Science.gov

Sample records for drilling fluid damage

  1. Low permeability filter cake limits damage from high-pH drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z.; Hu, Y.

    1997-02-17

    Changing the particle size distribution in high-pH drilling fluids and perforating underbalanced helped protect sensitive reservoirs from formation damage. In several wells drilled in a carboniferous reservoir system in China, invasion of the high-pH filtrate from the drilling and workover fluids seriously damaged the formation. An in-depth reservoir study determined the cause of the formation damage and led to the development of new field procedures to prevent damage in future wells. Details are described.

  2. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M.; Moses, V.

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  3. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  4. Utilization of biologically generated acid for drilling fluid damage removal and uniform acid placement across long formation intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S.W.; Harris, R.E.; Penny, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A method of drilling damage removal is presented which uses biologically generated acid (BGA) as the stimulation fluid. The BGA solution is not reactive during the actual pumping stage which allows its displacement into the reservoir to be controlled by the relatively low permeability of the near wellbore damage. Catalytic generation of acid occurs at a controlled rate once the BGA has been injected into the formation and results in uniform damage removal around the near wellbore region. The ability of BGA to be generated under a variety of temperature and pressure conditions and the compatibility evaluation of BGA with a variety of commonly used oil and water based drilling muds is first presented to establish some of the operational guidelines for BGA use. Drilling damage removal studies utilizing the modified API linear conductivity flow cell and carbonate material with BGA is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this stimulation fluid. Dual core flow test data is then presented which shows BGA`s ability and HCL`s inability to remove drilling damage over long horizontal intervals in carbonate formations.

  5. Investigation of mud density and weighting materials effect on drilling fluid filter cake properties and formation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah, K. A.; Lashin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Drilling fluid density/type is an important factor in drilling and production operations. Most of encountered problems during rotary drilling are related to drilling mud types and weights. This paper aims to investigate the effect of mud weight on filter cake properties and formation damage through two experimental approaches. In the first approach, seven water-based drilling fluid samples with same composition are prepared with different densities (9.0-12.0 lb/gal) and examined to select the optimum mud weight that has less damage. The second approach deals with investigating the possible effect of the different weighting materials (BaSO4 and CaCO3) on filter cake properties. High pressure/high temperature loss tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses were carried out on the filter cake (two selected samples). Data analysis has revealed that mud weigh of 9.5 lb/gal has the less reduction in permeability of ceramic disk, among the seven used mud densities. Above 10.5 ppg the effect of the mud weight density on formation damage is stabilized at constant value. Fluids of CaCO3-based weighting material, has less reduction in the porosity (9.14%) and permeability (25%) of the filter disk properties than the BaSO4-based fluid. The produced filter cake porosity increases (from 0.735 to 0.859) with decreasing of fluid density in case of drilling samples of different densities. The filtration loss tests indicated that CaCO3 filter cake porosity (0.52) is less than that of the BaSO4 weighted material (0.814). The thickness of the filter cake of the BaSO4-based fluid is large and can cause some problems. The SEM analysis shows that some major elements do occur on the tested samples (Ca, Al, Si, and Ba), with dominance of Ca on the expense of Ba for the CaCO3 fluid sample and vice versa. The less effect of 9.5 lb/gal mud sample is reflected in the well-produced inter-particle pore structure and relatively crystal size. A general recommendation is given to

  6. Investigation of mud density and weighting materials effect on drilling fluid filter cake properties and formation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah, K. A.; Lashin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Drilling fluid density/type is an important factor in drilling and production operations. Most of encountered problems during rotary drilling are related to drilling mud types and weights. This paper aims to investigate the effect of mud weight on filter cake properties and formation damage through two experimental approaches. In the first approach, seven water-based drilling fluid samples with same composition are prepared with different densities (9.0-12.0 lb/gal) and examined to select the optimum mud weight that has less damage. The second approach deals with investigating the possible effect of the different weighting materials (BaSO4 and CaCO3) on filter cake properties. High pressure/high temperature loss tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses were carried out on the filter cake (two selected samples). Data analysis has revealed that mud weigh of 9.5 lb/gal has the less reduction in permeability of ceramic disk, among the seven used mud densities. Above 10.5 ppg the effect of the mud weight density on formation damage is stabilized at constant value. Fluids of CaCO3-based weighting material, has less reduction in the porosity (9.14%) and permeability (25%) of the filter disk properties than the BaSO4-based fluid. The produced filter cake porosity increases (from 0.735 to 0.859) with decreasing of fluid density in case of drilling samples of different densities. The filtration loss tests indicated that CaCO3 filter cake porosity (0.52) is less than that of the BaSO4 weighted material (0.814). The thickness of the filter cake of the BaSO4-based fluid is large and can cause some problems. The SEM analysis shows that some major elements do occur on the tested samples (Ca, Al, Si, and Ba), with dominance of Ca on the expense of Ba for the CaCO3 fluid sample and vice versa. The less effect of 9.5 lb/gal mud sample is reflected in the well-produced inter-particle pore structure and relatively crystal size. A general recommendation is given to

  7. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  8. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  9. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  10. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  12. Aqueous drilling fluids containing fluid loss additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.; Villa, J.L.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes an aqueous clay containing drilling fluid having present in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, a copolymer of (1) from about 80% to about 98% by weight of acrylic acid and (2) from about 2% to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid. The copolymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000, being in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized salt form and being at least water dispersible.

  13. State-of-the-art in coalbed methane drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baltoiu, L.V.; Warren, B.K.; Natras, T.A.

    2008-09-15

    The production of methane from wet coalbeds is often associated with the production of significant amounts of water. While producing water is necessary to desorb the methane from the coal, the damage from the drilling fluids used is difficult to assess, because the gas production follows weeks to months after the well is drilled. Commonly asked questions include the following: What are the important parameters for drilling an organic reservoir rock that is both the source and the trap for the methane? Has the drilling fluid affected the gas production? Are the cleats plugged? Does the 'filtercake' have an impact on the flow of water and gas? Are stimulation techniques compatible with the drilling fluids used? This paper describes the development of a unique drilling fluid to drill coalbed methane wells with a special emphasis on horizontal applications. The fluid design incorporates products to match the delicate surface chemistry on the coal, a matting system to provide both borehole stability and minimize fluid losses to the cleats, and a breaker method of removing the matting system once drilling is completed. This paper also discusses how coal geology impacts drilling planning, drilling practices, the choice of drilling fluid, and completion/stimulation techniques for Upper Cretaceous Mannville-type coals drilled within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A focus on horizontal coalbed methane (CBM) wells is presented. Field results from three horizontal wells are discussed, two of which were drilled with the new drilling fluid system. The wells demonstrated exceptional stability in coal for lengths to 1000 m, controlled drilling rates and ease of running slotted liners. Methods for, and results of, placing the breaker in the horizontal wells are covered in depth.

  14. Recent Developments in Geothermal Drilling Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J. R.; Rand, P. B.; Nevins, M. J.; Clements, W. R.; Hilscher, L. W.; Remont, L. J.; Matula, G. W.; Balley, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, standard drilling muds have been used to drill most geothermal wells. However, the harsh thermal and chemical environment and the unique geothermal formations have led to such problems as excessive thickening of the fluid, formation damage, and lost circulation. This paper describes three recent development efforts aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. Each of the efforts is at a different stage of development. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase, NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is soon to be field tested, and the Mudtech high-temperature mud was field tested several months ago. Low density and the capability to suspend particles at low relative velocities are two factors which make foam an attractive drilling fluid. The stability of these foams and their material properties at high temperatures are presently unknown and this lack of information has precluded their use as a geothermal drilling fluid. The aqueous foam studies being conducted at Sandia are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperature and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260 and 310 C (500 and 590 F), and several of these candidates appear very promising. NL Baroid has developed a polymeric deflocculant for water-based muds which shows promise in retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 260 C (500 F) in laboratory testing. A high-temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed by Mudtech, Inc. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May 1980. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test.

  15. Drilling fluids and thinners therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, G.M. III

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid comprising water, finely divided solids and a first agent and a second agent. The first agent comprises a sulfoalkylated tannin containing no complexing heavy metal. The second agent comprises at least one at least partly water-soluble metal compound comprising tin. The weight ratio of the first agent to the second agent is in the range from about 100;1 to about 1:1.

  16. Aqueous drilling fluids containing fluid loss additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.; Villa, J.L.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a copolymer of (1) from about 80% to about 98% by weight of acrylic acid and (2) from about 2% to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid. The copolymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 1000,000 to about 1,000,000, is in the form of its free acid or partially or completely sodium, potassium or ammonium neutralized salt and is at least water dispersible. The partially neutralized salt is prepared by reacting carboxylic groups present in the acrylic acid and the itaconic acid with neutralizing agent, the copolymer being useful as a fluid loss control additive for aqueous drilling fluids.

  17. Field application of lightweight, hollow-glass-sphere drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    A new class of underbalanced drilling fluids being developed under US Dept. of Energy (US DOE) sponsorship was recently successfully field tested. The fluid uses hollow glass spheres (HGS`s) to decrease the fluid density to less than that of the base mud while maintaining incompressibility. Concentrations of up to 20 vol% were used to decrease the fluid density to 0.8 lbm/gal less than normally used in the field. Potential benefits of using these fluids include higher penetration rates, decreased formation damage, and lost-circulation mitigation. When used in place of aerated fluid, they can eliminate compressor usage and allow the use of mud-pulse measurement-while-drilling tools. These and other recent advances in technology have spurred interest in underbalanced drilling to the highest level in 30 years. Industry-wide surveys indicate that more than 12% of wells drilled in the US in 1997 will intentionally use underbalanced techniques.

  18. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Gilligan Jr., T. J.

    1985-10-22

    The present invention relates to a process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide which frequently becomes entrained in drilling fluid during the course of drilling operations through subterranean formations. The process consists of introducing a solid oxidant in powdered form into the circulating drilling fluid when hydrogen sulfide is encountered. The solid oxidants are selected from the group consisting of calcium hypochlorite (Ca-(OCl)/sub 2/), sodium perborate (NaBO/sub 3/), potassium permanganate (KMnO/sub 4/), and potassium peroxydisulfate (K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/). The solid oxidants are soluble in the drilling fluid, promoting fast and complete scavenging reactions without adversely altering the drilling fluid rheology.

  19. Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

  20. Drilling fluid containing crosslinked polysaccharide derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Demott, D.N.; Kucera, C.H.

    1981-03-24

    A drilling fluid having extremely desirable physical properties which comprises an aqueous solution of a hydroxyalkyl polysaccharide derivative and a water soluble ionic aluminum crosslinking agent, preferably sodium aluminate.

  1. API rapid bioassay procedures for drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluates the applicability of existing rapid toxicity test methods (duration of 2 hours or less) using the sea urchin sperm test and marine luminescent bacteria assay system for testing the toxicity of drilling fluids. The correlation between the results of these two test and the results of 96-hour static acute toxicity tests conducted with mysids was also evaluated, and it was determined that it may be possible to use rapid assays to conservatively predict compliance of drilling fluid with a mysid toxicity limitation.

  2. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  3. TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT-INCORPORATED DRILLING FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calcula...

  4. Method of determining drilling fluid invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-10

    A method of determining the invasion of drilling fluid into a core sample taken from a borehole. A first material is added to the drilling fluid to obtain a first fluid that has an effective atomic number that is different than the effective atomic number of the connate fluids in the rock formation surrounding the borehole. A preserved core sample is collected from the borehole for scanning by a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a cross section of the core sample. The preserved core sample is scanned with a CAT at first and second energies, and the determined attenuation coefficients for the plurality of points in the cross section at each energy are used to determine an atomic number image for the cross section of the core sample. The depth of invasion of the first fluid is then determined from the atomic number image, as an indication of the depth of invasion of the drilling fluid into the core sample.

  5. Research and application of amphoteric polymers for drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Yabin; Zhang Daming; Luo Pingya; Li Jian; Xu Tongtai

    1995-11-01

    As the inhibition ability is not strong enough and the tolerance ability of solid contamination is low for the usual polymer drilling fluids, the amphoteric polymer drilling fluid is suggested to solve these problems after analyzing and researching interactive mechanisms and components of polymer drilling fluid as well as structure character of polymer molecule. The application in 15 oilfields (nearly 4,000 wells) in China demonstrates that the amphoteric polymer drilling fluid has strong inhibition, can retard ``mud-making`` of shale formation, keeps low-solid content and is wellbore stable. The amphoteric polymer drilling fluid has excellent rheological properties to make full use of jet-bit drilling and achieve significantly increased drilling rates. The obvious results in the protection of oil formation have been achieved.

  6. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling fluid materials at the drill site...

  7. Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

  8. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling...

  9. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling...

  10. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and drilling...

  11. TOXICITY OF USED DRILLING FLUIDS TO MYSIDS ('MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static, acute toxicity tests were conducted with mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and 11 used drilling fluids (also called drilling muds) obtained from active drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Each whole mud was tested, along with three phases of each mud: a liquid phase ...

  12. Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.

    PubMed

    Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates. PMID:16091622

  13. Recent developments in geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.; Rand, P.B.; Nevins, M.J.; Clements, W.R.; Hilscher, L.W.; Remont, L.J.; Matula, G.W.; Bailey, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Three recent development efforts are described, aimed at solving some of these drilling fluid problems. The Sandia aqueous foam studies are still in the laboratory phase; NL Baroid's polymeric deflocculant is being field tested; and the Mudtech high temperature mud was field tested several months ago. The aqueous foam studies are aimed at screening available surfactants for temperture and chemical stability. Approximately 100 surfactants have been tested at temperatures of 260/sup 0/C and 310/sup 0/C and several of these candidates appear very promising. A polymeric deflocculant was developed for water-based muds which shows promise in laboratory tests of retarding thermal degradation effects and associated gelation. Formulations containing this new polymer have shown good rheological properties up to 500/sup 0/F. A high temperature mud consisting primarily of sepiolite, bentonite, and brown coal has been developed. A field test of this mud was conducted in a geothermal well in the Imperial Valley of California in May of last year. The fluid exhibited good hole-cleaning characteristics and good rheological properties throughout the test. (MHR)

  14. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must use, maintain, and replenish quantities of drilling fluid and...

  15. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to prevent the loss...

  16. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What safe practices must the drilling fluid... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling fluid program must include the following safe practices: (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...

  18. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What safe practices must the drilling fluid... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling fluid program must include the following safe practices: (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...

  20. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What safe practices must the drilling fluid... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling fluid program must include the following safe practices: (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...

  2. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  3. Drilling fluid containing a copolymer filtration control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Enright, D.P.; Lucas, J.M.; Perricone, A.C.

    1981-10-06

    The invention relates to an aqueous drilling fluid composition, a filtration control agent for utilization in said aqueous drilling fluid, and a method of forming a filter cake on the wall of a well for the reduction of filtrate from said drilling fluid, by utilization of a copolymer of: (1) a (Meth) acrylamido alkyl sulfonic acid or alkali metal salt thereof; and (2) a (Meth) acrylamide or n-alkyl (Meth) acrylamide. The copolymer may be cross-linked with a quaternary ammonium salt cross-linking agent.

  4. DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

  5. Means and Method for Measurement of Drilling Fluid Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysyannikov, A.; Kondrashov, P.; Pavlova, P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem on creation of a new design of the device for determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and the basic requirements which it must meet. The key quantitative parameters that define the developed device are provided. The algorithm of determining the coefficient of the yield point from the rheological Shvedov- Bingam model at a relative speed of rotation of glasses from the investigated drilling fluid of 300 and 600 rpm is presented.

  6. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according to API RP...

  7. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  8. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the following drilling...

  9. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  10. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according...

  11. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and maintain the...

  12. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according...

  13. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling fluid-handling areas according...

  14. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fluids? 250.457 Section 250.457 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you establish drilling fluid returns, you must install and...

  15. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What safe practices must the drilling fluid... Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.456 What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? Your drilling fluid program must include the following safe practices: (a) Before starting out of...

  16. Drilling Fluids and Lost Circulation in Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G. Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320 C (608 F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred. Several techniques were attempted to solve these problems but have met with varying degrees of success.

  17. Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.; Baroid, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo Formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred.

  18. Drilling fluids containing amps, acrylic acid, itaconic acid polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid having present in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component, there being from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 being in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and being at least water dispersible. A method is described of drilling a well into a subterranean formation in which an aqueous drilling fluid is circulated into the well. The step of circulating the drilling fluid contains in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component. There is from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and is at least water dispersible.

  19. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arkadiy Belkin; Fred Growcock

    2004-07-31

    The rate and amplitude of pressure transmission of various drilling fluids--particularly aphron drilling fluids--are measured in a long conduit and in sand packs to determine how pressure transmissibility can affect fluid invasion.

  20. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling...

  1. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your...

  2. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  3. Framework for a comparative environmental assessment of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.

    1998-11-01

    During the drilling of an oil or gas well, drilling fluid (or mud) is used to maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. In response to effluent limitation guidelines promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for discharge of drilling wastes offshore, alternatives to water and oil-based muds have been developed. These synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are more efficient than water-based muds (WBMs) for drilling difficult and complex formation intervals and have lower toxicity and smaller environmental impacts than diesel or conventional mineral oil-based muds (OBMs). A third category of drilling fluids, derived from petroleum and called enhanced mineral oils (EMOs), also have these advantages over the traditionally used OBMs and WBMs. EPA recognizes that SBMs and EMOs are new classes of drilling fluids, but their regulatory status is unclear. To address this uncertainty, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will develop final regulations for SBM discharges offshore in less than three years. This report develops a framework for a comparative risk assessment for the discharge of SBMs and EMOs, to help support a risk-based, integrated approach to regulatory decision making. The framework will help identify potential impacts and benefits associated with the use of SBMs, EMOs, WBMs, and OBMs; identify areas where additional data are needed; and support early decision-making in the absence of complete data. As additional data becomes available, the framework can support a full quantitative comparative assessment. Detailed data are provided to support a comparative assessment in the areas of occupational and public health impacts.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

  5. Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

  6. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  7. FATE AND EFFECTS OF WHOLE DRILLING FLUIDS AND FLUID COMPONENTS IN TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drilling fluids represent an important aspect of offshore and land based drilling operations. Periodically, the fluids must be changed or they become old and the spent fluids are disposed of in on-land facilities. Introduction into the environment of the chemically complex fluids...

  8. Fate and effects of whole drilling fluids and fluid components in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems: a literature review. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, J.G.

    1981-05-01

    Drilling fluids represent an important aspect of offshore and land based drilling operations. Periodically, the fluids must be changed or they become old and the spent fluids are disposed of in on-land facilities. Introduction into the environment of the chemically complex fluids has prompted effects research addressing terrestrial and freshwater habitats and their respective biological components. Studies with terrestrial plants in laboratory and field experiments show that the fluids and some fluid components exhibit phytotoxicity properties reducing seed germination, growth and yield. Phytotoxicity in whole drilling fluids is attributed to soluble salt concentrations. Preference/avoidance reactions were observed in experiments with whole drilling fluids are also discussed. The range of lethal concentrations of fluid components in toxicity studies was from < 1 to 75,000 mg/l and that for whole drilling fluids from 0.29 to 85% by volume.

  9. Cementing oil and gas wells using converted drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.N.; Miles, L.H.; Boyd, B.H.; Carpenter, R.B.

    1989-11-28

    This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends. The wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid to be converted to cement for cementing the space to form a seal between spaced apart points in the formation. The method comprising the steps of: providing means for adding cement material and a dispersant to the fluid, circulating the fluid and adding the cement material and the dispersant to a quantity of the fluid in predetermined proportions to form a settable cement composition; circulating the cement composition into the space to fill the space with the cement composition; and recirculating a quantity of the cement composition through the space.

  10. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  11. Evaluation of a new technique for removing horizontal wellbore damage attributable to drill-in filter cake

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, B.B.; Brannon, H.D.; O`Driscoll, K.

    1996-12-31

    Many horizontal and highly deviated wells are drilled using the {open_quote}drill-in fluids{close_quote} introduced in recent years. The drill-in fluids are typically comprised of either starch or cellulose polymers, xanthan polymer, and sized calcium carbonate or salt particulates. They were introduced to minimize the mud damage to the wellbore relative to that typically observed with conventional drilling muds. However, testing and experience have shown that insufficient degradation of the filter cakes resulting from even these {open_quote}clean{close_quote} drill-in fluids can significantly impede flow capacity at the wellbore wall. This reduced flow capacity can result in reduced well productivity or infectivity. Consequently, wellbore acid treatments are typically applied in attempts to remove or {open_quote}bypass{close_quote} the filter cake. The acid treatments are often only marginally successful, particularly when applied in extended length intervals. Extensive studies were conducted to develop laboratory procedures to better simulate and characterize the damage attributable to drill-in fluids. Various chemical systems were subsequently applied to evaluate the effectiveness of their relative filter-cake degradation capabilities. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that drill-in fluid filter cake can be effectively removed through the application of a newly developed technique incorporating an enzyme-based polymer degradation system. The data show that through utilization of this new technology, smaller, less costly treatments can be used to treat entire openhole intervals to zero-skin potential with dramatically improved treatment efficiency. Much smaller, lower concentration acid treatments can then be effectively applied to stimulate the interval. Surveys following the field application of the new system have shown not only increased flow, but also flow throughout entire length open- hole intervals.

  12. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-04-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of the Amount of Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid (NAF) Base Fluid From Drill Cuttings by a Retort Chamber (Derived From API Recommended Practice 13B-2) (EPA Method 1674) 7 Appendix 7 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  14. Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity...

  16. Drilling fluids with scavengers help control H[sub 2]S

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P. )

    1994-05-23

    Maintaining a high pH and using chemical sulfide scavengers in oil-based and water-based drilling muds can neutralize hydrogen sulfide (H[sub 2]S). Safe, successful drilling of H[sub 2]S-bearing formations requires good drilling practices, extra attention to casing design, and proper drilling fluid formulation. The drilling fluid must be capable of controlling formation pressures, protecting workers, inhibiting corrosion, limiting drilling fluid contamination, maintaining well bore stability, and removing sulfide contamination rapidly. High-alkalinity drilling fluids with excess lime are recommended to provide buffering capacity for pH neutralization. Following the detection of soluble sulfides, the fluid should be immediately treated with the applicable scavenger. Sulfide scavengers must react with soluble sulfides to form an insoluble metal sulfide precipitate. Effective scavengers must have rapid and complete reactions with H[sup 2]S, HS[sup [minus

  17. Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs).

    PubMed

    do Carmo R Peralba, Maria; Pozebon, Dirce; dos Santos, João H Z; Maia, Sandra M; Pizzolato, Tânia M; Cioccari, Giovani; Barrionuevo, Simone

    2010-08-01

    The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during approximately 33 months. For the metals Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, V, and Zn, no significant variation was observed after drilling activities in most of the stations. However, an increase was found in Ba concentration--due to the drilling activity--without return to the levels found 22 months after drilling. High Ba contents was already detected prior to well drilling, probably due to drilling activities in other wells nearby. Hydrocarbon contents also suggest previous anthropogenic activities. Aliphatic hydrocarbon contents were in the range usually reported in other drilling sites. The same behavior was observed in the case of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, the n-alkane concentration increased sharply after drilling, returning almost to predrilling levels 22 months after drilling activities. PMID:20512618

  18. Production waters, recycled completion fluids may harm polymer drilling-mud systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, B. III

    1986-07-01

    Makeup water for drilling muds may contain elements which can adversely affect drilling-mud properties. This frequently occurs when mixing water from unidentified or unusual sources are used. This article examines some of the problems which may occur, and discusses precautions which may be taken to minimize the trouble and expense which could result from use the of ''bad'' makeup water. This work focuses primarily on production waters, and fluids used in completion procedures which are later used as mixing water for drilling muds. Problems associated with these waters include bacterial degradation of drilling-mud additive, and possible incompatibility between completion chemicals and some polymers used in drilling fluids.

  19. Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

  20. Evaluation of aqueous-foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

    1983-07-01

    Aqueous foams are potentially useful drilling and cleanout fluids for geothermal applications. Successful use of foams requires surfactants (foaming agents) that can survive in the high-temperature geothermal environment. In this study, solutions of aqueous-foam-forming surfactants have been exposed to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) and 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) in various chemical environments to determine if they can survive and make foams after exposure. Comparison of foams before and after exposure and the change in solution pH were used to evaluate their performance. Controlled liquid-volume-fraction foams, made in a packed-bed foam generator, were used for all tests. These tests have shown that many commercially available surfactants can survive short high-temperature cycles in mild acids, mild bases, and salt solutions as evidenced by their ability to make foams after exposure to high temperatures.

  1. Soil microbial response to waste potassium silicate drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linjun; Naeth, M Anne; Jobson, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Potassium silicate drilling fluids (PSDF) are a waste product of the oil and gas industry with potential for use in land reclamation. Few studies have examined the influence of PSDF on abundance and composition of soil bacteria and fungi. Soils from three representative locations for PSDF application in Alberta, Canada, with clay loam, loam and sand textures were studied with applications of unused, used once and used twice PSDF. For all three soils, applying ≥40 m3/ha of used PSDF significantly affected the existing soil microbial flora. No microbiota was detected in unused PSDF without soil. Adding used PSDF to soil significantly increased total fungal and aerobic bacterial colony forming units in dilution plate counts, and anaerobic denitrifying bacteria numbers in serial growth experiments. Used PSDF altered bacterial and fungal colony forming unit ratios of all three soils. PMID:25766028

  2. Drilling fluid/formation interaction at simulated in situ geothermal conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Enniss, D.O.; Bergosh, J.L.; Butters, S.W.; Jones, A.H.

    1980-07-01

    Interaction of drilling fluids with a geothermal reservoir formation can result in significant permeability impairment and therefore reduced well productivity. This interaction is studied under simulated in situ geothermal conditions of overburden stress, pore fluid pressure, temperature, and pore fluid chemistry. Permeability impairment of an East Mesa KGRA reservoir material is evaluated as a function of stagnation time, drilling fluid, and temperature. Results indicate that all of these parameters contribute significantly to the magnitude and the reversibility of the impairment.

  3. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

  4. 30 CFR 250.456 - What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What safe practices must the drilling fluid program follow? 250.456 Section 250.456 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION.... This calculation must consider the current drilling fluid weight in the hole; and (2) The lesser of...

  5. EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ON 'THALASSIA TESTUDINUM' AND ITS EPIPHYTIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flow-through microcosm system was developed to assess the potential influence of drilling fluids on Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytic algae. Two treatments (drilling fluid and a montmorillonite clay) and a control were used for seven tests: two 10-day, 200 microliter/l exp...

  6. Rheologically stable, nontoxic, high-temperature, water-based drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Elward-Berry, J.; Darby, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An exceptionally stable, high-temperature, water-based drilling fluid has been developed based on a fundamental redesign of drilling fluid components and functions, while still using commercially available materials. Rheological stability was characterized by extensive Fann 50C low-shear-rate viscosity vs. temperature studies and supporting viscoelastic rheological data. The fluid has been used in offshore and land applications, at temperatures as high as 420 F and densities as high as 15.5 lbm/gal.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin drilling fluid used...

  8. Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L.; Shanahan, J.F.

    1999-05-01

    Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

  9. Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

    2012-12-01

    Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

  10. Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: I. Individual fluid components

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.; Honarvar, S.; Hunsaker, B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of 31 drilling fluid (drilling mud) components on the growth of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Tendergreen) and sweet corn (Zea may var. saccharata (Sturtev.) Bailey, Northrup King 199) were evaluated in greenhouse studies. Plants grew well in fertile Dagor silt loam soil (Cumulic Haploxeroll) when the soil was mixed with most soil-component mixtures at disposal proportions normally expected. Vinyl acetate and maleic acid polymer (VAMA) addition caused significantly increased growth at the 95% confidence level. No statistically significant depression of plant growth occurred at normal rates with asbestos, asphalt, barite, bentonite, calcium lignosulfonate, sodium polyacrylate, a modified tannin, ethoxylated nonylphenol, a filming amine, gilsonite, a Xanthan gum, paraformaldehyde, a pipe dope, hydrolized polyacrylamide, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hydroxide added as pellets, and a sulfonated tall oil. Statistically significant reductions in plant yields (at the 95% confidence level) occurred at normal disposal rates with a long-chained aliphatic alcohol, sodium dichromate, diesel oil, guar gum, an iron chromelignosulfonate, lignite, a modified asphalt, a plant fibersynthetic fiber mixture, lignite, a nonfermenting starch, potassium chloride, pregelatinized starch, and sulfated triglyceride. Thirteen drilling fluid components added individually to a fluid base (water, bentonite, and barite) and then to soil were also tested for their effect on plant growth. Only the sulfated triglyceride (Torq-Trim) and the long-chain (high molecular weight) alcohol (Drillaid 405) caused no plant growth reductions at either rate added. The modified tannin (Desco) caused minimal reduction in bean growth only when added to soil in excess levels.

  11. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  12. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications. PMID:26492498

  13. Numerical evaluation of sequential bone drilling strategies based on thermal damage.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Palmisano, Andrew C; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert J

    2015-09-01

    Sequentially drilling multiple holes in bone is used clinically for surface preparation to aid in fusion of a joint, typically under non-irrigated conditions. Drilling induces a significant amount of heat and accumulates after multiple passes, which can result in thermal osteonecrosis and various complications. To understand the heat propagation over time, a 3D finite element model was developed to simulate sequential bone drilling. By incorporating proper material properties and a modified bone necrosis criteria, this model can visualize the propagation of damaged areas. For this study, comparisons between a 2.0 mm Kirschner wire and 2.0 mm twist drill were conducted with their heat sources determined using an inverse method and experimentally measured bone temperatures. Three clinically viable solutions to reduce thermally-induced bone damage were evaluated using finite element analysis, including tool selection, time interval between passes, and different drilling sequences. Results show that the ideal solution would be using twist drills rather than Kirschner wires if the situation allows. A shorter time interval between passes was also found to be beneficial as it reduces the total heat exposure time. Lastly, optimizing the drilling sequence reduced the thermal damage of bone, but the effect may be limited. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the proposed model to study clinical issues and find potential solutions prior to clinical trials. PMID:26163230

  14. MMH fluids reduce formation damage in horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L. ); Williamson, D. ); Haydel, S. )

    1994-02-01

    It has been more than 3 years since a mixed metal hydroxide fluid was used by Texaco to drill the Gulf of Mexico's first horizontal hole. Since, the fluid has been used to drill dozens of horizontal sections worldwide, including Australia, Indonesia, CIS, UAE, UK, and in North an South America. Due to Texaco's drilling success on the first Gulf of Mexico horizontal well in 1990, several horizontal wells were drilled in the Gulf's shallow gas sands. Fluids were weighted exclusively with ground marble. The marble, with measured grind size distributions similar to commercial barite, is used as a combination weighting and bridging material and is about 99% acid soluble. Completions were carried out by running a slotted liner, displacing the mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluid with calcium chloride brine, and running prepacked screens. Clean-up times where short and production rates equaled or exceeded expectations. Since the technique was relatively new, no comparisons could be made. One operator, however, achieved success during 18 months of production. During this period, the fluid was also used to drill a horizontal section through the Cardium Sandstone at Lodgepole in Alberta, Canada. The fluid out-performed other in return permeability tests on cores from the reservoir. Its performance was enhanced by addition of propylene glycol. High field production rates supported laboratory findings.

  15. Hole-cleaning capabilities of an ester-based drilling fluid system

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.; Hemphill, T.

    1996-03-01

    Well 33/9-C02, located in the Statfjord field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, held the world record in extended-reach drilling from 1993--95. To successfully drill a well of this type, an efficient drilling fluid is required to suspend the weighting material and provide good carrying capacity. The ester-based mud system used in the 12{1/4}- and 8{1/2}-in. hole sections of this well exhibited excellent hole-cleaning capabilities. This paper describes the fluid`s performance in the field and in the laboratory where the fluid was tested under down-hole conditions. Fluid rheological behavior is described with the more accurate yield-power law. (YPL) (Herschel-Bulkley) model.

  16. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Maribella Irving; Fred Growcock

    2004-11-30

    A method is developed to monitor the rate of loss of air from aphrons at elevated pressures. This technique is used to study the effects of pressure, fluid composition and rates of pressurization and depressurization on the kinetics of air loss from aphrons in APHRON ICS{trademark} drilling fluids.

  17. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  19. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. ); Wright, E.K. )

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  20. Field test to assess the effects of drilling fluids on groundwater chemistry collected from Columbia River basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.L.; Bryce, R.W.; Halko, D.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project has used water-based drilling fluids in borehole construction. Fluids begin as a mixture of Columbia River water and bentonite. Other compounds such as organic polymers, soda ash, and chromium lignosulfonate are added to attain desired fluid characteristics. A field test was conducted to assess the effects of these fluids on basaltic groundwater chemistry. A one-month hydrochemistry baseline was established for a single interlow zone in borehole DC-14. Following baseline data collection, approximately 40,000 liters of drilling fluid were injected into the interflow. Samples were collected and analyzed for anions, cations, stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases, and three specific drilling fluid tracers (i.e., tritium, fluorescein, and total organic carbon), for a period of one year following injection. Nearly 8.0 million liters of fluid were removed since initiation of the test. Test results demonstrated that drilling fluid tracers are useful indicators of how well drilling fluids have been removed from a borehole. Constituents such as Na/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, and all carbon species showed increases in concentration, whereas species such as Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, and Si demonstrated a substantial decrease in concentration as a consequence of drilling fluid injection. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen were insensitive to relatively small amounts (<10%) of drilling fluid contamination. However, /sup 14/C was significantly affected by the introduction of ''live'' carbon as a result of drilling fluid injection. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Drilling fluids based on a mixture of a sulfonated thermoplastic polymer and a sulfonated elastomeric polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Lundberg, R.D.; Peiffer, D.G.; Thaler, W.A.; Walker, T.O.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to mixtures of sulfonated thermoplastic polymers and sulfonated elastomeric polymers which function as viscosification agents when added to oil-based drilling muds which are the fluids used to maintain pressure, cool drill bits, and lift cuttings from the holes in the drilling operation for oil and gas wells. The sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers both have about 5 to about 200 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the sulfonated thermoplastic or elastomeric polymers, wherein the sulfonated groups are neutralized with a metallic cation or an amine or ammonium counterion. A polar cosolvent can optionally be added to the mixture of oil drilling mud and sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers, wherein the polar cosolvent increases the solubility of the sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymer in the oil drilling mud by decreasing the strong ionic interactions between the sulfonate groups of the sulfonated polymers.

  2. Improvement of the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Part 1: Drilling muds and washing fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, K. H.; Akstinat, M.

    1982-07-01

    Drilling muds, washers, and washing fluids were investigated in order to improve the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Rheological requirements, the temperature stability of mud systems and the properties of nondamaging drilling muds were studied. For washing fluids, two test methods were developed and the necessity of filter cake removal was shown. The efficiency of several washing fluids was compared and evaluated for various mud systems (drilling muds with and without clays).

  3. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  4. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

  5. Analysis of the theoretical model of drilling fluid invading into oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Ning, F.; Jiang, G.; Wu, N.; Wu, D.

    2009-12-01

    Oceanic gas hydrate-bearing sediment is usually porous media, with the temperature and pressure closer to the curve of hydrate phase equilibrium than those in the permafrost region. In the case of near-balanced or over-balanced drilling through this sediment, the water-based drilling fluid used invades into this sediment, and hydrates decompose with heat transfer between drilling fluid and this sediment. During these processes, there are inevitably energy and mass exchanges between drilling fluid and the sediment, which will affect the logging response, borehole stability and reservoir evaluation. When drilling fluid invades into this sediment, solid and liquid phases of drilling fluid permeate into the wellbore and displace original fluids and solids, and water content of formation increases. With the temperature and pressure changing, gas hydrates in the sediment decompose into gas and water, and water content of formation further changes. When the filter cakes form, the invasion of drilling fluid is weakened. This process is accompanied by the heat and mass transfer within the range from wellbore to undisturbed area, including heat conduction of rock matrix, the convective heat transfer of fluids invaded, the heat absorbing of hydrate decomposition and the mass exchange between fluids invaded and the gas and water generated by hydrate decomposition. As a result, dynamic balance is built up and there are generally four different regions from wellbore to undisturbed area, i.e. filter cakes region, filter liquor region, water/free gas region, and water/free gas/hydrate region. According to the analysis on the invasion of drilling fuild into sediment, the whole invasion process can be described as an anisothermal and unstable displacement and diffusion process coupled with phase change. Refering to models of drilling fuilds invasion into normal oil and gas formation and natrual gas production from hydrate deposit by heating, the model of the invasion of drilling

  6. Controllable magneto-rheological fluid-based dampers for drilling

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, David W.; Elsayed, Mostafa Ahmed

    2006-05-02

    A damping apparatus and method for a drillstring comprising a bit comprising providing to the drillstring a damping mechanism comprising magnetorheological fluid and generating an electromagnetic field affecting the magnetorheological fluid in response to changing ambient conditions encountered by the bit.

  7. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Growcock

    2004-03-31

    During this second Quarter of the Project, the first four tasks of Phase I--all focusing on the behavior of aphrons--were continued: (a) Aphron Visualization--evaluate and utilize various methods of monitoring and measuring aphron size distribution at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density--investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity--determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility--determine whether aphron bridges created in fractures and pore throats reduce fracture propagation. The project team expanded the laboratory facilities and purchased a high-pressure system to measure bubble size distribution, a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe and computers for data acquisition. Although MASI Technologies LLC is not explicitly ISO-certified, all procedures are being documented in a manner commensurate with ISO 9001 certification, including equipment inventory and calibration, data gathering and reporting, chemical inventory and supplier data base, waste management procedures and emergency response plan. Several opportunities presented themselves to share the latest aphron drilling fluid technology with potential clients, including presentation of papers and working exhibit booths at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and the SPE Coiled Tubing Conference & Exhibition. In addition, a brief trip to the Formation Damage Symposium resulted in contacts for possible collaboration with ActiSystems, the University of Alberta and TUDRP/ACTS at the University of Tulsa. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. Although the Aphron Air Diffusivity task has been impeded by the lack of a suitable DO probe, it is hoped to be completed on time, too. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has had significant delays caused by faulty equipment and will likely require an

  8. The research of sapropels as the drilling fluids in dispersed phase (Lake Kirek)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagitov, R. R.; Minaev, K. M.

    2015-11-01

    This research describes the application of Kirek Lake sapropel as a drilling fluid in dispersed phase which could replace traditionally used clay powders in drilling fluids. Sapropel is century-old bed silt of freshwater lakes of more than 12 000 years, i.e. Holocene. It consists of natural organic and inorganic substances and chemically is a complex multicomponent biogenic genesis system. Humic complexes and wulfonic acids, polysaccharides, carbonic and protein polymers comprise sapropel suspension texture. This article introduces formulations and laboratory research of sapropel suspensions and thermal activation.

  9. Potential risk of thermal damage to cervical nerve roots by a high-speed drill.

    PubMed

    Hosono, N; Miwa, T; Mukai, Y; Takenaka, S; Makino, T; Fuji, T

    2009-11-01

    Using the transverse processes of fresh porcine lumbar spines as an experimental model we evaluated the heat generated by a rotating burr of a high-speed drill in cutting the bone. The temperature at the drilled site reached 174 degrees C with a diamond burr and 77 degrees C with a steel burr. With water irrigation at a flow rate of 540 ml/hr an effective reduction in the temperature was achieved whereas irrigation with water at 180 ml/hr was much less effective. There was a significant negative correlation between the thickness of the residual bone and the temperature measured at its undersurface adjacent to the drilling site (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that tissues neighbouring the drilled bone, especially nerve roots, can be damaged by the heat generated from the tip of a high-speed drill. Nerve-root palsy, one of the most common complications of cervical spinal surgery, may be caused by thermal damage to nerve roots arising in this manner. PMID:19880905

  10. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  11. Effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on substrate specificity of marine bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Nnubia, C.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids on the sizes of populations of specific heterotroph subgroups of marine bacteria were monitored in this study. The bacteria were isolated from drill cuttings recovered from Agbara--an offshore oilfield located some 100 nautical miles off the Atlantic coast of Nigeria. Numbers of cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria in the drill cuttings were monitored for 28 days in the presence of oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids. The percentages of these bacterial subgroups within the total heterotrophic population enumerated on tryptic soy agar (10% with 3% NaCl) fluctuated between 3.0 and 17.0%, 0.0 and 27.0%, 4.0 and 25.0% and 3.0 and 18.0% for cellulolytic, proteolytic, starch-hydrolyzing and lipolytic bacteria respectively. These results indicate that oil spill dispersants and drilling fluids affect the ability of marine bacteria to metabolize these substrates in the environment.

  12. Drilling method

    SciTech Connect

    Stokley, C.O.; Haas, R.C.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a drilling method. It includes: rotating a drill bit in a well head to drill a well in an earth formation while circulating drilling fluid consisting essentially of a liquid; conducting the returning drilling fluid, and oil and gas from the formation to a flow rate control valve and to a pressure control valve; and conducting fluid from the flow rate control valve and the pressure control valve to a separator vessel maintained under pressure.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Reference C16-C18 Internal Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The reference C16-C18 internal olefin...

  16. USE OF THALASSIA AND ITS EPIPHYTES FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: EFFECTS OF A DRILLING FLUID AND TRIBUTYLTIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concurrent l2-week laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine toxicity of the suspended particulate phase (SPP) of drilling fluid to Thalassia testudinum and its epiphytes. est systems were treated once per week to achieve nominal concentrations of 100 mg/L SPP. hlo...

  17. Rheological investigations of water based drilling fluid system developed using synthesized nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajat; Mahto, Triveni K.; Mahto, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PA-g-XG/MWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized by free radical polymerization technique using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The polyacrylamide was grafted on xanthan gum backbone in the presence of MWCNT. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR). The morphological characteristics of the nanocomposite were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Also, its temperature resistance property was observed with Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of nanocomposite on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system was analyzed with a strain controlled rheometer and Fann viscometer. Flow curves were drawn for the developed water based drilling fluid system at elevated temperatures. The experimental data were fitted to Bingham, power-law, and Herschel Bulkley flow models. It was observed that the Herschel Bulkley flow model predict the flow behavior of the developed system more accurately. Further, nanocomposite exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning flow behavior in the developed drilling fluid system. Nanocomposite showed high temperature stability and had a significant effect on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system as compared to conventionally used partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) polymer.

  18. Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain

  19. Underbalanced drilling with air offers many pluses

    SciTech Connect

    Shale, L.

    1995-06-26

    A pressure overbalance during conventional drilling can cause significant fluid filtrate invasion and lost circulation. Fluid invasion into the formation can lead to formation damage, high mud costs, a need for expensive completions, and well productivity impairment. Because underbalanced drilling creates a natural tendency for fluid and gas to flow from the formation to the borehole, successful underbalanced drilling depends upon the appropriate selection of circulating fluid. The use of a compressible fluid in the circulating system, referred to as air drilling, lowers the downhole pressure, allowing drilling into and beyond these sensitive formations. The paper discusses the equipment needed; well control; downhole air requirements; air drilling techniques using dry air, air-mist, stable foam, stiff foam, and aerated-fluid; downhole fires; directional air drilling; and well completions.

  20. Enhanced Wellbore Stabilization and Reservoir Productivity with Aphron Drilling Fluid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Growcock

    2003-12-31

    During this first Quarter of the Project, a team of five individuals was formed to characterize aphron drilling fluids, with the ultimate objectives to gain acceptance for this novel technology and decrease the costs of drilling mature and multiple-pressure formations in oil and gas wells. Aphron drilling fluids are very high low-shear-rate viscosity fluids laden with specially designed microbubbles, or ''aphrons.'' The focus of the Project is to develop some understanding of the aphron structure and how aphrons and base fluid behave under downhole conditions. Four tasks were begun during this Quarter. All of these focus on the behavior of aphrons: (a) Aphron Visualization - to evaluate various methods of measuring bubble size distribution, especially Acoustic Bubble Spectroscopy (ABS), in aphron drilling fluids at elevated pressure; (b) Fluid Density - to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on the survivability of aphrons; (c) Aphron Air Diffusivity - to determine the rate of loss of air from aphrons during pressurization; and (d) Pressure Transmissibility - to determine whether aphron networks (similar to foams) in fractures and pore networks reduce fracture propagation. The project team installed laboratory facilities and purchased most of the equipment required to carry out the tasks described above. Then work areas were combined to permit centralized data acquisition and communication with internal and external file servers, and electronic and hard copy filing systems were set up to be compatible with ISO 9001 guidelines. Initial feasibility tests for all four tasks were conducted, which led to some modification of the experimental designs so as to enable measurements with the required accuracy and precision. Preliminary results indicate that the Aphron Visualization, Aphron Air Diffusivity and Pressure Transmissibility tasks should be completed on time. The Fluid Density task, on the other hand, has some fundamental

  1. DRILLING FLUIDS AND THE ARCTIC TUNDRA OF ALASKA: ASSESSING CONTAMINATION OF WETLANDS HABITAT AND THE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill s...

  2. Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  3. Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasil, G.C.; Nnubia, C.

    1995-11-01

    Two marine bacterial isolates from drill mud cuttings obtained from Agbara oilfield, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp., were cultured aerobically in the presence of varying concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 75 {mu}g/ml) of drilling fluids to determine the effects of concentration of toxicants on their growth. With the exception of Clairsol, Enviromul, and Bariod mineral oil, which had little or no effect, the exponential growth of Bacillus sp. was depressed by all other test chemicals. Additionally, all test chemicals except Clairsol had no effect on lag phase of growth of Bacillus sp. With Staphylococcus sp. the depressive effect on the exponential phase of growth was shown by almost all test chemicals. There was enhancement of both growth rate and generation times of Staphylococcus sp. and decrease of those of Bacillus sp. with increasing concentrations of drilling fluids. These results show that while some drilling fluids may be stimulatory or depressive to bacterial growth, others may be without effect. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Application of TiO2 and fumed silica nanoparticles and improve the performance of drilling fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hemmati, Mahmood; Bazgir, Saeed

    2014-03-01

    In these experiments, two nano particles dissolved that in water, are used to inject into simulated environment and also the effect of these nano particles in water base drilling typical fluid have been investigated. Using nanoparticles in all samples has resulted in recovery increase. Finally, considering the experiments, it is demonstrated that flows with nano and in particular Titanium dioxide nano(TiO2) have the highes amount of recovery factors. So, using nanoparticles in water flooding and even some of the polymer flooding ones. Also, results of the other tests, regarding each typical drilling costs of each foot and importance of time in the operation, it is possible to replace technically and economically ordinary additional (here, the widely used sodium hydroxide) with Fumed silica nano in drilling fluid to prevent cement-contamination of the drilling fluid. The advantages of nano TiO2 are possessing suitable thermal transition qualities in the drilling fluid.

  5. Seabed surveys: The best means to assess the environment impact of drilling fluid discharges?

    SciTech Connect

    Limia, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    With the ban in 1984 of the use and discharge of diesel based drilling fluids in the North Sea and their substitution with Low Toxicity Mineral Oils, the Oil and Gas Drilling Industry took an important step forward towards the reduction of the environmental impact of drilling operations. This change to low toxicity OBM was based solely on the lower acute toxicity of these mineral oils to the shrimp Crangon crangon. Unfortunately this substitution did not render the expected results. Although the toxicity of the OBM was considerably lower than that of diesel, the same environmental impact was recorded years after the contaminated cuttings were discharged. It was observed that once the OBM cuttings were discharged, they create a pennanent situation of organic enrichment in the sediment. This is mainly because these oils are biodegraded slowly under aerobic conditions and not biodegradable under anaerobic conditions. These findings prompted the regulatory authorities and environmental agencies, in North Sea countries, to reconsider the information required before granting permits for use and discharge of invert emulsion drilling fluids to the sea. With the introduction in the UK of the revised Offshore Chemical Notification Scheme (OCNS), and more recently the Harmonized OCNF (HOCNF) for all North Sea countries, new additions to the required ecotoxicological information have been made: Toxicity to three species, Biodegradation and Bioaccumulation.

  6. Cumulative bioluminescence; A potential rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity: development study

    SciTech Connect

    Stiffey, A.V. )

    1992-03-01

    A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results. Light quenching, caused by the presence of a toxicant, results in the dose/response relationship (DSR) typical for the enzymatic reaction kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten (dissociation) constant is used as a direct measure of toxicity. The evaluation study involved multiple experiments with 60 samples of drilling fluids from the U.S. gulf coast, as well as such typical toxicants as diesel oil, mineral oil, and chrome lignosulfonate (CLS). In this paper, the results of the test error analysis and comparisons with the Microtox and Mysid shrimp assays are reported.

  7. Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Panfil, D.J.; Carney, L.L. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1991-02-01

    The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600{degree}F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Saponite represents the magnesium analog of the clay mineral montmorillonite, which is the main constituent in conventional bentonite-based fluids. The fluid with 6% saponite exhibits a prominent viscosity enhancement at temperatures above 250{degree}F. This viscosity enhancement is easily controlled by salts and hydroxides of Na and K. The addition of Na-polyacrylates (low- and high-molecular weight polymers) eliminates the viscosity anomaly of pure saponite fluids. These polymers also increase the filtration control of saponite. The anomalous viscosity enhancement of saponite is significantly reduced by the addition of sepiolite (a clay mineral with a fibrous morphology). 12 refs., 31 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  9. Mathematical models of cuttings transport and drilling fluid displacement by cement slurry in horizontal wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Desmond

    Arguably the most important prerequisite to a good primary cementing job is mud displacement. In order to have effective mud displacement, complete removal of drilled cuttings from the well bore is required. This becomes more challenging in highly-deviated to horizontal wells where the casing tends to lie on the low side of the well bore creating an eccentric annular flow geometry. In this study, a theoretical approach based on the theory of particles transport and fluid mechanics is adopted to develop two new mathematical models: (1) cuttings transport; and (2) drilling fluid displacement by cement slurry in horizontal wells. Two computer algorithms are developed based on these models. The effects of various operational conditions, hole geometry and fluid properties are simulated using these computer models. The results compare favourably with those obtained by previous investigators. These simulated examples demonstrate that the two models can be used to analyse the sensitivity of the cuttings transport and displacement processes to changes in the operational conditions, hole geometry and fluid properties. Hence, they can potentially be used as design and/or analysis tools for the optimisation of these processes in highly- deviated to horizontal wells.

  10. Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser drilling of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingzhong; Ni, Chenyin; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Hongchao; Shen, Zhonghua; Ni, Xiaowu; Lu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Laser processing as laser drilling, laser welding and laser cutting, etc. is rather important in modern manufacture, and the interaction of laser and matter is a complex phenomenon which should be detailed studied in order to increase the manufacture efficiency and quality. In this paper, a two-dimensional transient numerical model was developed to study the temperature field and molten pool size during pulsed laser keyhole drilling. The volume-of-fluid method was employed to track free surfaces, and melting and evaporation enthalpy, recoil pressure, surface tension, and energy loss due to evaporating materials were considered in this model. Besides, the enthalpy-porosity technique was also applied to account for the latent heat during melting and solidification. Temperature fields and melt pool size were numerically simulated via finite element method. Moreover, the effectiveness of the developed computational procedure had been confirmed by experiments.

  11. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  12. Reactive fluid transport in CO2 reservoir caprocks: constraints from scientific drilling of a natural CO2 reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Bertier, P.; Busch, A.; Chapman, H.; Evans, J. P.; Graham, C.; Harrington, J.; Maskell, A.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term performance of reservoir caprocks in geological CO2 storage sites remains uncertain due to the poorly constrained nature of field-scale fluid-mineral reaction kinetics and CO2 transport processes in low permeability rocks. Predicting the nature, rates and impacts of CO2 penetration into the caprocks from numerical modelling studies maybe undermined by their reliance on laboratory derived reaction kinetics from short-term experiments, and the complexity of the coupled reactive transport processes at the nano- and micro-scale. We report here on the early results from scientific drilling and laboratory analysis of the caprocks of a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoir at Green River, Utah. In summer 2012, diamond drilling to a depth of 325m, adjacent to a CO2 degassing normal fault recovered core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation regional caprock. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids from the reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2-charged brines through the fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. Mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical profiles through portions of the caprocks in contact with the CO2-charged reservoirs have been used to constrain the nature and penetration depths of the CO2-promoted fluid-mineral reaction fronts. The major reactions are the dissolution of diagenetic dolomite cements and hematite grain coatings which generate porosity in the caprocks. Analysis of the generated pore structure from a variety of analytical techniques will be discussed. Stable C- and O-isotopic shifts in the composition of the carbonate cements record their

  13. Permeability damage to natural fractures caused by fracturing fluid polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.; Sattler, A.R.; Maloney, D.R.; Raible, C.J.

    1988-04-01

    Formation damage studies using artificially fractured, low-permeability sandstone cores indicate that viscosified fracturing fluids can severely restrict gas flow through these types of narrow fractures. These studies were performed in support of the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Extensive geological and production evaluations at the MWX site indicate that the presence of a natural fracture system is largely responsible for unstimulated gas production. The laboratory formation damage studies were designed to examine changes in cracked core permeability to gas caused by fracturing fluid residues introduced into such narrow fractures during fluid leakoff. Polysaccharide polymers caused significant reduction (up to 95%) to gas flow through cracked cores. Polymer fracturing fluid gels used in this study included hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum. In contrast, polyacrylamide gels caused little or no reduction in gas flow through cracked cores after liquid cleanup. Other components of fracturing fluids (surfactants, breakers, etc.) caused less damage to gas flows. Other factors affecting gas flow through cracked cores were investigated, including the effects of net confining stress and non-Darcy flow parameters. Results are related to some of the problems observed during the stimulation program conducted for the MWX. 24 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. SUMMARY OF DRILLING FLUID RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drilling-fluid related research at the U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, is summarized. The program is conducted primarily through contracts, grants, and some inhouse projects designed to assess the potential hazard to the marine environment from fluids dis...

  15. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

  16. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

  17. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-11-01

    Contamination of crude oils by surface-active agents from drilling fluids or other oil-field chemicals is more difficult to detect and quantify than bulk contamination with, for example, base fluids from oil-based muds. Bulk contamination can be detected by gas chromatography or other common analytical techniques, but surface-active contaminants can be influential at much lower concentrations that are more difficult to detect analytically, especially in the context of a mixture as complex as a crude oil. In this report we present a baseline study of interfacial tensions of 39 well-characterized crude oil samples with aqueous phases that vary in pH and ionic composition. This extensive study will provide the basis for assessing the effects of surface-active contaminant on interfacial tension and other surface properties of crude oil/brine/rock ensembles.

  18. Subsurface fluid pressures from drill-stem tests, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    High fluid pressures are known to be associated with oil and gas fields in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Shut-in pressure measurements from drill-stem tests show how pressure varies with depth and by area within the basin. The data base used in this report incorporates over 2,000 pressure measurements from drill-stem tests in wells completed prior to 1985. However, the number of useful pressure measurements is considerably less, because many drill-stem tests fail to stabilize at the actual formation pressure if the permeability is low. By extracting the maximum pressure measurements recorded in a collection of wells within an area, the trend of formation pressure within that area can be approximated. Areal compilations of pressures from drill-stem tests show that overpressured rock formations occur throughout much of the northern and eastern areas of the Uinta Basin. In particular, significant overpressuring (0.5 < pressure gradient < 0.8 psi/ft) is found throughout much of the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths ranging from 10,000 to 13,000 ft, equivalent to 5,000 to 8,000 ft below sea level. Limited data indicate that the pressure gradient declines at depths greater than 13,000 ft. An underpressured zone appears to exist in the Altamont-Bluebell field at depths shallower than 5,000 ft. Throughout the eastern Uinta Basin, moderately overpressured zones (0.46 < pressure gradient < 0.5 psi/ft) are common, with local evidence of significantly overpressured zones, but pressure gradients greater than 0.6 psi/ft are rare.

  19. Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  20. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  1. Laboratory development and field application of a novel water-based drill-in fluid for geopressured horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.W.; Harrison, J.C.; Hale, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Research has identified a novel water-based drill-in fluid for drilling and completing geopressured horizontal wells. This fluid has a unique combination of properties which make it especially suitable for geopressured applications. They include the use of calcium and/or zinc bromide as a base brine, minimal concentration of calcium carbonate as bridging material, low plastic viscosity, tight fluid loss control, good filter cake properties, and excellent return permeability. This drill-in fluid has been used successfully to drill a 1,200 foot production interval, 4.75 inch diameter wellbore in the Gulf of Mexico with a system weight of 13.2 lbm/gal, bottom hole temperature of 185{degrees} F., and a 1400 to 1700 psi overbalance. The system functioned very well in both the drilling and completion operations. Fluid rheology was easily maintainable and the hole conditions were excellent without torque or drag problems. Initial production data suggests that the well is producing at expected rates with low drawdown pressure.

  2. Dispersant for water-based solids-containing fluids and a drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, H. III

    1986-04-08

    A dispersant is described for water-based, solids-containing fluids comprising a copolymer of a solufonated styrene monomer and a second monomer neutralized into having an amide substituent and being originally selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride, maleimide and dimethyl maleate, the copolymer having from 2 to 100 monomer units.

  3. Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

    2013-08-01

    We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage. PMID:23799238

  4. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2005-04-01

    Exposure to crude oil in the presence of an initial brine saturation can render rocks mixed-wet. Subsequent exposure to components of synthetic oil-based drilling fluids can alter the wetting toward less water-wet or more oil-wet conditions. Mixing of the non-aromatic base oils used in synthetic oil-based muds (SBM) with an asphaltic crude oil can destabilize asphaltenes and make cores less water-wet. Wetting changes can also occur due to contact with the surfactants used in SBM formulations to emulsify water and make the rock cuttings oil-wet. Reservoir cores drilled with SBMs, therefore, show wetting properties much different from the reservoir wetting conditions, invalidating laboratory core analysis using SBM contaminated cores. Core cleaning is required in order to remove all the drilling mud contaminants. In theory, core wettability can then be restored to reservoir wetting conditions by exposure to brine and crude oil. The efficiency of core cleaning of SBM contaminated cores has been explored in this study. A new core cleaning procedure was developed aimed to remove the adsorbed asphaltenes and emulsifiers from the contaminated Berea sandstone cores. Sodium hydroxide was introduced into the cleaning process in order to create a strongly alkaline condition. The high pH environment in the pore spaces changed the electrical charges of both basic and acidic functional groups, reducing the attractive interactions between adsorbing materials and the rock surface. In cores, flow-through and extraction methods were investigated. The effectiveness of the cleaning procedure was assessed by spontaneous imbibition tests and Amott wettability measurements. Test results indicating that introduction of sodium hydroxide played a key role in removing adsorbed materials were confirmed by contact angle measurements on similarly treated mica surfaces. Cleaning of the contaminated cores reversed their wettability from oil-wet to strongly water-wet as demonstrated by spontaneous

  5. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-01-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ∼0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

  6. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-0361-2343, M-I Drilling Fluids, Greybull, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gilder, T.J.; Robinson, L.

    1993-08-01

    In response to a request from the state epidemiologist in Wyoming, an investigation was begun of two cases of acute, febrile hepatitis in employees of M-I Drilling Fluids (SIC-1459), Greybull, Wyoming. The two cases of hepatitis were caused by Coxiella-burnetii, the rickettsia which causes Q-fever. A survey of 39 workers using a self-administered questionnaire and a blood test revealed seven workers with serologic evidence of infection. Three showed evidence of recent infection and four showed evidence of past infection. The major risk factor identified through the questionnaire data was sheep ownership. Risk factors suggestive of either recent or past infection included working outdoors, operating heavy equipment, and hunting.

  7. Deep Drilling to Decipher Potential Interaction Between Shallow and Deep Fluid Systems: Preliminary Results From the INFLUINS Drilling Campaign in the Thuringian Basin, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, N.; Totsche, K. U.; Methe, P.; Goepel, A.; Abratis, M.; Habisreuther, A.; Kunkel, C.; Ward, T.

    2014-12-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluid systems in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is the overall goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins). To do so is essential to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems. An integral INFLUINS topic also is the potential interaction of aquifers within a basin and at its rims. Regionally, INFLUINS is focusing on the Thuringian basin, a well-confined, intra-continental sedimentary basin in central Germany as a natural geo-laboratory. The Thuringian basin is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic and particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 times 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies. INFLUINS consists on several projects tightly connected to each other and coming from various disciplines of geosciences including among others geophysics, hydrogeology, sedimentology, mineralogy, and remote sensing. A deep drilling campaign, which took place close to Erfurt in the center of the basin in summer 2013, is one of the main achievements of INFLUINS. In preparation for deep drilling, in 2011, we conducted an extensive seismic reflection site survey, in the framework of which the center of the basin down to the top basement was imaged in high quality. Drilling went down to a depth of 1179 m, drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein and led to more than 500 m of cores of excellent quality and more than 600 cuttings samples. Down-hole geophysical logging over the entire depth of the drill hole is complemented with Multi Sensor Core Logging leading to an extensive geophysical data set with a spatial resolution up to the cm-scale. Here, we present overall results of the drilling campaign and focus on the boundaries between major groups as well as between prominent beds

  8. Thermal and rheological properties improvement of drilling fluids using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazelabdolabadi, Babak; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Sedaghatzadeh, Mostafa

    2015-08-01

    The application of functionalized/unfunctionalized (multi-walled) carbon nanotubes (CNT) was investigated in the context of formulating nano-based drilling fluids from water/oil-based fluid templates. CNT functionalization was attempted by applying hydrophilic functional groups onto the surface of the nanotubes via acid treatment. Experimental data were collected for thermal conductivity, viscosity/yield point, and filtrate amount in all samples. The time evolution of thermal conductivity was studied, as well as the effects of temperature and CNTs volume fraction on the parameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor CNTs dispersion quality. The thermal conductivity results unveil considerable enhancements, by as much as 23.2 % (1 % vol. functionalized CNT) in CNT-water-based case at ambient temperature, with extended improvement of 31.8 % at an elevated temperature of 50 °C. Corresponding results for the CNT-oil-based case exhibit an improvement in thermal conductivity by 40.3 % (unfunctionalized) and 43.1 % (functionalized) and 1 % volume fraction of CNT. The rheological results follow an analogous improvement trend. For the CNT-oil-based case, the filtration tests conducted at 138 °C and 500 (psi) show a 16.67 % reduction in filtrate amount (1 % vol. CNT). The time evolution of thermal conductivity was found to nearly equalize (at an amount of 9.7 %) after 100 h of sample preparation in both functionalized and unfunctionalized CNT-oil-based cases.

  9. Soil and plant response to used potassium silicate drilling fluid application.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linjun; Anne Naeth, M

    2015-10-01

    Use of drilling waste generated from the oil and gas industry for land reclamation has potential to be a practical and economical means to improve soil fertility and to decrease landfills. A four month greenhouse experiment with common barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on three different textured soils was conducted to determine soil and plant response to incorporated or sprayed potassium silicate drilling fluid (PSDF). Two PSDF types (used once, used twice) were applied at six rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120m(3)ha(-1)) as twelve PSDF amendments plus a control (non PSDF). Effects of PSDF amendment on plant properties were significant, and varied through physiological growth stages. Barley emergence and below ground biomass were greater with used once than used twice PSDF at the same application rate in clay loam soil. Used twice PSDF at highest rates significantly increased barley above ground biomass relative to the control in loam and sand soil. All PSDF treatments significantly increased available potassium relative to the control in all three soils. Soil electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio increased with PSDF addition, but not to levels detrimental to barley. Soil quality rated fair to poor with PSDF amendments in clay loam, and reduced plant performance at the highest rate, suggesting a threshold beyond which conditions are compromised with PSDF utilization. PSDF application method did not significantly affect plant and soil responses. This initial greenhouse research demonstrates that PSDF has potential as a soil amendment for reclamation, with consideration of soil properties and plant species tolerances to determine PSDF types and rates to be used. PMID:26099463

  10. Validation and comparison of two sampling methods to assess dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs' trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods' comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment. PMID:24598941

  11. Validation and Comparison of Two Sampling Methods to Assess Dermal Exposure to Drilling Fluids and Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Karen S.; McGonagle, Carolyn; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Todd, David; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. A direct comparison of the wipe and interception methods was also completed using pigs’ trotters as a surrogate for human skin and a direct surface contact exposure scenario. Overall, acceptable recovery and sampling efficiencies were reported for both methods, and both methods had satisfactory storage stability at 1 and 7 days, although there appeared to be some loss over 14 days. The methods’ comparison study revealed significantly higher removal of both fluids from the metal surface with the glove samples compared with the wipe samples (on average 2.5 times higher). Both evaluated sampling methods were found to be suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil; however, the comparison study clearly illustrates that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. Further comparison of the two dermal sampling methods using additional exposure situations such as immersion or deposition, as well as a field evaluation, is warranted to confirm their appropriateness and suitability in the working environment. PMID:24598941

  12. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2003-10-01

    In this report we focus on surface studies of the wetting effects of SBM components; three areas of research are covered. First we present results of tests of interfacial properties of some commercial emulsifiers that are routinely used in both oil-based and synthetic oil-based drilling fluids. These products fall into two main groups, based on their CMC and IFT trends with changing pH. All can alter the wetting of mica, but measurements vary widely depending on the details of exposure and observation protocols. Non-equilibrium effects appear to be responsible for these variations, with equilibrated fluids generally giving lower contact angles than those observed with fluids that have not been pre-equilibrated. Addition of small amounts of emulsifier can increase the tendency of a crude oil to alter wetting of mica surfaces. The effects of similar amounts of these emulsifiers can be detected in interfacial tension measurements. Next, we report on the preliminary results of a study of polyethoxylated amines of varying structures on the wetting of mica surfaces. Contact angles have been measured for unequilibrated and pre-equilibrated fluids. Reduction in contact angles was generally observed when the surfaces were washed with toluene after exposure to surfactant solutions. Atomic forces microscopy is also being used to observe the interactions between these surfactants and mica surfaces. Finally, we show the results of a study of asphaltene stability in the presence of synthetic base oils. Most of the base oils in current use are paraffinic or olefinic--the aromatic content is minimized for environmental reasons--and they destabilize asphaltenes. Tests with two crude oils show onset conditions for base oils that are comparable to n-heptane and n-pentadecane in terms of the solubility conditions at the onset. Two ester-based products, Petrofree and Petrofree LV, did not cause asphaltene flocculation in these tests. A meeting of the research groups from New Mexico

  13. Laboratory study of acid stimulation of drilling-mud-damaged geothermal-reservoir materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory testing performed to provide site specific information in support of geothermal reservoir acidizing programs. The testing program included laboratory tests performed to determine the effectiveness of acid treatments in restoring permeability of geologic materials infiltrated with hydrothermally altered sepiolite drilling mud. Additionally, autoclave tests were performed to determine the degree of hydrothermal alteration and effects of acid digestion on drilling muds and drill cuttings from two KGRA's. Four laboratory scale permeability/acidizing tests were conducted on specimens prepared from drill cuttings taken from two geothermal formations. Two tests were performed on material from the East Mesa KGRA Well No. 78-30, from a depth of approximately 5500 feet, and two tests were performed on material from the Roosevelt KGRA Well No. 52-21, from depths of approximately 7000 to 7500 feet. Tests were performed at simulated in situ geothermal conditions of temperature and pressure.

  14. Investigation of machining damage and tool wear resulting from drilling powder metal aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Fell, H.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the cutting of aluminum powder metallurgy (PM) parts for the North Carolina Manufacturing Extension Partnership. The parts, an aluminum powder metal formulation, were supplied by Sinter Metals Inc., of Conover, North Carolina. The intended use of the alloy is for automotive components. Machining tests were conducted at Y-12 in the machine shop of the Skills Demonstration Center in Building 9737. Testing was done on June 2 and June 3, 1997. The powder metal alloy tested is very abrasive and tends to wear craters and produce erosion effects on the chip washed face of the drills used. It also resulted in huge amounts of flank wear and degraded performance on the part of most drills. Anti-wear coatings on drills seemed to have an effect. Drills with the coating showed less wear for the same amount of cutting. The usefulness of coolants and lubricants in reducing tool wear and chipping/breakout was not investigated.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Rock Mass Damage Evolution During Deep-Buried Tunnel Excavation by Drill and Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wenbo; Hu, Yingguo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Presence of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) around a tunnel perimeter is of significant concern with regard to safety, stability, costs and overall performance of the tunnel. For deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast, it is generally accepted that a combination of effects of stress redistribution and blasting is mainly responsible for development of the EDZ. However, few open literatures can be found to use numerical methods to investigate the behavior of rock damage induced by the combined effects, and it is still far from full understanding how, when and to what degree the blasting affects the behavior of the EDZ during excavation. By implementing a statistical damage evolution law based on stress criterion into the commercial software LS-DYNA through its user-subroutines, this paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of the rock damage evolution of a deep-buried tunnel excavation, with a special emphasis on the combined effects of the stress redistribution of surrounding rock masses and the blasting-induced damage. Influence of repeated blast loadings on the damage extension for practical millisecond delay blasting is investigated in the present analysis. Accompanying explosive detonation and secession of rock fragments from their initial locations, in situ stress in the immediate vicinity of the excavation face is suddenly released. The transient characteristics of the in situ stress release and induced dynamic responses in the surrounding rock masses are also highlighted. From the simulation results, some instructive conclusions are drawn with respect to the rock damage mechanism and evolution during deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast.

  16. EFFECT OF WELL-DRILLING FLUIDS OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS AND MICROBIAL INFECTION OF THE REEF BUILDING CORAL 'MONTASTREA ANNULARIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.0001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform (30 deg 7.5 min N, 85 deg 46.3 min...

  17. A combination of air and fluid drilling technique for zones of lost circulation in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Niederhofer, J.D.; Beavers, W.M.

    1986-02-01

    Structural geologic information available for the coal-bearing formations in the Black Warrior basin documents the occurrence of numerous fault and fracture zones. A combination air/fluid drilling technique may be advantageous to coalbed-methane operations in this and other areas with similar hydrologic and geologic conditions. The authors successfully used this technique recently on coalbed-methane wells in Tuscaloosa County, AL.

  18. Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.; Medley, G. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The first objective of this project is to develop a user-friendly, PC, foam drilling computer model, FOAM, which will accurately predict frictional pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocity, foam quality, and other drilling variables. The model will allow operating and service companies to accurately predict pressures and flow rates required at the surface and downhole to efficiently drill oil and gas wells with foam systems. The second objective of this project is to develop a lightweight drilling fluid that utilizes hollow glass spheres to reduce the density of the fluid and allow drilling underbalanced in low-pressure reservoirs. Since the resulting fluid will be incompressible, hydraulics calculations are greatly simplified, and expensive air compressors and booster pumps are eliminated. This lightweight fluid will also eliminate corrosion and downhole fire problems encountered with aerated fluids. Many tight-gas reservoirs in the US are attractive targets for underbalanced drilling because they are located in hard-rock country where tight, low-permeability formations compound the effect of formation damage encountered with conventional drilling fluids.

  19. The processes controlling damage zone propagation induced by wellbore fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Eyal; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Induced seismicity by wellbore fluid injection is an important tool for enhancing permeability in hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. We model nucleation and propagation of damage zones and seismicity patterns for two-dimensional plane strain configuration at a depth of 5 km using novel numerical software developed in the course of this study. Simulations include the coupling of poro-elastic deformation and groundwater flow with damage evolution (weakening and healing) and its effect on the elastic and hydrologic parameters. Results show that the process occurring during fluid injection can be divided into four stages. The duration of each stage depends on the hydrological and mechanical parameters. Initially, fluid flows into the rock with no seismic events (5 to 20 hr). At this stage, damage increases from 0 to 1 creating two sets of conjugate zones (four narrow damage zones). Thereafter, the occurrence of seismic events and faulting begins and accelerates for the next 20 to 70 hr. At the initial part of this stage, two of the damage zones create stress shadows on the other two damage zones that stop progressing. The velocity of the advancing damage is limited only by the rock parameters controlling damage evolution. At the third stage, which lasts for the following 20-30 hr, damage acceleration decreases because fluid transport becomes a limiting factor as the damage zones are too long to efficiently transfer the pressure from the well to the tip of the damage zones. Finally, the damage decelerates and even stops in some cases. The propagation of damage is controlled and limited by fluid transport from the injection well to the tip of the damage zones because fluid transport does not keep up with the dilatancy of the damage zones. The time and distance of propagation depend on the damage-permeability coupling and the remote shear stress. Higher remote shear stress causes shorter initial periods of no seismicity; strong damage-permeability coupling causes

  20. Drilling the centre of the Thuringian Basin, Germany, to decipher potential interrelation between shallow and deep fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Abratis, Michael; Habisreuther, Annett; Ward, Timothy; Influins Drilling-Team

    2014-05-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluids in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is of paramount importance to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems and therefore e.g. drinking water supply. It is also the fundamental goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins), a research initiative of several groups from Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena and their partners. This research association is focusing on the nearby Thuringian basin, a well confined, small intra-continental sedimentary basin in Germany, as a natural geo laboratory. In a multidisciplinary approach, embracing different fields of geophysics like seismic reflection profiling or airborne geomagnetics, structural geology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydrology, remote sensing, microbiology and mineralogy, among others, and including both, field-based, laboratory-based and computer-based research, an integral INFLUINS topic is the potential interaction of aquifers within the basin and at its rims. The Thuringian basin, which is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic, is particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 to 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies, and therefore also a perfect candidate for deep drilling. After the acquisition of 76 km seismic reflection data in spring 2011, to get as much relevant data as possible from a deep drilling at the cross point between two seismic profiles with a limited financial budget, an optimated core sampling and measuring strategy including partial coring, borehole geophysics and pump tests as well as a drill hole design, which enables for later continuation of drilling down to the basement, had been developed. Drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein was successfully realised down

  1. Strong growth projected for underbalanced drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, J.R.; Medley, G.H. Jr.; Deskins, W.G.

    1996-09-23

    The use of underbalanced drilling technology should grow steadily during the next decade. The projected growth is primarily driven by increased concern about formation damage, the potential for higher penetration rates, and the ability to reduce lost circulation in depleted reservoirs. The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center manages a portfolio of drilling-related research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) projects designed to reduce costs and improve efficiencies. The Department of Energy sponsored Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) to develop a user-friendly foam drilling model that can accurately predict pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocities, foam quality, and other foam drilling variables. A second objective of the project was to develop a light-weight drilling fluid that would allow underbalanced drilling in low-pressure reservoirs without the limitations commonly associated with existing light-weight fluids. Maurer performed a study to gauge the potential for light-weight drilling fluids and the extent of underbalanced drilling activity in the US. Data from many industry sources, including recent publications on the potential for air drilling, were evaluated and incorporated into this study. This paper discusses the findings from this survey.

  2. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman r. Morrow

    2002-06-01

    This first semiannual report covers efforts to select the materials that will be used in this project. Discussions of crude oils, rocks, smooth mineral surfaces, and drilling mud additives are included in this report.

  3. Temperature and volume estimation of under-seafloor fluid from the logging-while-drilling data beneath an active hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Kumagai, H.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    In July of 2014, offshore drillings on Iheya-North Knoll, Okinawa Trough, was executed as part of Next-generation technology for ocean resources survey, which is a research program in Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP). In this expedition, logging-while- drilling (LWD) and measuring-while-drilling (MWD) were inserted into 6 holes (C9011 - C9016) to investigate spatial distribution of hydrothermal deposit and geothermal fluid reservoir. Both of these tools included annular pressure-while-drilling (APWD). Annular pressure and temperature were monitored by the APWD to detect possible exceedingly-high-temperature geofluid. In addition, drilling fluid was continuously circulated at sufficient flow rate to protect LWD tools against high temperature (non-stop driller system). At C9012 and C9016, the LWD tool clearly detected pressure and temperature anomaly at 234 meter below the seafloor (mbsf) and 80 mbsf, respectively. Annular pressure and temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the injection of high-temperature fluid. During the drilling, however, drilling water was continuously circulated at high flow-rate (2600L/min) and the measured temperature is not exactly in-situ temperature. To investigate the detail of the heat source, such as in-situ temperature and quantity of heat, we performed numerical analyses of thermal fluid and energy-balance assuming injection of high-temperature fluid. We combined pressure loss theory of double cylinders and temperature equation to replicate the fluid flow and its temperature between borehole wall and drilling pipe during the thermofluid injection. As the result, we estimated the temperature and the volume of injected fluid to be 115oC~ and 17.3 m3, respectively (at C9012) from the calculation. This temperature is lower than that of a hydrothermall vent which had been found near the hole (300oC).

  4. Fluid-rock interactions in the Rhine Graben: A thermodynamic model of the hydrothermal alteration observed in deep drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komninou, A.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    1997-02-01

    Deep drilling at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France, on the western flanks of the Rhine Graben, has penetrated Hercynian granite underlying Mesozoic sediments. Veins are present throughout the drilled granite, and there are flows of warm water localized in fractures within the granite. Detailed mineralogical study of core material from the research drillhole EPS 1 has been carried out in order to assess the alteration history of the Soultz granite, part of the crystalline basement of the Rhine Graben. The results of the study have been used, in conjunction with analyses of present-day fluids from deep drilling in the Rhine Graben reported in the literature, to model thermodynamically the alteration process, and in particular to evaluate if it is likely to be continuing today. Reaction-path calculations show that if deep basinal brines, such as are known from sediments of the central Rhine Graben, react with Hercynian granite, they will form different alteration assemblages depending on both the path that the fluid follows (e.g., descending through sediments or through granite) and the extent of preexisting alteration of the granite. The calculations suggest that fluid now sampled from granite in EPS-1 achieved its peak temperature, c. 200°C, while within Permo-Triassic sandstone. The modeling also indicates that present-day fluids from the Rhine Graben system are capable of producing the vein quartz and possibly also the baryte veins, seen in the EPS 1 core. Much of the alteration present in the granite in the vicinity of veins and fractures may have been produced by a flow regime similar to that prevailing today.

  5. Fluid-rock interactions in the Rhine Graben: A thermodynamic model of the hydrothermal alteration observed in deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Komninou, A.; Yardley, B.W.D.

    1997-02-01

    Deep drilling at Soultz-sous-Forets, France, on the western flanks of the Rhine Graben, has penetrated Hercynian granite underlying Mesozoic sediments. Veins are present throughout the drilled granite, and there are flows of warm water localized in fractures within the granite. Detailed mineralogical study of core material from the research drillhole EPSI has been carried out in order to assess the alteration history of the Soultz granite, part of the crystalline basement of the Rhine Graben. The results of the study have been used, in conjunction with analyses of present-day fluids from deep drilling in the Rhine Graben reported in the literature, to model thermodynamically the alteration process, and in particular to evaluate if it is likely to be continuing today. Reaction-path calculations show that if deep basinal brines, such as are known from sediments of the central Rhine Graben, react with Hercynian granite, they will form different alteration assemblages depending on both the path that the fluid follows (e.g., descending through sediments or through granite) and the extent of preexisting alteration of the granite. The calculations suggest that fluid now sampled from granite in EPS-1 achieved its peak temperature, c. 200{degrees}C while within Permo-Triassic sandstone. The modeling also indicates that present-day fluids from the Rhine Graben system are capable of producing the vein quartz and possibly also the baryte veins, seen in the EPSI core. Much of the alteration present in the granite in the vicinity of veins and fractures may have been produced by a flow regime similar to that prevailing today. 48 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Fluid-inclusion evidence for previous higher temperatures in the SUNEDCO 58-28 drill hole near Breitenbush hot springs, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    The SUNEDCO 58-28 geothermal exploration drill hole was completed in 1981 to a depth of 2, 457 m near Breitenbush Hot Springs in the Western Cascade Mountains of northern Oregon. One hundred thirteen liquid-rich fluid inclusions (mostly secondary) were analyzed from drill cuttings samples of hydrothermal quartz, calcite, and anhydrite, as well as primary quartz phenocrysts. Except for one hydrothermal quartz specimen, minimum homogenization temperature (Th) measurements of fluid inclusions plot very close to the present measured temperatures for the drill hole. Fluid-inclusion data from near the bottom of the drill hole suggest that these rocks were altered by water of significantly greater salinity than Breitenbush Hot Springs water.

  7. Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak

  8. Disemployment effects caused by regulation of drilling fluids and produced waters as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Flaim, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report reviews and compares several studies of the effects on employment of regulating wastes from oil and natural gas exploration and extraction under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste management scenarios on which most of the studies were based were developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analyses show that as many as 500,000-700,000 jobs may be lost in the first year if RCRA Subtitle C rules are applied to drilling fluids and produced waters. As a results, unemployment in major oil-producing states could rise by as much as six percentage points. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Drilling choke

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, R.D.

    1984-09-11

    A drilling choke is disclosed for controlling flow of drilling fluids from a well comprising: a body having an inlet and outlet and an intermediate cavity therebetween; a seat member coaxially disposed in the body outlet; an operator assembly removably attached to the body; and a stem assembly connected to the operator assembly for axial movement thereof. A portion of the stem assembly is removable, upon removal of the operator assembly from the body, without otherwise disturbing the operator assembly.

  10. USE OF DRILLING FLUIDS IN MONITORING WELL NETWORK INSTALLATION: LANL AND OPEN DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to provide a technical analysis of the impacts of well drilling practices implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the development of their grou...

  11. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  12. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-05-01

    We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of

  13. An experimental study on fluid-loss behavior of fracturing fluids and formation damage in high-permeability porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Parlar, M.; Nelson, E.B.; Walton, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    A recent trend in stimulating high-permeability formations is the development of techniques (such as frac-pack) to create short fractures which bypass formation damage in the near-wellbore region. Analysis and refinement of these techniques are hampered by a lack of knowledge of the leakoff behavior of candidate fluids in high-permeability rocks. In this paper, we present results from static-fluid-loss and formation-damage (reverse-flow) experiments using 12-inch-long cores in the permeability range of 3 to 1,000 md. A Hassler cell, with 6 pressure taps placed at 2-inch intervals, was used. The test fluids included borate-crosslinked-guar, linear-guar, linear-HEC, and viscoelastic-surfactant solutions. The effects of differential pressure, gel concentration, permeability, and temperature on spurt and leakoff coefficients were investigated, and correlations were given. In the absence of fluid-loss-control additives, the internal cake is the controlling factor for spurt and total leakoff for crosslinked fluids. Linear HEC behaves as a shear-thinning fluid during flow through porous media. A nonlinear, algebraic equation generalizing the well-known Williams expression for C{sub vc} to power-law fluids was derived as an approximate method of incorporating the leakoff behavior of power-law fluids into current fracturing simulators.

  14. Evaluation of geothermal drilling fluids using a commercial bentonite and a bentonite/saponite mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Ridpath, B.E.

    1987-02-01

    High temperature properties of two clay fluids, based on commercially available bentonite and a bentonite-saponite mixture, are evaluated at the temperature range 300-600/sup 0/F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Bentonite fluids exhibit an anomolous viscosity increase in the temperature range 250-400/sup 0/F. This anomolous viscosity is further enhanced by the salts and hydroxide of sodium leading to the gelation of the fluid. Salts and hydroxide of calcium at 1% concentrations are very detrimental to the viscosity, gel strength, and wall-building (filtration) properties of the fluids at all temperatures. Salts of potassium provide a good control over the high temperature gelation of the bentonite fluids but they result in high fluid losses. High and low molecular weight polymers (sodium polyacrylates), and lignite and lignosulfonates at neutral pH range are proved to be valuable mud additives for the high temperature behavior of the bentonite fluids. They maintain the pH of the fluid close to the neutral and thus inhibit the mineral reactions of the smectites in bentonites at high temperatures. These mineral reactions predominate in the alkaline conditions of the fluids in the presence of hydroxides of Na, Ca, and K. Consequently, a large portion of smectites dissolves and new silicate phases precipitate at and above 400/sup 0/F in these fluids. The fluids based on a (1:1) mixture of bentonite and saponite display a high initial viscosity (up to 250/sup 0/F) instead of the viscosity maxima between 150-400/sup 0/F of the bentonite fluids. Therefore, the addition of saponite to the bentonite fluid can provide a balanced viscosity at all the temperatures.

  15. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  16. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2002-12-01

    We report on a preliminary study of wetting effects of synthetic oil-based mud components on the wetting of mica surfaces using drilling mud fractions obtained from two wells drilled with synthetic oil-based muds (SBM). We have used these SBM fractions, one a filtrate and the other a centrifugate, to develop testing protocols for studies on smooth mica surfaces. Both SBM fractions changed the wetting of clean, dry mica surfaces, making them preferentially oil-wet. Solvents were tested to clean the mica with varying degrees of success. In tests designed to simulate contact between SBM fractions and reservoir pore surface, changes of wetting of mica that had previously been exposed to brine and crude oil were examined using six different crude oils in combination with several different brine formulations. Four of the six oils produced preferentially water-wet surfaces whereas two produced fairly oil-wet conditions on mica. Exposure to the SBM fractions tended to increase decane/water advancing contact angles on the more water-wet surfaces and to decrease those on the more oil-wet surfaces. Cleaning solvents were compared for their efficacy and the possibility of wettability restoration was examined for some of the cleaned surfaces.

  17. Does Earthquake Rupturing Initiate in Fluid-Overpressured Crust? - The Case for Scientific Drilling in NE Honshu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.

    2009-12-01

    Inland earthquakes in Japan arise from rupturing within an upper crustal seismogenic zone that is typically 10-20 km deep. Because such events may occur in close proximity to cities or critical facilities, giving rise to particularly intense ground motions, they contribute significantly to the aggregate seismic hazard. Since 2003, five strong crustal earthquakes (6.3 < M < 6.9) have ruptured steep reverse faults (dips > 45°) both west and east of the Ou Backbone Range hosting the volcanic front in NE Honshu. The earthquakes generally nucleated within the lower seismogenic zone at depths of 5 - 15 km. Several earlier events in the region (e.g. 1964 M7.5 Niigata earthquake) are of similar character. These steep reverse ruptures appear to be part of the ongoing compressional inversion of Miocene rift basins associated with arc-normal shortening that began at c. 3.5 Ma. Hazard from such compressional inversion earthquakes is difficult to assess because potential seismogenic faults (often with low net displacement) tend to be blanketed by post-rift deposition within sedimentary basins (e.g. the 2004 M6.6 Mid-Niigata and M6.6 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake sequences). The compressional regime of NE Honshu is an optimal setting for ‘holding-in’ fluid overpressure. Frictional mechanics suggests that reactivation of inherited normal faults as steep reverse faults requires pore-fluid pressure elevated above hydrostatic to near-lithostatic pressures at the depth of rupture initiation. Oil-field drilling has shown that aqueous overpressures above hydrostatic exist at depths > 2-3 km in the Niigata sedimentary basin which has hosted several of the rupture sequences. In addition, local geophysical anomalies (high electrical conductivity, seismic low velocities, bright-spot S-wave reflectors, Vp/Vs) in NE Honshu point to heterogeneous fluid overpressuring in the vicinity of the active faults in the lower seismogenic zone. Whether or not earthquake ruptures initiate in fluid

  18. EFFECTS OF OIL AND GAS WELL-DRILLING FLUIDS ON THE BIOMASS AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF MICROBIOTA THAT COLONIZE SANDS IN RUNNING SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Well-drilling fluid and a number of the known components (barite, clay, Aldacide, Surflo, and Dowicide, were tested for effects on the biomass and community structure of the microbiota that colonize marine sands exposed for eight weeks to running ambient seawater. Shading the mic...

  19. Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

    2010-08-01

    This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process. PMID:20524059

  20. The influence of oxidative damage on viscosity of seminal fluid in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Birsen; Onaran, Ilhan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Alici, Bulent; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can

    2008-01-01

    Increased oxidative damage has been suggested to play an important role in the viscosity changes of blood. However, changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity are unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate whether oxidative damage was associated with seminal plasma viscosity in infertile subjects. The levels of malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyls were measured in sperm and seminal plasma from 102 individuals, including 60 infertile patients. Seminal fluid viscosity and semen viscosity were studied by use of capillary viscometer and glass pipettes, respectively. Significantly higher levels of oxidative stress and damage markers were found in subfertile subjects compared with the control subjects. The seminal fluid viscosities of patients were found to be significantly higher, although all of the control and patient subjects had normal viscoelasticity when semen samples were assessed according to World Health Organization guidelines. From Pearson correlation analysis, there were significant positive correlations between seminal fluid viscosity and seminal malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in infertile males (r = .676, P < .01; r = .276, P < .05, respectively). Our results suggest that increased oxidative damage might be a factor for hyperviscosity of seminal plasma in infertile males. PMID:17673435

  1. Benthos response following petroleum exploration in the southern Caspian Sea: Relating effects of nonaqueous drilling fluid, water depth, and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Tait, R D; Maxon, C L; Parr, T D; Newton, F C

    2016-09-15

    The effects of linear alpha olefin (LAO) nonaqueous drilling fluid on benthic macrofauna were assessed over a six year period at a southern Caspian Sea petroleum exploration site. A wide-ranging, pre-drilling survey identified a relatively diverse shelf-depth macrofauna numerically dominated by amphipods, cumaceans, and gastropods that transitioned to a less diverse assemblage dominated by hypoxia-tolerant annelid worms and motile ostracods with increasing depth. After drilling, a similar transition in macrofauna assemblage was observed with increasing concentration of LAO proximate to the shelf-depth well site. Post-drilling results were consistent with a hypothesis of hypoxia from microbial degradation of LAO, supported by the presence of bacterial mats and lack of oxygen penetration in surface sediment. Chemical and biological recoveries at ≥200m distance from the well site were evident 33months after drilling ceased. Our findings show the importance of monitoring recovery over time and understanding macrofauna community structure prior to drilling. PMID:27417570

  2. How to improve your horizontal drilling in fractured carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Stopkley, C.O. )

    1991-10-01

    Lessons leared from drilling hundreds of wells in recent years have led to the development of new tools and techniques that can markedly improve economics of horizontal drilling in fractured carbonates. More horizontal wells have been drilled in such lithology - mainly in the Austin Chalk of South Texas - than in any other type of reservoir. This paper reports on key things that should be done to most effectively achieve objectives which include: carefully plan borehole positions for both vertical and lateral sections; optimize drilling programs for vertical, build and lateral sections; use a clean drilling fluid to reduce formation damage and fracture plugging; use well control and fluids processing systems which provide optimum safety for personnel and minimum environmental impact from gas flaring, spills and brine disposal.

  3. Effects of fluid-rock interactions on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from fault rock samples retrieved from international drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Yabe, Y.; Sulem, J.; Dresen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical and mechanical effects of fluids influence the fault mechanical behavior. We analyzed fresh fault rocks from several scientific drilling projects to study the effects of fluids on fault strength. For example, in drill core samples on a rupture plane of an Mw 2.2 earthquake in a deep gold mine in South Africa the main shock occurred on a preexisting plane of weakness that was formed by fluid-rock interaction (magnesiohornblende was intensively altered to chlinochlore). The plane acted as conduit for hydrothermal fluids at some time in the past. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault core samples from SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes and healing were initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. Newly formed phyllosilicates growing into open pore spaces likely reduced the fluid permeability. The mechanical influence of fluids is indicated by TEM observations, which document open pores that formed in-situ in the gouge material during or after deformation. Pores were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting elevated fluid pressure preventing pore collapse. Fluid-driven healing of fractures in samples from SAFOD and the DGLab Gulf of Corinth project is visible in cementation. Cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL) reveals different generations of calcite veins. Differences in CL-colors suggest repeated infiltration of fluids with different chemical composition from varying sources (formation and meteoric water).

  4. Vibration-based damage detection for filament wound pressure vessel filled with fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Wu, Z.; Li, H.

    2008-03-01

    Filament wound pressure vessels have been extensively used in industry and engineering. The existing damage detection and health monitoring methods for these vessels, such as X-ray and ultrasonic scan, can not meet the requirement of online damage detection; moreover optical grating fibre can only sense the local damage, but not the damage far away from the location of sensors. Vibration-based damage detection methods have the potential to meet such requirements. There methods are based on the fact that damages in a structure results in a change in structural dynamic characteristics. A damage detection method based on a residual associated with output-only subspace-based modal identification and global or focused chi^2-tests built on that residual has been proposed and successfully experimented on a variety of test cases. The purpose of this work is to describe the damage detection method and apply this method to assess the composite structure filled with fluid. The results of identification and damage detection will be presented.

  5. The integrated method to select drilling muds for abnormally high pressure formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu; Boyko, I. A.; Kayumova, N. S.; Rakhimov, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the method for choosing a drilling mud for drilling abnormally high pressure formations. A carefully selected drilling mud formulation would not only enhance an array of interrelated fluid properties, but also minimize the impact on the pay zones when the drill bit first penetrates the pay. To ensure a better assessment of drilling mud impact on the pay zone, it is reasonable to carry out the study focused on the analysis of technological parameters, involving filtration, acid and drilling mud tests, as well as formation damage analysis. This would enable evaluating the degree of mudding off, reservoirs acid fracturing effect and the risks of pipe sticking at significant depth. The article presents the results of the above-described study with regard to the currently used drilling mud and new experimental formulations developed at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Laboratory).

  6. Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B.

    1987-07-01

    In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

  7. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  8. Soil Remediation Requirements Related to Abandoned Centralized and Commercial Drilling-Fluid Disposal Sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Alan R.

    2002-03-20

    This study was a compilation and summary of information on active and inactive centralized or commercial drilling-fluid disposal sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The objective of the analysis of these sites wass to gain insight into the probable behavior of contaminants at poorly documented abandoned drilling fluid disposal sites. Available information being reported in this study includes number and acreage of pits, delivered waste volumes, and levels of selected constituents in the solid waste, in the water overlying the solids, and groundwater monitored at on-site wells. For many sites, dated constituent analyses for specific monitor wells are available for time-series mapping and graphing of variable concentrations.

  9. Epidote-Bearing Veins in the State 2-14 Drill Hole: Implications for Hydrothermal Fluid Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, L. J.; Bird, D. K.; Cho, M.; Liou, J. G.

    1988-11-01

    Epidote-bearing veins in State 2-14 drill core from 900 to 2960 m depth were examined using backscattered electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis to characterize the mineralogy, parageneses, texture, and composition of vein minerals. In order of decreasing abundance, minerals in epidote-bearing veins are pyrite, calcite, K-feldspar, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, chlorite, Fe-Cu-Zn sulfides, actinolite, titanite, and allanite. The downhole distribution of minerals in epidote-bearing veins (+ pyrite and quartz) varies as a function of depth and includes: (1) calcite above ˜2000 m, (2) K-feldspar between 1700 and 2745 m, (3) anhydrite between 2195 and 2745 m, (4) hematite ± sulfides above 2773 m, and (5) actinolite below ˜2890 m. Where present, K-feldspar was the first mineral to precipitate in veins followed by epidote. In all other veins, epidote was the earliest vein mineral to form. Calcite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and sulfides were paragenetically later. Compositional zoning, common in most vein epidotes, is typically symmetric with Al-rich cores and Fe3+ -rich rims. The minimum mole fraction of Ca2Fe3Si3O12(OH) (XPs) in vein epidotes decreases systematically with increasing depth from ˜0.33 at 906 m to ˜0.21 at 2900 m, and the maximum XPs at any given depth is greater than 0.33. Thermodynamic analyses of phase relations among vein-filling minerals and aqueous solutions at depths near 1867 m and 300°C indicate that the modern reservoir fluid in the Salton Sea geothermal system is in equilibrium with calcite + hematite + quartz + epidote (XPs = 0.33) ± anhydrite. The predicted fugacity of CO2 (˜14 bars) for the modern Salton Sea brine is in close agreement with the calculated value of fCO2 for the 1867 m production fluid. Theoretical phase diagrams in the system CaO-K2O-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-O2-S2-CO2 demonstrate that the mineralogies and mineral parageneses recorded hi epidote-bearing veins and the observed variations in Al-Fe3+ content of

  10. Recovery Act. Sub-Soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and Slim Well Drilling, Pumpernickel Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.

    2015-03-27

    Nevada Geothermal Power Company (NGP) was awarded DOE Award DE-EE0002834 in January 2010 to conduct sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion studies and slim well drilling at its Black Warrior Project (now known as North Valley) in Washoe and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The project was designed to apply highly detailed, precise, low-cost subsoil and down-hole gas geochemistry methods from the oil and gas industry to identify upflow zone drilling targets in an undeveloped geothermal prospect. NGP ran into multiple institutional barriers with the Black Warrior project relating to property access and extensive cultural survey requirement. NGP requested that the award be transferred to NGP’s Pumpernickel Valley project, due to the timing delay in obtaining permits, along with additional over-budget costs required. Project planning and permit applications were developed for both the original Black Warrior location and at Pumpernickel. This included obtaining proposals from contractors able to conduct required environmental and cultural surveying, designing the two-meter probe survey methodology and locations, and submitting Notices of Intent and liaising with the Bureau of Land Management to have the two-meter probe work approved. The award had an expiry date of April 30, 2013; however, due to the initial project delays at Black Warrior, and the move of the project from Black Warrior to Pumpernickel, NGP requested that the award deadline be extended. DOE was amenable to this, and worked with NGP to extend the deadline. However, following the loss of the Blue Mountain geothermal power plant in Nevada, NGP’s board of directors changed the company’s mandate to one of cash preservation. NGP was unable to move forward with field work on the Pumpernickel property, or any of its other properties, until additional funding was secured. NGP worked to bring in a project partner to form a joint venture on the property, or to buy the property. This was unsuccessful, and NGP notified

  11. Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Sanford, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  12. Proceedings of the seventh SPE symposium on formation damage control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on well bore damage. Topics considered at the symposium included perforations, acidizing sandstone formations, sand consolidation, sidewall core analysis, gravel packing, permeability damage due to fines migration, bacterial formation damage, asphaltene precipitation, HCl theories, buffered HF acid systems, brines, drilling fluids, corrosion inhibitors, and gravel pack repair with wireline devices.

  13. Downhole fluid sampling and noble gas analysis of saline waters from the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Niedermann, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is situated at the NW-SE trending boundary between the Archaean and Proterozoic domains of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield (Finland). In August 2011, eight fluid samples were collected with a Leutert positive displacement sampler (PDS) from 500 m to 2480 m depth in the open bore hole. The PDS allows sampling at in situ pressures, thus minimising fractionation from degassing during sampling. At the surface, the samples were transferred into an evacuated sampling line connected with a Cu-tube and a glass bulb for gas sampling, a pressure gauge, and a thermometer. Gas was liberated with a heated ultrasonic bath and then admitted to the sampling devices. Gas/water ratios were already determined in the field during gas extraction. Saline groundwaters rich in methane, nitrogen, hydrogen and helium and with water stable isotope composition distinctive from meteoric and sea water have been found to host isolated ecosystems within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of Outokumpu (Kietäväinen et al., 2013). In order to characterise the geochemical and microbiological evolution of the deep subsurface of the area, noble gas residence times have been calculated based on radiogenic (4He, 40Ar), nucleogenic (21Ne) and fissiogenic (134Xe, 136Xe) noble gas nuclides. Geochemical and microbiological variations together with hydrogeological and geophysical data indicate negligible vertical fluid flow in the bedrock. Moreover, noble gas diffusion models show that diffusion is not likely to affect noble gas concentrations of groundwater at or below 500 m depth in Outokumpu. Therefore in situ accumulation was assumed as a basis for the age determination. In general, residence times between 10 and 50 Ma were indicated by 4He and21Ne, while somewhat younger ages were obtained by 40Ar, using average values for porosity, density and concentration of radioactive elements in the bedrock of Outokumpu. Kietäväinen R., Ahonen L., Kukkonen I

  14. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  15. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-07-22

    A partially amidated terpolymer is described which consists of: (a) maleic anhydride; (b) styrene; and (c) acrylic or methacrylic acid; Wherein the molecular ratio of the components (a), (b) and (c) is from about 30:10:60 to about 50:40:10; and wherein from about 1-42 percent of carboxylic functionality has been converted to amide functionality by treatment with ammonia, ammonium hydroxide or primary or secondary lower alkyl amines having from about 1-5 carbon atoms in each alkyl group; the weight average molecular weight of the partially amidated terpolymer being from about 500-10,000.

  16. Hydrothermal fluid-mineral interactions within volcanic sediment layer revealed by shallow drilling in active seafloor hydrothermal fields in the mid-Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Omori, E.; Takahashi, Y.; Furuzawa, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    TAIGA11 Expedition of R/V Hakurei-maru No.2 was conducted in June, 2011 to study subseafloor environment below active hydrothermal fields using a shallow drilling system (called as Benthic Multi-coring System, BMS). Three active hydrothermal fields at Iheya North Knoll (27 47'N, 126 54'E), at Izena Hole Jade site (27 16'N, 127 05'E) and at Izena Hole Hakurei site (27 15'N, 127 04'E) were selected as exploration targets, to focus on a hydrothermal fluid circulation system that develops in sediment consists of volcaniclastic and hemipelagic materials. In this presentation, we will report mineralogy of hydrothermal precipitates and altered clay minerals together with geochemistry of pore fluids, to discuss hydrothermal interactions beneath an active hydrothermal field. In the Iheya North Knoll hydrothermal field, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 453 cmbsf at the station 200 meters apart from the central mound area. The obtained core consisted almost entirely of grayish white altered mud that was identified as kaolinite by XRD. Pore fluid from the corresponding depth showed enrichment in major cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and Cl, which may be explained as a result of involvement of water into the kaolinite. Since kaolinite is considered as stable in rather acidic environment, its abundant occurrence beneath the seafloor would be attributed to a unique hydrothermal interaction. A possible scenario is intrusion of the vapor-rich hydrothermal component that has experienced phase separation. In the Jade hydrothermal fields in the Izena Hole, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 529 cmbsf at the marginal part of a hydrothermal field. The obtained core comprised grayish white hydrothermal altered mud below 370 cmbsf. Occurrence of native sulphur is also identified. Unfortunately, pore fluid could not be extracted from the intense alteration layer. In the Hakurei hydrothermal fields in the Izena Hole, the BMS drilling successfully attained to 610 cmbsf near one of

  17. Geochemical evidence for fluid flow in the upper and subducting plates of the Costa Rica margin: Results from CRISP drilling during Exp. 334 and 344 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Harris, R. N.; Formolo, M.; Choi, J.; Berg, R. D.; Nuzzo, M.

    2013-12-01

    CRISP (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project) is designed to investigate the processes that control fault zone behavior during earthquake nucleation and rupture propagation at erosional subduction zones. Fluids and associated diagenetic reactions are key components of this project, as they can have a profound impact on the shallow thermal structure and fluid content of the subducting and upper plates; fault zone stability and seismogenesis; and the transfer of elements and isotopes to the ocean, volcanic arc, and mantle. The pore fluid geochemistry at sites drilled in the upper and middle slope of the Costa Rica margin document fluid advection along fault zones in the upper plate, and demarcate a horizontal fluid transport zone along the discontinuity between the slope apron and underlying upper plate sediments that is continuous between Sites U1378 and U1379. Fluid flow at these sites overprints the general geochemical profiles that are influenced by in situ diagenetic reactions such as ion exchange, microbial metabolic processes, volcanic ash alteration, and carbonate diagenesis. Site U1379, drilled on the upper slope above the locked portion of the plate boundary, intersected a coarser-grained sediment interval with pervasive faulting at ~600 to 800 mbsf. Here a decrease in the concentration of Cl and of other major elements, and maxima in thermogenic hydrocarbon concentrations are observed. Based on the geothermal gradient at this site the temperature is too low to support the in situ production of thermogenic hydrocarbons or for extensive clay dehydration, thus these geochemical signals indicate a deeper source for the fluid and migration along the permeable horizons. These deep-sourced fluid signatures are even more pronounced at Sites U1378 and 1380, drilled in the middle slope, above the unlocked portion of the plate boundary. Here the horizontal transport zone is well confined to a shear zone that extends from ~480 to 550 mbsf, at the boundary between

  18. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  19. A FEM-DEM technique for studying the motion of particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Application to the transport of drill cuttings in wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Deshpande, Kedar M.; Latorre, Salvador; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    We present a procedure for coupling the finite element method (FEM) and the discrete element method (DEM) for analysis of the motion of particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Particles are assumed to be spherical and immersed in the fluid mesh. A new method for computing the drag force on the particles in a non-Newtonian fluid is presented. A drag force correction for non-spherical particles is proposed. The FEM-DEM coupling procedure is explained for Eulerian and Lagrangian flows, and the basic expressions of the discretized solution algorithm are given. The usefulness of the FEM-DEM technique is demonstrated in its application to the transport of drill cuttings in wellbores.

  20. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

  1. High temperature drilling MUD stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1985-10-15

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a hydroxy containing alumina component such as AlO(OH) and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reaction product such as an aldehyde reacted PVA are stabilized for use at temperatures as high as 350/sup 0/ F. (177/sup 0/ C.) by adding stabilizer anions such as sulfate, tartrate and citrate to the resulting drilling fluid. The anions can be added as an acid or in the salt form with sodium and potassium salts being preferred. The salts are preferably added in 0.2 to 10% by weight of the drilling fluid. These stabilized drilling fluids can also be used in seawater.

  2. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist inhibits neuronal damage caused by fluid percussion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Toulmond, S; Rothwell, N J

    1995-02-13

    Increased expression of the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been observed in rodent and human brain after injury, and IL-1 has been implicated in ischaemic and excitotoxic brain damage in the rat. These data suggest that neurodegeneration caused by brain injury may be mediated by local IL-1 production and action. This hypothesis was tested by studying the effects of central injection of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) on brain damage (assessed histologically, H and E stain) induced by fluid percussion trauma in the rat. Injection of rhIL-1ra (10 micrograms, i.c.v.) 15 min and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h after injury significantly reduced, by 44%, the extent of damage measured 3 days later. Similar protection was observed in animals killed 7 days after injury. Delayed administration of rhIL-1ra (4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h) after injury also significantly reduced (by 28%) neuronal damage. These data indicate that endogenous IL-1 mediates damage caused by traumatic brain injury and that rhIL-1ra offers significant protection even when treatment is delayed. PMID:7743213

  3. Well completion technology. Multiuse polymer protects injection well during drilling, underreaming, gravel packing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.E.; Jarrell, M.D.

    1983-12-12

    Fluids for drilling, gravel-packing, and completion were optimized for an expensive injection well. Successful engineering gave maximum injection rates and no skin damage, while accomplishing all the fundamental drilling and suspension functions of fluids. Formation protection was critical. The approximately $5-million well was planned for chemical waste disposal, and plant capacity is limited by injectivity. This work describes the fluid, hardware, and techniques used. The 3 distinct fluids were variations on the same polymer-based system. Results of tests showed that Kelzan XCD Polymer, a dispersible form of xanthan gum, had the most applicable overall properties.

  4. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Current research and development in the following areas are presented: geothermal roller cone bits, polycrystalline diamond compact bits, a continuous chain drill, drilling fluids test equipment, mud research, inert fluids, foam fluids, lost circulation control, completion technology, and advanced drilling and completion systems. (MHR)

  5. Fluid-Solid Interactive Methodology for Prognosis of Passenger Jet Structural Damage in Water Crash Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayandor, Javid

    2010-11-01

    Today, crashworthiness studies constitute a major part of modern aerospace design and certification processes. Of important consideration is the assessment of structural damage tolerance in terms of the extent of progressive damage and failure caused by aircraft emergency ditching on soft terrain or on water. Although a certification requirement, full scale crash landings are rarely tested using fully functional prototypes due to their high associated costs. This constraint makes it difficult for all crashworthy features of the design to be identified and fine-tuned before the commencement of the manufacturing phase. The current study presents aspects of a numerical methodology that can drastically subside the dependency of the certification assessments to full scale field trials. Interactive, fully nonlinear, solid-structure and fluid- structure analyses have been proposed using coupled Lagrangian- Eulerian and independent meshless Lagrangian approaches that run on a combined finite element-computational fluid dynamics platform. Detailed analysis of a key landing scenario pertaining to a large passenger jet will be provided to determine the relevance and accuracy of the proposed method. The work further identifies state-of-the-art computational approaches for modeling fluid-solid interactive systems that can help improve aircraft structural responses to soft impact and water ditching.

  6. Drilling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

    1983-09-27

    A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

  7. A review of exposure conditions and possible health effects associated with aerosol and vapour from low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Eide, I

    1990-04-01

    This paper reviews investigations on possible health effects after inhalation of aerosol and vapour from the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids which have replaced the diesel-based fluids. The main advantage of the low-aromatic base oils with respect to health hazard is their lower volatility. However, some aliphatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons are distributed more efficiently to the brain than are the corresponding aromatic ones. Reducing the content of aromatic hydrocarbons becomes particularly important when the upper end of the boiling point range is sufficiently high for the base oil to contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). As a result of enclosure and local extract ventilation it has been possible to reduce time-weighted average concentrations of aerosol and vapour to below 100 mg m-3. Effects on the central nervous system have only been observed at higher concentrations of the actual hydrocarbons, and male rat hydrocarbon nephropathy is not considered predictive of a normal human response. Insufficient information is available on possible long-term effects of exposure to the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids, especially regarding carcinogenicity and changes in the lungs. PMID:2205144

  8. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  9. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults: Implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, Jianye; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The fault, which accommodated co-seismic slip, cuts granitic rocks from the Pengguan complex, in which this earthquake most likely nucleated. Fault rocks, including cohesive cataclasite, unconsolidated breccia and three fault gouges with distinct colors, were identified from the drilling cores. On-going uplift and erosion in the area means that the fault rocks, formed at different depth, were exhumed to the shallow surface during the uplift history of the Longmenshan fault zone. A clear change from fracturing and comminution in the cataclasites and breccia to more pervasive shear/formation of fine grained materials in the gouges has been observed. The gouges are distinct and have accommodated significant displacement in multiple increments of shear. Furthermore, fault rocks recovered from the boreholes display numerous features indicative of fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interaction. Toward the fault core, clay minerals have replaced feldspars. The element enrichment/depletion patterns of the fault rocks show general fluid infiltration trends, such as 1) mobile elements are generally depleted in the fault rocks, 2) the microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical results of the fault rocks consistently indicate that pervasive fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interactions altered feldspars and mafic minerals to clay minerals. The fluid was Mg2 +- and Fe2 +-rich, facilitating formation of chlorite. Isocon analyses further reveal that a large rock volume has been lost, which is attributed to the removal of mobile elements associated with fluid infiltration and perhaps enhanced by pressure solution. These results reflect the accumulated effects of cataclasis and fluid

  10. FDA’s Nozzle Numerical Simulation Challenge: Non-Newtonian Fluid Effects and Blood Damage

    PubMed Central

    Trias, Miquel; Arbona, Antonio; Massó, Joan; Miñano, Borja; Bona, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Data from FDA’s nozzle challenge–a study to assess the suitability of simulating fluid flow in an idealized medical device–is used to validate the simulations obtained from a numerical, finite-differences code. Various physiological indicators are computed and compared with experimental data from three different laboratories, getting a very good agreement. Special care is taken with the derivation of blood damage (hemolysis). The paper is focused on the laminar regime, in order to investigate non-Newtonian effects (non-constant fluid viscosity). The code can deal with these effects with just a small extra computational cost, improving Newtonian estimations up to a ten percent. The relevance of non-Newtonian effects for hemolysis parameters is discussed. PMID:24667931

  11. Continuous coring drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G.A.

    1987-09-22

    A continuous coring drill bit is described comprising: (a) body means defining a vertical axis and adapted for connection to drill pipe and forming an internal body cavity disposed in eccentric relation with the vertical axis and a generally circular throat in communication with the body cavity for conducting drilling fluid. The throat defining a throat axis coincident with the vertical axis and being of a configuration permitting passage of a formation core into the body cavity; (b) a generally cylindrical tubular core breaker being rotatably mounted within the body cavity and defining a vertical axis of rotation of generally parallel and offset relation with the vertical axis of the body means; and (c) a buttress element extending inwardly from the core breaker and adapted to contact the formation core. Upon each rotation of the drill bit the buttress element applying transverse force to the core for fracturing of the core into sections sufficiently small for transport by the drilling fluid.

  12. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  13. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  14. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    2015-09-01

    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium

  15. Biochemical measures of coral metabolic activity, nutritional status, and microbial infection with exposure to oil- and gas-well drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Nickels, J.S.; Gehron, M.J.; Parker, J.H.; Martz, R.F.

    1987-03-01

    The reef building coral Montastrea annularus was exposed continuously to suspensions of oil- and gas-well drilling fluids at concentrations of 0.1 ml/liter, 0.01 ml/liter, and 0.001 ml/liter in flowing seawater at the U.S. Naval Stage I platform. After 6 weeks exposure, coral fragments of 30 to 60 sq cm surface area were broken off, rinsed in seawater, and extracted in a one-phase chloroform-methanol seawater extract and returned to the laboratory, the lipids were analyzed for their phospholipid content, alkyl fatty acid composition, and neutral lipid triglyceride glycerol. The aqueous phase was analyzed for free amino acid composition. Biochemical evidence of stress was reflected in the cessation of growth as measured in depressed diacyl phospholipid. Detailed analysis of the acyl fatty acid composition by capillary gas chromatography showed changes in polyenoic fatty acids, suggesting possible changes in the metabolism of the fatty acids induced by the exposure to the drilling fluids.

  16. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  17. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  18. Fluid loss control materials increase production at Alba

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.; McGinn, P.; Fitzpatrick, H.

    1996-05-01

    High-permeability formations are susceptible to formation damage. Drilling or completion fluids can cause permanent damage to the formation and may never be recovered once they leak into formation sand. Downhole processes, such as running in screens and pulling out guns, can also easily lead to damage in an unconsolidated formation. As describes here, Chevron recently used a crosslinkable HEC polymer gel pill and a viscous linear biopolymer prepack fluid to improve drilling and production performance at Alba field in the North Sea.

  19. Post-Traumatic Seizures Exacerbate Histopathological Damage after Fluid-Percussion Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying-hui; Bramlett, Helen M.; Atkins, Coleen M.; Truettner, Jessie S.; Lotocki, George; Alonso, Ofelia F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an induced period of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) on the histopathological damage caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were given a moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.9–2.1 atm) or sham surgery. At 2 weeks after surgery, seizures were induced by administration of a GABAA receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 30 mg/kg). Seizures were then assessed over a 1-h period using the Racine clinical rating scale. To evaluate whether TBI-induced pathology was exacerbated by the seizures, contusion volume and cortical and hippocampal CA3 neuronal cell loss were measured 3 days after seizures. Nearly all TBI rats showed clinical signs of PTE following the decrease in inhibitory activity. In contrast, clinically evident seizures were not observed in TBI rats given saline or sham-operated rats given PTZ. Contusions in TBI-PTZ-treated rats were significantly increased compared to the TBI-saline-treated group (p < 0.001). In addition, the TBI-PTZ rats showed less NeuN-immunoreactive cells within the ipsilateral parietal cerebral cortex (p < 0.05) and there was a trend for decreased hippocampal CA3 neurons in TBI-PTZ rats compared with TBI-saline or sham-operated rats. These results demonstrate that an induced period of post-traumatic seizures significantly exacerbates the structural damage caused by TBI. These findings emphasize the need to control seizures after TBI to limit even further damage to the injured brain. PMID:20836615

  20. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  1. Quaternary enhancement of westerly jet and central Asian aridification: carbonate and salt fluid inclusion isotope records from deep drilling in the Qaidam salt playa, NE Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Han, W.; Fang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The vast Asian arid inland under the westerlies exerts great impacts on global climatic change. However, its evolution history and its relation with the westerlies, Tibet uplift and global change are still unknown. Here we present high quality carbonate and salt fluid inclusion isotope records from a near thousand meter deep drilling core in the Qaidam salt playa, NW China. They reveal an evident long-term persistent aridification of Asian inland since ca. 1.2 Ma, followed by an accelerated drying since ca. 0.6 Ma. We propose that the rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the mid-Pleistocene (called Yellow River Movement) might have contributed to the desiccation of the Asian inland through enhancing and bending the westerly jet and its associated ascending flow and blocking the moisture input from the westerlies and monsoons.

  2. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    efficient tool that both delivers high level of force for the pressure available and inherently increases downhole reliability because parts are less subject to contamination. The On-Off feature is essential to drilling to allow the Driller to turn off the tractor and pull back while circulating in cleanout runs that keep the hole clean of drilling debris. The gripping elements have wide contact surfaces to the formation to allow high loads without damage to the formation. As part of the development materials evaluations were conducted to verify compatibility with anticipated drilling and well bore fluids. Experiments demonstrated that the materials of the tractor are essentially undamaged by exposure to typical drilling fluids used for horizontal coiled tubing drilling. The design for the MDT was completed, qualified vendors identified, parts procured, received, inspected, and a prototype was assembled. As part of the assembly process, WWT prepared Manufacturing instructions (MI) that detail the assembly process and identify quality assurance inspection points. Subsequent to assembly, functional tests were performed. Functional tests consisted of placing the MDT on jack stands, connecting a high pressure source to the tractor, and verifying On-Off functions, walking motion, and operation over a range of pressures. Next, the Shop Demonstration Test was performed. An existing WWT test fixture was modified to accommodate operation of the 3.38 inch diameter MDT. The fixture simulated the tension applied to a tractor while walking (pulling) inside 4.0 inch diameter pipe. The MDT demonstrated: (1) On-off function, (2) Pulling forces proportional to available differential pressure up to 4000 lbs, (3) Walking speeds to 1100 ft/hour. A field Demonstration of the MDT was arranged with a major oil company operating in Alaska. A demonstration well with a Measured Depth of approximately 15,000 ft was selected; however because of problems with the well drilling was stopped before the

  3. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  4. Oxidative damage by ozone and nitrogen dioxide: synergistic toxicity in vivo but no evidence of synergistic oxidative damage in an extracellular fluid.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C A; van der Vliet, A; Eiserich, J P; Last, J A; Halliwell, B; Cross, C E

    1995-01-01

    Inhalation of ozone (O3) and/or nitrogen dioxide (.NO2) is associated with the development of inflammation in the respiratory tract and various alterations in pulmonary functions. Respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs) represent the first biological fluids coming into contact with these inhaled toxicants. Using plasma as a surrogate for RTLFs, we have previously shown that O3 [Cross, Motchnik, Bruener, Jones, Kaur, Ames and Halliwell (1992) FEBS Lett. 298, 269-272] and .NO2 [Halliwell, Hu, Louie, Duvall, Tarkington, Motchnik and Cross (1992) FEBS Lett. 313, 62-66] are both capable of depleting antioxidants and damaging proteins and lipids. O3 particularly damages proteins, whereas .NO2 induces the peroxidation of lipids and nitrates aromatic amino acids. It has been reported that O3 and .NO2 cause synergistic toxicity in rodents [Gielzleichter, Witschi and Last (1992) Tox. Appl. Pharmacol. 116, 1-9]. In the present chapter, we review evidence showing that combined exposure of these two oxidant gases to human plasma fails to exert synergistic oxidative damage to plasma constituents, and in fact, O3 and .NO2 antagonize each other's actions. We conclude that the potentiating effect of these two gases on morbidity and mortality in rodents represents a complex interactive biological effect rather than a simple synergistic oxidative effect in extracellular fluids. PMID:8660391

  5. Oxidative damage to extracellular fluids by ozone and possible protective effects of thiols.

    PubMed

    Van der Vliet, A; O'Neil, C A; Eiserich, J P; Cross, C E

    1995-08-01

    Environmental levels of ozone (O3) frequently exceed air quality standards in many urban areas, and much research has been devoted to pathophysiological effects of O3 inhalation. Inhaled O3 will interact primarily with respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLF) and with constituents therein. It is believed that interaction of O3 with constituents in RTLF occurs by reactive absorption. We investigated interactions of O3 with human blood plasma, used as a model extracellular fluid representing RTLF, and studied oxidation of plasma antioxidants, proteins, and lipids. Plasma was exposed to various concentrations of O3 in humidified air, supplied at a continuous flow, in a system that mimics exposure of RTLF to inhaled O3 in vivo. Interaction of O3 with plasma appeared to be caused by reactive absorption of O3 by plasma. It was found that O3 reacts primarily with the aqueous antioxidants ascorbate and urate. Reactive absorption of O3 by plasma ascorbate and urate was found to be more efficient at low (2 ppm) O3 levels than at high (16 ppm) levels. We were also able to detect oxidative damage to plasma proteins and lipids after prolonged exposure to O3. Second, we investigated whether GSH or dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) could prevent oxidative damage to plasma proteins and lipids by O3, under our exposure conditions. In contrast to plasma, RTLF contain relatively high amounts of GSH, which may contribute to antioxidant protection to respiratory tract epithelial cells. DHLA is an endogenous dithiol and has potent antioxidant properties. Addition of either GSH or DHLA to plasma (at concentrations up to 1 mM) prior to O3 exposure did not inhibit oxidation of plasma proteins and lipids during exposure to O3, nor did it attenuate depletion rates of ascorbate or urate. Our results indicate that added thiols cause increased reactive absorption of O3, rather than preventing reaction of O3 with other plasma constituents. Thiol supplementation could afford protection against O3-induced

  6. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  7. Modeling and Adhesive Tool Wear in Dry Drilling of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Girot, F.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.

    2011-01-17

    One of the challenges in aeronautic drilling operations is the elimination of cutting fluids while maintaining the quality of drilled parts. This paper therefore aims to increase the tool life and process quality by working on relationships existing between drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), coatings and tool geometry. In dry drilling, the phenomenon of Built-Up Layer is the predominant damage mechanism. A model fitting the axial force with the cutting parameters and the damage has been developed. The burr thickness and its dispersion decrease with the feed rate. The current diamond coatings which exhibit a strong adhesion to the carbide substrate can limit this adhesive layer phenomenon. A relatively smooth nano-structured coating strongly limits the development of this layer.

  8. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  9. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF UNDERBALANCED DRILLING PRODUCTS. Final Report, Oct 1995 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; William J. McDonald; Thomas E. Williams; John H. Cohen

    2001-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s and coiled-tubing drilling in the 1990s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses developments under this DOE project to develop products aimed at overcoming these problems. During Phase I of the DOE project, market analyses showed that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30% of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the U.S.A. within the next ten years. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment during Phase I. FOAM predicts circulating pressures and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test data and field data. This model does not handle two-phase flow or air and mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. This FOAM model was greatly expanded during Phase II including adding an improved foam rheological model and a ''matching'' feature that allows the model to be field calibrated. During Phase I, a lightweight drilling fluid was developed that uses hollow glass spheres (HGS) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. HGS fluids have several advantages over aerated fluids, including they are incompressible, they reduce corrosion and vibration problems, they allow the use of mud-pulse MWD tools, and they eliminate high compressor and nitrogen costs. Phase II tests showed that HGS significantly reduce formation damage with water-based drilling and completion fluids and thereby potentially can increase oil and gas production in wells drilled with water-based fluids. Extensive rheological testing was conducted with HGS drilling and completion fluids during Phase II. These tests showed that the HGS fluids

  11. Comparison of hydrogeochemical logging of drilling fluid during coring with the results from geophysical logging and hydraulic testing Example of the Morte-Mérie scientific borehole, Ardèche-France, Deep Geology of France Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilina, L.; Eberschweiler, C.; Perrin, J.; Deep Geology of France Team

    1996-11-01

    A 980-m-deep well was cored on the Ardèche border of the Southeastern basin of France as part of the Deep Geology of France (GPF) programme. Hydrogeochemical logging was carried out during drilling, which involved the monitoring of physico-chemical parameters (pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity), and chemical parameters (concentrations of He, Rn, CO 2, CH 4, O 2 Ca, Cl and SiO 2) of the drilling fluid permanently circulating in the well. This logging programme was complemented by geophysical logging and two hydraulic tests. The combination of these measurements enabled identification of a transmissive interval due to fractures in the Jurassic carbonates, and of fluid inflow both at the base of the porous and slightly permeable Triassic sandstones and from an open fracture in the Permian conglomerates. These intervals are marked by changes in the drilling-fluid chemistry, such as an increase in chemical species content, or a drop in pH. The degree of modification depends on the natural permeability of the fractures and the salinity of the fluids. The porous and permeable intervals are also marked by He anomalies, which act as a tracer for these zones. Comparison between the geophysical and hydrogeochemical logs reveals that the latter provide information on the liquid phase, whether the fractures are productive or not, whereas the geophysical logs are more directly related to the solid phase.

  12. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  13. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  14. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.H.; Rubin, L.A.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low- pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) {open_quotes}Cableless{close_quotes} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  15. Constraints on mineralization, fluid-rock interaction, and mass transfer during faulting at 2-3 km depth from the SAFOD drill hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Anja M.; Tourscher, Sara N.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Warr, Laurence N.

    2009-04-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical changes in mudrock cuttings from two segments of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drill hole (3066-3169 and 3292-3368 m measured depth) are analyzed in this study. Bulk rock samples and hand-picked fault-related grains characterized by polished surfaces and slickensides were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and geochemical analysis. The elemental changes in fault-related grains along the sampled San Andreas Fault are attributed to dissolution of detrital grains (particularly feldspar and quartz) and local precipitation of illite-smectite and/or chlorite-smectite mixed layers in fractures and veins. Assuming ZrO2 and TiO2 to be immobile elements, systematic differences in element concentrations show that most of the elements are depleted in the fault-related grains compared to the wall rock lithology. Calculated mass loss between the bulk rock and picked fault rock ranges from 17 to 58% with a greater mass transport in the shallow trace of the sampled fault that marks the upper limit the fault core. The relatively large amount of element transport at temperatures of ˜110-114°C recorded throughout the core requires extensive fluid circulation during faulting. Whereas dissolution/precipitation may be partly induced by the disequilibrium between fluids and rocks during diagenetic processes, stress-induced dissolution at grain contacts is proposed as the main mechanism for extensive mineral transformation in the fault rocks and localization of neomineralization along grain interface slip surfaces.

  16. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  17. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

    2015-11-01

    Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

  18. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

    2016-07-01

    Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

  19. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  20. Spacer fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.; Wilton, B.S.; Carpenter, R.B.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a conduit extends, the wellbore having a space occupied by a drilling fluid. It comprises displacing the drilling fluid from the space with a spacer fluid comprising: sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, bentonite, welan gum, surfactant and a weighting agent; and displacing the spacer composition and filling the wellbore space with a settable cement composition.

  1. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in volcanic settings.

  2. Research on laser-induced damage resistance of fused silica optics by the fluid jet polishing method.

    PubMed

    Lv, Liang; Ma, Ping; Huang, Jinyong; He, Xiang; Cai, Chao; Zhu, Heng

    2016-03-20

    Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) is one important evaluation index for optical glasses applied in large laser instruments which are exposed to high light irradiation flux. As a new kind of precise polishing technology, fluid jet polishing (FJP) has been widely used in generating planar, spherical, and aspherical optics with high-accuracy surfaces. Laser damage resistances of fused silica optics by the FJP process are studied in this paper. Fused silica samples with various FJP parameters are prepared, and laser damage experiments are performed with 351 nm wavelength and a 5.5 ns pulse width laser. Experimental results demonstrate that the LIDT of the samples treated with FJP processes did not increase, compared to their original state. The surface quality of the samples is one factor for the decrease of LIDT. For ceria solution polished samples, the cerium element remaining is another factor of the lower LIDT. PMID:27140559

  3. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  4. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  5. Apparatus for drilling enlarged boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.

    1982-10-19

    A rotary bore hole enlarging bit is connected to a rotary pipe string having a drilling fluid flow path and an actuator flow path. The bit comprises a body structure including inner and outer telescopic body sections, expansible and retractible arms carrying cutters on the outer body section and an expander on the inner body section engageable with the arms to expand the arms and cutters upon telescopic movement of body sections in one relative direction. A piston and cylinder is provided between the inner and outer body sections to secure relative telescopic movement between the body sections. A first passage is disposed in the body structure and expansible arms and cutters for conducting drilling fluid to the cutters from the drilling fluid flow path, there being a second passage in the body structure for conducting actuator fluid to the piston and cylinder from the actuator fluid flow path.

  6. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  7. NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

  8. DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

  9. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  10. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  11. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    Sperry-Sun (Sperry Drilling Services) is the leader in MWD/LWD reliability, has developed the industry's first LWD NMR/MRIL-WD (nuclear magnetic resonance) tool. The MRIL-WD (magnetic resonance imaging logging-while-drilling) service directly measures the T1 component of hydrogen in subsurface rock units while drilling to obtain total reservoir porosity and to dissect the observed total porosity into its respective components of free fluid and bound fluid porosity. These T1 data are used to secure accurate total, free-fluid, capillary-bound water, and clay-bound water porosity of the reservoir sections which can be drilled in the several Runs. Over the last decade, results from Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs (NMR) have added significant value to petrophysical analysis and understanding by providing total, free-fluid and bound-fluid porosities, combined with fluid typing capabilities. With MRIL-WD very valuable Real-Time or Recorded Memory data/information is now available during or shortly after the drilling operation (formation properties measurement can be taken right after a drill bit penetration), while trip in and trip out as well. A key point in utilizing MRIL in an LWD environment is motion-tolerant measurements. Recent MRIL-WD logging runs from the Shah Deniz wells located in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic helped to delineate and assess hydrocarbon bearing zones. Acquired results demonstrate how MRIL data can be acquired while-drilling and provide reliable/high quality measurements. Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs at some developments wells have become a cornerstone in formation evaluation and petrophysical understanding. By providing total, free-fluid, and bound-fluid porosities together with fluid typing, MRIL results have significantly added to the assessment of reservoirs. In order to reduce NPT (Non-Productive Time) and save the rig operations time, there is always the desire to obtain logging results as soon as possible

  12. Drilling of Arun gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, L.H.; Soepardi, M.; Suherman, D.

    1984-05-01

    The Arun gas field was discovered in late 1971 when the discovery Well Arun A-1 penetrated the thick Arun limestone reef. During the following 3 years, 12 delineation wells were drilled. Three of these delineation wells are used for observation wells, five for dry gas injection, one for condensate water disposal, and three are abandoned. Clustered development well drilling started in Sept. 1976. At this writing 40 wells have been drilled to delineate and develop the field. Drilling continues so that the growing demand from the expanding liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is met. The problems of high temperatures, abnormally highpressured shales, and saltwater sands overlying the lower-pressured Arun limestone have been conquered by numerous technique changes. The current techniques include the use of inverted oil emulsion muds, cements containing 35% silica flour, high-strength heavyweight tubulars, and clear packer fluids. The evolution of drilling and completion practices are discussed in the paper.

  13. Raman spectroscopy of dried synovial fluid droplets as a rapid diagnostic for knee joint damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2008-02-01

    Human synovial fluid droplets were investigated using drop deposition in combination with Raman spectroscopy. Following informed consent, synovial fluid was obtained from forty human patients with various severities of knee pain and/or osteoarthritis at the time of knee arthroscopy or total joint replacement. Synovial fluid was aspirated from the knee joint of each patient and stored at -80°C until examination by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Synovial fluid aspirates from the knee joint of each patient were deposited onto a clean fused silica microscope slide and the droplet dried under ambient laboratory conditions. Each droplet was illuminated by a line-focused or a ring-focused 785 nm laser. As the droplet dries, biofluid components segregated based on solubility differences and a deposit that is spatially heterogeneous was made. Spectra taken from the droplet edges and center were dominated by protein bands and showed the presence of at least two protein moieties in the droplet. Band area and band height ratios (1410 cm -1/1450 cm -1) showed the greatest change between specimens from patients with mild/early osteoarthritis compared to those with severe/late stage osteoarthritis. The greatest differences were found in the center of the droplet, which contains more soluble protein components than the edges.

  14. Effects of Damage Zone Permeability on Fluid Flow Within Gouge Zones During Earthquakes: Observations From Grain-Scale Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, P.; Sparks, D. W.; Aharonov, E.; Goren, L.; Toussaint, R.

    2014-12-01

    Slip on faults occurs within very fine-grained granular gouge created by the comminution of highly fractured country rock. Due to this process of fracturing and grinding into powder, the permeability within these gouge zones naturally varies across their width, with the gouge material having relatively low permeability compared to the surrounding damage zone of fractured rock. During shear, the movement of individual grains creates local transient dilations and compactions that generate variations in fluid pressure and gouge permeability. The resulting fluid circulation, controlled by differing permeabilities across the fault, may determine aspects of the evolution of slip, such as at what position individual shear bands will materialize. In order to investigate these phenomena, we extend the coupled discrete element / continuum numerical model of grain motion and fluid flow (Goren et al., 2011) to include fluid flow in the surrounding permeable fault block. We conducted numerical experiments with unconsolidated gouge confined between fault blocks. This system was held at a constant confining stress, and sheared at a constant rate similar to earthquake velocities (on the order of 1 m/s). We find that shear localizes into bands about 10 grains wide, and these bands prefer to form where they will create the least deviations in pressure, i.e. where permeability is highest. Preliminary results with a rigid, fixed-permeability fault block reveal a clear relationship between localization and fault block permeability. When the fault block has low permeability relative to the gouge, shear bands tend to form towards the interior of the gouge. When the fault block is more permeable, shear band formation tends to occur near the boundary between gouge and fault block. We see no further increase in boundary localization for fault block permeabilities on the order of 100 times the gouge permeability. We will also present results from a version of the model in which the wall rock

  15. Hydraulic straight hole drill collar

    SciTech Connect

    Townson, J. D.

    1985-01-15

    An improved drill collar for forming relatively straight holes in crooked hole type formations. One or more hydraulic drill collars are connected in series relationship within a drill string above a rotary bit at the point of tangency. Each drill collar includes at least one outwardly opening, longitudinally extending slot formed on the exterior thereof. The slot includes a back wall connected to confronting sidewalls and opposed end walls. One lower end of a slot commences in spaced relationship to the lower pin end of the collar. As the drill string is rotated, drilling fluid forms a cushion between the slot and the nearest sidewall of the borehole, thereby kicking or forcing the drill collar away from the borehole sidewall, which in turn forces the drill bit to penetrate in a downwardly direction back towards a vertical position. The borehole meanders a very small amount, as for example 3-4 degrees, rather than uncontrollably leaving the vertical and forming an excessively crooked hole. Various configurations and arrangements of slots are disclosed in the collar.

  16. Fluid Flow and Fault Zone Damage in Crystalline Basement Rocks (Ore Mountains Saxony)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtziger-Zupančič, P.; Loew, S.; Hiller, A.; Mariethoz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater flow in fractured basement rocks on aquifer scale and processes involved in the creation of fracture network permeability are poorly understood even though they have been studied for decades. A unique hydrogeological dataset consisting of 1030 discrete inflows (corresponding to preferential groundwater pathways) to the Poehla Ore Mine (Ore Mountains) of the SDAG Wismut has been compiled and quantitatively interpreted. Transmissivities and permeabilities were calculated from discrete and cumulative inflows using analytical equations and numerical groundwater flow models. The Variscan basement at Poehla Mine was modelled in 3-D, covering a volume of 14x4x1 km3 with 14 metamorphosed litho-stratigraphic units and 131 faults separated in 6 main strike directions. Mesoscale fractures mapped at inflows points, i.e. locally conductive fractures, show a weak correlation with fault orientation, and a large orientation scattering, which could be related to small scale stress heterogeneities. Inflow points were spatially correlated with major faults considering two distance criteria. This correlation suggests that mainly NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults are transmissive, which should be critically stressed considering all available data about the regional stress field. The trace length (extent) and width of the core and damage zones of the modelled faults were compiled in order to investigate the flow distribution and permeability profiles in directions perpendicular to fault strike. It can be shown that 90% of all inflows are located in damage zones. The inflows are usually situated within multiple fault zones which overlap each other. Cumulative flow distribution functions within damage zones are non-linear and vary between faults with different orientation. 75-95% of the flow occurs in the inner 50% of the damage zone. Significantly lower flow rates were recognized within most fault cores.

  17. Use of Downhole Motors in Geothermal Drilling in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Pyle, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of downhole motors in the Tiwi geothermal field in the Philippines, The discussion includes the application Of a Dyna-Drill with insert-type bits for drilling through surface alluvium. The economics of this type of drilling are compared to those of conventional rotary drilling. The paper also describes the use of a turbodrill that drills out scale as the well produces geothermal fluids.

  18. Electrical measuring while drilling with composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Peppers, J.M.

    1986-04-22

    A method is described for transmitting data taken at the bottom of a well bore near the drill bit to the earth's surface through a large volume of the earth formation surrounding the well bore between the drill bit and the earth's surface. The method consists of: (a) generating electrical power within the drill pipe responsive to drilling fluids pumped through the drill pipe; (b) generating sequential bursts of a first AC voltage in digital sequence representing a digital information signal with use of such electrical power and with the digital being representative of a measured parameter occurring near the drill bit; (c) passing a first AC signal current impressed by the first AC voltage through a first electrode from the drilling string to be focussed outwardly and radially away from the well bore to form one path of initially horizontal current flow radially out through the drilling fluids and surrounding earth formation with the common path of the first AC current being the drill pipe; and (d) receiving and detecting a first AC signal potential resulting from the first AC signal current with a receiver/detection means connected to the drill pipe and to a receiver electrode located remote from the drilling string and electrically connected into the earth formation.

  19. Developers set drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud tanks - are mounted on steel rails and moved by hydraulic jacks at a rate of 3/4 ft/min. Each island has a central plant supplying mud and kill fluid services. Logging and perforating are performed by conventional land-based equipment. Many of THUMS' wells are drilled at exceedingly high angles to reach reserves beneath the harbor or Long Beach's downtown area. All but six or seven of the more than 800 wells are deviated, at angles ranging from 0 to 80/degree/, with an average deviation of 65 to 70/degree/. Each well has an S-curve well program and is assigned a 100-ft cylindrical diameter course. A simulated drilling program is fed into a computer to make sure the proposed course does not come within 25 ft of any other well bore. Production procedures are outlined along with a discussion of auxiliary equipment.

  20. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  1. General overview of air drilling and deviation control

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.

    1981-12-01

    What is the most economical way to drill a well. It may be by using air, drilling fluids (other than air or gas), or a combination of both as the circulating medium. This decision requires a thorough study of an area before drilling. Regardless of the circulating medium used, crooked holes can be a problem. Similar methods are used to prevent crooked holes in air and fluid drilling, but some of the techniques differ. Selection of the proper bottomhole assembly will determine the economical success of drilling a well with either air or fluid, but this choice is sometimes very difficult and demands special considerations. 16 refs.

  2. Effects of drilling fluids (muds) and turbidity on the metabolic state of the coral Acropora cervicornis: calcification rate and protein concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, J.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of ten used drilling muds on coral health have been examined by monitoring changes in calcification rates and soluble tissue protein in the coral Acropora cervicornis. Exposure to 25-ppm (v/v) of one mud for 24 h reduced calcification rate in the growing tips by as much as 63%. Soluble tissue protein concentration dropped sig

  3. Fluids in the damage zone: Insights from clumped isotope thermometry of fault-hosted carbonate cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Hodson, Keith R.; Huntington, Katharine W.

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate cements in fault zone rocks contain both chemical and physical information about the interaction and coevolution of their source fluids with surrounding fault rock. In this work, we present an analysis of textural relationships and isotopic compositions of carbonate cements in sandstone, within a well-characterized upper-crustal fault intersection zone, 'Courthouse Junction' along the Moab Fault in southeast Utah, USA. Structures exposed at the outcrop record several phases of overprinting brittle deformation, including cataclastic deformation bands, fracturing and faulting. Carbonate diagenesis is thought to be a later stage, possibly facilitated by an increase in fault parallel permeability. Calcite is hosted within joints and concretions associated with both deformation-band faults and fracture-based faults. We have used cathodoluminescence, oxygen and carbon isotopes, and clumped isotope paleothermometry to differentiate two populations of calcite cement in the fault intersection zone: cool (

  4. Multi-gradient drilling method and system

    DOEpatents

    Maurer, William C.; Medley, Jr., George H.; McDonald, William J.

    2003-01-01

    A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

  5. Drill cuttings disposal method and system

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.E.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes a system for producing a slurry of finely ground drill cuttings and a carrier liquid suitable for injection into an earth formation and the like and wherein the drill cuttings are produced during drilling operations from a drill cuttings/drilling fluids separation means. It comprises: receiving means for receiving a quantity of the drill cuttings; means for conducting the drill cuttings to the receiving means; means for conducting the carrier liquid to the receiving means; conduit means in communication with the receiving means for discharging a mixture of the drill cuttings and the carrier liquid from the receiving means; and a centrifugal pump connected to the receiving means for reducing the particle size of the drill cuttings so that a slurry of the drill cuttings and the carrier liquid may be prepared for injection into the space. A method for disposing of solids particles including earth particles into an earth formation comprising the steps of; providing a wellbore penetrating the earth formation and forming with the earth formation a space for receiving a slurry of the solids particles and a carrier liquid; providing a system for generating a slurry formed of the solids particles and the carrier liquid, mixing the solids particles with the carrier liquid; reducing the particle size of the solids particles by shearing action on the solids particles to form a viscous fluid comprising the slurry; and conducting the slurry to the injection pump and injecting the slurry into the space.

  6. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh; Aaron, Dick; Macpherson, John

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  7. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  8. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Kolle , Jack J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  9. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  10. Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2005-07-05

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

  11. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-02-21

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

  12. ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes.

  13. TI-59 Drilling engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-seven drilling engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments 59 programmable calculator are given, with step-by-step explanations on how to input these on the calculator. Programs for basic drilling engineering, drilling fluid viscosity and circulation, hydrostatic pressure due to gas, surge and swab pressure, and well control are given. (JMT)

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Blade Tip Clearances on Hemodynamic Performance and Blood Damage in a Centrifugal Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingchun; Paden, Bradley E.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Antaki, James F.

    2011-01-01

    An important challenge facing the design of turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (VADs) intended for long-term support is the optimization of the flow path geometry to maximize hydraulic performance while minimizing shear-stress-induced hemolysis and thrombosis. For unshrouded centrifugal, mixed-flow and axial-flow blood pumps, the complex flow patterns within the blade tip clearance between the lengthwise upper surface of the rotating impeller blades and the stationary pump housing have a dramatic effect on both the hydrodynamic performance and the blood damage production. Detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed in this study to investigate such flow behavior in blade tip clearance region for a centrifugal blood pump representing a scaled-up version of a prototype pediatric VAD. Nominal flow conditions were analyzed at a flow rate of 2.5 L/min and rotor speed of 3000 rpm with three blade tip clearances of 50, 100, and 200 μm. CFD simulations predicted a decrease in the averaged tip leakage flow rate and an increase in pump head and axial thrust with decreasing blade tip clearances from 200 to 50 μm. The predicted hemolysis, however, exhibited a unimodal relationship, having a minimum at 100 μm compared to 50 μm and 200 μm. Experimental data corroborate these predictions. Detailed flow patterns observed in this study revealed interesting fluid dynamic features associated with the blade tip clearances, such as the generation and dissipation of tip leakage vortex and its interaction with the primary flow in the blade-blade passages. Quantitative calculations suggested the existence of an optimal blade tip clearance by which hydraulic efficiency can be maximized and hemolysis minimized. PMID:19832736

  15. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of blade tip clearances on hemodynamic performance and blood damage in a centrifugal ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingchun; Paden, Bradley E; Borovetz, Harvey S; Antaki, James F

    2010-05-01

    An important challenge facing the design of turbodynamic ventricular assist devices (VADs) intended for long-term support is the optimization of the flow path geometry to maximize hydraulic performance while minimizing shear-stress-induced hemolysis and thrombosis. For unshrouded centrifugal, mixed-flow and axial-flow blood pumps, the complex flow patterns within the blade tip clearance between the lengthwise upper surface of the rotating impeller blades and the stationary pump housing have a dramatic effect on both the hydrodynamic performance and the blood damage production. Detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed in this study to investigate such flow behavior in blade tip clearance region for a centrifugal blood pump representing a scaled-up version of a prototype pediatric VAD. Nominal flow conditions were analyzed at a flow rate of 2.5 L/min and rotor speed of 3000 rpm with three blade tip clearances of 50, 100, and 200 microm. CFD simulations predicted a decrease in the averaged tip leakage flow rate and an increase in pump head and axial thrust with decreasing blade tip clearances from 200 to 50 microm. The predicted hemolysis, however, exhibited a unimodal relationship, having a minimum at 100 microm compared to 50 microm and 200 microm. Experimental data corroborate these predictions. Detailed flow patterns observed in this study revealed interesting fluid dynamic features associated with the blade tip clearances, such as the generation and dissipation of tip leakage vortex and its interaction with the primary flow in the blade-blade passages. Quantitative calculations suggested the existence of an optimal blade tip clearance by which hydraulic efficiency can be maximized and hemolysis minimized. PMID:19832736

  16. Development and Testing of Insulated Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Champness, T.; Finger, J.; Jacobson, R.

    1999-07-07

    This project has comprised design, analysis, laboratory testing, and field testing of insulated drill pipe (IDP). This paper will briefly describe the earlier work, but will focus on results from the recently-completed field test in a geothermal well. Field test results are consistent with earlier analyses and laboratory tests, all of which support the conclusion that insulated drill pipe can have a very significant effect on circulating fluid temperatures. This will enable the use of downhole motors and steering tools in hot wells, and will reduce corrosion, deterioration of drilling fluids, and heat-induced failures in other downhole components.

  17. An Introduction to Deepwater Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Kenneth

    2011-04-01

    This presentation is an introduction to deepwater drilling, some of the nomenclature, processes, and ``how things work,'' including illustrations of several of the more complex and technically challenging operational situations encountered in deepwater drilling operations. Drilling and well construction activities are carried out in water depths from just a few feet, to over 10,000 feet. Subsurface pressures encountered may be as high as 35,000 psi, with temperatures over 500 degrees F. Some of the technical aspects of deep water drilling include: 1) locating the well 2) rig types 3) well types 4) rig components 5) drill bits, drill string assemblies, bottom-hole assemblies 6) inclined and horizontal well trajectories 7) anisotropic in-situ earth stresses and operationally induced stresses 8) anisotropic, non-linear, hysteretic, and time-dependent rock behavior 9) steady-state and transient fluid flow and formation pressures 10) complex static and dynamic temperature distributions 11) eccentric wellbore geometries 12) wellbore stability 13) lost circulation 14) formation pressure control 15) sea floor completions 16) robotic operations.

  18. Tool Wear in Friction Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Scott F; Blau, Peter Julian; Shih, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the wear of carbide tools used in friction drilling, a nontraditional hole-making process. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool uses the heat generated by friction to soften and penetrate a thin workpiece and create a bushing without generating chips. The wear of a hard tungsten carbide tool used for friction drilling a low carbon steel workpiece has been investigated. Tool wear characteristics were studied by measuring its weight change, detecting changes in its shape with a coordinate measuring machine, and making observations of wear damage using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was applied to analyze the change in chemical composition of the tool surface due to drilling. In addition, the thrust force and torque during drilling and the hole size were measured periodically to monitor the effects of tool wear. Results indicate that the carbide tool is durable, showing minimal tool wear after drilling 11000 holes, but observations also indicate progressively severe abrasive grooving on the tool tip.

  19. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  20. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  1. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  2. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    Sperry-Sun (Sperry Drilling Services) is the leader in MWD/LWD reliability, has developed the industry's first LWD NMR/MRIL-WD (nuclear magnetic resonance) tool. The MRIL-WD (magnetic resonance imaging logging-while-drilling) service directly measures the T1 component of hydrogen in subsurface rock units while drilling to obtain total reservoir porosity and to dissect the observed total porosity into its respective components of free fluid and bound fluid porosity. These T1 data are used to secure accurate total, free-fluid, capillary-bound water, and clay-bound water porosity of the reservoir sections which can be drilled in the several Runs. Over the last decade, results from Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs (NMR) have added significant value to petrophysical analysis and understanding by providing total, free-fluid and bound-fluid porosities, combined with fluid typing capabilities. With MRIL-WD very valuable Real-Time or Recorded Memory data/information is now available during or shortly after the drilling operation (formation properties measurement can be taken right after a drill bit penetration), while trip in and trip out as well. A key point in utilizing MRIL in an LWD environment is motion-tolerant measurements. Recent MRIL-WD logging runs from the Shah Deniz wells located in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic helped to delineate and assess hydrocarbon bearing zones. Acquired results demonstrate how MRIL data can be acquired while-drilling and provide reliable/high quality measurements. Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs at some developments wells have become a cornerstone in formation evaluation and petrophysical understanding. By providing total, free-fluid, and bound-fluid porosities together with fluid typing, MRIL results have significantly added to the assessment of reservoirs. In order to reduce NPT (Non-Productive Time) and save the rig operations time, there is always the desire to obtain logging results as soon as possible

  3. Deep drilling pushes technology to the limit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    Deep drilling has tapered off in recent years - particularly in the last 6 months, as the result of lower oil and gas prices. The number of well drilled to depths greater than 15,000 ft dropped from a record high of 1,205 wells in 1982 to 566 wells last year. Early estimates show the pace to slow further in 1986. Eventually, as oil and gas prices rebound, deep drilling should make a comeback, as well. With this return in deep drilling activity, engineers will be faced once again with technical problems the industry was learning to overcome. When bottomhole temperatures exceed 400/sup 0/F and bottomhole pressures rise above 15,000 psi, corrosion problems are magnified. These high temperatures and pressures complicate decisions about the drilling fluid system and drill string program. Further, the pressure integrity of the deep liner and casing strings and the associated cementing jobs become more critical.

  4. Hydrate control in deepwater drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Gas-hydrate formation during deepwater offshore drilling and production is a well-recognized operational hazard. In water depths greater than 1,000 ft, seabed conditions of pressure and temperature become conducive to gas-hydrate formation. In a well-control situation, although the kick fluid leaves the formation at a high temperature, it can cool to seabed temperature with an extended shut-in period. With high enough hydrostatic pressure at the mudline, hydrates could form in the blowout-preventer (BOP) stack and choke and kill lines, as has been observed in field operations. The current practice in deepwater drilling is to suppress the hydrate-formation temperature by use of highly saline drilling fluids formulated from NaCl or other salts. This solution is applicable for the Gulf of Mexico but insufficient for the conditions encountered in Norwegian deep waters. At extreme water depths or extremely low mudline temperatures, this thermodynamic inhibition alone may not be sufficient to prevent hydrate formation. Instead, the use of kinetic inhibitors or crystal modifiers, in conjunction with thermodynamic inhibitors, may allow successful operations in such an environment. The definition of kinetic inhibitors (to distinguish them from the classic thermodynamic inhibitors, such as polar compounds and electrolytes) comes from the effect of the chemicals on the nucleation and growth of natural gas hydrates, both of which are time-dependent, stochastic processes. The paper describes deepwater drilling fluids, polar and surface-active additives, kinetic inhibition and crystal modifiers, laboratory measurements, and test results.

  5. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  6. Direct Reprogramming of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells by OCT4 and Application in Repairing of Cerebral Ischemia Damage

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mingde; Chen, Ruihua; Li, Hong; Liang, Hansi; Xue, Qun; Li, Fang; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Xueguang

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) are a type of fetal stem cell whose stemness encompasses both embryonic and adult stem cells, suggesting that they may be easily and efficiently reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To further simplify the reprogramming process, the creation of AFSC-derived iPSCs using a single factor is desirable. Here we report the generation of one-factor human AFSC-iPSCs (AiPSCs) from human AFSCs by ectopic expression of the transcription factor OCT4. Just like human embryonic stem cells, AiPSCs exhibited similar epigenetic status, global gene expression profiles, teratoma formation and in vitro & in vivo pluripotency. Our results indicate that the OCT4 is necessary and sufficient to directly reprogram human AFSCs into pluripotent AiPSCs. Moreover, reflecting the similar memory characteristics of AFSCs and neural stem cells, we show that AiPSC membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) repair cerebral ischemia damage. We anticipate that the successful generation of one-factor AiPSCs will facilitate the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need for transgenic expression of oncogenes. Moreover, MVs from tissue-specific AiPSCs have potential in tissue repair, representing a novel application of iPSCs. PMID:27019637

  7. Unusual corrosion of a drill pipe in newly developed drilling mud during deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoe, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Nagae, Y.

    1999-07-01

    In Japan, a newly developed drilling mud containing synthetic smectite is being used during deep drilling when the formation temperature exceeds 180 C. However, using this mud during long periods of drilling localized corrosion at the outer surface of the drill pipe becomes a serious problem. In the present study, a corrosion mechanism was postulated by inspection of corroded pipes at a drilling site and by thermal degradation and corrosion testing in a laboratory. Corrosion was initiated by the combined effects of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide generated by the thermal degradation of the mud. Corrosion damage further developed by the establishment of a differential aeration cell caused by buildup of clay minerals at anodic sites. The general nature of drilling muds are that they dissolve carbon dioxide at high concentrations and keep carbon dioxide in them even at high temperatures, such as 70 C-influenced corrosion in the present study. The unique nature of the new mud containing synthetic smectite (i.e., its weak passivating effect) also contributed to this corrosion. A conventional inhibition method, using a water-soluble amine, was not adequate to mitigate this corrosion.

  8. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  9. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  10. Metal drilling with portable hand drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, W. B.; Harrison, H. W.; Morris, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Study of metal drilling solves problems of excessive burring, oversized holes, and out-of-round holes. Recommendations deal with using the proper chemical coolants, applying the coolants effectively, employing cutting oils, and dissipating the heat caused by drilling.

  11. Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-Ming

    1998-01-01

    We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other

  12. Simulation of two phase flow of liquid - solid in the annular space in drilling operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kootiani, Reza Cheraghi; Samsuri, Ariffin Bin

    2014-10-01

    Drilling cutting transfer is an important factor in oil and gas wells drilling. So that success drilling operation is directly dependent on the quality of clean the wellbore drilling operation. In this paper, modeled upward flow of liquid - solid in the annular concentric and non-concentric in the well drilling by Euler two - fluid model and then analysis using numerical method. Numerical simulation of liquid - solid flow evaluated initially with a Newtonian fluid (water) and then a non-Newtonian fluid (CMC solution 0.4%). After that, investigated the effect of parameters such as flow rate, rotating drill pipe and out of centered on drilling operations. The results show that drilling cutting transfer is improve due to the rotation of drill pipe particularly in drilling operations.

  13. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  14. NAAG peptidase inhibitor reduces acute neuronal degeneration and astrocyte damage following lateral fluid percussion TBI in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunlong; Zhao, Xueren; Sarva, Jayaprakash; Kozikowski, Alan; Neale, Joseph H; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2005-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces a rapid and excessive elevation in extracellular glutamate associated with excitotoxicity and secondary brain pathology. The peptide neurotransmitter Nacetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) suppresses glutamate transmission through selective activation of presynaptic Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGluR3). Thus, inhibition of NAAG peptidase activity and the prolong presence of synaptic NAAG were hypothesized to have significant potential for cellular protection following TBI. In the present study, a novel NAAG peptidase inhibitor, ZJ-43, was used in four different doses (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg). Each dose was repeatedly administered i.p. (n=5/group) by multiple injections at three times (0 time, 8 h, 16 h) after moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI in the rat. An additional group was co-administered ZJ-43 (150 mg/kg) and the Group II mGluR antagonist, LY341495 (1 mg/kg), which was predicted to abolish any protective effects of ZJ-43. Rats were euthanized at 24 h after TBI, and brains were processed with a selective marker for degenerating neurons (Fluoro-Jade B) and a marker for astrocytes (GFAP). Ipsilateral neuronal degeneration and bilateral astrocyte loss in the CA2/3 regions of the hippocampus were quantified using stereological techniques. Compared with vehicle, ZJ-43 significantly reduced the number of the ipsilateral degenerating neurons (p<0.01) with the greatest neuroprotection at the 50 mg/kg dose. Moreover, LY341495 successfully abolished the protective effects of ZJ-43. 50 mg/kg of ZJ-43 also significantly reduced the ipsilateral astrocyte loss (p<0.05). We conclude that the NAAG peptidase inhibitor ZJ-43 is a potential novel strategy to reduce both neuronal and astrocyte damage associated with the glutamate excitotoxicity after TBI. PMID:15716632

  15. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods as they apply to advanced drilling systems.

  16. Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program. Quarterly progress report, October 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development.

  17. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis include? Your drilling prognosis... permeable zones containing fresh water, oil, gas, or abnormally pressured formation fluids; (f)...

  18. Fluid circulation and carbonate vein precipitation in the footwall of an oceanic core complex, Ocean Drilling Program Site 175, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Tim; Bach, Wolfgang; Jöns, Niels; Jöns, Svenja; Monien, Patrick; Klügel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Carbonate veins recovered from the mafic/ultramafic footwall of an oceanic detachment fault on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge record multiple episodes of fluid movement through the detachment and secondary faults. High-temperature (˜75-175°C) calcite veins with elevated REE contents and strong positive Eu-anomalies record the mixing of up-welling hydrothermal fluids with infiltrating seawater. Carbonate precipitation is most prominent in olivine-rich troctolite, which also display a much higher degree of greenschist and sub-greenschist alteration relative to gabbro and diabase. Low-temperature calcite and aragonite veins likely precipitated from oxidizing seawater that infiltrated the detachment fault and/or within secondary faults late or post footwall denudation. Oxygen and carbon isotopes lie on a mixing line between seawater and Logatchev-like hydrothermal fluids, but precipitation temperatures are cooler than would be expected for isenthalpic mixing, suggesting conductive cooling during upward flow. There is no depth dependence of vein precipitation temperature, indicating effective cooling of the footwall via seawater infiltration through fault zones. One sample contains textural evidence of low-temperature, seawater-signature veins being cut by high-temperature, hydrothermal-signature veins. This indicates temporal variability in the fluid mixing, possibly caused by deformation-induced porosity changes or dike intrusion. The strong correlation between carbonate precipitation and olivine-rich troctolites suggests that the presence of unaltered olivine is a key requirement for carbonate precipitation from seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Our results also suggest that calcite-talc alteration of troctolites may be a more efficient CO2 trap than serpentinized peridotite.

  19. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  20. Propagation of sound waves in drill strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumheller, D. S.; Knudsen, S. D.

    1995-04-01

    Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to communicate this information. However, data rates are only a few binary bits per second with this method. This drastically limits the quantity of data available to the operator. As an alternative method, elastic waves generated within the steel drill string can be used as a carrier signal to transmit data. The drill string is commonly assembled from 10-m segments of threaded pipe and forms a periodic structure. The elastic wavelengths of interest are shorter than this periodic length. Consequently, these waves undergo significant dispersion. This paper presents new data for the propagation of elastic waves in a 2-km drill string. The influence of aperiodicity in the drill string, rotation of the drill string, and noise levels are studied in detail. The data verify a method for reducing the attenuation of a carrier signal by a factor of 2.

  1. Application of Formation Testing While Drilling (GeoTap) for acquiring formation pressure data from the Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    time. The GeoTap tester obtains direct pore-pressure measurements as the well is being drilled, with accuracy and precision comparable to that of wireline testers. The GeoTap service can eliminate the time, risk, and cost associated with running pipe-conveyed wireline test tools. It also measures annular and bore pressure while drilling, providing accurate, continuous, real-time hydrostatic pressure, and equivalent circulating density (ECD) information. This aids in determining and maintaining optimal mud weight, reduces formation damage, increases the rate of penetration, and increases operational safety. GeoTap benefits can be improvement of formation evaluation, real-time fluid gradients and fluid mobility (permeability/viscosity indicator), identification of fluid contact points, determination of reservoir connectivity/compartmentalization and depletion, increase safety of operation, determination of optimal mud weight and manage of ECD. We can also continuously monitor wellbore stability for assessments in order to reduce formation damage which in turns will help to increase drilling effectiveness (determine precise overbalance for maximizing ROP and continuously monitor hole-cleaning effectiveness with pressure-while-drilling, while reducing formation damage due to swab/surge). Save time and money by reducing rig down time associated with wireline testing. GeoTap Tool capable of performing more than 150 pressure tests per run and optional orientation of pressure measurement is available (top, right, bottom or left). GeoTap testing has been completed with encouraging results in many wells up to circa 3000m deep. Data has been acquired successfully both in a "Drill-Test-Drill' mode and a "Post-Drill-Test" mode. GeoTap tests have spanned wide ranges of borehole temperature, pressure, mobility as well as formation permeability and overbalance conditions. GeoTap tests in Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan

  2. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  3. Optimization of process parameters for drilled hole quality characteristics during cortical bone drilling using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj; Ghai, Aman

    2016-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery involves drilling of bones to get them fixed at their original position. The drilling process used in orthopaedic surgery is most likely to the mechanical drilling process and there is all likelihood that it may harm the already damaged bone, the surrounding bone tissue and nerves, and the peril is not limited at that. It is very much feared that the recovery of that part may be impeded so that it may not be able to sustain life long. To achieve sustainable orthopaedic surgery, a surgeon must try to control the drilling damage at the time of bone drilling. The area around the holes decides the life of bone joint and so, the contiguous area of drilled hole must be intact and retain its properties even after drilling. This study mainly focuses on optimization of drilling parameters like rotational speed, feed rate and the type of tool at three levels each used by Taguchi optimization for surface roughness and material removal rate. The confirmation experiments were also carried out and results found with the confidence interval. Scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) images assisted in getting the micro level information of bone damage. PMID:27254280

  4. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  5. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  6. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  7. Air drilling and crooked hole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    It is virtually impossible to drill a perfectly vertical hole, regardless of whether it is drilled with fluid or air. Therefore, the objective is to drill a usable hole, free from dog-legs and keyseats, which can be completed and produced with a minimum of problems. Two methods are discussed for accomplishing this, the pendulum and the packed hole. If these two techniques are used correctly, there will be a minimum rate of hole angle change, but dog-legs and keyseats should not develop. The economical success of drilling and completing a well may be determined by the decisions made with respect to selecting the bottom hole drilling assembly and the circulating medium. 16 refs.

  8. Geothermal drilling technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

  9. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  10. Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  11. New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical

  12. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  13. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  14. Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

  15. Machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using candle stick drill and multi-facet drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.

  16. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  17. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  18. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  19. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  20. Well drilling fluids and process for drilling wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, A.H.; Lawson, H.F.

    1988-04-26

    A composition is described comprised of: (a) a aqueous base, (b) a clayey material suspended in the aqueous base, (c) a water-soluble sulfonated styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 10,000, (d) a water-soluble methacrylate copolymer having a molecular weight of about 500 to about 30,000 consisting of polymerized units of an alkali metal salt of acrylic acid and an alkali metal salt of methacrylic acid, the combined total weight of the polymers of (c) and (d) present in the composition being in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.0 pounds per barrel of composition and the weight ratio of the polymer of (c) to the polymer of (d) being in the range of about 90:10 to about 5:95.

  1. Drill bit and method of renewing drill bit cutting face

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes a drill bit having a lower formation engaging face which includes sockets formed therein, a stud assembly mounted in each socket. The method is described of removing the stud assemblies from the bit face comprises: placing a seal means about each stud assembly so that a stud assembly can sealingly reciprocate within a socket with a piston-like action; forming a reduced diameter passageway which extends rearwardly from communication with each socket to the exterior of the bit; flowing fluid into the passageway, thereby exerting fluid pressure against the rear end of the stud assembly; applying sufficient pressure to the fluid within the passageway to produce a pressure differential across the stud assembly to force the stud assembly to move outwardly in a direction away from the socket, thereby releasing the stud assembly from the socket.

  2. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  3. Plug and drill template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orella, S.

    1979-01-01

    Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

  4. Sensitivity of fluid flow to deformation-band damage zone heterogeneities: A study using fault facies and truncated Gaussian simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachri, Muhammad; Tveranger, Jan; Braathen, Alvar; Schueller, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate that truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS), which is typically used for modeling of sedimentary rocks, can be employed to reproduce detailed damage zone structure as observed in outcrops. The basic modeled units employed are fault facies classified according to deformation density. Published damage zone field maps are re-drawn as fault facies maps and used for deriving geostatistical descriptions of model input parameters. We apply the modeling method for damage zones related to three scenarios: an isolated fault, branching faults and double-tip interacting faults. Constrained by the resulting TGS models, a series of damage zone permeability models are generated by systematically modulating five modeling factors related to different heterogeneity scales. Single-phase flow simulations reveal that fault facies proportion and damage zone width are the most influential factors, followed by deformation band frequency. Deformation band permeability and fault facies extent are the least important factors. Modifying fault facies proportion and damage zone width mainly change the flow retardation/enhancement in the models, whereas modifying deformation band frequency, deformation band permeability and fault facies extent mainly change the flow tortuosity in the models. Finally, we examine hierarchical modeling and upscaling procedures to incorporate our fine-scale models into flow simulation models.

  5. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  6. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  7. Brain-Specific Cytoskeletal Damage Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Is There a Common Pattern between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Abdelhak, Ahmed; Junker, Andreas; Brettschneider, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus; Tumani, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common pathophysiological pathway involving axonal degeneration despite different etiological triggers. Analysis of cytoskeletal markers such as neurofilaments, protein tau and tubulin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be a useful approach to detect the process of axonal damage and its severity during disease course. In this article, we review the published literature regarding brain-specific CSF markers for cytoskeletal damage in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in order to evaluate their utility as a biomarker for disease progression in conjunction with imaging and histological markers which might also be useful in other neurodegenerative diseases associated with affection of the upper motor neurons. A long-term benefit of such an approach could be facilitating early diagnostic and prognostic tools and assessment of treatment efficacy of disease modifying drugs. PMID:26263977

  8. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals: nonaqueous fluids development, optical finish, and laser damage performance at 1064 nm and 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menapace, J. A.; Ehrmann, P. R.; Bickel, R. C.

    2009-10-01

    Over the past year we have been working on specialized MR fluids for polishing KDP crystals. KDP is an extremely difficult material to conventionally polish due to its water solubility, low hardness, and temperature sensitivity. Today, KDP crystals are finished using single-point diamond turning (SPDT) tools and nonaqueous lubricants/coolants. KDP optics fabricated using SPDT, however, are limited to surface corrections due to tool/method characteristics with surface quality driven by microroughness from machine pitch, speed, force, and diamond tool character. MRF polishing offers a means to circumvent many of these issues since it is deterministic which makes the technique practical for surface and transmitted wavefront correction, is low force, and is temperature independent. What is lacking is a usable nonaqueous MR fluid that is chemically and physically compatible with KDP which can be used for polishing and subsequently cleaned from the optical surface. In this study, we will present the fluid parameters important in the design and development of nonaqueous MR fluid formulations capable of polishing KDP and how these parameters affect MRF polishing. We will also discuss requirements peculiar to successful KDP polishing and how they affect optical figure/finish and laser damage performance at 1064 nm and 532 nm.

  9. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals: nonaqueous fluids development, optical finish, and laser damage performance at 1064 nm and 532 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Ehrmann, P R; Bickel, R C

    2009-11-05

    Over the past year we have been working on specialized MR fluids for polishing KDP crystals. KDP is an extremely difficult material to conventionally polish due to its water solubility, low hardness, and temperature sensitivity. Today, KDP crystals are finished using single-point diamond turning (SPDT) tools and nonaqueous lubricants/coolants. KDP optics fabricated using SPDT, however, are limited to surface corrections due to tool/method characteristics with surface quality driven by microroughness from machine pitch, speed, force, and diamond tool character. MRF polishing offers a means to circumvent many of these issues since it is deterministic which makes the technique practical for surface and transmitted wavefront correction, is low force, and is temperature independent. What is lacking is a usable nonaqueous MR fluid that is chemically and physically compatible with KDP which can be used for polishing and subsequently cleaned from the optical surface. In this study, we will present the fluid parameters important in the design and development of nonaqueous MR fluid formulations capable of polishing KDP and how these parameters affect MRF polishing. We will also discuss requirements peculiar to successful KDP polishing and how they affect optical figure/finish and laser damage performance at 1064 nm and 532 nm.

  10. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  11. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  12. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquakes tend to claim more human lives and inflict heavier financial losses as they occur where not expected and the local and regional preparedness to mitigate such catastrophes is minimal. Artificial water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), most prominent in SCR, provides an exceptional window to comprehend genesis of such earthquakes. Since the first scientific reporting of the RTS at the Boulder Dam, USA during 1930s, over 100 cases of RTS have been reported globally. Damaging earthquakes exceeding M 6 have occurred at Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba (Zambia -Zimbabwe border), Kremasta (Greece) and Koyna (India). It is debated that the 2008 M 7.8 Sichuan earthquake in China, which claimed over 80,000 human lives was triggered by filling of a nearby reservoir. Located close to the west coast of India, Koyna is a classical site of RTS, where triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment in 1962, including the largest RTS earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967 which claimed over 200 human lives and destroyed Koyna town. Over the past 49 years 22 earthquakes of M ≥ 5 and several thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred in a restricted area of 20 X 30 sq. km. with no other seismic activity within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. The latest M 5.1 earthquake occurred on December 12, 2009. Although several studies have clearly established the association of continued RTS at Koyna with precipitation driven loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs, the trigger mechanism is little understood. Our knowledge about the physical properties of rocks and fluids in the fault zones and how they affect the build-up of stress for an extended period is limited by the lack of data from the near field region. A deep bore hole of up to 7 km depth at a scientifically and logistically suitable location is under an advance stage of planning. A detailed workshop and field visits involving some 50 scientists from 10

  13. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  14. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2013-07-02

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  15. Method and apparatus for jet-assisted drilling or cutting

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz

    2012-09-04

    An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.

  16. Imaging of Geological Conditions Ahead of Drill Bit Using a Drilling Hole Dipole Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiumei; Su, Chang; Lin, Weijun; Wang, Jing

    To overcome shortcomings of current techniques in predicting geological conditions ahead of drill bit in real time, the capability of waves excited by a dipole source inside a fluid-filled drilling hole with surrounding and front formations in detecting geological reflectors is evaluated. Analysis on beam pattern show that SV and SH waves have large energy coverage and good reflection sensitivity, which have an advantage over P wave in detecting geological conditions ahead. Numerical results indicate that dipole acoustic sources have the capability of detecting geological conditions ahead of the drill bit.

  17. Method for laser drilling subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1976-08-31

    Laser drilling of subterranean earth formations is efficiently accomplished by directing a collimated laser beam into a bore hole in registry with the earth formation and transversely directing the laser beam into the earth formation with a suitable reflector. In accordance with the present invention, the bore hole is highly pressurized with a gas so that as the laser beam penetrates the earth formation the high pressure gas forces the fluids resulting from the drilling operation into fissures and pores surrounding the laser-drilled bore so as to inhibit deleterious occlusion of the laser beam. Also, the laser beam may be dynamically programmed with some time dependent wave form, e.g., pulsed, to thermally shock the earth formation for forming or enlarging fluid-receiving fissures in the bore.

  18. Development and testing of underbalanced drilling products. Topical report, September 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, G.H., Jr; Maurer, W.C.; Liu, G.; Garkasi, A.Y.

    1995-09-01

    Underbalanced drilling is experiencing growth at a rate that rivals that of horizontal drilling in the mid-1980s. Problems remain, however, for applying underbalanced drilling in a wider range of geological settings and drilling environments. This report addresses the development and testing of two products designed to advance the application of underbalanced drilling techniques. A user-friendly foam fluid hydraulics model (FOAM) was developed for a PC Windows environment. The program predicts pressure and flow characteristics of foam fluids used in underbalanced drilling operations. FOAM is based on the best available mathematical models, and was validated through comparison to existing models, laboratory test well measurements, and field data. This model does not handle air or mist drilling where the foam quality is above 0.97. An incompressible drilling fluid was developed that utilizes lightweight solid additives (hollow glass spheres) to reduce the density of the mud to less than that of water. This fluid is designed for underbalanced drilling situations where compressible lightweight fluids are inadequate. In addition to development of these new products, an analysis was performed to determine the market potential of lightweight fluids, and a forecast of underbalanced drilling in the USA over the next decade was developed. This analysis indicated that up to 12,000 wells per year (i.e., 30 percent of all wells) will be drilled underbalanced in the USA within the next ten years.

  19. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  20. Research about Automatic Adjustment Solution of the Advance Force at the Perffusion Drills Using Fluid Elements / Badanie Systemu Automatycznej Regulacji SIŁY Posuwu W Wiertnicach Udarowych Z Wykorzystaniem ELEMENTÓW PŁYNOWYCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the actual solution used by Secoma Company and part of research regarding a personal solution concerning the implementation of the digital devices in the pressing strength's control of a pneumatic rotating drill, which is included in the structure of the drilling installation. The monostable fluidic element, which was proposed to be used, is a special device, with an incompressible fluid as supply jet and compressible fluid as command jet. The fluidic command proposed solution presents superior advantages given the existing variants and the automation solutions with electronic components. This is due to the higher security in hostile work environments (moist environment, with high methane gas contents, with fire danger, with high temperature) of their high feasibility and maintenance. For the practical achievement of the automated regulation with fluidic elements, of the type tested in the experimental plan, it is necessary to choose a monostabile fluidic amplifier for the prototype device, which respects several clear conditions regarding wall attachment angle and geometrical parameters. W pracy przedstawiono rozwiązanie stosowane przez firmę Secoma oraz omówiono część badań dotyczących rozwiązań w dziedzinie implementacji urządzeń cyfrowych do regulacji siły naporu w obrotowych wiertnicach pneumatycznych będących częścią urządzenia wiertniczego. Zaproponowano użycie mono-stabilnego elementu płynowego, będącego specjalnym urządzeniem zawierającym płyn nieściśliwy jako strugę zasilająca i płyn ściśliwy jako strugę sterującą. Rozwiązanie z wykorzystaniem elementu płynowego daje dodatkowe korzyści w odniesieniu do obecnie stosowanych rozwiązań zawierających komponenty elektryczne, przyczyniając się do poprawy bezpieczeństwa pracy w środowisku niebezpiecznym (w warunkach wysokiej wilgotności, wysokich stężeń metanu, zagrożenia pożarowego, wysokich temperatur), ponadto są one łatwe w użyciu i

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  2. Finite element modeling and experimentation of bone drilling forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lughmani, W. A.; Bouazza-Marouf, K.; Ashcroft, I.

    2013-07-01

    Bone drilling is an essential part of many orthopaedic surgery procedures, including those for internal fixation and for attaching prosthetics. Estimation and control of bone drilling forces are critical to prevent drill breakthrough, excessive heat generation, and mechanical damage to the bone. This paper presents a 3D finite element (FE) model for prediction of thrust forces experienced during bone drilling. The model incorporates the dynamic characteristics involved in the process along with the accurate geometrical considerations. The average critical thrust forces and torques obtained using FE analysis, for set of machining parameters are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2012-08-14

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  4. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2007-05-22

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  5. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E; Perry, Carl Allison

    2014-03-04

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  6. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2011-08-16

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  7. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E.; Perry, Carl Allison

    2008-05-27

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  8. System and method for damping vibration in a drill string

    SciTech Connect

    Wassell, Mark Ellsworth; Turner, William Evans; Burgess, Daniel E; Perry, Carl Allison

    2015-02-03

    A system for damping vibration in a drill string can include a valve assembly having a supply of a fluid, a first member, and a second member capable of moving in relation to first member in response to vibration of the drill bit. The first and second members define a first and a second chamber for holding the fluid. Fluid can flow between the first and second chambers in response to the movement of the second member in relation to the first member. The valve assembly can also include a coil or a valve for varying a resistance of the fluid to flow between the first and second chambers.

  9. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must my description of well drilling... of well drilling design criteria address? Your description of well drilling design criteria must... formations; casing setting depths; total well depth; formation fluid types; safety margins; and...

  10. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must my description of well drilling... must my description of well drilling design criteria address? Your description of well drilling design... exposed formations; casing setting depths; total well depth; formation fluid types; safety margins;...

  11. 30 CFR 250.413 - What must my description of well drilling design criteria address?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must my description of well drilling... of well drilling design criteria address? Your description of well drilling design criteria must... formations; casing setting depths; total well depth; formation fluid types; safety margins; and...

  12. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  13. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  14. Remote drill bit loader

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  15. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  16. Slim-hole drilling for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Drilling production-size holes for geothermal exploration puts a large expense at the beginning of the project, and thus requires a long period of debt service before those costs can be recaptured from power sales. If a reservoir can be adequately defined and proved by drilling smaller, cheaper slim-holes, production well drilling can be delayed until the power plant is under construction, saving years of interest payments. In the broadest terms, this project's objective is to demonstrate that a geothermal resevoir can be identified and evaluated with data collected in slim holes. We have assembled a coordinated working group, including personnel from Sandia, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of Utah Research Institute, US Geological Survey, independent consultants, and geothermal operators, to focus on the development of this project. This group is involved to a greater or lesser extent in all decisions affecting the direction of the research. Specific tasks being pursued include: Correlation of fluid flow and injection tests between slim-holes and production size wells. Transfer of slim-hole exploration drilling and reservoir assessment to industry so that slim-hole drilling becomes an accepted method for geothermal exploration.Development and validation of a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator which can be used for reservoir evaluation from slim-hole flow data. Collection of applicable data from commercial wells in existing geothermal fields. Drilling of at least one new slim-hole and use it to evaluate a geothermal reservoir.

  17. Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well

  18. Optimisation of EDM fast hole drilling for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leao, F. N.

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) fast hole drilling is a thermo-electric manufacturing process in which material removal is achieved by sparks taking place between a tool electrode and the workpiece being drilled; both covered in dielectric fluid and connected to a generator delivering periodic pulses of energy at very high frequencies. There is no physical contact between the workpiece and the electrode, and the small gap separating them is maintained under servo control. EDM fast hole drilling plays a vital role in the aerospace industry. The operating temperatures of aero-engine often exceed the melting point of the materials used in its components. Hence, it is required to artificially cool different types of components including turbine blades. This is accomplished by directing bypass air into internal passages of the blade; the air flows continuality through small holes, having diameters ranging from 0.4 to 3mm and are drilled at steep angles to the baled surfaces. With EDM it is possible to drill these holes. The EDM drilling, however, operates with very high levels of relative electrode wear and high variations in cycle times making the process rather inconsistent. Using the DOE (Design of Experiments) approach, a series of studies have been carried out with the purpose of optimising the drilling process through the evaluation of water-based dielectric fluids and electrode materials, via analysis of drilling time, electrode wear, surface integrity, dimensional accuracy and costs. Factors such as the electrode length, geometry and dielectric flushing have also been studied. This work has shown that drilling times and electrode wear can be reduced by 50% and 35% respectively depending on the type of dielectric fluid/electrode material used and on the optimisation criteria employed. Significant reductions in the variations of drilling times have also been observed. Moreover, drilling time and electrode wear can be decreased by 165% and 25% respectively

  19. Comparative Study Between The Alternative Used By The IMP Type Pecussion Drills And The Version Using Fluid Elements Regarding The Supplying, Command And Automatic Adjustment Systems Of The Injection Water Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

    2015-12-01

    Starting from analyzing of an existing solution regarding the injection water feeding system for the pneumatic rotating and percussion drilling installations, which is included in the structure of the perforator installation (IMP-1or IMP-2), the paper presents part of a research regarding an original solution of the automatic command and regulate with monostable fluidic elements, with different physical nature jets. This solution is applicable to this drilling installations type, made in Romania.

  20. Advances in drilling covered at conference in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Recent advances in drilling technology include new applications for various polymer-based drilling fluids, an analytical evaluation of certain gas control additives for light cement slurries, the use of a new wellhead connector, and the development of a unique completion tool for slim hole wells. This paper reports on these topics which were covered in several papers prepared for the Offshore South East Asia 9th Conference and Exhibition held Dec. 1-4, 1992, in Singapore. Drilling fluids formulated with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were used successfully and economically to control well bore problems in a development drilling program in southeast Asia. Another paper presented results on the use of various cationic and anionic materials to control shale stability problems common to areas offshore western Australia. Another paper presented results of an evaluation of five common additives used to control gas migration problems in light-weight cements. In addition to these fluid topics, recent mechanical developments were covered.

  1. Automated drilling draws interest

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Interest in subsea technology includes recent purchase of both a British yard and Subsea Technology, a Houston-based BOP manufacturer. In France, key personnel from the former Comex Industries have been acquired and a base reinstalled in Marseille. ACB is also investing heavily, with the Norwegians, in automated drilling programs. These automated drilling programs are discussed.

  2. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  3. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  4. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  5. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  6. Horizontal drilling technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-04

    Horizontal drilling technology is making further advances in the Texas Austin chalk play as such drilling continues to spread in many U.S. land areas. One company has completed a Cretaceous Austin chalk oil well with the longest horizontal well bore in Texas and what at 1 1/6 miles is believed to be the world's longest medium radius horizontal displacement.

  7. Expeditions to Drill Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2005-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international collaboration of Earth, ocean, and life scientists that began in 2003, offers scientists worldwide unprecedented opportunities to address a vast array of scientific problems in all submarine settings. Recently, the scientific advisory structure of the proposal-driven IODP scheduled drilling expeditions, targeting critical scientific problems in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean, for 2005 and early 2006 (Figure 1, Table 1). The IODP, which is co-led by Japan and the United States, with strong contributions from the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) and China, is guided by an initial science plan, ``Earth, Oceans, and Life'' (www.iodp.org). For the first time, through the IODP, scientists have at their disposal both a riser (drilling vessel which has a metal tube surrounding the drill pipe that enables the return of drilling fluid and cuttings to the drill ship; the ``riser'' is attached to a ``blow-out preventer'' or shut-off device at the seafloor) and riserless drilling vessel (which lacks a riser pipe and blow-out preventer), as well as mission-specific capabilities such as drilling barges and jack-up rigs for shallow-water and Arctic drilling.

  8. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-07-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are reported. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  9. Geothermal drilling ad completion technology development program. Semi-annual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  10. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  11. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Annual progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing research and development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, completion technology, and lost circulation control methods. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1983 and by 50% by 1987.

  12. Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores with supercritical steam, nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ken Oglesby

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores at various depths and with various hole sizes, tubing, fluids and rates showed theoretical feasibility. WELLFLO SIMULATIONS REPORT STEP 4: DRILLING 10,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 5: DRILLING 20,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 6: DRILLING 30,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE Mehmet Karaaslan, MSI

  13. Geothermal drilling and completion technology development program. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    The progress, status, and results of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program are described. The program emphasizes the development of geothermal drilling hardware, drilling fluids, and completion technology. Advanced drilling systems are also under development. The goals of the program are to develop the technology required to reduce well costs by 25% by 1982 and by 50% by 1986.

  14. Laser drilling of thermal barrier coated jet-engine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, H. K.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  15. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  16. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  17. Drilling and producing offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

  18. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  19. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  20. Multiple-Scale Geomechanical Models for Thermal Spallation Drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, I.; Walsh, S. D.; Roberts, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread adoption of geothermal energy will require access to deeply buried geothermal sources in granitic basement rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Exploiting these resources necessitates novel methods for drilling, stimulation, and maintenance, under operating conditions difficult or impossible to test in laboratory settings. Physically rigorous numerical modeling tools are vital to highlight potential risks, guide process optimization and reduce the uncertainties involved in these developing technologies. In this presentation, we discuss a numerical modeling effort investigating the multiscale mechanics of thermal spallation drilling (TSD) - a technique in which rock is fragmented into small flakes by a high temperature fluid jet. This process encompasses interconnected phenomena on several length and time scales: from system-scale fluid dynamics to grain-scale thermomechanics of spallation. Here we describe how these disperate scales are simulated using GEODYN, a parallel Eulerian compressible solid and fluid dynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capabilities. GEODYN is able to simulate materials under extremely large deformations, resolve details of wave propagation within grains, and uses a continuum damage mechanics approach to represent fracture. We will present results from both system- and grain-scale simulations describing the transfer of heat from the high temperature jet to the rock face, and the effect of grain-scale properties such as incipient flaw distribution, grain size and grain size distribution, heat flux, applied temperature and material heterogeneity on the onset of spallation. Detailed computer modeling helps to address several of the uncertainties surrounding TSD: 1) What rock compositions are drillable with TSD? 2) How do grain size and grain size distribution affect TSD and drilling rates? 3) What combination of macroscopic (Poisson ratio, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and microscopic (flaw distribution

  1. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is

  2. Packer weighted and pressure differential method and apparatus for big hole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, D. W.

    1985-08-13

    A packer and pressure differential drilling tool and method of controlled pressure balanced drilling in Big Hole well bores and shafts, characterized by a large diameter packer slideably engaged with the well bore over a drill bit and through which a dual drill pipe operates and isolates drilling fluid from a hydrostatic head of fluid standing in the well bore surrounding the dual drill pipe, the packer functioning as a non-rotatable ram slideable down the well bore and supporting said hydrostatic head and applying the weight thereof to the drill bit through anti-friction bearings, cuttings being flushed through the dual drill pipe by means of aerated drilling fluid or by an upwardly disposed jet pump, or both, so as to establish a reduced and/or underbalanced condition at the bit-to-bore bottom interface and operating the drill bit at an increased rate of penetration while maintaining a higher pressure condition in the well bore above the packer, the packer being weight set or hydraulic set, and the jet pump being centered in the dual drill pipe or disposed in the annulus of the dual drill pipe.

  3. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  4. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  5. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  6. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  7. Formate brines for drilling and completion: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Low solids drilling fluids based on formate brines (sodium, potassium and caesium salts of formic acid) were originally designed to minimise frictional pressure losses in slim hole drilling applications. In addition, their unique capability of stabilising polymers to high temperatures made them more temperature resistant than any other polymer based drilling fluids. Subsequent work has shown that these brines, because of their high densities and low corrosivity, are also ideal completion and packer fluids. Formate brines have excellent HSE profiles and they are compatible with reservoir fluids, good shale stabilisers, gas hydrate inhibitors, and scale dissolvers. Also, a technique has been found for cost effective clean-up and recycling of formate based drilling fluids. The commercialisation and introduction of these fluids into the field (especially caesium formate) has taken a long time, due to high prices and few manufacturers. This situation is now changing, as the number of manufacturers is increasing, and buy-back arrangements have been made available. Also, a number of successful drilling and completion trials have been carried out.

  8. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  9. Results of exploratory drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eight exploratory holes were drilled in the Vermillion Creek basin, southern Sweetwater County, Wyoming, to aid in interpreting the subsurface stratigraphy of the Vermillion Creek coal bed. Lithologic logs based on cuttings and geophysical logs (natural gamma, density, and caliper) were made for each drill hole. Core samples of the Vermillion Creek coal bed and associated strata (roof rock, floor rock, and partings) were collected from three drill holes for geochemical and petrographic analysis. The geophysical logs indicate the presence of anomalous radioactive zones in the strata surrounding the Vermillion Creek coal bed.

  10. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  11. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  12. Effects of drill cuttings discharge on meiofauna communities of a shelf break site in the southwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Netto, Sérgio A; Fonseca, Gustavo; Gallucci, Fabiane

    2010-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of drill cutting discharges on the structure of meiofauna communities in an area of the shelf break at Campos Basin, Southeast Brazil. Drilling activities were operated, in a first phase, with water-based fluid and, in a second phase, with synthetic fluid paraffin-based (NAF-III). A total of 135 samples taken at a pre-drilling situation (MS1) and two post-drilling moments (MS2 and MS3-3 and 22 months post-drilling, respectively) were analyzed. Effects on meiofauna were dependent on two main factors: 1-the impact received during drilling operation, if water-based or synthetic/water-based drilling fluid and 2-the background state, if it already presented signs of previous drilling activities or not. Based on univariate and multivariate analysis, there were evidences that the most affected area after drilling was those under the influence of synthetic-based fluid and that already had signs of previous drillings activities. The region impacted only by water-based fluid was less affected and the only one that completely recovered after 22 months. Nematodes and copepods had different responses to the impact. While copepods flourish in the impacted area and recovered 22 months after drilling, nematodes were adversely affected shortly after drilling and the community structure only recovered where hydrocarbons had been depleted. PMID:20524060

  13. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  14. Geothermal drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Livesay, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The report discusses the current state of geothermal drilling technology with reference to how individual technology items are influenced by the following problem areas: high temperature; lost circulation; abrasive rocks; and corrosive gases. (ACR)

  15. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  16. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  17. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  18. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  19. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  20. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  1. The propagation of sound waves in drill strings

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S. ); Knudsen, S.D. )

    1995-04-01

    Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to communicate this information. However, data rates are only a few binary bits per second with this method. This drastically limits the quantity of data available to the operator. As an alternative method, elastic waves generated within the steel drill string can be used as a carrier signal to transmit data. The drill string is commonly assembled from 10-m segments of threaded pipe and forms a periodic structure. The elastic wavelengths of interest are shorter than this periodic length. Consequently, these waves undergo significant dispersion. This paper presents new data for the propagation of elastic waves in a 2-km drill string. The influence of aperiodicity in the drill string, rotation of the drill string, and noise levels are studied in detail. The data verify a method for reducing the attenuation of a carrier signal by a factor of 2.

  2. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  3. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  4. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  5. Off-fault shear failure potential enhanced by high-stiff/low-permeable damage zone during fluid injection in porous reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, J.; Nguyen, T. K.; Torabi, A.

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have focused on the role of damage zone (DZ) on the hydromechanical behaviour of faults by assuming a fractured DZ (i.e. low stiffness/high permeability). Yet, this vision may not be valid in all geological settings, in particular, in high-porosity reservoirs as targeted by several underground exploitations. We investigate the impact of a high-stiff/low-permeable DZ on the shear reactivation of a blind, undetectable normal fault (1 km long, ≤10 m offset), with a 0.5 m thick low-porosity/permeability fault core during fluid injection into a high-porosity reservoir. The spatial distribution of effective properties (elastic moduli, Biot's coefficients and permeability) of DZ including deformation bands (DB; elliptic inclusions) and intact rock were derived using upscaling analytical expressions. The influence of DZ on the hydromechanical behaviour of the fault zone was numerically explored using 2-D plane-strain finite-element simulations within the framework of fully saturated isothermal porous media by accounting for an orthotropic elastic rheology. The numerical results showed that the presence of DB plays a protective role by reducing the potential for shear reactivation inside the fault core. On the other hand, they favour shear failure in the vicinity of the fault core (off-fault damage) by accelerating the decrease of the minimum principal effective stress while limiting the decrease of the maximum one. This behaviour is strongly enhanced by the fault-parallel DZ effective stiffness, but limited by the combined effect of fault-normal DZ effective permeability and of the Biot's coefficients. This can have implications for the location and size of aftershocks during fault reactivation.

  6. N-Acetyl-Cysteine and l-Carnitine Prevent Meiotic Oocyte Damage Induced by Follicular Fluid From Infertile Women With Mild Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Vanessa S I; Da Broi, Michele G; Paz, Claudia C P; Ferriani, Rui A; Navarro, Paula A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential protective effect of the antioxidants, l-carnitine (LC) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), in preventing meiotic oocyte damage induced by follicular fluid (FF) from infertile women with mild endometriosis (ME). We performed an experimental study. The FF samples were obtained from 22 infertile women undergoing stimulated cycles for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (11 with ME and 11 without endometriosis). Immature bovine oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation (IVM) divided into 9 groups: no-FF (No-FF); with FF from control (CFF) or ME (EFF) groups; and with LC (C + LC and E + LC), NAC (C + NAC and E + NAC), or both antioxidants (C + 2Ao and E + 2Ao). After IVM, oocytes were immunostained for visualization of microtubules and chromatin by confocal microscopy. The percentage of meiotically normal metaphase II (MII) oocytes was significantly lower in the EFF group (51.35%) compared to No-FF (86.36%) and CFF (83.52%) groups. The E + NAC (62.22%), E + LC (80.61%), and E + 2Ao (61.40%) groups showed higher percentage of normal MII than EFF group. The E + LC group showed higher percentage of normal MII than E + NAC and E + 2Ao groups and a similar percentage to No-FF and CFF groups. Therefore, FF from infertile women with ME causes meiotic abnormalities in bovine oocytes, and, for the first time, we demonstrated that the use of NAC and LC prevents these damages. Our findings elucidate part of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infertility associated with ME and open perspectives for further studies investigating whether the use of LC could improve the natural fertility and/or the results of in vitro fertilization of women with ME. PMID:26342050

  7. Chevron tackles urban drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.

    1984-01-01

    Chevron USA transformed a landfill in Pacioma, Calif., into an urban drill site for a field expected to produce 2,400 b/d of oil and 24 MMcfd of natural gas within 3 years. Chevron's foremost challenges in developing the Paxton drill site were to drill and produce oil and gas within a limited, 2.7-acre spacing and with minimum impact to the immediate environment. To meet these goals, Chevron: Used offshore technology for the well cellar layout and rig design and construction. Performed extensive research in soil mechanics, noise abatement, and safety. Employed state-of-the-art computer technology for monitoring and controlling different operating systems. Concealed the drilling derrick in a 10-story tower that resembles a Spanish mission. Hid other structures, including offices, a computerized control room, and gas processing facilities, behind a 12-ft fence. The Paxton site, located a few miles north of Los Angeles, is Chevron's fifth compressed urban drill site. The other sites, all in the Los Angeles area, are San Vicente, Packard, Broadway, and Garey. Chevron's experience in drilling 173 wells at these four facilities was beneficial, since the same engineering and technology were applied to the Paxton site.

  8. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  9. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery. PMID:26356212

  10. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

  11. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  12. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  13. Drag drill bit having improved arrangement of cutting elements

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, J.D.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a rotary drill bit of the drag type for drilling a bore hole in an earth formation. The generally cylindrical bit body having a fluid passage therein adapted to be connected to a drill string for rotation therewith about a longitudinal axis and to receive drilling fluid from the drillstring; blades on the bit body extending in a generally spiral pattern from adjacent the center of the bit body to the outer periphery thereof and separated from each other by deep groves; each blade having a curved leading side with respect to the direction of rotation extending generally to the outer periphery of the generally cylindrical bit body, a curved trailing side spaced from the leading side, and an outer surface connecting the leading and trailing sides to define the lower surface and crown of the bit body. The surface providing a relatively long length mounting area thereon for cutting elements.

  14. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  15. Pump down wipe plug and cementing/drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.A.

    1980-02-26

    An improved pump down wipe plug has at least one tooth protruding from its bottom surface capable of engaging, denting and penetrating the surface on which the plug comes in contact within the well. An improved process of cementing and drilling through a plug comprises inserting a pump down wipe plug having at least one tooth protruding from its bottom surface at the interface of wet cement and another fluid within the well, pumping the wet cement and the plug into position so that the tooth engages, dents and penetrates the surface below it, then when the cement has set, lowering a drill bit onto the plug and drilling the plug, the tooth or teeth retarding the tendency of the plug to rotate over the surface with which it is in contact thereby enhancing the drilling action of the drilling bit.

  16. Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, Jason

    2010-01-31

    Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

  17. Self-balancing drilling assembly and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Beynet, P.A.; Brett, J.F.; Warren, T.M.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a self-balancing apparatus for automatically compensating certain imbalances which tend to cause vibrations in a rotating drill bit. It comprises: a support body including two ends and first and second circular races defined circumferentially around said support body. The first race disposed near one end of said support body and said second race disposed nearer the other end of said support body; a fluid received in said first race; a fluid received in said second race; pressure compensating means for compensating for pressure differentials between said fluids and a fluid external to said support body; a first plurality of movable balls or rollers disposed in said first race; a second plurality of movable balls or rollers disposed in said second race; a first sleeve receiving the portion of said support body where said first race is defined; and a second sleeve receiving the portion of said support body where said second race is defined.

  18. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  19. Damaged beyond repair? Characterising the damage zone of a fault late in its interseismic cycle, the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jack N.; Toy, Virginia G.; Massiot, Cécile; McNamara, David D.; Wang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of drill-core, recovered from the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) through New Zealand's Alpine Fault, provide an excellent opportunity to study the damage zone of a plate-bounding continental scale fault, late in its interseismic cycle. Documentation of the intermediate-macro scale damage zone structures observed in the CT images show that there is no increase in the density of these structures towards the fault's principal slip zones (PSZs), at least within the interval sampled, which is 30 m above and below the PSZs. This is in agreement with independent analysis using borehole televiewer data. Instead, we conclude the density of damage zone structures to correspond to lithology. We find that 72% of fractures are fully healed, by a combination of clays, calcite and quartz, with an additional 24% partially healed. This fracture healing is consistent with the Alpine Fault's late interseismic state, and the fact that the interval of damage zone sampled coincides with an alteration zone, an interval of extensive fluid-rock interaction. These fractures do not impose a reduction of P-wave velocity, as measured by wireline methods. Outside the alteration zone there is indirect evidence of less extensive fracture healing.

  20. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  1. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 2902.41 Section 2902.41... Items § 2902.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide cooling... operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids for...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 2902.41 Section 2902.41... Items § 2902.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide cooling... operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids for...

  3. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  4. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  5. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  6. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  7. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  8. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the

  9. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  10. Hydrogeologic Testing During Drilling of COSC-1 Borehole: Application of FFEC Logging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Niemi, Auli; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrogeologic testing during the drilling period. The only time hydraulic testing is done during the drilling operations is when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid representing encountering of a large-transmissivity zone. Then, either the zone is cemented for drilling to continue or drilling is stopped for conducting, for example, a drill-stem test (DST), which involves installation of a packer above the drilling depth and performing a pressure or flow transient test. The first alternative means loss of critical information on in-situ hydraulic transmissivities and the second option enables the study of only the one high-transmissivity zone, with a significant delay of the drilling schedule. The drilling of the COSC-1 borehole at Åre, Northern Sweden, presented an opportunity of conducting a particular hydraulic testing with negligible impact on drilling schedule, yet providing important and accurate information on in-situ hydraulic conductivities on both high- and low-transmissivity zones, already during the drilling period. This information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling programs and future detailed borehole testing. The particular testing method used is the Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity (FFEC) Logging Method, which has the capability of identifying large and small hydraulically active zones and providing data for estimating their transmissivity values and local formation water salinity. In this paper, the method will be described and its application to the drilling of COSC-1 borehole presented. Results show that from 300 m to the borehole bottom at 2500 m, there are eight hydraulic active zones in COSC-1, with very low transmissivity values which range over one order of magnitude.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of Drilling of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbilir, Ozden; Ghassemieh, Elaheh

    2012-06-01

    Despite the increased applications of the composite materials in aerospace due to their exceptional physical and mechanical properties, the machining of composites remains a challenge. Fibre reinforced laminated composites are prone to different damages during machining process such as delamination, fibre pull-out, microcracks, thermal damages. Optimization of the drilling process parameters can reduces the probability of these damages. In the current research, a 3D finite element (FE) model is developed of the process of drilling in the carbon fibre reinforced composite (CFC). The FE model is used to investigate the effects of cutting speed and feed rate on thrust force, torque and delamination in the drilling of carbon fiber reinforced laminated composite. A mesoscale FE model taking into account of the different oriented plies and interfaces has been proposed to predict different damage modes in the plies and delamination. For validation purposes, experimental drilling tests have been performed and compared to the results of the finite element analysis. Using Matlab a digital image analysis code has been developed to assess the delamination factor produced in CFC as a result of drilling.

  12. Application of Formation Testing While Drilling (GeoTap) for acquiring formation pressure data from the Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    time. The GeoTap tester obtains direct pore-pressure measurements as the well is being drilled, with accuracy and precision comparable to that of wireline testers. The GeoTap service can eliminate the time, risk, and cost associated with running pipe-conveyed wireline test tools. It also measures annular and bore pressure while drilling, providing accurate, continuous, real-time hydrostatic pressure, and equivalent circulating density (ECD) information. This aids in determining and maintaining optimal mud weight, reduces formation damage, increases the rate of penetration, and increases operational safety. GeoTap benefits can be improvement of formation evaluation, real-time fluid gradients and fluid mobility (permeability/viscosity indicator), identification of fluid contact points, determination of reservoir connectivity/compartmentalization and depletion, increase safety of operation, determination of optimal mud weight and manage of ECD. We can also continuously monitor wellbore stability for assessments in order to reduce formation damage which in turns will help to increase drilling effectiveness (determine precise overbalance for maximizing ROP and continuously monitor hole-cleaning effectiveness with pressure-while-drilling, while reducing formation damage due to swab/surge). Save time and money by reducing rig down time associated with wireline testing. GeoTap Tool capable of performing more than 150 pressure tests per run and optional orientation of pressure measurement is available (top, right, bottom or left). GeoTap testing has been completed with encouraging results in many wells up to circa 3000m deep. Data has been acquired successfully both in a "Drill-Test-Drill' mode and a "Post-Drill-Test" mode. GeoTap tests have spanned wide ranges of borehole temperature, pressure, mobility as well as formation permeability and overbalance conditions. GeoTap tests in Azeri, Chirag and Guneshli wells which were drilled in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan

  13. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  15. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  16. Drill Press Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic machine shop I. (The course is based on the entry level of the drill press operator.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  17. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  19. Toxicity assessment of individual ingredients of synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs).

    PubMed

    Bakhtyar, Sajida; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) offer excellent technical characteristics while providing improved environmental performance over other drilling muds. The low acute toxicity and high biodegradability of SBMs suggest their discharge at sea would cause minimal impacts on marine ecosystems, however, chronic toxicity testing has demonstrated adverse effects of SBMs on fish health. Sparse environmental monitoring data indicate effects of SBMs on bottom invertebrates. However, no environmental toxicity assessment has been performed on fish attracted to the cutting piles. SBM formulations are mostly composed of synthetic base oils, weighting agents, and drilling additives such as emulsifiers, fluid loss agents, wetting agents, and brine. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to individual ingredients of SBMs on fish health. To do so, a suite of biomarkers [ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, biliary metabolites, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, DNA damage, and heat shock protein] have been measured in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) exposed for 21 days to individual ingredients of SBMs. The primary emulsifier (Emul S50) followed by the fluid loss agent (LSL 50) caused the strongest biochemical responses in fish. The synthetic base oil (Rheosyn) caused the least response in juvenile fish. The results suggest that the impact of Syndrill 80:20 on fish health might be reduced by replacement of the primary emulsifier Emul S50 with an alternative ingredient of less toxicity to aquatic biota. The research provides a basis for improving the environmental performance of SBMs by reducing the environmental risk of their discharge and providing environmental managers with information regarding the potential toxicity of individual ingredients. PMID:21928151

  20. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  1. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    about 30 days. Several other Sandia instruments being developed for geothermal drilling are also being evaluated during this operation, Successful performance of these instruments on this important drilling job will reinforce our efforts to commercialize this technology for the geothermal and oil and gas drilling industries. Sandia's Rolling Float Meter was developed through the Lost Circulation Technology Program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. It monitors drilling fluid returns to rapidly detect loss of circulation during geothermal drilling. Lost circulation is particularly prevalent in geothermal wells, and can add as much as 10% to the total cost of drilling the well. Consequently, rapid detection and treatment of lost circulation is necessary for cost- effective geothermal drilling. Sandia has been evaluating and demonstrating the capabilities of the RFM to the geothermal industry for several years. In addition to lost circulation, the RFM is also useful for accurately detecting well kicks. Contacts have been made with mud logging companies that are involved with both geothermal and oil and gas drilling operations.

  2. CHIP MORPHOLOGY AND HOLE SURFACE TEXTURE IN THE DRILLING OF CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS. (R825370C057)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cutting fluid and other process variables on chip morphology when drilling cast aluminium alloys are investigated. The effects of workpiece material, speed, feed, hole depth, cutting-fluid presence and percentage oil concentration, workpiece temperature, drill t...

  3. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  4. The rock melting approach to drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

    1993-09-01

    During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

  5. Laser Oil and Gas Well Drilling Demonstration Videos

    DOE Data Explorer

    ANL's Laser Applications Laboratory and collaborators are examining the feasibility of adapting high-power laser technology to drilling for gas and oil. The initial phase is designed to establish a scientific basis for developing a commercial laser drilling system and determine the level of gas industry interest in pursuing future research. Using lasers to bore a hole offers an entirely new approach to mechanical drilling. The novel drilling system would transfer light energy from lasers on the surface, down a borehole by a fiber optic bundle, to a series of lenses that would direct the laser light to the rock face. Researchers believe that state-of-the-art lasers have the potential to penetrate rock many times faster than conventional boring technologies - a huge benefit in reducing the high costs of operating a drill rig. Because the laser head does not contact the rock, there is no need to stop drilling to replace a mechanical bit. Moreover, researchers believe that lasers have the ability to melt the rock in a way that creates a ceramic sheath in the wellbore, eliminating the expense of buying and setting steel well casing. A laser system could also contain a variety of downhole sensors, including visual imaging systems that could communicate with the surface through the fiber optic cabling. Earlier studies have been promising, but there is still much to learn. One of the primary objectives of the new study will be to obtain much more precise measurements of the energy requirements needed to transmit light from surface lasers down a borehole with enough power to bore through rocks as much as 20,000 feet or more below the surface. Another objective will be to determine if sending the laser light in sharp pulses, rather than as a continuous stream, could further increase the rate of rock penetration. A third aspect will be to determine if lasers can be used in the presence of drilling fluids. In most wells, thick fluids called "drilling muds" are injected into

  6. Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-03-01

    Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

  7. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; McCallister, J.V.; Mazza, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Belden & Blake and the US DOE will cofund a horizontal well to be drilled in the Clinton Sandstone as part of the DOE`s multi well program titled ``Horizontal Drilling in Shallow Geologic Complex Reservoirs.`` This well will be located in Mahoning County, Ohio in an area which has demonstrated above average Clinton gas production. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first horizontal well drilled to the Clinton Sand formation in Ohio. Since many of the remaining Clinton Sand drilling sites are of poorer reservoir quality, they may not be developed unless technology such as horizontal drilling can be successfully demonstrated.

  8. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  11. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  18. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  19. Microbiological Profiles of Deep Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks Revealed by an Aseptic Drilling Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Suko, T.; Fukuda, A.; Kouduka, M.; Nanba, K.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.

    2009-12-01

    Unlike the near-surface environments, it is difficult to determine the community structure and biogeochemical functions of microorganisms in the deep subsurface mainly due to accessibility without contamination and disturbance. In an inland fore-arc basin in central Japan, we applied a new drilling procedure using deoxygenated and/or filter-sterilized drilling fluid(s). Although DNA-stained and cultivable cell numbers and the contents of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) all indicated the presence of metabolically active microbial populations in sedimentary rocks at a depth range from 200 to 350 m, it was not successful to extract DNA from the drilled core samples. During drilling, drilling fluid used for drilling and coring in the borehole was collected from the borehole bottom and subjected to DNA extraction. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR revealed that bacterial DNA were detected in drilling fluid samples when drilling was performed for siltstone and silty sandstone layers with the limited flow of drilling fluid. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the drilling fluid samples below a depth of 324 m were mostly related to Pseudomonas putida or Flavobacterium succinicans, while those related to other Pseudomonas spp. were predominant at depths of 298 and 299m. PLFA profiles of core samples from a depth range between 250 and 351 m showed the abundance of 16:0, 16:1ω7 and 18:1ω9 fatty acids, which are known as major cellular lipid components of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium spp. From these results, it was suggested that the members of the genera Pseudomonas and F. succinicans might represent dominant microbial populations that inhabit the deep terrestrial sedimentary rocks in Central Japan. This study was supported by grants from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES).

  20. A dynamic model for underbalanced drilling with coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Rommetveit, R.; Vefring, E.H.; Wang, Z.; Bieseman, T.; Faure, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    A model for underbalanced drilling with coiled tubing has been developed which takes into account all important factors contributing to the process. This model is a unique tool to plan and execute underbalanced or near balance drilling operations. It is a transient, one-dimensional multi-phase flow model with the following components: Lift gas system model, multiphase hydraulics model, reservoir-wellbore interaction model, drilling model, models for multiphase fluids (lift gas, produced gas, mud, foam, produced gas, oil, water and cuttings). Various alternative geometries for gas injection are modeled as well as all important operations during underbalanced drilling with coiled tubing. The model as well as some simulation results for its use are presented in this paper.

  1. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  2. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  3. Horizontal drilling spurs optimism

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1991-02-01

    1990 proved to be an exciting year for horizontal wells. This budding procedure appears to be heading for the mainstream oil and gas market, because it can more efficiently recover hydrocarbons from many reservoirs throughout the world. This paper reports on an estimated 1,000 wells that were drilled horizontally (all laterals) in 1990, with the Austin Chalk formation of Texas accounting for about 65% of all world activity. The Bakken Shale play in Montana and North Dakota proved to be the second most active area, with an estimated 90 wells drilled. Many operators in this play have indicated the bloom may be off the Bakken because of poor results outside the nose of the formation, further complicated by some of the harshest rock, reservoir and completion problems posed to horizontal technology.

  4. Blasthole drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, C.

    2006-09-15

    Drilling in Appalachian coal overburdens presents challenges to conventional tricone bit operations due to the high rates of advance. In 2005, design engineers Atlas Copco BHMT (formerly Baker Hughes Mining Tools) began creating and testing a new lug design for bits used in these coalfields. The design was aided by use of computational flow dynamics. The article describes the design development and testing. Average footage drilled per bit by the new streamlined lug increased an average of 32.3% at Coal Mine No. 1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2 over the standard lug previously used. Average bit life increased by 32.3% at Coal Mine No.1 and 34.5% at Coal Mine No. 2. 3 figs., 2 photos.

  5. Deep water drilling risers in calm and harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Olufsen, A.; Nordsve, N.T.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of the work presented in this paper is to increase the knowledge regarding application of deep water drilling risers in different environmental conditions. Identification of key parameters and their impact on design and operation of deep water drilling risers are emphasized. Riser systems for two different cases are evaluated. These are: drilling offshore Nigeria in 1,200 m water depth; drilling at the Voering Plateau offshore Northern Norway in 1,500 m water depth. The case studies are mainly referring to requirements related to normal drilling operation of the riser. They are not complete with respect to describe of total riser system design. The objectives of the case studies have been to quantify the important of various parameters and to establish limiting criteria for drilling. Dynamic riser analyses are also performed. For the Nigeria case, results for a design wave with 100 years return period show that the influence of dynamic response is only marginal (but it may of course be significant for fatigue damage/life time estimation). The regularity of the drilling operation is given as the probability that jointly occurring wave heights and current velocities are within the limiting curve.

  6. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    side tracking applications. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of laser perforation on multiple samples of rock, cement and steel. The fiber laser was capable of penetrating these materials under a variety of conditions, to an appropriate depth, and with reasonable energy requirements. It was determined that fiber lasers are capable of cutting rock without causing damage to flow properties. Furthermore, the laser perforation resulted in permeability improvements on the exposed rock surface. This report has been prepared in two parts and each part may be treated as a stand-alone document. Part 1 (High Energy Laser Drilling) includes the general description of the concept and focuses on results from experiments under the ambient lab conditions. Part 2 (High Energy Laser Perforation and Completion Techniques) discusses the design and development of a customized laser pressure cell; experimental design and procedures, and the resulting data on pressure-charged samples exposed to the laser beam. An analysis provides the resulting effect of downhole pressure conditions on the laser/rock interaction process.

  7. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  8. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  9. Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

  10. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  11. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  12. 7 CFR 3201.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 3201.41 Section 3201.41... Designated Items § 3201.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide... metalworking operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 3201.41 Section 3201.41... Designated Items § 3201.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide... metalworking operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 3201.41 Section 3201.41... Designated Items § 3201.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide... metalworking operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking...

  15. The integrated method to select drilling muds for well construction in difficult geological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Y.; Boyko, I. A.; Rakhimov, T. R.; Pandey Kumar, Sushil

    2016-03-01

    The article is concerned with the integrated approach to choose drilling mud composition for pay horizons penetration. An optimal choice of drilling mud composition would not only mean ensuring basic fluid properties, but also should minimize the impact on the pay zones when penetrating the pay horizons for the first time. To carry out better assessment of drilling mud impact on pay horizons, it is reasonable to study both technological parameters and filtration analyses, which would allow us to estimate the level of drilling mud impact on the pay horizon.

  16. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  17. Apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Dahlgren, Scott; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

  18. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  19. How do jet time, pressure and bone volume fraction influence the drilling depth when waterjet drilling in porcine bone?

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, Steven; Dankelman, Jenny; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M

    2016-09-01

    Using water jets for orthopedic procedures that require bone drilling can be beneficial due to the absence of thermal damage and the always sharp cut. Previously, the influence of the water jet diameter and bone architectural properties on the drilling depth have been determined. To develop water jet instruments that can safely drill in orthopedic surgery, the impact of the two remaining primary factors were determined: the jet time (tjet [s]) and pressure (P [MPa]). To this end, 84 holes were drilled in porcine tali and femora with water jets using Ø 0.4mm nozzle. tjet was varied between 1, 3 and 5s and P between 50 and 70MPa. Drilling depths Lhole (mm), diameters Dhole (mm) and the volume of mineralized bone per unit volume (BV/TV) were determined with microCT scans. A non-linear regression analysis resulted in the predictive equation: Lhole= 0.22 * tjet(0.18) * (1.2-BV/TV) * (P-29) (R(2)=0.904). The established relation between the machine settings and drilling depth allows surgeons to adjust jet time and pressure for the patient׳s BV/TV to drill holes at a predetermined depth. For developers, the relation allows design decisions to be made that influence the dimensions, flexibility and accuracy of water jet instruments. For a pressure of 50MPa, the potential hole depth spread indicated by the 95% confidence interval is <1.6mm for all tested jet times. This maximum variance is smaller than the accuracy required for bone debridement treatments (2-4mm deep), which confirms that water jet drilling can be applied in orthopedic surgery to drill holes in bone with controlled depth. PMID:27288662

  20. An innovative drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

    1991-05-01

    The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Spreading and deposition of drill cuttings in the Barents Sea - Plans of the Barents Sea drill cuttings research initiative (BARCUT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, Juho; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    The increasing petroleum exploration activity in the Barents Sea will lead to increased release of drill cuttings onto the ocean bottom in the future. Drilling mud consists of both drilling fluid with contaminants and fine sediments. This increasing discharge of drill cuttings provides a need for further knowledge of ocean current transportation of both contaminants and fine sediment particles (clay and silt), their impact on microfauna and the prediction of their accumulation areas. The main object is to study the current status of the sediments and microfauna exposed to different types of drill cuttings in the proximity of drilled exploration wells. Detailed objectives are: 1) To identify the main physical and geochemical characteristics of the sediments near the drilled wells including main areas for drill cutting accumulation and the influence of ocean currents on sediments and drill cuttings; 2) To identify the influence of drill cutting discharge on benthic foraminifera; 3) Monitoring and prediction of future spreading, accumulation and distribution of drill cutting related pollutants. We have conducted two field sampling campaigns, and in total visited seven drilling sites, ranging in age from recently drilled (in 2015) to nearly 30 years since abandonment. In this project, we study mainly push cores taken with a remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in the close proximity of exploration wells in the SW Barents Sea. We will determine the modern sedimentation rates based on the ²¹°Pb dating method. We analyze sediment grain-size, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Additionally analysis on benthic foraminifera, smectite clay minerals and the total organic carbon (TOC) content will be performed.

  2. Portable rapid and quiet drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

  3. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D.; Mazza, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden & Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.

  4. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D.; Mazza, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.

  5. The thermal spallation drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Holes can be produced in very hard rock more easily and less expensively by thermal spallation than by conventional means. This drilling process has been used for producing blast holes in the taconite iron mines and for quarrying granite. It is potentially valuable for drilling holes in very hard rock for the exploitation of geothermal energy and the storage of various commodities. However, investigation and development of the thermal spallation drilling process is proceeding slowly.

  6. Precision Drilling Of Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, Jaroslav

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the features of the precision drilling of sugar beet, methods of measurements, mathematical relations, procedure and results. The use of a high-speed camera and of a computer with an investigation of the drilling mechanisms enabled to achieve the shortening of the procedure by one half, an accurate assessment of the principles of drilling mechanisms without implication of other influences arising in field tests and the availability of more data for decision making. The result of the experiments was a considerably simpler assessment of the principles of drill mechanisms.

  7. Lunar drill and test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

  8. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  9. Aerodynamic window for high precision laser drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Steffen; Dausinger, Friedrich; Berger, Peter; Hügel, Helmuth

    2007-05-01

    High precision laser drilling is getting more and more interesting for industry. Main applications for such holes are vaporising and injection nozzles. To enhance quality, the energy deposition has to be accurately defined by reducing the pulse duration and thereby reducing the amount of disturbing melting layer. In addition, an appropriate processing technology, for example the helical drilling, yields holes in steel at 1 mm thickness and diameters about 100 μm with correct roundness and thin recast layers. However, the processing times are still not short enough for industrial use. Experiments have shown that the reduction of the atmospheric pressure down to 100 hPa enhances the achievable quality and efficiency, but the use of vacuum chambers in industrial processes is normally quite slow and thus expensive. The possibility of a very fast evacuation is given by the use of an aerodynamic window, which produces the pressure reduction by virtue of its fluid dynamic features. This element, based on a potential vortex, was developed and patented as out-coupling window for high power CO II lasers by IFSW 1, 2, 3. It has excellent tightness and transmission properties, and a beam deflection is not detectable. The working medium is compressed air, only. For the use as vacuum element for laser drilling, several geometrical modifications had to be realized. The prototype is small enough to be integrated in a micromachining station and has a low gas flow. During the laser pulse, which is focussed through the potential flow, a very high fluence is reached, but the measurements have not shown any beam deflection or focal shifting. The evacuation time is below 300 ms so that material treatment with changing ambient pressure is possible, too. Experimental results have proven the positive effect of the reduced ambient pressure on the drilling process for the regime of nano- and picosecond laser pulses. Plasma effects are reduced and, because of the less absorption, the

  10. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

  11. How offshore arctic conditions affect drilling mud disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; Britch, R.P.; Hillman, S.O.; Shafer, R.V.

    1982-12-01

    Reports on a series of studies and tests, covering a time period from early 1979 to mid-1981, conducted to examine both below-ice and above-ice discharge. Local, state, and federal concern has been expressed over the discharge of drilling effluent in shallow arctic seas contiguous to the northern coast of Alaska. The 1979 studies included monitoring environmental boundary conditions, test discharges of drilling effluents above and below the ice, analysis of drilling effluents, benthic studies, and toxicity testing. Studies in 1980 and 1981 included grain size, trace metal, and hydrocarbon analysis of drilling effluents and seafloor sediments, depositional monitoring, and photographic monitoring of individual aboveice sites. Results show that the fate of drilling fluids disposed of on top of the ice will vary with location within the lease area. Drilling effluents discharged in nearshore areas subject to overflow flooding from major rivers would be widely dispersed during the initial stages of breakup. Depending on the movement of the parent ice sheet during the later stages of breakup, solids may either be deposited on the seafloor beneath the disposal site or be carried with the broken ice sheet and be widely (spatially) and thinly deposited on the seafloor.

  12. Drill stem steels for use in geothermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1980-01-01

    Steels which are used in drill stem for conventional drilling have been selected primarily to satisfy certain static strength requirements and cost considerations. As the environments in which drilling is performed become more severe (e.g., in geothermal fluids) additional considerations must be given to the design of alloys which are resistant to general corrosion, stress corrosion, and corrosion fatigue. General design considerations for steel alloys which should provide an enhanced resistance to geothermal drilling operations are presented. These considerations include discussion of the chemistry and metallurgical substructure, and how their variation affects the mechanical and corrosion properties of steel used for drill stem applications. A duplex ferritic-martensitic steel has an advantageous combination of compositional and microstructural features which should lead to improved chemical resistance (particularly to hydrogen sulfide) as well as provide a good combination of strength and toughness properties. This duplex steel is based on the iron-2.0 weight percent silicon-0.1 weight percent carbon system, and offers the potential of enhanced performance in geothermal drilling as well as low alloy cost.

  13. Triggering of the Lusi mud eruption: Earthquake versus drilling initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, Mark; Heidbach, Oliver; Davies, Richard; Swarbrick, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Lusi mud volcano in East Java has erupted unabated for almost2 yr, flooding an area of 7 km2 and displacing more than 25,000people. Despite its disastrous impact, the mechanism for triggeringthe Lusi eruption remains highly controversial; two distinctmechanisms have been proposed. One hypothesis suggests thatthe eruption was triggered by the Mw 6.3 earth-quake that struckYogyakarta (250 km from Lusi) two days before the eruption.However, an examination of static and dynamic stress changesand stress transfer mechanisms indicates that the Yogyakartaearthquake was at least an order of magnitude too small to reactivatefaults and open fluid flow pathways under Lusi. An alternatetheory suggests that Lusi was triggered by a blowout followingdrilling problems in the nearby Banjar Panji-1 well. Blowoutsresult from an inability to control pore fluid intakes intothe borehole and typically occur when the drilling window (fracturepressure minus pore pressure) is approximately zero and whenthere is insufficient protective casing of the well bore. Poreand fracture pressure data from Banjar Panji-1 indicate thatthe well had a narrow drilling window of only 0-2.3 MPa.Furthermore, two planned casing points were skipped during drilling,resulting in 1742 m of unprotected borehole. The combinationof hazardously narrow drilling window and long uncased boreholewould have made drilling problems in Banjar Panji-1 difficultto control, placing the well at high risk of blowing out. Furthermore,well-bore pressures following drilling problems in Banjar Panji-1reached magnitudes in excess of the fracture pressure and thuswere sufficient to create fluid flow pathways in the subsurface.Therefore, we suggest that no viable method is known by whichthe Yogyakarta earthquake could have triggered the mudflow andthat a blowout in the Banjar Panji-1 well was the most likelymechanism for triggering the Lusi eruption.

  14. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...