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Sample records for drinking behavior

  1. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  2. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01). Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25511723

  3. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

  4. Executive cognitive function and heavy drinking behavior among college students.

    PubMed

    Blume, A W; Marlatt, G A; Schmaling, K B

    2000-09-01

    Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) seem important for motivating change and self-regulation of problem drinking. Evidence for executive cognitive deficits have been found among heavy-drinking college students. Although college students who abuse alcohol often experience a variety of negative consequences related to their drinking behavior, executive cognitive dysfunction may interfere with recognizing consequences and responding skillfully to avoid future harm. Fifty college students with drinking problems completed assessments of ECFs. Greater negative drinking consequences and short-term memory function significantly predicted greater awareness of drinking problems. ECF may be an important factor for motivation to change drinking behavior among college students. PMID:10998956

  5. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:24841178

  6. Collegiate Drinking Behavior: A Test of Neutralization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodder, Richard; Hughes, Stella P.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed drinking patterns and problem-related behavior of 534 college students. Modified Norris-Dodder Neutralization Scale for juvenile delinquency to measure orientations toward drinking. Results indicated that greater acceptance of neutralizations related consistently to greater quantity and frequency of drinking as well as to more…

  7. Protective behavioral strategy use and motivations for drinking: exploring Alternatives to Drinking strategies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ashley N; Kite, Benjamin A; Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M

    2014-02-01

    Protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored coping or conformity motives (i.e., negative motives) in relation to PBS. Consequently, the present study aimed to (1) identify the types of PBS most strongly associated with negative and positive motives and (2) examine different types of PBS as mediators of the relationship between each drinking motive and alcohol outcomes. Participants were college students (n=303; 70% women) who completed measures of drinking motives, PBS, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that greater endorsement of positive drinking motives were more strongly associated with less frequent use of PBS while drinking whereas negative motives were more strongly related to less frequent Alternatives to Drinking strategy use. Further, strategies used while drinking were more relevant in a model of positive drinking motives and Alternatives to Drinking strategies were more relevant in a model of negative motives. These findings may suggest that whereas individuals with stronger positive motives have difficulty using strategies while drinking, individuals who drink to cope or conform have greater difficulty utilizing Alternatives to Drinking strategies. Based on our results demonstrating that different types of PBS are more relevant for various types of drinkers, it may be important for future interventions to discuss not only the participant's PBS use but also their motivations for consuming alcohol. PMID:24229844

  8. Sexual Assault, Drinking Norms, and Drinking Behavior among a National Sample of Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Granato, Hollie F.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) are strongly associated with women’s alcohol use and the rates of both alcohol use and sexual assault history are higher among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women. Although descriptive drinking norms are one of the highest predictors of alcohol use in emerging adults, this is the first study to examine the relationship between sexual assault history, drinking norms, and alcohol use in lesbian and bisexual women. We found that CSA severity was associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing more severe alcohol-involved ASA, more severe physically forced ASA, and was indirectly associated with more drinking behavior and higher drinking norms. Additionally, more severe alcohol-involved ASA was associated with higher drinking norms and more drinking behavior, but physically forced ASA was not. These findings help explain previous contradictory findings and provide information for interventions. PMID:24360780

  9. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  10. Young adult veteran perceptions of peers' drinking behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-02-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  11. Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of Incoming Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah H.; Sedlacek, William E.

    An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…

  12. The Influence of Alcohol Advertising on Students' Drinking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Peggy J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perceived influence of alcohol advertising in a daily campus newspaper on the drinking behaviors of students. Findings indicated that college students do perceive that their drinking patterns are influenced by alcohol promotions in the campus newspaper and, furthermore, that self-identified binge drinkers were influenced significantly…

  13. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. PMID:24169372

  14. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  15. Addiction, Drinking Behavior, and Driving Under the Influence

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Frank A.; Chepke, Lindsey M.; Davis, Dontrell V.

    2012-01-01

    Using a survey of drinkers (N=1,634), we evaluated alternative explanations of heavy and binge drinking, driving under the influence (DUI), DUI arrests, speeding citations, and chargeable accidents. Explanations included socializing, short-term decision-making, unrealistic optimism, risk preferring behavior, and addiction. Most consistent relationships were between substance use and alcohol addiction and dependent variables for (1) binge drinking and (2) DUI episodes. Respondent characteristics (age, marital and employment status, race) had important roles for DUI arrests. Drinker-drivers and those arrested for DUI are partially overlapping groups with implications for treatment and policies detecting and incapacitating persons from drinking and driving. PMID:24304171

  16. Interactive Effects within the Prototype Willingness Model: Predicting the Drinking Behavior of Indigenous Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Brian E.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Gentzler, Kari C.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Prototype/Willingness Model of Adolescent Risk Behavior we used longitudinal data collected from North American Indigenous early adolescents (ages 10–12 years) to examine the interactive effects of favorable drinker prototypes, perceived drinking norms, and past year drinking behavior on subsequent drinking behavior (i.e., drinking behavior 1 year later and growth in drinking behavior from 1–5 years later). We found that the positive association between favorable drinker prototypes and drinking one year later was strongest for adolescents who were high in past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The interaction pattern for growth in drinking was more complex and suggested an important pattern; specifically, favorable drinker prototypes were positively associated with drinking five years later, but only for adolescents who reported no past year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26999351

  17. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  18. An Examination of Risky Drinking Behaviors and Motivations for Alcohol Use in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Brynn E.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined (1) drinking motives as a mediator of risky drinking behaviors (ie, pregaming and drinking games) and alcohol-related problems and (2) whether gender moderates the association between risky drinking behaviors and negative consequences. Participants: Participants ("N" = 368; 68% female) were drinkers…

  19. The chemical nature of the hypothalamocortical activation underlying drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Batuev, A S; Gafurov, B G

    1993-01-01

    The injection of cholinergic substances (carbocholine, carbathin [karbatin], acetylcholine) into the lateral field of the hypothalamus of cats is accompanied by the appearance in the electrohypothalamogram of characteristic hypersynchronized activity and drinking behavior. The swallowing of water temporarily stops the hypersynchronized activity; the injection of adrenaline into the hypothalamus elicits the same effect. The injection of the same cholinergic preparations into the posterior sigmoid gyrus of the cerebral cortex is accompanied by similar, but less pronounced bioelectrical and behavioral effects. The presentation of a closed drink dispenser containing water to the animals against the background of cholinergic activation of the hypothalamus or cortex leads to desynchronization of the bioelectrical activity and suppression of the bursts of hypersynchronized activity. The drinking behavior of cats which appears on the basis of centrally created thirst motivation reflects the activity of a primary dominant focus in the hypothalamus and of a secondary dominant focus in the sensorimotor cortex. These foci are cholinergic in nature. The cessation of the drinking behavior may be related to the activation of adrenergic mechanisms of the same brain structures. PMID:8464543

  20. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  1. Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Behaviors among College Students with Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Christina C.; Curry, John F.; Looney, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. Participants: The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent…

  2. Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use Behaviors among African American College Students: The Mediating Role of Protective Behavioral Strategies.

    PubMed

    Madson, Michael B; Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2015-01-01

    Drinking motives are robust predictors of alcohol use behaviors among college students. However, less is known about the link between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors among African American college students. This study explored the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors in a sample of 215 African American college students. The study also assessed whether protective behavioral strategies mediated the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors. A direct relationship emerged between enhancement motives and alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. Protective behavioral strategies mediated each of these relationships. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:25984955

  3. Alcohol drinking behaviors among Turkish high school students.

    PubMed

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Erginöz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioral patterns and correlates of regular alcohol drinking in high school students. This cross-sectional study involved the completion of a modified version of "Health Behavior in School Age Children" (HBSC 1997/1998) questionnaire by 4,153 grade 9-11 students from 26 randomly selected high schools in Istanbul. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation test and forward stepwise multiple logistic regression model were used for statistical analyses as appropriate. Overall, 61% of students were experimental drinkers, and 46% of the students were current drinkers. There was a significant difference between female and male students with respect to reporting current alcohol drinking at grade 9 and 11 (p > 0.05 for each comparison). Regular drinking was reported by 6% of students. Male students were more likely than female students to report regular drinking at each grade (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Nineteen percent of the students reported that they had been really drunk at least once during their lifetime. Malestudents were more likely than female students to report an occasion of drunkenness at each grade (p < 0.05 for each comparison). All types of drinking behavior rates tended to increase across grades for both genders (p < 0.05 for each comparison). In logistic regression analysis the following were all independently associated with regular drinking: being in grade 11, smoking cigarettes currently, lifetime drug use, bullying others, being sexually active, playing computer games > or = 4 h/week, exercising < or = 1 h/week, spending > or = four evenings with friends, at ease in talking to same gender friends, tiredness in the morning, perceived as good-looking/beautiful, higher educational level of the mother and perceived poor academic achievement. The results of this study showed that alcohol consumption is prevalent among high school students. There is therefore a need for school-based alcohol prevention

  4. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  5. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of Young Adult Drink/Drivers Adjusted for Level of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Elliott, Michael R.; Shope, Jean T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption and drink/driving are positively correlated and many predictors of alcohol use also predict drink/driving. Past research has not fully distinguished the contributions of personal risk factors from the level of alcohol use in the prediction of drink/driving. As a result, the extent to which predictors are specific to drink/driving, versus due to a mutual association to alcohol use, is unclear. Methods This study examined the unique and shared risk factors for drink/driving and alcohol use, and examined the attributable risk (AR) associated with predictors of drink/driving while adjusting for alcohol use. Study data were from a telephone survey of 3,480 Michigan-licensed young adults who were drinkers. Four groups of drink/drivers were formed based on the prior 12-month maximum severity of drink/driving: (1) never drink/driving; (2) driving at least once within an hour of 1 or 2 drinks; (3) driving within an hour of 3 or more drinks or while feeling the effects of alcohol; and (4) drinking while driving. Results Lower perceived risk of drink/driving, greater social support for drinking and drink/driving, greater aggression and delinquency, more cigarette smoking, and more risky driving behaviors uniquely predicted drink/driving severity in models adjusted for alcohol use. The largest ARs were associated with social support for drinking and drink/driving and perceived risk of drink/driving. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol use and drink/driving share risk factors, but also indicate that part of the variation in these factors is specific to drink/driving. Implications for interventions to reduce drink/driving are discussed. PMID:17374045

  6. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  7. Anticipating Problem Drinking Risk from Preschoolers' Drinking Behavior: Evidence for a Common Delinquency-Related Diathesis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayzer. Roni; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A common diathesis model with precursive patterns of aggression and delinquent behavior from preschool onward is examined whether it anticipates early first drinking (EFD). It was found that EFD and delinquent behavior have a common diathesis that is evident before school entry. It is suggested that interventions should aim at dismantling the…

  8. Maternal Drinking and Risky Sexual Behavior in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers’ substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12–18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth. PMID:25156314

  9. A multimethod examination of negative behaviors during couples interactions and problem drinking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Cranford, James A

    2016-08-01

    Models of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are increasingly conceptualizing social and relationship factors as being critical to the understanding of problem drinking. Close relationships involving conflict have been a particular research focus, and partners' expressions of negative emotion are theorized to affect drinking among those with AUD. Although it has long been presumed that behaviors during couples interactions influence drinking-and this assumption has informed many modern treatments for AUD-this hypothesis has not been directly tested. We bring multiple methods to bear on this question, combining laboratory-based behavioral observation with a longitudinal design. Forty-eight individuals with AUD (probands), together with their partners, completed a laboratory-based conflict interaction. Their behavior was coded with the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System. Longitudinal follow-ups of drinking behaviors were completed at 6 and 12 months. Results showed that, above and beyond the proband's own behaviors, partner negative behaviors moderated probands' drinking trajectories, with drinkers whose partners displayed higher levels of hostility at baseline reporting slower declines in frequency of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems over time and higher levels of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol problems at follow-up. Results emphasize the importance of considering close relationships in the study of AUD and further indicate the utility of combining multiple methods in alcohol research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362489

  10. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  11. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model to Predict High-Risk Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert E.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph; Jordan, Tim; Yingling, Faith

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the Integrated Behavioral Model's (IBM) utility in explaining high-risk drinking among college students. A total of 356 participants completed a four-page questionnaire based on the (IBM) theory and their drinking behavior. The results from a path analysis revealed three significant constructs (p<0.05) which predicted…

  12. Prediction of Abstinence, Controlled Drinking, and Heavy Drinking Outcomes Following Behavioral Self-Control Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Joyce, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Examined prognostic value of client characteristics for problem drinkers treated with an initial goal of controlled drinking. Clients achieving moderation had less severe symptoms and less family history of problem drinking than abstainers or uncontrolled cases. Females were more successful in attaining moderation. Males were overrepresented among…

  13. 21st Birthday Drinking and Associated Physical Consequences and Behavioral Risks

    PubMed Central

    Brister, Heather A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first birthday celebrations often involve dangerously high levels of alcohol consumption, yet little is known about risk factors for excessive drinking on this occasion. Participants (N = 150) from a larger prospective study who consumed at least one drink during their celebration completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews about their 21st birthday within four days after the event. Assessments were designed to characterize 21st birthday alcohol use, adjusted for alcohol content, as well as situational/contextual factors (e.g., celebration location, peer influence) that contribute to event-level drinking. Participants reported an average of 10.85 drinks (9.76 adjusted drinks), with experienced drinkers consuming significantly more than relatively naïve drinkers who had no previous binge or drunken episodes. Men consumed more drinks, whereas age of first drunken episode and heavier drinking during the 3-months preceding the 21st birthday predicted higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs) on the 21st birthday. Celebrating in bars and engaging in birthday-specific drinking traditions (free drinks at bars) explained additional variance in 21st birthday eBACs. Both physical consequences (e.g., blacking out or having a hangover) and behavioral risks (e.g., sexually provocative behaviors) were prevalent and were predicted by higher eBACs. Together these findings indicate that 21st birthday celebrations are associated with heavy drinking and a variety of physical consequences and behavioral risks. PMID:21895347

  14. The Impact of Alcohol-Specific Rules, Parental Norms about Early Drinking and Parental Alcohol Use on Adolescents' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim; Dekovic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents' drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which in turn prevents alcohol use by adolescent…

  15. Recent sexual victimization and drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students: a latent growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Melissa J; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    College matriculation is a time of developmental and social change and is often a time of heavy drinking. Sexual victimization (SV) is prevalent in late adolescence and poses additional risk for problem drinking behavior. Thus, matriculating students with a SV history may be at heightened risk for maladaptive alcohol use while transitioning through the first year of college. Furthermore, victimization that has occurred close to college matriculation may confer particular risk for problem alcohol use, because the added stressor of coping with a SV while negotiating the transition into college may lead to risky drinking behavior. Therefore, examining the influence of SV timing (i.e., recency) on drinking patterns in freshman year was the aim of the present study. Matriculating undergraduates with a history of SV were assessed at six points during freshman year. Using latent growth curve modeling, we tested differences in trajectories of drinking behavior (i.e., alcohol use, binge drinking) between students who reported a recent SV and those who reported a more distal SV. Students endorsing a recent SV evidenced greater overall levels of alcohol use and higher levels of binge drinking than individuals with SV that was less recent. Moreover, the recent SV group showed significantly more variability in drinking outcomes over freshman year, with escalations mapping onto more salient periods of transition over the first college year. SV that occurs close to college entry is associated with specific and persistent risk for maladaptive drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students. PMID:23528195

  16. A behavioral economic analysis of the effect of next-day responsibilities on drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lindsey J; Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 37% of college students report heavy episodic drinking (5 or more drinks in an occasion for men and 4 or more for women) in the past month. This pattern of drinking is often associated with high blood alcohol levels, accidents, injuries, and negative social and academic outcomes. There is a need for novel theoretical approaches to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral economics emphasizes the role of contextual determinants, such as drink price and the presence and amount of alternative reinforcement as determinants of drinking levels and has received strong empirical support in basic laboratory research. This translational research study used a hypothetical behavioral economic measure to investigate the impact of a variety of next-day responsibilities on night-before drinking intentions in a sample of first-year college students (N = 80; 50% female) who reported recent heavy episodic drinking. Drinking estimates were significantly lower in all of the responsibility conditions relative to the no-responsibility condition; internships were associated with the greatest reduction (d(rm) = 1.72), and earlier class times were associated with greater reductions in drinking intentions (d(rm) range = 1.22-1.35) than later class times (d(rm) range = 0.83-1.00). These results suggest that increasing morning responsibilities should be further investigated as a potential strategy to reduce drinking in college students. PMID:25402835

  17. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  18. Alcohol Expectancies and Context-Specific Drinking Behaviors among Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies have been associated with drinking behaviors among college students. Few studies, however, have focused on researcher-labeled ''positive'' and ''negative'' expectancies as well as the valuations (i.e., desirability) of these expectancies. Moreover, research on the correlates of heavy drinking among female college athletes…

  19. The Influence of Religiosity and Spirituality on Drinking Behaviors: Differences between Students Attending Two Southern Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Cox, William; Black, Anne; Muller, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students (n = 431) from two southern universities--one in the "buckle" of the Bible-belt, the other a southern "border" state--have different drinking behaviors depending on their religiosity and spirituality. Approximately 95% of students indicated that they had at least one drink of alcohol during…

  20. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  1. Significance of a Behavioral Economic Index of Reward Value in Predicting Drinking Problem Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Vuchinich, Rudy E.; Black, Bethany C.; Rippens, Paula D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons improved prediction of drinking outcomes beyond established biopsychosocial predictors. Preferences for immediate drinking versus more delayed rewards made possible by saving money were determined from expenditures prior to…

  2. Drinking group characteristics related to willingness to engage in protective behaviors with the group at nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B

    2016-03-01

    Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol and drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engage in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives of this study were to (a) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group and (b) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Nightclub patrons (N = 215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual- and group-level characteristics were measured in relation to willingness to intervene with peers. Mixed-model regressions were conducted, accounting for nesting by drinking group. Analyses show that participants were willing to intervene with their peers. Groups that knew each other well and had lower expectations for members' drinking were more willing to intervene. Women, younger, and older participants were also more willing to intervene. Findings show that club patrons are willing to intervene with their drinking groups to protect them from harmful consequences of heavy drinking and drug use. Findings indicate characteristics of both individuals and drinking groups that could be targeted in interventions among young adults largely not being reached by college interventions. PMID:26999349

  3. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  4. Association of solitary binge drinking and suicidal behavior among emerging adult college students.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2012-09-01

    Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than do students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking, emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N=182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly four times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it appears that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976

  5. Effects of Issue Involvement and Framing of a Responsible Drinking Message on Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Anneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the prevalence and the amount of alcohol consumption among students, health messages advocating responsible alcohol behavior can be used. However, it is unclear whether responsible drinking messages are most effective when they use a gain frame, presenting the advantages of responsible drinking, or a loss frame, presenting the disadvantages of irresponsible drinking. This study tests the effects of framing and the moderating role of involvement with the issue of responsible drinking. A three-wave, between-subjects, experimental study was conducted, in which participants (N = 90) were exposed to either a gain- or loss-framed message about responsible drinking behavior at Wave 2. At all three waves, attitudes, intentions and behavior toward responsible drinking were measured. Results showed that for participants with low issue- involvement, a gain frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a loss frame did not have any effects for them. For participants with high issue involvement, a loss frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a gain frame did not have an effect on attitude and only a delayed effect on intention. However, there were no effects of frame and issue involvement on adhering to the guideline of responsible alcohol use and average drinking behavior. PMID:26132603

  6. Protective Behaviors and High-Risk Drinking among Entering College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutfin, Erin L.; Light, Laney S.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Thompson, Martie P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Spitler, Hugh D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the use of protective behaviors to reduce risks associated with alcohol consumption among adolescents during the summer preceding college enrollment. Methods: Survey data were collected in fall 2006 and 2007 that assessed demographic characteristics, drinking behaviors, and use of protective behaviors in the 3 months…

  7. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. PMID:27194666

  8. Naltrexone and Combined Behavioral Intervention Effects on Trajectories of Drinking in the COMBINE study

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Donovan, Dennis; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Couper, David; Krystal, John H.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective COMBINE is the largest study of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism in the United States to date, designed to answer questions about the benefits of combining behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Trajectory-based analyses of daily drinking data allowed identification of distinct drinking trajectories in smaller studies and demonstrated significant naltrexone effects even when primary analyses on summary drinking measures were unsuccessful. The objective of this study was to replicate and refine trajectory estimation and to assess effects of naltrexone, acamprosate and therapy on the probabilities of following particular trajectories in COMBINE. It was hypothesized that different treatments may affect different trajectories of drinking. Methods We conducted exploratory analyses of daily indicators of any drinking and heavy drinking using a trajectory-based approach and assessed trajectory membership probabilities and odds ratios for treatment effects. Results We replicated the trajectories (“abstainer”, “sporadic drinker”, “consistent drinker”) established previously in smaller studies. However, greater numbers of trajectories better described the heterogeneity of drinking over time. Naltrexone reduced the chance to follow a “nearly daily” trajectory and Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI) reduced the chance to be in an “increasing to nearly daily” trajectory of any drinking. The combination of naltrexone and CBI increased the probability of membership in a trajectory in which the frequency of any drinking declined over time. Trajectory membership was associated with different patterns of treatment compliance. Conclusion The trajectory-analyses identified specific patterns of drinking that were differentially influenced by each treatment and provided support for hypotheses about the mechanisms by which these treatments work. PMID:19969427

  9. Three Studies on Drinking Game Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jennifer Marie

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college students consume alcohol. Some college students consume heavily and these abusive patterns of alcohol use can be associated with substantial negative consequences. Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with high levels of alcohol consumption and an increased…

  10. Correlates of Teenage Drinking Behavior in Two Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjepkes, Phyllis Kathleen; Hayden, Davis C.

    A survey of research literature on teenage alcohol use will reveal many variables related to teenage drinking. This study compared these variables in two separate communities to ascertain their global validity. To investigate factors leading to teenage alcohol use, 218 high school seniors from Washington and Iowa were surveyed. Dependent variables…

  11. Drinking Settings, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Smolenski, Derek; Brady, Sonya S.; Wilkerson, Michael; Rosser, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We sought to 1) describe the settings or groups of settings where men who have sex with men (MSM) consume alcohol in 16 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSA); and 2) investigate whether certain drinking settings or groups of settings are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and sexual risk behavior. Latent class analysis was used to develop our measure of drinking settings. The final latent class model consisted of four distinct classes which captured the typical settings where MSM consumed alcohol: “home” “social,” “bar/social,” and “general” drinkers (i.e., drinks in all settings). Regression models showed that “general” drinkers were more likely than “social” drinkers to engage in frequent heavy drinking. Compared to `social' drinkers, general drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAIMP) and UAIMP with men met in bars and other venues (e.g., private parties, bath houses) while intoxicated. Assessment of drinking settings may be a means of identifying MSM who are at greater risk for frequent, heavy drinking and related sexual risk behavior. PMID:23261495

  12. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23412828

  13. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Momino, Wakana; Félix, Têmis Maria; Abeche, Alberto Mantovani; Zandoná, Denise Isabel; Scheibler, Gabriela Gayer; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Flores, Renato Zamora; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23412828

  14. Ethnic Variation in Drinking, Drug Use, and Sexual Behavior among Adolescents in Hawaii.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in substance use and sexual behavior and whether drinking and drug use constitute risk factors for unsafe sexual practices among Native Hawaiian (NH), Caucasian, and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) high school students in Hawaii. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1997 and 1999) using a…

  15. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  16. Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

  17. Understanding soft drink consumption among female adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O; Lee, Jerry W; Modeste, Naomi N; Johnston, Patricia K

    2003-06-01

    This study identified factors that influence regular soda consumption among 707 female students, aged 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. Almost all of the participants, 96.3%, reported that they currently drink soda; 50.1% reported drinking 2 glasses of soda or more per day during the past year. Students reported drinking regular soda more than diet soda and reported drinking phosphoric acid-containing soda more than non-phosphoric acid-containing soda. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control had statistically significant positive associations with intention, and were each significant predictors of intention to drink regular soda and together explained 64% of its variance. The strongest predictor was attitude, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce soda consumption among female adolescents should include parents and friends. It is also important that soda should not be excessively available at home or widely accessible to teenagers at schools. Healthy eating messages for adolescents need to be developed and incorporated into existing and future campaigns to reinforce the perception that there are other healthier drinks that quench thirst and that taste good as well. PMID:12828230

  18. Aging and generational effects on drinking behaviors in men: results from the normative aging study.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, R J; Bouchard, G R; LoCastro, J S; Laird, N M

    1985-01-01

    The effects of aging on alcohol consumption behaviors are unclear because of confounding with period and cohort effects. In 1973, 1,859 male participants in the Normative Aging Study, born between 1892 and 1945, described their drinking behaviors by responding to a mailed questionnaire. In 1982, 1,713 of the participants in this study responded to a similar questionnaire. We used multivariate techniques, adjusting regression coefficients for the correlations between repeated responses of the same individuals, to assess the effects of birth cohort and aging on mean alcohol consumption level, on the prevalence of problems with drinking, and on the prevalence of averaging three or more drinks per day. Older men drank significantly less than younger men at both times yet there was no tendency for men to decrease their consumption levels over time. Each successively older birth cohort had a prevalence of problems with drinking estimated to be 0.037 lower than the prevalence of the next youngest cohort (95 per cent confidence interval: 0.029-0.045), yet there was no decrease in drinking problems over nine years. Interpretation of these findings requires consideration of the changes in attitudes as well as the increases in per capita consumption occurring in the United States throughout the 1970s. Results suggest that aging is not as important a factor in changes in drinking behaviors as generational or attitudinal changes. PMID:4061714

  19. Parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors: The mediating role of family functioning.

    PubMed

    Finan, Laura J; Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-08-01

    This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage = 16.15; SD = .75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. PMID:26073673

  20. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jessica; Gordon, Mellissa S.; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    This study explored relationships among parental problem drinking, family functioning, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. The unique effects of maternal and paternal drinking were examined separately for girls and boys. The sample included 14-19 year old U.S. adolescents (Mage=16.15; SD=.75; 52.5% female) and their parents. Participants completed surveys in the spring of 2007 and 2008. Structural equation modelling was used to conduct path analysis models. Results showed the distinctive and adverse effects of parental problem drinking on adolescent alcohol use, drug use, rule breaking, and aggressive behavior over time. Findings also highlighted the indirect and mediating roles of family functioning. For both girls and boys, family cohesion mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent externalizing behaviors. For girls, adolescent-father communication predicted increased externalizing behaviors over time. These findings draw attention to the importance of exploring adolescent and parent gender when examining parental problem drinking, family functioning, and externalizing behaviors. PMID:26073673

  1. The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking among undergraduate students: assessing the impact of habit strength.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul

    2011-05-01

    The present study sought to apply the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the prediction of binge drinking intentions and behavior among undergraduate students and to test whether habit strength explains additional variance in binge drinking behavior. Undergraduate students (N=137) completed measures of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, perceived control, and intention) and habit strength (Self-Report Habit Index) in relation to binge drinking. Frequency of binge drinking was assessed one month later (n=109). The TPB explained 75% of the variance in binge drinking intentions, with attitude and self-efficacy making significant contributions, and 35% of the variance in binge drinking behavior at one-month follow-up, with only intention making a significant contribution. Habit strength explained additional variance in binge drinking behavior (∆R(2)=.06), although intention remained as a significant predictor. The results suggest that binge drinking among undergraduate students is under the control of both intentional and habitual processes. Interventions to reduce binge drinking should therefore focus on the motivational determinants (e.g., perceived positive and negative consequences) of binge drinking as well as the environmental factors (i.e., contextual cues) that promote binge drinking. PMID:21310540

  2. The Role of Drinking Severity on Sex Risk Behavior and HIV Exposure among Illicit Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Trenz, Rebecca; Harrell, Paul; Mauro, Pia; Latimer, William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined how drinking severity among injection and non-injection drug users is associated with sex risk behaviors and risk of HIV exposure. Methods The study is a secondary analysis of an investigation of risk factors among drug users in Baltimore known as the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study. Participants (N = 557) completed an interview, self-reported 30-day alcohol use, lifetime injection and non-injection drug use, and provided blood samples to screen for HIV. Participants were grouped into one of three drinking severity conditions: Abstinent (no reported alcohol use in prior 30-days), Moderate Alcohol Use (≤30 drinks for females, or ≤ 60 drinks for males), or Problematic Alcohol Use (>30 drinks for females, or >60 drinks for males). Drinking severity groups were significantly different on lifetime injection drug use, heroin injection, snorting/sniffing cocaine, and smoking crack. Results Logistic regression analyses found problematic alcohol users to be more likely than alcohol abstainers to inject drugs before or during sex (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.07-16.10), and more likely than moderate alcohol users to use alcohol before/during sex (AOR = 4.96; 95% CI = 2.09-11.81), inject drugs before/during sex (AOR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.29-6.80) and to be HIV+ among Black participants (AOR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.14-6.49). Conclusions These results outline the necessity for research and clinical intervention among this population to reduce sex risk behaviors and potential HIV exposure, while highlighting the need to examine drinking severity as a predictor of sex risk behaviors. PMID:23617865

  3. A behavioral economic supplement to brief motivational interventions for college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James G.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Martens, Matthew P.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Basic behavioral and neurobiological research has demonstrated that deficiencies in naturally occurring substance-free rewards are both a cause and a consequence of substance abuse that are due in part to the systematic discounting of delayed substance-free rewards. Existing brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for alcohol abuse do not target this mechanism of change. The goal of this uncontrolled pilot study was to evaluate a behavioral economic Substance-Free Activity Session (SFAS) to traditional alcohol BMIs. Participants were 13 college freshmen who reported two or more heavy drinking episodes (>5/4 drinks in an occasion for men/ women) in the past month. All participants completed a baseline assessment and a BMI that addressed alcohol use. In addition, participants received the SFAS, a 50-min individual session that attempts to increase engagement in constructive alternatives to drinking by enhancing the salience of delayed rewards (academic and career success) and the patterns of behavior (academic and extracurricular engagement) leading to these outcomes. At the 1-month follow-up assessment, participants reported significant reductions in heavy drinking, and moderate to large effect size reductions in weekly drinking and peak blood alcohol levels. The results of this pilot study provide preliminary support for the efficacy of this behavioral economic intervention session as a supplement to traditional alcohol BMIs. PMID:24039620

  4. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

  5. Perceived Agency in Retirement and Retiree Drinking Behavior: Job Satisfaction as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    BACHARACH, SAMUEL; BAMBERGER, PETER; HOROWITZ-ROZEN, MICKEY

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent findings that post-retirement adjustment may be influenced by the conditions leading up to the decision to retire, we examine the impact of individual agency in the retirement decision on problematic drinking behavior, as well as the extent to which such an effect may itself depend upon the valence of the pre-retirement work experience. Using a sample of 304 blue-collar retirees, our findings indicate that, when controlling for pre-retirement drinking behavior, perceptions of retirement as the result of a more forced or involuntary decision are associated with greater alcohol consumption, while perceptions of retirement as the result of a more volitional or voluntary process are associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and a lower risk of problematic drinking behavior. Our results also indicate that pre-retirement job satisfaction amplifies the former relationship, while attenuating the latter one. PMID:19956364

  6. Use of Drinking Protective Behavioral Strategies and Sexual Perceptions and Behaviors in U.S. College Students

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Diane E.; Koo, Kelly H.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students is linked to an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviors, including casual sex and unprotected sex. These behaviors increase college students' risks for negative social and health-related consequences. This study examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and protective behavioral strategies (PBS), expectancies and perceptions of sexual risk, and actual alcohol-related sexual behaviors and consequences. Sexually active college students completed web-based self-report measures of drinking behaviors and use of PBS, alcohol expectancies and perceptions of risk, sexual behaviors and related consequences (n = 524; 57.1% women). Findings indicated that PBS were related to lower expectancies of sexual risk and sexual disinhibition, and among lighter drinkers, lower expectancies of sexual enhancement from alcohol. PBS were also related to decreased perceptions of sexual-related risks, some alcohol-related sexual behaviors, including number of drinks before/during sex, and number of sexual consequences, but were not related to abstaining during sex, frequency of alcohol-related sexual behavior, or general condom use. These findings demonstrate a disconnect between perceived and actual risks among college students, such that decreased perceptions of risk may not be associated with protective behaviors. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. PMID:25350078

  7. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  8. Tool-use for drinking water by immature chimpanzees of Mahale: prevalence of an unessential behavior.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, Takahisa; Nishie, Hitonaru; Shimada, Masaki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Zamma, Koichiro; Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2006-04-01

    Use of leaves or sticks for drinking water has only rarely been observed during long-term study of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale. Recently, however, we observed 42 episodes of tool-use for drinking water (73 tools and two cases of using "tool-sets") between 1999 and 2004. Interestingly, all of the performers were immature chimpanzees aged from 2 to 10 years. Immature chimpanzees sometimes observed the tool-using performance of others and subsequently reproduced the behavior, while adults usually paid no attention to the performance. This tool-use did not seem to occur out of necessity: (1) chimpanzees often used tools along streams where they could drink water without tools, (2) they used tools for drinking water from tree holes during the wet season when they could easily obtain water from many streams, and (3) the tool-using performance sometimes contained playful aspects. Between-site comparisons revealed that chimpanzees at drier habitats used tools for drinking water more frequently and in a more "conventional" manner. However, some variations could not be explained by ecological conditions. Such variations and the increase in this tool-use in recent years at Mahale strongly suggest that social learning plays an important role in the process of acquiring the behavior. We should note here that such behaviors that lack obvious benefits or necessity can be prevalent in a group. PMID:16228665

  9. The Valued Living Questionnaire for Alcohol Use: Measuring value-behavior discrepancy in college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leavens, Eleanor L; Grant, DeMond M; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-09-01

    Developing discrepancy between one's values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with important values. In Study 1, the initial factor structure and test-retest reliability of the VLQ for Alcohol Use (VLQ-A) was tested in a sample of college students who regularly drink alcohol (N = 150). Results guided modifications to the measure. In Study 2, the revised measure's factor structure and predictive validity were tested with a second sample of college students who drink alcohol (N = 222). In both studies, exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor structure. Perceived discrepancy between alcohol use and important values predicted greater readiness to change, while perceived consistency between alcohol use and important values predicted more frequent heavy episodic drinking. Certain values were more useful in predicting outcomes than others. Alcohol use (heavy vs. moderate drinking) did not moderate outcomes. The VLQ-A is a brief and reliable self-report measure of perceived discrepancy between drinking behaviors and important values that may increase readiness to change. Future research examining the generalizability of findings to various samples and the efficacy of the VLQ-A as a supplement to brief interventions is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537000

  10. Craving Predicts Within Session Drinking Behavior Following Placebo

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Tiffany’s (1990) cognitive processing model postulates that craving will only occur when access to alcohol is blocked. To test a hypothesis based on this model, we analyzed data from a naturalistic laboratory alcohol challenge study involving moderate-to-heavy drinking young adults (N = 174) with a focus on the placebo beverage condition of this study. Our hypothesis was that self-reports of “wanting more alcohol” (i.e., craving) in the lab, following placebo, would predict subsequent ad libitum consumption because placebo administration would constitute partial blocking of access to alcohol. We also tested the possibility that craving might mediate associations between personality traits and ad libitum consumption. Both trait disinhibition and reports of craving following the placebo beverage significantly predicted ad libitum consumption. Further, craving partially mediated the association between trait disinhibition and ad libitum consumption. Potential implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20161258

  11. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Natural Resolution of Drinking Problems using IVR Self-Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Foushee, H. Russell; Black, Bethany C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons predicted patterns of alcohol consumption shortly after natural resolution when the risk of relapse is high. Using a computerized Interactive Voice Response (IVR) telephone system, untreated problem drinkers (n = 41) self-monitored their daily drinking, monetary expenditures, and surrounding contexts over intervals that ranged from a maximum of 42 to 128 days. Expanded Timeline Followback interviews were conducted before and after the IVR interval and one year after the baseline assessment. Stable resolutions generally and moderation resolutions specifically were associated with proportionally more pre-resolution expenditures on savings and less on alcohol compared to heavy drinking outcomes. The findings replicated and extended earlier research and suggested that the extent to which problem drinkers organized their behavior over longer intervals, even when drinking abusively, helped identify who resolved, including who transitioned to stable moderation. PMID:18729688

  12. Evidence for Cohort or Generational Differences in the Drinking Behavior of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Allan R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Surveyed 928 older Bostonians and found a negative correlation between age and alcohol consumption among older adults. Retrospective data suggest that there are cohort or generational patterns of drinking behavior by older adults. Survey provides no insight into the historical factors which account for the differences in alcohol use. (Author/JAC)

  13. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  14. Athletic Status and Drinking Behavior in College Students: The Influence of Gender and Coping Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Pritchard, Mary E.; Schaffer, Jamie

    2004-01-01

    College students' alcohol use as well documented, and published studies have indicated that athletes drink more frequently and more often to the stage of intoxication than do nonathletes. Some researchers have cited sociological factors to explain these behaviors, but neither the underlying emotional factors that drive students' alcohol use nor…

  15. The Moderating Role of Cognitive Capacities in the Association Between Social Norms and Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Samuel N.; Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The literature documents two related yet distinct social normative influences on adolescent drinking. Descriptive norms refer to perceptions of how much others engage in a particular behavior whereas injunctive norms refer to the extent to which others approve of a particular behavior. Theoretical formulations suggest that whether descriptive or injunctive norms guide drinking behavior depends on cognitive factors related to executive functioning. Cognitive capacities, specifically inhibitory control and preplanning, were tested as moderators of the association between social norms and alcohol use using a longitudinal design and community sample of adolescents. Method This longitudinal study included 387 adolescents and three annual waves of data. Behavioral tasks assessed inhibitory control (Stop Signal Task) and preplanning (Tower of London) and social norms and drinking were assessed using self-report measures. Results Significant interactions were found for descriptive and injunctive norms with preplanning and descriptive norms with inhibitory control. As hypothesized, descriptive norms were stronger prospective predictors of alcohol use at low levels of cognitive preplanning whereas injunctive norms were stronger prospective predictors at high levels of cognitive preplanning. Descriptive norms prospectively predicted alcohol use at high, but not at low levels of inhibitory control. Conclusion These findings highlight the complexity of normative influences and suggest that descriptive and injunctive norms have differential effects on future drinking for individuals with different cognitive capacities. PMID:26009807

  16. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  17. Childhood verbal development and drinking behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: A discordant twin pair analysis

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that better cognitive and verbal abilities in childhood predict earlier experimentation with alcohol and higher levels of drinking in adolescence, whereas poorer ability is related to a higher likelihood of remaining abstinent. Whether individual differences in language development in childhood predict differences in adolescent drinking behaviors has not been studied. Methods To address that question, we compared co-twins from twin pairs discordant for their childhood language development and studied associations of parental reports of within-pair differences in age at speaking words, age at learning to read, and expressive language skills during school age with self-reported within-pair differences in drinking, intoxication, and alcohol-related problems across adolescence and young adulthood. Data from two longitudinal population-based samples of twin families were used, with verbal developmental differences in childhood reported by the parents when the twins were 12 and 16 years, respectively. Results Conditional logistic regression analyses and within-pair correlation analyses suggested positive associations between verbal development and drinking behaviors in both datasets. In analyses adjusted for birth order and birth weight, the co-twin reported to be verbally more advanced in childhood tended to report more frequent drinking and intoxication in adolescence in both samples. Better verbal development also was associated with the likelihood of having friends who drink in adolescence. Conclusions These findings suggest that, adjusting for familial and other factors shared by co-twins, better verbal development in childhood predicts more frequent drinking and intoxication in adolescence and young adulthood, possibly due, in part, to peer associations. PMID:24033677

  18. Ignoring Norms with a Little Help from My Friends: Social Support Reduces Normative Influence on Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, Jerry; O'Grady, Megan; Sandoval, Patricia; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol norms are strong predictors of drinking. However, the extent to which norms influence behavior depends on how closely people attend to them; people are more likely to attend to norms when their affiliation needs are unfulfilled by members of their social networks (Cullum, O'Grady, & Tennen, 2011). Therefore, we predicted that Perceived Social Support (PSS) would moderate the relationship between norms and drinking such that people with low levels of PSS would be more motivated to attend to norms. College students (N = 498) completed measures of PSS and peer alcohol norms and then reported on their drinking behavior daily for 30 days. As predicted, we found when PSS was low, student drinking was strongly influenced by peer norms, but there was no relationship between norms and drinking when PSS was high. Findings suggest that when affiliation needs are high, norms are more influential on drinking behavior.

  19. Drinking-smoking status and health risk behaviors among high school students in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students. The interaction between gender and drinking-smoking status was significant for all health risk behaviors except for having sex and unprotected sex. Alcohol and tobacco had a stronger association with illegal substance use in boys than in girls. In contrast, their use had a stronger association with fighting, depression, and suicidal thoughts in girls than in boys. The intervention program for Thai youths in school should take into account the strong relationship between alcohol-tobacco consumption and these health risk behaviors. PMID:23185837

  20. Dietary behavior of French men according to alcohol drinking pattern.

    PubMed

    Herbeth, B; Didelot-Barthelemy, L; Lemoine, A; Le Devehat, C

    1988-05-01

    Relationships of alcohol consumption with diet were studied in 216 French men aged 18-44. The sample was divided on the basis of alcohol intake in the preceding 7 days: controls (less than or equal to 43 g/day), moderate drinkers (44-87 g/day) and heavy drinkers (88-200 g/day). Moderate and heavy drinkers consumed more meat and meat products, bread and toast, dried vegetables and potatoes than controls but fewer nonalcoholic drinks and less milk, yogurt, cooked vegetables, raw and cooked fruits, pastries and confectioneries. Total energy intake was higher in drinkers than in controls but nonalcoholic energy intake was not significantly different; alcohol was simply added to food intake. Moderate and heavy drinkers consumed significantly less carbohydrates but more fat and protein than controls. Vitamins A and C intakes were lower in the moderate and heavy drinkers than in controls but folate and iron intakes were higher. The differences in dietary habits between controls and drinkers were not related to age nor to socioprofessional status since after adjustment for these two parameters the same relationships were still found. PMID:3374141

  1. Mosquitoes drink with a burst in reserve: explaining pumping behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through the proboscis. Experimental observations with synchrotron x-ray imaging indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an occasional, isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is 10 to 30 times larger than in the continuous mode. We have used a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this variation in drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is more energetically efficient, whereas the burst mode creates a large pressure drop across the proboscis, which could potentially be used to clear blockages. Comparisons with pump knock-out configurations demonstrate different functional roles of the pumps in mosquito feeding. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant No. #0938047.

  2. From in-session behaviors to drinking outcomes: A causal chain for motivational interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Martin, Tim; Houck, Jon M.; Christopher, Paulette J.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Client speech in favor of change within motivational interviewing (MI) sessions has been linked to treatment outcomes, but a causal chain has not yet been demonstrated. Using a sequential behavioral coding system for client speech (SCOPE) this study found that, at both the session level and utterance level, specific therapist behaviors predict client change talk. Further, a direct link from change talk to drinking outcomes was observed, and support was found for a mediational role for change talk between therapist behavior and client drinking outcomes. These data provide preliminary support for the proposed causal chain indicating that client speech within treatment sessions can be influenced by therapists, who can employ this influence to improve outcomes. Selective eliciting and reinforcement of change talk is proposed as a specific active ingredient of MI. PMID:19968387

  3. From in-session behaviors to drinking outcomes: a causal chain for motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Moyers, Theresa B; Martin, Tim; Houck, Jon M; Christopher, Paulette J; Tonigan, J Scott

    2009-12-01

    Client speech in favor of change within motivational interviewing sessions has been linked to treatment outcomes, but a causal chain has not yet been demonstrated. Using a sequential behavioral coding system for client speech, the authors found that, at both the session and utterance levels, specific therapist behaviors predict client change talk. Further, a direct link from change talk to drinking outcomes was observed, and support was found for a mediational role for change talk between therapist behavior and client drinking outcomes. These data provide preliminary support for the proposed causal chain indicating that client speech within treatment sessions can be influenced by therapists, who can employ this influence to improve outcomes. Selective eliciting and reinforcement of change talk is proposed as a specific active ingredient of motivational interviewing. PMID:19968387

  4. Leaf-folding behavior for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Tonooka, R

    2001-11-01

    The use of leaves for drinking water by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, was observed intensively. The natural hollow of a tree, used by chimpanzees, was filled up with fresh water every morning. Seventy episodes of leaf-using behavior by 14 chimpanzees were directly observed and video-recorded. The chimpanzees at Bossou most frequently (70.3%) used a particular kind of leaf, Hybophrynium braunianum as tool material. The chimpanzees folded one or more leaves in the mouth. This technique, "leaf folding", was observed more frequently (57.9 %) than "leaf sponge" or "leaf spoon". Chimpanzees began to perform this behavior at about 2.5 years old. Infant chimpanzees showed more frequent observations of others (especially their mothers) using leaves before trying to drink water with leaves. Both observation and trial and error might be necessary for the acquisition of this tool-use behavior. PMID:24777523

  5. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys binge more than girls. Alcohol use among boys Alcohol use among girls SOURCE: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. ... for children to reach these BAC levels. For boys: Ages 9–13: About 3 drinks ... 16–17: About 5 drinks For girls: Ages 9–17: About 3 drinks As children ...

  6. The Predictive Influence of Youth Assets on Drinking and Driving Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Shults, Ruth A; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K

    2016-06-01

    Drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults remains a significant public health burden. Etiological research is needed to inform the development and selection of preventive interventions that might reduce alcohol-involved crashes and their tragic consequences. Youth assets-that is, skills, competencies, relationships, and opportunities-can help youth overcome challenges, successfully transition into adulthood, and reduce problem behavior. We examined the predictive influence of individual, relationship, and community assets on drinking and driving (DD) and riding with a drinking driver (RDD). We assessed prospective relationships through analysis of data from the Youth Assets Study, a community-based longitudinal study of socio-demographically diverse youth. Results from calculation of marginal models using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach revealed that parent and peer relationship and school connectedness assets reduced the likelihood of both drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver approximately 1 year later. The most important and consistent asset that influenced DD and RDD over time was parental monitoring, highlighting the role of parental influence extending beyond the immediate teen driving context into young adulthood. Parenting-focused interventions could influence factors that place youth at risk for injury from DD to RDD, complementing other evidence-based strategies such as school-based instructional programs and zero tolerance Blood Alcohol Concentration laws for young and inexperienced drivers. PMID:26779910

  7. Understanding the Antecedents of Korean High School Students’ Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy: Parental Influence, Peer Influence, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, NamAuk; Yoo, Jina

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents’ drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents’ drinking refusal self-efficacy. PMID:22980099

  8. Prevalence of Heavy Drinking and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Adult Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aim was to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among emergency department (ED) patients in community hospitals. Methods Systematic screening of ED patients (N = 6,486; 56.5% female) was conducted in 2 community hospitals in the northeast during times with high patient volume, generally between the hours of 10 AM to 8 PM, Monday through Saturday. Screening occurred from May 2011 through November 2013. Assessment included validated measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior. Results Overall results identified high rates of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and their co-occurrence in this sample of ED patients. Specifically, ED patients in between the ages of 18 and 35 were consistently highest in hazardous alcohol use (positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or endorsing heavy episodic drinking [HED]), sexual risk behaviors, and the co-occurrence of alcohol and sex-risk behaviors. Conclusions Findings show a high co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and unprotected sex among ED patients and highlight the role of HED as a factor associated with sexual risk behavior. Efforts to integrate universal screening for the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behavior in ED settings are warranted; brief interventions delivered to ED patients addressing the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors have the potential to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among a large number of patients. PMID:26332359

  9. Effect of water supply method and flow rate on drinking behavior and fluid balance in horses.

    PubMed

    Nyman, S; Dahlborn, K

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated three methods of water supply on drinking preference and behavior in six Standardbred geldings (2-9 years, 505+/-9 kg). The water sources were buckets (B), pressure valve (PV), and float valve (FV) bowls. In an initial drinking preference test, PV was tested at three flow rates: 3, 8, and 16 l/min (PV3, PV8, and PV16), and FV at 3 l/min (FV3). Water intake was measured in l and presented as the percentage of the total daily water intake from each of two simultaneously presented alternatives. The intake from PV8 was greater than from both PV3 (72+/-11% vs. 28+/-11%) and PV16 (90+/-4% vs. 10+/-4%). All horses showed a strong preference for B, 98+/-1% of the intake compared to 2+/-1% from PV8. Individual variation in the data gave no significant difference in preference between the two automatic bowls. In the second part of the study, drinking behavior and fluid balance were investigated when the horses drank from FV3, PV8, and B for 7 consecutive days in a changeover design. Despite a tendency for an increase in total daily drinking time from FV3, the daily water intake was significantly lower (43+/-3 ml/kg) than from PV8 (54+/-2 ml/kg) and B (58+/-3 ml/kg). Daily net water gain [intake-(fecal+urinary output)] was only 0.5+/-3 ml/kg with FV3, resulting in a negative fluid balance if insensible losses are included. These results show that the water supply method can affect both drinking behavior and fluid balance in the horse. PMID:11399288

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session, SFAS) to a standard alcohol brief motivational interviewing (BMI) session for heavy drinking college students. Method Participants were 82 first-year college students (50% female, 81.7% White/European American, Mean age = 18.5 years, SD = .71) who reported two or more past-month heavy drinking episodes. After completing a baseline assessment and an individual alcohol-focused BMI, participants were randomized to either the SFAS or to a Relaxation Training (RT) control session. The SFAS was delivered in an MI style and attempted to increase the salience of delayed academic and career rewards and the patterns of behavior leading to those rewards. Results The combination of an alcohol BMI plus the SFAS was associated with significantly greater reductions in alcohol problems compared to an alcohol BMI plus RT at the 1-month and 6-month follow-up assessments (p = .015, ηp2 = .07), an effect that was partially mediated by increases in protective behavioral strategies. BMI + SFAS was also associated with greater reductions in heavy drinking among participants who at baseline reported low levels of substance-free reinforcement or symptoms of depression. Conclusion These results are consistent with behavioral economic theory and suggest that a single session focused on increasing engagement in alternatives to drinking can enhance the effects of brief alcohol interventions. PMID:22663899

  11. Underage College Students' Drinking Behavior, Access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Nelson, Toben F.; Kuo, Meichun

    2002-01-01

    Used data from college alcohol surveys conducted between 1993-01 to compare underage students' and older students' drinking behaviors, access to alcohol, and exposure to prevention. While underage drinking rates decreased, binge drinking rates remained constant. Underage students' frequent binge drinking and related problems increased. College…

  12. Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Naltrexone and Behavioral Therapy for Problem Drinking Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N.; Chen, Andrew C.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Bux, Donald A., Jr.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the comparative effectiveness of modified behavioral self-control therapy (MBSCT) and naltrexone (NTX), as well as the added benefit of combining the 2, in problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) seeking to reduce but not quit drinking. Method: Participants (N = 200) were recruited and urn randomized to 1 of 2…

  14. Differences in Drinking Expectancies and Motives for Regular Education and Special Education High School Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Jeff; Harbke, Colin R.; Blake, Dawn; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancies and drinking motives were compared for regular education students (n = 159) and students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) receiving special education services (n = 51). Differences existed between groups with respect to expected negative social consequences and emotional and physical outcomes associated with drinking.…

  15. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Methods In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. Results There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all three dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward-Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than non-hazardous drinkers. Conclusion This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. PMID:22486201

  16. The relationships of sexual identity, hazardous drinking, and drinking expectancies with risky sexual behaviors in a community sample of lesbian and bisexual women.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alicia K; Cho, Young Ik; Hughes, Tonda; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Johnson, Timothy; Martin, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, sexual identity, hazardous drinking, and sexuality/intimacy enhancement alcohol expectancies on rates of risky sexual behaviors in a community sample of women who self-identified as lesbian, mostly lesbian, and bisexual (N = 349). Structured interview data were collected as part of a larger longitudinal study of sexual minority women's health, the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. We used structural equation modeling, controlling for demographic characteristics, to evaluate the influence of sexual identity, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related sexuality/intimacy enhancement expectancies on sexual risk behaviors. Controlling for demographic characteristics and for sexual identity, higher levels of both hazardous drinking and sexuality/intimacy enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with higher sexual risk scores. The final model predicted 36% of the variance in risky sexual behavior scores. Our findings regarding the central role of alcohol use and sexuality/intimacy enhancement expectancies in sexual risk behaviors among sexual minority women are consistent with previous research focusing on predominantly heterosexual women. Future efforts at sexual risk reduction in sexual minority women will need to address the influences of alcohol use and drinking-related expectancies on sexual behaviors and decision making. PMID:24071822

  17. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962975

  18. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  19. Social processes underlying acculturation: a study of drinking behavior among immigrant Latinos in the Northeast United States

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHRISTINA S.; LÓPEZ, STEVEN REGESER; COBLY, SUZANNE M.; TEJADA, MONICA; GARCÍA-COLL, CYNTHIA; SMITH, MARCIA

    2010-01-01

    Study Goals To identify social processes that underlie the relationship of acculturation and heavy drinking behavior among Latinos who have immigrated to the Northeast United States of America (USA). Method Community-based recruitment strategies were used to identify 36 Latinos who reported heavy drinking. Participants were 48% female, 23 to 56 years of age, and were from South or Central America (39%) and the Caribbean (24%). Six focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Results Content analyses indicated that the social context of drinking is different in the participants’ countries of origin and in the United States. In Latin America, alcohol consumption was part of everyday living (being with friends and family). Nostalgia and isolation reflected some of the reasons for drinking in the USA. Results suggest that drinking in the Northeastern United States (US) is related to Latinos’ adaptation to a new sociocultural environment. Knowledge of the shifting social contexts of drinking can inform health interventions. PMID:20376331

  20. Mosquito drinking with a burst in reserve: explaining behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through a long drinking channel, or proboscis. Experimental observations indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is several orders of magnitude larger than in the continuous mode. We use a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this naturally occurring drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is the more efficient mode in terms of energy expenditure, and the burst mode creates a large pressure difference across the proboscis. We speculate that the mosquito uses this pressure drop to clear blockages in the proboscis. We compared the two-pump system with one-pump configurations, as found in some other insects like butterflies, and show that the two pumps have unique roles in mosquito feeding.

  1. Inadequate child supervision: The role of alcohol outlet density, parent drinking behaviors, and social support

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Kepple, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Supervisory neglect, or the failure of a caregiver to appropriately supervise a child, is one of the predominant types of neglectful behaviors, with alcohol use being considered a key antecedent to inadequate supervision of children. The current study builds on previous work by examining the role of parental drinking and alcohol outlet densities while controlling for caregiver and child characteristics. Data were obtained from 3,023 participants via a telephone survey from 50 cities throughout California. The telephone survey included items on neglectful parenting practices, drinking behaviors, and socio-demographic characteristics. Densities of alcohol outlets were measured for each of the 202 zip codes in the study. Multilevel Bernoulli models were used to analyze the relationship between four supervisory neglect parenting practices and individual-level and zip code-level variables. In our study, heavy drinking was only significantly related to one of our four outcome variables (leaving a child where he or she may not be safe). The density of on premise alcohol outlets was positively related to leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. This study demonstrates that discrete relationships exist between alcohol related variables, social support, and specific supervisory neglect subtypes at the ecological and individual levels. PMID:25061256

  2. Anxiety and drinking behavior: moderating effects of tension-reduction alcohol outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Kushner, M G; Sher, K J; Wood, M D; Wood, P K

    1994-08-01

    We evaluated whether alcohol outcome expectancies moderate the association between measures of anxiety and alcohol use. Student subjects completed questionnaires related to their level of anxiety, recent alcohol-use patterns, and outcome expectancies for alcohol to be tension reducing. Interviews were used to determine the presence or absence of alcohol dependence in subjects and in their first- and second-degree relatives. Consistent with predictions, male subjects with high tension-reduction alcohol outcome expectancies showed a stronger positive correlation between measures of anxiety and drinking behavior than did male subjects with low tension-reduction outcome expectancies. However, this effect was not found for female subjects. We note past studies showing similar gender effects, and relate the overall study findings to the tension-reduction hypothesis of stress-induced drinking. PMID:7978095

  3. Trajectories of Drinking Urges During Individual- and Couple-based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, Kevin A.; Owens, Mandy D.; Brovko, Julie M.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals receiving treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) often experience urges to drink, and reductions in drinking urges during cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) predict better treatment outcomes. However, little previous work has examined patterns of daily drinking urges during treatment. The present study examined patterns of change in daily drinking urges among participants in two randomized clinical trials of males (N = 80 with 4401 daily recordings) and females (N = 101 with 8011 daily recordings) receiving individual- or couples-based CBT. Drinking urges were common during treatment, occurring on 45.1% percent of days for men and 44.8% for women. Drinking urges and alcohol use for both genders decreased substantially during the course of treatment. Both genders had increases in drinking urges as more time elapsed since attending a treatment session. For men, this increase was most pronounced at the beginning of treatment, but for women it was most pronounced near the end of treatment. Alcohol use and drinking urges were both more likely to occur on weekends. The results suggest that these times may lead to higher risk for drinking, and clients may benefit from high-risk planning that is focused on these times.

  4. Urocortins: CRF's siblings and their potential role in anxiety, depression and alcohol drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, Andrey E; Tsoory, Michael M; Kozicz, Tamas; Thiele, Todd E; Neufeld-Cohen, Adi; Chen, Alon; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Giardino, William J; Kaur, Simranjit

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that stress, anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse-related disorders are in large part controlled by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. However, evidence is accumulating that some of the actions on these receptors are mediated not by CRF, but by a family of related Urocortin (Ucn) peptides Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3. The initial narrow focus on CRF as the potential main player acting on CRF receptors appears outdated. Instead it is suggested that CRF and the individual Ucns act in a complementary and brain region-specific fashion to regulate anxiety-related behaviors and alcohol consumption. This review, based on a symposium held in 2011 at the research meeting on "Alcoholism and Stress" in Volterra, Italy, highlights recent evidence for regulation of these behaviors by Ucns. In studies on stress and anxiety, the roles of Ucns, and in particular Ucn1, appear more visible in experiments analyzing adaptation to stressors rather than testing basal anxiety states. Based on these studies, we propose that the contribution of Ucn1 to regulating mood follows a U-like pattern with both high and low activity of Ucn1 contributing to high anxiety states. In studies on alcohol use disorders, the CRF system appears to regulate not only dependence-induced drinking, but also binge drinking and even basal consumption of alcohol. While dependence-induced and binge drinking rely on the actions of CRF on CRFR1 receptors, alcohol consumption in models of these behaviors is inhibited by actions of Ucns on CRFR2. In contrast, alcohol preference is positively influenced by actions of Ucn1, which is capable of acting on both CRFR1 and CRFR2. Because of complex distribution of Ucns in the nervous system, advances in this field will critically depend on development of new tools allowing site-specific analyses of the roles of Ucns and CRF. PMID:22444954

  5. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  6. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-10-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE. PMID:23811062

  7. Validation of a Measure of College Students' Intoxicated Behaviors: Associations with Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Drinking Motives, and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmaas, Johann; Moeller, Scott; Woicik, Patricia Butler

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to develop a measure of college students' intoxicated behaviors and to validate the measure using scales assessing alcohol outcome expectancies, motives for drinking, and personality traits. Participants and Method Summary: The authors administered these measures and an inventory describing 50 intoxicated behaviors to…

  8. αCaMKII Autophosphorylation Controls the Establishment of Alcohol Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Easton, Alanna C; Lucchesi, Walter; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Lenz, Bernd; Solati, Jalal; Golub, Yulia; Lewczuk, Piotr; Fernandes, Cathy; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Dawirs, Ralph R; Moll, Gunther H; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frank, Josef; Hoffmann, Per; Soyka, Michael; Kiefer, Falk; Schumann, Gunter; Peter Giese, K; Müller, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    The α-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) is a crucial enzyme controlling plasticity in the brain. The autophosphorylation of αCaMKII works as a ‘molecular memory' for a transient calcium activation, thereby accelerating learning. We investigated the role of αCaMKII autophosphorylation in the establishment of alcohol drinking as an addiction-related behavior in mice. We found that alcohol drinking was initially diminished in αCaMKII autophosphorylation-deficient αCaMKIIT286A mice, but could be established at wild-type level after repeated withdrawals. The locomotor activating effects of a low-dose alcohol (2 g/kg) were absent in αCaMKIIT286A mice, whereas the sedating effects of high-dose (3.5 g/kg) were preserved after acute and subchronic administration. The in vivo microdialysis revealed that αCaMKIIT286A mice showed no dopamine (DA) response in the nucleus accumbens to acute or subchronic alcohol administration, but enhanced serotonin (5-HT) responses in the prefrontal cortex. The attenuated DA response in αCaMKIIT286A mice was in line with altered c-Fos activation in the ventral tegmental area after acute and subchronic alcohol administration. In order to compare findings in mice with the human condition, we tested 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CAMK2A gene for their association with alcohol dependence in a population of 1333 male patients with severe alcohol dependence and 939 controls. We found seven significant associations between CAMK2A SNPs and alcohol dependence, one of which in an autophosphorylation-related area of the gene. Together, our data suggest αCaMKII autophosphorylation as a facilitating mechanism in the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior with changing the DA–5-HT balance as a putative mechanism. PMID:23459588

  9. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  10. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase α in the Dorsomedial Striatum Promotes Excessive Ethanol-Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hamida, Sami; Darcq, Emmanuel; Wang, Jun; Wu, Su; Phamluong, Khanhky; Kharazia, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that excessive ethanol drinking activates Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) (Wang et al., 2010; Gibb et al., 2011). Ethanol-mediated Fyn activation in the DMS leads to the phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, to the enhancement of the channel's activity, and to the development and/or maintenance of ethanol drinking behaviors (Wang et al., 2007, 2010). Protein tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα) is essential for Fyn kinase activation (Bhandari et al., 1998), and we showed that ethanol-mediated Fyn activation is facilitated by the recruitment of PTPα to synaptic membranes, the compartment where Fyn resides (Gibb et al., 2011). Here we tested the hypothesis that PTPα in the DMS is part of the Fyn/GluN2B pathway and is thus a major contributor to the neuroadaptations underlying excessive ethanol intake behaviors. We found that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated PTPα knockdown in the DMS reduces excessive ethanol intake and preference in rodents. Importantly, no alterations in water, saccharine/sucrose, or quinine intake were observed. Furthermore, downregulation of PTPα in the DMS of mice significantly reduces ethanol-mediated Fyn activation, GluN2B phosphorylation, and ethanol withdrawal-induced long-term facilitation of NMDAR activity without altering the intrinsic features of DMS neurons. Together, these results position PTPα upstream of Fyn within the DMS and demonstrate the important contribution of the phosphatase to the maladaptive synaptic changes that lead to excessive ethanol intake. PMID:24005290

  11. Separating subjective norms, university descriptive and injunctive norms, and U.S. descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking behavior intentions.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Klein, Katherine A; Smith, Sandi; Martell, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The theory of planned behavior and the social norms approach both stress the important influence that normative perceptions have on behavioral intentions and behavior. These 2 approaches were used to examine the behavioral intention to limit drinking to 0 to 4 drinks. Further, this study examined whether perception of subjective norms, university- and U.S.-level descriptive norms, and university- and U.S.-level injunctive norms represented separate dimensions for this behavioral intention. A representative sample of 1,100 undergraduate students completed a Web-based survey. The results confirmed that the 5 types of norms were all unique constructs and showed that individuals' intentions to limit their alcohol consumption to 0 to 4 drinks were predicted by positive attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, U.S. descriptive norms, and U.S. injunctive norms. Subjective norms also moderated the relationship between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. University descriptive norms served as a moderator between attitudes and behavioral intentions and between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions. This study has important implications for norms-based theories and campaigns. PMID:20183383

  12. Attachment theory and theory of planned behavior: an integrative model predicting underage drinking.

    PubMed

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D; Berger, Dale E; Alvaro, Eusebio M

    2013-08-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of planned behavior (TPB). The predictive contribution of both theories was examined in the context of underage adult alcohol use. Using full structural equation modeling, results substantiated the hypotheses that secure peer attachment positively predicted norms and behavioral control toward alcohol, but secure maternal attachment inversely predicted attitudes and behavioral control toward alcohol. Alcohol attitudes, norms, and behavioral control each uniquely explained alcohol intentions, which anticipated an increase in alcohol behavior 1 month later. The hypothesized processes were statistically corroborated by tests of indirect and total effects. These findings support recommendations for programs designed to curtail risky levels of underage drinking using the tenets of attachment theory and TPB. PMID:23127300

  13. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavior, such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex Increases the risk of physical and sexual assault Can lead to other problems, such as trouble in school May interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later ...

  14. Differences and similarities in development of drinking behavior between alcoholic offspring of alcoholics and alcoholic offspring of non-alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Alford, G S; Jouriles, E N; Jackson, S C

    1991-01-01

    Self-reported initial, early, and long-term drinking behaviors, experiences, and consequences were obtained from male alcoholics completing inpatient treatment. Subjects were recruited and selected on the basis that they met DSM-III criteria for diagnosis of alcohol dependency and that their biological fathers were alcoholic (FHP; Family History Positive) or that they had no biological family history of alcoholism (FHN; Family History Negative). Results indicated that FHP subjects rated their initial taste of beer higher than FHN subjects, that FHP subjects began tasting and subsequently regularly drinking alcohol at an earlier age than FHN subjects and that there was significantly shorter elapsed time between initiating regular drinking and developing alcoholic-symptomatic problems in living among FHP alcoholics than FHN alcoholics. Although there were a few other significant differences, the drinking-behavioral histories of the two groups were remarkably similar and parallel. Taken together, results suggest that familial risk factors primarily influence the rate at which alcoholic drinking and alcoholism develop, rather than the form or pattern of alcoholic drinking. PMID:1776550

  15. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation ... If you drink alcohol, doctors advise limiting how much you drink. This is called drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible drinking means ...

  16. Interventions to reduce college student drinking: State of the evidence for mechanisms of behavior change.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Kate B

    2015-08-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions. PMID:26164065

  17. Positive alcohol expectancies and drinking behavior: the influence of expectancy strength and memory accessibility.

    PubMed

    Palfai, T; Wood, M D

    2001-03-01

    College student drinkers (N = 314) participated in a health survey in which they (a) completed an alcohol-related memory association task (expectancy accessibility measure), (b) rated their positive expectancies about alcohol use (expectancy strength measure), and (c) reported their level of alcohol involvement. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both expectancy accessibility and expectancy strength predicted frequency of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Moreover, moderational analyses showed that the association between expectancy strength and frequency of alcohol use was greater for those who generated more alcohol responses on the expectancy association task. These findings suggest that the outcome association measure and Likert scale ratings of expectancies may assess distinct properties of expectancy representations, which may have independent and interactive effects on different aspects of drinking behavior. PMID:11255940

  18. The role of brain somatostatin receptor 2 in the regulation of feeding and drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Taché, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin was discovered four decades ago as hypothalamic factor inhibiting growth hormone release. Subsequently, somatostatin was found to be widely distributed throughout the brain and to exert pleiotropic actions via interaction with five somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) that are also widely expressed throughout the brain. Interestingly, in contrast to the predominantly inhibitory actions of peripheral somatostatin, the activation of brain sst2 signaling by intracerebroventricular injection of stable somatostatin agonists potently stimulates food intake and independently, drinking behavior in rodents. The orexigenic response involves downstream orexin-1, neuropeptide Y1 and μ receptor signaling while the dipsogenic effect is mediated through the activation of the brain angiotensin 1 receptor. Brain sst2 activation is part of mechanisms underlying the stimulation of feeding and more prominently water intake in the dark phase and is able to counteract the anorexic response to visceral stressors. PMID:26026616

  19. Dissemination of Drinking Water Contamination Data to Consumers: A Systematic Review of Impact on Consumer Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Patricia J.; Cabral, Christie; Colford, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. Methods/Principal Findings A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination). Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26–72%) among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0–0.46] 6–12 months post intervention) suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. Conclusion Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to

  20. Examining the relationships between acculturation orientations, perceived and actual norms, and drinking behaviors of short-term american sojourners in foreign environments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Cruz, Rick A; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F

    2011-12-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students' alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  1. Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    As little research has examined factors influencing increased and heavy drinking behavior among American sojourners abroad, this study was designed to examine how acculturation orientations (i.e., separation versus assimilation), host country per capita drinking rates, and perceptions about the drinking behavior among other sojourners and natives in the host country predicted alcohol risk abroad. A sample of 216 American college students completing study abroad programs completed a pre-abroad questionnaire to document their pre-abroad drinking levels, followed by a post-return questionnaire to assess drinking while abroad, acculturation orientations and perceived norms of drinking behavior within the foreign environment. A dichotomous variable was created to compare United States (U.S.) per capita drinking rates with those of the host country. Hierarchical repeated-measures ANOVAs examined the changes in drinking from pre-abroad to abroad levels. Participants studying in countries with higher drinking rates than the U.S. and those with higher perceptions about the drinking behavior in the country increased their drinking to a greater extent. Those with higher separation acculturation orientations and greater perceptions drank at heavier levels while abroad. Participants with a greater assimilation orientation and higher perceptions about native drinking, as well as those with a greater separation orientation and higher perceptions about other students’ alcohol use drank the heaviest while abroad. These findings have implications for future preventive work with American students and other sojourning groups to promote pre-abroad knowledge of more accurate drinking norms and greater engagement in the culture to potentially prevent increased and heavier drinking. PMID:21720781

  2. The Negative Consequences of Other Students’ Drinking: Inventory Development and Assessment of Differences by Student Characteristics and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Omli, Morrow R.; Cohen, Gail M.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; DuRant, Robert H.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    College students continue to report being disrupted by other students’ alcohol use. Objective: This study was designed to develop measures to document the consequences resulting from other students’ drinking and identify differences in experiencing these consequences by student characteristics and drinking behaviors. Study group: A stratified random sample of undergraduate students (N = 3,908) from ten universities in North Carolina, USA, completed a web-based assessment. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the random first split-half sample (n = 1,954) to identify factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the remaining half sample (n = 1,954) using structural equation modeling. Results: EFA revealed two inventories: interpersonal and community consequences of others’ drinking inventories. CFA on the second split-half sample identified model fits for the two factor structure suggested by EFA. Of 3,908 participants, 78% reported experiencing one or more consequences due to others’ drinking during the past 30 days. Multivariable generalized linear mixed modeling further validated the inventories and resulted in several associations. Male students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more interpersonal consequences from others’ drinking (p < .001). Minority students, students who lived on campus and students who reported getting drunk experienced significantly more community consequences from others’ drinking (p < .01). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that 4 out of 5 college students experience consequences from others’ drinking, and consequences vary for different subgroups of students. Although these inventories should be tested further, these findings propose standardized measures that may be useful to assess the consequences of others’ drinking among college students. PMID:20306764

  3. Dating Violence Victimization: Associated Drinking and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Caucasian High School Students in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie; Caetano, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups such as Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) and native populations in Hawaii are seldom studied in the area of intimate relationships. Using the 1999 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey, this study examined gender and ethnic differences in experiencing physical dating violence and whether drinking (early initiation, binge…

  4. Depression and Drinking Behavior among Women and Men: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes latent variable cross-lagged models of the relation between depressive symptoms and drinking behavior separately for men (n=951) and women (n=621). Among women, heavier alcohol consumption predicted less depressive symptomology one and three years later, whereas among men, having more depressive symptoms predicted less alcohol consumption…

  5. Manganese Exposure from Drinking Water and Children’s Classroom Behavior in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Khalid; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Wasserman, Gail A.; Liu, Xinhua; Ahmed, Ershad; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence of neurological, cognitive, and neuropsychological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure from drinking water (WMn) in children has generated widespread public health concern. At elevated exposures, Mn has been associated with increased levels of externalizing behaviors, including irritability, aggression, and impulsivity. Little is known about potential effects at lower exposures, especially in children. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially arsenic (As). Objectives: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 201 children to investigate associations of Mn and As in tube well water with classroom behavior among elementary school children, 8–11 years of age, in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Methods: Data on exposures and behavioral outcomes were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of child intelligence. Study children were rated by their school teachers on externalizing and internalizing items of classroom behavior using the standardized Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher’s Report Form (CBCL-TRF). Results: Log-transformed WMn was positively and significantly associated with TRF internalizing [estimated β = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08–1.56; p = 0.03], TRF externalizing (estimated β = 2.59; 95% CI, 0.81–4.37; p =0.004), and TRF total scores (estimated β = 3.35; 95% CI, 0.86–5.83; p = 0.008) in models that adjusted for log-transformed water arsenic (WAs) and sociodemographic covariates. We also observed a positive monotonic dose–response relationship between WMn and TRF externalizing and TRF total scores among the participants of the study. We did not find any significant associations between WAs and various scales of TRF scores. Conclusion: These observations reinforce the growing concern regarding the neurotoxicologic effects of WMn in children. PMID:21493178

  6. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  7. Marketing responsible drinking behavior: comparing the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages tailored to three possible "personality" conceptualizations.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Miller, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether a thoroughly personalized message (tailored to a person's "Big Five" personality traits) or a message matched to an alternate form of self-schema (ideal self-schema) would be more influential than a self-schema matched message (that has been found to be effective) at marketing responsible drinking. We expected the more thoroughly personalized Big Five matched message to be more effective than the self-schema matched message. However, neither the Big Five message nor the ideal self-schema message was more effective than the actual self-schema message. Therefore, research examining self-schema matching should be pursued rather than more complex Big Five matching. PMID:22416925

  8. Energy drink use and high-risk behaviors: Research evidence and knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.

    2014-01-01

    Sales of caffeine-containing energy drinks (CCEDs) have increased rapidly since their introduction to the marketplace. Despite the health concerns raised about highly caffeinated CCEDs, surprisingly little data are available to estimate the prevalence of use. This paper presents the results of secondary data analyses of a nationally representative dataset of US schoolchildren. Approximately one-third of students are recent CCED users with substantial variation by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Among the health and safety concerns related to CCED use is the possibility of potentiation of risk-taking behaviors. A review of the research reveals that although there appears to be a strong and consistent positive association between CCED use and risk-taking behavior, all but one study have used cross-sectional designs, limiting their ability to make inferences about the temporal nature of the association. More research is needed to understand the nature of this association and how CCEDs might impact adolescent health and safety, especially given the high prevalence of use among youth. PMID:25293548

  9. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and high-risk sexual behavior among drinking adults in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Scott D.; Katamba, Achilles; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Sethi, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a risk factor for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered high in Uganda. The study was conducted to determine whether sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol help explain the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors in a population-based sample of adults in Kampala. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to identify residents in one division of Kampala for a cross-sectional study. Associations between alcohol use (current and higher-risk drinking) and high-risk sexual behaviors (multiple regular partners and casual sex) were tested. Final models included a sex-related alcohol outcome expectancy (AOE) summary score. In age-sex-adjusted models, having multiple regular partners was associated with current drinking (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)=1.15, 6.63) and higher-risk drinking (OR=3.35, 95%CI=1.28,8.71). Associations were similar but not statistically significant for having a causal sex partner. Sex-related AOE were associated with both alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior and attenuated relationships between multiple regular partners and both current drinking (OR=1.94, 95%CI=0.57,6.73) and higher-risk drinking (OR=2.44, 95%CI=0.68,8.80). In this setting sexual behaviors related with alcohol consumption were explained, in part, by sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol. These expectations could be an important component to target in HIV education campaigns. PMID:26315308

  10. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence. PMID:22960939

  11. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: Risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Howard, Meagan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmEDs have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n=56) attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of four doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment and level of intoxication were recorded. Results Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment and level of intoxication and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. Conclusions An energy drink appears to alter some of alcohol’s objective and subjective impairing effects, but not others. Thus AmEDs may contribute to a high risk scenario for the drinker

  12. Drinking behavior among older adults at a continuing care retirement community: affective and motivational influences

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Paul; Burruss, Karen; Smith, Cristan A.; Kuerbis, Alexis; Harrington, Donna; Moore, Alison A.; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to describe patterns of alcohol consumption among continuing care retirement community(CCRC) residents and to explore the role of drinking motives and affective states on drinking context and consumption. Method We utilized a phone-based daily diary approach to survey older adults about their daily alcohol consumption, context of drinking (e.g. drinking alone), positive and negative affect, and their motives for drinking. Data were analyzed descriptively, and regression models were developed to examine associations between sociodemographic factors, affect, drinking context and motives, and alcohol consumption. Results CCRC residents drank most frequently at home and were alone almost half of drinking days on average, although the context of drinking varied considerably by participant. Problem alcohol use was rare, but hazardous use due to specific comorbidities, symptoms and medications, and the amount of alcohol consumption was common. Respondents endorsed higher social motives for drinking and lower coping motives. Social motives were associated with decreased likelihood of drinking alone, but negative affect was associated with decreased likelihood of drinking outside one’s home. Coping and social motives were associated with greater consumption, and higher positive affect was associated with lower consumption. Conclusion Among CCRC residents, alcohol use may be socially motivated rather than motivated by coping with negative affect. Future research should examine other motives for drinking in older adulthood. Evaluation of older adults living in CCRCs should include attention to health factors beyond problem use as other forms of hazardous use may be common in CCRCs. PMID:25010351

  13. Low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) polymorphism, alcohol-drinking behavior, and chromosome alterations in peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, K; Takeshita, T

    1996-01-01

    Excessive drinking of alcohol is now widely known to be one of the major lifestyle choices that ca effect health. Among the various effects of alcohol drinking, cytogenetic and other genotoxic effects are of major concern from the viewpoint of prevention of alcohol-related diseases. Alcohol is first metabolized to acetaldehyde, which directly causes various types of chromosomal DNA lesions and alcohol-related diseases, and is then further detoxified to the much less toxic metabolite acetate. About 50% of Oriental people are deficient in the aldehyde-dehydrogenase 2 isozyme (ALDH2) that can most efficiently detoxify acetaldehyde. We have performed a series of experiments to investigate how the genetic deficiency in ALDH2 affects the behavioral pattern for alcohol drinking and the sensitivity of peripheral lymphocytes to the induction of chromosome alterations by exposure to alcohol and alcohol-related chemicals. We found great effects of the ALDH2 genotypes on alcohol sensitivity and alcohol-drinking behavior. We also show that lymphocytes from habitual drinkers with the deficient ALDH2 enzyme had significantly higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges than those from ALDH2-proficient individuals. PMID:8781384

  14. Drinking Behaviors and Life Course Socioeconomic Status During the Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood Among Whites and Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Ford, Chandra L; Grella, Christine E; Mulia, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to determine how socioeconomic status (SES) changes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood, and to understand the effects of SES on drinking behaviors in early adulthood among U.S. Whites and Blacks. Method: Secondary data analysis was conducted using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a school-based sample of adolescents (Grades 7–12) followed through adulthood (age range: 25–31 years). Through latent class analysis, SES was operationalized as economic (i.e., income, home ownership) and human capital (i.e., education, occupation). Drinking behavior was categorized into no past-year use, current drinking without weekly heavy episodic drinking (HED), and weekly HED. Models were stratified by race: Whites (n = 5,248) and Blacks (n = 1,875). Results: For Whites, four economic capital groups (persistently low, upward, downward, and persistently high) and five human capital groups (persistently low, upward with work, upward with school, downward with work, and persistently high) were found. Blacks had roughly similar SES groups as Whites but with lower economic and human capital levels across all groups and without downward groups in either domain. Among both Whites and Blacks, lower economic and human capital groups reported higher abstinence. Persistently low Blacks, however, reported higher HED, whereas persistently low Whites did not. Moreover, economically upward Whites reported lower HED, whereas upwardly mobile Blacks did not. Conclusions: Racial disparities were evident by economic and human capital during the transition into adulthood. Although abstinence profiles were similar for Whites and Blacks, both persistently low and upward trajectory groups signified differential HED risks. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which SES trajectories affect drinking behaviors. PMID:25486395

  15. College Students' Drinking and Posting About Alcohol: Forwarding a Model of Motivations, Behaviors, and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey K

    2016-06-01

    College drinking continues to remain a public health problem that has been exacerbated by alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNSs). Although existing research has linked alcohol consumption, alcohol posts, and adverse consequences to one another, comprehensive explanations for these associations have been largely unexplored. Thus, we reasoned that students' personal motivations (i.e., espousing an alcohol identity, needing entertainment, and adhering to social norms) influence their behaviors (i.e., alcohol consumption and alcohol-related posting on SNSs), which can lead to alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 364 undergraduate students and found general support for our model. In particular, espousing an alcohol identity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting, needing entertainment predicted alcohol consumption but not alcohol-related SNS posting, and adhering to social norms predicted alcohol-related SNS posting but not alcohol consumption. In turn, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting predicted alcohol problems. It is surprising that alcohol-related SNS posting was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems than alcohol consumption. We discuss the findings within their applied applications for college student health. PMID:27186824

  16. Targeted Naltrexone Treatment Moderates the Relations Between Mood and Drinking Behavior Among Problem Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, Henry P.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fifty-three problem drinkers were randomly assigned to receive naltrexone 50 mg or placebo on a daily or targeted (to high-risk drinking situations) basis. Using structured nightly diaries, participants recorded negative and positive mood, desire to drink, and alcohol consumption over 8 weeks. Results indicated that individuals engaged…

  17. The Effect of a Birthday Card Intervention on 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.; Lee, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21st birthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher…

  18. Stop the Drinking Driver: A Behavioral School-Based Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bruce A.; Dowrick, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    Presents drinking and driving project focusing on friends and peers of high risk teenage drivers using modeling, positive peer pressure, and assertive skills training. Program includes schoolwide assembly and classroom development of strategies to prevent friends from drinking and driving. Evaluation survey results indicated that majority of…

  19. Does Religious Involvement Protect against Early Drinking? A Behavior Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent involvement in religious organizations has been hypothesized to protect against early age at first drink. However, the correlation between adolescent religiosity and later age at first drink may be confounded by environmental or genetic differences between families. This study tests whether, after controlling for shared…

  20. Proximal Norms, Selected Sociodemographics, and Drinking Behavior among University Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Paladino, Derrick A.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined social norm theory with subpopulations of college students. In this study, the authors examined the relationships between social norms and student-athlete drinking. Results suggest drinking is a function of proximal norms, particularly related to teammates. Implications for counselor interventions are discussed. (Contains…

  1. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gina M; Stewart, William N; Savage, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6-8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood-EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  2. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Gina M.; Stewart, William N.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6–8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood–EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  3. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  4. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors. PMID:24726583

  5. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  6. Predicting the potential for risky behavior among those "too young" to drink as the result of appealing advertising.

    PubMed

    Austin, E W; Knaus, C

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 273 children in Washington state used a predrinking behavior index as a behavioral outcome to assess media effects on precursors to drinking among children for whom alcohol consumption is not yet occurring. It also examined age trends in relevant beliefs and behaviors. Perceptions of advertising desirability, the extent to which it seemed appealing, increased steadily from third to ninth grade, whereas identification with portrayals, the degree to which individuals wanted to emulate portrayals, leveled off after sixth grade. Expectancies, positive social benefits perceived to be associated with drinking alcohol, also increased with age, particularly between sixth and ninth grade. When demographics and grade level were controlled, desirability predicted identification, and both predicted expectancies, which is consistent with media decision-making theory. Expectancies correlated with alcohol predrinking behavior, and expectancies predicted risky behavior, with demographics and grade level controlled. Predrinking behavior and reported risky behavior were correlated. The results provide cross-sectional support for the view that beliefs and desires developing by third grade prime children for future decisions regarding substance use. PMID:10848029

  7. Predicting university undergraduates' binge-drinking behavior: a comparative test of the one- and two-component theories of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark A; Ainsworth, Kirsty

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a comparative test of the one- and two-component theories of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of university undergraduates' binge-drinking. Participants (N=120) self-completed questionnaire measures of all TPB constructs at time 1 and subsequent binge-drinking at time 2 (two-weeks later). The data were analyzed using a combination of path analyses and bootstrapping procedures. Both models accounted for a substantial proportion of the variation in behavior. However, the two-component TPB provided a significantly better fit to the data, with the total direct and indirect effects accounting for 90% of the variance. Intention was the only direct predictor of behavior. Instrumental attitude, affective attitude and self-efficacy had indirect effects. Although health interventions could usefully target these cognitive antecedents, simulation analyses, modeling the effects of cognition change on behavior, showed that only large-sized (0.8 SD) changes to affective attitude, or moderate-sized changes to all of these cognitions in combination were sufficient to reduce binge-drinking. PMID:21945010

  8. The Present Projects Past Behavior into the Future while the Past Projects Attitudes into the Future: How Verb Tense Moderates Predictors of Drinking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo; Fernández, Itziar; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined how the use of the present versus the past tense in recalling a past experience influences behavioral intentions. Experiment 1 revealed a stronger influence of past behaviors on drinking intentions when participants self-reported an episode of excessive drinking using the present tense. Correspondingly, there was a stronger influence of attitudes towards excessive drinking when participants self-reported the episode in the past tense. Experiments 2 and 3 liked this effect to changes in construal level (Liberman, Trope, & Stephan, 2007; Trope & Liberman, 2003), with the present tense being similar to a concrete construal level and the past tense being similar to an abstract construal level. PMID:23606757

  9. Cued Recall of Alcohol Advertising on Television and Underage Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; McClure, Auden C.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. OBJECTIVE To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. RESULTS Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15–17, 18–20, and 21–23 years of age; P < .005). The transition to binge and hazardous drinking occurred for 29% and 18% of

  10. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse. PMID:16784353

  11. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students

    PubMed Central

    NASUI, Bogdana Adriana; POPA, Monica; POPESCU, Codruta Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. Results The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Conclusion Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students’ alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour.

  12. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use. PMID:26324872

  13. An Event-Level Analysis of Drinking Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Anne Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that alcohol use is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States and results in approximately 79,000 deaths annually. College students are at particular risk of alcohol-related consequences due to their heavy drinking tendencies, with multiple studies indicating over 40%…

  14. Differences in College Greek Members' Binge Drinking Behaviors: A Dry/Wet House Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Furr, Susan

    2015-01-01

    College Greek life students self-report high rates of binge drinking and experience more alcohol-related problems than students who are not members of the Greek system. But little research has been conducted to measure differences in alcohol-free housing (dry) and alcohol-allowed housing (wet). The purpose of this quantitative study was to…

  15. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  16. A Study To Determine the Drinking Patterns and Related Behaviors of SEEK Program Students. Societal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Nathaniel A.; Cooper, Phyllis

    This study was aimed at determining the need for development of an alcohol education program for Search for Education, Elevation, and Knowledge (SEEK) students at New York City Technical College. College students (N=105) were surveyed to assess preferences for beer, wine or liquor; frequency of consumption; reasons for drinking; and the…

  17. The Role of Monthly Spending Money in College Student Drinking Behaviors and Their Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara Alvarez; McCoy, Thomas P.; Champion, Heather; Parries, Maria T.; DuRant, Robert H.; Mitra, Ananda; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use among college students is pervasive and affected by economic factors such as personal income and alcohol price. The authors examined the relationship among students' spending money, drinking rate, and alcohol-related consequences. Participants: In 2005, the authors conducted a Web-based survey among a random sample of 3,634…

  18. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L.; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms. PMID:24078780

  19. Genotypic and sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-induced anxiolysis in high drinking in the dark selected mice

    PubMed Central

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid in humans. In rodent lines selected for alcohol drinking, differences in anxiety-like behavior have also been seen. The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) lines of mice have been selectively bred for drinking to intoxication during limited access to alcohol, and these mice represent a genetic model of risk for binge-like drinking. The present studies sought to determine whether these selected lines differ in basal anxiety or in anxiolytic response to alcohol, and if so, whether these differences might contribute to the high drinking phenotype. We also assessed the genetic correlation between alcohol drinking in the dark (DID) and basal anxiety-like behavior using existing inbred strain data. Male and female mice of both HDID replicates (HDID-1 and HDID-2) were tested on an elevated zero maze (EZM) immediately following a DID test. HDID mice of both replicates and sexes showed more time spent in the open arms after drinking alcohol than HS mice, and open-arm time was significantly correlated with blood alcohol concentration. HDID-1 male mice also showed less anxiety-like behavior at baseline (water-drinking controls). In a separate experiment, HDID-1 and HS mice were tested for anxiolytic dose–response to acute alcohol injections. Both genotypes showed increasing time spent in the open arms with increasing alcohol doses, and HDID-1 and female mice had greater open-arm time across all doses. HDID-1 male saline-treated control animals showed lower baseline anxiety-like behavior than the HS control males. Inbred strain data analysis also showed no significant genetic relationship between alcohol DID and anxiety. These findings suggest that selection for drinking to intoxication has not produced systematic changes in anxiety-like behavior or sensitivity to alcohol-induced anxiolysis in the HDID animals, though there is a tendency in the male mice of the first replicate toward reduced basal anxiety

  20. Ketamine and MAG Lipase Inhibitor-Dependent Reversal of Evolving Depressive-Like Behavior During Forced Abstinence From Alcohol Drinking.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Katherine M; Wilson, Hadley H; Fetterly, Tracy L; Bluett, Rebecca J; Centanni, Samuel W; Gilfarb, Rachel A; Rocco, Lauren E R; Patel, Sachin; Winder, Danny G

    2016-07-01

    Although alcoholism and depression are highly comorbid, treatment options that take this into account are lacking, and mouse models of alcohol (ethanol (EtOH)) intake-induced depressive-like behavior have not been well established. Recent studies utilizing contingent EtOH administration through prolonged two-bottle choice access have demonstrated depression-like behavior following EtOH abstinence in singly housed female C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we found that depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) is revealed only after a protracted (2 weeks), but not acute (24 h), abstinence period. No effect on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM was observed. Further, we found that, once established, the affective disturbance is long-lasting, as we observed significantly enhanced latencies to approach food even 35 days after ethanol withdrawal in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). We were able to reverse affective disturbances measured in the NSFT following EtOH abstinence utilizing the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist and antidepressant ketamine but not memantine, another NMDAR antagonist. Pretreatment with the monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase inhibitor JZL-184 also reduced affective disturbances in the NSFT in ethanol withdrawn mice, and this effect was prevented by co-administration of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant. Endocannabinoid levels were decreased within the BLA during abstinence compared with during drinking. Finally, we demonstrate that the depressive behaviors observed do not require a sucrose fade and that this drinking paradigm may favor the development of habit-like EtOH consumption. These data could set the stage for developing novel treatment approaches for alcohol-withdrawal-induced mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26751284

  1. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  2. “I Thought There Was No Hope for Me”: A Behavioral Intervention for Urban Mothers With Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    de Guzman, Rebecca; Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Young, Rebecca; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Arredondo, Gricel; Riedel, Marion

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate the effects of a behavioral intervention for mothers with problem drinking who were infected with, or at risk for, HIV. They randomly selected 25 mothers from a larger longitudinal randomized controlled intervention trial for a qualitative interview. The authors found that mothers’ participation in the program was facilitated by the development of a strong therapeutic alliance with the intervention facilitator and the use of a harm reduction approach toward alcohol and/or drug abuse. Mothers also reported that training in coping skills and the emphasis on parent-adolescent relationships were beneficial for program engagement and behavior change. The authors conclude from these results that treatment approaches that take into account the complexity of urban mothers’ lives and substance use patterns can successfully engage and treat these women at high risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:17038756

  3. Protective behavioral strategies when drinking alcohol and their relationship to negative alcohol-related consequences in college students.

    PubMed

    Martens, Matthew P; Taylor, Kari K; Damann, Krista M; Page, Jennifer C; Mowry, Emily S; Cimini, M Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Prior research has examined a number of individual characteristics (e.g., gender, family connectedness) that protect individuals from engaging in heavy drinking and experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, but less is known about specific behavioral strategies that might also serve as protective factors. In this study, 556 undergraduate students completed the National College Health Assessment (American College Health Association, 2000) and answered questions regarding the use of specific protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences. Results indicated that less frequent use of PBS was related to a greater likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, even after accounting for the effects of gender and alcohol consumption. These results suggest that PBS may be an important component of both prevention and treatment programs for college students. PMID:15631613

  4. Risks of underage drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, too much alcohol damages brain cells. This can lead to behavior problems and lasting damage to memory, thinking, and judgment. Teens who drink tend to do poorly in school and their behaviors may get them into trouble.

  5. At-risk drinking and injection and sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive injection drug users entering drug treatment in New York City.

    PubMed

    Arasteh, Kamyar; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2009-08-01

    We analyzed data from 1253 HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) entering detoxification or methadone maintenance treatment in New York City between 1990 and 2004 to assess HIV risk behaviors and their association with at-risk drinking (defined as more than 14 drinks per week for males or 7 drinks per week for females) and intoxication. Most (81%) of the participants were male, 50% were Hispanic, and 36% African American. The average age of respondents was 40 years. Injection risk behaviors that were examined were distributive sharing of needles/syringes and distributive sharing of needles/syringes with multiple IDUs. Sexual risk behaviors included multiple sex partners, engaging in unprotected sex, and among women, engaging in trade sex. After adjusting for the effects of other variables, at-risk drinking among cocaine injectors was associated with distributive sharing of needles/syringes. At-risk drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected sex with a casual partner. Finally, among cocaine injectors alcohol intoxication during the most recent sex episode was associated with unprotected sex with a casual partner. These observations indicate that among HIV-positive IDUs at-risk drinking is associated with higher rates of injection and sexual risk behaviors and that alcohol intoxication is related to unprotected sex. PMID:19591610

  6. Effects of sex and deletion of neuropeptide Y2 receptors from GABAergic neurons on affective and alcohol drinking behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Nora M.; Sprow, Gretchen M.; Delpire, Eric; Thiele, Todd E.; Kash, Thomas L.; Pleil, Kristen E.

    2013-01-01

    A large literature has demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates many emotional and reward-related behaviors via its primary receptors, Y1R and Y2R. Classically, NPY actions at postsynaptic Y1R decrease anxiety, depression, and alcohol drinking, while its actions at presynaptic Y2R produce the opposite behavioral phenotypes. However, emerging evidence suggests that activation of Y2R can also produce anxiolysis in a brain region and neurotransmitter system-dependent fashion. Further, numerous human and rodent studies have reported that females display higher levels of anxiety, depression, and alcohol drinking. In this study, we evaluated sex differences and the role of Y2R on GABAergic transmission in these behaviors using a novel transgenic mouse that lacks Y2R specifically in VGAT-expressing neurons (VGAT-Y2R knockout). First, we confirmed our genetic manipulation by demonstrating that Y2R protein expression was decreased and that a Y2R agonist could not alter GABAergic transmission in the extended amygdala, a limbic brain region critically implicated in the regulation of anxiety and alcohol drinking behaviors, using immunofluorescence and slice electrophysiology. Then, we tested male and female VGAT-Y2R knockout mice on a series of behavioral assays for anxiety, depression, fear, anhedonia, and alcohol drinking. We found that females displayed greater basal anxiety, higher levels of ethanol consumption, and faster fear conditioning than males, and that knockout mice exhibited enhanced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Together, these results confirm previous studies that demonstrate higher expression of negative affective and alcohol drinking behaviors in females than males, and they highlight the importance of Y2R function in GABAergic systems in the expression of depressive-like behavior. PMID:24399943

  7. Alcohol and caffeine use by social phobics: an initial inquiry into drinking patterns and behavior.

    PubMed

    Holle, C; Heimberg, R G; Sweet, R A; Holt, C S

    1995-06-01

    Social phobics are often fearful that their anxiety symptoms will cause them embarrassment and lead to negative evaluation from others. Thus, it was hypothesized that they might attempt to control the intake of substances such as alcohol and caffeine that may affect their anxiety in social situations. The current investigation sought to determine, via a self-report questionnaire, whether the alcohol and caffeine consumption patterns of social phobics differ from those of community controls in terms of typical and greatest weekly quantities and how social phobics differ from controls in alcohol and caffeine use in a variety of socially threatening and nonthreatening situations. Social phobics reported less typical weekly beverage consumption than community subjects. Specifically, social phobics reported less consumption of wine and liqueur than community subjects but did not differ from community subjects in typical weekly consumption of caffeinated beverages. Further, social phobics reported a significantly greater intent to drink alcohol while in social situations involving strangers and significantly less intent to drink caffeinated coffee in meetings than did community subjects. Finally, a number of gender differences were found for both alcohol and caffeine consumption in specific situations, and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:7598678

  8. Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

    2002-01-01

    Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes. PMID:12379053

  9. High-risk cocktails and high-risk sex: examining the relation between alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption, sexual behavior, and drug use in college students.

    PubMed

    Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption has garnered considerable attention in the literature in recent years. Drinking AmED beverages has been associated with a host of negative outcomes. The present study sought to examine associations between AmED consumption and high-risk sexual behaviors in a sample of young adults. Participants (N=704; 59.9% female) completed an online survey assessing AmED consumption, other drug use, and sexual behavior. A total of 19.4% of the entire sample (and 28.8% of those who reported using alcohol) reported consuming AmED. Participants who reported consuming AmED were significantly more likely to report marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy use. Those who reported consuming AmED also had increased odds of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex while under the influence of drugs, and sex after having too much to drink. Relationships between AmED consumption and sexual behavior remained significant after accounting for the influence of demographic factors and other substance use. Results add to the literature documenting negative consequences for AmED consumers, which may include alcohol dependence, binge drinking, and the potential for sexually transmitted infections via high-risk sexual behavior. PMID:23006245

  10. Drinking Behavior from High School to Young Adulthood: Differences by College Education

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Tang, Xianli

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent serious alcohol-related events have raised public awareness of the prevalence of at-risk alcohol use among college undergraduates, but heavy alcohol consumption during late adolescence and young adulthood is not limited to college students. Alcohol consumption typically peaks in young adulthood regardless of education level, and risks related to alcohol misuse are shared by young adults, regardless of their educational choices. Differences in alcohol risk between college-attending and non-college-attending young adults are generally small, and emphasize the need for research examining the drinking patterns of both of these groups. Methods: To better understand patterns of at-risk alcohol use and its association with education, this study compared at-risk alcohol use from 12th grade to young adulthood (age 24) in a sample of never-married young adults. Three groups were formed based on completed education when the survey was administered in young adulthood: high school or less, postsecondary education without a four-year college degree, and completed college. Results: Men who completed college experienced the greatest increase in at-risk drinking from grade 12 to young adulthood; however, their at-risk alcohol use did not differ markedly from men in the other education groups in young adulthood. Men who did not complete college had high levels of alcohol risk in 12th grade and maintained or increased those levels in young adulthood, demonstrating a pattern of prolonged risk. Women whose completed education was high school or less experienced the fewest increases in at-risk alcohol use. Education group differences were not explained by place of residence or employment status. Conclusions: These results emphasize the need to intervene early to prevent at-risk alcohol use, and emphasize that at-risk alcohol use is neither unique, nor necessarily the highest among individuals who complete college. PMID:16385187

  11. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. PMID:27090705

  12. Drinking behavior in nursery pigs: Determining the accuracy between an automatic water meter versus human observers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assimilating accurate behavioral events over a long period can be labor intensive and relatively expensive. If an automatic device could accurately record the duration and frequency for a given behavioral event, it would be a valuable alternative to the traditional use of human observers for behavio...

  13. From In-Session Behaviors to Drinking Outcomes: A Causal Chain for Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Martin, Tim; Houck, Jon M.; Christopher, Paulette J.; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Client speech in favor of change within motivational interviewing sessions has been linked to treatment outcomes, but a causal chain has not yet been demonstrated. Using a sequential behavioral coding system for client speech, the authors found that, at both the session and utterance levels, specific therapist behaviors predict client change talk.…

  14. A Study of the Relationship Between Protective Behaviors and Drinking Consequences Among Undergraduate College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.; Harrison, Dianne F.; Wilke, Dina; Jackson, D. Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The authors identified the number, type, and frequency of protective behaviors that undergraduate college students who consume alcohol use to prevent alcohol-related consequences. Their hypothesis was that students who engage in more types of protective behaviors with greater frequency would be less likely to experience alcohol-related…

  15. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

  17. Validation of a water HOBO and the Noldus Observer for drinking behavior in the nursery pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collecting accurate behavioral events for extended periods can be time consuming. If a device could accurately record duration and frequency for a behavioral event, this would provide a useful research tool. The objectives of this study were to determine the accuracy of an automatic water meter comp...

  18. Emotionally Up and Down, Behaviorally to and fro: Drinking Motives Mediate the Synergistic Effects of Urgency and Emotional Instability on Alcohol Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of "Diagnostic…

  19. The Influence of Curricular-Based Interventions within First-Year "Success" Courses on Student Alcohol Expectancies and Engagement in High-Risk Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Hourigan, Aimee J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of curricular-based interventions housed within first-year success courses on alcohol expectancies and high-risk drinking behaviors. Specifically, we longitudinally assessed 173 students enrolled in one of ten first-year success courses, including five that received the alcohol intervention and…

  20. The transition from primary to secondary school as stressful life event provoking risky drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Junge, Claudia; Krienke, Ute J; Böhme, Karin; Prüß, Franz; Sander, Aleksandra; Niemann, Jörg; Langosch, Jens M

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on a drug prevention project for children in the German-Polish border region known as "Pomerania." The aim of this project was to minimize risk behaviors while developing social skills as protective factors through project-specific training interventions. The present study especially investigates the development of social skills and risk behaviors at German and Polish primary schools in the critical transitional period from primary to secondary school. Data on German 4th graders and Polish 6th graders were collected by means of a longitudinal and control group design through 3rd-party assessment from teachers. The data on social skills was collected through the use of standardized assessment instruments. The study established that social skills could indeed be increased through training and that risk behaviors decreased in both of the treatment groups. The control group showed altogether an increase in risk behavior and a decrease in coping skills. In the Polish treatment group, even risk behaviors which had been detected previously decreased. The German control group showed an increase in risk behaviors and a decrease in coping skills. In the case of the younger German pupils, the effectiveness of the interventions was exhibited indirectly. Despite variations in age and cultural differences, the effects of training were noticeable in children from both countries. The intervention program offered the children adequate assistance in order to successfully cope with this stressful life event. It promoted the development of social skills while minimizing risk behaviors. PMID:26745346

  1. "Binge" Drinking: Not the Word of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…

  2. Associations of subclinical hypocalcemia at calving with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and standing behaviors around parturition in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jawor, P E; Huzzey, J M; LeBlanc, S J; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations of subclinical hypocalcemia with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and resting behavior during the period around calving. Blood was sampled within 24h of calving and analyzed for serum total calcium. Fifteen Holstein dairy cows were classified as having subclinical hypocalcemia (serum calcium concentration ≤ 1.8 mmol/L, without clinical milk fever) and were matched with 15 control cows (serum calcium concentration >1.8 mmol/L) based on parity and presence of other diseases. Daily feeding and drinking behavior were monitored using an electronic feeding system (Insentec, BV, Marknesse, the Netherlands) and summarized by week relative to calving (wk -3, -2, -1, +1, +2, and +3). Standing behavior was monitored from 7 d before until 7 d after calving using dataloggers. Daily milk yields were obtained for all cows up to 280 d in milk (DIM). These data were summarized by week for the first 4 wk of lactation to assess short-term differences in milk yield, and were summarized into 4-wk periods to assess long-term (280 DIM) differences in milk yield between groups. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia produced, on average, 5.7 kg/d more milk during wk 2, 3, and 4 compared with control cows; however, only subclinically hypocalcemic cows in their third lactation sustained greater milk yields throughout 280 DIM. Despite greater milk yield during the weeks following calving, cows with subclinical hypocalcemia did not consume more water after calving and tended to have greater dry matter intake only during wk 2. However, these animals made fewer visits to the water bins during the first 2 wk after calving and tended to make fewer visits to the feed bins during wk 1 and 3, suggesting that they used these resources more efficiently. Dry matter intake was, on average, 1.7 kg/d greater during wk -2 and -1 among cows subsequently diagnosed with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with control cows but neither group was

  3. Teenage Drinking and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lis-Marie

    1975-01-01

    This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)

  4. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  5. Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  6. Having friends and feeling lonely: a daily process examination of transient loneliness, socialization, and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Arpin, Sarah N; Mohr, Cynthia D; Brannan, Debi

    2015-05-01

    Loneliness is a well-known indicator of relationship deficits, with potentially severe consequences on health and well-being (Perlman & Peplau, 1981). Research has used cross-sectional methods to examine behavioral consequences of loneliness (e.g., Cacioppo et al., 2002). However, within-person associations between daily fluctuations in loneliness and subsequent behavioral outcomes have yet to be explored. Using a sample of community-dwelling adults, the authors examined associations between daily loneliness on daily time with others, and subsequent context-specific alcohol consumption (i.e., social and solitary consumption), and individual differences in these patterns of behavior. Daytime loneliness significantly and uniquely predicted patterns of social behavior and context-specific consumption; time with others mediated loneliness-social consumption associations, but not loneliness-solitary consumption relationships. These findings contribute to existing literature by demonstrating the unique properties of solitary versus social consumption as behavioral responses to loneliness, thus addressing inconsistent findings regarding the effects of loneliness on alcohol consumption. PMID:25758705

  7. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2016-09-15

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4(+) removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4(+) loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4(+) removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4(+) removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4(+) removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4(+) removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4(+). Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified. PMID:27295615

  8. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men☆

    PubMed Central

    Icard, Larry D.; Jemmott, John B.; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G. Anita

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18–45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455

  9. [A teaching-learning experience: changes in beliefs and behaviors in the management of drinking water].

    PubMed

    Rancich, A M; Ferrarini, S O; Homero Palma, N

    1989-06-01

    It was studied a change in the children's beliefs and behaviour with regard to their handling of drinking-water by using a teaching-learning experience by means of microscopic observation of polluted water. A structured pre-test on problem-solving were administered to 63 6th and 7th grade elementary school children (28 boys and 35 girls). An of these children came from an underprivileged population in the north of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Their average age was of 12 years 8 months and SD = 1 year 1 month. Each adequate aspect of their behaviour scored one point: hygiene and protection of containers for collection and storage, water treatment (boiling or the addition of chlorine) and the conservation period. The best beliefs ("to avoid the water contamination that produces illness") scored two points. The number of pupils that changed their beliefs and and behaviour in the post-test was established and the significant difference was found by means of Chi square test (X2). The children did not, in general, improve their behaviour or beliefs. They maintained adequate hygienic behaviour, but did not put into practice the protection of the containers used for the collection. Behaviour regarding storage was still inadequate. The pupils did acquire correct behaviour as regards storage was still inadequate. The pupils did acquire correct behaviour as regards treatment by the boiling of water or the addition of chlorine (P less than 0.01). However, the beliefs involved did not change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2617112

  10. A Behavioral Economic Reward Index Predicts Drinking Resolutions: Moderation Revisited and Compared with Other Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Roth, David L.; Vignolo, Mary J.; Westfall, Andrew O.

    2009-01-01

    Data were pooled from 3 studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1- to 2-year prospective follow-up…

  11. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced. PMID:27180911

  12. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons’ Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954

  13. Teenage Drinking: Does Advertising Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed teenagers (grades 7-12) about their drinking behavior, their exposure to alcohol advertising, relevant demographic information, and other communication influences. Concluded that exposure to alcohol advertising is significantly associated with teenage drinking behavior and intentions. (PD)

  14. Continuous and Intermittent Alcohol Free-Choice from Pre-gestational Time to Lactation: Focus on Drinking Trajectories and Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brancato, Anna; Plescia, Fulvio; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation induces detrimental consequences, that are not limited to the direct in utero effects of the drug on fetuses, but extend to maternal care. However, the occurrence and severity of alcohol toxicity are related to the drinking pattern and the time of exposure. The present study investigated in female rats long-term alcohol drinking trajectories, by a continuous and intermittent free-choice paradigm, during pre-gestational time, pregnancy, and lactation; moreover, the consequences of long-term alcohol consumption on the response to natural reward and maternal behavior were evaluated. Methods: Virgin female rats were exposed to home-cage two-bottle continuous- or intermittent “alcohol (20% v/v) vs. water” choice regimen along 12 weeks and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Animals were tested for saccharin preference, and maternal behavior was assessed by recording dams' undisturbed spontaneous home-cage behavior in the presence of their offspring. Results: Our results show that the intermittent alcohol drinking-pattern induced an escalation in alcohol intake during pre-gestational time and lactation more than the continuous access, while a reduction in alcohol consumption was observed during pregnancy, contrarily to the drinking trajectories of the continuous access-exposed rats. Long-term voluntary alcohol intake induced a decreased saccharin preference in virgin female rats and a significant reduction in maternal care, with respect to control dams, although the intermittent drinking produced a greater impairment than the continuous-access paradigm. Conclusion: The present data indicate that both alcohol-drinking patterns are associated to modifications in the drinking trajectories of female rats, in pre-gestational time, during pregnancy and lactation. Moreover, long-lasting alcohol intake can affect sensitivity to natural rewarding stimuli and maternal behavior and sensitivity to natural rewarding

  15. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on drinking behavior in college students of African descent.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Williams, Carla; Armeli, Stephen; Taylor, Robert E; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Covault, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Covault et al. [Covault et al. (2007); Biol Psychiatry 61(5): 609-616] reported that the common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene moderated the association between past-year stressful events and daily reports of drinking in a sample of European-American (EA) college students. We examined this effect in college students of African descent. Students recruited at a Historically Black University (n = 564) completed web-based measures of past-year stressful life experiences and daily reports of drinking and heavy drinking over a 30-day period. Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and dichotomized as low-activity S' allele carriers or high-activity L' homozygotes. Generalized linear models were used to examine the effects of life stress, genotype, and their interaction on the two drinking measures. In students who completed 15 or more daily surveys (n = 393), there was a significant interaction of past-year stressful events, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and gender on the number of drinking days (P = 0.002). Similar findings were obtained in relation to heavy drinking days (P = 0.007). Men showed a main effect of past-year stressful events on both drinking outcomes (P's < 0.001), but no main or moderator effects of genotype. In women, the S' allele moderated the impact of past-year life stressors on the frequency of drinking and heavy drinking days (P's < 0.001). In college students of African descent, past-year stressful events were associated with more frequent drinking and heavy drinking, an effect that was moderated by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. However, in contrast to the findings in EA students, in the current sample, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association only among women. PMID:22488930

  16. Effects of central administration of oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin on chronic inflammation and feeding/drinking behaviors in adjuvant arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takanori; Kawasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Motojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Ueno, Hiromichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Sabanai, Ken; Mori, Toshiharu; Ohnishi, Hideo; Sakai, Akinori; Ueta, Yoichi

    2016-05-16

    An increase in the arthritis index as a marker of chronic inflammation and suppression of food intake are observed in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rats. Our previous study demonstrated that central oxytocin (OXT)-ergic pathways were activated potently in AA rats. In the present study, OXT-saporin (SAP) cytotoxin, which chemically disrupts OXT signaling was administered centrally to determine whether central OXT may be involved in the developments of chronic inflammation and alteration of feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. The arthritis index was significantly enhanced in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered intrathecally (i.t.) but not intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Suppression of food intake was significantly attenuated transiently in AA rats pretreated with OXT-SAP administered i.c.v. but not i.t. Suppression of drinking behavior was not affected by i.t. or i.c.v. administration of OXT-SAP in AA rats. In addition, intraperitoneal administration of an OXT receptor antagonist did not change the arthritis index or feeding/drinking behavior in AA rats. These results suggest that central OXT-ergic pathways may be involved in anti-inflammation at the spinal level and suppression of feeding behavior at the forebrain-brainstem level in AA rats. PMID:27060190

  17. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  18. Perceived Sexual Benefits of Alcohol Use among Recent High School Graduates: Longitudinal Associations with Drinking Behavior and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In this research study of 153 college-bound students, perceived sexual benefits of alcohol use were associated with greater drinking and related consequences during the senior year of high school and freshman year of college. Perceived benefits predicted drinking outcomes during fall after adjustment for gender, sensation seeking, parental…

  19. Using the theory of planned behavior to explain the drinking motivations of social, high-risk, and extreme drinkers on game day.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert E; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, Jeffrey M; Miller, E Maureen

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed the extent to which the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) correctly predicted college student's motivation to consume alcohol on game day based on alcohol consumption rates. Three cohorts of 1,000 participants each (N = 3,000) were randomly selected and invited to complete an anonymous web-based survey the Monday following one of three designated college home football games. Path analyses were conducted to determine which of the TPB constructs were most effective in predicting Behavioral Intention and alcohol consumption among social, high-risk, and extreme drinkers. Social drinkers, high-risk, and those drinkers who engage in Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption (ERAC) were defined as males who consumed 1-4, 5-9, or 10 or more drinks on game day (1-3, 4-8, or nine or more drinks for females), respectively. Attitude Towards the Behavior and Subjective Norm constructs predicted participant's intentions to consume alcohol and corresponding behavior among all three classifications of drinkers; whereas the Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) construct inconsistently predicted intention and alcohol consumption. Based on Behavioral Intention, the proportion of variance the TPB model explained decreased as participants alcohol consumption increased. It appears that the TPB constructs Attitude Toward the Behavior and Subjective Norm can effectively be utilized when designing universal prevention interventions targeting game day alcohol consumption among college students. However, the applicability of the PBC construct remains in question. While select constructs in the TPB appear to have predictive ability, the usefulness of the complete theoretical framework is limited when trying to predict high-risk drinking and ERAC. These findings suggest that other behavioral theories should be considered when addressing the needs of high-risk and extreme drinkers. PMID:20013062

  20. Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984–2010

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Kerr, William C.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women. Methods Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed. Results Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men. Conclusions Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes. PMID:25395917

  1. Age at First Alcoholic Drink as Predictor of Current HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a Sample of Injection Drug Users (IDUs) and Non-IDUs who are Sexual Partners of IDUs, in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Toussova, Olga V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Heimer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether age at first alcoholic drink is associated with sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs who are sexual partners of IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. A path analysis was used to test a model of age at first drink, age at sexual debut, age at first drug use, current substance use patterns and current sexual risk behaviors among 558 participants. Results revealed that age at first drink had an effect on multiple sex partners through age at sexual debut and injection drug use, but no effect on unprotected sex. Age at first drug use was not related to sexual risk behaviors. Investigation of age of drinking onset may provide useful information for programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use. Different paths leading to unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners call for different approaches to reduce sexual risk behaviors among this population. PMID:21800183

  2. Acamprosate {monocalcium bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate)} reduces ethanol-drinking behavior in rats and glutamate-induced toxicity in ethanol-exposed primary rat cortical neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Oka, Michiko; Hirouchi, Masaaki; Tamura, Masaru; Sugahara, Seishi; Oyama, Tatsuya

    2013-10-15

    Acamprosate, the calcium salt of bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate), contributes to the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients, but its mechanism of action in the central nervous system is unclear. Here, we report the effect of acamprosate on ethanol-drinking behavior in standard laboratory Wistar rats, including voluntary ethanol consumption and the ethanol-deprivation effect. After forced ethanol consumption arranged by the provision of only one drinking bottle containing 10% ethanol, the rats were given a choice between two drinking bottles, one containing water and the other containing 10% ethanol. In rats selected for high ethanol preference, repeated oral administration of acamprosate diminished voluntary ethanol drinking. After three months of continuous access to two bottles, rats were deprived of ethanol for three days and then presented with two bottles again. After ethanol deprivation, ethanol preference was increased, and the increase was largely abolished by acamprosate. After exposure of primary neuronal cultures of rat cerebral cortex to ethanol for four days, neurotoxicity, as measured by the extracellular leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was induced by incubation with glutamate for 1h followed by incubation in the absence of ethanol for 24h. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine, the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine and the voltage-gated calcium-channel blocker nifedipine all inhibited glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons. Acamprosate inhibited the glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons more strongly than that from intact neurons. In conclusion, acamprosate showed effective reduction of drinking behavior in rats and protected ethanol-exposed neurons by multiple blocking of glutamate signaling. PMID:24012782

  3. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    We all need to drink water. How much you need depends on your size, activity level, and the weather where you live. The water you drink is a combination of surface water and groundwater. Surface water ...

  4. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health ... interfere with brain development Increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life Kids often begin drinking ...

  5. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... soccer team. When Chet saw Dave pound five beers in 30 minutes at two different parties, he ... in 2 weeks. Why Do People Binge Drink? Liquor stores, bars, and alcoholic beverage companies make drinking ...

  6. Flavored Alcoholic Beverage Use, Risky Drinking Behaviors, and Adverse Outcomes Among Underage Drinkers: Results From the ABRAND Study

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Alison Burke; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between consumption of different types of flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) and risky drinking and drinking-related harms among underage drinkers. Methods. For the Alcohol Brand Research among Underage Youth study, we applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to data from underage drinkers (n = 1031, aged 13–20 years), recruited from a national Internet panel in 2011 to 2012, to estimate associations between consumption of malt-based drinks; spirits-based, premixed- or ready-to-drink cocktails; and supersized alcopops, alone or in combination, and alcohol-related outcomes. Results. After adjustment for confounding variables, the exclusive consumption of alcopops was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 15.31; P < .05) and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 6.25; 95% CI = 1.34, 29.10; P < .05). Exclusive consumption of cocktails was associated with episodic heavy drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.26, 5.41; P < .05) and injuries requiring medical attention (OR = 6.50; 95% CI = 2.09, 20.17; P < .001. Exclusive consumption of 2 or more FABs was associated with episodic heavy drinking (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.25, 6.16; P < .05), fighting (OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.46, 7.47; P < .001), and alcohol-related injuries (OR = 2.83; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.58; P < .001). Conclusions. FABs present an emerging public health problem among youths. PMID:25713955

  7. Underage Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Underage Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Research ... the victim of physical or sexual assault. Underage Drinking Warning Signs Academic and/or behavioral problems Changing ...

  8. Underage Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Underage Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents ... be the victim of physical or sexual assault. Underage Drinking Warning Signs Academic and/or behavioral problems ...

  9. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and…

  10. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed. PMID:24354888

  11. Who Drinks Where: Youth Selection of Drinking Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina F.; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Grube, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. Methods We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol using youths (ages 13–16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in seven contexts were obtained at three annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past year cigarette smoking. Results Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else’s home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else’s home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else’s home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. Conclusions The contexts in which youths consume alcohol changes over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. PMID:25778102

  12. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood

  13. Reduction of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after one month of drinking Aronia melanocarpa berry juice.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Mirko; Ignjatović, Đurđica; Tovilović-Kovačević, Gordana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Ranković, Slavica; Popović, Tamara; Glibetić, Marija

    2016-07-13

    The treatment of mood and anxiety disorders by nutraceuticals is gaining growing awareness. Berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Black chokeberry) and their extracts, exceptionally abundant in diverse phenolic compounds, have become famous for the highest in vitro antioxidant activity among fruits and notable health benefits (e.g. anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective). This study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of month-long unlimited consumption of Aronia master juice (AJ) and/or juice reconstruct without polyphenols (RJ), in young male rats. AJ was initially evaluated for its content of phenolic compounds by spectrophotometric assays and HPLC-DAD. Rats that were supplied with three various water concentrations of AJ and RJ, respectively: 20% + 0% (ARO group), 5% + 15% (RAJ) and 0 + 20% (PLC), were compared with those which consumed only water (CTL). Daily drinking of AJ solution was significantly elevated from the second or third week onward, which was most expressed in the ARO group. Only this group displayed behavioral variations, manifested by certain hyperactivity in open field tests and prominent reductions of anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. The ARO rats also expressed an alleviation of depression-like behavior in forced swimming tests. These findings demonstrate the beneficial behavioral effects of the one-month-long free drinking of phenolic-rich AJ in rats (>20 ml per kg b. mass daily) that may be recognized as stimulating, anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like. The in vitro assays suggested that MAO-A/MAO-B inhibitions by the phenolic compounds of AJ might be the possible in vivo mechanisms for such behavioral actions. PMID:27273205

  14. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  15. College Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... by another student who has been drinking. 4 Sexual Assault About 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 4 What is “binge drinking?” ...

  16. Local 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions of rat amygdala: release of punished drinking, unaffected plus-maze behavior and ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sommer, W; Möller, C; Wiklund, L; Thorsell, A; Rimondini, R; Nissbrandt, H; Heilig, M

    2001-04-01

    Several serotonergic drugs are effective for anxiety disorders, but underlying mechanisms are unclear, and findings in experimental animals are difficult to reconcile with human data. It has been proposed that differential effects of serotonin within specific anatomical systems may account for these difficulties, and the amygdala has been suggested as one of the structures involved. To examine this hypothesis, the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine was administered locally in rat amygdala. Within the amygdala, serotonin was depleted by approximately 80%, with other transmitters unaffected, and serotonin transporter labelling was decreased by approximately 85%. Cortical areas near the lesion site were also affected, although to a lesser degree. Other forebrain areas were unaffected. Lesions resulted in a specific anti-conflict effect in a punished drinking test, but did not influence elevated plus-maze behavior (under baseline conditions and after restraint stress), locomotor activity or ethanol intake. These data suggest that the punished drinking test and the elevated plus-maze may activate different components of fear circuitry, and that the serotonergic input to the amygdala specifically participates in fear-related behavioral suppression mediated by this structure. PMID:11182538

  17. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  18. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

  19. [Self-assessment questionnaire of alcoholic craving (ECCA Questionnaire: Behavior and Cognition in Relation to Alcohol: French translation and validation of the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale].

    PubMed

    Chignon, J M; Jacquesy, L; Mennad, M; Terki, A; Huttin, F; Martin, P; Chabannes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, neurobiological and neuropsychological hypotheses suggest that the dimension of alcohol craving includes the concept of both obsessive thoughts about alcohol use and compulsive behaviors toward drinking. Anton et al. (1995) developed a 14 items self-rating scale, the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) which includes items for assessing three dimensions: global, and the obsessive and the compulsive subdimensions. In this study, we included 156 patients, 105 men and 51 women, who met DSM IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence. The mean age of our population was 39.1 +/- 11.2 years without difference between sexes. We did not found any correlation between the CAGE score and the OCDS total score or the obsessive and compulsive subscores (respectively, r = .15, r = .10 et r = .18). Moreover, we did not found any correlation between OCDS scores and mean daily alcohol consumption (r = .18, r = .16, r = .19). This could indicate that the dimension measured by the scale was somewhat independent of actual drinking. As such, it might act as an independent measure of the "state of illness" for alcohol-dependent patients. The test-retest correlation for the OCDS total score was .95 and the obsessive and compulsive subscales test-retest correlations were .93 and .89 respectively. The internal consistency of the items of the OCDS was high (alpha = .89). Principal component analysis had identified in the french version of the OCDS, three factors accounting for 63.5% of the total variance. These results indicate that the french version of the OCDS seems to validly measure a dimension of alcohol dependence. The ease of administration, reliability, and concurrent validity of the OCDS makes it particularly useful as an outcome measurement tool for various clinical therapeutic protocols in alcoholism. PMID:9850816

  20. Influence of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviors on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre Wang, C.S.; Vigneault, Eric

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of smoking and drinking status in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and Materials: All patients with all stages and sites were included if complete information was available on baseline smoking and alcohol behavior (never, former, active), disease stage, primary site, radiation dose, sex, and age. Treatment was radiotherapy in 973 patients, postoperative radiotherapy in 469, and chemoradiotherapy in 429. Statistical analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox methods. Results: Data from 1,871 patients were available. At baseline, 9% of patients never smoked, 40% were former smokers, and 51% were active smokers; 20% never drank, 25% were former drinkers, and 55% were active drinkers. Smoking was associated with inferior local control and survival. For local control, the hazard ratio (HR) of active smokers vs. former smokers was 1.5 (p = 0.0001). For survival, the HRs of former smokers and active smokers vs. those who never smoked were also statistically significant (1.3 and 1.7, respectively, p = 0.000001). Alcohol drinking was associated with local control (p = 0.03), and was associated with survival. For survival, HRs of former and active drinkers compared with those who never drank were, respectively, 1.1 (p = 0.01) and 1.28 (p = 0.001). Adjusted 5-year local control and survival rates for those who never smoked and never drank were 87% and 77%, respectively, and for those who were both active smokers and active drinkers were 72% (p = 0.007) and 52% (p = 0.0009), respectively. Conclusion: Smoking and drinking at baseline were associated with poor outcomes in these patients.

  1. They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

  2. Impact of Perceived Second-Hand Consequences Related to Alcohol Use on College Students' Drinking Behavior Intent: A Test of Feasibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockel, Mickey; Wall, Andrew; Reis, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to determine the impact of a group discussion about second-hand consequences of alcohol use on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Results reveal that intervention group participants reported intent to limit themselves to fewer drinks per drinking occasion and fewer drinks per week.…

  3. Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving after Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Kim; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Neal, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…

  4. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments Among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and drinking settings of 16,745 undergraduate students. The findings revealed that drinking patterns for intramural/club athletes remained relatively consistent at all quantity levels; however, intercollegiate athletes consumed alcohol in higher quantities. Further, intramural/club athletes drank in almost every drinking setting, whereas intercollegiate athletes were more limited. The drinking patterns and settings suggest a stronger social motivation for drinking among intramural/club athletes than among intercollegiate athletes and point to a need to specify competition level when studying college athletes. PMID:25767148

  5. Job Strain, Depressive Symptoms, and Drinking Behavior Among Older Adults: Results From the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Ratliff, Scott; Zivin, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults. Method. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse. Results. High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99–4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age. Discussion. Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce. PMID:21427175

  6. Fraternity membership and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship that social fraternity and sorority membership has with binge drinking incidence and frequency among 18-24 year old full-time 4-year college students who participated in the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. To net out unobserved heterogeneity, several measures of situational and total alcohol use are entered into the regressions as explanatory variables. Fraternity membership coefficients are substantially reduced in size, but remain large and highly significant, suggesting a causal effect on binge drinking. Otherwise, the estimates identify idiosyncratic selection into fraternities and binge drinking across students with similar overall drinking profiles. Particularly notable is that behavior by underage students appears to drive the relationship. PMID:17320225

  7. Drinking Trajectories Following an Initial Lapse

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Masyn, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse following alcohol treatment is a major problem for individuals who are alcohol dependent, yet little is known about the course of drinking after the initial lapse. In the current study, discrete-time survival analysis and latent growth mixture modeling were used to evaluate the time to first lapse and the trajectories of postlapse drinking in a sample of 563 individuals who received community alcohol treatment. Results showed a decreasing risk of lapsing over time. After the initial lapse, 3 trajectory subgroups provided a parsimonious representation of the heterogeneity in postlapse drinking frequency and quantity, with the majority of individuals reporting light, infrequent drinking. Covariate analyses incorporating demographics, distal risk factors, time to first lapse, and coping behavior as predictors of time to lapse and postlapse drinking trajectories indicated that alcohol dependence and coping behavior were the strongest predictors of lapsing and postlapse drinking behavior. PMID:18540713

  8. Evaluation of guanfacine as a potential medication for alcohol use disorder in long-term drinking rats: behavioral and electrophysiological findings.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Ida; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Wirf, Malin; Nylander, Erik; Nyström, Erica; Jardemark, Kent; Steensland, Pia

    2015-04-01

    One of the main treatment challenges in alcohol use disorder (AUD) is the high rate of craving in combination with decreased cognitive functioning including impaired decision making and impulse control that often lead to relapse. Recent studies show that guanfacine, an α-2-adrenoceptor agonist and FDA-approved ADHD medication, attenuates stress-induced relapse of several drugs of abuse including alcohol. Here we evaluated guanfacine's effects on voluntary alcohol intake, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), alcohol seeking behavior, and cue/priming-induced reinstatement in Wistar rats that had voluntarily consumed alcohol for at least 2 months before treatment. In addition, guanfacine's ability to regulate glutamatergic neurotransmission was evaluated through electrophysiological recordings in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) slices prepared from long-term drinking rats (and alcohol-naive controls) that had received three daily guanfacine (0.6 mg/kg/day) or vehicle injections in vivo. Guanfacine decreased alcohol intake in high, but not low, alcohol-consuming rats and the effects were generally more long lasting than that of the AUD medication naltrexone. Repeated guanfacine treatment induced a long-lasting decrease in alcohol intake, persistent up to five drinking sessions after the last injection. In addition, guanfacine attenuated the ADE as well as alcohol seeking and cue/priming-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Finally, subchronic guanfacine treatment normalized an alcohol-induced dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in the mPFC. These results support previous studies showing that guanfacine has the ability to improve prefrontal connectivity through modulation of the glutamatergic system. Together with the fact that guanfacine appears to be clinically safe, these results merit evaluation of guanfacine's clinical efficacy in AUD individuals. PMID:25359257

  9. New Approaches to Studying Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Methods for Modeling Longitudinal, Categorical Adolescent Drinking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Betsy J.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing problem-behavior trajectories can be difficult. The data are generally categorical and often quite skewed, violating distributional assumptions of standard normal-theory statistical models. In this article, the authors present several currently available modeling options, all of which make appropriate distributional assumptions for the…

  10. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  11. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences. Participants Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods Students completed a web-based survey regarding their high-risk drinking behaviors and calorie restriction on intended drinking days. Results Thirty-nine percent of past 30-day drinkers reported restricting calories on days they planned to drink alcohol, of which 67% restricted because of weight concerns. Restricting calories on drinking days was associated with greater odds of getting drunk in a typical week. Women who restricted were more likely to report memory loss, being injured, being taken advantage of sexually and having unprotected sex while drinking. Men were more likely to get into a physical fight. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of considering weight control behaviors in the examination of high-risk college drinking. PMID:19433398

  12. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  13. ANG II receptor subtype 1a gene knockdown in the subfornical organ prevents increased drinking behavior in bile duct-ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Joseph D.; Nedungadi, T. Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates hemodynamic changes, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia due to increased water intake and vasopressin release. This project tested the hypothesis that angiotensin signaling at the subfornical organ (SFO) augments drinking behavior in BDL rats. A genetically modified adeno-associated virus containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for ANG II receptor subtype 1a (AT1aR) gene was microinjected into the SFO of rats to knock down expression. Two weeks later, BDL or sham surgery was performed. Rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. The rats were euthanized 28 days after BDL surgery for analysis. A group of rats was perfused for immunohistochemistry, and a second group was used for laser-capture microdissection for analysis of SFO AT1aR gene expression. BDL rats showed increased water intake that was attenuated in rats that received SFO microinjection of AT1aR shRNA. Among BDL rats treated with scrambled (control) and AT1aR shRNA, we observed an increased number of vasopressin-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus that colocalized with ΔFosB staining, suggesting increased vasopressin release in both groups. These results indicate that angiotensin signaling through the SFO contributes to increased water intake, but not dilutional hyponatremia, during congestive liver failure. PMID:25009217

  14. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huchting, Karie K.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher…

  15. Alcohol Abuse as a Rite of Passage: The Effect of Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience on Undergraduates' Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative studies of alcohol's ritual influences indicate that college undergraduates who drink heavily tend to view alcohol use as integral to the student role and feel entitled to drink irresponsibly. Our analyses, based on a standardized measure of these beliefs administered to approximately 300 students, confirmed these findings. Among our…

  16. Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Rasul, Jawaid; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Simonsen, Neal; Rommel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of college presidents have endorsed the Amethyst Initiative, a call to consider lowering the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). Our objective is to forecast the effect of the Amethyst Initiative on college drinking. Methods A system model of college drinking siumlates MLDA changes through (1) a decrease in heavy episodic drinking (HED) due to the lower likelihood of students drinking in unsupervised settings where they model irresponsible drinking (misperception), and (2) an increase in overall drinking among currently underage students due to increased social availability of alcohol (wetness). Results For the proportion of HEDs on campus, effects of large decreases in misperception of responsible drinking behavior were more than offset by modest increases in wetness. Conclusions For the effect of lowering the MLDA, it appears that increases in social availability of alcohol have a stronger impact on drinking behavior than decreases in misperceptions. PMID:22432502

  17. Correlates of college student binge drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, H; Dowdall, G W; Davenport, A; Castillo, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examines the individual correlates of college student binge drinking. METHODS. Questionnaires were completed by a representative national sample (n = 17,592) of students on 140 campuses in 1993. Binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks per episode for men and as four or more drinks per episode for women. RESULTS. Overall, 44% of the students (50% of the men and 39% of the women) binged. While demographic factors such as sex and race were significantly related to binge drinking, prior binging in high school was crucial, suggesting that for many students, binge drinking begins before college. The strongest predictors of college binge drinking were residence in a fraternity or sorority, adoption of a party-centered life-style, and engagement in other risky behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Interventions must be targeted at high school binge drinking as well as at several characteristics of college life--most notably fraternity residence. Legal drinking age fails to predict binge drinking, raising questions about the effectiveness of the legal minimum drinking age of 21 in college alcohol policies. PMID:7604914

  18. New Approaches to Studying Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Methods for Modeling Longitudinal, Categorical Adolescent Drinking Data

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Betsy J.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing problem-behavior trajectories can be difficult. The data are generally categorical and often quite skewed, violating distributional assumptions of standard normal-theory statistical models. In this paper, we present several currently-available modeling options, all of which make appropriate distributional assumptions for the observed categorical data. Three are based on the generalized linear model: a hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM), a growth mixture model (GMM), and a latent class growth analysis (LCGA). We also describe a longitudinal latent class analysis (LLCA), which requires fewer assumptions than the first three. Finally, we illustrate all of the models using actual longitudinal adolescent alcohol-use data. We guide the reader through the model-selection process, comparing the results in terms of convergence properties, fit and residuals, parsimony, and interpretability. Advances in computing and statistical software have made the tools for these types of analyses readily accessible to most researchers. Using appropriate models for categorical data will lead to more accurate and reliable results, and their application in real data settings could contribute to substantive advancements in the field of development and the science of prevention. PMID:19413423

  19. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26515884

  20. Older Adults and Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Generally, ... liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many medications, such as the ones ...

  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  3. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  4. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  5. Longitudinal examination of underage drinking and subsequent drinking and risky driving

    PubMed Central

    Zakrajsek, Jennifer S.; Shope, Jean T.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use, alcohol misuse, and risky driving from adolescence into young adulthood were compared by drinking onset age. Methods Surveys were administered in Grades 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, 10, 12, and at approximately age 23. Participants were placed into Drinking Onset groups based on self-reported alcohol use frequency on the adolescent surveys. Driving records were examined in three age periods: under 21, 21–25, and 26+. Results The earliest drinking initiators reported higher alcohol use and misuse on each survey, and were more likely to have risky driving offenses before age 21 and to have alcohol driving offenses in all three age periods. Discussion The earliest drinking initiators engaged in risky drinking behavior and risky driving behavior that was consistently higher than those with later drinking initiation, beginning in adolescence and persisting well into young adulthood. PMID:17123546

  6. Moderate and Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption » Drinking Levels Defined In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015- ...

  7. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  8. Thirst, Drinking Behavior, And Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John

    1996-01-01

    Report describes review of physiological mechanisms of involuntary dehydration. Researchers considered cellular dehydration and effects of sodium on thirst, as well as extracellular dehydration and restoration of vascular volume, effects of renin on thirst, and effects of heat.

  9. Before you slip into the night, you'll want something to drink: exploring the reasons for prepartying behavior among college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; LaBrie, Joseph W; Kilmer, Jason R

    2009-06-01

    Prepartying among college students is an emerging topic of research and clinical focus. Unfortunately for some students, prepartying, or quick drinking before going out for the primary event of the evening, can lead to high blood alcohol levels, further drinking, and subsequent consequences. The present study was designed to explore the reasons for prepartying among a sample of 444 male and female students. Males and females reported arriving to a social event already under the influence, saving money, and making the night more interesting as their most highly endorsed reasons for prepartying. Males endorsed reasons relating to increased social and sexual facilitation with opposite sex peers to a greater extent than females. Although underage and legal drinking age participants did not differ in prepartying frequency or typical quantity, underage students reached higher estimated blood alcohol levels during prepartying. Finally, alcohol-related consequences were significantly and positively associated with nearly all reasons for prepartying for both men and women. PMID:19499435

  10. Problem drinking is associated with increased prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, Robert G.; Clark, Jesse L.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is an important but understudied HIV risk factor among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in Latin America. We studied the relationship between problem drinking and sexual risk among MSM in Lima, Peru. Methods We recruited 718 participants from 24 neighborhoods for a study on sexually transmitted infections and community-building among MSM. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with problem drinking, which was defined via the CAGE Questionnaire. Results Of 718 participants, 58% met criteria for problem drinking. In univariate analysis, problem drinkers were significantly more likely to report failing to always use condoms, use alcohol or drugs prior to their most recent sexual encounter, report a history of sexual coercion and to engage in transactional sex. Problem drinkers also reported significantly higher numbers of recent and lifetime sexual partners. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with problem drinking included a history of sexual coercion [OR 1.8 95%, CI 1.2–2.6], having consumed alcohol prior to the most recent sexual encounter [OR 2.1 95%, CI 1.5–2.9], receiving compensation for sex in the last six months [OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2] or having reported a prior HIV+ test [OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–0.9]. Discussion We found a high prevalence of problem drinking among MSM in Lima, Peru, which was associated with increased sexual risk in our study. Of note, individuals who were already HIV-infected were less likely to be problem drinkers. Further studies and targeted interventions to reduce problem drinking among MSM are warranted. PMID:23434130

  11. Cultural and Social Network Predictors of Drinking among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Chambers, Christina D.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Reyes, Washington; Kang, Sunny W.; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women’s drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents reported any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking volume (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days), level of acculturation, and described their social network by assessing who encouraged or discouraged drinking (drinking support) or drank (drinking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. About 70% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 67 to 74) of Korean American women reported any lifetime drinking and current drinkers drank 1.18 (95%CI, 1.07 to 1.28) drinks on drinking days. Acculturation was not significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking volume, while models and support for drinking were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking more on drinking days. Each additional encourager, or one fewer discourager, for drinking in women’s social networks was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 1 to 3) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.25 (95%CI, −0.53 to 1.18) more drinks on drinking days. Each additional drinker in women’s networks was associated with a 4% (95%CI, 1 to 8) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.26 (95%CI, −0.05 to 0.60) more drinks on drinking days. Korean American women’s drinking appears to be strongly related to their social networks, though how women take on traits of their new environment was not. PMID:20843638

  12. Daily mood-drinking slopes as predictors: a new take on drinking motives and related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Brannan, Debi; Wendt, Staci; Jacobs, Laurie; Wright, Robert; Wang, Mo

    2013-12-01

    Motivational models of alcohol consumption have articulated the manner in which positive and negative experiences motivate drinking in unique social contexts (e.g., M. L. Cooper, M. R. Frone, M. Russell & P. Mudar, 1995, Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 69, pp. 990-1005). Daily process methodology, in which daily events, moods, and drinking behaviors are reported daily or multiple times per day, has been used to examine behavioral patterns that are consistent with discrete motivations. We advance the notion that repeated patterns of drinking in various social contexts as a function of positive or negative mood increases can provide evidence of individual-level if-then drinking signatures, which in turn can predict drinking-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of slopes to predict longer term drinking motivations and alcohol problems by employing a daily-process study of nonclinical moderate alcohol drinkers (N = 47; 49% women). Participants responded to thrice daily interviews administered via handheld computer for 30 days, followed by a longitudinal telephone survey for 12 months. Participants' daily mood-drinking relationships were extracted from hierarchical linear modeling and employed as predictors of 12-month outcomes in multiple regression analyses. Daily mood-drinking patterns demonstrated significant variability across persons, such that moderate drinkers could be reliably differentiated based on those patterns in terms of distinct drinking-related outcomes. Among the results, negative-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were associated with lower subsequent coping motives but positive-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were predictive of higher coping and lower social motives. Conversely, positive-mood-social-drinking associations were predictive of higher enhancement motives and brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test scores

  13. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  14. Risky Drinking and Driving/Riding Decisions: The Role of Previous Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finken, Laura L.; Jacobs, Janis E.; Laguna, Kerrie D.

    1998-01-01

    Factors related to risky driving and drinking/driving decisions were explored by presenting vignettes to 135 older adolescents, aged 17 to 24. Analyses reveal that alcohol-related behaviors, attitudes toward the acceptability of drinking, and previous drinking and drinking/driving experiences were all significant predictors of decisions about…

  15. Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Social Bonding in Problem Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Hussain, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Background: To reduce problem drinking, interventions must be directed toward those factors associated with problem drinking. Purpose: This study examined how perceptions of the role of alcohol related to problem drinking among a convenience sample of 301 college students. Methods: Fifteen items concerned with drinking behavior or perceptions…

  16. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26901592

  17. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  18. Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on College Ages.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non-college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  19. Daily mood-drinking slopes as predictors: A new take on drinking motives and related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Cynthia D.; Brannan, Debi; Wendt, Staci; Jacobs, Laurie; Wright, Robert; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Motivational models of alcohol consumption have articulated the manner in which positive and negative experiences motivate drinking in unique social contexts (e.g., Cooper, Frone, Russell & Mudar, 1995). Daily process methodology, in which daily events, moods and drinking behaviors are reported daily or multiple times per day, has been used to examine behavioral patterns that are consistent with discrete motivations. We advance the notion that repeated patterns of drinking in various social contexts as a function of positive or negative mood increases can provide evidence of individual-level if-then drinking signatures, which in turn can predict drinking-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of slopes to predict longer term drinking motivations and alcohol problems, employing a daily process study of non-clinical moderate alcohol drinkers (N=47; 49% women). Participants responded to thrice daily interviews administered via handheld computer for 30 days, followed by a longitudinal telephone survey for 12 months. Participants’ daily mood-drinking relationships were extracted from HLM and employed as predictors of 12-month outcomes in multiple regression analyses. Daily mood-drinking patterns demonstrated significant variability across persons, such that moderate drinkers could be reliably differentiated based on those patterns in terms of distinct drinking-related outcomes. Among the results, negative mood-solitary drinking slopes were associated with lower subsequent coping motives; yet, positive mood-solitary drinking slopes were predictive of higher coping and lower social motives. Conversely, positive mood-social drinking associations were predictive of higher enhancement motives and b-MAST scores. Results are interpreted in light of motivational models of consumption. PMID:23647154

  20. Social Influences on the Clustering of Underage Risky Drinking and Its Consequences in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine whether the clustering of underage risky drinking and its consequences within communities might arise from shared perceptions regarding underage drinking as well as the social context of drinking. Method: The Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Randomized Community Trial provided data from repeated cross-sectional samples of 5,017 current drinkers (2,619 male) ages 14–20 years from 68 communities surveyed in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Alternating logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of social factors on the clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, nonviolent consequences, and driving after drinking or riding with a drinking driver. Results: The clustering of getting drunk, heavy episodic drinking, and nonviolent consequences was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for drinking with friends and drinking with parents. Parents providing alcohol explained the clustering of heavy episodic drinking and nonviolent consequences, whereas drinking with other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol explained the clustering of nonviolent consequences. Drinking with friends or other underage drinkers and friends providing alcohol increased the risk of these behaviors, whereas drinking with parents and parents providing alcohol were protective. Perceptions regarding peer drinking, community norms, consequences for drinking, and drinking at a party did not influence clustering. Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce underage risky drinking in communities should focus on the differential effects of the social context in which drinking occurs. PMID:23036206

  1. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  2. Drink Water, Stay Slimmer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... than slimmer ones, the study authors said. While coffee and other caffeine-containing drinks can act as ... Chang said, ''but I wouldn't recommend drinking coffee to hydrate." The study was published in the ...

  3. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L

    2011-10-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  4. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  5. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  6. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

  7. Thinking About Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet was prepared for young people as a basis for discussion of attitudes about drinking. It reflects the latest findings in alcohol research and has been reviewed by many professionals and students. It examines basic statistics, sizes up individual attitudes about drinking, reviews experts' opinions on teenage drinking habits. The…

  8. Hazardously Drinking Women Leaving Jail: Time to First Drink

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jennifer G.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated time to first drink in women being released from jail to determine predictors of early relapse among women with hazardous drinking and HIV risk behaviors. Between February 2004 and June 2007, 245 participants were recruited from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Following the baseline assessment, participants were randomized to a motivational intervention group or to a control condition. Follow-up assessments at 1, 3, and 6 months were completed for 210 participants. Alcohol use during follow-up occurred in 86.7% of participants; 42.4% initiated alcohol use on day 1. The rate of initiation was associated with norms favorable to using alcohol (p < .01) and having a partner with an alcohol problem (HR = 1.62, p < .01). The rate of drink initiation decreased significantly (HR = 0.82, p < .05) as length of incarceration increased. The intervention was not associated with decreased drinking. Interventions to maintain abstinence need to reach women within their first days postrelease. PMID:21278321

  9. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose–response curves in mice

    PubMed Central

    El Gayar, Nesreen H.; Georgy, Sonia S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose–response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose–response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose–response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the ‘change in mechanical threshold’-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations. PMID:27547547

  10. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  11. Assessing college students' attitudes toward responsible drinking messages to identify promising binge drinking intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A

    2007-01-01

    Health communication appeals were utilized through a Web site simulation to evaluate the potential effectiveness of 3 intervention approaches to promote responsible drinking among college students. Within the Web site simulation, participants were exposed to a persuasive message designed to represent either the generalized social norms advertising approach (based on others' behavior), the personalized behavioral feedback approach (tailored to the individual's behavior), or the schema-based approach (tailored to the individual's self-schema, or personality). A control group was exposed to a message that was designed to be neutral (it was designed to discourage heavy drinking, but it did not represent any of the previously mentioned approaches). It was hypothesized that the more personalized the message was to the individual, the more favorable college students' attitudes would be toward the responsible drinking message. Participants receiving the more personalized messages did report more favorable attitudes toward the responsible drinking message. PMID:17967148

  12. The Role of Context-Specific Norms and Group Size in Alcohol Consumption and Compliance Drinking During Natural Drinking Events

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, Jerry; O’Grady, Megan; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Using experience sampling methods we examined how group size and context-specific drinking norms corresponded to alcohol consumption and compliance with drinking offers during natural social drinking events. For 30 days, 397 college students reported daily on their alcohol consumption during social events, the size of the group they were with, the average alcohol consumption of its’ members, and the number of drinks they accepted that came directly from the group they were with during these social drinking events. Larger groups corresponded with greater alcohol consumption, but only when context-specific norms were high. Furthermore, larger groups increased compliance with drinking offers when context-specific norms were high, but decreased compliance with drinking offers when context-specific norms were low. Thus, subtle features of the social-context may influence not only overall consumption behavior, but also compliance with more overt forms of social influence.

  13. Examining Factors Associated with Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Scholly, Kristen; Katz, Alan R; Kehl, Lisa

    2014-04-26

    Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students' heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one's social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students' perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found. PMID:26973931

  14. Underage drinking: prevalence and risk factors associated with drinking experiences among Argentinean children.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, Angelina; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Brussino, Silvina; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of alcohol drinking behavior in children. Data were obtained from 367 children, aged 8-12 years (M = 10.44 years, SD = 1.21 years; 61.9% female) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several scales were used to assess risk factors, including personality traits, alcohol expectancy (i.e., beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol), and perceived peer alcohol use, for alcohol drinking and alcohol drinking experiences. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of multiple risk factors to the quantity of alcohol consumed. The results showed that 58% of the children had tasted alcohol, and approximately one-third drank alcohol again after the first drinking experience. Twelve-year-old children had a significantly higher prevalence of tasting and drinking alcohol and a significantly greater frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed than younger children. Eighty percent of the children who liked alcohol during their first drinking experience reported that they drank alcohol again. Among the children who did not like alcohol during their first drinking experience, only 31% drank alcohol again. Underage drinking usually occurred under adult supervision in family settings when parents or other relatives allowed them to drink or were aware of their children's drinking. The hierarchical regression analysis showed that being older and male, having more peers that drink alcohol, having higher levels of extroversion, and having alcohol expectancy for social facilitation increased the risk for greater alcohol use. The final model explained 33% of the total variance. PMID:23591270

  15. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  16. Not Just Fun and Games: A Review of College Drinking Games Research From 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Olthuis, Janine V.; Correia, Christopher J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Drinking games are a high-risk social drinking activity consisting of rules and guidelines that determine when and how much to drink (Polizzotto et al., 2007). Borsari's (2004) seminal review paper on drinking games in the college environment succinctly captured the published literature as of February 2004. However, research on college drinking games has grown exponentially during the last decade, necessitating an updated review of the literature. This review provides an in-depth summary and synthesis of current drinking games research (e.g., characteristics of drinking games, and behavioral, demographic, social, and psychological influences on participation) and suggests several promising areas for future drinking games research. This review is intended to foster a better understanding of drinking game behaviors among college students and improve efforts to reduce the negative impact of this practice on college campuses. PMID:25222171

  17. To drink or not to drink: Motives and expectancies for use and nonuse in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Ilan; Bekman, Nicole; Brown, Sandra A.; Grant, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Drinking motives have a prominent role in cognitive models of adolescent and adult alcohol decision-making (Cooper, Russell, Skinner, & Windle, 1992; Cooper, 1994). The complementary construct of motivation not to drink has received less attention (Epler, Sher & Piasecki, 2009). We examined how abstinence motives interacted with drinking motives and alcohol expectancies to predict alcohol consumption in samples of US high school students (N > 2,500). Nondrinking motives predicted lower rates of lifetime and current alcohol use. Motives not to drink interacted with specific drinking motives, like social and coping motives, and alcohol expectancies to predict certain aspects of drinking behavior. For example, motives not to drink had the greatest impact on youth with weaker social motivations. Findings highlight the distinction between motives not to drink and other alcohol-related cognitions in predicting adolescent alcohol consumption. This work not only supports the utility of this construct in developing models of youth alcohol-related decision-making but also has implications for prevention programming. PMID:21665373

  18. Exploring gender-specific trends in underage drinking across adolescent age groups and measures of drinking: is girls' drinking catching up with boys'?

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking. PMID:20596818

  19. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > For ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. previous continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  20. Using Classifiers to Identify Binge Drinkers Based on Drinking Motives.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; Giabbanelli, Philippe

    2013-08-21

    A representative sample of 2,844 Dutch adult drinkers completed a questionnaire on drinking motives and drinking behavior in January 2011. Results were classified using regressions, decision trees, and support vector machines (SVMs). Using SVMs, the mean absolute error was minimal, whereas performance on identifying binge drinkers was high. Moreover, when comparing the structure of classifiers, there were differences in which drinking motives contribute to the performance of classifiers. Thus, classifiers are worthwhile to be used in research regarding (addictive) behaviors, because they contribute to explaining behavior and they can give different insights from more traditional data analytical approaches. PMID:23964957

  1. Why Do Some Irish Drink So Much? Family, Historical and Regional Effects on Students' Alcohol Consumption and Subjective Normative Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Liam; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P

    2013-03-01

    This paper studies determinants of drinking behavior and formation of subjective thresholds of acceptable drinking behavior using a sample of students in a major Irish University. We find evidence of strong associations between amounts of alcohol students consume and drinking of their fathers and older siblings. In contrast, we find little evidence of impacts of other non-drinking aspects of family background on students' drinking. Parental and older sibling drinking appears to affect subjective attitudes of students towards what constitutes problem drinking behavior. We investigated historical origins of drinking behavior including the role of the Church, English cultural influences, the importance of the brewery and distilling industry, and the influence of weather. We find relatively strong influences of the Catholic Church and English colonial settlement patterns on Irish drinking patterns but little influence of Irish weather. Historical licensing restrictions on the number of pubs and off-license establishments also appear to matter. PMID:23662096

  2. Why Do Some Irish Drink So Much? Family, Historical and Regional Effects on Students’ Alcohol Consumption and Subjective Normative Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Liam; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies determinants of drinking behavior and formation of subjective thresholds of acceptable drinking behavior using a sample of students in a major Irish University. We find evidence of strong associations between amounts of alcohol students consume and drinking of their fathers and older siblings. In contrast, we find little evidence of impacts of other non-drinking aspects of family background on students’ drinking. Parental and older sibling drinking appears to affect subjective attitudes of students towards what constitutes problem drinking behavior. We investigated historical origins of drinking behavior including the role of the Church, English cultural influences, the importance of the brewery and distilling industry, and the influence of weather. We find relatively strong influences of the Catholic Church and English colonial settlement patterns on Irish drinking patterns but little influence of Irish weather. Historical licensing restrictions on the number of pubs and off-license establishments also appear to matter. PMID:23662096

  3. An Exploratory Study of Binge Drinking in the Aboriginal Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

    2005-01-01

    There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…

  4. Youthful Smoking and Drinking in a Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkkinen, Lea

    1983-01-01

    The incidence and continuity of smoking and drinking, precursory social-behavioral characteristics of smokers and drinkers, and life conditions related to smoking and drinking are described. Part of an extensive Finnish longitudinal study of social development, the original sample consisted of eight-year-old subjects. Follow-up studies were made…

  5. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  6. Drinking experience uncovers genetic influences on alcohol expectancies across adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Wang, Pan; Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A.; Raine, Adrian; Prescott, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To test whether drinking onset moderates genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in the etiology of alcohol expectancies across adolescence. Design Longitudinal twin design. Setting Community sample from Los Angeles, CA, USA. Participants A total of 1292 male and female twins, aged 11–18 years, were assessed at 1 (n = 440), 2 (n = 587) or 3 (n = 265) occasions as part of the risk factors for the Antisocial Behavior Twin Study. Measurements Social behavioral (SB) alcohol expectancies were measured using an abbreviated version of the Social Behavioral subscale from the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire for adolescents (AEQ-A). Drinking onset was defined as >1 full drink of alcohol. Findings Alcohol expectancies increased over age and the increase became more rapid following onset of drinking. The importance of genetic and environmental influences on SB scores varied with age and drinking status, such that variation prior to drinking onset was attributed solely to environmental influences, whereas all post-onset variation was attributed to genetic influences. Results did not differ significantly by sex. Conclusion Only environmental factors explain beliefs about the social and behavioral consequences of alcohol use prior to drinking onset, whereas genetic factors explain an increasing proportion of the variance in these beliefs after drinking onset. PMID:25586461

  7. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  8. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  9. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  10. Development of a Low-Alcohol Drink Similar in Sensory Properties to a Full-Alcohol Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Carolyn F.; Weller, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine different methods of preparation of a low-alcohol drink for use as a control in behavioral studies. Treatments included: untreated juice, juice with alcohol (rum), juice with rum floated on the surface and juice with ethanol floated on the surface. Untrained panelists (n=48) rated each drink for overall…

  11. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  12. The Big Impact of Small Groups on College Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, B.; Martinez, J.; Polidan, E.; Angelis, E.

    2015-01-01

    College drinking is a problem with severe academic, health, and safety consequences. The underlying social processes that lead to increased drinking activity are not well understood. Social Norms Theory is an approach to analysis and intervention based on the notion that students’ misperceptions about the drinking culture on campus lead to increases in alcohol use. In this paper we develop an agent-based simulation model, implemented in MATLAB, to examine college drinking. Students’ drinking behaviors are governed by their identity (and how others perceive it) as well as peer influences, as they interact in small groups over the course of a drinking event. Our simulation results provide some insight into the potential effectiveness of interventions such as social norms marketing campaigns. PMID:26677347

  13. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  14. Drinking Patterns of Male and Female Collegians: Are the Patterns Converging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Sharlene Hesse; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A random sample of 195 undergraduates revealed distinct sex differences in drinking type, quantity, variability and frequency of alcoholic consumption. Collegiate drinking typifies sex-role appropriate behavior. Alcohol education programs are needed to offset sex-role drinking norms. (Author)

  15. Attitudes Toward a Change in the Legal Drinking Age: Reactance versus Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Randall A.; Minor, Scott W.

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects on college students (n=464) of the increase in the legal drinking age in North Carolina. In first experiment, students affected by law did not report increase in drinking behavior but did feel change made drinking more attractive. In second experiment those affected by law reported higher rates of alcohol consumption subsequent to…

  16. Sexually selected sex differences in competitiveness explain sex differences in changes in drinking game participation.

    PubMed

    Hone, Liana S E; McCullough, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013) replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women) and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013) also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness-and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular-are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives. PMID:25974961

  17. Changes in Drinking Patterns across the Transition to College among First-Year College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph; Lamb, Toby; Pedersen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Few studies examine changes in drinking behavior during the transition from high school to college. Using a sample of 239 first-year males, we hypothesized that participants would increase drinking from pre-college to the first month of college. Results reveal a general trend toward increased drinking upon entering college. Caucasians increased…

  18. Are Students Drinking Hand over Fifth? Understanding Participant Demographics in Order to Curb a Dangerous Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Holly A.; Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    High-risk drinking remains an issue on college campuses. Limited research focuses on drinking associated with single events where students are encouraged to drink a predetermined amount of alcohol. Fourth-year undergraduate students (N=1,205) completed a survey about motivation, behaviors and perceptions surrounding participation in a practice…

  19. Drinking and schooling.

    PubMed

    Cook, P J; Moore, M J

    1993-12-01

    We employ the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to explore the effect of youthful drinking on years of schooling and on the likelihood of college graduation. Our instruments for youthful drinking include the state beer tax and the minimum purchase age. Reduced form equations are also estimated. Our results indicate that heavy drinking in high school reduces the average number of years of schooling completed following high school. Other things equal, students who spend their high school years in states with relatively high taxes and minimum age are more likely to graduate from college. PMID:10131754

  20. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  1. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  2. The Effects of Informational Interventions on Household Water Management, Hygiene Behaviors, Stored Drinking Water Quality, and Hand Contamination in Peri-Urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J.; Rogers, Kirsten; Mamuya, Simon; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2011-01-01

    Safe water storage and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce fecal contamination and improve health in experimental settings; however, triggering and sustaining such behaviors is challenging. This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. One-quarter of the study participants received information about strategies to reduce risk of water- and sanitation-related illness. Respondents in another three study cohorts received this same information, along with their household's water and/or hand-rinse test results. Findings from this study suggest that additional work is needed to elucidate the conditions under which such testing represents a cost-effective strategy to motivate improved household water management and hand hygiene. PMID:21292883

  3. Preferential colonization and release of Legionella pneumophila from mature drinking water biofilms grown on copper versus unplasticized polyvinylchloride coupons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legionella persistence and amplification in premise drinking water systems is a known contributor to legionellosis outbreaks, especially in the presence of suitable eukaryotic hosts. Here we examined Legionella pneumophila behavior within drinking water biofilms grown on copper ...

  4. Person-environment transactions in youth drinking and driving.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M

    2008-09-01

    Drinking and driving is a significant health risk behavior for adolescents. This study tested mechanisms by which disinhibited personality traits (impulsivity and sensation seeking) and aspects of the adolescent home/social environment (parental monitoring and alcohol accessibility) can influence changes in drinking and driving behavior over time. Two hundred two high school age youths were assessed at 2 time points, approximately 8 months apart. Zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses were used to test (a) an additive model, where personality and environmental variables uniquely predict drinking and driving engagement and frequency; (b) a mediation model, where Time 2 environmental variables mediate the influence of disinhibited personality; and (c) an interaction model, where environmental factors either facilitate or constrain the influence of disinhibited personality on drinking and driving. Results supported both the additive and interaction model but not the mediation model. Differences emerged between results for personal drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver. Improving our understanding of how malleable environmental variables can affect the influence of disinhibited personality traits on drinking and driving behaviors can help target and improve prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:18778127

  5. Person-environment Transactions in Youth Drinking and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking and driving is a significant health risk behavior for adolescents. This study tested mechanisms by which disinhibited personality traits (impulsivity and sensation seeking) and aspects of the adolescent home/social environment (parental monitoring and alcohol accessibility) can influence changes in drinking and driving behavior over time. Two hundred and two high school age youth were assessed at two time points, approximately eight months apart. Zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses were used to test 1) an additive model, where personality and environmental variables uniquely predict drinking and driving engagement and frequency; 2) a mediation model, where time 2 environmental variables mediate the influence of disinhibited personality; 3) an interaction model, where environmental factors either facilitate or constrain the influence of disinhibited personality on drinking and driving. Results supported both the additive and interaction model, but not the mediation model. Differences emerged between results for personal drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver. Improving our understanding of how malleable environmental variables can affect the influence of disinhibited personality traits on drinking and driving behaviors can help improve and target prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:18778127

  6. Drinking water and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R D

    1995-01-01

    Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

  7. Genomic and Systems Biology Analyses of Social Behavior or Evolutionary Genomic Analyses of Insect Society: Eat, Drink, and Be Scary (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Robinson, Gene

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Gene Robinson of the University of Illinois on "Genomic and Systems Biology Analyses of Social Behavior" at the 6th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  8. Genomic and Systems Biology Analyses of Social Behavior or Evolutionary Genomic Analyses of Insect Society: Eat, Drink, and Be Scary (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Gene

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Gene Robinson of the University of Illinois on "Genomic and Systems Biology Analyses of Social Behavior" at the 6th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  9. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Atrazine via the Drinking Water Causes Specific Behavioral Deficits and Selectively Alters Monoaminergic Systems in C57BL/6 Mouse Dams, Juvenile and Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Saritha; Ye, Xiaoqin; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams’ cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams. PMID:24913803

  10. Trends in College Binge Drinking during a Period of Increased Prevention Efforts. Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 1933-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Kuo, Meichun; Seibring, Mark; Nelson, Toben F.; Lee, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed students at colleges that had participated in college alcohol surveys between 1993-99 to examine trends in binge drinking, related problems, and prevention efforts. Binge drinking rates remained constant, with shifts in drinking behavior among subgroups. Immoderate drinking and harm among drinkers increased. More students lived in…

  11. Examining Drinking Consequences and Reasons for Drinking in a Bilingual College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orona, J. Arturo; Blume, Arthur W.; Morera, Osvaldo F.; Perez, Solanja

    2007-01-01

    College drinking behavior is a national public health concern. However, little research has been conducted to test the psychometric validity and reliability of alcohol use measures among Spanish-speaking Hispanic college students. Adopting a translation-back-translation approach, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) was translated into Spanish…

  12. Gestational Alcohol Exposure and Other Factors Associated With Continued Teenage Drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2016-08-01

    Purpose A longitudinal cohort of adolescents who initiated drinking before age 15 were studied to determine which factors distinguished between early initiators who continued to drink (persisters) from those who stopped drinking (desisters). There were 308 early initiators in the total sample (n = 917); 247 were persisters, and 61 were desisters. Method A stepwise discriminant analysis identified differences between the two groups. Considered risk/protective factors were parenting practices, peer drinking, child and maternal depression, child behavior, prenatal alcohol exposure, home environment, and demographic factors. Results Desistence was significantly related to African American race and more parental strictness. Exposure to ≥1 drink/day during pregnancy and high levels of autonomy from parents were significant predictors of persistent drinking. Conclusions Early initiation places adolescents at risk for continued and heavier drinking. Identifying characteristics of those who start early but do or do not continue drinking can inform education programs to better target the most appropriate adolescents. PMID:27405800

  13. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    PubMed Central

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  14. Correlates of University Students' Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-08-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students' soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students' beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  15. Cognitive Manifestations of Drinking-Smoking Associations: Preliminary Findings with a Cross-Primed Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite tremendous growth in research examining the role of cognitive bias in addictive behaviors, scant consideration has been paid to the close association between smoking and drinking behavior. This study sought to determine whether an association between smoking and drinking could be observed at an implicit level using a novel cognitive bias task, as well as characterize the relationship between performance on this task and clinically relevant variables (i.e., heaviness of use/dependence). Methods Individuals (N = 51) with a range of smoking and drinking patterns completed a modified Stroop task in which participants identified the color of drinking, smoking and neutral words that were each preceded by drinking, smoking or neutral picture primes. Participants also provided information regarding the heaviness of their smoking and drinking behavior and completed self-report measures of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Results Response times to smoking and drinking words were significantly slowed following the presentation of either smoking or drinking picture primes. This effect did not differ across subgroups. However, the strength of the coupling between smoking and drinking prime effects was greater among heavier drinkers, who also exhibited a concordant looser coupling of the effects of smoking and drinking primes on smoking words. Conclusions Associations between smoking and drinking can be observed at an implicit level and may be strongest for heavier drinkers. PMID:25561386

  16. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

  17. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  18. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years.

  19. Curricular Infusion and High-Risk Drinking among First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Klein, Sara; Behringer, Laurie Bartell; Ulrich, Anastasia Stacy; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Hourigan, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the curricular contexts effective at reducing high-risk drinking behaviors among 206 first-year undergraduate students. Results showed that infusing alcohol prevention messages into curricular content presented to first-year students who lived and studied together may have helped curb their high-risk drinking behaviors. This…

  20. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  1. A Three Year Outcome Evaluation of a Theory Based Drink Driving Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the impact of a "drink driving education program" taught to tenth-grade students. The program, which involved twelve lessons, used strategies based on the Ajzen and Madden theory of planned behavior. Students (N=1,774) were trained to use alternatives to drinking and driving and to use safer passenger behaviors, and were followed-up…

  2. PTSD Symptoms Mediate Academic Stress and Drinking to Cope in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolman, Erin O.; Becker, Madelyn M.; Klanecky, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened perceptions of academic stress may increase college alcohol use behaviors, namely problem drinking and drinking to cope. Leading from prior research, the current study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as a mediator between academic stress and alcohol use behaviors. Undergraduate participants (N?=?200) completed an online…

  3. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients. PMID:15822540

  4. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. PMID:25293549

  5. Evaluating the believability and effectiveness of the social norms message "most students drink 0 to 4 drinks when they party".

    PubMed

    Polonec, Lindsey D; Major, Ann Marie; Atwood, L Erwin

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to reduce dangerous drinking levels among college students, university health educators have initiated social norms campaigns based on the rationale that students will be more likely to reduce their own drinking behaviors if they think that most students on campus are not heavy or binge drinkers. Within the framework of social comparisons theory, this study reports the findings of a survey of 277 college students and explores the correlates of accuracy and bias in students' estimates of whether or not most other students think that binge drinking on campus is a problem and whether or not most other students believe the campaign message. The overwhelming majority (72.6%) of students did not believe the norms message that most students on campus drink "0 to 4" drinks when they party, and 52.7% reported drinking "5 or more" drinks in a sitting. The social norms campaign was effective in motivating 61% of the respondents to think about binge drinking as a problem. For the most part, group or social network norms were more influential on students' own drinking behavior than were their estimates of the campus drinking norm. The findings also clarify that accuracy in estimating the campus social norm in and of itself does not necessarily lead to an increase or reduction in alcohol consumption. The social comparisons approach underscores the complex and social nature of human interaction and reinforces the need for the development of multiple approaches to alcohol education with messages that are designed to target the specific needs of students based on their orientations toward alcohol consumption. PMID:16813486

  6. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  7. Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Duncan-Schill, Marilyn

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)

  8. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  9. How Giraffes Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  10. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  11. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  12. Drinking in the Context of Life Stressors: A Multidimensional Coping Strategy among South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Watt, Melissa H.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored narratives of drinking as a coping strategy among female drinkers in a South African township. In 2010–11, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 54 women recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues. Most women drank heavily and linked their drinking to stressors. They were motivated to use drinking to manage their emotions, facilitate social engagement, and achieve a sense of empowerment, even while recognizing the limitations of this strategy. This study helps to contextualize heavy drinking behavior among women in this setting. Multifaceted interventions that help female drinkers to more effectively manage stressors may aid in reducing hazardous drinking. PMID:23905586

  13. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  14. Electric shock produced drinking in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, R R; Emley, G S

    1977-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys were periodically exposed to brief electric tail shocks in a test environment containing a rubber hose, response lever, and a water spout. Shock delivery produced preshock lever pressing and postshock hose biting. Additionally, all subjects displayed licking responses following postshock biting-attack episodes. Further experiments showed that licking was: (1) influenced by hours of water deprivation; (2) drinking behavior; (3) the direct result of shock delivery; and (4) developed spontaneously in naive subjects with or without opportunities for hose biting or lever pressing. Removing the opportunity to attack increased postshock drinking. A noxious environmental stimulus that causes aggression can also produce drinking. PMID:409801

  15. Excessive Drinking Among African American Men: Individual and Contextual Correlates

    PubMed Central

    DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; McCarty, Frances; Sterk, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts. PMID:22679893

  16. Excessive drinking among African American men: individual and contextual correlates.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Frances; DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking, and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse increased the odds of getting drunk. Having health insurance reduced the odds of both outcomes. Insurance coverage and the heterogeneity among adult African American men must be considered in risk reduction efforts. PMID:22679893

  17. Proximal Relationships Between PTSD Symptoms and Drinking among Female College Students: Results from a Daily Monitoring Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C.; Simpson, Tracy L.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The self-medication hypothesis has been proposed to explain comorbidity between PTSD and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops as an attempt to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Studies have begun utilizing daily monitoring methodologies to refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. 136 female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history, completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We did find significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days where women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink whereas on days where women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women. PMID:23915369

  18. The Effects of Alcohol on Intentions to Drink and Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    If people in a normal, baseline state are asked about certain behaviors, such as drinking and driving, they are likely to report negative intentions; however, the context within which intentions are assessed may significantly affect the relationship among attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Male undergraduates who completed a questionnaire about…

  19. How College Students Conceptualize and Practice Responsible Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to employ a mixed-methods approach to (a) qualitatively explore responsible drinking beliefs and behaviors among a sample of college students, and (b) quantitatively assess the prevalence of those behaviors. Participants: Convenience samples, drawn from currently enrolled students attending a large public university in…

  20. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  1. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  2. Day-to-day variations in high-intensity drinking, expectancies, and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Cronce, Jessica M; Fairlie, Anne M; Atkins, David C; Lee, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity drinking (i.e., women/men consuming 8+/10+ drinks in a day) is prevalent and associated with negative consequences. Occasions of high-intensity drinking have markedly high risk; however, previous research has not examined the predictors of these high-risk drinking days. The current study was designed to examine to what extent positive and negative alcohol expectancies predict high-intensity drinking and whether high-intensity drinking on a given day was associated with drinking consequences and their evaluations that day. Frequently drinking college students (N=342) participated in an intensive longitudinal study of drinking behaviors (N=4645 drinking days). Days with greater positive and negative expectancies were associated with high-intensity drinking. Days with high-intensity drinking were associated with reporting more positive and negative consequences and with evaluating positive consequences more favorably and evaluating negative consequences less favorably, compared to drinking days without high-intensity drinking. Given this, prevention and intervention efforts may consider specifically targeting high-intensity drinking events as a unique phenomenon. PMID:26922158

  3. Drinking among Native American and White Youths: The Role of Perceived Neighborhood and School Environment

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Seninger, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in the perceived neighborhood and school environments account for differences in drinking behavior among Native American and White youths. Findings indicate that being Native American was indirectly related to drinking through perceived school and community variables. Higher drinking rates among Native Americans appear to be accounted for by lower school involvement, weaker neighborhood anti-drug norms, greater neighborhood disorganization and lower levels of perceived police enforcement. Results of this study highlight the potential importance of perceived school and neighborhood environments in drinking behavior among youths. PMID:26114939

  4. Drinking Among Native American and White Youths: The Role of Perceived Neighborhood and School Environment.

    PubMed

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W; Seninger, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in the perceived neighborhood and school environments account for differences in drinking behavior among Native American and White youths. Findings indicate that being Native American was indirectly related to drinking through perceived school and community variables. Higher drinking rates among Native Americans appear to be accounted for by lower school involvement, weaker neighborhood antidrug norms, greater neighborhood disorganization, and lower levels of perceived police enforcement. Results of this study highlight the potential importance of perceived school and neighborhood environments in drinking behavior among youths. PMID:26114939

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Impulsivity Traits on Drinking and Driving in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, Hayley R.; Morris, David H.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Impulsivity is strongly associated with alcohol-related risk-taking behavior, and this association has been found to be mediated by alcohol cognitions. The current study expanded this literature by comparing the relative association of distinct impulsivity traits with a specific risky behavior—drinking and driving. We then tested whether drinking-and-driving expectancies uniquely mediated this relation over and above other cognitions about alcohol and drinking and driving. Method: College student drivers (n = 816; 53.6% women) completed a paper-and-pencil survey in small groups. Self-report measures assessed alcohol use, impulsivity traits, alcohol expectancies, drinking-and-driving cognitions (i.e., expectancies, attitudes, beliefs), and drinking and driving. Results: Although all impulsivity traits were correlated with drinking and driving, only urgency uniquely contributed to drinking and driving. Indirect effect tests indicated that drinking-and-driving convenience expectancies partially mediated this association as well as that between (lack of) perseverance and drinking and driving. These results remained significant after controlling for alcohol expectancies and other drinking-and-driving cognitions. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing among impulsivity traits to improve theoretical models of the processes by which personality leads to specific alcohol-related consequences. In addition, results extend previous research by providing evidence for the unique importance of expectancies regarding the convenience of drinking and driving over and above more global alcohol expectancies and other drinking-and-driving cognitions. PMID:22846243

  6. The Hazardous Drinking Games Measure (HDGM): A multi-site implementation

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Peterson, Colleen; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Correia, Christopher J.; Olthuis, Janine V.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Grossbard, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Background Drinking game participation has been associated with increased frequency and quantity of alcohol use, as well as alcohol-related problems, in college students. To date, the assessment of drinking games typically entails the use of self-developed measures of frequency of participation and amount of alcohol consumed while playing. Objectives The Hazardous Drinking Games Measure (HDGM) is the first effort to create a comprehensive yet concise method of assessing drinking game participation. The HDGM assesses drinking during games, the specific types of drinking games played, and negative consequences experienced as a result of playing drinking games. Method Data from three samples of college students (n = 1002) who completed the HDGM and other self-report questionnaires of drinking behaviors were used for exploratory analyses. Results Exploratory analyses suggest that the HDGM adequately captures the nuances of drinking game participation in this population and demonstrates initial evidence of good content and criterion-related validity and test-retest reliability. However, the HDGM did not predict risky drinking above and beyond standard measures of drinks per week and alcohol-related problems in any samples. Conclusion The HDGM may be useful for campus-wide assessment of drinking games and as a source of game-specific feedback when integrated into campus prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25192208

  7. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  8. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  9. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. PMID:27159816

  10. Longitudinal Patterns of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drink Use Among College Students and Their Associations With Risky Drinking and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Scaglione, Nichole; Reavy, Racheal; Turrisi, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a form of risky drinking among college students, a population already in danger of heavy drinking and associated consequences. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to (a) identify types of AmED users between the first and second year of college and (b) examine differences among these groups in rates of highrisk drinking and consequences over time. Method: A random sample of college student drinkers (n = 1,710; 57.7% female) completed baseline and 6-month follow-up measures assessing alcohol-related behaviors. Results: AmED use was endorsed by 40% of participants during the course of the study. As anticipated, four distinct groups of AmED users were identified (nonusers, initiators, discontinuers, and continuous users) and were significantly different from one another on drinking and consequence outcomes. Further, significant Time × Group interaction effects were observed for drinking and overall consequences. Generally, across all outcomes and time points, nonusers reported the lowest rates of drinking and consequences, whereas continuous users consistently reported the highest rates of drinking and consequences. Students who initiated AmED use during the course of the study also reported an abrupt increase in alcohol use and reported consequences. Conclusions: Findings suggest students who consistently engage in and initiate AmED use also engage in riskier drinking behaviors and experience higher rates of consequences. Interventions that specifically target AmED use may be warranted and have the potential to reduce alcohol-related consequences. PMID:25978824

  11. Drinking motives mediate the negative associations between mindfulness facets and alcohol outcomes among college students.

    PubMed

    Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R; Brown, David B

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness and drinking motives have both been linked to affect regulation, yet the relationship between mindfulness and drinking motives is poorly understood. The present study examined whether drinking motives, particularly mood regulatory motives, mediated the associations between facets of mindfulness and alcohol-related outcomes among college students (N = 297). We found 3 specific facets of mindfulness (describing, nonjudging of inner experience, and acting with awareness) to have negative associations with alcohol outcomes. Importantly, specific drinking motives mediated these associations such that lower levels of mindfulness were associated with drinking for distinct reasons (enhancement, coping, conformity), which in turn predicted alcohol use and/or alcohol problems. Our findings suggest that drinking motives, especially mood regulatory and negative reinforcement motives, are important to examine when studying the role of mindfulness in college student drinking behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25546142

  12. The link between drinking and gambling among undergraduate university students.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, David C; Racicot, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore different aspects of the link between alcohol use and gambling among undergraduate university students (N = 121). Potential aspects of the link examined included level of involvement in each behavior, consequences, motives for involvement, and impaired control over involvement. Results confirmed that drinking and gambling among university students are associated, consistent with the expectations of a problem syndrome model. The strongest link was between general dimensions of problematic involvement for both behaviors. Students who drink to cope and have other indicators of alcohol problems are more likely to gamble to cope, gamble to win money, and have higher gambling involvement and gambling-related problems. However, the salience of drinking and gambling to cope in this relationship is an interesting finding that needs further exploration and extension to other problem behaviors. PMID:23915367

  13. Does knowledge of college drinking policy influence student binge drinking?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Warren A; Singleton, Edward; McMillan, Tiffany B; Perrino, Carrol S

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored alcohol policies at 5 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to gain an understanding of how students' awareness of these policies might correlate with campus binge drinking rates. Findings indicated that male students who reported being unaware of certain alcohol policies were more likely to report binge drinking than their counterparts who reported they were aware of the policies. Gender differences in awareness of alcohol policy might be an important variable influencing binge drinking on HBCU campuses. PMID:16052735

  14. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress, and Hazardous Drinking in College Students: Considerations for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review the literature on PTS and hazardous drinking in college students, and highlight cognitive (self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies) and behavioral (coping strategies, emotion regulation skills, protective behaviors) factors that may link trauma and PTS to drinking risk. Incorporating these factors into standard BMIs in a collaborative way that enhances their personal relevance may enhance intervention efficacy and acceptability for these at-risk students. PMID:26167448

  15. “Hey Everyone, I’m Drunk.” An Evaluation of Drinking-Related Twitter Chatter

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The promotion of drinking behaviors correlates with increased drinking behaviors and intent to drink, especially when peers are the promotion source. Similarly, online displays of peer drinking behaviors have been described as a potential type of peer pressure that might lead to alcohol misuse when the peers to whom individuals feel attached value such behaviors. Social media messages about drinking behaviors on Twitter (a popular social media platform among young people) are common but understudied. In response, and given that drinking alcohol is a widespread activity among young people, we examined Twitter chatter about drinking. Method: Tweets containing alcohol- or drinking-related keywords were collected from March 13 to April 11, 2014. We assessed a random sample (n = 5,000) of the most influential Tweets for sentiment, theme, and source. Results: Most alcohol-related Tweets reflected a positive sentiment toward alcohol use, with pro-alcohol Tweets outnumbering anti-alcohol Tweets by a factor of more than 10. The most common themes of pro-drinking Tweets included references to frequent or heavy drinking behaviors and wanting/needing/planning to drink alcohol. The most common sources of pro-alcohol Tweets were organic (i.e., noncommercial). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for online prevention messages about drinking to counter the strong pro-alcohol presence on Twitter. However, to enhance the impact of anti-drinking messages on Twitter, it may be prudent for such Tweets to be sent by individuals who are widely followed on Twitter and during times when heavy drinking is more likely to occur (i.e., weekends, holidays). PMID:26098041

  16. Exploring Religious Mechanisms for Healthy Alcohol Use: Religious Messages and Drinking Among Korean Women in California*

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang Sim, D. Eastern; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Method: Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews were completed, with 92% conducted in Korean. Respondents were asked about any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking rate (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days among current drinkers), and messages discouraging “excessive drinking” from religious leaders or congregants. Bivariable and multivariable regressions were used for analysis. Results: Approximately 70.4% of women reported any lifetime drinking, and drinkers drank a mean (SD) of 1.10 (1.22) drinks on drinking days. About 30.8%reported about 30.8% reported any exposure to religious leaders' messages discouraging excessive drinking, and 28.2% reported any exposure to similar messages from congregants. Each congregant's message was statistically significantly associated with a 5.1% lower probability (odds ratio = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.626, 0.959) of any lifetime drinking. Also, each congregant's message was associated with a 13.8% (B = -0.138; 95% CI: -0.306, 0.029) lower drinking rate, which was statistically significant after adjusting for covariates using a one-tailed test. Exposure to leaders' messages was not statistically significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking rate. Conclusions: Social reinforcement in the form of religious messages may be one mechanism by which religious institutions influence drinking behaviors. For Korean women, messages from congregants had a unique impact beyond the traditional religiosity indicators. These social mechanisms provide public health interventionists with religious pathways to improve drinking behaviors. PMID:19895765

  17. Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

  18. A three year outcome evaluation of a theory based drink driving education program.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, M; Schonfeld, C; Ballard, R; Schofield, F; Najman, J; Siskind, V

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the impact of a "drink driving education program" taught to grade ten high school students. The program which involves twelve lessons uses strategies based on the Ajzen and Madden theory of planned behavior. Students were trained to use alternatives to drink driving and passenger behaviors. One thousand seven hundred and seventy-four students who had been taught the program in randomly assigned control and intervention schools were followed up three years later. There had been a major reduction in drink driving behaviors in both intervention and control students. In addition to this cohort change there was a trend toward reduced drink driving in the intervention group and a significant reduction in passenger behavior in this group. Readiness to use alternatives suggested that the major impact of the program was on students who were experimenting with the behavior at the time the program was taught. The program seems to have optimized concurrent social attitude and behavior change. PMID:8952213

  19. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  20. A latent profile analysis of drinking patterns among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Stamates, Amy L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N

    2016-11-01

    Research indicates that nonstudent emerging adults, as compared to their college-attending peers, are at higher risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems, including alcohol use disorders. The present study sought to extend the limited research on nonstudent drinking by (1) identifying sub-groups of nonstudent drinkers based on their drinking patterns and (2) determining the extent to which social-cognitive between-person factors related to drinking (i.e., social expectancies, perceived drinking norms, social drinking motivations) distinguish these sub-groups. Participants were 195 (65.1% men) nonstudent emerging adult heavy episodic drinkers recruited from the community. Mean age was 21.88 (SD=2.08) years and 45.4% were unemployed. Latent profile analysis identified two classes based on drinking across 30days. The "moderate drinkers" group (n=143; 73.3%) reported consuming 10-11 drinks weekly and drinking two to three times per week, on average. The "heavy drinkers" class (n=52; 26.7%) reported consuming 42-43 drinks weekly and drinking six to seven days per week. Both groups exhibited a cyclic pattern of drinking whereby weekday drinking was lower, with increases on the weekend; the heavy drinkers class had stronger weekend increases starting earlier. Heavy drinkers reported greater volume, frequency, and problematic drinking behaviors, as compared to the moderate drinkers. The heavy drinkers class also endorsed stronger social motives and perceived their peers to drink more. The present study offered unique insights into nonstudent emerging adult drinking patterns by identifying sub-populations of drinkers based on their past 30-day use. Knowledge gained from this study could aide in tailoring existing alcohol interventions to nonstudents to reduce alcohol-related harms. PMID:27305099

  1. "The lizard in the green bottle": "aging out" of problem drinking among Navajo men.

    PubMed

    Quintero, G

    2000-10-01

    The Navajo exhibit a number of indicators suggesting the extent of significant problems associated with drinking and alcohol abuse. Measures of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity provide stark testimony regarding the shape and magnitude of problem drinking among the Navajo. While these measures highlight patterns of drinking that often result in social, physical, and psychological pathology, there are other, less noted patterns of Navajo drinking. This paper describes a salient, if often overlooked, pattern of Native American drinking by examining the aging out phenomenon among Navajo men. Using narratives collected from former problem drinkers, this paper describes the factors and motivations associated with this sometimes dramatic change in drinking behavior. Several themes emerge from these narratives that help explain the aging out process. These themes include health concerns, religious involvement, living a traditional Navajo way of life, and the responsibilities and life changes associated with child rearing. This paper not only provides detail on a category of drinker and drinking phenomena that is largely ignored in accounts of Native American drinking, but also illustrates some of the values and meanings attached to drinking cessation and highlights the relation between changes in drinking behavior and stages in life course among Navajo men. PMID:11005391

  2. Predictors of heavy episodic drinking and weekly drunkenness among immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Daniel-Ulloa, J.; Reboussin, B.A.; Gilbert, P.A.; Mann, L.; Alonzo, J.; Downs, M.; Rhodes, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined correlates of heavy drinking among rural immigrant Latino men. This analysis identified correlates of typical week drunkenness and past 30-day heavy episodic drinking, within a sample of immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina (n = 258). In the bivariate analyses, Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult, and year-round employment were associated with increased odds of typical week drunkenness, and higher acculturation and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol were associated with lower odds of typical week drunkenness. Being older, Mexican birth, and entering the United States as an adult were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol was associated with decreased odds of heavy episodic drinking. In multivariable modeling, only religious affiliation was associated with typical week drunkenness. Mexican birth, entering the United States as an adult and were associated with increased odds of heavy episodic drinking, and affiliation with a religion with strict prohibitions against drinking alcohol and completing high school was associated with lower odds of heavy episodic drinking. The health of minority men in the United States has been neglected, and immigrant Latino men comprise a particularly vulnerable population. This analysis provides initial data on some factors associated with heavy drinking within a population about whom little is known. Future studies should examine moderating or mediating factors between age, acculturation, religiosity, and heavy drinking that might be targets for behavioral interventions. PMID:24457467

  3. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throttle 8 oz. 111 Monster Energy Drink (Low Carb) 16 oz. 10 Monster Energy Drink 16 oz. 200 Red Bull Energy Drink 16 oz. 220 Red Bull Energy Drink (Red, Silver, and Blue) 16 oz. 226 Rockstar Energy Drink 16 oz. 280

  4. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Amelia E; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-06-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women's (SMW's) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224

  5. Drinking Consequences and Subsequent Drinking in College Students Over 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Julia A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Wood, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that college student drinkers may continue drinking in the face of adverse consequences. We examined 2 hypotheses: (a) that this seemingly pathological behavior is a phenomenon of university life, occurring with consistency throughout the entirety of college, and (b) that individuals accumulate these consequences over multiple semesters in college. A sample of 3,720 students from a large Midwestern university was asked to complete surveys the summer before college and every semester thereafter for 4 years. Results showed that certain drinking-related consequences (e.g., blackouts, regretted sexual experiences) consistently predicted continued frequent heavy drinking in the following semester, even after controlling for sex, race, age, and previous-semester frequent heavy drinking (range of odds ratio = 1.17 to 1.45 across semesters, p < .01). Such potent consequences may predict subsequent drinking for a number of possible reasons that may be examined and addressed as they would pertain to specific protective behavioral strategy-related and cognitive interventions. Furthermore, consequences were accumulated over multiple semesters by notable proportions of students. For example, 13.8% of students reported blacking out 5 time-points or more—describing a full half or more of their college careers. Experimental studies which aim to modify students’ perceptions of norms associated with these consequences may aid in developing interventions to reduce the burden of harm to students. In the broader context, and given the prevalence of students’ accumulation of consequences, future study might aim to determine how and in what ways these findings describe either pathological or normative processes. PMID:25528051

  6. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  7. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  8. Childhood Risk Factors for Early-Onset Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. Method: A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. PMID:21906502

  9. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods The author conducted linear regression analyses of energy-drink consumption frequencies on sociodemographic characteristics, jock identity, masculine norms, and risk-taking behavior. Results Of participants, 39% consumed an energy drink in the past month, with more frequent use by men (2.49 d/month) than by women (1.22 d/month). Strength of jock identity was positively associated with frequency of energy-drink consumption; this relationship was mediated by both masculine norms and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions Sport-related identity, masculinity, and risk taking are components of the emerging portrait of a toxic jock identity, which may signal an elevated risk for health-compromising behaviors. College undergraduates’ frequent consumption of Red Bull and comparable energy drinks should be recognized as a potential predictor of toxic jock identity. PMID:18400659

  10. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  11. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  12. High-Risk Drinking among College Fraternity Members: A National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Barry D.; Crosse, Scott B.; Campbell, Bernadette; Howard, Jan; Luckey, Bill; Blane, Howard T.

    2006-01-01

    This survey, with its 85% response rate, provides an extensive profile of drinking behaviors and predictors of drinking among 3406 members of one national college fraternity, distributed across 98 chapters in 32 states. Multiple indexes of alcohol consumption measured frequency, quantity, estimated blood alcohol concentration levels (BACs), and…

  13. Binge Drinking and Risky Sex among College Students. NBER Working Paper No. 15953

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual behavior in nationally representative data on age 18-24 four-year college students. For having sex, overall or without condoms, large and significant positive associations are eliminated upon holding constant proxies for time-invariant sexual activity and drinking preferences.…

  14. The Motivations and Experiences of Underage Female Students Who Choose to Abstain from Drinking in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravelle, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    For decades, research has been conducted regarding alcohol consumption and behaviors, binge drinking, alcohol prevention, and education programs; however, there is limited research investigating a student's decision not to drink. In particular, there is minimal research on the experiences of underage female college students who have chosen to…

  15. Heavy Episodic Drinking in College Students: Associations with Features of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…

  16. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  17. Underage Drinking. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Underage drinking is a major problem across the country. Many communities are trying to reduce the injuries and deaths that occur as a result of this problem. Community groups have been instrumental in working at the state level to pass stricter laws curbing underage drinking and to tighten the laws that already exist. This paper provides tips and…

  18. Drinking Styles of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellott, Ramona N.; Swartz, Jody L.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) on college campuses have a more problematic style of drinking compared with non-ACOAs. Results indicate ACOAs endorse more problematic drinking patterns. Discusses implications for counselors who undertake prevention and intervention for ACOA student population. (Author/JDM)

  19. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  20. A motivation-based explanatory model of street drinking among young people.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Fernández-Monroy, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This social marketing study focuses on street drinking behavior among young people. The objective is to divide the market of young people who engage in this activity into segments according to their motivations. For the three segments identified, a behavior model is created using the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and social belonging of young people who engage in street drinking. The methodology used individual questionnaires filled in by a representative sample of young people. The results show that the behavior model follows the sequence of attitudes-beliefs-behavior and that social belonging influences these three variables. Similarly, differences are observed in the behavior model depending on the segment individuals belong to. PMID:25068605

  1. The Neurometabolic Fingerprint of Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sévin, Daniel C; Klee, Manuela L; Dieter, Sandra; Sauer, Uwe; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    ‘Omics' techniques are widely used to identify novel mechanisms underlying brain function and pathology. Here we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further ascertain the role of frontostriatal brain regions for the expression of addiction-like behaviors in rat models of alcoholism. Rats were made alcohol dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following a 3-week abstinence period, rats had continuous access to alcohol in a two-bottle, free-choice paradigm for 7 weeks. Nontargeted flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to assess global metabolic profiles of two cortical (prelimbic and infralimbic) and two striatal (accumbens core and shell) brain regions. Alcohol consumption produces pronounced global effects on neurometabolomic profiles leading to a clear separation of metabolic phenotypes between treatment groups, particularly. Further comparisons of regional tissue levels of various metabolites, most notably dopamine and Met-enkephalin, allow the extrapolation of alcohol consumption history. Finally, a high-drinking metabolic fingerprint was identified indicating a distinct alteration of central energy metabolism in the accumbens shell of excessively drinking rats that could indicate a so far unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism in alcohol addiction. In conclusion, global metabolic profiling from distinct brain regions by mass spectrometry identifies profiles reflective of an animal's drinking history and provides a versatile tool to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in alcohol dependence. PMID:25418809

  2. Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Karen

    This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

  3. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    PubMed

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p < 0.001), and energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p < 0.001), were associated with a lower GPA. Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork. PMID:27236788

  4. Binge alcohol drinking elicits persistent negative affect in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kaziya M; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A; Waltermire, Ryan S; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2015-09-15

    Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal. PMID:26048424

  5. Interactive effects of drinking history and impulsivity on college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence into emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period for changes in alcohol use and drinking related problems. Prior research has identified a number of distinct developmental alcohol use trajectories, which appear to be differentially related to young adult drinking outcomes. Another correlate of alcohol use in early adulthood is impulsivity. The primary aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of impulsivity in the relation between patterns of past alcohol use and hazardous drinking during the first year of college. Participants (N=452; 49% male; mean age 18.5 years; 82% Caucasian) completed self-report measures during the first year of college, including retrospective alcohol use calendars, current alcohol use and drinking problems, and personality. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify groups with similar adolescent drinking history from retrospective, self-report. Four groups were identified: abstainers/very light users, late/moderate users, early/moderate users, and steep increase/heavy users. The abstainer/very light user group reported the lowest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking in college; the steep increase/heavy use group reported the highest levels of alcohol use and problematic drinking. As predicted, the role of personality—specifically urgency, or emotion-based rash action—was strongest among moderate use groups. These findings may be helpful in guiding targeted prevention and intervention programs for alcohol use and abuse. PMID:24018231

  6. Sustained parenting and college drinking in first-year students.

    PubMed

    Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    Research indicates that for many students excessive drinking in college is a continuation of high school drinking tendencies. However, there have been limited theory-driven, systematic interventions targeting students so as to prevent alcohol misuse in their transition to college. Almost all current prevention approaches tend to be focused on younger populations and college-drinking interventions are typically delivered to students when they are already on campus. These analyses draw from a novel program of research involving parents of college freshmen based on the work of Turrisi et al. [Turrisi et al. [2001] Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4), 366-372; Turrisi, et al. [2009] Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 315-326] and focuses on examining: (1) the relationship between parenting and student drinking tendencies during the transitional period between high school and college and into the first year of college, and (2) the mediation process by which sustained parenting throughout the first year is related to college-drinking outcomes and consequences so as to inform future intervention efforts. The empirical evidence from this study suggests that sustained parental efforts have a beneficial effect on reducing high-risk drinking and preventing harm even at this late stage of late adolescent/early adult development. PMID:20213752

  7. Priming Effects of Self-Reported Drinking and Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Foster, Dawn W.

    2013-01-01

    Research has revealed negative associations between religiosity and alcohol consumption. Given these associations, the aim of the current research was to evaluate whether the order of assessing each construct might affect subsequent reports of the other. The present research provided an experimental evaluation of response biases of self-reported religiosity and alcohol consumption based on order of assessment. Participants (N = 301 undergraduate students) completed an online survey. Based on random assignment, religiosity was assessed either before or after questions regarding recent alcohol consumption. Social desirability bias was also measured. Results revealed a priming effect such that participants who answered questions about their religiosity prior to their alcohol consumption reported fewer drinks on their peak drinking occasions, drinking less on typical occasions, and drinking less frequently, even when controlling for social desirability and for the significant negative associations between their own religiosity and drinking. In contrast, assessment order was not significantly associated with religiosity. Results indicate priming religion results in reporting lower, but potentially more accurate, levels of health risk behaviors and that these effects are not simply the result of socially desirable responding. Results are interpreted utilizing several social–cognitive theories and suggest that retrospective self-reports of drinking may be more malleable than self-descriptions of religiosity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23528191

  8. Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Bray, Robert M; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Population-based Department of Defense health behavior surveys were examined for binge and heavy drinking among U.S. active duty personnel. From 1998-2008, personnel showed significant increases in heavy drinking (15% to 20%) and binge drinking (35% to 47%). The rate of alcohol-related serious consequences was 4% for nonbinge drinkers, 9% for binge drinkers, and 19% for heavy drinkers. Personnel with high combat exposure had significantly higher rates of heavy (26.8%) and binge (54.8%) drinking than their counterparts (17% and 45%, respectively). Heavy and binge drinking put service members at high risk for problems that diminish force readiness and psychological fitness. PMID:23869454

  9. Effects of brief intervention on subgroups of injured patients who drink at risk levels.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gerald; Field, Craig; Foreman, Michael; Ylioja, Thomas; Brown, Carlos V R

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol-related injuries are a major source of admission for trauma care. Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for injured patients can result in decreased drinking and risk behaviors. It is not clear SBI is equally beneficial for all injured patients. A secondary data analysis of 553 patients admitted to two Level-1 trauma centers was conducted. Latent class analysis was used to identify patient subgroups based on injury-related risks and consequences of alcohol use. Intervention effects on drinking were examined among subgroups. Five subgroups were identified. Drinking improved in patients reporting multiple risks and injuries/accidents and drinking and driving. Patients that reported drinking and driving and taking foolish risks or fighting while drinking and taking foolish risks did not show improvements. Trauma centers may benefit from targeting interventions based on injury-related risks and consequences of alcohol use. Further research is needed to test bedside approaches for tailored interventions. PMID:26124071

  10. RESEARCH FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Drinking Water Research Division uses a three tiered approach to research. The first step is bench-scale, where the chemical behavior of the organic contaminant can be investigated in a closely controlled environment. The next level, pilot...

  11. Dangerous Liaisons? Dating and Drinking Diffusion in Adolescent Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…

  12. Sports Promotion and Teen Smoking and Drinking: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Paul N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of adolescents examined the link between sports promotion and advertising of alcohol and tobacco and teen smoking and drinking behaviors. Data analysis found an association between exposure to sporting events and cigarette use and beer consumption. Watching stock car racing was related to cigarette use; football and basketball to beer use.…

  13. Why Underage College Students Drink in Excess: Qualitative Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia; Glassman, Tavis; Arthur, Ashley; Webb, Monica; Miller, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Excessive alcohol consumption by underage students is a serious and persistent problem facing most U.S. colleges and universities. Purpose: This qualitative study explores why underage students engage in high-risk drinking and examines motivational cues that may serve as behavioral deterrents. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with…

  14. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  15. Drinking Patterns, Problems, and Motivations among Collegiate Bisexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Horn, Stacey; Hughes, Tonda; Johnson, Timothy; Valles, Jesus Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors compared the drinking behaviors, motivations, and problems of collegiate bisexual women with those of heterosexual women (N = 2,788; n = 86 bisexual women). Methods: Data came from the 2003 Student Life Survey, a random population-based survey at a large midwestern university. The authors explored the…

  16. Energy Drink Cocktails: A Dangerous Combination for Athletes and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks (EDs) on college campuses and in communities has become a considerable public health concern. Among college students, intercollegiate athletes have been identified as being particularly at-risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resultant health and behavioral consequences. The main purpose of this…

  17. College Student Affect and Heavy Drinking: Variable Associations Across Days, Semesters, and People

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested associations between positive and negative affect and heavy drinking in 734 college students who completed daily diaries in 14-day bursts once per semester over 7 semesters (≤98 days per person). Three-level multilevel models tested whether affect and heavy drinking were linked across days, semesters, and persons. Higher daily, between-semester, and between-person positive affect were each associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays and on weekend days. A significant interaction with semester in college showed that the association between daily positive affect and heavy drinking on weekend days became stronger over time. That is, heavy drinking on a weekend day with higher positive affect was more likely in later years of college (OR=2.93, Fall of 4th year), compared to earlier in college (OR=1.80, Fall of 1st year). A similar interaction was found for between-semester positive affect and heavy drinking on weekdays. Higher daily negative affect was associated with a greater odds of heavy drinking on weekdays only for students who first began drinking in 7th grade or earlier (OR=2.36). Results of this study highlight the importance of varied time spans in studying the etiology, consequences, and prevention of heavy drinking. Harm-reduction strategies that target positive affect-related drinking by encouraging protective behaviors during celebratory events may become increasingly important as students transition to later years of college. PMID:25347017

  18. Drinking Motives Among HIV Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking among individuals with HIV is associated with poor medication adherence and other health problems. Understanding reasons for drinking (drinking motives) in this population is therefore important and could inform intervention. Using concepts of drinking motives from previous alcohol research, we assessed these motives and drinking in 254 HIV-positive primary care patients (78.0% male; 94.5% African American or Hispanic) prior to their participation in an alcohol intervention trial. Three motives had good factor structure and internal consistency: “drinking to cope with negative affect”, “drinking for social facilitation” (both associated with heavier drinking), and “drinking due to social pressure” (associated with less drinking). Drinking motives may provide important content for alcohol intervention; clinical trials could indicate whether inclusion of such content improves intervention efficacy. Discussing motives in session could help providers assist clients in better managing psychological and social aspects of their lives without reliance on alcohol. PMID:24165984

  19. Sports drinks hazard to teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The pH values of the drinks ranged from 4.46 (Maxim) to 2.38 (Isostar) and therefore were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralisation. Both Lucozade varieties had high titratable acidities (16.30 ml 0.1M NaOH to neutrality) with Gatorade, High Five, and Isostar displaying intermediate titratable acidity, although Isostar had 74.5 ppm calcium and 63.6 ppm phosphate. The fluoride concentration of all drinks was low, and none of the drinks was particularly viscous (range 3.1-1.4 mPa.s). CONCLUSIONS: The chemicophysical analyses indicate that all the sports drinks in this study have erosive potential. However, drinks with higher pH, lower titratable acidity, and higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride will reduce this erosive potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132205

  20. Early Developmental Processes and the Continuity of Risk for Underage Drinking and Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Masten, Ann S.; Mattson, Margaret E.; Moss, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental pathways to underage drinking emerge before the second decade of life. Nonetheless, many scientists, as well as the general public, continue to focus on proximal influences surrounding the initiation of drinking in adolescence, such as the social, behavioral, and genetic variables relating to availability and ease of acquisition of the drug, social reinforcement for its use, and individual differences in drug response. Over the past 20 years, a considerable body of evidence has accumulated on the early predictors and pathways of youthful alcohol use and abuse, often much earlier than the time of first drink. These early developmental influences involve numerous risk, vulnerability, promotive and protective processes. Some of these factors are not directly related to alcohol use per se, while others involve learning and expectancies about later drug use that are shaped by social experience. The salience of these factors-- identifiable in early childhood-- for understanding the course and development of adult alcohol and other drug use disorders is evident from the large and growing body of findings on their ability to predict these adult clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the evidence on early pathways toward and away from underage drinking, with a particular focus on the risk and protective factors, mediators and moderators of risk for underage drinking that become evident during the preschool and early school years. It is guided by a developmental perspective on the aggregation of risk and protection, and examines the contributions of biological, psychological, and social processes within the context of normal development. Implications of this evidence for policy, intervention, and future research are discussed. PMID:18381493

  1. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

  2. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  3. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  4. Drinking-induced bradyarrhythmias and cerebral injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats with sinoaortic denervation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Chikara; Morita, Hironobu

    2013-11-01

    We have demonstrated that a drinking-induced pressor response was larger if the baroreflex did not operate, and the mean arterial pressure reached 163 mmHg in conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation (SAD). Thus we hypothesized that a drinking behavior became a cardiovascular risk factor if a basal arterial pressure was high. To clarify this, we analyzed the occurrence of arrhythmias and the accumulation of microglia in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (Dahl S) with SAD. We maintained Dahl S and Dahl salt-resistant rats (Dahl R) with a high-sodium diet for 5 weeks. After SAD surgery, we measured arterial pressure and electrocardiogram during water-drinking behavior in all rats. Furthermore, we measured tumor necrosis factor-α concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and microglial accumulations around the third and fourth ventricles in rats with programmed drinking at a rapid or slow rate for 7 days. Incidences of drinking-induced bradyarrhythmias and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were significantly larger in Dahl S than Dahl R rats. Both bradyarrhythmias and PVCs were completely abolished by atropine administration. Accumulations of microglia around the third ventricle and increases in TNF-α in the CSF were observed in rats that drank water at a rapid rate; these were not seen in rats that drank water slowly. In conclusion, both cardiovascular events and cerebral injury may be increased by drinking in Dahl S rats with SAD. These risks are reduced by modifying drinking behavior such as slowing the drinking rate. PMID:24072408

  5. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back ... This can help you cut back on your alcohol use. Keep track of how much you drink ...

  6. Heavy-Drinking Smokers' Treatment Needs and Preferences: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Fucito, Lisa M; Hanrahan, Tess H

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the smoking and psychological characteristics of heavy-drinking smokers, their perceptions of smoking and drinking, and their smoking and alcohol treatment preferences to inform an integrated smoking and alcohol intervention. Heavy-drinking smokers (N=26) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a strong association between their smoking and drinking. Participants were more motivated to quit smoking than to reduce their drinking but perceived greater barriers to smoking cessation. Stress/negative affect was closely linked with both behaviors. They expressed overall enthusiasm for a smoking and alcohol intervention but had specific format and content preferences. Half preferred an integrated treatment format whereas others preferred a sequential treatment model. The most preferred content included personalized health feedback and a way to monitor health gains after behavior changes. PMID:26297324

  7. Acceptance of drinking and driving and alcohol-involved driving crashes in California

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Ragland, David R.; Satariano, William A.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol-impaired driving accounts for substantial proportion of traffic-related fatalities in the U.S. Risk perceptions for drinking and driving have been associated with various measures of drinking and driving behavior. In an effort to understand how to intervene and to better understand how risk perceptions may be shaped, this study explored whether an objective environmental-level measure (proportion of alcohol-involved driving crashes in one's residential city) were related to individual-level perceptions and behavior. Methods Using data from a 2012 cross-sectional roadside survey of 1,147 weekend nighttime drivers in California, individual-level self-reported acceptance of drinking and driving and past-year drinking and driving were merged with traffic crash data using respondent ZIP codes. Population average logistic regression modeling was conducted for the odds of acceptance of drinking and driving and self-reported, past-year drinking and driving. Results A non-linear relationship between city-level alcohol-involved traffic crashes and individual-level acceptance of drinking and driving was found. Acceptance of drinking and driving did not mediate the relationship between the proportion of alcohol-involved traffic crashes and self-reported drinking and driving behavior. However, it was directly related to behavior among those most likely to drink outside the home. Discussion The present study surveys a particularly relevant population and is one of few drinking and driving studies to evaluate the relationship between an objective environmental-level crash risk measure and individual-level risk perceptions. In communities with both low and high proportions of alcohol-involved traffic crashes there was low acceptance of drinking and driving. This may mean that in communities with low proportions of crashes, citizens have less permissive norms around drinking and driving, whereas in communities with a high proportion of crashes, the incidence of

  8. Postpartum and Alcohol-Related Factors Associated with the Relapse of Risky Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    JAGODZINSKI, TANYA; FLEMING, MICHAEL F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this investigation were (1) to describe postpartum drinking patterns among women who were frequent drinkers before pregnancy and (2) to identify factors correlated with postpartum “risky” drinking among women who were frequent drinkers before pregnancy. Method Information was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire completed at the postpartum visit and a subsequent face-to-face interview of 381 women, recruited from 35 obstetric/gynecologic clinics throughout Wisconsin, who reported frequent drinking before pregnancy. Multivariate analyses were used to identify correlates of postpartum risky drinking, defined as consuming four or more drinks per occasion (heavy episodic drinking) at least twice in the past 28 days or drinking an average of seven or more drinks per week. Results Overall, 37.8% (n = 144) women reported postpartum risky drinking. Eighteen percent reported heavy episodic drinking only, 5% reported frequent drinking only, and 15% reported both behaviors. Postpartum risky drinkers were more likely than other women to have had a partner who engaged in risky drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–4.5), to have been unemployed (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2–7.7), to have smoked following pregnancy (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0–3.5), and to have consumed alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.2–10.6). Women who breast-fed their child were less likely to report risky drinking (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.5). Conclusions In the postpartum period, health care providers may want to focus alcohol screening efforts on former frequent drinkers who are smokers, are unemployed, have a partner who is a risky drinker, or are not breast-feeding. PMID:17960306

  9. Communication About Problematic Drinking Between Young Adults and their Parents: An Application of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 80% of college students drink, half of whom consume alcohol in the form of binge drinking. The current study applies Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory to examine the communication about excessive drinking that takes place between parents and their young adult children. Forty college students were asked to report on a moment or incident that led their parents to label their drinking as concerning and were then asked to report on how their parents acted towards the drinking before and after the moment of labeling. Interviews were transcribed and coded. The findings suggest that parents act with inconsistency when attempting to manage their children's drinking by enacting both reinforcing and punishing behaviors. Parents' reinforcing behaviors included drinking with their children and buying them alcohol, even after labeling the drinking as problematic. Parents' punishment behaviors included expressing concern about their children's sense of responsibility and making their children feel regretful about their drinking. Nearly 88% of the participants were able to recall the moment at which their parents labeled their drinking as problematic. Implications for using inconsistent messages in conversations about alcohol are discussed. PMID:26860037

  10. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  11. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  12. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's "at-risk" or "heavy" drinking? What's the harm? What are the risks? What are symptoms of ... use disorder. The higher alcohol levels can also harm the liver, heart, and brain without the person ...

  13. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not only an adult problem. Most American high school seniors have had an alcoholic drink within the ... Local hospitals Public or private mental health agencies School or work counselors Student or employee health centers

  15. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  16. Encouraging responsible drinking among underage drinkers.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

    2005-01-01

    Public Service Announcements tailored to specific college drinking rituals (Treise, Wolburg and Otnes 1999) were tested on 133 underage undergraduate drinkers. More significant reductions in drinking intentions were found when using appeals focusing on drinking rituals pertaining to Maturity/Order (older students drink moderately: "Don't drink like a freshman.") than to Transformation (desired personality and mood changes), Community (social bonding and camaraderie), or a no-message Control. Gender did not moderate this effect. Underage drinkers may drink, in part, to feel more "grown up." Emphasizing that more senior students actually drink responsibly may diminish this belief and result in reduced alcohol consumption among underage students. PMID:17182459

  17. Personality, Alcohol Use, and Drinking Motives: A Comparison of Independent and Combined Internal Drinking Motives Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…

  18. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  19. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  20. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  1. Relationship of age of first drink to alcohol-related consequences among college students with unhealthy alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; DeJong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents who reported ever drinking, 14% reported an AFD before age 14. These early onset drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and other unhealthy alcohol use behaviors. Among the subset of drinkers with unhealthy alcohol use (36%), early drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report experiencing five out of 13 alcohol-related consequences, including driving while intoxicated, missing work or school due to drinking, getting into trouble at work or school due to drinking, receiving lower grades than they should have due to drinking, and developing a tolerance to alcohol. PMID:19042317

  2. Alcohol use among Mexican American U.S.-Mexico border residents: Differences between those who drink and who do not drink in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.

    2013-01-01

    The predominately Hispanic U.S.-Mexico border population is at an elevated risk for drinking and associated problems due to the area’s low SES, poor services infrastructure, and drug-related violence. Among Mexican American residents, recent studies suggest this risk is particularly pronounced among younger age groups, and a key characteristic of this elevated risk involves crossing the border to drink in Mexico (where the legal drinking age is 18). However, few studies have compared the drinking behavior of U.S. residents who consume alcohol on the Mexico side of the border with those who do not. We address this gap in the present study. A multistage household probability sample of 1,307 Mexican American border residents was interviewed about their drinking and associated problems over the past year. The survey response rate was 67%. Among current drinkers who reported going to Mexico in the past 12 months (N = 468), 36.1% reported consuming alcohol in Mexico. Those who drank in Mexico reported significantly more drinks per week (12.8 versus 8.7, p < .05), were more likely to have binged (58.3% versus 35.4%, p < .001), and were more likely to report one or more alcohol problems (35.5% versus 19.5%, p < .01) than those who did not drink in Mexico. Among those who drank in Mexico, men reported significantly more drinks per day while in Mexico than women (6.2 versus 4.0, p < .001). Male gender and lower income were significant predictors of drinking in Mexico. These findings suggest that drinking in Mexico contributes to the heightened risk for drinking and associated problems seen in previous research among Mexican Americans living on the U.S.-Mexico border. PMID:23391852

  3. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a

  4. Decision Making and Binge Drinking: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goudriaan, Anna E.; Grekin, Emily R.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavioral decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is found to be diminished in individuals with substance dependence and other types of disinhibitory psychopathology. However, little is known regarding the relation between heavy alcohol use and decision-making skills in young adults. This study therefore investigated whether binge drinking is related to disadvantageous decision making, as measured by the IGT. We also examined the relation between decision making and impulsivity. Methods: Latent class growth analysis was used to classify college students into 4 groups (each group n = 50, 50% male), based on their binge drinking trajectories over a 2-year time period (precollege through second year of college). Participants were 200 college students, divided in 4 subgroups: (1) low binge drinkers, (2) stable moderate binge drinkers, (3) increasing binge drinkers, and (4) stable high binge drinkers. A measure of decision making, the IGT, impulsivity questionnaires, and multiple indicators of heavy alcohol use were included. Results: The stable high binge-drinking group made less advantageous choices on the IGT than the low binge-drinking group. Impulsivity was not related to decision-making performance. Decision-making performance did not differ by gender, but deck preferences and decision time patterns did differ; women preferred low frequency, high amount punishments to a greater extent than men. Conclusions: Although disadvantageous decision making is related to binge-drinking patterns in emerging adulthood, this relation is independent of impulsivity. Additionally, the association appears attributable to those who engage in heavy (binge) drinking at an early age, but not to age of onset of drinking in general. PMID:17403069

  5. Readiness to change and gender: Moderators of the relationship between social desirability and college drinking

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of readiness to change (RTC) and gender in the relationship between social desirability (SD) and drinking among college students. Need to avoid social disapproval may lead to underreporting of stigmatized behavior and as such, we expected that SD (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960) would negatively associate with drinking. Further, we sought to facilitate understanding of mixed findings in the RTC literature by parsing out effects separately for the precontemplation, contemplation, and action stage, as measured via three validated subscales of the RTC questionnaire (Rollnick et al., 1992). Motivational enhancement efforts tend to focus on increasing RTC among drinkers in the precontemplation and contemplation stage (e.g., Miller & Rollnick, 1992) as these individuals have not yet begun to engage in behavior change, and as such, we will focus on these two subscales. Based on the mixed literature, we hypothesized that RTC would be differentially associated with drinking for precontemplators and contemplators. Moreover, we considered gender and RTC as moderators of the effect of SD on drinking and expected that moderating effects would be different for precontemplators relative to contemplators. Participants included 676 undergraduate students (M age = 22.92, SD = 5.43, 82.44% female). Findings supported predictions. RTC was differentially associated with drinking; for precontemplators, RTC negatively predicted drinking, whereas for contemplators RTC positively predicted drinking, and effects were different for each gender. Hierarchical regressions revealed multiple two- and three-way interactions between RTC, SD, and gender in predicting drinking. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:25568893

  6. Beyond Inhibition: A Dual-Process Perspective to Renew the Exploration of Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge drinking and notably the emotional-automatic processes. Dual-process model postulates that addictive disorders are not only due to impaired reflective system (involved in deliberate behaviors), but rather to an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated affective-automatic one (involved in impulsive behaviors). This proposal has been confirmed in alcohol-dependence, but has not been tested in binge drinking. The observation of comparable impairments in binge drinking and alcohol-dependence led to the “continuum hypothesis,” suggesting similar deficits across different alcohol-related disorders. In this perspective, applying the dual-process model to binge drinking might renew the understanding of this continuum hypothesis. A three-axes research agenda will be proposed, exploring: (1) the affective-automatic system in binge drinking; (2) the systems’ interactions and imbalance in binge drinking; (3) the evolution of this imbalance in the transition between binge drinking and alcohol-dependence. PMID:24926251

  7. Measuring university students' self-efficacy to use drinking self-control strategies.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Erin E; Rosenberg, Harold; Hoffmann, Erica; Kraus, Shane W; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Pavlick, Michelle; Bannon, Erin E

    2011-03-01

    Using a Web-based, self-administered questionnaire, we assessed 498 university-student drinkers' self-efficacy to use 31 different behavioral strategies to reduce excessive drinking in each of three different locations (bar, party, own dorm/apartment). Averaging all 31 items within each drinking situation to create a single scale score revealed high internal consistency reliabilities and moderate inter-item correlations. Testing the association of self-efficacy with drinking location, sex, and frequency of recent binge drinking, we found that respondents reported higher self-efficacy to use these strategies when drinking in their own dorm/apartment than when drinking in bars and at parties; women reported higher mean self-efficacy than men; and drinkers who engaged in 3-or-more binges in the previous 2 weeks reported lower self-efficacy than those who reported either 0 or 1-or-2 binges in the same time period. This questionnaire could be used to identify self-efficacy deficits among clients with drinking problems and as an outcome measure to assess the degree to which interventions influence reported confidence to use specific drinking-reduction strategies in high-risk drinking situations. PMID:21443310

  8. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  9. Self-efficacy mediates the effects of topiramate and GRIK1 genotype on drinking.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan; Pond, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that topiramate reduces alcohol use among problem drinkers, with one study showing that the effect was moderated by a polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, the gene encoding the GluK1 kainate subunit. We examined whether the interactive effect of medication and genotype (1) altered the association between daily self-efficacy and later-day drinking; and (2) had an indirect effect on drinking via self-efficacy. In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate, we used daily interactive voice response technology to measure self-efficacy (i.e. confidence in avoiding heavy drinking later in the day) and drinking behavior in 122 European-American heavy drinkers. Topiramate's effects on both self-efficacy and drinking level were moderated by rs2832407. C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showed higher levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of nighttime drinking across the 12-week trial. Further, the interactive effect of topiramate and genotype on mean nighttime drinking levels was mediated by mean levels of self-efficacy. By modeling topiramate's effects on nighttime drinking across multiple levels of analysis, we found that self-efficacy, a key psychologic construct, mediated the effect of topiramate, which was moderated by rs2832407 genotype. Thus, it may be possible to use an individualized assessment (i.e. genotype) to select treatment to optimize the reduction in heavy drinking and thereby provide a personalized treatment approach. PMID:25496338

  10. Drinking identity as a mediator of the relationship between drinking motives and weekly alcohol consumption among heavy drinking undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study assessed relationships among social, coping, enhancement, and conformity drinking motives and weekly alcohol consumption by considering drinking identity as a mediator of this relationship. Methods Participants were 260 heavy drinking undergraduate students (81% female; Mage = 23.45; SD = 5.39) who completed a web-based survey. Results Consistent with expectations, findings revealed significant direct effects of motives on drinking identity for all four models. Further, significant direct effects emerged for drinking identity on weekly drinking. Results partially supported predictions that motives would have direct effects on drinks per week; total effects of motives on drinking emerged for all models but direct effects of motives on weekly drinking emerged for only enhancement motives. There were significant indirect effects of motives on weekly drinking through drinking identity for all four models. Conclusions Findings supported hypotheses that drinking identity would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption. These examinations have practical utility and may inform development and implementation of interventions and programs targeting alcohol misuse among heavy drinking undergraduate students. PMID:25127197

  11. Proximal relationships between PTSD symptoms and drinking among female college students: results from a daily monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C; Simpson, Tracy L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Blayney, Jessica A; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-03-01

    Self-medication has been theorized to explain comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops in order to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Daily monitoring methodologies may help refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. One hundred thirty-six female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We found significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD, they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days in which women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink, whereas on days in which women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect, women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women. PMID:23915369

  12. Thinking About Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark.

    This document outlines a computerized alcohol lesson and its hardware requirements that were developed as an instructional package for students who violate the alcohol policy at the University of Delaware (UD). The behavioral objectives, that the student should have a basic understanding of the physiological, psychological, and sociological…

  13. Longitudinal validation of the acquired preparedness model of drinking risk.

    PubMed

    Settles, Regan Fried; Cyders, Melissa; Smith, Gregory T

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports on the first longitudinal test of the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of alcoholism risk, which holds that individual differences in key personality traits influence drinking behavior by influencing alcohol-related learning (Smith and Anderson, 2001). We studied 418 individuals making the transition to the independence of college across 3 longitudinal waves. Each of 2 longitudinal models predicting typical drinking quantity provided support for the AP process. In the first, drinking quantity at the end of the first year of college was predicted by positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect) at the start of college, and that predictive relationship appeared to have been mediated by expectancies that alcohol provides positive, arousing effects. In the second, drinking quantity was predicted by negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely negative affect) at the start of college, and that relationship appeared to have been mediated by the motive to drink alcohol to cope with subjective distress. PMID:20565146

  14. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. Conclusions There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  15. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035

  16. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  17. Drivers within natural drinking groups: an exploration of role selection, motivation, and group influence on driver sobriety.

    PubMed

    Lange, James E; Johnson, Mark B; Reed, Mark B

    2006-01-01

    Young people consume alcohol almost exclusively in social contexts, but natural drinking group dynamics are poorly understood. Our research focuses on the drivers' role within natural drinking groups. We conducted breath-test surveys of existing groups of young people at the US/Mexico border crossing before they headed to Tijuana bars, and surveyed them again upon their return. Results indicated an individual's perception of other group member's drinking plans predicts drinking intentions to a greater degree for passengers than drivers. Additionally, drivers who anticipated heavy drinking among other group members returned to the United States with BACs nearly identical to drivers who reported that other group members would not drink at all. This suggests drivers were resistant to normative pressures to drink. Evidence that group-dynamic variables may impact drinking behavior underscores the importance of systematic exploration of natural drinking groups. Furthermore, the knowledge gleaned from studying the dynamics and decision making processes of natural drinking groups could be used to design intervention designed to increase designated driver use and to reduce drinking among designated drivers. PMID:16595327

  18. Noradrenergic mediation of the positive reinforcing properties of ethanol: II. Extinction of ethanol-drinking behavior in laboratory rats by inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Implications for treatment procedures in human alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Z W; Amit, Z; Levitan, D E; Ogren, S O; Sutherland, E A

    1977-11-01

    Following stabilization of consumption of a 15% (v/v) ethanol solution in a free-choice with water, rats were presented with a forced-choice of ethanol for 10 consecutive alternate days. Prior to each forced-choice presentation experimental animals were injected with the non-toxic dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor FLA-57 (30 mg/kg i.p.) while control animals received only vehicle injections. At the termination of the injection phase when ethanol was again made available in a free-choice with water, ethanol consumption for the FLA-57 treated animals was markedly suppressed. These data are interpreted in terms of extinction resulting from the procedure whereby performance of the ethanol drinking response was perpetuated by force with the pharmacological reinforcing properties being blocked by FLA-57-induced depletions of norepinephrine. Applications of these procedures in the treatment of human alcoholics are discussed. PMID:603311

  19. Does Knowledge of College Drinking Policy Influence Student Binge Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Warren A.; Singleton, Edward; McMillan, Tiffany B.; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored alcohol policies at 5 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to gain an understanding of how students' awareness of these policies might correlate with campus binge drinking rates. Findings indicated that male students who reported being unaware of certain alcohol policies were more likely to report binge…

  20. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated with Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, the authors predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study…

  1. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

  2. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  3. Examining daily variability in willingness to drink in relation to underage young adult alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa; King, Kevin; Litt, Dana; Swanson, Alex; Lee, Christine

    2016-10-01

    A key component of the Prototype Willingness Model is willingness, which reflects an openness to opportunity to perform a behavior in situations that are conducive to that behavior. Willingness has traditionally been tested using global, hypothetical assessments, and has not been examined at the daily level. We expected to find within-person variability in willingness to drink, such that on days with greater willingness, individuals would report greater drinking. A national sample (N=288) of young adults aged 18 to 20 (31.60% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior, including the Timeline Follow-Back (Sobell & Sobell, 1992). Findings show daily variability in willingness to drink (ICC=0.54), which suggests that there are substantial differences from day-to-day in this drinking-related cognition. Participants drank more on days when individuals also reported feeling more willing to drink than their own average level across the two weeks. Daily process level mechanisms allow greater insight into factors contributing to increased risk in-the-moment, which may point to targets for interventions aimed at improving adolescents' and young adults' abilities to make healthier choices in moments when they may be at greater risk for engaging in risky behaviors. PMID:27243458

  4. Problem Drinking among transnational mexican migrants: Exploring migrant Status and Situational Factors.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Victor

    2008-01-01

    We present research finding son problem drinking among transnational Mexican migrants employed in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our research explored the relationship between situational factors-living arrangements, social isolation, and peer pressure to drink-and problem drinking. Individual characteristics of the migrants, such as age, education level, migration history, and work experience in the mushroom industry are also considered. The premise of our study is that the migrants' judicial status in the country-as foreign solo men and, at times, undocumented or illegal migrants-places them at a high risk to binge drink. The men mainly live without their families in relatively isolated, grower-provided housing or overcrowded apartment units for months, if not years, away from traditional community and kin deterrents to heavy drinking. We employed the ethnographic method in two complementary field studies: a community ethnography, designed to identify the community context of problem drinking, and a series of case studies of migrant drinkers, designed to identify the relationships between situational factors and problem drinking. Focus groups were used to explore and verify the findings being generated in the two studies. Our findings reveal that there is an alcohol abuse problem among the migrants as a consequence of situational and other factors, such as festive occasions, bad news from home, and a long workweek. Their binge drinking does not always result in negative behavior because the migrants follow drinking norms, and violators of these norms are dealt with accordingly. Nonetheless, binge drinking does place them at a high risk for negative behavior, which results in problems in their housing units and in local communities. PMID:21990944

  5. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  6. Interactions Between Drinking Motives and Friends in Predicting Young Adults' Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals' drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age = 23.1) in French-speaking Switzerland completed cell phone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over five weekends. A total of 7205 questionnaires completed on 1441 evenings were analyzed. Drinking motives and gender were assessed at baseline, while the hourly alcohol consumption rate and number of friends present were assessed at 8 p.m., 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m., and midnight. Multilevel growth curve models with time-invariant and time-varying covariates were estimated for men and women separately. Among women, enhancement motives were associated with an increase in the hourly alcohol consumption rate over the course of the evening (b = .025; p < .05). The impact of the number of friends present on the hourly consumption rate was stronger among those women who scored high on coping motives at baseline (b = .028; p < .05). Among men, drinking motives were found to have no moderating effects. Results highlight the role of drinking motives and their interactions with situational characteristics in determining event-level drinking, especially among women. Strategies to prevent risky weekend drinking should focus on both the social environment in which drinking takes place (e.g., the drinking group) and individual drinking motives. PMID:27165112

  7. Baseline Trajectories of Drinking Moderate Acamprosate and Naltrexone Effects in the COMBINE study

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Donovan, Dennis; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Couper, David; Krystal, John H.; O’Malley, Stephanie S

    2010-01-01

    Background The COMBINE Study evaluated the effects of acamprosate, naltrexone and the Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI). In secondary analyses, our goals were to identify trajectories of any drinking prior to randomization, to characterize subjects in these trajectories, and to assess whether pre-randomization trajectories predict drinking outcomes and moderate treatment response. Methods We analyzed daily indicators of any drinking in 90 days prior to randomization using a trajectory-based approach. General linear models and generalized logistic regression assessed main and interactive effects of pre-randomization drinking trajectories and treatment on summary drinking measures during active treatment. Results We identified five trajectories of any drinking prior to randomization: “T1: frequent drinkers”, “T2: very frequent drinkers”, “T3: nearly daily drinkers”, “T4: consistent daily drinkers” and “T5: daily drinkers stopping early”. During treatment, “T3: nearly daily drinkers” and “T4: consistent daily drinkers” had significantly worse drinking outcomes than “T1: frequent drinkers” while “T5: daily drinkers stopping early” had comparable drinking outcomes to “T1: frequent drinkers”. Acamprosate significantly increased the chance of abstinence from heavy drinking for the “T2: very frequent drinking” trajectory but decreased the chance of abstinence from heavy drinking for “T5: daily drinkers stopping early”. Naltrexone differentially improved rates of continuous abstinence for very frequent drinkers. Conclusions Acamprosate benefited very frequent drinkers and contrary to expectations was associated with poorer response compared to placebo for consistent daily drinkers who had longer durations of pretreatment abstinence (e.g., ≥ 14 days). Baseline drinking trajectories also moderated naltrexone effects. These findings may help clinicians identify patients for whom acamprosate and naltrexone may be most

  8. Lifetime and twelve-month prevalence of heavy-drinking in Singapore: Results from a representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study aimed to establish the prevalence of heavy drinking, evaluate correlations between heavy drinking and socio-demographic factors, physical and psychiatric conditions, and assess the impact of heavy drinking on quality of life and days of work-loss. Methods Data from a nationally-representative cross-sectional sample were used. The sample comprised 6616 community-dwelling Singaporeans & Singapore Permanent Residents. The main instruments used were the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and EuroQol 5D. Heavy drinking was defined as consumption of 4 or more drinks, or 5 or more drinks in a day in women and men respectively. Results 12.6% of all adult Singapore residents reported heavy drinking in the last 12 months, and 15.9% reported lifetime heavy-drinking. Strong gender, ethnic, age and income differences were seen. Heavy drinking was positively associated with major depression, the presence of any mood disorder, and with chronic pain. It was also strongly associated with alcohol dependence, alcohol abuse, and nicotine dependence. Heavy-drinkers reported lower quality of life compared to non-heavy drinkers, measured using the EuroQol 5D Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusions Singapore has a relatively high prevalence of 12-month heavy drinking of 12.6%, and lifetime heavy drinking of 15.9%. Heavy drinking was positively associated with both physical and mental health conditions, and with declines in quality of life. Continued monitoring of heavy drinking behavior and sustained efforts to mitigate the risks associated with heavy drinking is needed. PMID:24499269

  9. Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158887.html Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems? Study found protective benefit for both men ... News) -- Married people are less likely to have drinking problems than single people, and that protective effect ...

  10. Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160283.html Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs Alcohol appears to reduce ... 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heavy drinking may increase the risk of lung problems, a ...

  11. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  12. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  13. DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

  14. Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157636.html Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet Sugar, salt and overall ... March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Plain old tap water might be the best diet drink around, scientists ...

  15. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  16. Social housing and alcohol drinking in male-female pairs of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Caroline M.; Anacker, Allison M.J.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Social environment influences alcohol consumption in humans, however, animal models have only begun to address biological underpinnings of these effects. Objectives We investigated whether social influences on alcohol drinking in the prairie vole are specific to the sex of the social partner. Methods In Experiment 1, control, sham, and gonadectomized voles were placed either in mesh-divided housing with a same-sex sibling or isolation with access to ethanol. In Experiment 2 animals were given an elevated plus maze test (EPM) and then females were paired with a castrated male followed by isolation or mesh-divided housing with access to ethanol. In Experiment 3, subjects categorized as low or high drinkers based on initial ethanol intake were placed in mesh-divided housing with an opposite-sex partner of the same or opposite drinking group and ethanol access. Subjects were then moved back to isolation for a final ethanol access period. Results Same-sex pairs showed social facilitation of drinking similar to previous reports. Gonadectomy did not affect alcohol drinking. Opposite-sex paired animals in Experiment 2 did not differ in alcohol drinking based on social housing. EPM measures suggested a relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and drinking that depended on social environment. Experiment 3 identified moderate changes in alcohol preference based on social housing, but these effects were influenced by the animal’s own drinking behavior and were independent of their partner’s drinking. Conclusions Social influences on alcohol self-administration in prairie voles differ based on the sex of a social partner, consistent with human drinking behavior. PMID:22903359

  17. Relationships between human thirst, hunger, drinking, and feeding

    PubMed Central

    McKiernan, Fiona; Houchins, Jenny A.; Mattes, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    There is a widely held view that hunger prompts feeding to ensure energy needs are met, while thirst cues drinking to address hydration requirements. However, recent changes in the nature of the food supply and eating patterns have raised questions about the functionality of these relationships with respect to maintaining energy balance. The increasing consumption of energy-yielding beverages and foods with diluted energy density, through the use of ingredients such as high intensity sweeteners and fat replacers, pose new challenges to presumed homeostatic energy regulatory mechanisms. This review draws on findings from a recent observational study and other published evidence to explore whether shifts of food composition and use patterns may be disrupting relationships between thirst, hunger, drinking, and eating resulting in positive energy balance (e.g., drinking low satiety, energy-yielding beverages in response to hunger). The observational study entailed collecting hourly appetitive ratings and dietary recalls from 50 adults for seven consecutive days. These data reveal a clear bimodal daily hunger pattern whereas thirst is stronger and more stable throughout the day. Further, approximately 75% of fluid intake occurs peri-prandially, with the majority derived from energy-yielding beverages. While there is published evidence that drinking is responsive to feeding, support for the view that drinking is the more tightly regulated behavior is stronger. Our data indicates that, due to a number of plausible factors, neither absolute values nor changes of hunger or thirst are strong predictors of energy intake. However, it is proposed that stable, high thirst facilitates drinking, and with the increased availability and use of energy-yielding beverages that have low satiety properties, this can promote positive energy balance. There are marked individual differences in mean daily hunger and thirst ratings with unknown implications for energy balance. PMID:18499200

  18. Challenging the collegiate rite of passage: a campus-wide social marketing media campaign to reduce binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Glider, P; Midyett, S J; Mills-Novoa, B; Johannessen, K; Collins, C

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, on a large, southwestern university campus has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey and the Health Enhancement Survey provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding alcohol and binge drinking. This study represents the first in-depth research on the impact of a media approach, based on a normative social influence model, to reduce binge drinking on a large university campus and has yielded promising initial results. PMID:11487995

  19. Hazardous drinking-related characteristics of depressive disorders in Korea: the CRESCEND study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Kyu; Oh, Hong Seok; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical correlates of hazardous drinking in a large cohort of Korean patients with depression. We recruited a total of 402 depressed patients aged > 18 yr from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea. Patients' drinking habits were assessed using the Korean Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-K). Psychometric scales, including the HAMD, HAMA, BPRS, CGI-S, SSI-Beck, SOFAS, and WHOQOL-BREF, were used to assess depression, anxiety, overall psychiatric symptoms, global severity, suicidal ideation, social functioning, and quality of life, respectively. We compared demographic and clinical features and psychometric scores between patients with and without hazardous drinking behavior after adjusting for the effects of age and sex. We then performed binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent correlates of hazardous drinking in the study population. Our results revealed that hazardous drinking was associated with current smoking status, history of attempted suicide, greater psychomotor retardation, suicidal ideation, weight loss, and lower hypochondriasis than non-hazardous drinking. The regression model also demonstrated that more frequent smoking, higher levels of suicidal ideation, and lower levels of hypochondriasis were independently correlates for hazardous drinking in depressed patients. In conclusion, depressed patients who are hazardous drinkers experience severer symptoms and a greater burden of illness than non-hazardous drinkers. In Korea, screening depressed patients for signs of hazardous drinking could help identify subjects who may benefit from comprehensive therapeutic approaches. PMID:25552886

  20. Correlates of Concurrent Energy Drink and Alcohol Use among Socially Active Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that energy drink consumption and the combined use of energy drinks and alcohol are popular among young adults, although this research has typically focused on college students. Because of the potential for harms associated with this combination, it is critical to understand use among adults in nightlife scenes who may be most at risk for harms associated with combined energy drink and alcohol consumption. Objectives By focusing our sample on individuals in a range of nightlife scenes, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of the demographic factors associated with energy drink use and combined energy drink and alcohol consumption to benefit the targeting of intervention and prevention efforts beyond college campuses. Methods Using a field-based survey in New York City to survey adults active in various nightlife scenes, this study reports on the survey results of 1476 venue patrons at venues in five nightlife scenes in addition to college bar scenes Results Men, younger individuals, Latinos, and sexual minority individuals reported higher prevalence of recent energy drink consumption. Younger individuals, men, and those recruited in gay venues reported higher prevalence of combining alcohol and energy drinks. Conclusion These findings provide information useful to target education and prevention efforts. They also suggest the need for additional research to understand differences in motivations for use and in the behavioral and alcohol-related outcomes associated with consuming energy drinks and combining them with alcohol. PMID:23030475

  1. Hazardous drinking and family functioning in National Guard veterans and spouses postdeployment.

    PubMed

    Blow, Adrian J; Gorman, Lisa; Ganoczy, Dara; Kees, Michelle; Kashy, Deborah A; Valenstein, Marcia; Marcus, Sheila M; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Chermack, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    The current study examined rates of alcohol misuse among National Guard (NG) service members and their spouses/partners, concordance of drinking behaviors among couples, and the effects of alcohol misuse, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on three measures of family functioning. This study is important because it addresses the topics of heavy drinking and family functioning in an at-risk population-NG service members returning from a combat zone deployment. We surveyed NG service members (1,143) and their partners (674) 45-90 days after returning from a military deployment. Service member rates of hazardous drinking were 29.2% and spouses/partners 10.7%. Of the 661 linked couples, 26.2% were discrepant where only one member met the criteria for hazardous drinking and 5.4% were congruent for alcohol misuse where both members met hazardous drinking criteria. Service members belonging to either congruent or discrepant drinking groups were more distressed in their marriages/relationships than those in the nonhazardous group. In dyadic analyses, an unexpected partner effect was found for parenting outcomes; that is, when service members drink more, their spouses/partners are less stressed when it comes to parenting. Importantly, both service member and spouse/partner depression was significantly associated with negative family outcomes. Results from this study suggest that when working with these families, it is important to understand the drinking status of both soldier and spouse and to treat depression in addition to alcohol misuse. PMID:23544925

  2. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  3. INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

  4. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. PMID:24070912

  5. Decisional Balance and Collegiate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgen, Keith; Gunneson, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…

  6. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... impairment 0.30 -- confusion 0.40 -- stupor 0.50 -- coma 0.60 -- respiratory paralysis and death You can have symptoms of "being drunk" at blood alcohol levels below the legal definition of being drunk. Also, people who drink alcohol frequently may not have symptoms ...

  7. Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines predictors of heavy drinking frequency and drinking-related problems among more than 600 college students. Controlling for high school drinking frequency, results of multiple regression analyses showed that more frequent heavy drinking was predicted by being male and risk factors of more frequent marijuana and tobacco…

  8. PTSD Symptoms Mediate Academic Stress and Drinking to Cope in College Students.

    PubMed

    Woolman, Erin O; Becker, Madelyn M; Klanecky, Alicia K

    2015-01-01

    Heightened perceptions of academic stress may increase college alcohol use behaviors, namely problem drinking and drinking to cope. Leading from prior research, the current study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as a mediator between academic stress and alcohol use behaviors. Undergraduate participants (N=200) completed an online survey battery. Results indicated that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated the relationship between academic stress and drinking to cope. Findings maintained after excluding the small portion of the sample without prior trauma. Results suggest that early trauma exposure may increase stress sensitivity, which is associated with elevated nontraumatic academic stress and stress-related symptoms. An increase in stress symptoms likely promotes drinking as a method of coping. Information on the role of trauma and stress may be incorporated into alcohol intervention programs. PMID:26400899

  9. Influencing College Student Drinking Intentions With Social Norms and Self-Schema Matched Messages: Differences Between Low and High Self-Monitors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan M; Brannon, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    College students were exposed to either a self-schema matched message (emphasizing how binge drinking is inconsistent with personal values) or a social norms message (highlighting the true normative drinking behavior of peers). As predicted, low self-monitors intended to drink significantly less alcohol if they received the self-schema matched message versus the social norms message, and high self-monitors intended to drink less if they received the social norms message versus a self-schema message. While previous research supports both techniques for marketing responsible college student drinking, the current results suggest that each method may be especially effective for certain audiences. PMID:26569148

  10. Teen Drinking Prevention Program: Teen Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This guide was designed to help teenagers become involved in fun, alcohol-free activities. It provides youth with ideas on how to influence and change the factors that encourage teenage drinking. The guide has four purposes: (1) raise public awareness of the underage drinking crisis; (2) change community norms that encourage underage drinking; (3)…

  11. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  16. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  17. Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…

  18. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  19. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  20. College Drinking Needs More Research, Scientists Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donodeo, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes presentations at a symposium (Denver, CO, June 5, 1998) on college drinking which examined: the impact of developmental issues of late adolescence; influence of college drinking on human biology and on substance abuse in later life; student drinking during the academic year; and campus program evaluation. Concluded there was a need for…

  1. Conditional covariation of binge drinking with predictors of college students' cheating.

    PubMed

    Bichler, Gisela; Tibbetts, Stephen G

    2003-12-01

    Recent research has identified a variety of significant predictors of academic dishonesty, but virtually no studies have examined the conditional relation of binge drinking and students' cheating. Using a survey sample of 289 college students, this study tested the mediating relations of binge drinking with the correlation of independent variables--including opportunity, strain, and self-control--on self-reported academic dishonesty. Low self-control had a stronger correlation with students' cheating behaviors for those who were heavy binge drinkers (beta = -.52) than for students who were nonbingers (beta = -.38). Differential relations were found for other key variables, namely, opportunity and strain, at varying severities of binge drinking. PMID:14723437

  2. Divergent Drinking Patterns of Restaurant Workers: The Influence of Social Networks and Job Position

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Genevieve M.; Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.

    2013-01-01

    Restaurant workers have higher rates of problem drinking than most occupational groups. However, little is known about the environmental risks and work characteristics that may lead to these behaviors. An exploration of restaurant workers’ drinking networks may provide important insights into their alcohol consumption patterns, thus guiding workplace prevention efforts. Drawing from social capital theory, this paper examines the unique characteristics of drinking networks within and between various job categories. Our research suggests that these multiple, complex networks have unique risk characteristics, and that self-selection is based on factors such as job position and college attendance, among other factors. PMID:23687470

  3. [Risks of energy drinks in youths].

    PubMed

    Bigard, A-X

    2010-11-01

    The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy

  4. Daily Associations Between Drinking and Sex Among College Students: A Longitudinal Measurement Burst Design

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2015-01-01

    Daily links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors were examined in a longitudinal study of college students. Hierarchical linear models predicted sexual behaviors by characteristics of persons (N=731; Level 3), semesters (N=4,345, Level 2), and days (N=56,372, Level 1). On a given day, consuming more drinks and binge drinking were associated with greater odds of kissing, touching, oral sex, and penetrative sex. Consistent with alcohol myopia and expectancy theories, associations between binge drinking and sexual behaviors were stronger for students not in romantic relationships, for students with stronger alcohol-sex expectancies, and for oral and penetrative sex. Findings suggest that within-day links between alcohol use and sexual behaviors are evident across college, with variations based on individual and relationship factors. PMID:26052189

  5. [Eating and drinking in patients with Alzheimer dementia. A study of interactions].

    PubMed

    Wagener, R; Berkemeyer, C; Hock, G; Schneider, A; Winterberg, C; Ulmer, E M

    1998-04-01

    Eating and drinking become difficult for people afflicted with dementia. We have therefore analysed the mealtime constellation in five cases of institutionalised people suffering from Alzheimer using video in an open technique. The process of eating and drinking entailed intensive interaction between patients and their nurses. The demented were apparently in possession of extensive nonverbal communicative ability to both transmit and receive signals. It proved possible to identify behavioral factors that hinder or benefit the mealtime procedure of the analysed cases. PMID:9633428

  6. It's More than Drinking, Drugs, and Sex: College Student Perceptions of Family Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsline, Denise; Holl, Andrea; Pearson, Judy C.; Child, Jeffrey T.

    2006-01-01

    The colorful misbehavior of college students trumps considerations of college students' relationships with their families. With broad coverage of behaviors such as binge drinking, on-line gambling, and risky sexual behavior, the image of the college student is one of a person worrying about what time the bar opens, rather than problems at home.…

  7. Towards the development of laboratory methods for studying drinking games: Initial findings, methodological considerations, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Mark M.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; Borsari, Brian; Correia, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Drinking games are prevalent among college students and are associated with increased alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences. There has been substantial growth in research on drinking games. However, the majority of published studies rely on retrospective self-reports of behavior and very few studies have made use of laboratory procedures to systematically observe drinking game behavior. Objectives The current paper draws on the authors’ experiences designing and implementing methods for the study of drinking games in the laboratory. Results The paper addressed the following key design features: (a) drinking game selection; (b) beverage selection; (c) standardizing game play; (d) selection of dependent and independent variables; and (e) creating a realistic drinking game environment. Conclusions The goal of this methodological review paper is to encourage other researchers to pursue laboratory research on drinking game behavior. Use of laboratory-based methodologies will facilitate a better understanding of the dynamics of risky drinking and inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25192209

  8. How Mandated College Students Talk About Alcohol: Peer Communication Factors Associated with Drinking.

    PubMed

    Carey, Kate B; Lust, Sarah A; Reid, Allecia E; Kalichman, Seth C; Carey, Michael P

    2016-09-01

    Relatively little research has examined how peer communication influences alcohol consumption. In a sample of mandated college students, we differentiate conversations about drinking from conversations about harm prevention and provide evidence for the validity of these communication constructs. Students who violated campus alcohol policies and were referred for alcohol sanctions (N = 345) reported on drinking patterns, use of protective behavioral strategies, perceived descriptive norms for close friends, and serving as social leader among their friends; they also reported on the frequency of conversations about drinking, about drinking safety, and about risk reduction efforts. Predicted correlations were found among types of communication and conceptually related variables. General communication was related to consumption but not protective behavioral strategies, whereas safety/risk reduction conversations correlated positively with all protective behavioral strategies. Both types of communication were associated with social leadership. Safety communication moderated the relationship between peer descriptive norms and drinks per week; more frequent talking about safety attenuated the norms-consumption relationship. Peer communication about both drinking and safety may serve as targets for change in risk reduction interventions for mandated college students. PMID:26861808

  9. A portrait of food and drink in commercial TV series.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Rosaen, Sarah F; Worrell, Tracy R; Salmon, Charles T; Volkman, Julie E

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the content and presentation of food and drink on fictional, commercial television. It provides the first comparison of food and drink consumption across different television program genres designated for different age groups. Data originated with a random sample of 50 taped episodes of children's shows, 50 episodes of "tween" programs (shows targeted for 9- to 14-year-olds), 40 episodes of afternoon soaps, and 50 episodes of prime time shows. The choice of TV series was based solely on the strength of Nielsen audience ratings. The study coded the foods for nutritional content and the drinks for alcoholic/nonalcoholic content, how they were used, and in what context. Findings indicate that foods were more commonly offered and consumed on children's shows, and that problematic foods (defined as oils, solid fats, and foods with added sugars) were significantly more prevalent in youth-oriented shows than in adult-oriented shows. Although there was only a negligible presence of alcohol on children's shows, the average hourly use of alcohol on the tween shows matched that of the adult programs; therefore, alcohol was as common in the shows directed at young audiences as in shows for adults. Negative outcomes were largely absent from food and drink behaviors on these TV series. PMID:19499423

  10. The interaction of meal-related, rhythmic and homeostatic mechanisms and the generation of thirst and drinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. F.; Johnson, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the study of thirst is to understand why drinking occurs under ad libitum or natural conditions. An appreciation of the experimental strategies applied by physiologists studying thirst from different perspectives can facilitate progress toward understanding the natural history of drinking behavior. Drinking research carried out using three separate perspectives-homeostatic, circadian rhythms, and food-associated-generates types of information about the mechanisms underlying drinking behavior. By combining research strategies and methods derived from each of these approaches, it has been possible to gain new information that increases our appreciation of the interactions between homeostatic mechanisms and circadian rhythms in the modulation of water intake and how these might be related to drinking associated with food intake under near natural conditions.

  11. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness—alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness—risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis

  12. Problem Drinking among transnational mexican migrants: Exploring migrant Status and Situational Factors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We present research finding son problem drinking among transnational Mexican migrants employed in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our research explored the relationship between situational factors—living arrangements, social isolation, and peer pressure to drink—and problem drinking. Individual characteristics of the migrants, such as age, education level, migration history, and work experience in the mushroom industry are also considered. The premise of our study is that the migrants’ judicial status in the country—as foreign solo men and, at times, undocumented or illegal migrants—places them at a high risk to binge drink. The men mainly live without their families in relatively isolated, grower-provided housing or overcrowded apartment units for months, if not years, away from traditional community and kin deterrents to heavy drinking. We employed the ethnographic method in two complementary field studies: a community ethnography, designed to identify the community context of problem drinking, and a series of case studies of migrant drinkers, designed to identify the relationships between situational factors and problem drinking. Focus groups were used to explore and verify the findings being generated in the two studies. Our findings reveal that there is an alcohol abuse problem among the migrants as a consequence of situational and other factors, such as festive occasions, bad news from home, and a long workweek. Their binge drinking does not always result in negative behavior because the migrants follow drinking norms, and violators of these norms are dealt with accordingly. Nonetheless, binge drinking does place them at a high risk for negative behavior, which results in problems in their housing units and in local communities. PMID:21990944

  13. HEAVY DRINKING TRAJECTORIES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A LONGITUDINAL, GROUP-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Shoveller, Jean A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet few studies have examined heavy drinking typologies in this population. Methods We analyzed data from 4,075 HIV-uninfected MSM (aged 16 to 88) participating in EXPLORE, a 48-month behavioral intervention trial, to determine the patterns and predictors of HED trajectories. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as the number of days in which ≥5 alcohol drinks were consumed in the past 6 months. Longitudinal group-based mixture models were used to identify HED trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine correlates of membership in each group. Results We identified five distinct HED trajectories: non-heavy drinkers (31.9%); infrequent heavy drinkers (i.e., <10 heavy drinking days per 6 month period, 54.3%); regular heavy drinkers (30-45 heavy drinking days per 6 months, 8.4%); drinkers who increased HED over time (average 33 days in the past six months to 77 days at end of follow-up, 3.6%); and very frequent heavy drinkers (>100 days per 6 months, 1.7%). Intervention arm did not predict drinking trajectory patterns. Younger age, self-identifying as white, lower educational attainment, depressive symptoms, and stimulant use were also associated with reporting heavier drinking trajectories. Compared to non-heavy drinkers, participants who increased HED more often experienced a history of childhood sexual abuse. Over the study period, depressive symptomatology increased significantly among very frequent heavy drinkers. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and childhood sexual abuse were associated with heavier drinking patterns among MSM. Multi-component interventions to reduce HED should seek to mitigate the adverse impacts of low educational attainment, depression, and early traumatic life events on the initiation, continuation or escalation of frequent HED among MSM. PMID

  14. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  15. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: Differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  16. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2014-11-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  17. Comparing sugary drinks in the food retail environment in six NYC neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Sacks, Rachel; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a national public health concern linked to numerous chronic health conditions among Americans of all age groups. Evidence suggests that discretionary calories from sugary drink consumption have been a significant contributor to excess caloric intake among both children and adults. Research has established strong links between retail food environments and purchasing habits of consumers, but little information exists on the sugary drink retail environment in urban neighborhoods. The objective of this assessment was to compare various aspects of the sugary drink retail environment across New York City (NYC) neighborhoods with disparate self-reported sugary drink consumption patterns. In-store retail audits were conducted at 883 corner stores, chain pharmacies, and grocery stores in 12 zip codes throughout NYC. Results showed that among all beverage types assessed, sugary drinks had the most prominent presence in the retail environment overall, which was even more pronounced in higher-consumption neighborhoods. In higher- versus lower-consumption neighborhoods, the mean number of sugary drink varieties available at stores was higher (11.4 vs. 10.4 varieties), stores were more likely to feature sugary drink advertising (97 vs. 89 %) and advertising at multiple places throughout the store (78 vs. 57 %), and several sugary drinks, including 20-oz Coke® or Pepsi®, were less expensive ($1.38 vs. $1.60). These results, all statistically significant, indicate that neighborhoods characterized by higher levels of sugary drink consumption expose shoppers to sugary drinks to a greater extent than lower-consumption neighborhoods. This builds upon evidence documenting the association between the environment and individual behavior. PMID:24043480

  18. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol policies and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. PMID:25640167

  19. Energy Drinks: Ergolytic or Ergogenic?

    PubMed Central

    SILLIVENT, JOE; BLEVINS, JENNIFER; PEAK, KAYLA

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of energy drinks, many do not realize the negative effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of energy drink ingestion on estimated VO2max, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively), rate pressure product (RPP), and RPE at rest and during exercise. Seven healthy adults (age: 24.3 ± 3.5 yrs; body mass: = 66.0 ± 2.2 kg) participated in this randomized double blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested a placebo (PL) or Redline (RL) energy drink (240ml; 250 mg caffeine) 40 minutes before maximal graded exercise test (GXT). Estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was lower in the RL trial (37.9±5.7 ml·kg−1·min−1) compared to the PL trial (39.7±6.5 ml·kg−1·min−1; P= 0.02). Although no significant differences were noted for the number of ectopic beats (ETB) between the trials, a five to one ratio for the RL and PL existed (RL = 106 total ectopic beats; PL = 21 total ectopic beats). Sub-maximal exercise heart demand (RPP: systolic BP × HR) at the same workload was considerably higher in the RL trial (224.9 ± 39.9 mmHg·bts·min−1; P=0.04) compared to PL (195.8 ± 22.9 mmHg·bts·min−1). Recovery DBP was significantly higher at one min. in the RL trial (51.6 ± 25.1 mmHg) compared to PL (25.4 ± 33.8 mmHg; P=0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was determined that energy drinks lowered estimated VO2max while elevating RPP and recovery DBP. PMID:27182384

  20. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.