the spleen was down-regulated for diets supplemented with nucleotides and antibiotic. In addition, lower expression of TLR21 and MMR was observed in the spleen of birds receiving yeast-derived products and antibiotic. However, expression of TLR4 in the spleen was up-regulated in diets supplemented with YCW and nucleotides. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 was down-regulated in the spleen of birds fed diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. In addition, inclusion of YCW, Maxi-Gen Plus, or 0.05% of nucleotides down-regulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-4 in the cecal tonsils. In conclusion, down-regulation of receptors and cytokines in spleen and cecal tonsils of

  16. Effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bingdong; Nie, Shaoping; Meng, Qingwei; Qu, Zhe; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Sows (Landrace×Large White) with an average parity of 4·2 with similar body weight were randomly assigned to four groups of thirty each. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the total superoxide dismutase activity but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde of the jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets and decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and l-carnitine on the bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in weaning piglets on day 21 were significantly increased by l-carnitine only in soyabean meal diet, but there was no significant effect of l-carnitine in DDGS-based diet. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the bacterial numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria spp. in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in sows affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets, and by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. In conclusion, dietary

  17. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  18. Effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles, soybean hulls, or a polyclonal antibody product on the ability of growing pigs to resist a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge.

    PubMed

    Whitney, M H; Shurson, G C; Guedes, R C

    2006-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), soybean hulls, or soybean hulls sprayed with an egg-based, polyclonal antibody product would reduce the incidence or severity of infection, or both, in growing pigs after a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. One hundred 17-d-old weaned pigs were blocked by sex, ancestry, and BW, and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatment groups: negative control, unchallenged, corn-soy diet; positive control, challenged, corn-soy diet; 20% DDGS diet (D), challenged; 5% soybean hulls diet (SH), challenged; and SH sprayed with a polyclonal antibody product diet, challenged. Challenged pigs were orally inoculated with 6.4 x 10(8) L. intracellularis organisms after a 4-wk prechallenge feeding period. On d 21 postchallenge, pigs were euthanized, lesions of intestinal mucosa were evaluated, and ileal tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to determine the presence and proliferation rate of L. intracellularis. Challenging pigs with L. intracellularis reduced growth rate, feed intake, and efficiency of gain (P < 0.02) and increased the proportion of internal organ weights relative to BW (P < 0.01). Dietary treatment did not affect growth performance pre- or postchallenge (P > 0.10). Heart, empty stomach, and liver weights were similar among dietary treatments (P > 0.10). Weight of the large intestine as a percentage of BW was increased in D and SH pigs compared with positive control pigs (P < 0.05). Lesion length, prevalence, and severity, and fecal shedding of L. intracellularis were primarily unaffected by dietary treatment (P > 0.10), although ileal lesion length and severity observed tended to be greater in the SH sprayed with polyclonal antibody product diet vs. the D pigs (P < 0.10). Results from a previous study indicated that diet composition may affect length, severity, and prevalence of lesions caused by L. intracellularis in growing pigs subjected to a

  19. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    Excess protein in dairy cattle diets increases production costs and contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplemented with rumen-protected Lys and Met in place of solvent-extracted soybean meal on the performance of late-lactation cows. Two experiments were carried out, with each using 24 late-lactating dairy cows distributed among 4 pens. In trial 1, corn silage was the main forage source. Control (HP1) total mixed ration (TMR) contained 16.3% crude protein (CP) with soybean meal as the main protein source. Treatment TMR (LP1) had 13.7% CP when soybean meal was replaced with DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Forage in trial 2 was ryegrass silage; control TMR (HP2; 15.4% CP) contained soybean meal and rumen-protected Met, whereas treatment TMR (LP2; 13.8% CP) contained DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Trials were analyzed as crossover design using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC) with cow as sampling unit and pen as the experimental unit. Treatments were similar in dry matter intake (21.0 and 20.4 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) and milk yield (20.7 and 20.5 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) during trial 1. Milk composition was similar between treatments, averaging 4.22, 3.73, 4.54, and 9.15, respectively, for fat, protein, lactose, and solids nonfat. Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 17.2 mg/dL for HP1 to 9.93 mg/dL for LP1. In trial 2, no significant differences were observed for dry matter intake (21.4 and 20.9 kg/cow per day for HP2 and LP2, respectively), milk yield (28.1 and 26.6 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), fat yield (0.99 vs. 0.92 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), protein yield (0.94 vs. 0.86 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively) and lactose yield (1.37 vs. 1.28 for HP2 and LP2, respectively). Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 9.88 mg/dL with HP2 to 6.39 mg/dL with the LP2

  20. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  1. New co-products from grain-based fuel ethanol production and their drying performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. and elsewhere is an important and growing industry. In the U.S, about 40% of annual corn production is now converted into fuel ethanol. During co-product recovery, condensed distillers solubles (CDS) has to be mixed with distillers wet grains before drying due to ...

  2. Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Herrman, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated distillers grain (DG) by-products produced in different ethanol plants and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between corn and sorghum by-products as well as wet distillers grain with solubles and dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry-grind process stream on DG composition and quality. Salmonella was isolated in 4 DDGS samples out of a total of 157 DG samples, a percentage (2.5%) that is much lower than the percentage of Salmonella-positive samples found in other feed samples analyzed during the same period. A small amount of virginiamycin residue was found in 24 corn DDGS, 1 corn wet distillers grain with solubles, and 2 sorghum DDGS samples out of 242 samples in total. One sorghum DDGS sample out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but the transmission route of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent could not be clearly defined. The concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin DG by-products averaged 3.4 μg/kg and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. Among contaminated corn DG samples, five DDGS samples for aflatoxin contained a higher concentration than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level for use in animal feed, whereas no sample for fumonisin was found above the action level. The study results raised some important issues associated with the quality and use of DG by-products, suggesting several approaches and strategies for their effective and safe use as a feed ingredient to promote animal and human health and welfare. PMID:26408135

  3. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  4. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications. PMID:18026225

  5. Effects of feeding dry-rolled corn-based diets with and without wet distillers grains with solubles and zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and heat stress in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Shackelford, S D; Wells, J E; King, D A; Hayes, M D; Brown-Brandl, T M; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C; Wheeler, T L

    2014-09-01

    Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) has been approved for use since 2006; however, there is no research on any interactions between ZH and coproducts. Additionally, there is no published information on the potential effects of ZH on heat stress in feedlot cattle. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets with and without wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and ZH on performance, carcass characteristics, and heat stress in feedlot cattle. Four hundred thirty-eight steers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in 16 pens with 26 to 28 steers in each pen. Factors consisted of inclusion of 0 or 30% (on a DM basis) WDGS and inclusion of ZH at 0 or 84 mg/steer daily for 21 d at the end of the finishing period. Therefore, cattle were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of the resulting 4 treatment combinations: 1) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS and 84 mg/steer ZH, 2) DRC-based diet with 0% WDGS and no ZH, 3) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS and 84 mg/steer of ZH, and 4) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS and no ZH. Final live BW, carcass-adjusted BW, ADG, and G:F were greater for cattle fed ZH than non-ZH-fed cattle (P < 0.01). Additionally, cattle fed ZH consumed 7.4% less DM than cattle not fed ZH (P < 0.01). Cattle fed ZH for 21 d also had a 2.9% greater HCW (P < 0.01), a 1.1% greater dressing percentage (P < 0.01), 7.3% greater LM area (P < 0.01), and an 8.4% improvement in yield grade (P < 0.01) than cattle not fed ZH. For the main effect of WDGS inclusion, ADG was greater for cattle fed 0 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.04) and G:F also tended to be greater for cattle fed 0 vs. 30% WDGS (P = 0.07) for the 21-d ZH feeding period. However, when evaluated over the entire experiment, cattle fed 30 vs. 0% WDGS had a greater ADG and G:F (P < 0.01). Furthermore, cattle fed 30 vs. 0% WDGS had a greater dressing percentage and tended to have a greater amount of 12th rib

  6. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-04-01

    Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ≥ 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ≤ 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ≥ 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ≤ 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended

  7. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( < 0.001) and ADFI ( < 0.0001). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and GE were lower for the 30% DDGS diets than the 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.0001). Ractopamine improved ADG ( < 0.0001), G:F ( < 0.0001), and N retention ( < 0.001) and tended to increase daily water intake ( < 0.10). Pigs fed RAC had higher N intake and urinary excretion and lower N retention in Period 2 than in Period 1 ( < 0.05), indicating a decline in the response to RAC over time. Tylosin phosphate did not affect ADFI or G:F but did improve ATTD of N ( < 0.05). There was a tendency for a TP × DDGS interaction ( < 0.10) for ADG, where TP tended to increase ADG in pigs fed 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.10) but not in pigs fed 30% DDGS diets ( > 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC

  8. Enzyme characterization for hydrolysis of AFEX and liquid hot-water pretreated distillers' grains and their conversion to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production, was investigated as a feedstock for additional ethanol production. DDGS was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) processes. Cellulose was readily converted to glucose from bo...

  9. Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller's grains (DG) are used extensively by beef cattle feeding operations in the United States, including the Southern Great Plains. Our regional research consortium has been conducting research focused on utilization of wet DG in feedlot diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). Effects of DG on...

  10. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  11. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time. PMID:20163957

  12. Reduction in dietary wet distillers grains alters Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in feces of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle fed finishing diets with distillers grains have been shown to more often have Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the feces and on the hides. The objectives of this study were to determine if pathogen levels and prevalence differ at higher level of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in the d...

  13. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on nutrient metabolism and enteric gas production in finishing steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry rolled (DRC) and high moisture (HMC) corn are common corn processing methods used by feedlots in the Upper Midwest. Research is limited on higher inclusion rates of wet distillers grains with soluble (WDGS). Therefore, the effects of increasing the concentrations of WDGS in dry rolled and high m...

  14. Nutrient excretion, phosphorus characterization, and phosphorus solubility in excreta from broiler checks fed diets containing graded levels of wheat distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increase in production of ethanol in North America has led to increased production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the majority of which are fed to livestock. While there is evidence that DDGS can be included into poultry diets at rates as high as 15%, there has been no data reg...

  15. Supplementing rumen-protected methionine and lysine in low-protein diets based on corn distillers grains fed to lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and lysine (RPL) may allow feeding lower crude protein (CP) diets to dairy cows, thereby increasing nitrogen efficiency and reducing environmental impact. Moreover, RPL supplementation may improve the value of corn distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS)...

  16. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: In vitro fermentation and hydrogen sulfide production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDG) on in vitro rate of gas production, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were evaluated. Five substrate treatments that were balanced for ether extract content were arran...

  17. Effects of corn processing method and wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion and source on in situ digestibility and ruminal Ph of crossbred steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred steers (472kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to determine effects of corn processing method and wet distiller's grains plus soluble (WDGS) inclusion and source on in situ digestibly and ruminal pH. The 6 finishing diets were dry-rolled co...

  18. Degradation of phytates in distillers' grains and corn gluten feed by Aspergillus niger phytase.

    PubMed

    Noureddini, H; Dang, J

    2009-10-01

    Distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn gluten feed (CGF) are major coproducts of ethanol production from corn dry grind and wet milling facilities, respectively. These coproducts contain important nutrients and high levels of phytates. The phytates in these products cannot be digested by nonruminant animals; consequently, large quantities of phytate phosphorus (P) are deposited into the soil with the animal wastes which potentially could cause P pollution in soil and underground water resources. To reduce phytates in DDGS and CGF, a phytase from Aspergillus niger, PhyA, was investigated regarding its capability to catalyze the hydrolysis of phytates in light steep water (LSW) and whole stillage (WS). LSW and WS streams are the intermediate streams in the production of CGF and DDGS, respectively, and contribute to most of the P in these streams. Enzyme loadings with activity of 0.1, 1, 2, and 4 FTU/g substrate and temperatures of 35 and 45 degrees C were investigated regarding their influences on the degree of hydrolysis. The analysis of the hydrolyzate suggested to a sequentially degradation of phytates to lower order myo-inositol phosphate isomers. Approximately 90% phytate P of LSW and 66% phytate P of WS were released, suggesting myo-inositol monophosphate as the end product. The maximum amount of released P was 4.52 +/- 0.03 mg/g LSW and 0.86 +/- 0.01 mg/g WS. PMID:18815903

  19. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. PMID:26222602

  20. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  1. Multiclass, multiresidue method for the detection of antibiotic residues in distillers grains by liquid chromatography and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Alwis, Hemakanthi; Heller, David N

    2010-04-30

    The increased production of ethanol in the US has resulted in large amounts of distillers grains (DG) which is an excellent feed supplement for livestock. However, the use of antimicrobials during ethanol fermentation has led to a growing concern over the possibility of their residues remaining in DG. To enable the detection of antimicrobial residues, a robust LC-MS/MS method was developed that included 13 antibiotics of diverse chemistries, ampicillin, penicillin G, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, bacitracin A, virginiamycin M1, chloramphenicol, erythromycin A, clarithromycin, tylosin A, monensin A and streptomycin. The residues were extracted with an aqueous solution of EDTA and trichloroacetic acid followed by methanol. The combined extract was subjected to a two-track cleanup and concentration on either hydrophilic polymeric or weak cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridges. The extracts are analyzed by LC/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in dry DG matrix. Absolute recoveries of the analytes ranged from 50 to 100%. Accuracy ranged from 89 to 111% based on calibration by processed standards. The limits of detection and relative standard deviation are satisfactory to support future surveillance studies. The method was subsequently tested in three different end-products of DG: distillers dry grains, distillers wet grains and distillers grains solubles. PMID:20304405

  2. Effect of compositional variability of Distillers' Grains on cellulosic ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a dry grind ethanol plant, approximately 0.84 kg of dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced per liter of ethanol. The distillers’ grains contain the unhydrolyzed and unprocessed cellulosic fraction of corn kernels, which could be further converted to ethanol or other valuable b...

  3. Nutrient Excretion and Odorant Production in Manure from Cattle Fed Corn Wet Distillers Grains With Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four cross bred steers (BW 452. 5 ± 15.5 kg) were used to evaluate nutrient excretion and odorous compounds in urine and feces of feedlot steers fed diets containing corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). Cattle were weighed, blocked by weight, and assigned randomly to one of four ...

  4. Impact of using virginiamycin in the fuel ethanol production process on distillers grains coproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are frequently used to reduce bacterial contamination in commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, but there is concern that antibiotic residues may persist in the distillers grains (DDG) coproducts that are utilized for cattle feed. A study was conducted in the pilot plant facilities at t...

  5. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles to beef cattle on air and manure quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality is becoming a pressing issue for beef feedlot producers. Feeding practices influence the excretion of starch, fiber, nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) in manure, thereby affecting nutrient content and the production of ammonia and odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS...

  6. Predicting Stability of Distillers Wet Grains (DWG) using Rapid Color Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers Wet Grain (DWG) is one of the coproducts from the growing fuel ethanol industry. Although many studies have investigated the nutritional properties of DWG, little work has investigated the storability and shelf life for these feed products. The objective of this research, therefore, was...

  7. Substituting steam-flaked corn with 20% whole shelled corn in finishing diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles did not affect performance and feed conversion in feedlot heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous feeding studies suggest there may be an interaction between grain processing method and the feeding of wet distillers grains (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets, such that the growth response to feeding WDGS in beef cattle finishing diets based on dry rolled corn is greater than in steam ...

  8. Effect of increasing oil from distillers grains or corn oil on lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Bertics, S; Armentano, L E

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate production response and more specifically percentage and yield of fat in milk from dairy cows fed distillers grains with added solubles (DGS). It was hypothesized that the oil present in DGS would decrease milk fat yield. Four dietary treatments consisted of dried DGS replacing soybean meal and soybean hulls. The DGS inclusion rates as a percentage of dry matter (DM) were 0, 5, 10, and 15% DGS. To determine the role of oil in DGS, a fifth diet similar to 0% DGS with added corn oil (OIL) was included. Twenty multiparous Holsteins were assigned to a replicated, 5 x 5 Latin Square design with periods of 21 d. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration. Feeding OIL or 15% DGS resulted in similar production of milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Increasing dietary DGS linearly increased milk production and milk true protein yield. Adding corn oil increased milk yield and, although milk true protein yield also tended to increase with oil, milk true protein concentration decreased. The addition of DGS or OIL did not significantly change fat yield from 0% DGS; however, fat concentration in milk was significantly decreased by DGS due to increased fluid milk production. In diets containing approximately 28% NDF, cottonseed, blood and fish meal, feeding DGS to bring total dietary fatty acids to 5% of diet DM increased milk and milk protein yield without decreasing milk fat yield. Reduced proportions of shorter chain fatty acids and increased proportions of longer chain fatty acids in milk as dietary fatty acid content increased suggests that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland was inhibited but this was offset by increased secretion of long-chain fatty acids, presumably absorbed from the diet. Therefore, our hypothesis that feeding corn oil either as DGS or as pure corn oil would decrease milk fat yield was not correct. PMID:16027196

  9. Methods to recover value-added coproducts from dry grind processing of grains into fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keshun; Barrows, Frederic T

    2013-07-31

    Three methods are described to fractionate condensed distillers solubles (CDS) into several new coproducts, including a protein-mineral fraction and a glycerol fraction by a chemical method; a protein fraction, an oil fraction and a glycerol-mineral fraction by a physical method; or a protein fraction, an oil fraction, a mineral fraction, and a glycerol fraction by a physicochemical method. Processing factors (ethanol concentration and centrifuge force) were also investigated. Results show that the three methods separated CDS into different fractions, with each fraction enriched with one or more of the five components (protein, oil, ash, glycerol and other carbohydrates) and thus having different targeted end uses. Furthermore, because glycerol, a hygroscopic substance, was mostly shifted to the glycerol or glycerol-mineral fraction, the other fractions had much faster moisture reduction rates than CDS upon drying in a forced air oven at 60 °C. Thus, these methods could effectively solve the dewatering problem of CDS, allowing elimination of the current industrial practice of blending distiller wet grains with CDS for drying together and production of distiller dried grains as a standalone coproduct in addition to a few new fractions. PMID:23837906

  10. Modeling the effects of pelleting on the logistics of distillers grains shipping.

    PubMed

    Rosentrater, Kurt A; Kongar, Elif

    2009-12-01

    The energy security needs of energy importing nations continue to escalate. It is clear that biofuels can help meet some of the increasing need for energy. Theoretically, these can be produced from a variety of biological materials, including agricultural residues (such as corn stover and wheat straw), perennial grasses, legumes, algae, and other biological materials. Currently, however, the most heavily utilized material is corn starch. Industrial fuel ethanol production in the US primarily uses corn, because it is readily converted into fuel at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of corn-based ethanol in the US is dramatically increasing. As the industry continues to grow, the amount of byproducts and coproducts also increases. At the moment, the nonfermentable residues (which are dried and sold as distillers dried grains with solubles--DDGS) are utilized only as livestock feed. The sale of coproducts provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. Even though these materials are used to feed animals in local markets, as the size and scope of the industry continues to grow, the need to ship large quantities of coproducts grows as well. This includes both domestic as well as international transportation. Value-added processing options offer the potential to increase the sustainability of each ethanol plant, and thus the industry overall. However, implementation of new technologies will be dependent upon how their costs interact with current processing costs and the logistics of coproduct deliveries. The objective of this study was to examine some of these issues by developing a computer model to determine potential cost ramifications of using various alternative technologies during ethanol processing. This paper focuses specifically on adding a densification unit operation (i.e., pelleting) to produce value-added DDGS at a fuel ethanol

  11. PAHs in corn grains submitted to drying with firewood.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Rafael Friedrich; Dionello, Rafael Gomes; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Barrionuevo, Simone; Radunz, Lauri Lourenço; Reichert Júnior, Francisco Wilson

    2017-01-15

    Grain drying using firewood as fuel for air heating, with direct fire, is still widely used in Brazil. The combustion of organic material, such as wood, can generate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to have carcinogenic potential. In the present work corn grain drying was carried out at three drying air temperatures: 60°C, 60/80°C and 80°C. Following the drying process, the presence and quantification of PAH in the corn grains was investigated. After extracting the PAHs of the matrix, the material was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography with mass detector. he results showed the presence of seven compounds: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. PMID:27542463

  12. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants. PMID:15054259

  13. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P < 0.05), HCW (P = 0.06), fat thickness (P = 0.10), and % KPH (P = 0.08) responded quadratically to early DDGS supplementation, increasing from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and decreasing from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion, respectively. Marbling score was not affected (P > 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and

  14. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P < 0.05) AID of DM, N, Ca, and P. Increasing phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) AID of P and Ca, respectively, with AID of Ca showing a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.053). Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) AID of P from 46 to 62%. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, Ca, P, Mg, K, and energy. Contrasts showed that phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID for 8 indispensable AA (Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val), 6 dispensable AA (Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, and Tyr), as well as for total AA. Furthermore, phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P < 0.10) to increase ileal digestibility of Gly. Ileal digestibility of Met, Trp, and Pro were not affected by phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P < 0.05) in AID of 6

  15. Whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets with different concentrations of wet distiller's grains plus solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  16. Evaluation of whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing different concentrations of wet distiller's grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  17. Dry-distillation of astatine-211 from irradiated bismuth targets: a time-saving procedure with high recovery yields.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jensen, H J

    2001-08-01

    Astatine-211 was produced via the 209Bi(alpha,2n) 211At reaction. The radionuclide was isolated with a novel procedure employing dry-distillation of the irradiated target material. The astatine was condensed as a dry residue in a PEEK-capillary cryotrap. Distillation was completed within 1-2 min with isolation yields of 92 +/- 3%. Subsequent work-up of the nuclide resulted in final recovery yields of 79 +/- 3%. PMID:11393754

  18. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG), a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG), and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG), 5S (5% sorghum-based DG), 10S (10% sorghum DG), and 15S (15% sorghum DG) were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet) and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set) were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%), Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%), Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%), Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%), Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%), and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%). Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01), WS3 (p = 0.054), Actinobacteria (p

  19. INVESTIGATION INTO GRAIN DRY MATTER LOSS DURING FIELD DRYING OF CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1990s reports were circulating in the U.S. Midwest corn production community that there is significant loss in grain dry matter when corn is left to dry further in the field. While there was also evidence that this does not happen or that such loss is minimal, this became an issue of c...

  20. Ensiling characteristics of distillers wet grains with corn stalks and determination of the feeding potential for dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characteristics and feeding potential of corn distillers wet grains with solubles (DWGS) ensiled with corn stalks (CS) were evaluated in a two-part experiment. A mix of 66.7 % DWGS and 33.3 % CS (as-fed) was ensiled in two plastic silage bags. One silage bag was left untreated (UNT) and the othe...

  1. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  2. Manure odor potential and Escherichia coli concentrations in manure slurries of feedlot steers fed 40% corn wet distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated feeding 0 and 40% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) diets to cattle and effects on feedlot manure collected from soil-based pens and incubated for 28 d. Steers (n = 603; 261 ± 32 kg) were fed in eight pens (15 x 150 m) of 75 to 77 steers per pen. Two experiments were ...

  3. Prevalence and Level of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feces and On Hides of Feedlot Steers Fed Diets With or Without Wet Distillers Grains With Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have indicated distillers grains in cattle diets may alter the shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces, thereby increasing the E. coli O157:H7 load on the hide and ultimately on the carcass. To determine if wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in the diet affected E. coli O157:H...

  4. Effects of wet distillers grains with solubles on visceral organ mass, trace mineral status, and polioencephalomalacia biomarkers by individually-fed cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains can contain high concentratations of sulfur (S). In ruminants, high dietary S concentrations can cause the neurological disorder polioencephalomalacia (polio). To evaluate the effects of dietary wet distillers grains (WDGS) on the risk of polio 24 steers (initial body weight [BW]...

  5. Bacteria and archaea involved in anaerobic digestion of distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Scholwin, Frank; Il'inskaya, Olga N; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2011-03-01

    Cereal distillers grains, a by-product from bioethanol industry, proved to be a suitable feedstock for biogas production in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Five continuously stirred tank reactors were run under constant conditions and monitored for biogas production and composition along with other process parameters. Iron additives for sulfide precipitation significantly improved the process stability and efficiency, whereas aerobic pretreatment of the grains had no effect. The microbial communities in the reactors were investigated for their phylogenetic composition by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial subcommunities were highly diverse, and their composition did not show any correlation with reactor performance. The dominant phylotypes were affiliated to the Bacteroidetes. The archaeal subcommunities were less diverse and correlated with the reactor performance. The well-performing reactors operated at lower organic loading rates and amended with iron chloride were dominated by aceticlastic methanogens of the genus Methanosaeta. The well-performing reactor operated at a high organic loading rate and supplemented with iron hydroxide was dominated by Methanosarcina ssp. The reactor without iron additives was characterized by propionate and acetate accumulation and high hydrogen sulfide content and was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the genus Methanoculleus. PMID:21061007

  6. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A ENERGY SAVING GRAIN DRYING INVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE SHIVVERS

    2005-09-30

    The project goal is to develop the world's best grain dryer, where best is defined in terms of energy efficiency, grain quality protection, and minimal environmental impact. A technique was developed to recapture enthalpy from a continuous flow drying system and to carry that energy back into the grain kernels. Process design assures that the recaptured energy is used to provide latent heat for evaporation of moisture from the kernels. Maximum kernel temperatures are tightly controlled by the design and can be selected through the system controls. The drying system process has been simulated, the mechanical design for a prototype was completed, and the prototype has been fabricated and installed. Simulation results show energy use that is a fraction of that required by the most efficient heat assisted grain dryer systems available at this time. Unfortunately, project time has expired, funding has been exhausted, and the system has yet to be fully run in order to validate the process design. Additional development work is required to run tests with the prototype, improve the simulation model, optimize the process and mechanical design, and bring this energy saving system to market.

  8. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOEpatents

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G.; Noyes, Ronald T.; Potapovych, Larysa P.

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  9. Desiccant grain applied to the storage of solar drying potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, T.; Richter, I.G.; Pecenka, R.

    1999-09-01

    Sorption storage of solar heat using a layer of wheat as the desiccant was analyzed by means of a deep-bed model. Intended to be applied to solar-assisted in-storage drying of agricultural bulk materials, the probability of the persistence of unfavorable weather periods was quantified statistically for Potsdam for the month of August, as an example. Simulation results demonstrate that a relative humidity of the drying air of 65% can be maintained day and night for weeks without combustion of fossil fuels. Using a simple strategy of control, periods with insufficient solar radiation can be bridged over. The desiccant grain is not endangered by mold growth as a matter of principle. Simple solar air heaters can be used to avoid economic losses due to overdrying and to reduce the danger of decay to a minimum even at unfavorable climatic conditions.

  10. Nutrient Transport in Runoff from Feedlots as Affected by Wet Distiller's Grain Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller's byproducts can serve as valuable sources of protein and energy for beef cattle. When the characteristics of materials entering and exiting the plant are compared, the nutrients in distiller's byproducts are concentrated about three times. The objectives of this study were to: a) measure ...

  11. Effects of monensin and tylosin in finishing diets containing corn wet distillers grains with solubles with differing corn processing methods.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Benton, J R; Luebbe, M K; Laudert, S B

    2013-05-01

    A total of 3,632 crossbred steers were used in 3 separate randomized complete-block designed finishing experiments. Data from Exp. 1 were analyzed separately whereas data were combined for Exp. 2 and 3, based on corn processing method used [Exp.1 = equal combination of dry-rolled and high-moisture (DRC:HMC); Exp. 2 and 3 = steam-flaked (SFC)]. Steers were fed 1 of 5 treatments to evaluate the effects of monensin and tylosin in feedlot diets containing 25% corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS; DM basis). Treatments included: 1) corn-based diet (no WDGS) with 360 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (CORN+MT), 2) 25% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS-CON), 3) 25% WDGS with 360 mg/d monensin (WDGS+M), 4) WDGS with monensin and tylosin at same levels as treatment 1, and 5) WDGS with 480 mg/d monensin and 90 mg/d tylosin (WDGS+HIMT). In Exp. 1, WDGS+MT increased (P < 0.01) ADG (6.5%), G:F (6.9%), and HCW (3.0%) compared with CORN+MT. Alternatively, in Exp. 2 and 3, WDGS+MT had no effect on ADG (P = 0.18), decreased (P < 0.01) G:F by 3.2%, and did not affect HCW (P = 0.57) compared with CORN+MT. In Exp. 1, addition of monensin to a WDGS diet increased G:F by 3.1% (P = 0.03) and tended to increase G:F in Exp. 2 and 3 (P = 0.09) compared with WDGS-CON. For all experiments, addition of monensin and tylosin in a diet containing WDGS increased G:F (P < 0.01) and reduced total and severe liver abscesses (P < 0.01) compared with WDGS-CON. Additionally, HCW was increased in Exp. 2 and 3 (P < 0.01) and tended to increase in Exp. 1 (P = 0.09) when monensin and tylosin were fed in a WDGS diet compared with WDGS-CON. Feeding WDGS+MT reduced total liver abscesses by 79.3% (Exp. 1) and 57.6% (Exp. 2 and 3) compared with WDGS-CON. Compared with WDGS+MT, minimal differences were observed when monensin was fed at 480 mg/steer daily with tylosin in diets containing WDGS. Inclusion of WDGS in finishing steer diets did not alter effectiveness of monensin with tylosin in

  12. Effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn on heifer growth performance and diet digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Arias, R P; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Scholljegerdes, E J; Baird, A N; Johnson, K D; Buckmaster, D; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles (MWDGS; 48% DM) co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC) on growth performance, dietary intake, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 Angus-crossed heifers (2 yr old; 522 ± 49.1 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.1 BCS) were stratified and blocked according to BW and stratified by BCS in each block in a randomized complete block design (24 pens; 4 heifers/pen; 6 treatment replications). Groups were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for a 62 d trial. Treatments were 1) corn silage (CS) and soybean meal (CON), 2) MWDGS co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC; CO-EN), 3) CS mixed with MWDGS at feeding (CS+WDG), and 4) CS mixed with dry distillers grain plus solubles (DDGS) at feeding (CS+DDG). In Exp. 2, 4 crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 278 ± 18 kg) fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used in a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square to test the effects of feeding MWDGS co-ensiled with WC on DM intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and total tract digestibility. There were four 14-d periods, with 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for samples collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used and compared CON vs. diets containing distillers grains (DGD), CO-EN vs. diets where distillers grains were mixed at feeding (MIX), and CS+WDG vs. CS+DDG. In Exp. 1, the CON fed heifers resulted in greater G:F (P = 0.04) compared with those fed DGD. However, ADG (P = 0.03), final BW (P = 0.04), and BW gain (P = 0.03) were greatest for DGD diets compared with CON and greatest (P = 0.04) for CO-EN when compared with MIX. Apart from a slightly greater acetate concentration (P = 0.05), which resulted in a greater acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.03) for the CON diet compared with DGD, no important differences were observed on intake, diet digestibility, or fermentation characteristics when comparing the CON treatment with DGD or when comparing CS

  13. Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage-based diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P F; Cabrita, A R J; Dewhurst, R J; Vicente, T E J; Lopes, Z M C; Fonseca, A J M

    2006-07-01

    The effects of increasing levels of solvent-extracted palm kernel meal (SPKM) and corn distillers dried grains (CDG) in corn silage-based diets on feed intake and milk production were examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows averaging 100 d in milk (DIM) (SD = 61.5) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 4 treatments in 5 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of SPKM in the diet. During a 3-wk preliminary period, cows were fed a standard diet. At the end of the preliminary period, cows were blocked by 4% fat-corrected milk yield, parity number (primiparous and multiparous), and DIM, and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets. The total mixed ration (TMR) consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of SPKM were achieved by replacing protein sources and citrus pulp with SPKM and urea (0, 5, 10, and 15% SPKM and 0.06, 0.22, 0.38, and 0.55% urea for SPKM0, SPKM5, SPKM10, and SPKM15, respectively). In Experiment 2, 18 Holstein cows averaging 93 DIM (SD = 49.1) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatments in 6 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of CDG in the diet. The preliminary period lasted for 2 wk. Assignment of cows to treatments was the same as in Experiment 1. The TMR consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of CDG were achieved by replacing soybean meal and citrus pulp with CDG and urea (0, 7, and 14% CDG and 0, 0.22, and 0.49% urea for CDG0, CDG7, and CDG14, respectively). There were no significant treatment effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition in Experiment 1. Inclusion of SPKM tended to increase protein and lactose contents of milk. The SPKM0 diet promoted body weight loss. There were no

  14. Changes in the phenolic acid content during commercial dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine fractions (ground corn-1, cooked slurry-2, liquefied slurry-3, fermented mash-4, whole stillage-5, thin stillage-6, condensed distillers soluble (CDS)-7, distillers wet grains (DWG)-8, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-9) were collected from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol ...

  15. An attempt towards simultaneous biobased solvent based extraction of proteins and enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials from distiller's grains and solubles.

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Bals, B. D.; Lin, Y. J.; Negri, M. C.; Datta, R.; Pasieta, L.; Ahmad, S. F.; Moradia, A. A.; Dale, B. E.; Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems; Michigan State Univ.; Vertec BioSolvents Inc.; Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

    2010-07-01

    Distiller's grains and solubles (DGS) is the major co-product of corn dry mill ethanol production, and is composed of 30% protein and 30-40% polysaccharides. We report a strategy for simultaneous extraction of protein with food-grade biobased solvents (ethyl lactate, d-limonene, and distilled methyl esters) and enzymatic saccharification of glucan in DGS. This approach would produce a high-value animal feed while simultaneously producing additional sugars for ethanol production. Preliminary experiments on protein extraction resulted in recovery of 15-45% of the protein, with hydrophobic biobased solvents obtaining the best results. The integrated hydrolysis and extraction experiments showed that biobased solvent addition did not inhibit hydrolysis of the cellulose. However, only 25-33% of the total protein was extracted from DGS, and the extracted protein largely resided in the aqueous phase, not the solvent phase. We hypothesize that the hydrophobic solvent could not access the proteins surrounded by the aqueous phase inside the fibrous structure of DGS due to poor mass transfer. Further process improvements are needed to overcome this obstacle.

  16. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG; < 15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn- (SFC) based diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility of feeedlt ocattle. In Experi...

  17. Multivariate Analyses of Selected Mechanical Properties of Dry Bean Grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibar, Hakan

    2015-04-01

    The direct shear test are widely used to measure the bulk material properties for economical design of bulk handling equipment and to estimate wall pressure inside storage structures, namely their bulk density, the angle of internal friction, shear strength, Poisson ratio, and lateral pressure ratios are required. Tests were conducted at thirty six different shear speeds (between 0.30-1.00 mm min-1) and three different normal stresses were applied (60, 120 and 180 kPa). The angle of internal friction, Poisson ratio, and lateral pressure ratios demonstrated fluctuations depending on the shear speeds. The results of the principal component analysis indicated that the first three principal components accounted for 97.40% of the total variability among the thirty six different shear speeds for all the traits investigated. The first principal component was the most important. In the result of principal component analysis, the shear speeds were divided into seven clusters. The pressures were decreased and increased with the change of the angle of internal friction and the lateral pressure ratio. The data obtained from the study will be useful in the structural design of dry bean bins to calculate loads on bins from the stored material and grain handling equipment.

  18. Grain Sterility in relation to Dry Mass Production and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam B.; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd. Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation. PMID:24895563

  19. Comparison of cattle fecal communities from animals fed diets containing corn and distiller's grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Distiller’s grain is a byproduct of ethanol production, and is considered a good source of protein for cattle. However, there is concern that use of distiller’s grain may create a gastrointestinal environment that allows the growth of fecal pathogens, and the specific changes t...

  20. Effects of vitamin E on color stability and palatability of strip loin steaks from cattle fed distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, B D; Hilton, G G; Hanger, K G; Richards, C J; Morgan, J B; VanOverbeke, D L

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preslaughter antioxidant supplementation to cattle fed wet distillers grains on carcass yield and quality grade, and on the color stability and consumer acceptability of steaks. Two hundred five crossbred steers were fed 35% wet distillers grains with the supplementation of 4 different levels of α-tocopheryl acetate: 0, 125, 250, and 500 IU•animal(-1)•d(-1) for 97 d. Chuck rolls (n = 69) and strip loins (n = 185) were collected and processed at 4 and 7 d postslaughter, respectively. Chucks were ground and separated into 0.23-kg samples. Strip loins were faced and cut into 2.54-cm steaks and packaged in a polyvinyl chloride overwrapped (PVC) package, a vacuum package, or modified atmosphere packages (MAP) for further color, α-tocopherol, objective tenderness, palatability, and proximate analysis. Color was measured objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE spectrophotometer (HunterLab Associates Inc., Reston, VA) and subjectively by a trained color panel, and a consumer panel was used to indicate which treatments affected retail acceptability and purchase decisions. Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements were used for objective tenderness, and a trained panel assessed subjective palatability characteristics. Instrumental color measurements revealed little difference for ground beef in both PVC and MAP packages, but diets with 500 and 250 IU•animal(-1)•d(-1) of vitamin E had a longer (P < 0.05) retention of redness and yellowness in steaks as compared with steaks from animals receiving less vitamin E. Subjective color evaluation for strip steaks indicated that greater vitamin E was more likely (P < 0.05) to maintain color stability, overall acceptability, and consumer purchase preference while decreasing percentage of discoloration. No significant differences (P > 0.10) were observed for objective tenderness and sensory attributes of strip steaks, and no differences (P > 0.10) were observed in

  1. Effects of feeding processed corn stover and distillers grains on growth performance and metabolism of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Chapple, W P; Cecava, M J; Faulkner, D B; Felix, T L

    2015-08-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of replacing corn in feedlot finishing diets with processed corn stover (CS), processed by various combinations of chemical and physical methods, and modified wet distillers grain with solubles (MWDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, digestibility, and ruminal metabolism of cattle. Corn stover was physically processed (ground or extruded) and chemically processed with alkaline agents (CaO and NaOH) to reduce the crystallinity of the lignocellulosic structure. In Exp. 1 steers ( = 18, initial BW = 385 ± 32 kg) and heifers ( = 41, initial BW = 381 ± 27 kg) were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: 1) 55% dry, cracked corn, 35% MWDGS, 5% vitamin-mineral supplement, and 5% untreated ground CS (), 2) CS treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and stored in an Ag-Bag (BGCS), 3) CS treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and extruded (5 EXCS), 4) CS treated with 4% CaO and 1% NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (4,1 EXCS), or 5) CS treated with 3% CaO and 2% NaOH (DM basis) and extruded (3,2 EXCS). Extruded CS was hydrated to 34% moisture, then an additional 16% water was added, as a solution carrying CaO or NaOH or both, via a calibrated pump during processing through a dual-shafted encased extruder (Readco Kurimoto Continuous Processor, York, PA) with the desired exiting temperature of 76.7°C ± 2.8°C. All treated CS diets contained 20% CS and 40% MWDGS (DM basis) to replace 20% corn when compared to CON. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.20) of dietary treatment on ADG, G:F, 12th-rib back fat, marbling score, LM area, or yield grade. However, cattle fed CON had increased ( = 0.02) DMI compared to cattle fed the treated CS diets. In Exp. 2, using the same diets as fed in Exp. 1, ruminally cannulated steers ( = 5; initial BW = 417 ± 21 kg) were fed for 90% of ad libitum intake in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Apparent digestibility of NDF and ADF increased ( < 0.01) when cattle were fed treated CS diets compared with CON, regardless of

  2. Effects of roughage source and inclusion in beef finishing diets containing corn wet distillers' grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Benton, J R; Watson, A K; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Pol, K J Vander; Meyer, N F; Greenquist, M A

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of roughage source and inclusion in diets containing wet distillers' grains plus solubles (WDGS) on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism. In Exp. 1, 385 crossbred steer calves (initial BW = 346 kg [SD 29]) were used in a finishing trial. A control diet with no roughage inclusion was compared with 6 diets containing either alfalfa hay (ALF), corn silage (CSIL), or corn stalks (CSTK) at 2 inclusions as a 3 × 2 factorial. Alfalfa hay was included at 4 (low) or 8% (standard) of diet DM. Diets containing CSIL or CSTK were formulated to provide total dietary NDF equal to the low and standard ALF inclusion diets. The final diets contained 6.13 and 12.26% CSIL or 3.04 and 6.08% CSTK (DM basis). All diets contained 30% WDGS and a 1:1 mixture of dry-rolled and high-moisture corn (DM basis). Cattle fed no roughage had reduced ( < 0.01) DMI and tended ( ≤ 0.10) to have the lowest final BW and ADG compared with cattle fed roughage. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.11) in DMI, ADG, or G:F due to roughage source. Cattle fed a standard inclusion of roughage had greater ( ≤ 0.04) DMI and ADG compared with cattle fed diets with low inclusion, regardless of roughage source. Feed efficiency tended to be different among treatments ( = 0.09), with cattle fed no roughage having greater G:F than all treatments ( ≤ 0.06) except cattle fed the low level of CSTK, which had a similar G:F ( = 0.48). Feed efficiency was not affected by source of roughage ( = 0.23) or inclusion of roughage ( = 0.49). In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally fistulated steers (347 kg BW [SD 25]) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial with ALF or CSTK included at zero, low, or standard levels similar to Exp. 1. Apparent total tract digestibility (%) of DM, OM, and NDF decreased linearly ( ≤ 0.07) due to increasing roughage inclusion. Average, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH increased linearly ( ≤ 0

  3. Costs of Pelleting to Enhance the Logistics of Distillers Grains Shipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels, especially corn-based ethanol, can help meet some of the increasing demand for transportation fuels. Currently, the most heavily utilized substrate is corn grain, which is readily converted into ethanol at a relatively low cost compared to other biomass sources. The production of ethanol...

  4. Optimization and economic evaluation of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation from gasification of corn stover and distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Demirel, Yasar; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Thermochemical gasification is one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into power, fuels and chemicals. The objectives of this study were to maximize the net energy efficiency for biomass gasification, and to estimate the cost of producing industrial gas and combined heat and power (CHP) at a feedrate of 2000kg/h. Aspen Plus-based model for gasification was combined with a CHP generation model, and optimized using corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as the biomass feedstocks. The cold gas efficiencies for gas production were 57% and 52%, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. The selling price of gas was estimated to be $11.49 and $13.08/GJ, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were as high as 37% and 88%, respectively, for corn stover and 34% and 78%, respectively, for DDGS. The selling price of electricity was estimated to be $0.1351 and $0.1287/kWh for corn stover and DDGS, respectively. Overall, high net energy efficiencies for gas and CHP production from biomass gasification can be achieved with optimized processing conditions. However, the economical feasibility of these conversion processes will depend on the relative local prices of fossil fuels. PMID:20096571

  5. Composition and oxidative stability of crude oil extracts of corn germ and distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition, Acid Value, and the content and composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and steryl ferulates were determined in corn germ oil and four post-fermentation corn oils from the ethanol dry grind process. The oxidative stability index at 110ºC was ...

  6. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distiller's grain with solubles on carbon-nitrogen balance of finishing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has increased the use of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. Effects of corn processing method and WDGS on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balance were evaluated in four Jersey steers using respiration calo...

  7. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distiller's grain with solubles on energy metabolism and enteric methane emissions of finishing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate of the net energy value of WDGS has yet to be determined. Effects of corn processing method and WDGS on energy metabolis...

  8. Odor Production and Escherichia coli Concentrations in Manure Slurries of Feedlot Steers Fed 0 or 40% Corn Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated feeding 0 and 40% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) diets to cattle and effects on feedlot manure collected from soil-based pens and incubated for 28 d. Steers (n = 603; 261 ± 32 kg) were fed in eight pens (15 x 150 m) of 75 to 77 steers per pen. Two experiments were ...

  9. Odorant production and persistence of Escherichia coli in manure slurries from cattle fed zero, twenty, forty, or sixty percent wet distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from corn removes starch and concentrates the remaining nutrients, including crude protein and minerals. When wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) are fed to cattle in place of corn, crude protein and minerals often exceed dietary needs. This may increase nitrogen emission...

  10. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distiller's grains with solubles on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has increased the use of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of WDGS in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate ...

  11. Effects of ruminally degradable N in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of degradable nitrogen (N) needs in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) is needed to aid the cattle feeding industry in managing feed costs and potential environmental issues. Yearling steers (n = 525; initial weight = 822 +/- 28 lb) were housed in 56 pens (...

  12. Prevalence and Level of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feces and on Hides of Feedlot Steers Fed Diets With or Without Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in diets affected Escherichia coli O157:H7 in growing and finishing cattle, so steers (n = 603) were randomly assigned to diets with and without WDGS. Hide and fecal samples were collected monthly (October thr...

  13. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  14. Effect of dietary fat concentration and wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hundred ninety-eight crossbred yearling heifers (initial BW = 373.5 kg) were used in two experiments to examine the effect of dietary fat concentration on the feeding value of wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles (WSDGS). Treatments included two 92% concentrate diets based on steam-fl...

  15. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of corn wet distillers grains with solubles on odor and gas production in cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has recently increased the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate odorous compound production in urine and feces of feedlot steers fed diets with different...

  16. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to growing-finishing cattle on ammonia concentration in air and manure nutrient composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality is a difficult and pressing problem for feedlot producers. This is compounded by feeding practices that influence the excretion of starch, fiber, crude protein, and sulfur (S) by cattle that significantly affect the production of odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (...

  17. Effects of graded levels of sorghum wet distiller's grains and degraded intake protein on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed steam-flaked corn based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments evaluated different levels of sorghum wet distiller's grains (SWDG) and effects of increasing levels of degraded intake protein (DIP) in SWDG on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. In Experiment 1, 200 steers (average BW = 404 kg) were fed increasing levels of...

  18. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  19. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  20. Use of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in rainbow trout feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing price and reduced availability of fish meal have prompted feed manufacturers and aquaculture producers to search for sustainable and economical alternative protein sources. The majority of these have come from plants, and many, for example soybean meal, have been successfully incorporated...

  1. Effect of matrix clean-up for aflatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a group of highly carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. These toxins have a detrimental economic impact on such industries as corn and ethanol production. They are highly regulated by the FDA and as such, a rapid, reliable method with low det...

  2. Thermophilic co-digestion feasibility of distillers grains and swine manure: effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate during high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD).

    PubMed

    Sensai, P; Thangamani, A; Visvanathan, C

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of high solids containing distillers grains and swine manure (total solids, 27 +/- 2% and 18 +/- 2%, respectively) was evaluated in this study to assess the effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate (OLR). Feed mixture was balanced to achieve a C/N ratio of 30/1 by mixing distillers grains and swine manure. Pilot-scale co-digestion of distillers grains and swine manure was carried out under thermophilic conditions in the continuous mode for seven different OLRs from R1 to R7 (3.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 kg VS/m3 day) under high solid anaerobic digestion. The methane yield and volatile solid (VS) removal were consistent; ranging from 0.33 to 0.34 m3CH4/kg VS day and 50-53%, respectively, until OLR 8 kg VS/m3 day. After which methane yield and VS removal significantly decreased to 0.26 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 42%, respectively, when OLR was increased to 14 kg VS/m3 day. However, during operation, at OLR of 10 kg VS/m3 day, the methane yield and VS removal increased after the 19th day to 0.33 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 46%, respectively, indicating that a longer acclimatization period is required by methanogens at a higher loading rate. PMID:25145212

  3. Residue levels of five grain-storage-use insecticides during the production process of sorghum distilled spirits.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongtao; Huang, Baoyong; Liu, Shaowen; Zou, Nan; Yang, Juan; Zhong, Zezhi; Zhang, Xuesong; Song, Le; Qin, Yuhong; Pan, Canping

    2016-09-01

    Residue levels of dichlorvos, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion and deltamethrin during sorghum distilled spirits production were examined. The analytical method for these pesticides in sorghum, fermented sorghum, rice hull and distilled spirits was validated through linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, limit of quantification (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) parameters. The pesticide residue levels before/after each process of soaking, steaming, fermentation, and distillation were determined by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results showed that soaking process could obviously reduce dichlorvos residue with 87% decrease as its high vapor pressure. The steaming process reduced pesticide residues by 42-83% mainly due to evaporation or thermal degradation. Also, the fermentation could remove pesticide residues by 40-63% in favor of biological degradation. Moreover, the distillation process was proved to be effective for decreasing the pesticide residues in distilled spirits with the processing factors lower than other processes for each pesticide. PMID:27041292

  4. DRYING PROPERTIES OF PEARL MILLET GRAIN FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.Br.) can be grown in difficult production environments characterized by sandy dryland soils with low fertility. Prior to storage in bins it is frequently necessary to dry the grain to levels that restrict the growth of molds and insects. Growers in the southe...

  5. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  6. Beef quality of calf-fed steers finished on varying levels of corn-based wet distillers grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Mello, A S; Calkins, C R; Jenschke, B E; Carr, T P; Dugan, M E R; Erickson, G E

    2012-12-01

    Calf-fed crossbred steers (n = 94) were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0%, 15%, or 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles, WDGS; DM basis) and fed for 167 d to determine the effects on quality attributes of beef. At 48 h postmortem, marbling score, marbling texture, and marbling distribution were assessed by a USDA grader. After grading, one rib eye slice (longissimus thoracis) »7 mm thick was excised from each carcass, trimmed of subcutaneous fat, and analyzed for fatty acid profile and lipid content. At 7 d postmortem, 48 top blades (infraspinatus), strip loins (longissimus lumborum), and tenderloins (psoas major) (16 per treatment) were removed from shoulder clods and short loins and 2 steaks were obtained to measure mineral content, fatty acid profile (except strip loins), trained sensory analysis, objective color, and lipid oxidation. Finishing diet did not influence the content of total lipid (P = 0.19) or marbling, marbling texture, or marbling distribution (P = 0.46, 0.84, 0.40, respectively). Feeding WDGS created a linear increase (P < 0.01) of PUFA in all three muscles (longissimus thoracis showed 4.90%, 5.91%, and 6.23% PUFA for 0%, 15%, and 30% WDGS, respectively). Similar responses were observed for 18:2(n-6) and total n-6 fatty acids. Conversely, lower proportions of 18:1(n-7) fatty acid were observed in beef from animals fed 30% WDGS (P < 0.01). Total trans fatty acids increased linearly in strip loin and top blade steaks (P < 0.01), whereas proportions of 16:0 and 14:1(n-5) fatty acids decreased in all muscles (P < 0.01) as WDGS increased. Diet did not affect mineral content of top blades or strip loins. For tenderloin steaks, S concentration was lower when 30% of WDGS was fed (P = 0.05). No effects on sensory attributes and Warner-Bratzler shear force were observed (P > 0.50), except a minimal effect on strip loin juiciness (5.32, 4.86, and 5.52 for 0%, 15%, and 30% WDGS, respectively; P = 0.02). Top blade and tenderloin steaks from

  7. Composition of corn dry-grind ethanol by-products: DDGS, wet cake, and thin stillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and wet distillers’ grains are the major co-products of the dry grind ethanol facilities. As they are mainly used as animal feed, a typical compositional analysis of the DDGS and wet distillers’ grains mainly focuses on defining the feedstock’s nutritio...

  8. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P < 0.01) was noted for final BW, ADG, G:F, and HCW. Greater final BW was observed for treated stover (4.6%) and straw (5.6%) compared with NT residues; however, AT and NT cobs were similar. Treated straw (9.7%) and stover (12.5%) resulted in greater ADG (P < 0.01) and improved G:F (10.7% and 5.0%, respectively; P < 0.01) compared with NT forms. In Exp. 2, ruminally fistulated steers (n = 5) were used in an unbalanced 5 × 7 incomplete Latin square design with a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were crop residue (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and chemical treatment (NT or AT) fed at 25% of diet DM. Greater DM (73.7% vs. 66.1%; P < 0.01), OM (77.0% vs. 68.5%; P < 0.01), fat (89.2 vs. 85.2; P = 0.02), and NDF (66.8% vs. 51.5%; P < 0.01) digestibilities were noted for AT than for NT. However, no difference (P > 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data

  9. Effects of corn processing method and dietary inclusion of wet distillers grains with solubles on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2012-09-01

    The growing ethanol industry in the Southern Great Plains has increased the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus) finishing diets. Few studies have used steam-flaked corn (Zea mays L.; SFC)-based diets to evaluate the effects of WDGS in finishing cattle diets, and a reliable estimate of the net energy value of WDGS has yet to be determined. Effects of corn processing method and WDGS on energy metabolism, C and N balance, and enteric methane (CH(4)) production were evaluated in a short-term study using 8 Jersey steers and respiration calorimetry chambers. A 2 by 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a Latin square design. The 4 treatment combinations consisted of: i) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); ii) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); iii) dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and iv) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30). Diets were balanced for degradable intake protein (DIP) and ether extract (EE) by the addition of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) meal and yellow grease. As a proportion of GE, grain processing method did not affect (P ≥ 0.12) fecal, digestible, urinary, and ME, or heat production. Steers consuming SFC-based diets produced less (P < 0.04) CH(4) than steers consuming DRC-based diets. Retained energy tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for cattle consuming SFC- than DRC-based diets. Inclusion of WDGS did not affect (P ≥ 0.17) fecal, digestible, urinary, metabolizable, and retained energy, or heat production as a proportion of GE. Furthermore, neither inclusion of WDGS or grain processing method affected (P ≥ 0.17) daily CO(2) production. Due in part to greater N intake, cattle consuming diets containing 30% WDGS excreted more (P = 0.01) total N and excreted a greater (P < 0.01) quantity of N in the urine. From these results, we conclude that cattle consuming SFC-based diets produce less CH(4) and retain more energy than cattle fed DRC-based diets; however, dietary

  10. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  11. Numerical Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Dry Granular Flow with Deformable Elastic Grain

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, H A; Elander, V; Jin, C; Li, Y; Vasquez, P; Fast, P

    2005-08-11

    The authors consider the dynamics of interacting elastic disks in the plane. This is an experimentally realizable two-dimensional model of dry granular flow where the stresses can be visualized using the photoelastic effect. As the elastic disks move in a vacuum, they interact through collisions with each other and with the surrounding geometry. Because of the finite propagation speed of deformations inside each grain it can be difficult to capture computationally even simple experiments involving just a few interacting grains. The goal of this project is to improve our ability to simulate dense granular flow in complex geometry. They begin this process by reviewing some past work, how they can improve upon previous work. the focus of this project is on capturing the elastic dynamics of each grain in an approximate, computationally tractable, model that can be coupled to a molecular dynamics scheme.

  12. Seed germination of Cistus creticus L. and Cistus laurifolius L. as influenced by dry-heat, soaking in distilled water and gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Tilki, Fahrettin

    2008-03-01

    The effects of dry-heat and seed soaking in distilled water or in gibberellic acid on germination performance of Cistus creticus L. and C. laurifolius L. were studied in the present study Germination percentages of two Cistus species were low due to dormancy Soaking in distilled water for 24 hr resulted in 28% germination in C. creticus and 43% in C. laurifolius. Gibberellic acid applications (20, 100 and 250 mg l(-1)) for 24 hr gave 32, 30 and 23% germination, respectively in Cistus creticus and 33, 37 and 28% germination, respectively in C. laurifolius. Dry-heat pretreatments at 50, 80 and 100 degrees C for several times (1-60 min) also significantly increased germination percentage in two species. The highest germination in C. creticus was obtained with dry-heat at 100 degrees C for 1 or 5 min (80% and 83%, respectively) and in C. laurifolius at 100 degrees C for 5 min (87%). A significant increase in germination rate was also achieved under different pretreatments. The physiological dormancy caused by an impermeable seed coat can be overcome by dry-heat pretreatments in two Cistus species. PMID:18831373

  13. Evaluation of feeding distiller's grains, containing virginiamycin, on antimicrobial susceptibilities in fecal isolates of Enterococcus and Escherichia coli and prevalence of resistance genes in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distiller’s grains (DG), produced from fermentations using no antibiotic (Control) or dosed with 2 or 20 ppm virginiamycin product and containing 0, 0.7, and 8.9 ppm virginiamycin, respectively, were fed to cattle and effects on antibiotic sensitivity and prevalence of resistance genes in comm...

  14. Influence of wet distiller's grains on prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in feedlot cattle and antimicrobial susceptibility of generic E. coli isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current research examined the inclusion of 20% wet distiller’s grains (WDG) fed with steam-flaked (SFC) or dry-rolled (DRC) corn in diets fed to feedlot cattle on fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Crossbred beef heifers (n = 272; average initial body weight (BW) = 354 kg) were...

  15. Effect of substitution of soybean meal by canola meal or distillers grains in dairy rations on amino acid and glucose availability.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-01-01

    Canola meal (CM) or by-products of ethanol production (dried distillers grain, DDG) may offer an economical alternative to soybean meal (SBM) in North American dairy rations. These protein supplements can effectively replace SBM and, in 2 recent meta-analyses, CM had a positive effect on milk and milk protein yields compared with SBM. The objective of this study was to determine if the positive responses observed with inclusion of CM in dairy rations could be explained by an increased availability of His, Lys, Met, or glucose. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods. Cows were fed isonitrogenous (17.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy of lactation) diets formulated to slightly exceed nutrient requirements. Diets contained 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate including SBM, CM, corn high-protein DDG (HPDDG), or wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS) as the single protein supplement. The effect of protein supplements on availability of His, Lys, Met, and glucose was estimated using variations in the whole-body (WB) flux of these nutrients, determined by isotopic dilution. As planned, dry matter intake and milk and milk protein yields were not affected by treatments and averaged 23.7, 31.4, and 1.14 kg/d, respectively. Lactose yield did not differ among diets although milk lactose content tended to be lower with CM and WDDGS diets than with SBM and HPDDG diets. Lysine availability was affected by treatments: the highest WB irreversible loss rate (ILR) was observed for the CM diet (371 g/d) and the lowest for HPDDG diet (290 g/d); values for SBM and WDDGS were intermediate (330 and 316 g/d, respectively). Availability of His and Met did not vary among diets and WB ILR averaged, respectively, 129 and 124 g/d; the CM diet, however, had numerically the highest His and Met ILR. Plasma concentrations of most of the essential AA were higher with the CM diet and lower with the HPDDG diet, the

  16. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  17. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  18. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity) of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties. PMID:20385002

  19. Invited review: The use of distillers products in dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Garcia, A D

    2009-12-01

    Distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the major coproduct of ethanol production, usually made from corn, which is fed to dairy cattle. It is a good protein (crude protein, CP) source (>30% CP) high in ruminally undegradable protein (approximately 55% of CP) and is a good energy source (net energy for lactation of approximately 2.25 Mcal/kg of dry matter). The intermediate fat concentration (10% of dry matter) and readily digestible fiber (approximately 39% neutral detergent fiber) contribute to the high energy content in DGS. Performance was usually similar when animals were fed wet or dried products, although some research results tended to favor the wet products. Diets can contain DGS as partial replacement for both concentrates and forages, but DGS usually replaces concentrates. Adequate effective fiber was needed to avoid milk fat depression when DGS replaced forages in lactating cow diets. Nutritionally balanced diets can be formulated that contain 20% or more of the diet dry matter as DGS. Such diets supported similar or higher milk production compared with when cows were fed traditional feeds. Although DGS can constitute more than 30% of diet dry matter, gut fill may limit dry matter intake and production in diets with more than 20% wet DGS and that also contain other moist feeds. The fiber in DGS, which often replaces high-starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Distillers solubles, which are often blended with distillers grains to provide DGS, can be fed separately as condensed corn distillers solubles. Other distillers coproducts besides DGS such as high-protein distillers grains, corn germ, corn bran, and low-fat distillers grains are becoming available. PMID:19923586

  20. Dry Martini, a coarse-grained force field for lipid membrane simulations with implicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Arnarez, Clément; Uusitalo, Jaakko J; Masman, Marcelo F; Ingólfsson, Helgi I; de Jong, Djurre H; Melo, Manuel N; Periole, Xavier; de Vries, Alex H; Marrink, Siewert J

    2015-01-13

    Coarse-grained (CG) models allow simulation of larger systems for longer times by decreasing the number of degrees of freedom compared with all-atom models. Here we introduce an implicit-solvent version of the popular CG Martini model, nicknamed "Dry" Martini. To account for the omitted solvent degrees of freedom, the nonbonded interaction matrix underlying the Martini force field was reparametrized. The Dry Martini force field reproduces relatively well a variety of lipid membrane properties such as area per lipid, bilayer thickness, bending modulus, and coexistence of liquid-ordered and disordered domains. Furthermore, we show that the new model can be applied to study membrane fusion and tether formation, with results similar to those of the standard Martini model. Membrane proteins can also be included, but less quantitative results are obtained. The absence of water in Dry Martini leads to a significant speedup for large systems, opening the way to the study of complex multicomponent membranes containing millions of lipids. PMID:26574224

  1. Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different grain sources as dietary protein for hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. Aureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different sources on growth performance, hematology, and immunity of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, were evaluated. Sex-reversed, all-male hybrid tilapia (3.72 ± 0.08 g initial weight) were fed diets in which 30% o...

  2. Effects of dietary fat and wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four hundred yearling heifers in two experiments were fed for an average of 106 days. Treatments included 0% wet sorghum distiller’s grains plus solubles (WSDGS) and 0% yellow grease (fat), 0% WSDGS and 3% fat, or 15% WSDGS and either 0, 1.5, or 3.0% fat. The WSDGS replaced steam-flaked corn and cot...

  3. Comparison of bacterial communities in faeces of beef cattle fed diets containing corn and wet distillers grain with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The microbial ecology of feedlot Escherichia coli is poorly understood. It is a minority component of feces and must interact with many other bacteria. Use of wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) in cattle feed creates a gastrointestinal environment where some bacterial species are enri...

  4. RESEARCH CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR CELLULOSE CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY IN A DRY MILL PATHWAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the current expansion in ethanol production capacity is attributable to newly constructed dry grind facilities that convert corn into fuel ethanol. These facilities process the corn into ethanol, with the remaining solid material, known as distillers’ grains (DG) or distillers dried grains ...

  5. A mathematical model for constant and intermittent batch drying of grains in a novel rotating jet spouted bed

    SciTech Connect

    Jumah, R.Y.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    1996-05-01

    A diffusion-based mathematical model is presented for batch drying of corn in a novel rotating jet spouted bed device under constant as well as intermittent drying conditions. Such a device is suited for drying of large particles (e.g. grains, beans, seeds, etc.) for which internal heat and mass transfer rates control the drying kinetics. Based on literature data for moisture diffusivities the model predictions are compared with experimental data for both continuous and time-dependent air supply and/or heat input. Effects of relevant parameters are evaluated and discussed in the light of potential practical applications. 44 refs.

  6. Effects of increasing concentrations of wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked corn-based diets of energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased in the Southern Great Plains as a result of the growing ethanol industry. Research evaluating the use of steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets in conjunction with WDGS is limited. Therefore, the effects of increasi...

  7. Effects of adding MIN-AD to steam-flaked corn-based diets with or without wet corn distiller's grain plus solubles on performance by beef cattle during receiving and finishing phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of wet corn distillers grain (WCDG) and MIN-AD (MIN-AD Inc., Amarillo, TX), a commercial source of calcium-magnesium carbonate, on cattle performance and carcass measurements were evaluated in a 42-d receiving phase (220 steers; initial BW = 279.3 kg) and a subsequent finishing phase (192 s...

  8. Impact of reducing the level of wet distillers grains fed to cattle prior to harvest on prevalence and levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle fed finishing diets with wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) have been shown to increase Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the feces and on the hides. To determine if feeding a lower level of WDGS at the end of the feeding period reduces E. coli O157:H7 load at harvest, 608 heifers were sor...

  9. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS. PMID:26719948

  10. Computer simulation of dry layered granular flow down an incline composed of grains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Jan, Chyan-Deng

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that gravity-driven dry granular flows are essentially layered for smooth spheres. This paper describes layer-to-layer interaction in the flow. Assuming two-dimensional flow and neglecting the interaction of grains within the same layer, one may idealize the problem as an elastic sphere under external forces moving down an incline within a layer of identical spheres placed equally apart. The moving sphere is thus subjected to the total gravitational force which includes the weight of a specified number of layers of spheres above it and its own weight. With such a mechanical approach, estimates can be made for the magnitudes of collisional and non-collisional stresses.

  11. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system. PMID:17964144

  12. Twin-screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS)-based Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world’s increasing demand for seafood products has resulted in rising demands for fish meal for fish feed, which must be compensated for by searching for effective alternative protein sources. In this study, twin-screw extrusion trials were conducted to study the production of nutritionally-bala...

  13. Fermentation of dried distillers' grains and solubles (DDGS) hydrolysates to solvents and value-added products by solventogenic clostridia.

    PubMed

    Ezeji, Thaddeus; Blaschek, Hans P

    2008-08-01

    Pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using either dilute acid, liquid hot water (LHW), or ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX) results in a complex mixture of sugars such as hexoses (glucose, galactose, mannose), and pentoses (xylose, arabinose). A detailed description of the utilization of representative mixed sugar streams (pentoses and hexoses) and their sugar preferences by the solventogenic clostridia (Clostridium beijerinckii BA101, C. acetobutylicum 260, C. acetobutylicum 824, Clostridium saccharobutylicum 262, and C. butylicum 592) is presented. In these experiments, all the sugars were utilized concurrently throughout the fermentation, although the rate of sugar utilization was sugar specific. For all clostridia tested, the rate of glucose utilization was higher than for the other sugars in the mixture. In addition, the availability of excess fermentable sugars in the bioreactor is necessary for both the onset and the maintenance of solvent production otherwise the fermentation will become acidogenic leading to premature termination of the fermentation process. During an investigation on the effect of some of the known lignocellulosic hydrolysate inhibitors on the growth and ABE production by clostridia, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were found to be potent inhibitors of growth and ABE production. Interestingly, furfural and HMF were not inhibitory to the solventogenic clostridia; rather they had a stimulatory effect on growth and ABE production at concentrations up to 2.0g/L. PMID:17967532

  14. Biofuel Co-products as Swine Feed Ingredients: Combining Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Crude Glycerin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of combining corn DDGS with crude glycerin on growth performance and carcass traits to determine if a high level of crude glycerin supplementation could counteract the impact of corn DDGS on fatty acid profile of pork adipose. The experimental d...

  15. Pressurized pyrolysis of dried distillers grains with solubles and canola seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Funda; Miskolczi, Norbert; Saricaoğlu, Beyza

    2015-02-01

    Pressurized pyrolysis of biomasses was carried in a fixed bed reactor to obtain gases, bio-oils and chars at elevated temperatures. The products were characterized by GC-MS, FTIR, viscometer, SEM, BET and EDXRFS methods. Experiments were performed at 1, 5 and 10 bar pressure and 400, 500 and 600°C temperatures. The experimental results show that in all the experimental condition the yield of bio-oil from DDGS as higher than that of canola. Yield of non-condensable gases and chars increased, while that of liquid products decreased by pressure. Increasing pressure favoured the formation of low molecular weight gas, such as H2. Maximum surface area of chars was obtained at atmospheric pressure and the surface areas decreased rapidly with increasing pressure. GC/MS results shows that the amount of fatty acids in bio-oils was increased by increasing pressure and bio-oils showed non-Newtonian behavior. Based on EDXRFS results, bio-oils and char contained lots of elements. PMID:25484126

  16. Twin-screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS)-based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to tremendous increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, the need for alternative protein sources cannot be disregarded. Toward that end, twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally...

  17. Twin screw extrusion processing of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-based Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in global aquaculture production, compounded with limited availabilities of fish meal for fish feed, has created the need for alternative protein sources. Twin-screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally-balanced feeds for juvenile yellow perch (Pe...

  18. Changes in mineral concentrations and phosphorus profile during dry-grind process of corn into ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from 3 commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentration...

  19. Influence of distillers grains resulting from a cellulosic ethanol process utilizing corn kernel fiber on nutrient digestibility of lambs and steer feedlot performance.

    PubMed

    Lundy, E L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects on animal performance of traditional wet distillers grains (T-WDG) compared to cellulosic wet distillers grains (C-WDG) from a new process converting corn kernel fiber into cellulosic ethanol. The resulting coproduct has greater CP and decreased starch and ether extract (EE) concentrations (34.0% CP, 1.6% starch, 7.3% EE) compared to T-WDG (32.5% CP, 5.1% starch, 7.7% EE). In Exp. 1, 10 wethers (34.1 ± 2.35 kg, SD) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square to evaluate digestibility of DM, fiber, EE, and N. Diets including a corn-based control with 7.5% T-WDG and 7.5% C-WDG (CORN); 30% or 45% inclusion of T-WDG; and 30% or 45% inclusion of C-WDG. Between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 45% T-WDG, or 45% C-WDG, DMI was not different (P ≥ 0.11), but lambs fed 30% C-WDG had decreased (P ≤ 0.05) DMI compared to other diets. Compared to CORN and 30% T-WDG, DM digestibility was lesser ( P< 0.05) for 45% T-WDG or 30% C-WDG, while 45% C-WDG has lesser (P ≤ 0.05) DM digestibility than all other treatments. Digestibility of NDF was not affected by treatment (P= 0.13), and ADF digestibility was not different ( 0.21) between CORN, 30% T-WDG, 30% C-WDG, or 45% C-WDG. However, digestibility of ADF tended to differ (P = 0.06) between 30% T-WDG and 45% C-WDG and was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in lambs fed 45% T-WDG compared to other treatments. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (421 ± 23.9 kg, SD) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the impact of C-WDG or T-WDG on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Diets included a corn-based control (CON), 30% T-WDG (TRAD), 30% C-WDG (CEL), and 18% C-WDG and 12% condensed corn distillers solubles (CEL+CCDS; = 7 pens of 6 steers/pen). Steers fed TRAD had improved (P ≤ 0.01) ADG, G:F, and HCW compared to steers fed the CON diet. No differences (P ≥ 0.16) in ADG and HCW were noted for steers fed CEL compared to TRAD; however, steers fed CEL had decreased (P = 0.01) G:F due to increased (P = 0

  20. Economic impact of ethanol production on U.S. livestock sector: A spatial analysis of corn and distillers grain shipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'guessan, Yapo Genevier

    2007-12-01

    The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has increased from 1,630 million gallons in 2000 to 4,855 million gallons in 2006, representing a 198% growth over the period considered. This growth is favored by the availability of more efficient technologies in the production process of ethanol and is sustained by the high prices of ethanol in the market. The industry is also supported by a favorable public policy, expressed in the form of laws, mandating an increase in the use of ethanol, and also in the form of tax incentives. The tremendous increase in the use of corn for the ethanol industry is made at the expense of the livestock industry that was the traditional destination for much of the U.S. corn grain. As the ethanol industry continues to expand, concerns are raised in regard to its impact as more and more corn is diverted from the livestock sector. This study investigates the economic impact of the ethanol industry on the U.S. livestock sector. Specifically, a shipping cost model is developed to simulate the impact of the ethanol industry on the shipping cost of corn at the national and individual state levels. The dynamics for major livestock producing states are also analyzed at the crop reporting district level. Different scenarios based on assumptions on the availability of corn and the production capacities of the ethanol industry are displayed. Results from the model indicate that nationwide there is a 5 to 22% increase in the shipping cost of corn for the livestock industry due to the ethanol industry, depending on the scenario involved. At the state level, there is an increase in the transportation cost for most of the states, with shipping cost doubling in some cases. Nevertheless, some states benefit from the dynamics created by the development of ethanol plants and are experiencing a reduction in their livestock industry corn transportation cost.

  1. Rapid analysis of the essential oil components of dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim by Fe2O3-magnetic-microsphere-assisted microwave distillation and simultaneous headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing

    2013-06-01

    In this work, microwave distillation assisted by Fe2 O3 magnetic microspheres (FMMS) and headspace single-drop microextraction were combined, and developed for determination of essential oil compounds in dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBM). The FMMS were used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of dried ZBM. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction, and concentration of essential oil compounds can be carried out in a single step. The experimental parameters including extraction solvent, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added FMMS, were studied. The optimal analytical conditions were: 2.0 μL decane as the extraction solvent, microwave power of 300 W, irradiation time of 2 min, and the addition of 0.1 g FMMS to ZBM. The method precision was from 4 to 10%. A total of 52 compounds were identified by the proposed method. The conventional steam distillation method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in dried ZBM and only 31 compounds were identified by steam distillation method. It was found that the proposed method is a simple, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free technique for the determination of volatile compounds in Chinese herbs. PMID:23568848

  2. Prediction of single-cross hybrid performance for grain yield and grain dry matter content in maize using AFLP markers associated with QTL.

    PubMed

    Schrag, T A; Melchinger, A E; Sørensen, A P; Frisch, M

    2006-10-01

    Prediction methods to identify single-cross hybrids with superior yield performance have the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid breeding programs. Our objectives were to (1) identify marker loci associated with quantitative trait loci for hybrid performance or specific combining ability (SCA) in maize, (2) compare hybrid performance prediction by genotypic value estimates with that based on general combining ability (GCA) estimates, and (3) investigate a newly proposed combination of the GCA model with SCA predictions from genotypic value estimates. A total of 270 hybrids was evaluated for grain yield and grain dry matter content in four Dent x Flint factorial mating experiments, their parental inbred lines were genotyped with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Markers associated significantly with hybrid performance and SCA were identified, genotypic values and SCA effects were estimated, and four hybrid performance prediction approaches were evaluated. For grain yield, between 38 and 98 significant markers were identified for hybrid performance and between zero and five for SCA. Estimates of prediction efficiency (R (2)) ranged from 0.46 to 0.86 for grain yield and from 0.59 to 0.96 for grain dry matter content. Models enhancing the GCA approach with SCA estimates resulted in the highest prediction efficiency if the SCA to GCA ratio was high. We conclude that it is advantageous for prediction of single-cross hybrids to enhance a GCA-based model with SCA effects estimated from molecular marker data, if SCA variances are of similar or larger importance as GCA variances. PMID:16896712

  3. [Effects of different barnyardgrass species on grain yield of rice and their physiological characteristics under alternate wetting and drying irrigation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-chang; Li, Yong-feng; Yang, Xia; Gu, Tao; Li, Gui

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of different barnyardgrass species on rice yield and physiological characteristics of rice, two rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu (an indica hybrid cultivar) and Nanjing 9108 (a japonica cultivar) , were employed to co-culture with four barnyardgrass species during the period from transplanting to maturity under alternate wetting and moderate drying ir- rigation condition. The treatments were separately designed as follow: weed free ( control) , rice with Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis (T1), rice with E. crusgalli (T2), rice with E. crusgali var. zelayensis (T3) and rice with E. colonum (T4). The results showed that T1, T2, T3 and T4 treatments reduced the Liangyoupeijiu yield by 13.8%, 10.6%, 23.8% and 0.5%, but the corresponding yield loss of Nanjing 9108 could reach up to 45.5%, 36.9%, 60.7% and 15.1%, respectively. The results above showed that T1, T2 and T3 treatments all significantly reduced grain yield, and T4 treatment only reduced grain yield for Nanjing 9108 but not for Liangyoupeijiu. All treatments elevated malondialehyde contents of rice leaf, but the activities of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dimutase, dry matter accumulation in maturity stage, root oxidation activities and contents of indole-3-acetic acid as well as zeatin + zeatin riboside in roots during rice grain filling stage were all decreased. The influence degree of four barnyardgrass against physiological indices of rice had the order of T3 > T1 >T2 > T4. It showed that the reductions in enzyme activities of antioxidant system, root oxidation activities, contents of indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin + zeatin riboside during grain filling stage and accumulation of dry matter in maturity as well as increase in contents of malondialehyde of rice during grain filling stage might be important reasons for grain yield reduction when grew with barnyardgrass. PMID:26915195

  4. Multi-residue method for the detection of veterinary drugs in distillers grains by liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaklamanos, George; Vincent, Ursula; von Holst, Christoph

    2013-12-27

    Distillers Grain (DG) is an important by-product of ethanol production. The ethanol production process uses only the starch portion of the plant and all the remaining nutrients, protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins remain in DGs, a valuable feed material for livestock. The use of antimicrobial drugs is helpful to limit harmful bacterial growth during the early part of the fermentation process. This can lead to the possible presence of contaminants in the by-products that are used in the food and feed industries, resulting in a major concern for the development of bacterial resistance in both humans and animals. To facilitate the detection of antimicrobial and other commonly used veterinary drugs in DGs, a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed targeting a wide range of 12 chemical classes of anti-bacterial substances and drugs, such as ionophore and non-ionophore authorized coccidiostats, banned coccidiostats, macrolides, tetracyclines, nitroimidazoles, amphenicols, quinolones, sulphonamides, tranquilizers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzimidazoles. Following a simple and fast extraction step with a mixture of organic solvents, the extract was directly injected into the LC coupled to an Orbitrap mass analyzer. The identification of residues is based on accurate mass measurement. The high mass resolution of 50,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) and corresponding narrow mass windows permitted a very selective and sensitive detection of the analytes in such a complex matrix. A single-laboratory validation procedure was carried out evaluating selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method showed satisfactory analytical performance for precision and trueness, and allowed the determination of the compounds at low concentration. The proposed multi-method demonstrated that liquid chromatography coupled to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a promising analytical technique, suitable for

  5. Effective utilization of distiller's grain soluble-an agro-industrial waste in the feed of cage-reared minor carp Labeo bata in a tropical reservoir, India.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das

    2016-08-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste. PMID:27146546

  6. Feeding wet distillers grains plus solubles with and without a direct-fed microbial to determine performance, carcass characteristics, and fecal shedding of O157:H7 in feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B K; Holland, B P; Step, D L; Jacob, M E; VanOverbeke, D L; Richards, C J; Nagaraja, T G; Krehbiel, C R

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has become a common practice in many regions of the United States due to the expanded production of byproducts and fluctuating corn prices related to ethanol production and other factors. In addition, societal concerns over the continued use of antimicrobials in agriculture production combined with an enhanced interest in disease and pathogen prevention in the food supply have led to an increased interest in use of direct-fed microbials (DFM) in growing and finishing cattle. Direct-fed microbials have been shown to improve ADG and feed efficiency, alter ruminal fermentation, and decrease fecal shedding of potential harmful pathogens in feedlot cattle in some experiments. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of WDGS inclusion with or without a DFM containing (1 × 10 cfu ∙ heifer ∙ d) combined with (1 × 10 cfu ∙ heifer ∙ d) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and O157:H7 shedding in feedlot heifers. In early August, 288 crossbred heifers (initial BW = 295 ± 28 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (12 pens per treatment; 6 heifers per pen) in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Body weights and fecal grab samples were obtained at approximately 28-d intervals throughout the experiment. Across the feeding period, heifers fed 30% WDGS tended ( = 0.09) to have greater ADG and had greater carcass-adjusted ADG ( = 0.05) compared with heifers fed dry-rolled corn (DRC). Dry matter intake was not affected ( = 0.65) by diet, although carcass-adjusted G:F tended ( = 0.10) to be improved for heifers fed WDGS. Heifers fed 30% WDGS tended ( ≤ 0.10) to have greater fat thickness at the 12th rib, lower marbling scores, and higher yield grades. The inclusion of . combined with . in the diet had no effect ( > 0.10) on performance or carcass merit in the present experiment. The incidence of O157:H7 throughout the

  7. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle. PMID:25364932

  8. Ethanol production waste as rubber composite filler: examining the pyrolysis of dried distillers grains and other dry milling byproducts as potential rubber reinforcement materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current push for corn-based ethanol is creating a large surplus of affordable by-products that can potentially serve as filler material for rubber composites. Biomaterial fillers can help replace carbon black and reduce dependence on petroleum. This research examines the reinforcement behavior...

  9. Potential odorous volatile organic compound emissions from feces and urine from cattle fed corn-based diets with wet distillers grains and solubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin E.; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2012-12-01

    Odor and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are a concern at animal feeding operations (AFOs). The issue has become more prevalent as human residences move into areas once occupied only by agriculture. Odors near AFOs are generally caused by odorous VOCs emitted from manure, the mixture of feces and urine. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) are a by-product of the ethanol industry, and WDGS have become a staple in many beef cattle finishing diets. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from frozen feces and urine of cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets containing 0, 15, 30, or 45% WDGS. No differences in flux were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, indole, skatole, or 4-methylphenol (P > 0.23). Dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide flux in feces were not different across treatments (P > 0.35) and the flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric were not different across treatments (P > 0.25). There was a tendency for dimethyl disulfide flux from urine to be greater for cattle consuming an SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS than the other diets (P = 0.10). Furthermore, flux of acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, and isovaleric acid from the urine were not different (P > 0.61) across dietary treatment. There were no significant differences in odor activity value (OAV) across treatments for feces, and only a tendency for dimethyl disulfide in the feces (P = 0.09). Thus, there was no obvious indication that feeding WDGS in conjunction with SFC affects flux of odor or odorous VOC from beef manure. The summed OAV was three times higher in the urine than feces, and a single odorous compound (4-methylphenol) accounted for 97.6%and 67.3% of the OAV in urine and feces, respectively. Therefore, engineering or dietary strategies to reduce odor from beef cattle manure should focus on controlling or reducing 4-methylphenol concentrations in the

  10. Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

    1999-07-01

    Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

  11. Changes in Composition and Phosphorus Profile during Dry Grind Process of Corn into Ethanol and DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. Dry grind method has been a major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. The process consists of grinding, cooking, liquefactio...

  12. APPLICATION OF HACCP TO CONTROL MYCOTOXINS IN THE DRY GRIND ETHANOL PROCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol has been used as a fuel source in the United States since the early 1900’s and is receiving a renewed and increased interest as an alternative to petroleum. Today most fuel ethanol is produced by the dry grind mill process creating a valuable co-product, namely distillers dried grain with s...

  13. Drying Kinetics of DDGS under Varying CDS and Temperature Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is mainly used as animal feed, as it has high energy and protein contents. There is a growing need to transport DDGS over long distances. But transportation of DDGS is often troublesome due to caking of the particles. DDGS is formed by combining condensed...

  14. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  15. Changes in oil content, fatty acid composition, and functional lipid profiles during dry grind ethanol production from corn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. The dry grind method has been the major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. This presentation reports our study to monitor ...

  16. Effects of Grain By-Products as Supplements for Stocker Cattle Grazing Bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to compare corn, dried distillers' grains (DDG), and pelleted soybean hulls (SH) as supplements for cattle grazing bermudagrass. In Exp. 1, 66 crossbred steers (675 ± 7.1 lb) were stratified by weight and allotted randomly to six 6-acre bermudagrass pastures for a 107-...

  17. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve states the U.S. in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 7...

  18. Growth Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus mucosae on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Dried Brewers Grain, Methane Production and Bacterial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Alvin P.; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Choi, Yeon Jae; Jeong, Chang Dae; Bae, Gui Seck; Chang, Moon Baek; Lee, S. Suk

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus mucosae (L. mucosae), a potential direct fed microbial previously isolated from the rumen of Korean native goat, on the rumen fermentation profile of brewers grain were evaluated. Fermentation was conducted in serum bottles each containing 1% dry matter (DM) of the test substrate and either no L. mucosae (control), 1% 24 h broth culture of L. mucosae (T1), or 1% inoculation with the cell-free culture supernatant (T2). Each serum bottle was filled anaerobically with 100 mL of buffered rumen fluid and sealed prior to incubation for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h from which fermentation parameters were monitored and the microbial diversity was evaluated. The results revealed that T1 had higher total gas production (65.00 mL) than the control (61.33 mL) and T2 (62.00 mL) (p<0.05) at 48 h. Consequently, T1 had significantly lower pH values (p<0.05) than the other groups at 48 h. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and acetate:propionate ratio were higher in T1 and T2 than the control, but T1 and T2 were comparable for these parameters. Total methane (CH4) production and carbon dioxide (CO2) were highest in T1. The percent DM and organic matter digestibilities were comparable between all groups at all times of incubation. The total bacterial population was significantly higher in T1 (p<0.05) at 24 h, but then decreased to levels comparable to the control and T2 at 48 h. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile of the total bacterial 16s rRNA showed higher similarity between T1 and T2 at 24 h and between the control and T1 at 48 h. Overall, these results suggest that addition of L. mucosae and cell-free supernatant during the in vitro fermentation of dried brewers grain increases the VFA production, but has no effect on digestibility. The addition of L. mucosae can also increase the total bacterial population, but has no significant effect on the total microbial diversity. However

  20. Effects of Varying CDS Levels and Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Flowability Properties of DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternative fuels and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, have triggered the growth of corn-based ethanol production, and this is expected to rise in future years. Transportation of the co-product distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from this industry occurs under vari...

  1. Effects of Varying CDS, Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Glass Transition Temperature of DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co product of the corn-based fuel ethanol industry, is used widely as an animal feed. Due to increased demand for DDGS in livestock markets it has become essential to transport DDGS over long distances. Flowability problems in DDGS, due to particle cak...

  2. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  3. Determination of cross-grain properties of clearwood samples under kiln-drying conditions at temperature up to 140 C

    SciTech Connect

    Keep, L.B.; Keey, R.B.

    2000-07-01

    Small specimens of Pinus radiata have been tested to determine the creep strain that occurs during the kiln drying of boards. The samples have been tested over a range of temperatures from 20 C to 140 C. The samples, measuring 150 x 50 x 5 mm, were conditioned at various relative humidities in a pilot-plant kiln, in which the experiments at constant moisture content (MC) in the range of 5--20% MC were undertaken to eliminate mechano-sorptive strains. To determine the creep strain, the samples were brought to their equilibrium moisture content (EMC), then mechanically loaded under tension in the direction perpendicular to the grain. The strain was measured using small linear position sensors (LPS) which detect any elongation or shrinkage in the sample. The instantaneous compliance was measured within 60 sec of the application of the load (stress). The subsequent creep was monitored by the continued logging of strain data from the LPS units. The results of these experiments are consistent with previous studies of Wu and Milota (1995) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii). An increase in temperature or moisture content causes a rise in the creep strain while the sample is under tension. Values for the instantaneous compliance range from 1.7 x 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.28 x 10{sup {minus}2} M/Pa at temperatures between 20 C and 140 C and moisture content in the range of 5--20%. The rates of change of the creep strains are in the order of magnitude 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}8 s{sup {minus}1}} for these temperatures and moisture contents. The experimental data have been fitted to the constitutive equations of Wu and Milota (1996) for Douglas-fir to give material parameters for the instantaneous and creep strain components for Pinus radiata.

  4. New value-added co-products from grain-based ethanol production by a patent-pending recovery method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of fuel ethanol in the United States and elsewhere is a quickly growing industry. At present, a major co-product of the ethanol industry is corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the primary use is in the livestock industry. However, DDGS typically has characteristics t...

  5. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  6. High sulfur content in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) protects against oxidized lipids in DDGS by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some sources of DDGS contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during production process, but it is unclear whether these oxidized lipids negatively affect growth performance and metabolic oxidation status in pigs. The objective of this study was to compare t...

  7. Effect of corn dry fractionation on the distribution of mycotoxins in pre-fermentation ethanol co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  8. Measurement and Comparison of Glass Transition and Sticky Point Temperatures for DDGS as Affected by CDS and Drying Temperature Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct of the fuel ethanol industry; and has significantly impacted the livestock feeds market in recent years. It must often be transported over long distances to meet market demands both domestically and internationally. Particle agglome...

  9. Effect of Corn Dry Fractionation on the Distribution of Mycotoxins in Pre-fermentation Ethanol Co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production is projected to increase through the next decade. Associated with this increase will be a proportionate increase in byproducts, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Because of high fiber content and low market value, DDGS are normally included in ruminant anim...

  10. Hybrid nonlocality distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keng-Shuo; Hsu, Li-Yi

    2013-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the notion of hybrid nonlocality distillation, in which different nonlocal boxes are exploited for nonlocality distillation. Here, we quantify the nonlocality using the violation degree of either the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality or the I3322 inequality. Our study shows that hybrid nonlocality distillation can outperform nonlocality distillation using copies of single nonlocal boxes. In particular, more nonlocality of undistillable boxes can be activated with the assistance of distillable boxes. Equivalently, distillable boxes can achieve more nonlocality with the assistance of undistillable boxes.

  11. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  12. Effects of twenty percent alkaline-treated corn stover without or with yucca extract on performance and nutrient mass balance of finishing steers fed modified distillers grains-based diets.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Erickson, G E; Rincker, M J; Cecava, M J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 192 steers each (during the winter [November to May] or summer [June to October]) to evaluate 3 diets with or without Yucca schidigera extract in a 3 × 2 factorial on steer growth performance and N mass balance. One factor was diet (DM basis): 1) 5% untreated corn stover, 51% corn, and 40% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS; CON); 2) 20% calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaO added at 5% of stover DM), 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (TRT); or 3) 20% untreated corn stover, 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (NONTRT). The other factor was dietary extract at 0 (NOYE) or 1.0 g/d per steer (YE). No interaction between diet and YE was detected (P > 0.51) for growth performance and carcass traits in winter and only for DMI in summer. Final BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.28) between cattle fed CON and TRT, whereas cattle fed NONTRT had lesser ADG, HCW, and G:F compared to CON and TRT in the winter experiment. During the summer, final BW and ADG tended to be greater (P ≥ 0.07) for CON compared to TRT. Cattle fed TRT had reduced (P < 0.01) G:F compared to CON. No difference was observed (P ≥ 0.36) between YE and NOYE in the winter experiment for performance or carcass traits. In the summer, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.02) HCW, ADG, and DMI compared to NOYE. In the summer experiment, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.01) N intake, N excretion, and amount of N lost (kg/steer) compared to NOYE, but no difference (P = 0.33) was observed for percentage of N volatilized (% of excretion). Diet had no effect (P > 0.18) on amount (kg/steer) or percentage of N volatized in the winter or summer. All diets had similar amounts (P > 0.13) of DM and OM removed from the pen surface in both summer and winter. Feeding CaO-treated corn stover as a partial grain replacement had no impact on performance in winter but decreased G:F in summer. Although high-fiber diets increased the amount of OM on pen surfaces, they did not impact N

  13. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  14. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance.

    PubMed

    Polania, Jose A; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  15. ADDING VALUE TO DISTILLERS GRAINS BY PELLETING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the ethanol industry continues to expand, it is imperative to augment markets for coproducts. Toward that end, pelleting holds much promise. This densification process can convert DDGS into physical forms that will expand the potential sales base, such as rangeland cattle. To date, even though...

  16. Sulfur in Distillers Grains for Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfur is an essential element needed by animals for many functions. About 0.15% of the body weight is sulfur. It is found in the amino acids methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, and taurine; in chondroitin sulfate of cartilage; and in the B-vitamins, thiamin and biotin. Methionine, thiam...

  17. Best Practices for Pelleting Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of corn-based fuel ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing, and consequently, so is the quantity of coproducts generated from this processing sector. Sales of these streams provide a substantial revenue source and significantly increase the profitability of the ethanol product...

  18. Comparison of simulated distillation to true boiling point distillation of H-Coal distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, M.D.; Malone, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of simulated distillation to true boiling point (TBP) from both actual TBP distillation and single theoretical plate distillations converted to TBP for various H-Coal distillates is presented. The TBP distillation data was obtained using a Todd distillation column having 15 theoretical plates and a 5:1 reflux ratio. The simulated data presented were obtained using a Hewlitt Packard 5731 gas chromatograph equipped with dual flame ionization detectors. Graphical comparisons of distillation curves obtained by direct weight % TBP distillation and simulated distillation for a full range H-Coal syncrude, of boiling point curves for H-Coal naphtha, H-Coal middle distillate, and H-Coal heavy distillate are included. From an examination of the distillation data, it was apparent that simulated distillation data compared favorable with weight % distillation data, whether derived from direct TBP distillation or single theoretical plate distillation data and converted to TBP data. (BLM)

  19. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  20. Effects of increasing concentrations of wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked, corn-based diets on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-02-01

    The use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased in the Southern Great Plains as a result of the growing ethanol industry. Nutrient balance and respiration calorimetry research evaluating the use of steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets in conjunction with WDGS is limited. Therefore, the effects of increasing concentrations of WDGS in a SFC-based diet on energy metabolism, C, and N balance, and enteric methane (CH4) production was evaluated in Jersey steers fed at 2 times maintenance, using respiration calorimetry chambers. Four treatments were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs, using 8 steers. Treatments consisted of: 1) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); and 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45). Diets were balanced for degradable intake protein (DIP) by adding cottonseed meal to the SFC-0 diet. As a proportion of GE, fecal, urinary, and CH4 energy increased linearly (P < 0.03) as WDGS concentration increased in the diet. In contrast, DE, ME, and retained energy decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as a proportion of GE as WDGS concentration increased. Increasing concentration of WDGS in the diet did not affect (P > 0.78) heat production as a proportion of GE. As a result of greater N intake, total N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDGS inclusion in the diet. Fecal C loss and CH4-C respired increased linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration increased in the diet whereas CO2-C respired decreased (linear, P = 0.05) as WDGS concentration increased. We conclude that CH4 production as a proportion of GE increases linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration in the diet is increased; however, dietary inclusion of WDGS at up to 45% seems to have no effect (P > 0.78) on heat production as a proportion of GE. The reason for a linear decrease in retained energy as WDGS increased was likely because of increased fecal energy loss

  1. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  2. Establishment and assessment of a novel cleaner production process of corn grain fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhang, Guiying; Yang, Xizhao; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2013-11-01

    An integrated corn ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to solve the problem of stillage handling, where thin stillage was treated by anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the following ethanol fermentation. This system was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage ran steadily with total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98% at laboratory scale and 97% at pilot scale. Ethanol production was not influenced by recycling anaerobic digestion effluent at laboratory and pilot scale. Compared with dried distillers' grains with solubles produced in conventional process, dried distillers' grains in the proposed system exhibited higher quality because of increased protein concentration and decreased salts concentration. Energetic assessment indicated that application of this novel process enhanced the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 (conventional process) to 1.76. In conclusion, the proposed system possessed technical advantage over the conventional process for corn fuel ethanol production. PMID:24077154

  3. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800–7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400–5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  4. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.

    PubMed

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J; Cooke, Richard G

    2007-02-27

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  5. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  6. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  7. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  8. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  9. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles with small grain size via hydrothermal and improved dry-rolling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Qilai; Xue, Lihong; Yan, Youwei

    2015-09-01

    Lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) ceramic pebbles were successfully fabricated by using hydrothermal and improved dry-rolling method. In the present work, ultra-fine Li2TiO3 powder of high reactivity was prepared via hydrothermal reaction, using anatase titania and lithium hydroxide as raw materials. The as-synthesized Li2TiO3 powder exhibits an average crystalline size as small as 100 nm. Improved dry-rolling method was employed to fabricate Li2TiO3 pebbles. The green pebbles can be well-sintered (81% T.D.) at a temperature as low as 850 °C for 3 h. The pebbles have good sphericity (1.08) and narrow diameter distribution (1.0-1.2 mm) with a crush load of 35 N. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of pebbles showed that the ceramic grain size was below 1 μm and atomic emission spectrometer fitted with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES) results confirmed that atomic ratio of Li to Ti in the fabricated pebbles was 1.97.

  10. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  11. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  13. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller’s Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183

  14. Potential for a mycotoxin deactivator to improve growth and performance of rainbow trout fed high levels of an ethanol industry co-Product, grain distiller’s dried yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-products from the production of fuel ethanol may have the potential to be used as protein sources for Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss if dietary supplementation strategies that can maintain fish performance can be identified. A random sample of one such co-product, grain distiller’s dried yeast...

  15. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  16. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  17. Geomorphic field experiment to quantify grain size and biotic influence on riverbed sedimentation dynamics in a dry-season reservoir, Russian River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Ulrich, C.; Hubbard, S. S.; Borglin, S. E.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    An important problem in geomorphology is to differentiate between abiotic and biotic fine sediment deposition on coarse gravel river beds because of the potential for fine sediment to infiltrate and clog the pore space between gravel clasts. Infiltration of fines into gravel substrate is significant because it may reduce permeability; therefore, differentiation of abiotic vs. biotic sediment helps in understanding the causes of such changes. We conducted a geomorphic field experiment during May to November 2012 in the Russian River near Wohler, CA, to quantify biotic influence on riverbed sedimentation in a small temporary reservoir. The reservoir is formed upstream of a small dam inflated during the dry season to enhance water supply pumping from the aquifer below the channel; however, some flow is maintained in the reservoir to facilitate fish outmigration. In the Russian River field area, sediment transport dynamics during storm flows prior to dam inflation created an alternate bar-riffle complex with a coarser gravel surface layer over the relatively finer gravel subsurface. The objective of our work was to link grain size distribution and topographic variation to biotic and abiotic sediment deposition dynamics in this field setting where the summertime dam annually increases flow depth and inundates the bar surfaces. The field experiment investigated fine sediment deposition over the coarser surface sediment on two impounded bars upstream of the reservoir during an approximately five month period when the temporary dam was inflated. The approach included high resolution field surveys of topography, grain size sampling and sediment traps on channel bars, and laboratory analyses of grain size distributions and loss on ignition (LOI) to determine biotic content. Sediment traps were installed at six sites on bars to measure sediment deposited during the period of impoundment. Preliminary results show that fine sediment deposition occurred at all of the sample

  18. Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Khatibi, Piyum A.; McMaster, Nicole J.; Musser, Robert; Schmale, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g−1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g−1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g−1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g−1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g−1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g−1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g−1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g−1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products. PMID:24674933

  19. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  20. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  1. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  2. Dehydrate ethanol without distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Usina da Pedra (Serrana, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil) produces 60 million gal/yr of ethanol in 180 operating days. Until this year, the plant made 96 vol.% ethanol that is used as automotive fuel, and absolute ethanol (99.5 vol. %), which is blended with gasoline. Water is the remainder in both products. The ethanol is produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, and distilled with benzene. Benzene lowers the boiling point of the ethanol-water mixture and ties up the water. In May, Usina da Pedra installed a process that dehydrates ethanol by adsorption, not distillation. A vapor-phase process containing molecular sieves, handles throughputs as high as 160,000 acfh and has a maximum capacity of 70 million gal/yr. In addition to generating safer products, the energy savings gained by switching from distillation to adsorption are significant. The adsorptive system requires input of only 2,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol; one-third the energy consumed by distillation systems that employ benzene or cyclohexane.

  3. Steam drying of industrial and agricultural products and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, G.B.; Galland, K.V.; Svensson, C.

    1983-03-01

    A new drying technique has been developed by MoDo-Chemetics and Chalmers of Technology in Sweden. Steam drying utilizes the drying capacity of superheated steam to remove moisture from porous material such as pulp or hog fuel. The first commercial dryer based on this technique was installed at Rockhammar Bruk in Sweden, where wood pulp is dried from 60% to 12% moisture content. Two commercial-size units are presently under construction, one for drying of hog fuel from 50% to 35% moisture content for on-the-grate firing in the power boiler and one for drying of sugar-beet pulp from 80% to 10% moisture content. This new technique can be applied in the drying of materials used in the production of waterboard, fiberboard, and hardboard, drying of peat, distillers grain residue, orange and pineapple pulp, grape and apple pomace, and cotton linters, for various end uses including cattlefeed and the use of residues as combustible material in small boilers. The energy-recovery aspects of the steam dryer are very important. Energy recovery in a useful form of more than 85% of the input to the dryer is feasible. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  4. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  5. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  6. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  7. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  8. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  9. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  10. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  11. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  12. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact. PMID:24124730

  13. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  14. Finishing performance of feedlot cattle fed condensed distillers solubles.

    PubMed

    Pesta, A C; Nuttelman, B L; Shreck, A L; Griffin, W A; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 250 crossbred steers (initial BW = 355 ± 18 kg) were fed 0, 9, 18, 27, or 36% CDS (DM basis) which replaced a portion of urea and a 1:1 ratio of dry-rolled corn (DRC) and high-moisture corn (HMC). Steers were divided into 3 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 25 pens. Dietary fat increased from 3.7 to 9.4% as CDS inclusion increased from 0 to 36%. Intake decreased linearly ( < 0.01) as CDS increased. A quadratic response was observed for ADG ( = 0.01) and G:F ( < 0.01) with maximum gain calculated at 20.8% CDS and maximum G:F at 32.5% CDS inclusion, which was 12% more efficient than those fed 0% CDS. Experiment 2 was designed as a 2 × 4 factorial using 400 crossbred steers (initial BW = 339 ± 15 kg) evaluating 0, 7, 14, or 21% CDS (DM basis) in 2 base byproduct diets containing either 20% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) or 20% Synergy (a blend of wet corn gluten feed and MDGS). Steers were divided into 2 BW blocks and were assigned randomly to 40 pens. A tendency for a base diet × CDS inclusion interaction was observed for ADG, HCW, and final BW ( < 0.10). Gain increased linearly ( = 0.01) and tended to increase quadratically ( = 0.09) in MDGS diets, with maximum calculated ADG at 16% CDS inclusion. Inclusion of CDS had no effect on ADG in Synergy-based diets. Increasing CDS resulted in a linear increase in G:F ( < 0.01) regardless of basal diet. Condensed distillers solubles may be included in the diet at greater than 30% (DM basis) without other byproducts and improve animal performance. Likewise, CDS can be fed in combination with other byproduct feeds but with less improvement in performance. PMID:26440335

  15. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains

  16. Edible grain legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  17. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  18. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.

    PubMed

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-15

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow. PMID:26824532

  19. Phosphorus Cycling in an Extreme Environment: Grain-scale Investigation of Apatite Weathering in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindel, R. C.; Spickard, A. M.; Virginia, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability varies considerably throughout Taylor Valley, Antarctica. As an essential nutrient, P content and weathering have significant implications for the diversity and functioning of biota in soils, streams, and lakes. In upper Taylor Valley (Bonney Basin), soils have much lower total P content than in lower Taylor Valley (Fryxell Basin), 0.4 versus 1.5 g/kg soil. We hypothesize that this striking contrast is related to differences in glacial drift source and weathering rates. We investigated the primary source of mineral P (apatite) and the grain-scale weathering processes resulting in the release of P into streams and adjacent soils in the Bonney and Fryxell Basins. Physical erosion, chemical weathering, and biological weathering all leave distinctive patterns on the surface of individual apatite grains. By inspecting these surfaces, we determined the relative importance of weathering processes for P cycling. Apatite grains were separated from loose glacial drift using heavy-liquid and magnetic techniques. Individual grains were analyzed using SEM-EDS. We observe significant differences between the grains collected from the two basins. Grains from the Bonney Basin are more elongated and have a higher proportion of crystal faces. These results suggest that rates of physical weathering have been lower in the Bonney Basin than in the Fryxell Basin. In addition, we will present results on grain surface morphologies, indicative of chemical and biological weathering. As the climate warms, more liquid water is expected to be available within the Taylor Valley system. This increase in water will likely lead to higher rates of P weathering, potentially altering nutrient limitation in this environment. Understanding how the P cycle will respond to a changing climate is contingent on understanding the current weathering processes and controls on P availability.

  20. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  1. Effects of feeding combinations of steam-flaked grain sorghum and steam-flaked, high-moisture, or dry-rolled corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Huck, G L; Kreikemeier, K K; Kuhl, G L; Eck, T P; Bolsen, K K

    1998-12-01

    The objective of these two feeding trials was to determine the associative effects of feeding steam-flaked grain sorghum (SFGS) in combination with steam-flaked (SFC), dry-rolled (DRC), or high-moisture (HMC) corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle. In Trial 1, 200 yearling heifers were blocked by weight, allotted to 25 pens, and fed one of five finishing diets (77% grain, 15% corn silage, and 8% supplement on a DM basis) for an average of 137 d. The grain combinations were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 SFC:SFGS, respectively. Treatment had no effect on DMI (P > .05), but ADG, gain efficiency, and final live and hot carcass weights decreased linearly (P < .05) as the proportion of SFGS increased in the diet. Carcass backfat, quality grade, and liver abscess score were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. In Trial 2, 306 yearling steers were blocked by weight, allotted to 30 pens, and fed diets that contained 74.5% grain, 10% corn silage, 7.5% soybean meal, 4% tallow, and 4% supplement (DM basis) for an average of 139 d. The grain and grain combinations were 100% DRC, HMC, SFC, or SFGS and a 67%:33% combination of SFGS: DRC or SFGS:HMC. For steers fed diets containing a single source of grain, those fed SFC gained 7% more live weight and had a 7% higher gain efficiency (P < .05) than those fed DRC or HMC. Growth performance of steers fed SFGS was intermediate. Feeding grain combinations (67% SFGS:33% HMC or DRC) resulted in a 5 to 6% positive associative effect (P < .05) for ADG and gain efficiency. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. We concluded that there were significant benefits (positive associative effects) when SFGS was fed in combination with DRC or HMC, but the effects were smaller when SFGS was fed in combination with SFC. PMID:9928601

  2. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, and organic matter of two fish meals, two poultry by-product meals, soybean meal, and distiller's grains with solubles in practical diets for sunshine bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available on the digestibility of nutrients in various practical ingredients used in diets for commercially-important finfish species. This information is especially needed for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, to improve least-cost diet formulations and to allow ...

  3. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on antibody-mediated immune response and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens immunized with T-cell dependent antigens.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Echeverry, H; Crow, G H; Slominski, B A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on innate and antibody mediated immune response in broiler chickens following immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). One-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments of 9 replicate cages of 5 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a Control diet without antibiotic, and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus containing processed yeast and nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On days 21 and 28 post-hatching, 5 birds per treatment were immunized intramuscularly with both SRBC and BSA. One week after each immunization, blood samples were collected. Serum samples were analyzed by hemagglutination test for antibody response to SRBC, and by ELISA for serum IgM and IgG response to BSA. On d 35, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and the tissue samples from the cecal tonsils were collected to assess the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, monocyte mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-12p35, and IFN-γ. The results for gene expression analysis demonstrated that the diet supplemented with YCW increased the expression of TLR2b and T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 relative to the Control; and the expression of TLR4 and IL-13 was upregulated in the nucleotide-containing diet. However, the diets containing antibiotics or Maxi-Gen Plus downregulated the expression of IFN-γ compared to the control. The primary antibody response to SRBC was not affected by diets. However, the diet containing YCW increased the secondary antibody response to SRBC compared to the antibiotic treatment. Neither primary nor secondary IgG and IgM response against BSA were affected by diets. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with YCW stimulated Th2 cell-mediated immune response indicating the immunomodulatory activities of these products following immunization with non-inflammatory antigens. PMID:26787921

  4. Effects of feeding diets containing highly oxidized dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass composition, and pork fat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid peroxidation in animal feed has been shown to negatively impact growth performance and meat quality. A total of 432 weanling pigs were used to evaluate the effects of feeding highly oxidized DDGS with 3 levels of vitamin E on growth performance, carcass composition, and pork fat quality. The D...

  5. Evaluation of the bacterial diversity in the rumen and feces of cattle fed different diets containing levels of dried distillers grains plus solubles using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary components and changes cause shifts in the intestinal ecology of the gut, which can play a role in animal health and productivity. However, most information about the microbial populations in the gut of livestock species has not been quantitative. In the present study, we utilized a new m...

  6. Steam distillation of crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, J.H.; Hsueh, L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to generate crude oil steam distillation data for the prediction of phase behavior in steamflood simulation and to correlate the steam distillation yields for a variety of crude oils. Thirteen steam distillation tests were run on 10 crude oils ranging in gravity from 9.4 to 37/sup 0/API (1.004 to 0.840 g/cm/sup 3/). In each test the crude was steam distilled sequentially at about 220, 300, 400, and 500/sup 0/F (104, 149, 204, and 260/sup 0/C). The cumulative steam distillation yields at 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) ranged from about 20 to 55 vol%. Experimental results showed that crude oil steam distillation yields at steamflood conditions are significant, even for heavy oils. The effects of differences in steam volume throughput and steam temperature were taken into account when comparing yields for different crudes or repeat runs on the same crude. Steam distillation yields show a high correlation with crude oil API gravity and wax content.

  7. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Min

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100 µM BABA increased drought-induced ABA production, leading to a decrease in the lethal leaf water potential (Ψ) used to measure desiccation tolerance, decreased water use, and increased water use efficiency for grain (WUEG) under moderate water stress. In addition, at severe water stress levels, drenching the soil with BABA reduced ROS production, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and reduced the oxidative damage to lipid membranes. The data suggest that the addition of BABA triggers ABA accumulation that acts as a non-hydraulic root signal, thereby closing stomata, and reducing water use at moderate stress levels, and also reduces the production of ROS and increases the antioxidant defence enzymes at severe stress levels, thus increasing the desiccation tolerance. However, BABA treatment had no effect on grain yield of wheat when water availability was limited. The results suggest that there are ways of effectively priming the pre-existing defence pathways, in addition to genetic means, to improve the desiccation tolerance and WUEG of wheat. PMID:22859677

  8. Quantum distillation of bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems present a series of challenges for theory and opportunities for cold atom experiments. I will describe an experiment in which a bundle of initially trapped superfluid 1D Bose lattice gases is quenched to an untrapped, flat lattice potential. This simple experimental situation in the intermediate coupling regime (U/J between 4 and 9.6) leads to interesting dynamics. These include the progressive dissolution of a fraction of the doublons, as well as the quantum distillation and long term confinement of singlons out of and within the central, doublon-dominated region. We measure these processes by combining absorption imaging, photoassociation and 3-body loss to separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of the expectation values of singlons, doublons and triplons. The qualitative dynamics is reproduced by a Gutzwiller mean field model and the essence of the experiment can be understood by considering simple spatial pictures of site occupancies. This work was supported by the NSF and the ARO.

  9. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  10. The feeding value of corn distillers solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sasikala-Appukuttan, A K; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 5 primiparous) in early to mid lactation (79.3 +/- 9.2 d in milk) were used in a multiple 5 x 5 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to evaluate and compare the use of condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the total mixed ration. The forage portion of the diets was kept constant at 27.5% corn silage and 27.5% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Diets were 1) 0% distillers grains products (control); 2) 18.5% DDGS; 3) 10% CCDS; 4) 20% CCDS; and 5) a combination diet of 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS. Diets 2 and 3 contained 2% fat from DDGS or CCDS, whereas diet 4 contained 4% fat from CCDS and diet 5 contained 4% fat from the blend of DDGS and CCDS. The diets were balanced to provide 17% crude protein with variation in acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and fat concentration. Dry matter intake (21.5 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk yield (33.8, 36.2, 35.5, 36.0, and 36.0 kg/d) tended to be greater for diets 2 to 5 than for diet 1, whereas yields of fat (1.04 kg/d), protein (1.02 kg/d), fat percentage (2.94), and protein percentage (2.98) were similar for all diets. Energy-corrected milk (32.2 kg/d) and feed efficiency (1.58 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar for all diets. Milk urea nitrogen (15.0, 10.9, 11.1, 11.0, and 11.4 mg/dL) as well as blood urea nitrogen (15.6, 12.5, 14.6, 13.8, and 14.2 mg/dL) were decreased in diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids were greater and medium-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.33, 0.68, 0.51, 0.85, and 1.07 g/100 g of fatty acids) as well as trans-10, cis-12 CLA (<0.01, 0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 g/100 g of fatty acids) were greater for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Molar proportions of ruminal

  11. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  13. Effects of flow volume and grain size on mobility of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments: A functional relationship of scaling parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, B.; Romano, G. P.

    2012-02-01

    Flows of angular rock fragments are released down a concave upward chute in the laboratory to study their mobility. This mobility is measured as the reciprocal of the apparent coefficient of friction that is equal to the vertical drop of the center of mass of the granular material divided by its horizontal distance of travel. Our experiments show that the finer the grain size (with all the other features the same), the larger the mobility of the center of mass. We believe this to be due to the fact that in finer grain size flows there are less agitated particles per unit of flow mass, so that these flows dissipate less energy per unit of travel distance. Our experiments show also that the larger the volume (with all the other features the same), the larger the apparent coefficient of friction. We believe this to be so because the frontal portion of a flow reaches the less steep part of a curved slope and stops before the rear portion, preventing the rear portion and the center of mass from traveling farther downhill. This phenomenon (which is more prominent in larger-volume flows, whose rear and frontal ends are more distant) counteracts the decrease of energy dissipation per unit of flow mass because of the decrease of particle agitation per unit of flow mass that is expected when the volume of a flow increases (with all the other features the same). Our analysis generates a functional relationship between the dimensionless apparent coefficient of friction and a scaling parameter whose numerator is equal to the mean grain size multiplied by the cube root of the deposit volume and whose denominator is the square of the channel width. The purpose of our experiments is to understand the dynamics of rock avalanches and dense pyroclastic flows.

  14. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  15. Mycotoxins in corn distillers grains: a concern in ruminants?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main fungi that produce toxins during storage belong to three genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. It is not easy to correlate the presence of mycotoxins to that of molds when dealing with cattle diets. The same type of molds can produce different kind of toxins and different molds c...

  16. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  17. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  18. Ethanol Fermentation Performance of Grain Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor) with Modified Endosperm Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.; Jampala, B; Robbins, A; Hays, D; Yan, S; Xu, F; Rooney, W; Peterson, G; Shi, Y; Wang, D

    2010-01-01

    We tested 13 sorghum entries (lines and hybrids) with different endosperm matrices for ethanol production using a laboratory dry grind process. Waxy and heterowaxy samples had the highest efficiencies. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents in sorghum samples were positively related to the fermentation rate during fermentation (R{sup 2} = 0.8618). Dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from different sorghums had significantly different crude protein and crude fat contents. Residual starch content in DDGS ranged from 0.60% for the most efficient sample to 2.66% for the least efficient sample. This study showed that the HD lines (TX1, TX3, TX5, TX7, and TX9) with modified endosperm protein matrix have several attributes desirable for ethanol production: easily pasted starch granules, significantly higher FAN content in finished mashes, 30-45% faster ethanol fermentation rate during early stages, and 50-60% higher lysine content in DDGS.

  19. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  20. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  1. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  2. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  3. In situ disappearance of dry matter and fiber from fall-grown cereal-grain forages from the north-central United States.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Walgenbach, R P

    2010-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that fall-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack), and oat (Avena sativa L.) forages contain limited lignin and exhibit relatively stable estimates of in vitro true DM disappearance, as well as TDN, across a wide fall-harvest window. These traits suggest that ruminal availability of forage fiber is extensive. Our objectives were to evaluate this premise by assessing in situ DM and NDF disappearance for Kaskaskia wheat, Trical 2700 triticale, Ogle oat (grain-type, mid-maturity rating), and ForagePlus oat (forage-type, late maturity rating) grown and harvested during fall in Wisconsin. During 2006, ruminal disappearance rate (K(d)) of DM declined linearly (P ≤ 0.002) across fall harvest dates for all cultivars; K(d) ranged narrowly (0.091 to 0.100/h) on the initial September 15 harvest date, but by October 30, K(d) generally was slower for oat (0.042 to 0.053/h) than for triticale (0.069/h) or wheat (0.072/h). Estimates of effective ruminal disappearance of DM (RDDM) were large for all cultivars (72.0 to 82.8% of DM), and generally exhibited polynomial trends over harvest dates that displayed both linear (P ≤ 0.003) and quadratic (P ≤ 0.004) character. For 2007, RDDM was extensive across all forages (70.5 to 83.1%), except for Ogle oat harvested on October 10 (61.5% of DM) or November 7 (57.0% of DM), at which time tillers had reached the boot- and fully headed stages of growth, respectively. For ruminal disappearance of NDF, K(d) declined linearly (P ≤ 0.002) across harvest dates for all cultivars during 2006 and 2007; a quadratic (P ≤ 0.033) effect also was detected for ForagePlus oat, but not for other cultivars (P ≥ 0.072). During both years, effective ruminal disappearance of NDF (RDNDF) declined linearly (P ≤ 0.008) over harvest dates for all cultivars, but detection of additional quadratic responses was dependent on cultivar and year. Concentrations of RDNDF for all cultivars

  4. On 10 to 30 m-scale fracture networks in Gale Crater: Contraction of fine-grained sediments due to drying or of frozen sediments due to cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, Ronald; Hallet, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The area in Gale Crater north of the Curiosity landing site has been identified as an alluvial fan [1] and features diverse geological units [2], some with abundant contraction cracks that delineate polygons on the order of 10-30 meters across. These polygons are much larger than the < 1m flagstones seen in Yellowknife by Curiosity [3] and are more suggestive of polygonal patterned ground seen at higher latitudes on Mars [4] and Earth; however, current conditions indicate that ground ice is not stable in Gale Crater [4]. Nevertheless, past conditions, e.g. obliquity changes, may have allowed permafrost to develop and ground ice to form. The domains between the larger polygons are several meters wide, which is consistent with cyclic ratcheting of ice-cemented permafrost (thermal contraction with fractures opening, debris infilling the fractures, and the fractures not closing fully when the ground warms and expands). On the other hand, the large-scale crack networks often seem to be associated with certain lithologic units, including the thinly-bedded, lightly-colored mudstones exposed at Yellowknife. This suggests that the contraction cracks defining these 10 to 30-m polygons, as well as those defining the < 1m flagstones, formed in moist fine-grained sediments that contracted upon desiccation. If the fractures were due to contraction of ice-cemented permafrost, they would be insensitive to the type of sediments they formed in because the mechanical properties would be dominated by ice. The interpretation of the larger-scale crack network is limited to satellite images since Curiosity did not visit this area, and to evidence about surface materials elsewhere in the vicinity of the rover. This evidence points to the former presence of flowing water in Gale Crater and existence of shallow lakes of relatively low salinity and near-neutral pH at Yellowknife [5]. The large amount of contraction in Yellowknife deposits is consistent with a desiccation origin in these

  5. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  6. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  7. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  8. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  9. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.; Davis, B.H.; Sagues, A.A.; Schweighardt, F.K.

    1985-04-30

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or subatmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  10. Distillers By-Product Cattle Diets Enhance Reduced Sulfur Gas Fluxes from Feedlot Soils and Manures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel N; Spiehs, Mindy J; Varel, Vincent H; Woodbury, Bryan L; Wells, James E; Berry, Elaine D

    2016-07-01

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times during Feeding Trial 1 from cattle fed 0, 20, 40, and 60% WDGS. Fluxes of TRS from 40 and 60% WDGS manures were 3- to 13-fold greater than the 0 and 20% WDGS manures during the first two periods. In the final period, TRS flux from 60% WDGS was 5- to 22-fold greater than other WDGS manures. During Feeding Trial 2, 0 and 40% WDGS diets on four dates were compared in feedlot-scale pens. On two dates, fluxes from mixed manure and soil near the feed bunk were 3.5-fold greater from 40% WDGS pens. After removing animals, soil TRS flux decreased 82% over 19 d but remained 50% greater in 40% WDGS pens, principally from the wetter pen edges (1.9-fold greater than the drier central mound). During two cycles of cattle production in Feeding Trial 3, TRS soil fluxes were 0.3- to 4-fold greater over six dates for pens feeding WDGS compared with dry-rolled corn diet and principally from wetter pen edges. Soil TRS flux correlated with %WDGS, total N, total P, manure pack temperature, and surface temperature. Consistent results among these three trials indicate that TRS fluxes increase by two- to fivefold when cattle were fed greater levels of WDGS, but specific manure management practices may help control TRS fluxes. PMID:27380063

  11. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid:...

  12. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  13. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  14. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  15. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  16. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  17. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  18. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  19. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  20. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, E; Streltsov, A; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2016-02-19

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed. PMID:26943512

  1. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, E.; Streltsov, A.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Adesso, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  2. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  3. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  4. Small codes for magic state distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark; Dawkins, Hillary

    2016-03-01

    Magic state distillation is a critical component in leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Relatively little is known, however, about how to construct a magic state distillation routine or, more specifically, which stabilizer codes are suitable for the task. While transversality of a non-Clifford gate within a code often leads to efficient distillation routines, it appears to not be a necessary condition. Here we have examined a number of small stabilizer codes and highlight a handful of which displaying interesting, albeit inefficient, distillation behaviour. Many of these distill noisy states right up to the boundary of the known undististillable region, while some distill toward non-stabilizer states that have not previously been considered.

  5. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive ... or twice a week Add conditioners Avoid blow drying and harsh styling products

  6. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  7. Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

  8. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  9. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2006-01-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

    The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  10. Design of modular control system for grain dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gaoqing; Liu, Yanhua; Zu, Yuan

    In order to effectively control the temperature of grain drying bin, grain ,air outlet as well as the grain moisture, it designed the control system of 5HCY-35 which is based on MCU to adapt to all grains drying conditions, high drying efficiency, long life usage and less manually. The system includes: the control module of the constant temperature and the temperature difference control in drying bin, the constant temperature control of heating furnace, on-line testing of moisture, variety of grain-circulation speed control and human-computer interaction interface. Spatial curve simulation, which takes moisture as control objectives, controls the constant temperature and the temperature difference in drying bin according to preset parameter by the user or a list to reduce the grains explosive to ensure the seed germination percentage. The system can realize the intelligent control of high efficiency and various drying, the good scalability and the high quality.

  11. Collocation methods for distillation design. 2: Applications for distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Huss, R.S.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present applications for a collocation method for modeling distillation columns that they developed in a companion paper. They discuss implementation of the model, including discussion of the ASCEND (Advanced System for Computations in ENgineering Design) system, which enables one to create complex models with simple building blocks and interactively learn to solve them. They first investigate applying the model to compute minimum reflux for a given separation task, exactly solving nonsharp and approximately solving sharp split minimum reflux problems. They next illustrate the use of the collocation model to optimize the design a single column capable of carrying out a prescribed set of separation tasks. The optimization picks the best column diameter and total number of trays. It also picks the feed tray for each of the prescribed separations.

  12. Advanced Biorefinery of Distriller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced via the dry milling process, which converts corn grain to ethanol. The co-product, distiller’s grain (DG), is sold as a low-cost, high-protein feed source for livestock.

  13. Grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  14. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  15. 27 CFR 1.91 - Bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled distilled spirits..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.91 Bottled distilled spirits. The provisions of...

  16. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  17. Interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    There are few aspects of interstellar grains that can be unambiguously defined. Very little can be said that is independent of models or presuppositions; hence issues are raised and questions categorized, rather than providing definitive answers. The questions are issues fall into three general areas; the general physical and chemical nature of the grains; the processes by which they are formed and destroyed; and future observational approaches.

  18. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  19. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilling material. 24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded...

  20. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilling material. 24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded...