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Sample records for driver fatality rates

  1. Teenaged Drivers and Fatal Crash Responsibility. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.

    According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than…

  2. Occupational Fatalities Among Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers in the United States, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang X.; Amandus, Harlan E.; Wu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background This study provides a national profile of occupational fatalities among truck drivers and driver-sales workers. Methods Data from the 2003–2008 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries were used. Cases were extracted specifically for occupational subcategories included in the Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers occupational category: Driver/Sales Workers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers, and Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers. Results In 2003–2008, the group Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers had 5,568 occupational fatalities, representing 17% of all occupational fatalities in the United States. The majority of these fatalities were in the subgroup Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers (85%) and due to transportation incidents (80%). Older and male drivers had higher fatality rates than their counterparts. Conclusions Findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to reduce highway fatalities among heavy truck drivers. Better employment data are needed to separate the three occupational subcategories by worker characteristic and employment history for use in research and prevention efforts. PMID:24811905

  3. Fatal Traffic Crashes Involving Drinking Drivers: What have we Learned?

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol involvement in fatal crashes (any driver with a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] = .01g/dL or greater) in 2007 was more than three times higher at night (6 p.m.–6 a.m.) than during the day (6 a.m.–6 p.m.) (62% versus 19%). Alcohol involvement was 35% during weekdays compared to 54% on weekends. Nearly one in four drivers (23%) of personal vehicles (e.g., passenger cars or light trucks) and more than one in four motorcyclists (27%) in fatal crashes were intoxicated (i.e., had a BAC equal to or greater than the .08 g/dL illegal limit in the United States). In contrast, only 1% of the commercial drivers of heavy trucks had BACs equal to .08 g/dL or higher. More than a quarter (26%) of the drivers with high BACs (≥.15 g/dL) did not have valid licenses. The 21- to 24-age group had the highest proportion (35%) of drivers with BACs≥.08 g/dL, followed by the 25- to 34-age group (29%). The oldest and the youngest drivers had the lowest percentages of BACs≥ .08 g/dL: those aged 75 or older were at 4%, and those aged 16 to 20 were at 17%. Utah had the lowest rate of intoxicated drivers in fatal crashes at one in every eight drivers (12%), followed by Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, New Hampshire, and Kansas, all at 17%. Montana (31%), South Carolina (31%), and North Dakota (39%) all had more than 3 in 10 drivers in fatal crashes who were intoxicated in 2007. The United States enjoyed a remarkable downward trend in alcohol-related crashes between 1982 and 1995, which has since leveled off. That trend coincided with a period during which per capita national alcohol consumption declined, the number of young drivers decreased, and the proportion of female drivers increased. Those factors alone, however, did not appear to account for the overall reduction. This provides further evidence that impaired-driving laws and safety program activity may have been responsible for at least some of the decline. However, there was a general worldwide decline in alcohol

  4. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  5. On the Fatal Crash Experience of Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Richard; Henary, Basem; Matsuoka, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the fatal crash experiences of older drivers. Data from two U.S. databases (NASS-CDS and FARS) were used. Several crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics were compared across age groups, including vehicle type, crash direction (PDOF), severity (ΔV), and injured body region. A sub-set of 97 fatally injured drivers was chosen for a detailed case study. The mean travel speed, ΔV, and airbag deployment rate decreased significantly with age (p<0.001 unless noted). Mortality rate increased significantly with age. Older drivers killed were significantly more likely to die of a chest injury (47.3% vs. 24.0% in youngest group) and less likely to die of a head injury (22.0% vs. 47.1% in youngest group). Older drivers were more likely to die at a date after the crash date (“delayed death”), as were males (p=0.003). A 16-year-old driver had a 10.8%–12.0% probability of delayed death, while a 75-year-old had a 20.7%–22.7% probability. For those having a delayed death, the length of the delay increased significantly with age (2.9 days for age 16 vs. 7.9 for age 75). A subjective assessment of the case files indicated that frailty or a pre-existing health condition played a role in 4.3% of the younger drivers’ deaths, but 50.0% of the older group. PMID:16179160

  6. Seat Integrated and Conventional Restraints: A Study of Crash Injury/Fatality Rates in Rollovers

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Burnett, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or multiple-vehicle rollover crashes. Simple driver ejection (partial and complete), fatality, and injury rates were derived, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine relative contribution of factors (including event calendar year, vehicle age, driver age/gender/alcohol use) that significantly influence the likelihood of fatality and fatal/serious injury to belted drivers in rollovers. Results show no statistically significant difference in driver ejection, fatality, or fatal/serious injury rates between vehicles with conventional belts and vehicles with SIRS. PMID:19026243

  7. Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on rural…

  8. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  9. Cellphone bans and fatal motor vehicle crash rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Chi, Junwook

    2013-05-01

    A number of states in the United States have laws restricting drivers from using cellphones. Using state-level panel data, we examined the effect of cellphone laws on fatal crashes in the United States between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that there is insufficient power to detect a reduction in overall fatal crash rates scaled by vehicle miles and population estimates. Cellphone bans, however, have significantly reduced the fatal crash rates of drivers in certain age cohorts. The effect was most pronounced among drivers between 18 and 34 years of age. We did not find any significant effect among drivers in the 55 and older age cohorts. PMID:23447029

  10. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  11. Characteristics of fatal crashes of 16-year-old drivers: implications for licensure policies.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Preusser, D F; Ulmer, R G; Weinstein, H B

    1995-01-01

    Compared with older drivers, and even older teens, greater percentages of 16-year-old drivers in fatal crashes were involved in single-vehicle crashes, were responsible for their crashes, were cited for speeding, had high vehicle occupancy (especially other teenagers), and were female. Sixteen-year-olds were less likely than older drivers to have been drinking. In addition, their crashes occurred at different times than those of older drivers, crashes between 10:00 p.m. and 11:59 p.m. on Fridays and Saturdays being especially likely. Information about the characteristics of the crashes of 16-year-olds is important because this is the age at which most states currently allow teenagers to get an unrestricted driver's license. It is also the age at which restrictions on beginning licenses are being considered in some states. The results of this study suggest that restrictions on teenage passengers, and night-driving curfews with pre-midnight starting times--two provisions used in New Zealand's graduated licensing system--would be appropriate in attempts to reduce crashes of beginning 16-year-old drivers, who have the highest fatal crash rate of any single teen age. PMID:7499515

  12. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.

    PubMed

    Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle ("t-bone") crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

  13. Association of driver air bags with driver fatality: a matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Peter; McKnight, Barbara; Rivara, Frederick P; Grossman, David C

    2002-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association of driver air bag presence with driver fatality in road traffic crashes. Design Matched pair cohort study. Setting All passenger vehicle crashes in the United States during 1990-2000 inclusive. Subjects 51 031 driver-passenger pairs in the same vehicle. Main outcome measures Relative risk of death within 30 days of a crash. Results Drivers with an air bag were less likely to die than drivers without an air bag (adjusted relative risk 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.96)). This estimate was nearly the same whether drivers wore a seat belt (adjusted relative risk 0.93) or not (0.91). Air bags were associated with more protection for women (0.88 (0.82 to 0.93)), than for men (0.94 (0.90 to 0.99)). Drivers wearing a seat belt were less likely to die than unbelted drivers (0.35 (0.33 to 0.36)). Belted drivers with an air bag were less likely to die than unbelted drivers without an air bag (0.32 (0.30 to 0.34)). Conclusions If the associations are causal the average risk of driver death was reduced 8% (95% confidence interval 4% to 12%) by an air bag. Benefit was similar for belted and unbelted drivers and was slightly greater for women. However, seat belts offered much more protection than air bags. What is already known on this topicStudies have estimated that driver air bags reduce the risk of death in a road vehicle crash by 10-14%These studies disagree as to whether benefit is greater for drivers wearing a seat belt or for unbelted driversWhat this study addsHaving an air bag was associated with an 8% reduction in the risk of death, whether the driver was belted or notThe reduction in risk was greater for women (12%) than for men (6%)Seat belts provided much greater protection, with seat belt use reducing the risk of death by 65% (or by 68% in combination with an air bag) PMID:12003882

  14. Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts.

    PubMed Central

    Zador, P L; Ciccone, M A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The effectiveness of air bags was estimated in this study by comparing driver fatalities in frontal crashes with driver fatalities in nonfrontal crashes, for cars with air bags and manual belts and cars with manual belts only. METHODS. Fatal Accident Reporting System data for drivers fatally injured during 1985 to 1991 in 1985 to 1991 model year cars that were equipped with air bags in or before model year 1991 were analyzed. RESULTS. Driver fatalities in frontal crashes in air bag cars were 28% lower than those in comparable cars with manual belts only. This percentage was used for estimating the overall fatality reduction in air bag cars. The reduction was greater in large cars (50%) than in midsize cars (19%) or in small cars (14%). Air bags reduced driver fatalities in frontal crashes involving ejection by about 9%. Fatalities in frontal crashes among drivers who were reportedly using manual belts at the time of the crash were reduced by about 15%. The comparable reduction among drivers who were reportedly not using manual belts was 31%. CONCLUSION. It was estimated that air bags reduced the total number of all driver fatalities by about 19%. PMID:8484445

  15. Young Unlicensed Drivers and Passenger Safety Restraint Use in U.S. Fatal Crashes: Concern for Risk Spillover Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jonathan; Anderson, Craig L.; Dziura, James D.; Crowley, Michael J.; Vaca, Federico E.

    2012-01-01

    Young unlicensed drivers are more likely to be in fatal crashes and to engage in high-risk driving behaviors like impaired driving, speeding, and driving unrestrained. In a crash context, the influence of these high-risk behaviors may spillover to adversely affect passenger safety restraint use. We conducted an analysis of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System from years 1996–2008. Fatal crashes involving a driver aged 15–24 years and at least one passenger aged 15–24 years were included. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was undertaken to assess the effect of unlicensed driving on passenger restraint use. We controlled for established predictors of passenger restraint use including driver restraint use, gender, number of occupants, driver drinking, number of occupants, crash year, and crash location (rural vs. urban). 102,092 passengers were involved in fatal crashes during the time period with 64,803 unique drivers. 6,732 (10.51%) were never licensed drivers and 5,603 (8.8%) were drivers with suspended, revoked, or expired licenses. Rates of unlicensed driving ranged from 17.7% to 22.1% and increased over time. While passengers in fatal crashes averaged a mere 40.9% restraint use, passengers of never and invalidly licensed drivers had a further decreased odds of wearing a safety restraint (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.69–0.77, p<0.001) and (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79–0.90, p<0.001). Unlicensed driving is involved in a disproportionate and increasing number of preventable crash fatalities and plays a detrimental role in the lifesaving safety behaviors of their passengers. Our findings highlight an alarming peer influence between unlicensed drivers and passengers, placing increased emphasis on the need to better understand and characterize this present and growing threat. PMID:23169115

  16. Fatal Crashes from Drivers Testing Positive for Drugs in the U.S., 1993–2010

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Pagán, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Illegal drug use is a persistent problem, prescription drug abuse is on the rise, and there is clinical evidence that drug use reduces driving performance. This study describes trends in characteristics of drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes who test positive for drugs. Methods We used the Fatality Analysis Reporting System—a census of motor vehicle crashes resulting in at least one fatality on U.S. public roads—to investigate suspected drug use for the period 1993–2010. Results Drugged drivers who were tested for drug use accounted for 11.4% of all drivers involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes in 2010. Drugged drivers are increasingly likely to be older drivers, and the percentage using multiple drugs increased from 32.6% in 1993 to 45.8% in 2010. About half (52.4%) of all drugged drivers used alcohol, but nearly three-quarters of drivers testing positive for cocaine also used alcohol. Prescription drugs accounted for the highest fraction of drugs used by drugged drivers in fatal crashes in 2010 (46.5%), with much of the increase in prevalence occurring since the mid-2000s. Conclusions The profile of a drugged driver has changed substantially over time. An increasing share of these drivers is now testing positive for prescription drugs, cannabis, and multiple drugs. These findings have implications for developing interventions to address the changing nature of drug use among drivers in the U.S. PMID:24982537

  17. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. PMID:22818779

  18. Young Drivers. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving young drivers. Data tables include: (1) driver fatalities and drivers involved in fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old, 1990-2000; (2) drivers involved in fatal crashes and driver involvement rates by age group, 2000; (3) drivers 15 to 20 years old…

  19. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Young Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving young drivers. Data tables include: (1) driver fatalities and drivers involved in fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old, 1991-2001; (2) drivers involved in fatal crashes and driver involvement rates by age group, 2001; (3) drivers 15 to 20 years old…

  20. Driver risk factors for fatal injury on weekend nights: analysis of alcohol and racial differences.

    PubMed

    Baker, Susan P; Chen, Li-Hui

    2002-01-01

    We determined the risk of involvement in fatal crashes on Friday and Saturday nights from 10 p.m. to 3 a.m., based upon data from the National Roadside Survey in comparison with data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Among drivers negative for alcohol, white drivers had about half the risk of black drivers (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.26, 0.90) when other risk factors were controlled. Among drivers with BACs of 0.08% and higher, however, the findings suggest that whites had a greater risk, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (OR=1.64, CI=0.91, 2.97). The racial difference in risk between alcohol-negative drivers and drivers with illegal BACs was not explained by restraint use but may reflect more severe crashes by intoxicated white drivers. PMID:12361507

  1. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  2. Factors associated with hit-and-run pedestrian fatalities and driver identification.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Kara E; Griswold, Julia B; Arnold, Lindsay S; Ragland, David R

    2012-03-01

    As hit-and-run crashes account for a significant proportion of pedestrian fatalities, a better understanding of these crash types will assist efforts to reduce these fatalities. Of the more than 48,000 pedestrian deaths that were recorded in the United States between 1998 and 2007, 18.1% of them were caused by hit-and-run drivers. Using national data on single pedestrian-motor vehicle fatal crashes (1998-2007), logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors related to hit-and-run and to identify factors related to the identification of the hit-and-run driver. Results indicate an increased risk of hit-and-run in the early morning, poor light conditions, and on the weekend. There may also be an association between the type of victim and the likelihood of the driver leaving and being identified. Results also indicate that certain driver characteristics, behavior, and driving history are associated with hit-and-run. Alcohol use and invalid license were among the leading driver factor associated with an increased risk of hit-and-run. Prevention efforts that address such issues could substantially reduce pedestrian fatalities as a result of hit-and-run. However, more information about this driver population may be necessary. PMID:22269520

  3. Differences in fatal loss-of-control accidents between young male and female drivers.

    PubMed

    Laapotti, S; Keskinen, E

    1998-07-01

    The study describes some factors behind fatal loss-of-control accidents of young male and female drivers. These loss-of-control accidents were compared to accidents in which the driver did not lose control of the car. The data comprised all fatal car accidents of young (18-21 years old) drivers in Finland during the years 1978-1991. Only culpable drivers were included in the analysis (the number of accidents studied was 338 for males and 75 for females). All these accidents were investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland and the original team reports were used. The results showed that equal proportions of all male and female drivers' accidents were loss-of-control accidents. However, when male drivers lost control of their car, it usually led to a single-vehicle accident, but for female drivers the loss of control usually resulted in a collision with another car. Male drivers drove too fast and under the influence of alcohol more often in loss-of-control accidents than in other types of accidents. Typically the male drivers' loss of control accidents took place during evenings and nights. The female drivers' loss-of-control accidents usually took place in slippery road conditions. This study concludes that risky driving habits play a bigger role in male drivers' loss-of-control accidents than in male drivers' no loss-of-control accidents or in any kind of female drivers' accidents. Lack of vehicle handling skills may be crucial in female drivers' loss-of-control accidents. Advantages of studying loss-of-control accidents instead of single-vehicle accidents are discussed. PMID:9666240

  4. Fatal accidents among car and truck drivers: effects of fatigue, age, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Summala, H; Mikkola, T

    1994-06-01

    Fatigue increases the risk of an accident if the driver, on recognizing symptoms of fatigue, does not stop driving. We studied whether a tendency to continue the current activity and complete the task especially affects younger drivers, who are more susceptible to motivational pressures at the wheel in general. The data consisted of Finnish in-depth studies on 586 single-vehicle and 1357 multiple-vehicle accidents in which at least one vehicle occupant died. When excluding alcohol-related cases, the results showed that, first, trailer-truck drivers who either fell asleep or were tired to a degree that contributed to the accident were younger than those involved in the other fatalities. For car drivers, the proportion of fatigue-related cases was approximately constant in each age group, but a variation was seen when studied according to the time of day of the accident, mainly resulting from two distinct peaks. The first was in young drivers 18 to 20 years old between midnight and 6:00 a.m. The other occurred in drivers 56 years and older during the late afternoon hours. These data also indicate that in terms of fatal accidents, fatigue and alcohol seem to be less of a problem for truckers than for car drivers. PMID:8070795

  5. Effects of Dram Shop, Responsible Beverage Service Training, and State Alcohol Control Laws on Underage Drinking Driver Fatal Crash Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine whether three minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws—dram shop liability, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, and state control of alcohol sales—have had an impact on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes using annual state-level data, and compared states with strong laws to those with weak laws to examine their effect on beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. Methods Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we calculated the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes as our key outcome measure. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the three MLDA-21 laws. We controlled for covariates known to impact fatal crashes including: 17 additional MLDA-21 laws; administrative license revocation; blood alcohol concentration limits of .08 and .10 for driving; seat belt laws; sobriety checkpoint frequency; unemployment rates; and vehicle miles traveled. Outcome variables, in addition to the fatal crash ratios of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 included state per capita beer consumption. Results Dram shop liability laws were associated with a 2.4% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .019, p = .018). Similarly, RBS training laws were associated with a 3.6% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .048, p = .001) in the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes. There was a significant relationship between dram shop liability law strength and per capita beer consumption, F (4, 1528) = 24.32, p < .001, partial η2 = .016, showing states with strong dram shop liability laws (Mean (M) = 1.276) averaging significantly lower per capita beer consumption than states with weak laws (M = 1.340). Conclusions Dram shop liability laws and RBS laws were both associated with significantly reduced per capita beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. In practical terms, this means that dram shop liability laws

  6. Responsibility Study: Main Illicit Psychoactive Substances Among Car Drivers Involved in Fatal Road Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Gadegbeku, Blandine; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, in France, before considering modifications in drug legislation, the government requested a study of the effect of illicit drugs on the risk of road crashes. It implemented a systematic screening of illicit drugs for all drivers involved in fatal crashes between October 2001 and September 2003. Within the European DRUID project, the study was restricted to car drivers. The project reported here is a responsibility analysis and, as such, it belongs to the framework of case-control studies; the outcome of interest is “being responsible for a fatal crash”. It was assessed with a method adapted from Robertson and Drummer. Cases are the 4,946 car drivers who are responsible for the crash; controls are the 1,986 car drivers selected from the non-responsible car drivers, in a way that makes the control group similar to the general driving population. The effect of cannabis on fatal crash responsibility is significant after adjustment for age, sex and alcohol: adjusted odds ratio is 1.89 [1.43–2.51]. The dose-response effect is significant (p=0.0001). For alcohol (≥0.1 g/l), the adjusted odds ratio for responsibility is 8.39 [6.95–10.11]. No interaction was found between alcohol and cannabis. For amphetamine, cocaine and opiates, adjusted odds ratios were not significantly different from 1. However the statistical power is low. The study finds similar odds ratios for alcohol as previously published. For cannabis, the significant odds ratio together with the significant dose-response effect indicates a causal relationship between cannabis and road crashes. A multiplicative effect between cannabis and alcohol was noted. PMID:22105404

  7. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit (< 0.08% vs. ≥ 0.08%), and household income. Results A total of 1,612 bicycle-related fatalities were sustained by children <16 years old. There were no statistical differences in median household income, the proportion of states with elderly licensure laws, or the proportion of states with a blood alcohol limit of > 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

  8. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000–2025, CRADA No. ORNL98-0500 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S.; Jones, Donald W.; Reuscher, Timothy; Schmoyer, Richard S.; Truett, Lorena F.

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the century – the 20th century that is – the median age in the United States was under 30 years; America was 60% rural in nature; and there were only 36 highway fatalities all year. As we leave the 20th century behind, the route into the 21st century is very different. “Intelligent” cars speed down multi-lane “smart” highways in a nation that is 75% urban. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s Highway Statistics, there are 28,000 times more vehicles on the road in 2000 than there were in 1900, and these vehicles travel about 2.6 trillion miles each year. Annual fatalities resulting from highway crashes have also increased – by over 1100%. We see other changes as well. The face of America is changing. It is growing older. In 2025, persons 65 and over will make up 18.5% of the total population. The number of persons aged 85 and over is increasing more rapidly than any other age group. More importantly, the elderly are taking more trips, driving further, and continuing to drive much later in life. These conditions lead to concerns about traffic safety. Although the elderly are healthier and drive safer cars than they did just two decades ago, their frailty makes them more susceptible to injury than younger persons involved in traffic crashes of the same severity. In addition, visual, physical, and cognitive skills, all of which contribute to driving abilities, decrease with advancing age. The familiar “U”-shaped curve depicting the rate of fatalities per vehicle miles traveled, shows that the elderly experience a higher highway fatality rate than any other age group except teenagers. While the overall number of highway fatalities has decreased regularly since 1972, the number of fatalities of elderly travelers has continued to increase steadily. This increase is cause for concern for both the elderly driver and for other persons on the roads who migh tbe placed in danger through crashes involving elderly drivers.

  9. Case-control study of recidivist drivers involved in fatal highway accidents in Alberta in 1970-72.

    PubMed

    Bako, G; Mackenzie, W C; Smith, E S

    1977-01-22

    A 3-year enpidemiologic study of fatal motor vehicle accidents was carried out by the Alberta Task Force on Highway Accidents. It was found that 11.1% of culpable drivers had been driving while impaired by alcohol on at least one occasion prior to the fatal accident, while only 3.3% of exonerated drivers had previous records. This significant difference led to a case-control study that demonstrated that the recidivist drivers (case group) differed significantly in a number of aspects from the innocent drivers (control group)--notably, age distribution, sex, whether drinking before the accident, blood alcohol concentration, ethnic distribution, class of accident and type of collision. Thus the recidivist driver is a greater threat to highway safety than the innocent driver and needs special attention by legislators and law enforcement agencies. PMID:608145

  10. Case-control study of recidivist drivers involved in fatal highway accidents in Alberta in 1970-72.

    PubMed Central

    Bako, G.; Mackenzie, W. C.; Smith, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    A 3-year enpidemiologic study of fatal motor vehicle accidents was carried out by the Alberta Task Force on Highway Accidents. It was found that 11.1% of culpable drivers had been driving while impaired by alcohol on at least one occasion prior to the fatal accident, while only 3.3% of exonerated drivers had previous records. This significant difference led to a case-control study that demonstrated that the recidivist drivers (case group) differed significantly in a number of aspects from the innocent drivers (control group)--notably, age distribution, sex, whether drinking before the accident, blood alcohol concentration, ethnic distribution, class of accident and type of collision. Thus the recidivist driver is a greater threat to highway safety than the innocent driver and needs special attention by legislators and law enforcement agencies. PMID:608145

  11. Graduated Driver Licensing Night Driving Restrictions and Drivers Aged 16 or 17 Years Involved in Fatal Night Crashes - United States, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2016-01-01

    Fatal crash risk is higher at night for all drivers, but especially for young, inexperienced drivers (1). To help address the increased crash risk for beginner teen drivers, 49 states and the District of Columbia include a night driving restriction (NDR) in their Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) system. NDRs have been shown to reduce crashes among newly licensed teens, with higher reductions associated with NDRs starting at 10:00 p.m. or earlier (2-3). However, in 23 states and the District of Columbia, NDRs begin at 12:00 a.m. or later, times when most teen drivers subject to GDL are not driving. CDC analyzed 2009-2014 national and state-level data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to determine the proportion of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes who crashed at night (9:00 p.m.-5:59 a.m.) and the proportion of these drivers who crashed before 12:00 a.m. Nationwide, among 6,104 drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes during 2009-2014, 1,865 (31%) were involved in night crashes. Among drivers involved in night crashes, 1,054 (57%) crashed before 12:00 a.m. State-level analyses revealed an approximately twofold variation among states in both the proportions of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes that occurred at night and the proportions of night fatal crash involvements that occurred before 12:00 a.m. Because nearly all of the night driving trips taken by drivers aged 16 or 17 years end before 12:00 a.m., NDRs beginning at 12:00 a.m. or later provide minimal protection. States could consider updating their NDR coverage to include earlier nighttime hours. This descriptive report summarizes the characteristics of NDRs, estimates the extent to which drivers aged 16 or 17 years drive at night, and describes their involvement in fatal nighttime crashes during 2009-2014. The effects of NDRs on crashes were not evaluated because of the small state-level sample sizes during the 6-year study period. PMID

  12. Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.

    1983-08-01

    Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.

  13. Age-specific patterns of factors related to fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: focus on young and elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Fraser, S; Lindsay, J; Clarke, K; Mao, Y

    1998-09-01

    This population-based study examines patterns of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) by age group (16-24, 25-64, 65+) among Canadian drivers. The Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) provided information about fata MVTCs between 1984 and 1993. Distribution of risk factors was compared by age group. Crude odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for both young and elderly drivers compared with middle-aged drivers. The middle-age group was selected as reference population since it demonstrates the lowest risk of fatality. Compared to the middle-aged group, young drivers demonstrated excess risk for (1) risk-taking behaviours and conditions, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, speeding, non use of seat belts, fatigue and falling asleep, and inexperience; (2) crashes during the summer, during weekends and at night; and (3) single-vehicle collisions and on performing overtaking manoeuvres. Excess risk among elderly drivers was noted for (1) medical and physical conditions, inattention and inexperience; (2) driver actions, for example, improper turning, failure to yield right-to-way; (3) occurrence on weekdays and during the day; and (4) collisions at intersection and vehicle--vehicle sideswipes. The results show notable differences in risk factors by age group and confirm the need for preventive efforts that incorporate age-specific strategies. PMID:9807923

  14. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  15. Trends in Alcohol and Other Drugs Detected in Fatally Injured Drivers in the United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Drugged driving is a safety issue of increasing public concern. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1999–2010, we assessed trends in alcohol and other drugs detected in drivers who were killed within 1 hour of a motor vehicle crash in 6 US states (California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and West Virginia) that routinely performed toxicological testing on drivers involved in such crashes. Of the 23,591 drivers studied, 39.7% tested positive for alcohol and 24.8% for other drugs. During the study period, the prevalence of positive results for nonalcohol drugs rose from 16.6% in 1999 to 28.3% in 2010 (Z = −10.19, P < 0.0001), whereas the prevalence of positive results for alcohol remained stable. The most commonly detected nonalcohol drug was cannabinol, the prevalence of which increased from 4.2% in 1999 to 12.2% in 2010 (Z = −13.63, P < 0.0001). The increase in the prevalence of nonalcohol drugs was observed in all age groups and both sexes. These results indicate that nonalcohol drugs, particularly marijuana, are increasingly detected in fatally injured drivers. PMID:24477748

  16. Epidemiologic Pattern of Fatal Traffic Injuries among Iranian Drivers; 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    BAKHTIYARI, Mahmood; MEHMANDAR, Mohammad Reza; RIAHI, Seyed Mohammad; MANSOURNIA, Mohammad Ali; SARTIPI, Majid; BAHADORIMONFARED, Ayad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to their specific nature, such as high incidence, high intensity and direct involvement of all members of society, traffic injuries are of particular importance. Through a mega data, this study investigated the epidemiological aspects and depict current situation of road traffic injuries in Iran. Methods: Using legal medicine and traffic police data, deaths from road traffic injuries in men were predicted through determining the most appropriate model for death using time series statistical models; and then most important human factors associated with it in a period of 6 yr in Iran was analyzed using multi-nominal regression model. Results: The frequency of deaths from traffic injuries in the last seven years was 172,834 cases and the number of deaths at the accident scene was 42798 cases, of which 24.24% (41,971 cases) were recorded by the Traffic Police experts. Death rate from traffic injuries has been declined from 38 cases per 100,000 people in 2004 to 31 cases per 100,000 people between 2009 and 2010. Fatigue and sleepiness (AOR=10.36, 95% CI: 8.41–13.3) was the most significant human risk factors for death outcome in the urban and suburban traffic injuries. According to the predictions, the death rate is about 16488 (CI 95%, 8531–24364) for the year 2012. Conclusion: Despite all measures to prevent such injuries, even fatal injuries have still a high incidence. Intervention in the human risk factors field would be more effective due to their important roles in traffic injuries in Iran. PMID:27252920

  17. Occupational injury fatalities--1994.

    PubMed

    Toscano, G; Jack, T

    1996-01-01

    Factory workers caught in machinery and construction workers falling or struck by huge beams are images that typically come to mind when considering serious hazards in the workplace. But these types of events account for only a small portion of job-related fatalities each year. Transportation-related fatalities, along with assaults and violent acts during work, made up almost two-thirds of the 6,588 fatal work injuries recorded in 1994. The majority of job-related fatal work events occurred on the streets and highways and in public buildings and in areas such as grocery stores and parking lots. Today the most deadly jobs are found in outdoor occupations such as fishing and timber cutting. In fact, in all 10 jobs studied that have high fatality rates, most workers are affected by severe weather conditions while driving on highways, performing farm chores and working at construction sites. Highway crashes are the primary cause of trucker fatalities; falls are the leading cause of death for roofers, construction laborers and structural metal workers, while tractor rollovers account for a third of farm worker fatalities. Another deadly contributing factor for some workers is homicide, which accounted for 16 percent of job-related fatalities in 1994. Workers most at risk are those who work alone, work late at night and handle varying sums of money. Taxicab drivers are the most susceptible and have a work injury fatality rate nine times higher than the national rate of 5 deaths per 100,000 workers. Others at high risk of homicide include gas station cashiers, grocery store employees and workers in retail eating and drinking establishments. Although the risk of a fatal injury at work varies greatly by occupation and industry, no one is immune. For prevention, workers and employers need to know what jobs are risky, what equipment is dangerous and what activities are hazardous. They also should understand that a fatal incident can happen to anyone. PMID:8718711

  18. Slow improvement of clinically-diagnosed dengue haemorrhagic fever case fatality rates.

    PubMed

    Magpusao, Nelma S; Monteclar, Alan; Deen, Jacqueline L

    2003-07-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is recognized as a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children in many Southeast Asian countries. This study reviews the case fatality rates of DHF cases admitted to a referral hospital in Cebu (Philippines) over the past 5 years. Information on patients 14 years old or younger admitted from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2001 with the final clinical diagnosis of DHF was collated and analysed. Case fatality rates were compared before and after a standardized management protocol was implemented by the healthcare staff and after introduction of revisions to that protocol. The case fatality rate during the 2-year periods prior and after introduction of the management protocol decreased significantly from 197/2644 (7.45%) to 39/1182 (3.30%) (P < 0.01). Following the introduction of revisions to the protocol, the case fatality was reduced even further to 52/1697 (3.06%) (P = 0.7). In this government hospital the introduction of a standardized management protocol for DHF was associated with a significant improvement in the case fatality rate of hospitalized children with clinically diagnosed DHF. However, compared with reports from hospitals in other dengue-endemic countries, the improvement has been slow. Possible ways to decrease fatality rates further have been identified. PMID:12870602

  19. Effects of minimum legal drinking age on alcohol and marijuana use: evidence from toxicological testing data for fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol and marijuana are among the most commonly used drugs by adolescents and young adults. The question of whether these two drugs are substitutes or complements has important implications for public policy and prevention strategies, especially as laws regarding the use of marijuana are rapidly changing. Methods Data were drawn from fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 who died within 1 h of the crash in nine states with high rates of toxicology testing based from 1999 to 2011 on the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (N = 7,191). Drug tests were performed using chromatography and radioimmunoassay techniques based on blood and/or urine specimens. Relative risk regression and Joinpoint permutation analysis were used. Results Overall, 50.5% of the drivers studied tested positive for alcohol or marijuana. Univariable relative risk modeling revealed that reaching the minimum legal drinking age was associated with a 14% increased risk of alcohol use (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.28), a 24% decreased risk of marijuana use (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.10), and a 22% increased risk of alcohol plus marijuana use (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.66). Joinpoint permutation analysis indicated that the prevalence of alcohol use by age is best described by two slopes, with a change at age 21. There was limited evidence for a change at age 21 for marijuana use. Conclusions These results suggest that among adolescents and young adults, increases in alcohol availability after reaching the MLDA have marginal effect on marijuana use. PMID:26301177

  20. Political Economy of US States and Rates of Fatal Occupational Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Michael D.; Bailer, A. John; Stainback, Kevin; Wheeler, Matthew; Richardson, David B.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the extent to which the political economy of US states, including the relative power of organized labor, predicts rates of fatal occupational injury. Methods. We described states’ political economies with 6 contextual variables measuring social and political conditions: “right-to-work” laws, union membership density, labor grievance rates, state government debt, unemployment rates, and social wage payments. We obtained data on fatal occupational injuries from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatality surveillance system and population data from the US national census. We used Poisson regression methods to analyze relationships for the years 1980 and 1995. Results. States differed notably with respect to political–economic characteristics and occupational fatality rates, although these characteristics were more homogeneous within rather than between regions. Industry and workforce composition contributed significantly to differences in state injury rates, but political–economic characteristics of states were also significantly associated with injury rates, after adjustment accounting for those factors. Conclusions. Higher rates of fatal occupational injury were associated with a state policy climate favoring business over labor, with distinct regional clustering of such state policies in the South and Northeast. PMID:19542025

  1. Associations between driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, speeding and seatbelt use among fatally injured car drivers in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Larsson, Magnus; Holtan, Anders; Staff, Trine; Vindenes, Vigdis; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2015-05-01

    Since 2005, all fatal road traffic crashes in Norway have been analyzed in-depth by multidisciplinary investigation teams organized by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). During the period 2005-2010, 608 drivers of cars or vans were killed in road traffic crashes. Blood samples were collected from 372 (61%) of the drivers and analyzed for alcohol and a large number of psychoactive drugs at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH). After coupling the analytical results with the NPRA crash database, 369 drivers with a fatal outcome were identified and included. Alcohol or drug concentrations in blood above the legal limits were found in 39.8% of the drivers who were investigated for alcohol or drug impairment; 33.9% had blood alcohol concentrations above 0.5g/L or concentrations of drugs above the equivalent Norwegian legal impairment limits or concentrations of amphetamines above 200μg/L. Among drivers with a fatal outcome who had been impaired by alcohol or drugs, 64.6% were unbelted and 71.7% were speeding when the crash occurred; whereas 24.2% and 33.2% of the sober drivers were unbelted or speeding, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found between impairment by alcohol or amphetamines and driving unbelted or speeding. Excessive speeding is one of the main reasons for road traffic crashes and together with being unbelted the main reasons for a fatal outcome. This behavior might in many cases be due to increased risk-taking or negligence of safety measures as a result of alcohol or drug use. PMID:25725424

  2. Case fatality rates of different suicide methods within Ilam province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razaeian, Mohsen; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are few diverse studies that have reported the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide, none of them are originated from developing countries. The aim of the present article is to report the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide in Ilam province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data on 611 cases of suicide and 1807 cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) that were recorded in a comprehensive registry during 1995 through 2002 were analyzed for both genders together and for males and females, separately. Findings: For both genders together, the two most fatal methods were hanging (75.4%) and self-immolation (68.3%); for males, hanging (76.3%) and self-immolation (64.7%); and for females, firearms (75%) and hanging (73.7%), respectively. The least fatal methods for both genders together and for females and males separately were drug ingestion and cutting. Conclusion: The results of present study, which for the first time has reported the case fatality rates of suicide methods in a developing world, would not only help to better plan the local suicide prevention strategies and clinical assessment of suicidal cases but to shed light on overall understanding of this mysterious human phenomenon. PMID:23555147

  3. A study of the NASS-CDS system for injury/fatality rates of occupants in various restraints and a discussion of alternative presentation methods.

    PubMed

    Stucki, S L; Biss, D J

    2000-01-01

    An analysis was performed using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database to compare the injury/fatality rates of variously restrained driver occupants as compared to unrestrained driver occupants in the total database of drivers/frontals, and also by Delta-V. A structured search of the NASS-CDS was done using the SAS statistical analysis software to extract the data for this analysis and the SUDAAN software package was used to arrive at statistical significance indicators. In addition, this paper goes on to investigate different methods for presenting results of accident database searches including significance results; a risk versus Delta-V format for specific exposures; and, a percent cumulative injury versus Delta-V format to characterize injury trends. These alternative analysis presentation methods are then discussed by example using the present study results. PMID:11558105

  4. A Study of the NASS-CDS System for Injury/Fatality Rates of Occupants in Various Restraints and A Discussion of Alternative Presentation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stucki, Sheldon Lee; Biss, David J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis was performed using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database to compare the injury/fatality rates of variously restrained driver occupants as compared to unrestrained driver occupants in the total database of drivers/frontals, and also by Delta-V. A structured search of the NASS-CDS was done using the SAS® statistical analysis software to extract the data for this analysis and the SUDAAN software package was used to arrive at statistical significance indicators. In addition, this paper goes on to investigate different methods for presenting results of accident database searches including significance results; a risk versus Delta-V format for specific exposures; and, a percent cumulative injury versus Delta-V format to characterize injury trends. These alternative analysis presentation methods are then discussed by example using the present study results. PMID:11558105

  5. Surgical Management and Case-Fatality Rates of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in 1988 and 2005

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Opeolu; Woo, Daniel; Haverbusch, Mary; Sekar, Padmini; Moomaw, Charles J.; Broderick, Joseph; Flaherty, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare surgical management and case-fatality rates of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 1988 and 2005. Methods We identified all adult residents (age ≥18) from the five-county Greater Cincinnati region hospitalized with ICH in 1988 and 2005. Demographics, severity of illness, ICH volume, ICH location, rates and timing of surgery, and 30-day case-fatality were compared between the 1988 and 2005 groups. Results In 1988, 171 ICH patients met study criteria (67 lobar, 80 deep cerebral, 10 brainstem, 14 cerebellar), and in 2005, 259 ICH patients met criteria in (91 lobar, 123 deep cerebral, 19 brainstem, and 26 cerebellar). In 1988, 16% of the patients had surgical removal of their ICH versus 7% in 2005 (p=0.003). In both 1988 and 2005, patients treated with surgery were younger (p<0.001) and had a higher percentage of cerebellar hemorrhages than non-surgical patients. Timing of surgery was similar in 1988 and 2005. In 1988, 30-day case fatality was 32% in surgical patients versus 50% in non-surgical patients (p=0.06). In 2005, 30-day case-fatality was 16% (surgical) versus 45% (non-surgical) (p=0.02). Conclusion The frequency of surgery for ICH was lower in 2005 than in 1988, which may reflect recent clinical trial data showing no benefit for surgery over medical management. ICH case-fatality was essentially the same in 1988 and 2005. Innovative clinical trials to improve ICH outcomes are warranted. PMID:19057323

  6. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate. PMID:25658669

  7. The global role of natural disaster fatalities in decision-making: statistics, trends and analysis from 116 years of disaster data compared to fatality rates from other causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; McLennan, Amy; Daniell, Katherine; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Kunz, Michael; Girard, Trevor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, analysis is undertaken showing disaster fatalities trends from around the world using the CATDAT Natural Disaster and Socioeconomic Indicator databases from 1900-2015. Earthquakes have caused over 2.3 million fatalities since 1900; however absolute numbers of deaths caused by them have remained rather constant over time. However, floods have caused somewhere between 1.7 and 5.4 million fatalities, mostly in the earlier half of the 20th century (depending on the 1931 China floods). Storm and storm surges (ca. 1.3 million fatalities), on the other hand, have shown an opposite trend with increasing fatalities over the century (or a lack of records in the early 1900s). Earthquakes due to their sporadic nature, do not inspire investment pre-disaster. When looking at the investment in flood control vs. earthquakes, there is a marked difference in the total investment, which has resulted in a much larger reduction in fatalities. However, a key consideration for decision-makers in different countries around the world when choosing to implement disaster sensitive design is the risk of a natural disaster death, compared to other types of deaths in their country. The creation of empirical annualised ratios of earthquake, flood and storm fatalities from the year 1900 onwards vs. other methods of fatalities (cancer, diseases, accidents etc.) for each country using the CATDAT damaging natural disasters database is undertaken. On an annualised level, very few countries show earthquakes and other disaster types to be one of the highest probability methods for death. However, in particular years with large events, annual rates can easily exceed the total death count for a particular country. An example of this is Haiti, with the equivalent earthquake death rate in 2010 exceeding the total all-cause death rate in the country. Globally, fatality rates due to disasters are generally at least 1 order of magnitude lower than other causes such as heart disease. However, in

  8. Analysis of non-fatal and fatal injury rates for mine operator and contractor employees and the influence of work location

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, V.K.

    2005-07-01

    Mining injury surveillance data are used as the basis for assessing the severity of injuries among operator and contractor employees in the underground and surface mining of various minerals. Injury rates during 1983-2002 derived from Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) database are analyzed using the negative binomial regression model. The logarithmic mean injury rate is expressed as a linear function of seven indicator variables representing Non-Coal Contractor, Metal Operator, Non Metal Operator, Stone Operator, Sand and Gravel Operator, Coal Contractor, and Work Location, and a continuous variable, RelYear, representing the relative year starting, with 1983 as the base year. Based on the model, the mean injury rate declined at a 1.69% annual rate, and the mean injury rate for work on the Surface is 52.53% lower compared to the title for work in the underground. With reference to the Coal Operator mean injury rate: the Non-Coal Contractor rate is 30.34% lower, the Metal Operator rate is 27.18% lower, the Non-Metal Operator rate is 37.51% lower, the Stone Operator rate is 23.44% lower, the Sand and Gravel Operator rate is 16.45% lower, and the Coal Contractor rate is 1.41% lower. Fatality rates during the same 20 year period are analyzed similarly using Poisson regression model. Based on this model, the mean fatality rate declined at a 3.17% annual rate, and the rate for work on the surface is 64.3% lower compared to the rate for work in the underground. With reference to the Coal Operator mean fatality rate: the Non-Coal Coil tractor rate is 234.81% higher, the Metal Operator rate is 5.79% lower, the Non-Metal Operator rate is 47.36% lower, the Stone Operator rate is 8.29% higher, the Sand and Gravel Operator rate is 60.32% higher, and the Coal Contractor rate is 129.54% higher.

  9. The licensing and safety of older drivers in Britain.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christopher G B Kit

    2013-01-01

    Driving licence holding in Britain is increasing for older people, particularly older women. Licence holding by men aged 40-69 has saturated at about 90%, and for women aged 30-59 at about 78%. Drivers begin to surrender licences after age 70. By age 90, 38% of women and 25% of men who held a licence at age 70 have surrendered their licences. The paper shows the numbers of car drivers of different ages killed and injured in accidents since 1975 and the fatality and casualty rates per driver and per mile driven. The safety of older drivers is improving faster than that of younger age groups. The number of car driver fatalities aged 70 and over was highest between 1990 and 2004, and has subsequently reduced by almost 40%. For drivers aged 80 and over, the peak was in 2004 and the number has subsequently reduced by almost 50%. The paper uses demographic projections, forecast licence holding and the trends in fatality rates to project the numbers of fatalities for drivers of different ages in Britain. This shows that fatalities among older drivers aged are likely to continue to reduce. Fatality rates for older road users are increased by the fragility of older persons. This disguises the fact that the accident involvement rate for older drivers does not increase with age until after age 75 or 80. PMID:22831499

  10. Severe maternal morbidity from direct obstetric causes in West Africa: incidence and case fatality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Prual, A.; Bouvier-Colle, M. H.; de Bernis, L.; Bréart, G.

    2000-01-01

    Data on maternal morbidity make it possible to assess how many women are likely to need essential obstetric care, and permit the organization, monitoring and evaluation of safe motherhood programmes. In the present paper we propose operational definitions of severe maternal morbidity and report the frequency of such morbidity as revealed in a population-based survey of a cohort of 20,326 pregnant women in six West African countries. The methodology and questionnaires were the same in all areas. Each pregnant woman had four contacts with the obstetric survey team: at inclusion, between 32 and 36 weeks of amenorrhoea, during delivery and 60 days postpartum. Direct obstetric causes of severe morbidity were observed in 1215 women (6.17 cases per 100 live births). This ratio varied significantly between areas, from 3.01% in Bamako to 9.05% in Saint-Louis. The main direct causes of severe maternal morbidity were: haemorrhage (3.05 per 100 live births); obstructed labour (2.05 per 100), 23 cases of which involved uterine rupture (0.12 per 100); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0.64 per 100), 38 cases of which involved eclampsia (0.19 per 100); and sepsis (0.09 per 100). Other direct obstetric causes accounted for 12.2% of cases. Case fatality rates were very high for sepsis (33.3%), uterine rupture (30.4%) and eclampsia (18.4%); those for haemorrhage varied from 1.9% for antepartum or peripartum haemorrhage to 3.7% for abruptio placentae. Thus at least 3-9% of pregnant women required essential obstetric care. The high case fatality rates of several complications reflected a poor quality of obstetric care. PMID:10859853

  11. Graduated Driver Licensing: The New Zealand Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Dorothy; Stephenson, Shaun

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the graduated driver-licensing (GDL) system in New Zealand. Describes driver licensing and crash fatality rates before and after the implementation of GDL in 1987. Reports that GDL has contributed to a reduction in crashes among young people. (Contains 2 figures and 6 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  12. Raised Speed Limits, Speed Spillover, Case-Fatality Rates, and Road Deaths in Israel: A 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elihu D.; Barach, Paul; Friedman, Lee; Krikler, Samuel; Israeli, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the 5-year, nationwide impact on road deaths of the raise in the speed limit (November 1, 1993) on 3 major interurban highways in Israel from 90 to 100 kph. Methods. We compared before–after trends in deaths as well as case fatality—an outcome independent of exposure (defined as vehicle-kilometers traveled). Results. After the raise, speeds rose by 4.5%–9.1%. Over 5 years, there was a sustained increase in deaths (15%) and case fatality rates (38%) on all interurban roads. Corresponding increases in deaths (13%) and case fatality (24%) on urban roads indicated “speed spillover.” Conclusions. Immediate increases in case fatality predicted and tracked the sustained increase in deaths from increased speeds of impact. Newtonian fourth power models predicted the effects of “small” increases in speed on large rises in case fatality rates. Countermeasures and congestion reduced the impact on deaths and case-fatality rates by more than half. PMID:15054007

  13. Severe malnutrition in children: high case-fatality rates can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Schofield, C; Ashworth, A

    1997-09-01

    This article offers a protocol for reducing high case fatality rates from malnutrition. Most child deaths from malnutrition occur in the first few days of treatment. Treatment should involve stabilization followed by rehabilitation. The article describes the treatment procedures for hypoglycemia, hypothermia, dehydration, and missed infections and discusses feeding during the stabilization and rehabilitation phases of treatment. All severely malnourished children have excess body sodium but high intracellular and low plasma levels. Malnourished children have deficiencies of potassium and magnesium that may take 2 weeks to correct. Edema is partly due to deficiencies in potassium and magnesium. A high sodium intake can be corrected by rehydrating with a modified oral rehydration solution and the special starter formula. Family food should be prepared without salt. Magnesium and potassium should be added directly to foods. All severely malnourished children have vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Deficiencies may include vitamin A, zinc, copper, selenium, and folic acid. Multivitamin supplements can correct for micronutrient deficiencies. It is advised that zinc should not be ignored, since it is responsible for repair of intestinal mucosa, halting diarrhea, healing of ulcerated skin lesions, restoration of appetite, improved immune function, and lean tissue synthesis. Iron should not be given until growth starts, infections are controlled, and antioxidant status is improved (usually 1 week after admission). Early introduction of iron poses a risk of enhancing pathogen increases and stimulating production of toxic free radicals. Relapses can be reduced by training parents how to feed their child frequently with energy and nutrient dense foods. The regimen was tested in a South African project and found to reduce mortality from 30% to 20%. After greater hospital attention to treatment of sepsis and hypoglycemia, case fatality declined to 6%. PMID:12321237

  14. Obesity and Non-fatal Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Sex Difference Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Laud, Purushottam W.; Pintar, Frank; Kim, Jong-Eun; Shih, Alan; Shen, Wei; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Allison, David B.; Zhu, Shankuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity and motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are two parallel epidemics in the United States. An important unanswered question is if there are sex differences in the associations between the presence of obesity and non-fatal MVC injuries. Objectives To further understand the association between obesity and non-fatal motor vehicle crash injuries, particularly the sex differences in these relations. Methods We examined this question by analyzing data from the 2003 to 2007 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS). A total of 10, 962 drivers who were aged 18 years or older and who survived frontal collision crashes were eligible for study. Results Male drivers experienced a lower rate of overall non-fatal MVC injuries than did female drivers (38.1% vs. 52.2%) but a higher rate of severe injuries (0.7% vs. 0.2%). After adjusting for change in velocity (ΔV) during the crashes, obese male drivers showed a much higher risk [logistic coefficients of BMI for moderate, serious, and severe injury are 0.0766, 0.1470, and 0.1792, respectively; all p<0.05] of non-fatal injuries than did non-obese male drivers and these risks increased with injury severity. Non-fatal injury risks were not found to be increased in obese female drivers. The association between obesity and risk of non-fatal injury was much stronger for male drivers than for female drivers. Conclusion The higher risk of non-fatal MVC injuries in obese male drivers might result from their different body shape and fat distribution compared with obese female drivers. Our findings should be considered for obesity reduction, traffic safety evaluation and vehicle design for obese male drivers and provide testable hypotheses for future studies. PMID:21224830

  15. Business recession, alcohol consumption, drinking and driving laws: impact on Oklahoma motor vehicle fatalities and fatal crashes.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, A

    1989-01-01

    In 1982, Oklahoma enacted a series of drinking and driving laws. In the ensuing years, motor vehicle fatalities and fatal crashes were reduced by one-third. Factors contributing to this reduction were examined using interrupted time series analysis of monthly rates of motor vehicle deaths and fatal crashes for the period January 1980 to December 1986. Decreasing per capita alcohol consumption and increased unemployment apparently account for most of the fatality and fatal crash reduction in Oklahoma. The enactment of two traffic safety laws--one specifying the illegal blood alcohol concentration level (BAC law) and the other facilitating license withdrawal from suspected drunk drivers (administrative per se law)--together reduced Oklahoma traffic deaths and fatal crashes by about 9 percent. The effectiveness of the laws appeared to be greatest in the first two years following their enactment. PMID:2782504

  16. Confidence in, and self-rating of, driving ability among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Marottoli, R A; Richardson, E D

    1998-05-01

    Active drivers (n = 125) in a representative cohort of older individuals age 77 years and older in New Haven, Connecticut were interviewed. Confidence in different driving situations, self-rating of driving ability, and driving patterns were assessed during these in-person interviews. A history of crashes, moving violations and being stopped by police was available for approximately the past 6 years. Concurrent driving performance was assessed in a subsample (n = 35). Analyses focused on determining the relationship of confidence and self-rating of driving ability to: (1) each other; (2) driving patterns; (3) adverse driving events; and (4) driving performance. All participants rated themselves as being average or above average drivers compared to others their age, with the majority rating themselves as above average. Individuals who drove more miles and more frequently were more likely to rate themselves better drivers than same-age peers. Individuals who rated themselves as "much better" drivers than their peers tended to have higher confidence levels than those who rated themselves a "little bit better" or the "same" as other drivers. On-road driving performance and history of adverse events were not associated with self-ratings of driving ability. Confidence was associated with driving frequency and mileage, but not age or education. Although men were more likely to drive under risky conditions, for those conditions in which each drove, men and women were equally confident. No relationship was found between confidence and adverse driving events or driving performance. Understanding the relationship of confidence and self-rating of driving ability to driving patterns, adverse events and driving performance may provide additional insights into identifying older drivers at increased risk for problems and formulating intervention strategies to help lower risk. PMID:9663292

  17. Impact direction effect on serious-to-fatal injuries among drivers in near-side collisions according to impact location: focus on thoracic injuries.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xinghua; Ma, Chunsheng; Hu, Jingwen; Zhou, Qing

    2012-09-01

    Occupant injury in real world vehicle accidents can be significantly affected by a set of crash characteristics, of which impact direction and impact location (or damage location) in general scale interval (e.g., frontal impact is frequently defined as general damage to vehicle frontal end with impact angle range of 11-1 o'clock) have been identified to associate with injury outcome. The effects of crash configuration in more specific scale of interval on the injury characteristics have not been adequately investigated. This paper presents a statistical analysis to investigate the combined effects of specific impact directions and impact locations on the serious-to-fatal injuries of driver occupants involved in near-side collisions using crash data from National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the calendar years of 1995-2005. The screened injury dataset is categorized by three impact locations (side front, side center and side distributed) and two impact directions (oblique impact at 10 o'clock and pure lateral impact at 9 o'clock), resulting in six crash configurations in total. The weighted counts and the risks of different types of injuries in each subgroup are calculated, with which the relative risks along with 95% confidence intervals under oblique impacts versus lateral impacts in each impact location category are computed. Accordingly, the most frequent injury patterns, the risks and the coded-sources of serious thoracic injuries in different crash configurations are identified. The approach adopted in the present study provides new perspectives into occupant injury outcomes and associated mechanism. Results of the analyses reveal the importance of consideration of the crash configurations beyond the scope of existing side-impact regulatory tests and stress the necessity of vehicle crashworthiness and restraint system design in omni-direction to better protect occupants in real-world crash scenarios. PMID:22664710

  18. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  19. Wind energy development: methods to assess bird and bat fatality rates post-construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela; Dalthorp, Daniel; Miller, T J; Bruns, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring fatalities at wind energy facilities after they have been constructed can provide valuable information regarding impacts of wind power development on wildlife. The objective of this monitoring is to estimate abundance of a super-population of carcasses that entered the area within a designated period of time. By definition, the population is not closed and carcasses can enter as they are killed through collision with turbines, and leave as they are removed by scavengers or decompose to a point where they are not recognizable. In addition, the population is not inherently mobile, but can only change location through some external force. A focus on number of animal carcasses comprising the super-population, combined with peculiar traits that resist classic assumptions, distinguish fatality estimation at wind-power facilities from more classic abundance estimates that can be addressed through mark-recapture techniques or other well-known abundance estimators. We review the available methods to estimate the super-population of carcasses at wind power facilities. We discuss the role of these estimates in determining appropriate levels of minimization and mitigation of impacts to individual species of concern. We discuss the potential to extrapolate these measurements to reflect the cumulative effect of the industry on individual species. Finally, we suggest avenues of research needed to strengthen our understanding of the effect wind power development has, and might have in the future, on wildlife on this continent and worldwide.

  20. Previous Driving Experience, but Not Vision, Is Associated With Motor Vehicle Collision Rate in Bioptic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) consist of a small telescope (or telescopes) mounted high in a pair of spectacle lenses. More than 40 states allow for some form of bioptic driving licensure for people with decreased central vision. The purpose of this study was to determine significant associations among previous driving experience, vision, and motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) for bioptic drivers in Ohio. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients who received a vision examination and subsequently obtained bioptic licensure. We obtained driving records from the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles in order to determine MVC involvement. Relationships among vision measures, age, sex, previous experience, and MVCs were investigated using time-to-event analysis and the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results We identified 237 bioptic drivers (65% male). Age at initial exam ranged from 16 to 81 years, and mean visual acuity was approximately 20/120. The number of MVCs per driver ranged from 0 to 11, with 124 (52%) drivers having had at least one MVC. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were not significant predictors of MVC. Drivers without previous driving experience were significantly more likely to have been involved in an MVC (P < 0.001), and this association remained significant after adjusting for age and sex (P = 0.01). The rate of MVC per year decreased steadily over a 10-year period for drivers without previous experience. Conclusions Previous nonbioptic driving experience, but not visual acuity or contrast sensitivity, was associated with yearly MVC rate in bioptic drivers. PMID:26436885

  1. [The determinants of the low case fatality rate of the cholera epidemic in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008].

    PubMed

    Gbary, Akpa Raphaël; Sossou, Roch Aristide; Dossou, Jean-Paul; Mongbo, Virginie; Massougbodji, Achille

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 cholera outbreak in Benin was characterized by a low case fatality rate (0.39 p.100) in the Littoral department, where 502 cases were recorded between July and December. The aim of this study was to identify the key factors associated with the low case fatality rate within the department. The cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted as part of this research used 404 patient records, focus group discussions with ten former patients, in-depth interviews with 8 health authorities involved in the response and structured face-to-face interviews with 12 health personnel involved in the treatment of patients. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis based on EPIINFO 3.3.2 and EXCEL 2007 software. The results from several sources were cross-checked through triangulation. The mean age of patients was 23.72 ± 14.8 years. 39.35% patients were admitted with severe dehydration. Oral rehydration, intravenous rehydration and antibiotic therapy were given to 99.5%, 85% and 97.77% of patients, respectively. Only one hospital death was noted. The low case fatality rate was mainly due to the following factors: the high quality of care provided in a center with qualified personnel and available and free of charge treatment kits, protocols based on massive rehydration and appropriate hygiene measures, and patient compliance with the treatment plan. The response was also characterized by good coordination, wide mass and local health promotion, and selective antibiotic prophylaxis, which contributed significantly to reducing the spread of the infection. PMID:22177702

  2. Car driver casualty rates in Great Britain by type of car.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2008-07-01

    Since 1989, the British STATS19 national road accident reporting system has included the Vehicle Registration Mark (VRM). This allows the basic vehicle record to be augmented with details such as the date of first registration and codes that specify the vehicle's make and model. In order to examine the influence of car type upon the driver casualty rate, this paper groups car models into six types, ranging from 'Minis and Superminis' to '4x4s and people carriers (pc)'. Exploratory analyses of data from accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2005 show that the driver casualty rate falls markedly with size of car. In car-car collisions, the rate also rises markedly with the size of the other car. The car's year of first registration also influences the casualty rate, and represents the influence of changes in the characteristics of new cars. Statistical models are fitted to identify the separate influences on a driver's risk of injury in a car-car collision of the type and registration year of the driver's car and the type and registration year of the other car in the collision. The analysis is extended to include collisions with other vehicles such as lorries and buses. PMID:18606288

  3. Trends of hospitalizations, fatality rate and costs for acute myocardial infarction among Spanish diabetic adults, 2001-2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the more frequent reasons diabetic patients are admitted to hospital, and there are reports that the long-term prognosis after an AMI is much worse in these patients than in non-diabetic patients. This study aims to compare hospital admissions and costs in Spanish diabetic and non-diabetic subjects due to AMI during the period 2001-2006. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 6 years of national hospitalization data associated with diabetes using the Minimum Basic Data Set. National hospitalization rates were calculated for AMI among diabetic and non-diabetic adults. Fatality rates, mean hospital stay and direct medical costs related to hospitalization were analyzed. Costs were calculated using Diagnosis-Related Groups for AMI in diabetics and non-diabetics patients. Results During the study period, a total of 307,099 patients with AMI were admitted to Spanish hospitals. Diabetic patients made up 29.6% of the total. The estimated incidence due to AMI in diabetics increased from 54.7 cases per 100,000 in 2001 to 64.1 in 2006. Diabetic patients had significantly higher mortality than nondiabetic patients after adjusting for age, gender, and year (OR 1.11 [95% CI, 1.08-1.14]). The cost among diabetic patients increased by 21.3% from 2001 to 2006. Conclusions Diabetic patients have higher rates of hospital admission and fatality rates during the hospitalization after an AMI than nondiabetic patients. Diabetic adults who have suffered an AMI have a greater than expected increase in direct hospital costs over the period 2001-2006. PMID:20205960

  4. Fatality and Injury Severity of Older Adult Motor Vehicle Collisions in Orange County, California, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lotfipour, Shahram; Sayegh, Rockan; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Hoonpongsimanont, Wirachin; Anderson, Craig L.; Fox, J. Christian; Vaca, Federico E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Injuries and fatalities in adult drivers 18–65 years of age have decreased in recent years due to safer vehicles, enhanced medical policies, and implementation of injury prevention policies. However, adult drivers over 65 years of age are continuing to suffer from motor vehicle collision-related injuries and fatalities at a more constant rate. A number of physiological factors contribute to the deterioration in visual acuity, slower reaction speeds, and decreased awareness in older drivers. The objective of this study was to examine injury severity and fatality rates in older drivers compared to their younger counterparts in Orange County, California. Methods: This study used the Statewide Integrated Traffic Record System data for Orange County for the years 1998–2007. Drivers were categorized into 4 age groups: 25–64, 65–74, 75–84, and older than 85 years of age. Injury severity was assessed by the investigating officer. Results: Of the 197,814 drivers involved in motor vehicle collisions, 178,481 (90.2%) were in the 25–64 age group; 11,397 (5.8%) were 65–74; 6,592 (3.3%) were 75–84; and 1,344 drivers (0.7%) were over 85. Those aged 25–64 had the lowest fatality rate per 100,000 people, 2.5, whereas those 75–84 had the highest fatality rate, 4.9. The percent of crashes involving a left turn increased with age, and the percent that were stopped in the road decreases with age. Change in injury collision involvement ratio in the 3 younger age groups decreased by 26% to 32%, but decreased by 18% among drivers aged 85 years and older. Conclusion: The decrease in collision fatalities was greater in the 25–64-year-old group compared to the older adult population. This disparity highlights the need for further injury prevention efforts for older drivers. PMID:23451291

  5. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession.

    PubMed

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans

    2015-05-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actual litter decomposition, and potential litter decomposition) during secondary succession after shifting cultivation in wet tropical forest of Mexico. We test the importance of three alternative drivers of ecosystem processes: vegetation biomass (vegetation quantity hypothesis), community-weighted trait mean (mass ratio hypothesis), and functional diversity (niche complementarity hypothesis) using structural equation modeling. This allows us to infer the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying ecosystem process recovery. Ecosystem process rates changed during succession, and the strongest driver was aboveground biomass for each of the processes. Productivity of aboveground stem biomass and leaf litter as well as actual litter decomposition increased with initial standing vegetation biomass, whereas potential litter decomposition decreased with standing biomass. Additionally, biomass productivity was positively affected by community-weighted mean of specific leaf area, and potential decomposition was positively affected by functional divergence, and negatively by community-weighted mean of leaf dry matter content. Our empirical results show that functional diversity and community-weighted means are of secondary importance for explaining changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Instead, simply, the amount of vegetation in a site is the major driver of changes, perhaps because there is a steep biomass buildup during succession that overrides more subtle effects of community functional properties on ecosystem processes. We recommend future studies in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to separate the effects of

  6. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-06-01

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  7. Validity of Police-Reported Alcohol Involvement In Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes in the United States Between 1982 and 2005

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Melissa L.; Sheng, Peilin; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity of police-reported alcohol data for drivers involved in fatal motor carrier crashes. Material and Methods We determined the availability of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and police-reported alcohol data on 157,702 drivers involved in fatal motor carrier crashes between 1982 – 2005 using Fatality Analysis and Reporting System (FARS) data. Drivers were categorized as motor carrier drivers if they operated a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of greater than 26,000 pounds. Otherwise, they were classified as non motor carrier drivers. The sensitivity and specificity of police-reported alcohol involvement were estimated for both driver types. Results Of the 157,702 drivers, 18% had no alcohol information, 15% had BAC results, 42% had police-reported alcohol data, and 25% had both. Alcohol information varied significantly by driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics. For example, motor carrier drivers were significantly more likely (51%) to have BAC testing results compared to non motor carrier drivers (31%) (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of police-reported alcohol involvement for a BAC level ≥ 0.08 was 83% (95% CI 79%, 86%) for motor carrier drivers and 90% (95% CI 89%, 90%) for non motor carrier drivers. The specificity rates were 96% (95% CI 95%, 96%) and 91% (95% CI 90%, 91%), respectively. Conclusions The sensitivity and specificity of police-reported alcohol involvement are reasonably high for drivers involved in fatal motor carrier crashes. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the accuracy of police-reported alcohol involvement may be overestimated because of verification bias. PMID:19527818

  8. Reliable, high repetition rate thyratron grid driver used with a magnetic modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.V.; Ball, D.G.; Garrett, D.N.

    1991-06-14

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses a magnetic modulator switched by a high voltage thyratron to drive a gas discharge laser. The thyratron trigger source must provide an extremely reliable, low jitter, high- rep-rate grid pulse. This paper describes a thyratron grid driver which delivers a 1.2 kV, 80 ns rise time grid pulse into a 50 ohm load at up to 4.5 kHz repetition rate and has demonstrated approximately 10,000 hours MTBF. Since the thyratron is used with a magnetic compression circuit having a delay time of 1.4 ms this grid driver incorporates a jitter compensation circuit to adjust the trigger timing of the thyratron to provide overall modulator/laser jitter of less than {plus minus} 2 ns. The specific grid driver requirements will be discussed followed by a description of the circuit design and theory of operation. Construction comments will be followed by performance data (for a specific thyratron and magnetic compression circuit), including pulse shape, jitter, and lifetime. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  9. Reliable, high repetition rate thyratron grid driver used with a magnetic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. V.; Ball, D. G.; Garrett, D. N.

    1991-06-01

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses a magnetic modulator switched by a high voltage thyratron to drive a gas discharge laser. The thyratron trigger source must provide an extremely reliable, low jitter, high-rep-rate grid pulse. This paper describes a thyratron grid driver which delivers a 1.2 kV, 80 ns rise time grid pulse into a 50 ohm load at up to 4.5 kHz repetition rate and has demonstrated approximately 10,000 hours MTBF. Since the thyratron is used with a magnetic compression circuit having a delay time of 1.4 ms, this grid driver incorporates a jitter compensation circuit to adjust the trigger timing of the thyratron to provide overall modulator/laser jitter of less than +/- 2 ns. The specific grid driver requirements will be discussed followed by a description of the circuit design and theory of operation. Construction comments will be followed by performance data (for a specific thyratron and magnetic compression circuit), including pulse shape, jitter, and lifetime.

  10. Appalachian versus non-Appalachian US traffic fatalities, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Zhao, Songzhu; Gurka, Kelly K.; Kandati, Sahiti; Coben, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Though myriad health disparities exist in Appalachia, limited research has examined traffic fatalities in the region. This study compared traffic-fatality rates in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian US. Methods Fatality Analysis Reporting System and Census data from 2008-2010 were used to calculate traffic-fatality rates. Poisson models were used to estimate unadjusted (RR) and adjusted rate ratios (aRR), controlling for age, sex, and county-specific population density levels. Results: The Appalachian traffic-fatality rate was 45% (95% CI: 1.42, 1.47) higher than the non-Appalachian rate. Though only 29% of fatalities occur in rural counties in non-Appalachia versus 48% in Appalachia, rates in rural counties were similar (RR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.00). However, the rate for urban, Appalachian counties was 42% (95% CI: 1.38, 1.45) higher than among urban, non-Appalachian counties. Appalachian rates were higher for passenger-vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and all-terrain-vehicle riders, regardless of rurality, as well as for passenger-vehicle passengers overall and for urban counties. Conversely, Appalachia experienced lower rates among pedestrians and bicyclists, regardless of rurality. Conclusions Disparities in traffic fatality rates exist in Appalachia. Though elevated rates are partially explained by the proportion of residents living in rural settings, overall rates in urban Appalachia were consistently higher than in urban non-Appalachia. PMID:23619016

  11. Drinking-Driving and Fatal Crashes: A New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zylman, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between alcohol and fatal automobile crashes. Stresses the need for controlled studies in order to determine the correlation between drunk drivers and fatal accidents and to obtain dependable statistics on alcohol-related crashes. (BD)

  12. Young driver licensing: examination of population-level rates using New Jersey's state licensing database.

    PubMed

    Curry, Allison E; Pfeiffer, Melissa R; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R; Kim, Konny H

    2015-03-01

    Recent surveys have provided insight on the primary reasons why US teens delay licensure but are limited in their ability to estimate licensing rates and trends. State administrative licensing data are the ideal source to provide this information but have not yet been analyzed for this purpose. Our objective was to analyze New Jersey's (NJ) licensing database to: (1) describe population-based rates of licensure among 17- to 20-year-olds, overall and by gender and zip code level indicators of household income, population density, and race/ethnicity; and (2) examine recent trends in licensure. We obtained records on all licensed NJ drivers through June 2012 from the NJ Motor Vehicle Commission's licensing database and determined each young driver's age at the time of intermediate and full licensure. Data from the US Census and American Community Survey were used to estimate a fixed cohort of NJ residents who turned 17 years old in 2006-2007 (n=255,833). Licensing data were used to estimate the number of these drivers who obtained an intermediate license by each month of age (numerators) and, among those who obtained an intermediate license, time to graduation to full licensure. Overall, 40% of NJ residents-and half of those who ultimately obtained a license by age 21-were licensed within a month of NJ's minimum licensing age of 17, 64% by their 18th birthday, and 81% by their 21st birthday. Starkly different patterns of licensure were observed by socioeconomic indicators; for example, 65% of 17-year-olds residing in the highest-income zip codes were licensed in the first month of eligibility compared with 13% of residents living in the lowest-income zip codes. The younger an individual obtained their intermediate license, the earlier they graduated to a full license. Finally, the rate and timing of licensure in NJ has been relatively stable from 2006 to 2012, with at most a 1-3% point decline in rates. These findings support the growing body of literature suggesting

  13. Insights from interviews regarding high fatality rate caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, M.; Ishida, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) caused approximately 19,000 casualties including missing persons along the entire coast of the Tohoku region. Three historical tsunamis occurred in the past 115 years preceding this tsunami. Since these tsunamis, numerous countermeasures against future tsunamis such as breakwaters, early tsunami warning systems and tsunami evacuation drills were implemented. Despite the preparedness, a number of deaths and missing persons occurred. Although this death rate is approximately 4 % of the population in severely inundated areas; 96 % safely evacuated or managed to survive the tsunami. To understand why some people evacuated immediately while others delayed; survivors were interviewed in the northern part of the Tohoku region. Our interviews revealed that many residents obtained no appropriate warnings and many chose to remain in dangerous locations partly because they obtained the wrong idea of the risks. In addition, our interviews also indicated that the resultant high casualties were due to current technology malfunction, underestimated earthquake size and tsunami heights, and failure of warning systems. Furthermore, the existing breakwaters provided the local community a false sense of security. The advanced technology did not work properly, especially at the time of the severe disaster. If residents had taken an immediate action after the major shaking stopped, most local residents might have survived considering that safer highlands are within 5 to 20 minute walking distance from the interviewed areas. However, the elderly and physically disabled people would still be in a much more difficult situation to walk such distance into safety. Nevertheless, even if these problems occur in future earthquakes, better knowledge regarding earthquakes and tsunami hazards could save more lives. People must take immediate action without waiting for official warning or help. To avoid similar high tsunami death ratios in the future

  14. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors affecting non-fatal medically attended injury rates in US children.

    PubMed Central

    Overpeck, M. D.; Jones, D. H.; Trumble, A. C.; Scheidt, P. C.; Bijur, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using a representative survey of US children, the purpose was to evaluate separate effects of socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors, including access to care, on medically attended non-fatal injury rates. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine associations between injuries and health care coverage (insurance or Medicaid), having a place to go for care, race/ethnicity, maternal education, number of adults and children in the household, poverty, and urbanicity. The 1988 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey included questions on medically attended injuries, and their cause, location, and effects on the child. Injury categories included total, consequential, occurrence at home or school, falls, and being struck or cut. RESULTS: Lack of health care coverage was consistently associated with lower medically attended injury rates in non-Hispanic blacks or whites and Mexican-Americans, but affected total rates for each group differently due to unequal distribution of health care coverage. Injuries occurred about 40% more frequently to children and adolescents living in single adult households compared with two adult homes for all injury categories except for injuries occurring at school. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive interventions targeted to specific populations based on assumptions that poverty, lack of education, or minority status result in greater risks for injuries require a closer look. Efficient targeting should address underlying factors such as differences in exposures and environments associated with single adult homes or recreational activities. Data sources used to target high risk populations for interventions need to address bias due to access to care. Images PMID:9493623

  15. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  16. Economic costs of motor vehicle crashes involving teenaged drivers in Kentucky, 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, L. A.; Spurlock, C. W.; Kidd, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze data from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) involving teenaged drivers in Kentucky for 1994, and derive cost estimates of these crashes. METHODS: Crash data were obtained from the Kentucky Traffic Accident Facts 1994 Report and the Kentucky Accident Reporting System. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Crash-Cost program was used to generate cost estimates for Kentucky data. RESULTS: Teenaged drivers had significantly higher MVC fatal and non-fatal injury rates than did adult drivers. The deaths rates were 43.6 and 19.0 per 100,000 for teens and adult drivers, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to estimate the relative risk for (1) involvement in an MVC, (2) fatal or incapacitating injury, and (3) fatal injury for teenaged compared with adult drivers. The crude ORs were statistically significant at each age. Cost estimates were calculated on a per person/vehicle basis. A single fatal injury was $642,700. A critical injury was $563,000. In general, unit costs rose with increasing levels of injury severity. For the total number of fatal injuries, costs exceeded $91 million. For non-fatal injuries and property damage only crashes, total costs were $318 million. Overall, the total cost estimate for MVCs involving teenaged drivers was nearly $410 million. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies aimed to reduce the number of MVCs attributed to teenaged drivers should reduce both the number and costs of crash related deaths and injuries. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems are one plausible approach toward achieving this goal. By recently enacting a GDL system in Kentucky, it is anticipated that many lives and dollars will be saved. PMID:9338832

  17. Teen Driver Safety: Additional Research Could Help States Strengthen Graduated Driver Licensing Systems. Report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and Its Subcommittee on Highways and Transit, House of Representatives. GAO-10-544

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers ages 16 to 20 have the highest fatality rate of any age group in the United States. As a result, states have increasingly adopted laws to limit teen driving exposure, such as Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) systems, which consist of three stages: a learner's permit allowing driving only under supervision; intermediate licensure…

  18. The influence of car registration year on driver casualty rates in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    A previous paper analysed data from the British national road accident reporting system to investigate the influence upon car driver casualty rates of the general type of car being driven and its year of first registration. A statistical model was fitted to accident data from 2001 to 2005, and this paper updates the principal results using accident data from 2003 to 2007. Attention focuses upon the role of year of first registration since this allows the influence of developments in car design upon occupant casualty numbers to be evaluated. Three additional topics are also examined with these accident data. Changes over time in frontal and side impacts are compared. Changes in the combined risk for the two drivers involved in a car-car collision are investigated, being the net result of changes in secondary safety and aggressivity. Finally, the results of the new model relating to occupant protection are related to an index that had been developed previously to analyse changes over time in the secondary safety of the car fleet. PMID:22269528

  19. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  20. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali. PMID:18331224

  1. The role of exposure in comparisons of crash risk among different drivers and driving environments.

    PubMed

    Chipman, M L; MacGregor, C G; Smiley, A M; Lee-Gosselin, M

    1993-04-01

    Crash rates based on drivers, driver-kilometers, and driver-days in the denominator were compared, using survey estimates of time and distance driven and the annual frequency of traffic crashes in Ontario. Rates by age, sex, and region were computed for all crashes and for crashes resulting in injury or fatality. Young male drivers remained at high risk for all types of denominator; older women had high rates when distance was included in the denominator. When time spent driving was substituted, men and women drivers over 60 had very similar rates. For comparisons of rural residents with urban and northern residents, time and distance give equivalent results. These findings suggest that apparent differences in crash risk per kilometre, whether for older women or for urban drivers, is explained by differences in typical driving speed and environment. Exposure time is better than distance to explain crash risk among drivers and regions with very different driving patterns and environments. PMID:8471119

  2. Determinants of road traffic crash fatalities across Indian States.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Michael; Treibich, Carole

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in India. In addition to income, the analysis considers the sociodemographic population structure, motorization levels, road and health infrastructure and road rule enforcement as potential factors. An original panel data set covering 25 Indian states is analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Time and state fixed-effects account for unobserved heterogeneity across states and time. The rising motorization, urbanization and accompanying increase in the share of vulnerable road users, that is, pedestrians and two-wheelers, are the major drivers of road traffic crash fatalities in India. Among vulnerable road users, women form a particularly high-risk group. Higher expenditure per police officer is associated with a lower fatality rate. The results suggest that India should focus, in particular, on road infrastructure investments that allow the separation of vulnerable from other road users on improved road rule enforcement and should pay special attention to vulnerable female road users. PMID:22936645

  3. An empirical examination of the influence of industry and firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, B.

    A gradual shift in U.S. firms' 'center of gravity' toward international markets is taking place. This study seeks to explain which drivers are related to this push toward international markets by U.S. firms. In addressing internationalization, previous research has not focused on various drivers that influence the rate of internationalization. Drivers refer to forces, both within and outside the firm, that impact (both positively and negatively) a firm's extent of internationalization. The role of these drivers on the rate of internationalization, though acknowledged in the literature, is yet to be validated through empirical research. This research seeks to narrow the gap in the literature by testing the various relationships among industry drivers, firm drivers, and the rate of internationalization. The objectives of this study are: (A) To develop a conceptual framework that takes into account various forces that influence the internationalization strategy of a firm; (B) To examine empirically (a) the influence of industry drivers on the rate of internationalization pursued by firms; and, (b) the influence of firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms. The sample for this study consists of 158 large U.S.- based multinational firms drawn from seven different industries. Data for the study is gathered from a variety of sources including the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; COMPUSTAT; and WORLDSCOPE databases. Set-wise regression models were used for data analysis. This study found that global market growth rate, domestic market growth rate, relative size of domestic market to international market, employee productivity, administrative investments, as well as new plant and equipment influences the international strategy of firms. This study explains about 24 percent of the variance of the rate of internationalization. This research finding is contributory to our existing understanding of internationalization in many ways

  4. Novel driver method to improve ordinary CCD frame rate for high-speed imaging diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tong-Ding; Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Yan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    The use of ordinary Charge-coupled-Device (CCD) imagers for the analysis of fast physical phenomenon is restricted because of the low-speed performance resulting from their long output times. Even though the form of Intensified-CCD (ICCD), coupled with a gated image intensifier, has extended their use for high speed imaging, the deficiency remains to be solved that ICDD could record only one image in a single shot. This paper presents a novel driver method designed to significantly improve the ordinary interline CCD burst frame rate for high-speed photography. This method is based on the use of vertical registers as storage, so that a small number of additional frames comprised of reduced-spatial-resolution images obtained via a specific sampling operation can be buffered. Hence, the interval time of the received series of images is related to the exposure and vertical transfer times only and, thus, the burst frame rate can be increased significantly. A prototype camera based on this method is designed as part of this study, exhibiting a burst rate of up to 250,000 frames per second (fps) and a capacity to record three continuous images. This device exhibits a speed enhancement of approximately 16,000 times compared with the conventional speed, with a spatial resolution reduction of only 1/4.

  5. Mechanistic drivers of flexibility in summit metabolic rates of small birds.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David; Zhang, Yufeng; King, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity) is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity) with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb) variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054) for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495) than mass-specific (r = 0.378) CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species. PMID:24992186

  6. Mechanistic Drivers of Flexibility in Summit Metabolic Rates of Small Birds

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, David; Zhang, Yufeng; King, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity) is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity) with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb) variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054) for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495) than mass-specific (r = 0.378) CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species. PMID:24992186

  7. Thermal burn fatalities in the workplace, United States, 1992 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Quinney, Brent; McGwin, Gerald; Cross, James M; Valent, Francesca; Taylor, Allison J; Rue, Loring W

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the epidemiology of thermal burn fatalities in the workplace in the United States between 1992 and 1999. Data on fatal thermal burn injuries in the United States between 1992 through 1999 were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Between 1992 and 1999, 1,189 fatal thermal burns occurred in the workplace (0.11 deaths/100,000 workers per year). Mortality increased with age, with those over 65 years of age having the greatest rate of death (0.20/100,000). Workers in the mining industry and transportation and public utilities had the highest rates of fatal thermal burns. Occupational categories with the highest rates included "extractive occupations" (eg, miners, explosives workers) and "transportation and material movers" (eg, truck drivers). The specific occupations with the highest rates were airplane pilots and navigators, furnace, kiln, and oven operators, and firefighters. Most decedents were operating vehicles or involved in "other transportation operations" at the time of the incident. The majority of injurious incidents occurred on "industrial premises" or the "street and highway." Efforts to prevent fatal occupational thermal burn injuries should focus on older workers and those in occupations with frequent exposure to potential sources of thermal injury. Further study of nonfatal thermal burns in the workplace is needed because patterns of fatal burn injury may not reflect patterns of occupational burn injury overall. PMID:12352130

  8. Traffic fatalities and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Kopits, Elizabeth; Cropper, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between traffic fatality risk and per capita income and uses it to forecast traffic fatalities by geographic region. Equations for the road death rate (fatalities/population) and its components--the rate of motorization (vehicles/population) and fatalities per vehicle (F/V)--are estimated using panel data from 1963 to 1999 for 88 countries. The natural logarithm of F/P, V/P, and F/V are expressed as spline (piecewise linear) functions of the logarithm of real per capita GDP (measured in 1985 international prices). Region-specific time trends during the period 1963-1999 are modeled in linear and log-linear form. These models are used to project traffic fatalities and the stock of motor vehicles to 2020. The per capita income at which traffic fatality risk (fatalities/population) begins to decline is 8600 US dollars (1985 international dollars) when separate time trends are used for each geographic region. This turning point is driven by the rate of decline in fatalities/vehicles as income rises since vehicles/population, while increasing with income at a decreasing rate, never declines with economic growth. Projections of future traffic fatalities suggest that the global road death toll will grow by approximately 66% over the next twenty years. This number, however, reflects divergent rates of change in different parts of the world: a decline in fatalities in high-income countries of approximately 28% versus an increase in fatalities of almost 92% in China and 147% in India. The road death rate is projected to rise to approximately 2 per 10,000 persons in developing countries by 2020, while it will fall to less than 1 per 10,000 in high-income countries. PMID:15607288

  9. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  10. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  11. BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES OF A HIGH-REPETITION RATE LINAC-DRIVER FOR A 4TH GENERATION LIGHT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ventturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Sun, C.; Wells, R.

    2012-05-18

    We present recent progress toward the design of a super-conducting linac driver for a high-repetition rate FEL-based soft x-ray light source. The machine is designed to accept beams generated by the APEX photo-cathode gun operating with MHz-range repetition rate and deliver them to an array of SASE and seeded FEL beamlines. We review the current baseline design and report results of beam dynamics studies.

  12. Modelling the conversion of Colombian lowland ecosystems since 1940: drivers, patterns and rates.

    PubMed

    Etter, Andres; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Possingham, Hugh

    2006-04-01

    In biologically mega-diverse countries that are undergoing rapid human landscape transformation, it is important to understand and model the patterns of land cover change. This problem is particularly acute in Colombia, where lowland forests are being rapidly cleared for cropping and ranching. We apply a conceptual model with a nested set of a priori predictions to analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover change for six 50-100 km(2) case study areas in lowland ecosystems of Colombia. Our analysis included soil fertility, a cost-distance function, and neighbourhood of forest and secondary vegetation cover as independent variables. Deforestation and forest regrowth are tested using logistic regression analysis and an information criterion approach to rank the models and predictor variables. The results show that: (a) overall the process of deforestation is better predicted by the full model containing all variables, while for regrowth the model containing only the auto-correlated neighbourhood terms is a better predictor; (b) overall consistent patterns emerge, although there are variations across regions and time; and (c) during the transformation process, both the order of importance and significance of the drivers change. Forest cover follows a consistent logistic decline pattern across regions, with introduced pastures being the major replacement land cover type. Forest stabilizes at 2-10% of the original cover, with an average patch size of 15.4 (+/-9.2)ha. We discuss the implications of the observed patterns and rates of land cover change for conservation planning in countries with high rates of deforestation. PMID:16171932

  13. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage in the Jyväskylä region, central Finland, 1985-89: incidence, case fatality rate, and functional outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R; Nuutila, M; Vuorela, A L

    1992-01-01

    The age and sex specific incidence rates, the case fatality rates, and the functional outcome of patients with primary intracerebral haemorrhage occurring in a population of 116,000 during a period of four years four months are presented. A total of 158 patients were identified, the diagnosis was confirmed in 78% by CT, and in 22% by necropsy. The crude annual incidence rate was 31/100,000 population, the age specific rates increased from two to 222/100,000 from the age of 30-39 to over 80 years. Men had higher incidence rates between the ages of 40 and 79 years. The short term case fatality rate was high, 27% of patients dying during the first day after onset of symptoms, and 50% were dead at 30 days. After the first month the probability of survival did not differ from an age- and sex-matched average population. Large haematoma volume had an adverse effect on the short term, old age (greater than 70 years) on the long term survival. Ventricular extension, especially when combined with hydrocephalus was a bad omen for short term survival. Infratentorial and large basal ganglionic haematomas, and primary intraventricular haemorrhage carried a worse prognosis than haematomas of other locations. At the end of a median 32 month follow up 55 (35%) of the patients were alive, 51% of these were independent in activities of daily living, 45% were dependent on outside help, and 4% needed constant nursing care. Old age (greater than 70 years), but not the haematoma volume or location, was associated with a poor functional recovery. PMID:1640229

  14. Fatality rates of the M w ~8.2, 1934, Bihar-Nepal earthquake and comparison with the April 2015 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Soma Nath; Bollinger, Laurent; Perrier, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Large Himalayan earthquakes expose rapidly growing populations of millions of people to high levels of seismic hazards, in particular in northeast India and Nepal. Calibrating vulnerability models specific to this region of the world is therefore crucial to the development of reliable mitigation measures. Here, we reevaluate the >15,700 casualties (8500 in Nepal and 7200 in India) from the M w ~8.2, 1934, Bihar-Nepal earthquake and calculate the fatality rates for this earthquake using an estimation of the population derived from two census held in 1921 and 1942. Values reach 0.7-1 % in the epicentral region, located in eastern Nepal, and 2-5 % in the urban areas of the Kathmandu valley. Assuming a constant vulnerability, we obtain, if the same earthquake would have repeated in 2011, fatalities of 33,000 in Nepal and 50,000 in India. Fast-growing population in India indeed must unavoidably lead to increased levels of casualty compared with Nepal, where the population growth is smaller. Aside from that probably robust fact, extrapolations have to be taken with great caution. Among other effects, building and life vulnerability could depend on population concentration and evolution of construction methods. Indeed, fatalities of the April 25, 2015, M w 7.8 Gorkha earthquake indicated on average a reduction in building vulnerability in urban areas, while rural areas remained highly vulnerable. While effective scaling laws, function of the building stock, seem to describe these differences adequately, vulnerability in the case of an M w >8.2 earthquake remains largely unknown. Further research should be carried out urgently so that better prevention strategies can be implemented and building codes reevaluated on, adequately combining detailed ancient and modern data.

  15. Major Bleeding and Case Fatality Rate with the Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Orthopedic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Riva, Nicoletta; Dentali, Francesco; Permunian, Eleonora Tamborini; Ageno, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been proposed as alternatives to low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery. However, the clinical impact of postsurgical bleeding with the DOACs has not been extensively evaluated. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, supplemented with conference abstract books and www.clinicaltrial.gov, were searched up to the first week of March 2015. We included phase II and phase III randomized controlled trials comparing the DOACs with LMWHs in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Data regarding major, fatal, and intracranial bleeding were collected, to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR) and the case-fatality rate (CFR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). We retrieved 25 studies (5 evaluating dabigatran, 4 apixaban, 6 edoxaban, and 10 rivaroxaban), enrolling 42,170 patients. There was no significant difference between the DOACs and LMWHs in the risk of major (1.23 vs. 1.16%; RR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.29), fatal (0.02 vs. 0.01%; RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.39-6.77), and intracranial bleeding (0 vs. 0.01%; RR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.03-3.18). The weighted mean CFR of major bleeding was 3.3% (95% CI, 1.5-5.7) and 2.3% (95% CI, 0.7-4.6), respectively. Bleeding complications and the associated CFR during prophylactic anticoagulation in orthopedic surgery were very low and not significantly different between the DOACs and LMWHs. PMID:26751034

  16. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  17. An epidemiological study of roadway fatalities related to farm vehicles: United States, 1988 to 1993.

    PubMed

    Gerberich, S G; Robertson, L S; Gibson, R W; Renier, C

    1996-11-01

    Compared with the estimated injury fatality rate for workers in all occupations (nine in 100,000 in 1988) the farm fatality rate (48 in 100,000) was among the highest in the nation; in 1993, these rates were eight and 35 in 100,000, respectively. On-road farm-vehicle fatalities have been identified as a significant problem, yet these events apparently have not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding all on-road, non-truck, farm-vehicle crash fatalities in the United States form 1988 through 1993. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatal Accident Reporting System, which includes data for all US fatal on-road motor vehicle crashes, was the source of data. Driver-related variables were compared among farm vehicles, vehicles in collisions with farm vehicles, and all other vehicles in rural, fatal crashes; environmental variables were compared between rural farm-vehicle and non-farm-vehicle crashes. During 1988 to 1993, in rural areas, 444 farm-vehicle occupants were killed; in addition, 238 occupants of other vehicles or pedestrians were killed in collisions with the farm vehicles. The farm vehicles were disproportionately involved in overturns, rear-end collisions, and incidents in which the injured person fell from the vehicle, when compared with all other non-farm vehicles involved in rural-area fatal crashes. Of the farm vehicles involved in fatal crashes at night, dawn, or dusk, 65% were struck in the rear, compared with 4% of vehicles involved in fatal non-farm-vehicle crashes. Compared with drivers in all other rural crashes, farm-vehicle operators were more likely to be male, have a greater proportion of convictions for driving while intoxicated, and a lower proportion of previous speeding convictions. From this initial investigation, it appears that the fatal-crash involvement of farm vehicles are related to vehicle and environmental factors that are changeable

  18. Feasibility demonstration of a variable frequency driver-microwave transient regression rate measurement system. [for solid propellant combustion response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of a system capable of rapidly and directly measuring the low-frequency (motor characteristics length bulk mode) combustion response characteristics of solid propellants has been investigated. The system consists of a variable frequency oscillatory driver device coupled with an improved version of the JPL microwave propellant regression rate measurement system. The ratio of the normalized regression rate and pressure amplitudes and their relative phase are measured as a function of varying pressure level and frequency. Test results with a well-characterized PBAN-AP propellant formulation were found to compare favorably with the results of more conventional stability measurement techniques.

  19. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Young, J.R.; Lu, An

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  20. State-specific, racial and ethnic heterogeneity in trends of firearm-related fatality rates in the USA from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kalesan, Bindu; Vasan, Sowmya; Mobily, Matthew E; Villarreal, Marcos D; Hlavacek, Patrick; Teperman, Sheldon; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To document overall, racial, ethnic and intent-specific spatiotemporal trends of firearm-related fatality rates (FRF rates) in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study per year from 2000 to 2010. Setting USA. Participants Aggregate count of all people in the USA from 2000 to 2010. Outcome measures Data from the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System from 2000 to 2010 was used to determine annual FRF rates per 100 000 and by states, race, ethnicity and intent. Results The average national 11-year FRF rate was 10.21/100 000, from 3.02 in Hawaii to 18.62 in Louisiana: 60% of states had higher than national rates and 41 states showed no temporal change. The average national FRF rates among African-Americans and Caucasians were 18.51 and 9.05/100 000 and among Hispanics and non-Hispanics were 7.13 and 10.13/100 000; Hispanics had a decreasing change of −0.18, p trend<0.0001. In states with increasing trends (Florida and Massachusetts), Caucasians and non-Hispanics drove the rise; while in states with decreasing trends (California, North Carolina, Arizona, Nevada, New York, Illinois, Maryland), Hispanics and African-Americans drove the fall. The average national FRF rates due to homicides (4.1/100 000) and suicides (5.8/100 000) remained constant, but varied between states. Conclusions Endemic national FRF rates mask a wide variation in time trends between states. FRF rates were twice as high in African-Americans than Caucasians but decreased among Hispanics. Efforts to identify state-specific best practices can contribute to changes in national FRF rates that remain high. PMID:25239291

  1. A season of snakebite envenomation: presentation patterns, timing of care, anti-venom use, and case fatality rates from a hospital of southcentral Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Deb P; Vohra, Rais; Stalcup, Philip; Shrestha, Bhola R

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite envenomation affects thousands of people annually in Nepal. Published hospital-based studies of snakebite treatment in Nepal are scarce. Here we present the results of the first prospective, cross-sectional study of hospitalized envenomed snakebite cases in southcentral Nepal, a region characterized by poor pre-hospital care of snakebites, limited supply and excessive use of antivenom, and a high case/fatality ratio. We seek to identify clinical management problems and suggest potential interventions to improve treatment of snakebites. Out of the 342 patients presented with snakebites to an urban emergency department in the Terai region of Nepal between April and September of 2007, 39 patients were enrolled based on development of ptosis or swelling of bitten body parts. We collected patient demographic information and documented circumstances of snakebite, prehospital care, hospital care, and development of complications. Among 39 envenomated patients admitted to Bharatpur Hospital enrolled in the study 34 (92%) exhibited features of clinically significant neurotoxicity and were treated with antivenom. Antivenom use ranged from 4 to 98 vials of Polyspecific Indian Antivenom per patient. Each of victims (n=34) received antivenom an average of 4.3 (median) ±0.73 (standard error of mean) hours after receiving the snakebite. The overall case fatality rate was 21%. Neurotoxicity developed up to 25.8hr after suspected elapid snakebites. This was not observed for viperid snake bites. No enrolled patients received any of the currently recommended first aid for snake bite. The prevalence of nocturnal elapid snake bites, the practice of inappropriate first aid measures and highly variable administration of antivenom were identified as major challenges to appropriate care in this study. To address these issues we suggest development of a comprehensive checklist for identification of snake species, management of envenomation, and an educational program which

  2. A season of snakebite envenomation: presentation patterns, timing of care, anti-venom use, and case fatality rates from a hospital of southcentral Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Deb P; Vohra, Rais; Stalcup, Philip; Shrestha, Bhola R

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite envenomation affects thousands of people annually in Nepal. Published hospital-based studies of snakebite treatment in Nepal are scarce. Here we present the results of the first prospective, cross-sectional study of hospitalized envenomed snakebite cases in southcentral Nepal, a region characterized by poor pre-hospital care of snakebites, limited supply and excessive use of antivenom, and a high case/fatality ratio. We seek to identify clinical management problems and suggest potential interventions to improve treatment of snakebites. Out of the 342 patients presented with snakebites to an urban emergency department in the Terai region of Nepal between April and September of 2007, 39 patients were enrolled based on development of ptosis or swelling of bitten body parts. We collected patient demographic information and documented circumstances of snakebite, prehospital care, hospital care, and development of complications. Among 39 envenomated patients admitted to Bharatpur Hospital enrolled in the study 34 (92%) exhibited features of clinically significant neurotoxicity and were treated with antivenom. Antivenom use ranged from 4 to 98 vials of Polyspecific Indian Antivenom per patient. Each of victims (n=34) received antivenom an average of 4.3 (median) ±0.73 (standard error of mean) hours after receiving the snakebite. The overall case fatality rate was 21%. Neurotoxicity developed up to 25.8hr after suspected elapid snakebites. This was not observed for viperid snake bites. No enrolled patients received any of the currently recommended first aid for snake bite. The prevalence of nocturnal elapid snake bites, the practice of inappropriate first aid measures and highly variable administration of antivenom were identified as major challenges to appropriate care in this study. To address these issues we suggest development of a comprehensive checklist for identification of snake species, management of envenomation, and an educational program which

  3. [The twofold face of fatalism: collectivist fatalism and individualist fatalism].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Amalio; Díaz, Darío

    2007-11-01

    Fatalism has been a central framework for understanding the psychological processes in cultures with pronounced collectivism that are economically poorly developed. In this context, fatalism emerges as cognitive schema defined by passive and submissive acceptance of an irremediable destiny, governed by some natural force or the will of some God. This image has now lost such a clear profile. But currently, fatalism also accompanies the life of people from individualist cultures, who live in a highly developed, or even opulent, economic context. In this case, fatalism is like some mood of uncertainty, insecurity, and helplessness following the events that characterize the society of global risk. In this paper, we propose a theory to develop the two faces of fatalism. PMID:17959106

  4. Detection of driver drowsiness using wavelet analysis of heart rate variability and a support vector machine classifier.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2013-01-01

    Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO) classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use. PMID:24316564

  5. Detection of Driver Drowsiness Using Wavelet Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and a Support Vector Machine Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2013-01-01

    Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO) classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use. PMID:24316564

  6. Association of Heart Rate Variability in Taxi Drivers with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Niu, Jie; Huang, Qinsheng; Liu, Youcheng; Guo, Xinbiao

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, especially in older patients and those with cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PM exposure on cardiac autonomic function in young, healthy adults has received less attention. Objectives We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traffic-related PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and HRV in a highly exposed panel of taxi drivers. Methods Continuous measurements of personal exposure to PM2.5 and ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring were conducted on 11 young healthy taxi drivers for a 12-hr work shift during their work time (0900–2100 hr) before, during, and after the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate associations between PM2.5 exposure and percent changes in 5-min HRV indices after combining data from the three time periods and controlling for potentially confounding variables. Results Personal exposures of taxi drivers to PM2.5 changed markedly across the three time periods. The standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals decreased by 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), −3.8% to −0.6%] with an interquartile range (IQR; 69.5 μg/m3) increase in the 30-min PM2.5 moving average, whereas the low-frequency and high-frequency powers decreased by 4.2% (95% CI, −9.0% to 0.8%) and 6.2% (95% CI, −10.7% to −1.5%), respectively, in association with an IQR increase in the 2-hr PM2.5 moving average. Conclusions Marked changes in traffic-related PM2.5 exposure were associated with altered cardiac autonomic function in young healthy adults. PMID:20056565

  7. The Behavioral Contributors to Highway Crashes of Youthful Drivers.

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, A. James; McKnight, A. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The per-mile crash rate of drivers under age 20 is over five times that of the adult population in general, while that of 16-year-old novices is approximately ten times that of adults. Reports of over 2,000 non-fatal crashes involving young drivers were analyzed for behavioral crash contributors as a step in orienting preventive efforts. The great majority of non-fatal crashes resulted from errors in attention, visual search, speed relative to conditions, hazard recognition, and emergency maneuvers, with high speeds and patently risky behavior accounting from but a small minority. The pattern of errors for novices did not differ significantly from that of more experienced youth. PMID:11558091

  8. Promoting designated drivers: the Harvard Alcohol Project.

    PubMed

    Winsten, J A

    1994-01-01

    The designated driver concept is a new component of the nation's comprehensive strategy for reducing alcohol-related traffic fatalities through prevention, deterrence, and treatment. This article explains how the designated driver concept serves as a vehicle for changing social norms, describes the national designated driver campaign and the involvement of the public and private sectors, and presents public opinion findings documenting the wide popularity and growing usage of the designated driver concept. PMID:7917447

  9. Development of a flow rate monitoring method for the wearable ventricular assist device driver.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Kentaro; Homma, Akihiko; Sumikura, Hirohito; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Koichi; Katano, Kazuo; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-06-01

    Our research institute has been working on the development of a compact wearable drive unit for an extracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) with a pneumatically driven pump. A method for checking the pump blood flow on the side of the drive unit without modifying the existing blood pump and impairing the portability of it will be useful. In this study, to calculate the pump flow rate indirectly from measuring the flow rate of the driving air of the VAD air chamber, we conducted experiments using a mock circuit to investigate the correlation between the air flow rate and the pump flow rate as well as its accuracy and error factors. The pump flow rate was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter at the inflow and outflow tube, and the air flow was measured using a thermal mass flow meter at the driveline. Similarity in the instantaneous waveform was confirmed between the air flow rate in the driveline and the pump flow rate. Some limitations of this technique were indicated by consideration of the error factors. A significant correlation was found between the average pump flow rate in the ejecting direction and the average air flow rate in the ejecting direction (R2 = 0.704-0.856), and the air flow rate in the filling direction (R2 = 0.947-0.971). It was demonstrated that the average pump flow rate was estimated exactly in a wide range of drive conditions using the air flow of the filling phase. PMID:25500948

  10. Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Rebecca R; Kirkwood, Roger; Sutherland, Duncan R; Dann, Peter

    2015-12-30

    Methods of calculating wildlife entanglement rates are not standardised between studies and often ignore the influence of observer effort, confounding comparisons. From 1997-2013 we identified 359 entangled Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks, south-eastern Australia. Most entanglement materials originated from commercial fisheries; most frequently entangling pups and juveniles. Using Generalized Additive Mixed Models, which incorporated observer effort and survey frequency, we identified that entanglements were observed more frequently amongst pups from July to October as they approached weaning. Neither the decline in regional fishing intensity nor changing seal population size influenced the incidence of entanglements. Using the models, we estimated that 302 (95% CI=182-510) entangled seals were at Seal Rocks each year, equivalent to 1.0% (CI=0.6-1.7%) of the site population. This study highlights the influence of observer effort and the value of long-term datasets for determining the drivers of marine debris entanglements. PMID:26475026

  11. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  12. Firearm fatalities in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anil; Aggarwal, Narinder Kumar

    2006-10-01

    Studies on firearm fatalities in various countries have been published. However, pattern and incidence of fatal firearm injuries in Delhi has largely gone unreported. This study was taken up with the objective of reporting the pattern and incidence of fatal firearm injuries in Delhi and comparing it with the pattern seen in other countries. One hundred and seven firearm fatalities autopsied during the last 6 years were studied. 46.7% victims were aged between 20 and 30 years and 90.7% were males; similar findings were seen in other countries. 92.6% were victims of homicidal attacks, 6.5% suicidal and 0.9% accidental. This is in sharp contrast to the pattern in other countries where suicides were the predominant group and homicides accounted for a small number of cases. A high presence of illegal country made guns was an explanation for this trend. Single firings were the norm. Chest (39%) and head (29.6%) were the two most common entry sites for the bullets, a pattern somewhat similar to that of other countries. Survival time, cause of death and recovery of projectiles was also studied. Elimination of illegal country made guns is of the utmost importance in order to curb the high homicidal firearm fatality rate in this region. PMID:16963304

  13. Variation in U.S. Traffic Safety Policy Environments and Motor Vehicle Fatalities 1980–2010

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Diana; Macinko, James; Bae, Jin Yung; Jimenez, Geronimo; Paul, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of variation in state laws governing traffic safety on motor vehicle fatalities. Study Design Repeated cross sectional time series design. Methods Fixed effects regression models estimate the relationship between state motor vehicle fatality rates and the strength of the state law environment for 50 states, 1980–2010. The strength of the state policy environment is measured by calculating the proportion of a set of 27 evidence-based laws in place each year. The effect of alcohol consumption on motor vehicle fatalities is estimated using a subset of alcohol laws as instrumental variables. Results Once other risk factors are controlled in statistical models, states with stronger regulation of safer driving and driver/passenger protections had significantly lower motor vehicle fatality rates for all ages. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with higher MVC death rates, as were state unemployment rates. Conclusions Encouraging laggard states to adopt the full range of available laws could significantly reduce preventable traffic-related deaths in the U.S. – especially those among younger individuals. Estimating the relationship between different policy environments and health outcomes can quantify the result of policy gaps. PMID:24275035

  14. Modeling driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication considering driver run tendency and roadway surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Elhenawy, Mohammed; Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham A; El-Shawarby, Ihab

    2015-10-01

    The ability to model driver stop/run behavior at signalized intersections considering the roadway surface condition is critical in the design of advanced driver assistance systems. Such systems can reduce intersection crashes and fatalities by predicting driver stop/run behavior. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper offers two contributions. First, it introduces a new predictor related to driver aggressiveness and demonstrates that this measure enhances the modeling of driver stop/run behavior. Second, it applies well-known artificial intelligence techniques including: adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random forest, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms as well as traditional logistic regression techniques on the data in order to develop a model that can be used by traffic signal controllers to predict driver stop/run decisions in a connected vehicle environment. The research demonstrates that by adding the proposed driver aggressiveness predictor to the model, there is a statistically significant increase in the model accuracy. Moreover the false alarm rate is significantly reduced but this reduction is not statistically significant. The study demonstrates that, for the subject data, the SVM machine learning algorithm performs the best in terms of optimum classification accuracy and false positive rates. However, the SVM model produces the best performance in terms of the classification accuracy only. PMID:26225822

  15. Hazards of Extreme Weather: Flood Fatalities in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Jackson, T.; Bin-Shafique, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) considers flooding “America’s Number One Natural Hazard”. Despite flood management efforts in many communities, U.S. flood damages remain high, due, in large part, to increasing population and property development in flood-prone areas. Floods are the leading cause of fatalities related to natural disasters in Texas. Texas leads the nation in flash flood fatalities. There are three times more fatalities in Texas (840) than the following state Pennsylvania (265). This study examined flood fatalities that occurred in Texas between 1960 and 2008. Flood fatality statistics were extracted from three sources: flood fatality databases from the National Climatic Data Center, the Spatial Hazard Event and Loss Database for the United States, and the Texas Department of State Health Services. The data collected for flood fatalities include the date, time, gender, age, location, and weather conditions. Inconsistencies among the three databases were identified and discussed. Analysis reveals that most fatalities result from driving into flood water (about 65%). Spatial analysis indicates that more fatalities occurred in counties containing major urban centers. Hydrologic analysis of a flood event that resulted in five fatalities was performed. A hydrologic model was able to simulate the water level at a location where a vehicle was swept away by flood water resulting in the death of the driver.

  16. Fatal work-related farm injuries in Canada, 1991-1995. Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W; Hartling, L; Brison, R J; Guernsey, J R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from other developed countries have shown that agriculture is among the most dangerous occupational sectors in terms of work-related deaths. The authors describe the occurrence of fatal work-related farm injuries in Canada and compare these rates with those in other Canadian industries. METHODS: The authors present a descriptive, epidemiological analysis of data from the recently established Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program. The study population comprised Canadians who died from work-related farm injuries between 1991 and 1995. Crude, age-standardized, age-specific and provincial rates of such injuries are presented, as are overall death rates in other Canadian industries. Other factors examined were the people involved, the mechanism of injury, and the place and time of injury. RESULTS: There were 503 deaths from work-related farm injuries during the study period, for an overall annual rate of 11.6 deaths per 100,000 farm population. Modest excesses in this rate were observed in Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. High rates were observed among men of all ages and among elderly people. Among the cases that listed the person involved, farm owner-operators accounted for 60.2% of the people killed. There was no substantial increase or decrease in the annual number of deaths over the 5 years of study. The leading mechanisms of fatal injury included tractor rollovers, blind runovers (person not visible by driver), extra-rider runovers, and entanglements in machinery. Compared with other industries, agriculture appears to be the fourth most dangerous in Canada in terms of fatal injury, behind mining, logging and forestry, and construction. INTERPRETATION: Canada now has a national registry for the surveillance of fatal farm injuries. Farming clearly is among the most dangerous occupations in Canada in terms of fatal work-related injuries. Secondary analyses of data from this registry suggest priorities for prevention

  17. Characteristics of recessional moraines at a temperate glacier in SE Iceland: Insights into patterns, rates and drivers of glacier retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Benjamin M. P.; Evans, David J. A.; Roberts, David H.

    2016-03-01

    Icelandic glaciers are sensitive to climate variability on short-term timescales owing to their North Atlantic maritime setting, and have been undergoing ice-marginal retreat since the mid-1990s. Recent patterns, rates and drivers of ice-frontal retreat at Skálafellsjökull, SE Iceland, are examined using small-scale recessional moraines as a geomorphological proxy. These small-scale recessional moraines exhibit distinctive sawtooth planform geometries, and are constructed by a range of genetic processes associated with minor ice-margin re-advance, including (i) combined push/squeeze mechanisms, (ii) bulldozing of pre-existing proglacial material, and (iii) submarginal freeze-on. Remote-sensing investigations and lichenometric dating highlight sequences of annually-formed recessional moraines on the northern and central parts of the foreland. Conversely, moraines are forming on a sub-annual timescale at the southeastern Skálafellsjökull margin. Using annual moraine spacing as a proxy for annual ice-margin retreat rates (IMRRs), we demonstrate that prominent periods of glacier retreat at Skálafellsjökull are coincident with those at other Icelandic outlet glaciers, as well as those identified at Greenlandic outlet glaciers. Analysis of IMRRs and climate data suggests summer air temperature, sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation have an influence on IMRRs at Skálafellsjökull, with the glacier appearing to be most sensitive to summer air temperature. On the basis of further climate data analyses, we hypothesise that sea surface temperature may drive air temperature changes in the North Atlantic region, which in turn forces IMRRs. The increase in sea surface temperature over recent decades may link to atmospheric-driven variations in North Atlantic subpolar gyre dynamics.

  18. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge; Joanne Saher; Theresa Childers

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  19. Involvement rate in two-car crashes versus driver age and car mass of each involved car.

    PubMed

    Evans, L

    1985-04-01

    This work was performed to investigate how the likelihood of a two-car crash depends on the driver age and car mass for each of the two involved cars, and also to examine the special case of cars of similar mass crashing into each other. Data on 108 044 cars involved in police reported two-car crashes occurring in New York State in 1971 and 1972 were fitted to a function of the driver age and car mass for each of the two involved cars. Car registrations are used to estimate exposure. The special case of crashes between cars of similar mass is considered because of prior results on driver injuries in such crashes. It is found that "small-small" crashes (defined as a 900 kg car crashing into another 900 kg car) are about 0.3 times as likely as "big-big" crashes (an 1800 kg car crashing into another 1800 kg car), assuming equal numbers of cars driven by drivers of the same age. Combining the present results with earlier findings of increased injury risk in small-small crashes gives that such crashes injure about 70% as many drivers as big-big crashes when normalized for numbers of cars and driver age. That is, it is concluded that small-small crashes produce 30% fewer injuries than do big-big crashes. PMID:4096783

  20. Road traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated trends in traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010. Data were obtained from the road police. Negative binomial regression with time regressor was used to investigate trends in monthly incidence rates (IRs) of crashes, fatalities, and non-fatal injuries. During the six-year period, the police registered 4955 crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries, which resulted in 217 fatalities and 5964 non-fatal injury cases. The IR of crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries per total population showed no evident change, while the IR per increasing total number of motor vehicles decreased on average by 0.6% per month. Pedestrian crashes constituted 51.8% of studied crashes, and pedestrians constituted 54.6% of fatalities and 44.5% of non-fatal injuries. The IRs of pedestrian crashes and non-fatal pedestrian injuries per total population decreased on average by 0.3% per month, and these were the major trends in the data. PMID:23216194

  1. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  2. Driver education and teen crashes and traffic violations in the first two years of driving in a graduated licensing system.

    PubMed

    Shell, Duane F; Newman, Ian M; Córdova-Cazar, Ana Lucía; Heese, Jill M

    2015-09-01

    Our primary research question was whether teens obtaining their intermediate-level provisional operators permit (POP) in a graduated driver licensing (GDL) environment through driver education differed in crashes and traffic violations from teens who obtained their POP by completing a supervised driving certification log without taking driver education. A descriptive epidemiological study examining a census of all teen drivers in Nebraska (151,880 teens, 48.6% girls, 51.4% boys) during an eight year period from 2003 to 2010 was conducted. The driver education cohort had significantly fewer crashes, injury or fatal crashes, violations, and alcohol-related violations than the certification log cohort in both years one and two of driving following receipt of the POP. Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, median household income, urban-rural residence, and age receiving the POP. In both year one and two of driving, teens in the certification log cohort had higher odds of a crash, injury or fatal crash, violation, or alcohol-related violation. Findings support that relative to a supervised driving certification log approach, teens taking driver education are less likely to be involved in crashes or to receive a traffic violation during their first two years of driving in an intermediate stage in a graduated driver licensing system. Because teen crash and fatality rates are highest at ages 16-18, these reductions are especially meaningful. Driver education appears to make a difference in teen traffic outcomes at a time when risk is highest. PMID:26043429

  3. A study of logger fatalities from 1992–2000

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if certain loggers are at increased risk of death during logging operations. Methods: Statistical analysis of 780 logger fatalities for a nine year period (1992–2000). Results: The major findings are: (1) treefallers suffer nearly 63% of all fatalities, (2) the region where the fatality occurred and the size of the employer were not significant factors that contributed to a high percentage of treefaller fatalities, and (3) the Northeast and Midwest regions showed a higher percentage of fatalities compared with the South and West regions. Conclusions: Overall, the logger fatality rate for 1992–2000, compared with 1980–88 has decreased slightly; however, treefallers continue to be the group of loggers who suffer the highest fatality rate. PMID:15314053

  4. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  5. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89%) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14%). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86%) occurred in the rural areas, with only 14% in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  6. Fatalities of Pedestrians, Bicycle Riders, and Motorists Due to Distracted Driving Motor Vehicle Crashes in the U.S., 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fernando A.; Muelleman, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. This study documents trends in and characteristics of pedestrian, bicycle rider, and other victim deaths caused by distracted drivers on U.S. public roads. Methods We obtained data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database from 2005 to 2010 on every crash that resulted in at least one fatality within 30 days occurring on public roads in the U.S. Following the definition used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, we identified distracted driving based on whether police investigators determined that a driver had been using a technological device, including a cell phone, onboard navigation system, computer, fax machine, two-way radio, or head-up display, or had been engaged in inattentive or careless activities. Results The rate of fatalities per 10 billion vehicle miles traveled increased from 116.1 in 2005 to 168.6 in 2010 for pedestrians and from 18.7 in 2005 to 24.6 in 2010 for bicyclists. Pedestrian victims of distracted driving crashes were disproportionately male, 25–64 years of age, and non-Hispanic white. They were also more likely to die at nighttime, be struck by a distracted driver outside of a marked crosswalk, and be in a metro location. Bicycling victims of distracted crashes were disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and struck by a distracted driver outside of a crosswalk. Compared with pedestrians, bicyclists were less likely to be hit in early morning. Conclusions Distracted drivers are the cause of an increasing share of fatalities found among pedestrians and bicycle riders. Policies are needed to protect pedestrians and bicycle riders as they cross intersections or travel on roadways. PMID:24179255

  7. Factors Related to Fatal Injury in Frontal Crashes Involving European Cars

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Richard; Page, Marianne; Thomas, Pete

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable improvements in frontal impact crashworthiness, frontal crashes still account for a major number of front seat occupant fatalities in Great Britain. This study attempted to determine the remaining potential for further fatality reduction with passive safety improvements in frontal crashes. No evidence was found to support an increase in crash test speeds. Instead, assessment of scope for survival showed that at least 27% of all fatal drivers and 39% of all fatal front seat passengers have survival potential given attention to older occupant’s chest injury tolerance and passenger compartment intrusion under 60 km/h. Considering only fatal frontal crashes that might be assessed with a barrier test, showed an estimated survival potential of at least 49% of belted drivers and 60% of belted front seat passengers. The high proportion of unbelted fatalities suggested that targeting unbelted occupant protection could have additional benefit. PMID:16968628

  8. Impact of Texting Laws on Motor Vehicular Fatalities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Alva O.; Blackburn, Justin L.; Morrisey, Michael; Nelson, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Using a panel study design, we examined the effects of different types of texting bans on motor vehicular fatalities. We used the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and a difference-in-differences approach to examine the incidence of fatal crashes in 2000 through 2010 in 48 US states with and without texting bans. Age cohorts were constructed to examine the impact of these bans on age-specific traffic fatalities. Primarily enforced laws banning all drivers from texting were significantly associated with a 3% reduction in traffic fatalities in all age groups, and those banning only young drivers from texting had the greatest impact on reducing deaths among those aged 15 to 21 years. Secondarily enforced restrictions were not associated with traffic fatality reductions in any of our analyses. PMID:24922151

  9. Pedestrian worker fatalities in workplace locations, Australia, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Kitching, Fiona; Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian deaths of workers in Australian workplaces (1 July 2000-31 December 2010) are described using coronial and safety authority fatality databases. One hundred and fifteen deaths were identified, with the majority male (93%) and aged over 50 years (59%). Four industries predominated (85% of deaths): Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (31%), Construction (29%), Transport, Postal and Warehousing (16%) and Manufacturing (10%). Similarly, three occupations dominated: Farmers (28%), Labourers (27%) and Machinery Operators and Drivers (25%). Common circumstantial factors (reversing machines or vehicles, driver also the pedestrian, driver's vision impeded and working accompanied) occurred in the Construction, Transport and Manufacturing industries, providing collaborative opportunities for prevention. Deaths occurring in the Agriculture industry showed different circumstantial factors, likely needing different solutions. While some effective countermeasures are known, workplace pedestrian fatalities continue to occur. Prevention strategies are needed to share known information across industries and to produce data enhancements and new knowledge. PMID:23656178

  10. Fatal flecainide intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, E; Bodiwala, G G; Bouch, D C

    1998-01-01

    Flecainide acetate is a potent class 1C antiarrhythmic agent used mainly for the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias. Acute overdose of this drug is rare but frequently fatal. The clinical course of a patient that ingested a large quantity of flecainide as a suicide attempt is described and current therapeutic strategies discussed. PMID:9825278

  11. Firearm-related fatalities: an epidemiologic assessment of violent death.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, G R; Massey, R M; Gibbs, T; Altekruse, J M

    1985-01-01

    This study examines 1970-78 South Carolina firearm fatalities utilizing vital record data. During this period, 5,808 firearm deaths, classified as accident, homicide, suicide, or undetermined, were reported with an average annual fatality rate of 23.35 deaths per 100,000 estimated population. Firearm fatalities in South Carolina were the sixth leading cause of death in 1975 and accounted for 2.9 per cent of all deaths to residents. A significant period decline in the firearm fatality rate was observed and was attributed mainly to decreases in the non-White rate. In 1978, the fatality rate for non-Whites (18.5) fell below the rate for Whites (19.1) for the first time in the years investigated. Firearm deaths represent a major community health problem and, as such, warrant attention and direct involvement by state and local health professionals. PMID:3966623

  12. Spatial-Temporal Variation and Primary Ecological Drivers of Anopheles sinensis Human Biting Rates in Malaria Epidemic-Prone Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Ma, Aimin; Huang, Jixia; Xia, Zhigui; Feng, Xinyu; Wang, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Robust malaria vector surveillance is essential for optimally selecting and targeting vector control measures. Sixty-two vector surveillance sites were established between 2005 and 2008 by the national malaria surveillance program in China to measure Anopheles sinensis human biting rates. Using these data to determine the primary ecological drivers of malaria vector human biting rates in malaria epidemic-prone regions of China will allow better targeting of vector control resources in space and time as the country aims to eliminate malaria. Methods We analyzed data from 62 malaria surveillance sentinel sites from 2005 to 2008. Linear mixed effects models were used to identify the primary ecological drivers for Anopheles sinensis human biting rates as well as to explore the spatial-temporal variation of relevant factors at surveillance sites throughout China. Results Minimum semimonthly temperature (β = 2.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07- 3.92), enhanced vegetation index (β =1.07; 95% CI 0.11–2.03), and paddy index (the percentage of rice paddy field in the total cultivated land area of each site) (β = 0.86; 95% CI 0.17–1.56) were associated with greater An. Sinensis human biting rates, while increasing distance to the nearest river was associated with lower An. Sinensis human biting rates (β = −1.47; 95% CI −2.88, −0.06). The temporal variation (σt02=1.35) in biting rates was much larger than the spatial variation (σs02=0.83), with 19.3% of temporal variation attributable to differences in minimum temperature and enhanced vegetation index and 16.9% of spatial variance due to distance to the nearest river and the paddy index. Discussion Substantial spatial-temporal variation in An. Sinensis human biting rates exists in malaria epidemic-prone regions of China, with minimum temperature and enhanced vegetation index accounting for the greatest proportion of temporal variation and distance to nearest river and paddy index accounting for

  13. FATALITY ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system contains first reports of traumatic occupational fatalities in 15 states obtained through multiple sources of notification including death certificates, coroner and medical examiner reports, OSHA, law enfor...

  14. Exercise-associated hyponatremic encephalopathy and exertional heatstroke in a soldier: High rates of fluid intake during exercise caused rather than prevented a fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Noakes, Timothy D; Duvenage, Cornelia S J

    2015-02-01

    Athletes are often advised to drink in order to "fully replace bodyweight losses" in order to prevent exertional heatstroke (EHS) during exercise in the heat. There is little evidence that "dehydration" in the range experienced by athletes adversely affects thermoregulation or is the exclusive cause of EHS. In contrast it is established that excess fluid intake can cause exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) sometimes associated with encephalopathy (EAHE). As part of a series of experiments to determine optimal fluid replacement during exercise in the heat, we studied a group of exceptionally well-conditioned and heat-adapted members of the South African National Defence Force. A 20 year old male started a time restricted 50 km route-march in a dry bulb temperature that reached 37.5°C (WBGT of 33.6°C, relative humidity of 85%). Pre-march plasma osmolality, serum [Na(+)] and total body water measures indicated euhydration. Fluid was available ad libitum and isotonic sports drinks at 5 km intervals. Fluid intake and core body temperature (Tc) were recorded throughout while he was tracked by a global positioning system measuring distance travelled, position and speed. Comparing the total fluid intake of the soldier (12930 mL) to the rest of the participants (mean intake of 9 038 mL) up to 40 km, it is evident that his intake was 3892 mL (approximately 300 mL h(-1)) more than the mean for group. At approximately 17h14 the soldier was found lying by himself at the side of the route, 2.24 km from the finish point. He passed away the next day in a medical care facility. This tragic event provides the valuable opportunity to present data on the pacing, temperature regulation and fluid consumption of an exceptional athlete during the development of a fatal case of combined EAHE and EHS. Pacing, fluid intake, Tc and environmental condition data are presented for 5 km intervals throughout the march. We propose a novel hypothesis on the possible contribution of EAHE to the

  15. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. PMID:25525130

  16. A fatal mongoose bite.

    PubMed

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar; Deshmukh, Ashutosh Yashwant

    2012-01-01

    Animal bite is a bite wound from a pet, farm or wild animal. Dog bites make up 80-85% of all reported incidents. Cats amount for about 10% of reported bites and other animals such as rodents, rabbits, horses, raccoons, bats and monkeys amount to 5-10%. Bites by mongoose are uncommon. Here, we present a case of fatal mongoose bite to an elderly woman who died as a complication of streptococcal infection at the bite site. PMID:23166164

  17. Long-term trends in flood fatalities in the United State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Hatim; Chaturvedi, Smita

    2015-04-01

    This presentation reviews flood-related fatalities in the United States between 1959 and 2013. Information on flood fatality victims and the flood-causing events was obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The data collected included the date, time, location, and weather conditions and the gender and age of the flood victims. Long term trends in the numbers of fatalities and fatality rates were analyzed. For most of the states fatalities were largely caused by single catastrophic events. The analysis indicates that the standardized annual flood fatality rates are decreasing significantly for all states. Vehicle related fatalities represent more than 50% of flood fatalities for most of the states and can be as high as 77%. A combination of improved hydrometeorological forecasting, educational programs aimed at enhancing public awareness of flood risk and the seriousness of flood warnings, and timely and appropriate action by local emergency and safety authorities will help further reduce flood fatalities in Texas.

  18. Active Surveillance of Child Abuse Fatalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloesser, Patricia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Birth and death certificates were correlated with information in the state Child Abuse and Neglect Registry on 104 abuse-related fatalities. Significant findings included young age of parents at first pregnancy; high rate of single parenthood; and lower educational achievement among mothers. A model for data collection is discussed. (Author/BRM)

  19. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world". PMID:22993714

  20. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  1. Blood and Oil: Vehicle Characteristics in Relation to Fatality Risk and Fuel Economy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Leon S.

    2006-01-01

    I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 1999–2002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications. PMID:17018814

  2. Machinery-related occupational fatalities in the United States, 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Pratt, S G; Kisner, S M; Helmkamp, J C

    1996-01-01

    The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system identified machinery-related incidents as the second leading cause of traumatic occupational fatalities in the United States between 1980 and 1989. These incidents resulted in 8,505 civilian worker deaths and an average annual fatality rate of .80 per 100,000 workers. Workers aged 65 years and older had 5.8 times the fatality rate of workers aged 16 to 64 years (4.06 vs. 70). The highest industry-specific rate was noted in agriculture, forestry, and fishing (7.47). Tractors and other agricultural machinery were associated with nearly 9 of every 10 fatal machinery-related incidents involving workers aged 65 or older. Although numerous studies of agricultural machinery-related fatalities are found in the literature, detailed analyses of machinery-related fatalities in the construction industry as well as analyses of work situations and risk factors associated with fatal injuries are needed. PMID:8871334

  3. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out. PMID:24237838

  4. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  5. Brief Report: The Association of Graduated Driver Licensing with Nondriver Transport-related Injuries Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Songzhu; Long, D. Leann

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a phased approach to initiating driving, graduated driver licensing restricts driving by young drivers with the aim of reducing crashes. It might increase riding with parents or on buses, which might be safer, or walking or biking, which might be more dangerous. We examined whether it increases nondriver injuries, and whether it reduces total injuries combining drivers and nondrivers. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of 1995–2012 traffic injuries from 43 states. Using Poisson mixed regression, we estimated adjusted rate ratios for visible, incapacitating, and fatal injury. Results: Among 16 year olds, graduated driver licensing was associated with reduced passenger injuries (adjusted rate ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.97). It was not associated with increased injuries as bus riders, pedestrians, or bicyclists among 16- or 17-year olds. It was associated with a 10% reduction in total injuries among 16-year olds, but not 17-year olds. Conclusion: Graduated driver licensing was associated with reduced passenger injuries and total injuries. PMID:27153461

  6. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 people; injuries, from 35.1 to 98.6 per 100 000; and fatalities, from 3.0 to 10.8 per 100 000 people per year. Joinpoint analysis showed large fluctuations in crashes and injuries over time but the fatalities rose almost continuously. These fluctuations paralleled the country’s political and economic development. In some years, better traffic law enforcement and improved public transportation may have been associated with reduced crashes and injuries, whereas rapid growth in vehicle numbers, especially two- and three-wheeled vehicles, may have contributed to increased crashes and injuries. In addition, insurance policies that did not require a police report to claim may have led to underreporting of crashes and allowed drivers to avoid prosecution. Conclusion Fluctuations over time in road traffic crashes and injuries in Sri Lanka are associated with changes in political, economic and traffic policy. There is potential for reducing road traffic crashes and injuries through better traffic law enforcement, restrictions on the importation of two- and three-wheeled vehicles and policies to improve road safety and prevent underreporting of crashes. PMID:26478628

  7. Peat Accumulation in the Everglades (USA) during the Past 4000 Years: Rates, Drivers, and Sources of Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, P. H.; Volin, J. C.; Givnish, T. J.; Hansen, B. C.; Stricker, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical wetlands are considered to be globally important sources for greenhouse gases but their capacity to store carbon is presumably limited by warm soil temperatures and high rates of decomposition. Unfortunately, these assumptions can be difficult to test across long timescales because the chronology, cumulative mass, and completeness of a sedimentary profile are often difficult to establish. We therefore made a detailed analysis of a core from the principal drainage outlet of the Everglades of South Florida, to assess these problems and determine the factors that could govern carbon accumulation in this large sub-tropical wetland. AMS-14C dating provided direct evidence for both hard-water and open-system sources of dating errors, whereas cumulative mass varied depending upon the type of method used. Radiocarbon dates of gastropod shells, nevertheless, seemed to provide a reliable chronology for this core once the hard-water error was quantified and subtracted. Long-term accumulation rates were then calculated to be 12.1 g m-2 yr-1 for carbon, which is less than half the average rate reported for northern and tropical peatlands. Moreover, accumulation rates remained slow and relatively steady for both organic and inorganic strata, and the slow rate of sediment accretion ( 0.2 mm yr-1) tracked the correspondingly slow rise in sea level (0.35 mm yr-1 ) reported for South Florida over the past 4000 years. These results suggest that sea level and the local geologic setting may impose long-term constraints on rates of sediment and carbon accumulation in the Everglades and other wetlands

  8. Carbon and sediment accumulation in the Everglades (USA) during the past 4000 years: Rates, drivers, and sources of error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Paul H.; Volin, John C.; Givnish, Thomas J.; Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2012-09-01

    Tropical and subtropical wetlands are considered to be globally important sources of greenhouse gases, but their capacity to store carbon is presumably limited by warm soil temperatures and high rates of decomposition. Unfortunately, these assumptions can be difficult to test across long timescales because the chronology, cumulative mass, and completeness of a sedimentary profile are often difficult to establish. We therefore made a detailed analysis of a core from the principal drainage outlet of the Everglades of South Florida in order to assess these problems and determine the factors that could govern carbon accumulation in this large subtropical wetland. Accelerator mass spectroscopy dating provided direct evidence for both hard-water and open-system sources of dating errors, whereas cumulative mass varied depending upon the type of method used. Radiocarbon dates of gastropod shells, nevertheless, seemed to provide a reliable chronology for this core once the hard-water error was quantified and subtracted. Long-term accumulation rates were then calculated to be 12.1 g m-2 yr-1 for carbon, which is less than half the average rate reported for northern and tropical peatlands. Moreover, accumulation rates remained slow and relatively steady for both organic and inorganic strata, and the slow rate of sediment accretion (0.2 mm yr-1) tracked the correspondingly slow rise in sea level (0.35 mm yr-1) reported for South Florida over the past 4000 years. These results suggest that sea level and the local geologic setting may impose long-term constraints on rates of sediment and carbon accumulation in the Everglades and other wetlands.

  9. Carbon and sediment accumulation in the Everglades (USA) during the past 4000 years: rates, drivers, and sources of error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glaser, Paul H.; Volin, John C.; Givnish, Thomas J.; Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical wetlands are considered to be globally important sources for greenhouse gases but their capacity to store carbon is presumably limited by warm soil temperatures and high rates of decomposition. Unfortunately, these assumptions can be difficult to test across long timescales because the chronology, cumulative mass, and completeness of a sedimentary profile are often difficult to establish. We therefore made a detailed analysis of a core from the principal drainage outlet of the Everglades of South Florida, to assess these problems and determine the factors that could govern carbon accumulation in this large sub-tropical wetland. Accelerator mass spectroscopy dating provided direct evidence for both hard-water and open-system sources of dating errors, whereas cumulative mass varied depending upon the type of method used. Radiocarbon dates of gastropod shells, nevertheless, seemed to provide a reliable chronology for this core once the hard-water error was quantified and subtracted. Long-term accumulation rates were then calculated to be 12.1 g m-2 yr-1 for carbon, which is less than half the average rate reported for northern and tropical peatlands. Moreover, accumulation rates remained slow and relatively steady for both organic and inorganic strata, and the slow rate of sediment accretion ( 0.2 mm yr-1) tracked the correspondingly slow rise in sea level (0.35 mm yr-1 ) reported for South Florida over the past 4000 years. These results suggest that sea level and the local geologic setting may impose long-term constraints on rates of sediment and carbon accumulation in the Everglades and other wetlands.

  10. Work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kezhi; Courtney, Theodore K

    2009-07-01

    Over the past several decades, work-related fatal incident reporting in China has become faster, more publicly accessible and, hence, a potentially more valuable process in support of the decision-making and enforcement actions of the government and safety professionals. A study was conducted to examine the characteristics of work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China (PRC) available from the State Work Accident Briefing (SWAB) system. Injury incident records related to industries other than coal mining were downloaded from the SWAB system (April 2001 to March 2003). The findings were compared with a previously published regional work fatality study in China, data from the U.S. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, and estimates from the International Labor Organization (ILO). During the 2-year period, 1538 work-related events (7046 worker fatalities) were recorded. Collisions (25.6%), drownings (14.6%), and structural collapses (12.5%) were the most frequently reported fatal events. Collisions (24.5%) and falls (14.5%) were the most frequent causes of cited fatal events. Transportation (105.87 per 100 000); mining industries other than coal mining and quarrying (73.28); and electricity, gas, and water supply (14.88) were the industries with the highest estimated fatality rates. Generally, regions with lower economic activity reported more fatalities. The fatal injury rate estimated from the SWAB system was 4.80 per 100,000 (U.S. rate 4.00). ILO estimates for 1994 and 2002 were substantially higher than the estimates derived from the SWAB system. SWAB system differences with other data sources analyzed herein indicate that there remains room for system refinement. PMID:19401909

  11. [Fatal intoxication with paramethoxyamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Wiergowski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    From August to December of the year 2000 we ascertained 7 rapid deaths because of acute intoxication with tablets colloquially called Ufo. There were five men and two women aged from 20 to 29 (average 24) years. Analytic tests showed that one tablet of Ufo contains 40 mg of paramethoxyamphetamine, 1.0 mg of amphetamine, 0.05 mg of methamphetamine, 0.03 mg of 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The levels of paramethoxyamphe-tamine in the blood of the deceased, determined by gas chromatography, were from 0.68 to 10.0 (approx. 3.2) mg/L and in the urine from 16 to 64 (approx. 35) mg/L. The press and television campaign caused elimination of fatal intoxications with parametoxy-amphetamine during the last 13 months. PMID:12184013

  12. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1

    PubMed Central

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  13. Laser driver

    SciTech Connect

    Culpepper, C.F.

    1989-03-14

    A laser driver for a laser diode is described, consisting of: an impedance matched input buffer amplifier to which a modulation signal is applied; and a current source coupled to the output of the impedance matched input buffer amplifier, the output of the current source providing an essentially constant amplitude a.c. current component coupled to drive the laser diode.

  14. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Lise H; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures. PMID:18642168

  15. Integrated analysis of environmental drivers, spatiotemporal variability and rates of contemporary chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation in selected glacierized and non-glacierized cold climate catchment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2016-04-01

    and increasing glacier coverage, and generally decrease with increasing vegetation cover in areas with sedimentary covers. Lithologies with low weathering resistance lead to higher fluvial denudation rates than lithologies with high weathering resistance. General sediment availability is another key factor controlling fluvial denudation rates. The presented approach of analyzing and integrating comparable datasets on fluvial solute and sediment transport collected from different defined cold climate catchment geo-systems with varying environmental conditions and characteristics is found to be useful for the quantitative analysis of environmental drivers and the spatiotemporal variability of contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes, yields and denudation rates in cold climate environments. In addition, this approach can also serve to improve possibilities of modeling possible effects of climate change by applying the Ergodic principle of space-for-time substitution.

  16. More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws. PMID:23257569

  17. [Fatal rat bites].

    PubMed

    Yanai, O; Goldin, L; Hiss, J

    1999-04-15

    We present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. Domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. Bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. There is little information about death due to house rat bites. Since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. An 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in her mother's bed in a rat-infested home. The infant's clothing was covered with blood, parts of her face were missing and marks of gnawing were present on her neck and extremities. There was subcutaneous bleeding around the wounds indicating that they were inflicted while the child was alive. Autopsy findings revealed profound blood loss. We conclude that a combination of low socio-economic status, severe failure to thrive, and poor hygiene in a rat-infested environment contributed to the fatal outcome in this attack. PMID:10955069

  18. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance. PMID:25413263

  19. Fatalities associated with farm tractor injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Smith, J D; Sikes, R K; Rogers, D L; Mickey, J L

    1985-01-01

    Death certificates were used as a source of information to characterize fatalities associated with farm tractor injuries in Georgia for the period 1971-81. In this period, 202 tractor-associated fatalities occurred among residents of Georgia; 198 of these persons were males. The annual tractor-associated fatality rate for males based on the population of male farm residents was 23.6 per 100,000; rates of fatal injury increased with age for this population. Persons whose primary occupation was other than farming accounted for more than half of all tractor-associated deaths. Fatal injuries occurred throughout the year but predominantly during the planting and harvesting months. Injuries occurred throughout the day (7 a.m. to midnight), with a peak at 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. Most fatal injuries, 76 percent, resulted when tractors overturned. Fatalities were attributed to crushed chest, exsanguination, strangulation or asphyxia, drowning, and other injuries. Current safety standards for the operation of farm tractors are limited; rollover protective canopies are not required for farm owners or their family members. Descriptive epidemiologic information obtained from death certificates can be used to define injury determinants and to suggest approaches for the further study and prevention of specific types of injuries. PMID:3923543

  20. Nothing good ever happens after midnight: observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nights among young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensing country.

    PubMed

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Twisk, Divera

    2015-02-01

    Similar to other countries, also in the Netherlands young male drivers (ages between 18 and 24 years) are overrepresented in crashes during weekend nights, thereby fatally injuring one or more of their passengers. This overrepresentation may be due to two contributing factors: (a) a higher exposure-to-risk because of dangerous trip condition, and (b) a higher tendency to take risks. Studies on these factors, mostly carried out in jurisdictions where youngsters are licensed at an earlier age than in Europe, suggest a strong -often negative- influence from peer-aged passengers. Given that in adolescence susceptibility to peer pressure reduces with age, these findings may not be applicable to late licensing countries, such as in Europe. In the Netherlands -a late licensing country- youngsters are licensed after the age of 18 years, followed by a 5 year probation period with a legal alcohol limit of 0.2g/L. Further, designated driver schemes are in place since 2001, alcohol limits are enforced by random breath testing schemes, and no passenger and night time restrictions are in force. Against this background, we examined the incidence of dangerous trip conditions and risk taking among young male drivers and compared those with a reference group with a low passenger fatality rate. To that end, data on trip conditions and risk behavior were obtained from a data base on 18,608 randomly selected drivers during weekend nights in 2010, between 22:00 and 06:00. This data base held information for each randomly selected on breath alcohol concentration (BAC), license status, driver characteristics (age and gender), number of passengers, time of night, and level of urbanization. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed the overrepresentation of young male drivers in traffic, carrying more frequently passengers than the reference group, especially after midnight. Urbanization level was not a modifying factor, but 'time of night' was, with riskier conditions after midnight in

  1. Fatal and near-fatal animal bite injuries.

    PubMed

    Clark, M A; Sandusky, G E; Hawley, D A; Pless, J E; Fardal, P M; Tate, L R

    1991-07-01

    Fatal and near-fatal maulings of humans by pit bulls have recently become a topic of major public concern, resulting in the passage of laws in some jurisdictions that make the owner of a pit bull criminally liable for manslaughter if his or her pet causes a human death. The authors recently investigated two cases in which children were fatally injured by pet dogs. In the first case, a 17-day-old girl suffered fatal abdominal injuries when attacked by a pregnant Siberian husky. A 2-year-old girl expired from neck wounds inflicted by a pit bull or a rottweiler or both. Because no expert would testify as to which dog caused the fatal injury, the owner of the animals was not charged under a statute which specified criminality only if a pit bull caused the fatal injury. We also examined a 12-year-old boy who attempted to pet a circus tiger; the animal grabbed his arm with its claws and bit off the arm at the shoulder. The arm could not be reattached, but the child survived. These cases and the differentiation of animal bites from other injuries will be presented. PMID:1919485

  2. An empirical model for global earthquake fatality estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed mortality rates of earthquakes worldwide and developed a country/region-specific empirical model for earthquake fatality estimation within the U. S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. The earthquake fatality rate is defined as total killed divided by total population exposed at specific shaking intensity level. The total fatalities for a given earthquake are estimated by multiplying the number of people exposed at each shaking intensity level by the fatality rates for that level and then summing them at all relevant shaking intensities. The fatality rate is expressed in terms of a two-parameter lognormal cumulative distribution function of shaking intensity. The parameters are obtained for each country or a region by minimizing the residual error in hindcasting the total shaking-related deaths from earthquakes recorded between 1973 and 2007. A new global regionalization scheme is used to combine the fatality data across different countries with similar vulnerability traits. [DOI: 10.1193/1.3480331

  3. Macroeconomic fluctuations and motorcycle fatalities in the U.S.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-03-01

    The effects of business cycles on health outcomes in general, and on traffic fatalities in particular, have received much attention recently. In this paper, we focus on motorcycle safety and examine the impact of changing levels of economic activity on fatal crashes by motorcyclists in the United States. We analyze state-level longitudinal data with 1,104 state/year observations from the 1988-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Using the extensive motorcycle crash characteristics available in FARS, we examine not only total fatality rates but also rates decomposed by crash type, day, time, and the level of the motorcycle operator's blood alcohol content. Our results are consistent with much of the existing literature showing that traffic fatality rates are pro-cyclical. The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in real income per capita is associated with a 10.4% rise in the total motorcycle fatality rate. Along with potential mechanisms, policymakers and public health officials should consider the effects of business cycles on motorcycle safety. PMID:24581077

  4. The Association between Regional Environmental Factors and Road Trauma Rates: A Geospatial Analysis of 10 Years of Road Traffic Crashes in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R.; Chan, Herbert; Erdelyi, Shannon; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    collisions. Regions with dedicated traffic officers had fewer fatal crashes and fewer fatal speed related crashes but more rear end crashes and more crashes involving cyclists or pedestrians. The number of traffic citations per 1000 drivers was positively associated with total crashes, fatal crashes, total fatalities, fatal speeding crashes, injury crashes, single vehicle night-time crashes, and heavy vehicle crashes. Possible explanations for these associations are discussed. Conclusions There is wide variation in per capita rates of motor vehicle crashes across BC police patrols. Some variation is explained by factors such as climate, road type, remoteness, socioeconomic variables, and enforcement intensity. The ability of explanatory factors to predict crash rates would be improved if considered with local traffic volume by all travel modes. PMID:27099930

  5. Catastrophic shifts in vegetation-soil systems may unfold rapidly or slowly independent of the rate of change in the system driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Complex systems may switch between contrasting stable states under gradual change of a driver. Such critical transitions often result in considerable long-term damage because strong hysteresis impedes reversion, and the transition becomes catastrophic. Critical transitions largely reduce our capability of forecasting future system states because it is hard to predict the timing of their occurrence [2]. Moreover, for many systems it is unknown how rapidly the critical transition unfolds when the tipping point has been reached. The rate of change during collapse, however, is important information because it determines the time available to take action to reverse a shift [1]. In this study we explore the rate of change during the degradation of a vegetation-soil system on a hillslope from a state with considerable vegetation cover and large soil depths, to a state with sparse vegetation and a bare rock or negligible soil depths. Using a distributed, stochastic model coupling hydrology, vegetation, weathering and water erosion, we derive two differential equations describing the vegetation and the soil system, and their interaction. Two stable states - vegetated and bare - are identified by means of analytical investigation, and it is shown that the change between these two states is a critical transition as indicated by hysteresis. Surprisingly, when the tipping point is reached under a very slow increase of grazing pressure, the transition between the vegetated and the bare state can either unfold rapidly, over a few years, or gradually, occurring over decennia up to millennia. These differences in the rate of change during the transient state are explained by differences in bedrock weathering rates. This finding emphasizes the considerable uncertainty associated with forecasting catastrophic shifts in ecosystems, which is due to both difficulties in forecasting the timing of the tipping point and the rate of change when the transition unfolds. References [1] Hughes

  6. Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... that was created by Act of Congress and publishes data related to safety, injuries, and fatalities that are both work-related and non-work related. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) - a government organization that is part of ...

  7. Estimation of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam using capture-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Van, Hung Trinh; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Khai, Lap Hoang

    2006-03-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are increasing in developing countries where accurate routine data are usually not available. Although a capture-recapture technique has increasingly been employed in studies of human populations to provide reliable estimates of the magnitude of problems, it has rarely been used in road traffic injury research. We applied two sample capture-recapture methods using hospital and traffic police records to estimate non-fatal road traffic injuries in Thai Nguyen City during the years 2000-2004. We generated a conservative adjusted estimate of non-fatal RTIs using data from the two sources matched by name, surname, sex of victims and at least one of the other matching variables, of age, address of victim and date of injuries. We then compared the estimated rates with those reported based on police and hospital data. The results show that during years 2000-2004, the police reported 1,373 non-fatal RTIs, while hospital records revealed 6,069 non-fatal RTIs. Most reported victims on both hospital and police reports were males (67.3 % and 74.4%, respectively). More than half the victims on both hospital and police reports were drivers (77.5% and 66.1%, respectively) or pedestrians (10.6% and 7.1%, respectively). Youth and young adults (ages 15-34) constituted the majority of the victims on the hospital and police reports (52.8% and 63.7%, respectively). The capture-recapture analysis estimated that 11,140 (95% CI: 10,626-11,654) subjects were involved in RTIs during the study period. In comparison to the estimated figure, official sources accounted for only 21.9 to 60.1% of total non-fatal RTIs. Estimated rates of non-fatal RTIs were 105.5 injuries/10,000 population per year and 393 injuries/10,000 vehicles. Given the fact that under reporting of RTIs has been a major limitation of routine official data sets in developing countries, we suggested the capture-recapture method be used as a tool to provide affordable and reliable estimates of RTIs in

  8. Car size or car mass: which has greater influence on fatality risk?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, L; Frick, M C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposed increases in corporate average fuel economy standards would probably lead to lighter cars. Well-established relationships between occupant risk and car mass predict consequent additional casualties. However, if size, not mass, is the causative factor in these relationships, then decreasing car mass need not increase risk. This study examines whether mass or size is the causative factor. METHODS. Data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System are used to explore relationships between car mass, car size (as represented by wheelbase), and driver fatality risk in two-car crashes. RESULTS. When cars of identical (or similar) wheelbase but different mass crash into each other, driver fatality risk depends strongly on mass; the relationship is quantitatively similar to that found in studies that ignore wheelbase. On the other hand, when cars of similar mass but different wheelbase crash into each other, the data reveal no dependence of driver fatality risk on wheelbase. CONCLUSIONS. Mass is the dominant causative factor in relationships between driver risk and car size in two-car crashes, with size, as such, playing at most a secondary role. Reducing car mass increases occupant risk. PMID:1636830

  9. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. PMID:26047833

  10. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures. PMID:26180104

  11. Jurisdictional spillover effects of sprawl on injuries and fatalities.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Rayman; Vom Hofe, Rainer; Mazumder, Sangida

    2014-11-01

    There is a considerable literature on the relationship between sprawl and accidents. However, these studies do not account for the spatially correlated effects of sprawl on accidents. In our analysis of 122 jurisdictions in Southeast Michigan, we use a Bayesian spatial autoregressive model to estimate how injuries and fatalities in one jurisdiction are associated with sprawl in that jurisdiction and sprawl in neighboring jurisdictions; we also correct for heteroskedasticity in the data. Using principal component analysis, we create a sprawl index from five underlying land use characteristics. Our results show that the number of injuries and fatalities in a jurisdiction increases with the magnitude of sprawl in neighboring jurisdictions. We believe that this is because more drivers per capita in sprawled jurisdictions traverse similarly sprawled neighboring jurisdictions for daily activities. Furthermore, driving habits attuned to less defensive driving in sprawled jurisdiction are transferred to similarly designed neighboring jurisdictions, contributing to accidents in the latter. PMID:25000298

  12. Sedative and hypnotic drugs--fatal and non-fatal reference blood concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Anna Kristina; Söderberg, Carl; Espnes, Ketil Arne; Ahlner, Johan; Eriksson, Anders; Reis, Margareta; Druid, Henrik

    2014-03-01

    In postmortem investigations of fatal intoxications it is often challenging to determine which drug/s caused the death. To improve the interpretation of postmortem blood concentrations of sedative and hypnotic drugs and/or clonazepam, all medico-legal autopsies in Sweden - where these drugs had been detected in femoral vein blood during 1992-2006 - were identified in the databases of the National Board of Forensic Medicine. For each drug, concentrations in postmortem control cases - where the cause of death was not intoxication and where incapacitation by drugs could be excluded - were compiled as well as the levels found in living subjects; drugged driving cases and therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Subsequently, fatal intoxications were assessed with regards to the primary substances contributing to death, and blood levels were compiled for single and multiple drug intoxications. The postmortem femoral blood levels are reported for 16 sedative and hypnotic drugs, based on findings in 3560 autopsy cases. The cases were classified as single substance intoxications (N=498), multiple substance intoxications (N=1555) and postmortem controls (N=1507). Each autopsy case could be represented more than once in the group of multiple intoxications and among the postmortem controls if more than one of the included substances were detected. The concentration ranges for all groups are provided. Overlap in concentrations between fatal intoxications and reference groups was seen for most substances. However, the concentrations found in single and multiple intoxications were significantly higher than concentrations found in postmortem controls for all substances except alprazolam and triazolam. Concentrations observed among drugged drivers were similar to the concentrations observed among the therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Flunitrazepam was the substance with the highest number of single intoxications, when related to sales. In summary, this study provides reference drug

  13. Earning a driver's license.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F

    1997-01-01

    Teenage drivers in the United States have greatly elevated crash rates, primarily a result of qualities associated with immaturity and lack of driving experience. State licensing systems vary substantially, but most have allowed quick and easy access to driving with full privileges at a young age, contributing to the crash problem. Formal driver education has not been an effective crash prevention measure. Following the introduction of graduated licensing in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada, this system has been considered in many states and has been implemented in some. Graduated systems phase in full privilege driving, requiring initial experience to be gained under conditions of lower risk. The author describes the first five multistage graduated systems enacted in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Factors that will influence the acceptability and effectiveness of these new licensing systems are discussed. Images p[452]-a p454-a p456-a p457-a p460-a PMID:10822470

  14. Teaching Driver Education Technology to Novice Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anthony

    A cybernetic unit in driver education was developed to help grade 10 students develop the skills needed to acquire and process driver education information and prepare for the driving phase of driver education in grade 11. Students used a simulator to engage in a series of scenarios designed to promote development of social, behavioral, and mental…

  15. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado*

    PubMed Central

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Methods Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994–2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥ 0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994–June 2009 while July 2009–2011 represented the post-commercialization period. Results In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), p < 0.0001); in contrast, no significant changes were seen in NMMS. For both Colorado and NMMS, no significant changes were seen in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired. Conclusions Prevention efforts and policy changes in Colorado are needed to address this concerning trend in marijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. PMID:24831752

  16. Diving fatality investigations: recent changes.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James

    2014-06-01

    Modifications to the investigation procedures in diving fatalities have been incorporated into the data acquisition by diving accident investigators. The most germane proposal for investigators assessing diving fatalities is to delay the drawing of conclusions until all relevant diving information is known. This includes: the accumulation and integration of the pathological data; the access to dive computer information; re-enactments of diving incidents; post-mortem CT scans and the interpretation of intravascular and tissue gas detected. These are all discussed, with reference to the established literature and recent publications. PMID:24986727

  17. Denitrifier abundance has a greater influence on denitrification rates at larger landscape scales but is a lesser driver than environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is mediated by the soil microbial processes of denitrification and nitrification. A thorough understanding of denitrification drivers is necessary to accurately predict and manage nitrous oxide emissions. However, studies disagree on the utility of quant...

  18. Fatal Work-Related Injuries: Southeastern United States, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Kimberly; Jacobs, Teri; Shire, Jeffrey; Bunn, Terry; Chalmers, Juanita; Dang, Gregory; Flammia, Dwight; Higgins, Sheila; Lackovic, Michelle; Lavender, Antionette; Lewis, Jocelyn S; Li, Yinmei; Harduar Morano, Laurel; Porter, Austin; Rauscher, Kimberly; Slavova, Svetla; Watkins, Sharon; Zhang, Lei; Funk, Renée

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, the work-related injury fatality rate was 3.8 per 100,000 workers in the United States but was 5.2 per 100,000 workers for the southeast region. Work-related fatalities in the southeast were examined for the period 2008 to 2011. Median work-related injury fatality rates are reported for the southeast region, each of the 12 states, and the United States. The percentages of employees in high fatality industries and work-related fatalities by cause were calculated. Finally, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's database was searched for fatality reports. States with the highest rates (per 100,000 workers) included Arkansas (7.2), Louisiana (6.8), and West Virginia (6.6). Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and West Virginia each had more than 20% of their employees in high fatality industries. Forty percent of work-related injury fatalities were from transportation incidents in the southeast and the United States. Future analyses should include work-related injury fatality rates by industry and compare rates with other U.S. regions. PMID:26467194

  19. Injury patterns and features of cycling fatalities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Langlois, Neil E I

    2015-08-01

    There has been an increase in cycling in Australia. This means that more cyclists are at risk of injuries, which account for a proportion of transport-related fatalities. In this study, all cyclist fatalities from 2002 to 2013 in South Australia where post-mortem examinations were performed were investigated. There were 42 deaths representing 3% of the total road fatalities over the same time. Of this total number of cases, 13 deaths (31%) involved collapse (mostly natural causes from an underlying medical condition) and 29 (69%) resulted from trauma. There were no cases of hyperthermia. Of the decedents 95% were male, and the mean age at death was 47 years. Fatal incidents were more likely to occur during April and November, and on a Monday. However, statistical analysis was not possible due to the small number of cases. Fatalities (traumatic and collapse) predominantly occurred whilst the cyclist was riding (86%). The majority of riding fatalities were as a result of collision with vehicles (81%). Drugs (including alcohol) were detected in two (15%) of the 13 cases of the collapses, and in seven (26%) of the 27 trauma cases tested. In trauma cases, death was most often due to multiple injuries. The most frequent area for injury was the head (found in 90% of traumatic deaths). Despite the increasing numbers of cyclists on South Australian roads over the last decade, death rates have trended downwards suggesting that road safety campaigns and the provision of more dedicated bicycle lanes have had a positive outcome. PMID:26165666

  20. Occupational fatalities among older workers in the United States: 1980-1991.

    PubMed

    Kisner, S M; Pratt, S G

    1997-08-01

    Workers aged 65 and older had a workplace fatality rate of 2.6 times that of workers aged 16 to 64 for 1980 through 1991 (14.1 per 100,000 vs 5.4), according to National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) data. The highest rates were in mining, agriculture, and construction. Compared with younger workers, older men were at an elevated risk for fatalities caused by machines, and older women for fatal falls and homicide. Prevention efforts should focus on older workers in agricultural settings, as well as those at increased risk of workplace falls or violence. PMID:9273874

  1. Fatal and near-fatal anaphylaxis: factors that can worsen or contribute to fatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Anaphylaxis implies a risk of death even in patients whose prior episodes have been considered mild and managed easily. Anaphylaxis occurs in all age groups, from infants to the elderly, but most deaths occur in adults. Factors or circumstances associated with near-fatal or fatal anaphylaxis are reviewed from the following 10 perspectives: accidents and mishaps, adulterated products, age, allergens, atopy, comorbidities, Munchausen syndrome or contrived anaphylaxis, patient factors, route of administration, and treatment-related issues. There are no absolute contraindications to self-injectable epinephrine, and epinephrine can be administered for anaphylaxis to elderly patients or to those patients receiving beta-adrenergic blockers. PMID:25841558

  2. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  3. Analysis of driver casualty risk for different work zone types.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Meng, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    Using driver casualty data from the Fatality Analysis Report System, this study examines driver casualty risk and investigates the risk contributing factors in the construction, maintenance and utility work zones. The multiple t-tests results show that the driver casualty risk is statistically different depending on the work zone type. Moreover, construction work zones have the largest driver casualty risk, followed by maintenance and utility work zones. Three separate logistic regression models are developed to predict driver casualty risk for the three work zone types because of their unique features. Finally, the effects of risk factors on driver casualty risk for each work zone type are examined and compared. For all three work zone types, five significant risk factors including road alignment, truck involvement, most harmful event, vehicle age and notification time are associated with increased driver casualty risk while traffic control devices and restraint use are associated with reduced driver casualty risk. However, one finding is that three risk factors (light condition, gender and day of week) exhibit opposing effects on the driver casualty risk in different types of work zones. This may largely be due to different work zone features and driver behavior in different types of work zones. PMID:21658509

  4. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems. PMID:26780463

  5. Motor vehicle fatalities in the United States construction industry.

    PubMed

    Ore, T; Fosbroke, D E

    1997-09-01

    A death certificate-based surveillance system was used to identify 2144 work-related motor vehicle fatalities among civilian workers in the United States construction industry over the years 1980-92. Construction workers were twice as likely to be killed by a motor vehicle as the average worker, with an annual crude mortality rate of 2.3/100,000 workers. Injury prevention efforts in construction have had limited effect on motor vehicle-related deaths, with death rates falling by only 11% during the 13-year period, compared with 43% for falls, 54% for electrocutions and 48% for machinery. In all industries combined, motor vehicle fatality rates dropped by 47%. The largest proportion of motor vehicle deaths (40%) occurred among pedestrians, with construction accounting for more than one-fourth of all pedestrian deaths. A minimum of 54 (6%) of these pedestrian fatalities were flaggers or surveyors. Flaggers accounted for half the 34 pedestrian fatalities among women, compared with only 3% among men. Along with previous studies and recent trends in the amount and type of road construction, these results underscore the need for better traffic control management in construction work areas to reduce pedestrian fatalities. As the second leading cause of traumatic death in construction, with an annual average share of 15% of the total deaths, exceeded only by falls, prevention of work-related motor vehicle research should become a greater priority in the construction industry. PMID:9316709

  6. The turning point in the number of traffic fatalities: two hypotheses about changes in underlying trends.

    PubMed

    Brüde, Ulf; Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The number of traffic fatalities reached a peak in many highly motorised countries around 1970. Some previous studies have suggested that the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities was inevitable and did not reflect a change in the underlying trends influencing the number of traffic fatalities. Other studies suggest that trends in traffic growth and fatality rate changed from before to after the turning point. This paper proposes two hypotheses about the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities. One hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were the same before and after the turning point. The other hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were different before and after the turning point was reached, in particular that the annual percentage decline in fatality rate became greater after the turning point than before. Such a change would suggest that road safety policy became more effective. Analysis of data for six countries (Denmark, Great Britain, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United States) lends stronger support to the latter hypothesis than to the former. The lesson for policy makers, in particular in countries where the number of traffic fatalities is still growing, is that they should not expect a turning point to be reached without policy interventions. PMID:25463945

  7. Fatal red light crashes: the role of race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Romano, Eduardo; Tippetts, Scott; Voas, Robert

    2005-05-01

    There is an increasing number of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) in the U.S. that occur at intersections. Noncompliance with traffic signals is one of the causes for such increase. In this study, we focused on Hispanic drivers. It has been shown that failing to follow traffic laws and regulations is a major cause of MVCs in Latin America. Does this driving behavior in Latin America correspond to the Hispanic community in the U.S.? Are U.S. Hispanics more likely to die in a red light incident? Are Hispanics more likely to be red light runners than other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S.? We answered these questions by taking advantage of a 1990-1996 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) file with additional racial/ethnic information. Overall, we found no differences between African-American, White, and Hispanic drivers regarding red light running. We found that drinking and driving was the most important factor for red light running. However, we found evidence that some Hispanic subgroups may be more vulnerable to red light running. One such subgroup is formed by Hispanics who have no valid driver license and no record of previous driver license suspension. This study is the first to apply national, archival data to document the relevance of race/ethnicity to the red light running problem, and we hope that it might serve as an incentive for more research on this area. PMID:15784199

  8. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  9. Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Road Safety Education Intervention for Pre-Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulter, Damian R.; McKenna, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young drivers are overrepresented in road traffic fatalities and collisions. Attempts to address this problem with pre-driver education have not met with unambiguous success. However, there is a lack of research on whether pre-driver education can change psychological antecedents to behaviour. Aims: The framework of the theory of…

  11. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  12. Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Brady, Joanne E; Chen, Qixuan

    2013-11-01

    Drugged driving is a serious safety concern, but its role in motor vehicle crashes has not been adequately studied. Using a case-control design, the authors assessed the association between drug use and fatal crash risk. Cases (n=737) were drivers who were involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes in the continental United States during specific time periods in 2007, and controls (n=7719) were participants of the 2007 National Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers. Overall, 31.9% of the cases and 13.7% of the controls tested positive for at least one non-alcohol drug. The estimated odds ratios of fatal crash involvement associated with specific drug categories were 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39, 2.39] for marijuana, 3.03 (95% CI: 2.00, 4.48) for narcotics, 3.57 (95% CI: 2.63, 4.76) for stimulants, and 4.83 (95% CI: 3.18, 7.21) for depressants. Drivers who tested positive for both alcohol and drugs were at substantially heightened risk relative to those using neither alcohol nor drugs (Odds Ratio=23.24; 95% CI: 17.79, 30.28). These results indicate that drug use is associated with a significantly increased risk of fatal crash involvement, particularly when used in combination with alcohol. PMID:24076302

  13. The role of heavy drinking in the risk of traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, B P; Isaac, N E; Graham, J D

    1996-08-01

    Recent studies have identified a "hard core" of drinking drivers who do not fit a "social" drinker profile and may require medical intervention. This article builds on these studies by quantifying the role of heavy drinking in motor vehicle fatalities. Data on male alcohol-involved fatally injured drivers (AIFIDs) were obtained from the U.S. Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) for the years 1989-1990 (n = 8876). The AIFIDs were grouped into either a "heavy" or "light" drinking category based on drinking behaviors inferred from prior driving records and blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). The majority of male AIFIDs were between the ages of 20-39 (70%). Sixty-five percent had a BAC of 150 mg/dl or greater, and 41% had a BAC in excess of 200 mg/dl. AIFIDs with high BACs were more likely to have histories of DUI convictions and license suspensions than AIFIDs with low BACs. According to the study's criteria, 73% percent of the AIFIDs could be classified as "heavy" drinkers. There were no driving variables that differentiated the heavy and light drinker groups, indicating that heavy drinking per se is the primary factor that distinguishes the groups. Male alcohol-involved fatally injured drivers are comprised mostly of heavy drinkers who may suffer from serious drinking problems or alcoholism. Successful interventions may require medical treatment as well as punitive criminal justice policies. PMID:8819346

  14. Occupational fatalities in the United States commercial fishing industry, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Jennifer M; Lucas, Devin L

    2010-10-01

    The occupational fatality rate among commercial fishermen decreased in the United States during 1992-2008; however, commercial fishing continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States, with an average annual fatality rate of 129 deaths per 100,000 fishermen in 2008. By contrast, the average annual occupational fatality rate among all US workers during the same period was four deaths per 100,000 workers. During the 1990s, numerous safety interventions were developed for Alaska fisheries that resulted in a significant decline in the state's commercial fishing fatality rate. In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) expanded surveillance of commercial fishing fatalities to the rest of the United States. The purpose of this report is to identify the hazards and risk factors for all causes of occupational mortality in the US commercial fishing industry, and to explore how those hazards and risk factors differ among fisheries and locations. During 2000-2009, 504 commercial fishing fatalities occurred in the United States. Most (261, 52%) occurred following a vessel disaster (defined as a sinking, capsizing, or other event in which the crew was forced to abandon ship) or a fall overboard (155, 31%). Fatalities occurred in Alaska (133, 26%), Northeast (124, 25%), Gulf of Mexico (116, 23%), West Coast (83, 16%), and the Mid- and South Atlantic (41, 8%) regions. Fatalities occurred most commonly while fishing for shellfish (226, 47%), groundfish (144, 30%) and pelagic fish (97, 20%). Average annual fatality rates were calculated for selected fisheries. The Northeast multispecies groundfish fleet had the highest average annual fatality rate (600 deaths per 100,000 full-time equivalent [FTE] fishermen) followed by the Atlantic scallop fleet (425 deaths per 100,000 FTE fishermen) and the West Coast Dungeness crab fleet (310 deaths per 100,000 FTE fishermen). To reduce fatalities among fishermen at greatest risk

  15. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  16. [Fatal exorcism. A case report].

    PubMed

    Vendura, K; Geserick, G

    1997-01-01

    A five-year-old girl was killed by her mother when she tried to pull the devil out of the girl's mouth by means of her hands. In that way the enlarged tonsils were pushed back and caused together with the woman's fingers a temporary closure of the hypopharynx and at least the suffocation of the child. About two years ago the woman began to show paranoic ideas exacerbating up to the fatal event. PMID:9446524

  17. Fatal Toxicity from Symptomatic Hyperlactataemia

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Liza; Wilson, Douglas; Manini, Alex F.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many Sub-Saharan African countries, first-line therapy for HIV may include a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Long-term NRTI use is associated with symptomatic hyperlactataemia due to inhibition of mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ, a potentially fatal complication. Objective The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors associated with inhospital fatality for HIV inpatients prescribed NRTIs long term who presented with symptomatic hyperlactataemia. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study at a 900-bed university hospital in South Africa over 4 years (2005–2008). We included HIV inpatients prescribed NRTIs long term who presented with symptomatic hyperlactataemia (long-term NRTI use; lactate >4.0 mmol/L; absence of infectious source; symptoms requiring admission). Data included demographics, medical history, NRTI duration, blood pressure, symptom duration and relevant laboratory data. Results Of 79 patients who met inclusion criteria (mean age 38.2 ± 10.5 years, 97% female) there were 46 fatalities (58%). Factors significantly associated with fatality were presence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.04), lactate ≥10 mmol/L (p = 0.003), pH <7.2 (p = 0.002), creatinine ≥200 μmol/L (p = 0.03) and altered mental status (p = 0.03). Conclusions In this study, NRTI-related symptomatic hyperlactataemia occurred predominantly in females. Mortality was associated with severely elevated lactate (≥10 mmol/L), the degree of acidosis, elevated creatinine, history of diabetes and altered mental status on presentation. PMID:21488705

  18. Parasailing fatalities in southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

    2009-12-01

    Parasailing is a recreational sport that is generally considered to be of little risk to the participants. Typically, the passenger launches from a motorboat with a specially designed winch that pulls him or her back to the boat at the end of the ride. The sport is not regulated at the federal, state, or county level. There have been few reports of injuries to parasailors. Additionally, there have been only 2 fatalities reported to the United States Coast Guard in a 10-year review. We report the details of these 2 deaths, those of a mother and daughter riding in a tandem parasail, which occurred on Fort Myers Beach in 2001, as well as an additional case of a parasailing fatality that occurred in southwest Florida in 1999. These cases illustrate the injuries seen in such fatalities and the hazards posed by adverse weather conditions and faulty equipment, as well as the impairment of passenger judgment by drugs and/or alcohol. PMID:19901809

  19. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Preuss, Johanna; Lignitz, Eberhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-05-20

    Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these cases are falls from height (n=123) and ground-level falls (n=122). These are compared to fatal falls down a stairs (n=46); the analysis is confined to injuries to the cranium. In ground-level falls the injury pattern in falls under the influence of alcohol differs from that of falls with no alcohol in the case history: all injuries are seen in higher relative frequency in casualties after the consumption of alcohol. In falls from height, the previous consumption of alcohol did not influence the injury pattern; the intracranial traumas are seen in decreasing frequency with increasing heights. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present injury patterns and influencing factors like fall heights and alcohol for the different kinds of falls on the basis of our collective and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the subgroups. PMID:20176452

  20. Brazilian Road Traffic Fatalities: A Spatial and Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Finato, Karen; Carvalho, Elias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; Lynch, Catherine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. Methods and Findings Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. Conclusions By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies. PMID:24498051

  1. Excess Fatality from Desipramine in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amitai, Yona; Frischer, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the case fatality rate (CFR) from desipramine ingestion in children and adolescents with that of other tricyclic antidepressants. Method: All mentions of desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, nortriptyline, and doxepin in children and adolescents recorded in the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure…

  2. Fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by crossbows.

    PubMed

    Grellner, W; Buhmann, D; Giese, A; Gehrke, G; Koops, E; Püschel, K

    2004-05-28

    Today in modern times, traumatic injuries caused by crossbows are a rarity. The largest collection of cases so far is presented in this study, consisting of four fatalities (two homicides and two suicides) and two non-fatal injuries (grievous bodily harm and an accident). All the victims were male having an age between 31 and 54. The weapons, which were used, were mainly high-performance precision crossbows with telescopic sights and hunting bolts. The parts of the body involved were the facial/head area in three of the cases and the thorax in three of them. There were either deep or total penetration injuries to the cranium and thorax with the bolt remaining in the wound in four out of six cases. The persons with non-fatal crossbow injuries exhibited comparatively few symptoms, despite the sometimes extensive involvement of the interior of the cranium (cerebrocranial penetration, in one instance). The two cases of suicide favoured the body areas often found with gun-users. The aetiological classification of crossbow injuries may be difficult after the removal of the bolt. The external morphology is strongly dependent on the type of tip used. Multiple-bladed hunting broadheads produce radiating incised wounds, whereas conical field tips produce circular to slitlike defects. Correspondingly, the external injuries can be reminiscent of the effects of a violent attack by sharp force or of a gunshot wound. The possibility, supported by clinical data, that the victim might have the ability to act or even to survive for a period of time, even with penetration of the brain, should be taken into account when the cause of death is being investigated. PMID:15110069

  3. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

  4. Revisiting the concept of the 'problem young driver' within the context of the 'young driver problem': who are they?

    PubMed

    Scott-Parker, B; Watson, B; King, M J; Hyde, M K

    2013-10-01

    For decades there have been two young driver concepts: the 'young driver problem' where the driver cohort represents a key problem for road safety; and the 'problem young driver' where a sub-sample of drivers represents the greatest road safety problem. Given difficulties associated with identifying and then modifying the behaviour of the latter group, broad countermeasures such as graduated driver licensing (GDL) have generally been relied upon to address the young driver problem. GDL evaluations reveal general road safety benefits for young drivers, yet they continue to be overrepresented in fatality and injury statistics. Therefore it is timely for researchers to revisit the 'problem young driver' concept to assess its potential countermeasure implications. This is particularly relevant within the context of broader countermeasures that have been designed to address the 'young driver problem' Personal characteristics, behaviours and attitudes of 378 Queensland novice drivers aged 17-25 years were explored during their pre-, Learner and Provisional 1 (intermediate) licence as part of a larger longitudinal project. Self-reported risky driving was measured by the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS), and five subscale scores were used to cluster the drivers into three groups (high risk n=49, medium risk n=163, low risk n=166). High risk 'problem young drivers' were characterised by greater self-reported pre-Licence driving, unsupervised Learner driving, and speeding, driving errors, risky driving exposure, crash involvement, and offence detection during the Provisional period. Medium risk drivers were also characterised by more risky road use than the low risk group. Interestingly problem young drivers appear to have some insight into their high-risk driving, since they report significantly greater intentions to bend road rules in future driving. The results suggest that tailored intervention efforts may need to target problem young drivers within the

  5. Estimating national road crash fatalities using aggregate data.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Khan, Beenish Akbar; Khurshid, Muhammad Bilal; Khan, Muhammad Babar; Waheed, Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Injuries and fatalities from road traffic crashes have emerged a major public health challenge in Pakistan. Reliable estimates of road crash fatalities (RCF) of a country, is a vital element needed for identification and control of key risk factors, road-safety improvement efforts and prioritizing national health. Reliability of current annual RCF estimates for Pakistan becomes highly questionable due to serious underreporting. This study aimed to predict annual RCF for Pakistan using data from World Health Organization and International Road Federation sources. An ordinary least square (OLS) regression model that relates fatality rate with different explanatory variables was developed. RCF were predicted for Pakistan for year 2012 and 2013, and results were compared with national police reported estimates. Study results indicated that there is serious underreporting of RCF in Pakistan and immediate measures are needed to improve the existing road crash recording and reporting system at the national and subnational levels. PMID:25571957

  6. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  7. Fatal occupational injuries in Nicaragua, 2005.

    PubMed

    López-Bonilla, Indiana Mercedes; Flores-Urbina, Lucia; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to estimate the rate of fatal occupational injuries (FOI) in Nicaragua for 2005, using 10 incomplete data sources. Based on the 173 identified FOIs, the crude empirical FOI rate estimate was 8.3 per 100,000 employed (12.3 men; 1.8 women) and highest in the 25-29 age group (15). The overall rate, corrected by capture-recapture modeling, was 11.6. Manufacturing represented a high rate (11.7); the formal economy rate (12.3) was higher than the informal economy (6); mining (110.3) and electricity (76.2) had the highest industry rates; and the most common agents of FOIs were motor vehicles. With 10 major sources, the extent of FOIs remains grossly underestimated and biased across worker strata. The FOIs among informal and agricultural workers tend to remain invisible, as there is no systematic surveillance by any agency. Changes in legislation and implementation are necessary to correct the situation. PMID:21905392

  8. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments. PMID:23524203

  9. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  10. Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.

    1998-11-12

    The protocol is designed to assist with the placement of wind power developments, and to document bird behavior and fatalities resulting from existing wind power developments. A standardized protocol will assist with comparing data among potential and existing development locations. Furthermore, this protocol is based on standard methods being used in other studies of bird behavior. The data collected will only be useful if observers follow each method carefully. In addition, the data collected using this protocol will likely be used by a permitting or other regulatory agency in evaluating the avian impacts at the site.

  11. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    PubMed

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. PMID:22169568

  12. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  13. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, MarcoJavier; Armingol, JoséMaría; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving). Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  14. LANL GPIB Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-15

    This driver code adds a GPIB infrastructure and API features to 2.6 series Linux kernels. Currently supported hardware is National Instruments PCI-GPIB cards built on either the TNT4882 controller chip, or the TNT5004 controller chip. This driver is an improvement over previous GPIB drivers in Linux because it has all the features of the GPL, high performance DMA, supports Linux 2.6 and the new driver model, and has a cleaner API than the previous drivers. GPIB is the "general purpose interface bus", commonly used to control oscilloscopes, digital multimeters, function generators, and other electronic test equipment.

  15. LANL GPIB Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-15

    This driver code adds a GPIB infrastructure and API features to 2.6 series Linux kernels. Currently supported hardware is National Instruments PCI-GPIB cards built on either the TNT4882 controller chip, or the TNT5004 controller chip. This driver is an improvement over previous GPIB drivers in Linux because it has all the features of the GPL, high performance DMA, supports Linux 2.6 and the new driver model, and has a cleaner API than the previous drivers.more » GPIB is the "general purpose interface bus", commonly used to control oscilloscopes, digital multimeters, function generators, and other electronic test equipment.« less

  16. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse. PMID:11296894

  17. Accident involvement and injury rates for small cars in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, F T

    1985-10-01

    A comparison of recent U.S. and Japanese small car accident and injury statistics indicates that the two countries have had dramatically differing experience with such cars. In Japan, for the years 1980, 1981, and 1982, while such cars are involved in more accidents per vehicle or per vehicle kilometer traveled than larger cars, there is a lower likelihood of a fatality if an accident occurs. The lower fatality conditional likelihood more than offsets the higher chance of an accident in 1981 and 1982, resulting in small cars having lower fatality rates per unit of exposure than larger vehicles in those years. The difference is tentatively attributed to the direct and indirect impact of the lower speed limits (80 vs 100 kmh) for such cars in Japan, as well as the greater caution drivers of such vehicles exhibit, as evidenced by the fact that small car drivers cause a significantly lower percent of the accidents they are involved in than larger cars. PMID:4096800

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in North American Commercial Drivers

    PubMed Central

    KALES, Stefanos N.; STRAUBEL, Madeleine G.

    2013-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17–28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450

  19. The Geriatric Driver: Factors That Influence When to Stop Driving.

    PubMed

    Ikpeze, Tochukwu C; Elfar, John C

    2016-06-01

    The increase in the growth of the elderly population in the past 2 decades has been paralleled by an increase in the number of active elderly drivers. Consequentially, this growth has been accompanied by a rise in fatal road-related accidents. Due to age-related fragility, elderly drivers are more susceptible to injuries and death following a road-related accident. The increased risk of accidents has become a growing public health issue and has led to certain guidelines and restrictions for elderly drivers. Moreover, the cognitive and physiological decline that exacerbates with age has encouraged preventative measures aimed at optimizing their ability to operate motor vehicles. Some of these include yearly vision, cognitive, motor, and mental assessment tests. Results obtained from these tests may help suggest when an elderly driver becomes unsuitable to drive. PMID:27239385

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea in North American commercial drivers.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stefanos N; Straubel, Madeleine G

    2014-01-01

    The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17-28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450

  1. An unusual fatal injury due to tyre burst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rautji, Ravi; Rudra, A; Dogra, T D

    2003-12-17

    A 20 year-old male driver of a heavy duty crane, employed in an industry located in an industrial area on the outskirts of Delhi was fatally injured while repositioning an ill-fitted locking rim of a crane tyre (Fig. 1). The inner tube of the crane tyre had accidentally burst, dislodging the loose iron-locking rim, which hit the individual with a great force resulting in multiple injuries. He died on his way to the hospital. PMID:14642727

  2. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    PubMed

    He, Monica M

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003 to 2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. PMID:26967529

  3. Older driver population and crash involvement trends, 1974-1988.

    PubMed

    Stutts, J C; Martell, C

    1992-08-01

    North Carolina motor vehicle crash data for even-numbered years 1974-1988, inclusive, are analyzed in conjunction with North Carolina population, licensed driver, and mileage data to examine trends in motor vehicle crash involvement by driver age, sex, and race. Crash rates per licensed driver are presented along with crash rates per estimated vehicle miles travelled calculated on the basis of induced exposure. Results focus particularly on older drivers. They show that older drivers' representation in the licensed driver population has increased at a greater rate than their representation in either the census or crash involvement populations. These trends are particularly strong for females and for nonwhites. Furthermore, crash rates have declined more for drivers aged 55 and older than for younger drivers. The greatest declines, both in terms of crashes per licensed driver and crashes per estimated miles travelled, have been experienced by drivers age 65 and older, particularly nonwhites. Males show higher overall crash rates per miles travelled than females, but this effect decreases with age and disappears entirely in the oldest age categories. Results are discussed in light of the changing nature of the overall driving population and the cohort of older drivers in particular. PMID:1605814

  4. Fatality estimator user’s guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.; Som, Nicholas; Ladd, Lew

    2012-01-01

    Only carcasses judged to have been killed after the previous search should be included in the fatality data set submitted to this estimator software. This estimator already corrects for carcasses missed in previous searches, so carcasses judged to have been missed at least once should be considered “incidental” and not included in the fatality data set used to estimate fatality. Note: When observed carcass count is <5 (including 0 for species known to be at risk, but not observed), USGS Data Series 881 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0881/) is recommended for fatality estimation.

  5. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  6. Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, R L; Dietz, P E

    1993-03-01

    We report two cases in which men used the hydraulic shovels on tractors to suspend themselves for masochistic sexual stimulation. One man developed a romantic attachment to a tractor, even giving it a name and writing poetry in its honor. He died accidentally while intentionally asphyxiating himself through suspension by the neck, leaving clues that he enjoyed perceptual distortions during asphyxiation. The other man engaged in sexual bondage and transvestic fetishism, but did not purposely asphyxiate himself. He died when accidentally pinned to the ground under a shovel after intentionally suspending himself by the ankles. We compare these cases with other autoerotic fatalities involving perceptual distortion, cross-dressing, machinery, and postural asphyxiation by chest compression. PMID:8454997

  7. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  8. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    PubMed

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective. PMID:15003959

  9. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  10. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  11. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  12. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  13. Large reductions are possible in older driver crashes at intersections.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Siby; Yamani, Yusuke; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-09-01

    Among all crash types, the largest percentage of older driver fatalities occur at intersections. Many explanations have been offered for older drivers' increased risks of crashing at intersections; however, only recently was it determined that older drivers were much less likely to glance for latent threats after entering an intersection than middle-aged drivers. In response, training programmes were designed to increase the frequency of such glances. The programmes have proven effective, doubling the frequency of these glances for up to a period of two years post-training. The programmes take only an hour to administer and are not directly targeted at remediating any of the underlying declines in cognitive, visual or motor function that can explain the decrease in the frequency of glances for threat vehicles among older drivers. The first question we addressed was, what are the basic declines that can explain the decrease in glances for threat vehicles? The second question we addressed was, how did the training programme achieve the results it did without directly addressing these declines? We hypothesise that drivers are learning to decouple hand, foot and head movements in the training programmes and that this serialisation of behaviour essentially sidesteps the major declines in cognitive, visual and motor functions. We provide evidence that the assumptions of the decoupling hypothesis about the capabilities of older drivers when the movements are decoupled, are consistent with the evidence from existing experiments. More research is needed to evaluate this hypothesis. PMID:27523785

  14. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. PMID:25463957

  15. Fatal injuries among grounds maintenance workers: United States, 2003--2008.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    A total of 1,142 grounds maintenance workers (GMWs) were fatally injured at work during 2003--2008, an average of 190 each year. GMWs accounted for 3.4% of all occupational fatalities, and 31% of those GMWs were Hispanic or Latino. Approximately 83% of the Hispanic or Latino GMWs who died were born outside the United States. In 2008, approximately 1.52 million persons were employed as GMWs, constituting 1.0% of the U.S. workforce. During 2003--2007, an average of 13.3 per 100,000 employed GMWs died each year, compared with an overall rate of 4.0 fatalities per 100,000 U.S. workers. The rate of on-the-job fatal injuries among GMWs has remained elevated relative to other workers for >20 years. This report characterizes events leading to GMW fatalities and differences in fatality characteristics across demographic groups among GMWs, based on an evaluation of 2003--2008 data from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. The report also identifies workplace interventions that might reduce the incidence of fatal injuries. Major events leading to GMW occupational fatalities included transportation incidents (31%), contact with objects and equipment (25%), falls (23%), and traumatic acute exposures to harmful substances or environments (e.g., electrocution and drowning) (16%). To reduce the incidence of such fatalities, employers, trade and worker associations, and policy makers should focus on effective, targeted workplace safety interventions such as frequent hazard identification and training for specific hazards. Diversity among the populations of workers requires use of culture- and language-appropriate training techniques as part of comprehensive injury and illness prevention programs. PMID:21544043

  16. Effects of a 2009 Illinois Alcohol Tax Increase on Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Melvin D.; Staras, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of a 2009 increase in alcohol taxes in Illinois on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. Methods. We used an interrupted time-series design, with intrastate and cross-state comparisons and measurement derived from driver alcohol test results, for 104 months before and 28 months after enactment. Our analyses used autoregressive moving average and generalized linear mixed Poisson models. We examined both population-wide effects and stratifications by alcohol level, age, gender, and race. Results. Fatal alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes declined 9.9 per month after the tax increase, a 26% reduction. The effect was similar for alcohol-impaired drivers with positive alcohol levels lower than 0.15 grams per deciliter (−22%) and drivers with very high alcohol levels of 0.15 or more (−25%). Drivers younger than 30 years showed larger declines (−37%) than those aged 30 years and older (−23%), but gender and race stratifications did not significantly differ. Conclusions. Increases in alcohol excise taxes, such as the 2009 Illinois act, could save thousands of lives yearly across the United States as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:25790414

  17. Discriminating the Drivers of Edge Effects on Nest Predation: Forest Edges Reduce Capture Rates of Ship Rats (Rattus rattus), a Globally Invasive Nest Predator, by Altering Vegetation Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ruffell, Jay; Didham, Raphael K.; Barrett, Paul; Gorman, Nic; Pike, Rhonda; Hickey-Elliott, Andrée; Sievwright, Karin; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2014-01-01

    Forest edges can strongly affect avian nest success by altering nest predation rates, but this relationship is inconsistent and context dependent. There is a need for researchers to improve the predictability of edge effects on nest predation rates by examining the mechanisms driving their occurrence and variability. In this study, we examined how the capture rates of ship rats, an invasive nest predator responsible for avian declines globally, varied with distance from the forest edge within forest fragments in a pastoral landscape in New Zealand. We hypothesised that forest edges would affect capture rates by altering vegetation structure within fragments, and that the strength of edge effects would depend on whether fragments were grazed by livestock. We measured vegetation structure and rat capture rates at 488 locations ranging from 0–212 m from the forest edge in 15 forest fragments, seven of which were grazed. Contrary to the vast majority of previous studies of edge effects on nest predation, ship rat capture rates increased with increasing distance from the forest edge. For grazed fragments, capture rates were estimated to be 78% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior (the farthest distance for grazed fragments). This relationship was similar for ungrazed fragments, with capture rates estimated to be 51% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior. A subsequent path analysis suggested that these ‘reverse’ edge effects were largely or entirely mediated by changes in vegetation structure, implying that edge effects on ship rats can be predicted from the response of vegetation structure to forest edges. We suggest the occurrence, strength, and direction of edge effects on nest predation rates may depend on edge-driven changes in local habitat when the dominant predator is primarily restricted to forest patches. PMID:25412340

  18. The Association of Driver Age with Traffic Injury Severity in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Robert B.; Layde, Peter M.; Zhu, Shankuan; Guse, Clare E.; Hargarten, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the association of driver’s age with the risk of being injured, dying, and experiencing injuries of different severity when involved in a motor vehicle crash. Methods Data from the Wisconsin Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) from 2002–2004 was used to study 602,964 drivers of a car or truck who were involved in a motor vehicle crash. Odds ratios (OR) or relative risk ratios (RRR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for age groups, in relation to the outcomes of injury, fatality, and injury severity using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, alcohol use, urban/rural location, seatbelt use, ejection, airbag deployment, vehicle type, and highway class. Results Increasing age was strongly associated the risk of dying or experiencing severe injuries for drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes with the greatest risk in drivers 85 years and older. Compared to drivers aged 25–44, drivers 85 years and older had the highest risks for: moderate injury (ISS=9–15) (RRR=5.44, 95% CI: 3.97–7.47), severe injury (ISS=16–74) (RRR=4.32, 95% CI: 2.73–6.84), and fatality (OR=10.93, 95% CI: 7.76–15.38). In contrast, drivers 85 years and older had no increase in risk for minor injury (ISS=1–8) (OR =0.94, 95% CI: 0.84 – 1.05). Conclusions The oldest drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes had the highest risk for severe injury and fatality. In light of the increasing number of the oldest drivers and their poor outcomes from severe trauma, substantial morbidity can be expected to occur in the oldest drivers. Evidence-based measures to reduce the risks to older drivers should continue to be developed, evaluated, and implemented. PMID:19593714

  19. Civil liability, criminal law, and other policies and alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities in the United States: 1984-1995.

    PubMed

    Whetten-Goldstein, K; Sloan, F A; Stout, E; Liang, L

    2000-11-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol policies and motor vehicle fatality rates from 1984 to 1995 in the United States. State policies and state characteristics variables were merged with motor vehicle fatality rates over an 11 year period and analyzed using minimum logit chi-square method and fixed effects to create a quasi time-series analysis. Laws allowing individuals to sue bars for the drunken behavior of their patrons were the policies most strongly associated with lower minor and adult fatality rates. The mandatory first offense fine was associated with lower minor fatality rates but not adult fatality rates, while minor and adult rates fell after administrative per se license suspension and anti-consumption laws for all vehicle occupants. Many other public policies evaluated were not associated with lower fatality rates. PMID:10994599

  20. Fatal Necrotizing Fasciitis following Episiotomy

    PubMed Central

    Almarzouqi, Faris; Grieb, Gerrit; Klink, Christian; Bauerschlag, Dirk; Fuchs, Paul C.; Alharbi, Ziyad; Vasku, Marketa; Pallua, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon condition in general practice but one that provokes serious morbidity. It is characterized by widespread fascial necrosis with relative sparing of skin and underlying muscle. Herein, we report a fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis in a young healthy woman after episiotomy. Case Report. A 17-year-old primigravida underwent a vaginal delivery with mediolateral episiotomy. Necrotizing fasciitis was diagnosed on the 5th postpartum day, when the patient was referred to our tertiary care medical center. Surgical debridement was initiated together with antibiotics and followed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient died due to septic shock after 16 hours from the referral. Conclusion. Delay of diagnosis and consequently the surgical debridement were most likely the reasons for maternal death. In puerperal period, a physician must consider necrotizing fasciitis as a possible diagnosis in any local sings of infection especially when accompanied by fever and/or tenderness. Early diagnosis is the key for low mortality and morbidity. PMID:26064762

  1. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  2. 78 FR 38096 - Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection...: Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS). OMB Control Number: 2127-0006. Affected Public: State, Local, or... of injury and the property damage associated with motor vehicle accidents. The Fatality...

  3. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  4. Help Wanted: Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoober, Scott

    1999-01-01

    A booming economy and low unemployment make it harder than ever before to lure and retain good school-bus drivers. Lack of money for good wages has prompted some innovative recruitment and retention tactics. Chicago has turned to the rolls of people going off welfare as a source of bus-driver candidates. The Trans Group, headquartered in Chestnut…

  5. Estimating Side Underride Fatalities Using Field Data

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that underride events are undercounted by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal crashes on public roads in the United States. This study’s principal objective was to develop accurate fatality estimates for side underride crashes involving “combination trucks” and light vehicles. Police reports from 29 states were used to estimate the incidence of fatal crashes in which light vehicles underrode the sides of large combination trucks. A protocol was developed to judge the presence of underride with passenger compartment intrusion (PCI), and an in-depth manual review of police reports was performed using scene diagrams, narratives, vehicle and occupant data. The incidence of fatal underride was then compared to that reported in FARS to determine the extent of underreporting in FARS. Further, a comprehensive review of side underride crashes resulting in fatalities and injuries was made using the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the most comprehensive database on large truck crashes. Results show that only a small proportion of the light vehicle occupant fatalities resulting from collisions with combination trucks involve a side underride, and an even smaller proportion involve a side underride with PCI. An in-depth review shows the ratio of underreporting of side underride crashes in FARS is a factor of 3.1 (CI: 2.9–3.3); thus, the annual number of light vehicle side underride fatalities with PCI is estimated to be 202 (CI: 189–215). Comparison of FARS / LTCCS data shows results consistent with this underreporting estimate. LTCCS data also shows that non-fatal serious injuries to light vehicle occupants in side underride crashes involving combination trucks are extremely rare. PMID:24406960

  6. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  7. Ten-year fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction incidence in elderly populations in Spain: the EPICARDIAN cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Rafael; Alonso, Margarita; Reviriego, Blanca; Muñiz, Javier; Vega, Saturio; López, Isidro; Novella, Blanca; Suárez, Carmen; Rodríguez-Salvanés, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background In Spain, more than 85% of coronary heart disease deaths occur in adults older than 65 years. However, coronary heart disease incidence and mortality in the Spanish elderly have been poorly described. The aim of this study is to estimate the ten-year incidence and mortality rates of myocardial infarction in a population-based large cohort of Spanish elders. Methods A population-based cohort of 3729 people older than 64 years old, free of previous myocardial infarction, was established in 1995 in three geographical areas of Spain. Any case of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction was investigated until December 2004 using the "cold pursuit method", previously used and validated by the the WHO-MONICA project. Results Men showed a significantly (p < 0.001) higher cumulative incidence of myocardial infarction (7.2%; 95%CI: 5.94-8.54) than women (3.8%; 95%CI: 3.06-4.74). Although cumulative incidence increased with age (p < 0.05), gender-differences tended to narrow. Adjusted incidence rates were higher in men (957 per 100 000 person-years) than in women (546 per 100 000 person-years) (p < 0.001) and increased with age (p < 0.001). The increase was progressive in women but not in men. Adjusted mortality rates were also higher in men than in women (p < 0.001), being three times higher in the age group of ≥ 85 years old than in the age group of 65-74 years old (p < 0.001). Conclusion Incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction is high in the Spanish elderly population. Men show higher rates than women, but gender differences diminish with age. PMID:19778417

  8. A study of fatal injuries in Nigerian factories.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, A O

    2001-12-01

    A study of the pattern of occupational injury mortality rates by industry and cause of death was undertaken to indicate the high-risk types of industry and the major causes of death, which could subsequently be used in developing cost-effective strategies for prevention. This is the first such study of accidental mortality factors in Nigerian factories. This paper reports the outcome of the study of mortality in Nigerian factories over a 10 year period (1987-1996). Between 1987 and 1996, a total of 3183 injuries were reported, of which 71 (2.2%) were fatal. The annual case fatality rate ranged from 0.94 per 100 injured workers in 1990 to 5.41 in 1994, with an overall fatality rate of 2.23 per 100 injured workers. Of the 71 deaths, 12 (16.9%) were associated with power-driven machinery. Ten (14.1%) deaths were associated with explosions, while people falling accounted for nine (12.6%) of the deaths. Eleven deaths (15.4%) occurred in the chemical/pharmaceuticals industry, nine (12.6%) occurred in the basic metal industry and seven (9.8%) occurred in the food, beverage and tobacco industry. There were seven (9.8%) deaths in the textile manufacturing industry. The highest case fatality rate per injured worker (16.6%) occurred in the coal-petroleum industry, followed by 5.9% in the wood and wood products industry. A rate of 5.8% occurred in the non-metallic manufacturing industry. The case fatality rates in Nigerian factories are compared with those of other predominantly African countries. Accident prevention programmes tailored to the work activities and specific causal factors in the high-risk types of industries are recommended following a detailed study of work situations and risk factors in these types of industries. Accident prevention programmes, including the use of protective equipment, safety education, machine guarding, a work permit system, effective supervision at work sites and the enforcement of factory laws and regulations, are recommended to improve

  9. Fatal pedestrian-bicycle collisions.

    PubMed

    Graw, M; König, H G

    2002-05-23

    Although, fatal collisions between pedestrians and bicycles are relatively rare, they are still of forensic relevance because of the need to explore the circumstances of the accident. Based on three reconstructed cases, situation and injury patterns are presented that might prove useful in future cases: usually the person causing the accident is the cyclist while the pedestrian generally suffers more severe injuries; the situation at the site of accident is important for its reconstruction: end location of the persons involved in the accident, injuries and traces on pedestrians and cyclists, traces at the site of accident and on the bicycle; because of the lack of pre-crash traces and any eyewitness accounts, the pedestrian's injuries are the best starting point for the reconstruction of the accident; a characteristic wound on the lower leg of the pedestrian that reveals the initial impact between the front wheel and the leg is crucial not because of its seriousness, but because of its external morphology; the injuries that can be expected by the following impact between body and handlebar are unspecific and only minor; the most severe injuries to the pedestrian as a result of the accident are caused secondarily by falling and hitting the head on the road; the fall of the cyclist, however, corresponds to a throw-off followed by a sliding phase with less impact load when the head hits the ground [maximum abbreviated injury scale 1 (MAIS 1)]; the cyclists involved are mainly younger persons on fashionable bicycles (here: mountain bikes); in the great majority of cases, the injured pedestrians are frail, elderly people with a lower tolerance of trauma. PMID:12062948

  10. Two Fatal Intoxications with Cyanohydrins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuiqing; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Zhang, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T. The second is the determination of acetone or formaldehyde. In this part, headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detectors (GC-MSD) had been used. In this report, we reported two fatal intoxication cases of ACH and FCH; one person was killed by his wife by poisoning his food and the other was suicide by poison. Two real cases of ACH and FCH in human blood and gastric contents have been analyzed by using the above-mentioned method. The Prussian blue reaction was positive in the two cases. The peaks of acetone with retention times of 0.998 min appear in specimens of the deceased are consistent with the retention times of pure acetone. The peaks of formaldehyde with a retention time of 1.658 min appear in heart blood of the deceased, and the retention time of formaldehyde of the liquid is 1.674 min, which are consistent with the retention times of pure formaldehyde (1.673 min). PMID:27026650

  11. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.207 Fatality. (a) In the... representations of the railroad or FRA representative with respect to the occurrence of the event requiring...

  12. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.207 Fatality. (a) In the... representations of the railroad or FRA representative with respect to the occurrence of the event requiring...

  13. State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQS CONTACT IIF SEARCH IIF Contact Us State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities Overview of State data available ... Texas Department of Insurance Division of Workers' Compensation Workplace Safety, MS-23 7551 Metro Center Drive, Suite 100 ...

  14. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2.

    PubMed

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M; Batke, Sven P; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency. PMID:27605929

  15. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2

    PubMed Central

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M.; Batke, Sven P.; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency. PMID:27605929

  16. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  17. Occupational fatalities during the oil and gas boom--United States, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Mason, Krystal L; Retzer, Kyla D; Hill, Ryan; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-05-29

    During 2003-2013, the U.S. oil and gas extraction industry experienced unprecedented growth, doubling the size of its workforce and increasing the number of drilling rigs by 71%. To describe fatal events among oil and gas workers during this period, CDC analyzed data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), a comprehensive database of fatal work injuries. During 2003-2013, the number of work-related fatalities in the oil and gas extraction industry increased 27.6%, with a total of 1,189 deaths; however, the annual occupational fatality rate significantly decreased 36.3% (p<0.05) during this 11-year period. Two-thirds of all worker fatalities were attributed to transportation incidents (479, [40.3%]) and contact with objects/equipment (308 [25.9%]). More than 50% of persons fatally injured were employed by companies that service wells (615 [51.7%]). It is important for employers to consider measures such as land transportation safety policies and engineering controls (e.g., automated technologies) that would address these leading causes of death and reduce workers' exposure to hazards. PMID:26020138

  18. Reporting of drug induced depression and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in the UK from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are distressing for patients and have important public health implications. We identified the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour to the UK’s Yellow Card Scheme from 1998 to 2011. Methods We obtained Yellow Card data from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency for the drugs with the most frequent spontaneous reports of depression and suicidal behaviour from 1964 onwards. Prescribing data were obtained from the NHS Information Centre and the Department of Health. We examined the frequency of reports for drugs and estimated rates of reporting of psychiatric ADRs using prescribing data as proxy denominators from 1998 to 2011, as prescribing data were not available prior to 1998. Results There were 110 different drugs with ≥ 20 reports of depression, 58 with ≥10 reports of non-fatal suicidal behaviour and 33 with ≥5 reports of fatal suicidal behaviour in the time period. The top five drugs with the most frequent reports of depression were the smoking cessation medicines varenicline and bupropion, followed by paroxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), isotretinoin (used in acne treatment) and rimonabant (a weight loss drug). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, varenicline and the antipsychotic medicine clozapine were included in the top five medicines with the most frequent reports of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Medicines with the highest reliably measured reporting rates of psychiatric ADRs per million prescriptions dispensed in the community included rimonabant, isotretinoin, mefloquine (an antimalarial), varenicline and bupropion. Robust denominators for community prescribing were not available for two drugs with five or more suicide reports, efavirenz (an antiretroviral medicine) and clozapine. Conclusions Depression and suicide-related ADRs are reported for many nervous system and non

  19. Drugged drivers in Norway with benzodiazepine detections.

    PubMed

    Skurtveit, Svetlana; Abotnes, Bjørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2002-01-24

    Norwegian drugged drivers with benzodiazepine (BZD) detections have been studied with regard to drug use pattern and rearrest rate. During 1995, 3343 drivers were apprehended by the police in Norway due to the suspicion of influence by drugs. Blood samples from all drivers were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT). The samples were analysed using a standard program covering the most commonly abused drugs on the marked in Norway. BZDs, representing some of the most frequently detected drugs, were found in approximately 30% (n = 1051) of the cases, represented by 14% (n = 150) female and 86% (n = 901) male drivers. In 8% of the cases, one BZD only was detected, half of these cases with one BZD could reflect therapeutic use. One or more BZDs were combined with illegal drug(s) (73%), other prescribed drugs (10%), and/or alcohol (24%). 62% of the drivers with BZD detections, had earlier been arrested for the same offence, or six cases per rearrested driver. The frequency of earlier arrests were lower for female (34%) than for male (67%) drivers. Alcohol was most frequently found for those arrested for the first time before 1992, while BZD or illegal drugs were most frequently found for those with their first arrest during 1992-1995. Our study shows that apprehended drivers using BZD are mainly represented by drug abusers due to frequent multi-drug use, blood concentrations representing doses above therapeutic levels and high rearrest rate for the same offence. A treatment program or other reactions, are thus necessary in addition to fines, prison penalty and suspension of driving licence. PMID:11852205

  20. Modelling of agricultural combination driver behaviour from the aspect of safety of movement.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Tadeusz; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Statistics show that the travel of agricultural machinery to a work area and their movement during labour is the source of many serious accidents. The most dangerous in consequences prove to be those that occur during transport and associated with maneuvering tractors and machinery (about 30% of all fatal accidents). It can be assumed that at least some of these accidents were caused indirectly by the specific design features of agricultural machines which adversely affect the driveability. The single- and multi-loop structures of the driver-vehicle system models are formulated to study the contributions of various preview and prediction strategies to the path tracking and dynamic performance of the articulated vehicle. In the presented study the compensatory model of driver utilizes the lateral acceleration of the tractor, roll angle of trailer sprung mass and the articulation rate as the internal motion feedback variables. The control model of steering of an agricultural set has been implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The model has been constructed with the use of stochastic methods and operational transmittances describing the various components of the system. The model operational transmittances has been estimated using Box-Jenkins and continuous-time process models from input-output data. The model has been tested using experimental data from road investigation of the agricultural set. PMID:24959798

  1. Mass drivers. 3: Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.

  2. Drunk Driver Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Systems Technology, Inc. developed a technique to study/measure behavioral changes brought on by long term isolation is now being used in a system for determining whether a driver is too drunk to drive. Device is intended to discourage intoxicated drivers from taking to the road by advising them they are in no condition to operate a vehicle. System is being tested experimentally in California.

  3. Investigating driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes using support vector machine models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Qian, Zhen; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Tian, Zong

    2016-05-01

    Rollover crash is one of the major types of traffic crashes that induce fatal injuries. It is important to investigate the factors that affect rollover crashes and their influence on driver injury severity outcomes. This study employs support vector machine (SVM) models to investigate driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes based on two-year crash data gathered in New Mexico. The impacts of various explanatory variables are examined in terms of crash and environmental information, vehicle features, and driver demographics and behavior characteristics. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is utilized to identify significant variables and SVM models with polynomial and Gaussian radius basis function (RBF) kernels are used for model performance evaluation. It is shown that the SVM models produce reasonable prediction performance and the polynomial kernel outperforms the Gaussian RBF kernel. Variable impact analysis reveals that factors including comfortable driving environment conditions, driver alcohol or drug involvement, seatbelt use, number of travel lanes, driver demographic features, maximum vehicle damages in crashes, crash time, and crash location are significantly associated with driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings provide insights for better understanding rollover crash causes and the impacts of various explanatory factors on driver injury severity patterns. PMID:26938584

  4. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J.; Kales, Stefanos N.; Porter, Richard J.; Hegmann, Kurt T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Methods: Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Results: Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m2), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Conclusions: Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification. PMID:25710607

  5. Drivers license display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  6. Graduated Driver Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  7. Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittenburg, John A.; And Others

    The last phase of the NHTSA-U.S. Coast Guard Driver Improvement Training and Evaluation Project is described. Begun in July 1970, the project had two basic objectives. The first was to determine whether or not driver training programs do, in fact, significantly reduce driver errors and accidents and improve overall driver efficiency. The second…

  8. Occupational Carbon Monoxide Fatalities in the US From Unintentional Non-Fire Related Exposures, 1992–2008

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Scott A.; Bell, Jennifer L.; Sussell, Aaron L.; Konda, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze characteristics of, and trends in, work-related carbon monoxide (CO) fatalities in the US. Methods Records of unintentional, non-fire related fatalities from CO exposure were extracted from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Integrated Management Information System for years 1992–2008 and analyzed separately. Results The average number of annual CO fatalities was 22 (standard deviation = 8). Fatality rates were highest among workers aged ≥65, males, Hispanics, winter months, the Midwest, and the Fishing, Hunting, and Trapping industry subsector. Self-employed workers accounted for 28% of all fatalities. Motor vehicles were the most frequent source of fatal CO exposure, followed by heating systems and generators. Conclusions CO has been the most frequent cause of occupational fatality due to acute inhalation, and has shown no significant decreasing trend since 1992. The high number of fatalities from motor vehicles warrants further investigation. PMID:23868822

  9. Fatal gunshot wounds between 1995 and 2001 in a highly populated region in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Sajantila, Antti

    2005-03-01

    Gunshot injuries are a major problem worldwide from the human, medical, and economic perspectives. The number and characteristics of gunshot fatalities have been observed to vary significantly between countries. This study analyzes fatal gunshot wounds in the region of Uusimaa, Southern Finland, between 1995 and 2001. Gunshot wounds were typically found in suicides committed by men aged between 20 and 60 years. In most cases, a handgun was used. Mental disorders were present in the history of almost one quarter of the victims. Alcohol was identified in postmortem toxicology in half of the cases, but drugs of abuse were relatively uncommon. The autopsy rate in Finland is among the highest of the European Union countries, and a medicolegal investigation is performed in virtually all fatal gunshot incidents. This study is therefore representative of forensic investigations of gunshot fatalities in Finland overall. PMID:15725780

  10. Missing Drivers with Dementia: Antecedents and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; Greenblum, Catherine A.; Boltz, Marie; Galvin, James E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the circumstance in which persons with dementia become lost while driving, how missing drivers are found, and how Silver Alert notificationsare instrumental in those discoveries. DESIGN A retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING Retrospective record review. PARTICIPANTS Conducted using 156 records from the Florida Silver Alert program for the time period October, 2008 through May 2010. These alerts were issued in Florida for a missing driver with dementia. MEASUREMENTS Information derived from the reports on characteristics of the missing driver, antecedents to missing event and discovery of a missing driver. RESULTS and CONCLUSION The majority of missing drivers were males, with ages ranging from 58’94, who were being cared for by a spouse. Most drivers became lost on routine, caregiver-sanctioned trips to usual locations. Only 15% were in the act of driving when found with most being found in or near a parked car and the large majority were found by law enforcement officers. Only 40% were found in the county they went missing and 10% were found in a different state. Silver Alert notifications were most effective for law enforcement; citizen alerts resulted in a few discoveries. There was a 5% mortality rate in the study population with those living alone more likely to be found dead than alive. An additional 15% were found in dangerous situations such as stopped on railroad tracks. Thirty-two percent had documented driving or dangerous errors such as, driving thewrong way or into secluded areas, or walking in or near roadways. PMID:23134069

  11. Fatal Events in Cancer Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Farge, Dominique; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Debourdeau, Philippe; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Rodriguez-Beltrán, Eva Maria; Nieto, Jose Antonio; Peris, Maria Luisa; Zeltser, David; Mazzolai, Lucia; Hij, Adrian; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In cancer patients treated for venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), analyzing mortality associated with recurrent VTE or major bleeding is needed to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation. This was a cohort study using the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) Registry database to compare rates of fatal recurrent PE and fatal bleeding in cancer patients receiving anticoagulation for VTE. As of January 2013, 44,794 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 7911 (18%) had active cancer. During the course of anticoagulant therapy (mean, 181 ± 210 days), 178 cancer patients (4.3%) developed recurrent PE (5.5 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 4.8–6.4), 194 (4.7%) had recurrent DVT (6.2 per 100 patient-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3–7.1), and 367 (8.9%) bled (11.3 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 10.2–12.5). Of 4125 patients initially presenting with PE, 43 (1.0%) died of recurrent PE and 45 (1.1%) of bleeding; of 3786 patients with DVT, 19 (0.5%) died of PE, and 55 (1.3%) of bleeding. During the first 3 months of anticoagulation, there were 59 (1.4%) fatal PE recurrences and 77 (1.9%) fatal bleeds. Beyond the third month, there were 3 fatal PE recurrences and 23 fatal bleeds. In RIETE cancer patients, the rate of fatal recurrent PE or fatal bleeding was much higher within the first 3 months of anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26266353

  12. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

    2014-11-01

    Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

  13. Rise in landing-related skydiving fatalities.

    PubMed

    Hart, Christian L; Griffith, James D

    2003-10-01

    The purpose was to assess whether adoption of potentially dangerous skydiving gear and skydiving practices has led to an increase in fatalities. Beginning in the early 1990s, civilian skydivers began to utilize high performance parachutes that fly much faster and are much more responsive than older style parachutes. Also, skydivers began to fly these parachutes in a more aggressive manner. An analysis of data from the 507 skydiving fatalities in the USA between 1986 and 2001 indicated that this shift toward high performance parachutes and aggressive flying techniques was temporally associated with an increase in parachute-landing deaths. During the same time period, the total number of fatalities remained fairly stable. PMID:14620223

  14. Fatal incidents involving pickup trucks in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Hamar, G B; King, W; Bolton, A; Fine, P R

    1991-03-01

    Death or injury resulting from crashes involving light trucks (ie, pickup trucks) is a significant problem. Data show that fatal crashes and occupant fatalities involving light trucks have steadily increased since 1983. This project describes vehicle crashes involving passengers riding in the beds of pickup trucks. Actual crashes were identified through the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The 40 incidents studied involved 204 pickup truck passengers. Of these, 45 were killed, 107 sustained visible injuries or were carried from the scene, 6 had bruises and abrasions, and 2 had no visible injury but were briefly unconscious or had a documented complaint of pain. The risk of death among pickup truck passengers who were fully ejected from the vehicle was nearly six times that of passengers not fully ejected. Correspondingly, the risk of ejection from the truck was 26.7 times greater among occupants riding in the bed than occupants riding in the cab. PMID:2000522

  15. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities. PMID:25470264

  16. Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Heather; Myers, John; Liu, Gil; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study aimed to better understand trends and risk factors associated with non-fatal drowning of infants and children in the USA using two large, national databases. Methods A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. The analytic sample (n=19 403) included children <21 years of age who had a diagnosis code for near-drowning/non-fatal drowning. Descriptive, χ2 and analysis of variance techniques were applied, and incidence rates were calculated per 100 000 population. Results Non-fatal drowning incidence has remained relatively stable from 2006 to 2011. In general, the highest rates of non-fatal drowning occurred in swimming pools and in children from racial/ethnic minorities. However, when compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian children, children from racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to drown in natural waterways than in swimming pools. Despite the overall lower rate of non-fatal drowning among non-Hispanic Caucasian children, the highest rate of all non-fatal drowning was for non-Hispanic Caucasian children aged 0–4 years in swimming pools. Children who were admitted to inpatient facilities were younger, male and came from families with lower incomes. Conclusions Data from two large US national databases show lack of progress in preventing and reducing non-fatal drowning admissions from 2006 to 2011. Discrepancies are seen in the location of drowning events and demographic characteristics. New policies and interventions are needed, and tailoring approaches by age and race/ethnicity may improve their effectiveness. PMID:26671950

  17. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

  18. Health on the road: issues faced by female truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Reed, Deborah B; Cronin, Jennifer Skeeters

    2003-03-01

    Nearly 3 million long haul truck drivers transport goods across America. Truck driving is rated as the nation's third largest growth occupation. Between 174,000 and 290,000 drivers are women and the percentage of women in trucking is growing. A descriptive study was conducted to identify health conditions, health care access, and driving environments of female drivers. Analyses of the 284 surveys showed only 77.8% had a usual place of health care. One of five had no insurance coverage and only 35 respondents had paid sick leave. Drivers reported substantial prevalence of sinus problems, back pain, migraine headaches, and hypertension. Drivers ignored symptoms or self medicated when working. More than 40% expressed dissatisfaction with health care while "on the road." Occupational health nurses may be in positions to address the special needs of drivers through websites, trucker health clinics, or special programs delivered where truckers congregate. PMID:12670099

  19. High current, high bandwidth laser diode current driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, David J.; Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A laser diode current driver has been developed for free space laser communications. The driver provides 300 mA peak modulation current and exhibits an optical risetime of less than 400 ps. The current and optical pulses are well behaved and show minimal ringing. The driver is well suited for QPPM modulation at data rates up to 440 Mbit/s. Much previous work has championed current steering circuits; in contrast, the present driver is a single-ended on/off switch. This results in twice the power efficiency as a current steering driver. The driver electrical efficiency for QPPM data is 34 percent. The high speed switch is realized with a Ku-band GaAsFET transistor, with a suitable pre-drive circuit, on a hybrid microcircuit adjacent to the laser diode.

  20. Fatal occupational injuries--United States, 1980-1997.

    PubMed

    2001-04-27

    CDC monitors deaths from occupational injuries through the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system (1,2). This report provides an overview of traumatic occupational deaths among civilian workers from NTOF from 1980 through 1997, the most recent year for which data are available. The data presented in this report indicate a decrease in occupational deaths overthis period with mining, agriculture/forestry/fishing, and construction having the highest death rates; motor-vehicle crashes were the leading cause of injury-related deaths for U.S. workers. State health departments and others involved in prevention of occupational injuries can use the data to prioritize intervention programs. PMID:11465900

  1. Identifying future ‘unexpected’ survivors: a retrospective cohort study of fatal injury patterns in victims of improvised explosive devices

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, James A G; Gibb, Iain E; Hunt, Nicholas C A; Bull, Anthony M J; Clasper, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify potentially fatal injury patterns in explosive blast fatalities in order to focus research and mitigation strategies, to further improve survival rates from blast trauma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants UK military personnel killed by improvised explosive device (IED) blasts in Afghanistan, November 2007–August 2010. Setting UK military deployment, through NATO, in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan. Data sources UK military postmortem CT records, UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry and associated incident data. Main outcome measures Potentially fatal injuries attributable to IEDs. Results We identified 121 cases, 42 mounted (in-vehicle) and 79 dismounted (on foot), at a point of wounding. There were 354 potentially fatal injuries in total. Leading causes of death were traumatic brain injury (50%, 62/124 fatal injuries), followed by intracavity haemorrhage (20.2%, 25/124) in the mounted group, and extremity haemorrhage (42.6%, 98/230 fatal injuries), junctional haemorrhage (22.2%, 51/230 fatal injuries) and traumatic brain injury (18.7%, 43/230 fatal injuries) in the dismounted group. Conclusions Head trauma severity in both mounted and dismounted IED fatalities indicated prevention and mitigation as the most effective strategies to decrease resultant mortality. Two-thirds of dismounted fatalities had haemorrhage implicated as a cause of death that may have been anatomically amenable to prehospital intervention. One-fifth of the mounted fatalities had haemorrhagic trauma which currently could only be addressed surgically. Maintaining the drive to improve all haemostatic techniques for blast casualties, from point of wounding to definitive surgical proximal vascular control, alongside the development and application of novel haemostatic interventions could yield a significant survival benefit. Prospective studies in this field are indicated. PMID:23906957

  2. Anticipating early fatality: friends', schoolmates' and individual perceptions of fatality on adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Dana L; Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2014-02-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51% female and 71% white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in non-violent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  3. Fatal injuries in offshore oil and gas operations - United States, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-04-26

    During 2003-2010, the U.S. oil and gas extraction industry (onshore and offshore, combined) had a collective fatality rate seven times higher than for all U.S. workers (27.1 versus 3.8 deaths per 100,000 workers). The 11 lives lost in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion provide a reminder of the hazards involved in offshore drilling. To identify risk factors to offshore oil and gas extraction workers, CDC analyzed data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), a comprehensive database of fatal work injuries, for the period 2003-2010. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that 128 fatalities in activities related to offshore oil and gas operations occurred during this period. Transportation events were the leading cause (65 [51%]); the majority of these involved aircraft (49 [75%]). Nearly one fourth (31 [24%]) of the fatalities occurred among workers whose occupations were classified as "transportation and material moving." To reduce fatalities in offshore oil and gas operations, employers should ensure that the most stringent applicable transportation safety guidelines are followed. PMID:23615672

  4. A Multi-Year Analysis of Fatal Farm and Agricultural Injuries in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Gorucu, S; Murphy, D J; Kassab, C

    2015-10-01

    Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting comprise the most hazardous industry in the U.S., and production agriculture accounts for the majority of fatalities in the industry. Using Penn State's farm and agricultural injury database, data were coded according to ASABE's Farm and Agricultural Injury Classification (FAIC) code and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) for source and event or exposure types. Occupational and non-occupational incidents were compared based on age groups, religious sect, source of injury, and the injury event or exposure. There were 355 farm and agricultural fatalities in Pennsylvania from 2000 through 2012, and 56% of these fatalities were occupational. The fatality rate was 33.4 per 100,000 farm household residents per year. Youth under 15 years old, seniors age 65 and older, Anabaptist youth, and young females were at high risk of fatal farm injury. Vehicles and transportation incidents were the most common injury source and event/exposure type, respectively. This research illustrates how state-level or national-level data can be collected, coded, and analyzed based on the FAIC and OIICS classification systems to better understand fatal injury causes and connections among important variables. This process can also help to target intervention programs and efforts. PMID:26710584

  5. Driver distraction and driver inattention: definition, relationship and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael A; Hallett, Charlene; Gordon, Craig P

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that driver distraction and driver inattention are leading causes of vehicle crashes and incidents. However, as applied psychological constructs, they have been inconsistently defined and the relationship between them remains unclear. In this paper, driver distraction and driver inattention are defined and a taxonomy is presented in which driver distraction is distinguished from other forms of driver inattention. The taxonomy and the definitions provided are intended (a) to provide a common framework for coding different forms of driver inattention as contributing factors in crashes and incidents, so that comparable estimates of their role as contributing factors can be made across different studies, and (b) to make it possible to more accurately interpret and compare, across studies, the research findings for a given form of driver inattention. PMID:21658505

  6. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  7. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe

    2016-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  8. Fatal Case of Listeria innocua Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:14605191

  9. Fatal outcome of Bacillus cereus septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Lede, I; Vlaar, A; Roosendaal, R; Geerlings, S; Spanjaard, L

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental micro-organism which is often a contaminant of clinical cultures. Infections due to B. cereus are described, but mostly in immunocompromised patients. We report a fatal outcome of B. cereus septicaemia in an immunocompetent patient with a mechanical mitral valve. PMID:22173364

  10. Fatal fat embolism during ritual initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, N.

    1975-01-01

    A young Coast Salish Indian woman became fatally ill during ritual Initiation into the Native Winter Spirit Dancing Society. She died from massive fat emboli associated with subcutaneous bruises that appeared clinically unimportant and were not associated with fractures or other underlying injury. The liver showed extreme fatty metamorphosis. PMID:1139497

  11. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G.; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H.; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  12. Fatal gunshot injuries in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akhiwu, Wilson O; Igbe, Alex P

    2013-10-01

    An upsurge in gun violence in recent times in our environment necessitated this study, which aims to document the patterns of fatal gunshot injuries with the hope of finding a solution to this problem. The study was a retrospective analysis of cases of fatal gunshot injuries on which autopsies were carried out over the 5-year period from January 1998 to December 2002 at Police Medical Services, Benin City - a Nigerian ancient town located in the South-South zone of the country. Most cases of medico-legal death in Benin City and environs are referred to the Police Pathologist at the center for autopsy. A total of 210 cases representing 27.2% of all medico-legal deaths during the study period were reviewed. Males were far more affected than females (M:F = 10.7:1). The intent for the fatal gunshots was murder (88.5%), excusable homicide (4.8%), accident (4.3%) and suicide (0.5%). In 1.9% of the deaths, the circumstances were not clear. Armed robbers, thugs and assassins accounted for 88.1% of the fatal shots, while the Police accounted for 9.0%. The trunk was affected much more than the head, neck and limbs. There is a need to improve security in the country and reduce poverty. Illegal firearms should also be removed from circulation. An improvement in emergency health services will reduce deaths from gunshots. PMID:23842480

  13. Hierarchical Bayesian random intercept model-based cross-level interaction decomposition for truck driver injury severity investigations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tian, Zong; Bogus, Susan M; Yang, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Traffic crashes occurring on rural roadways induce more severe injuries and fatalities than those in urban areas, especially when there are trucks involved. Truck drivers are found to suffer higher potential of crash injuries compared with other occupational labors. Besides, unobserved heterogeneity in crash data analysis is a critical issue that needs to be carefully addressed. In this study, a hierarchical Bayesian random intercept model decomposing cross-level interaction effects as unobserved heterogeneity is developed to examine the posterior probabilities of truck driver injuries in rural truck-involved crashes. The interaction effects contributing to truck driver injury outcomes are investigated based on two-year rural truck-involved crashes in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. The analysis results indicate that the cross-level interaction effects play an important role in predicting truck driver injury severities, and the proposed model produces comparable performance with the traditional random intercept model and the mixed logit model even after penalization by high model complexity. It is revealed that factors including road grade, number of vehicles involved in a crash, maximum vehicle damage in a crash, vehicle actions, driver age, seatbelt use, and driver under alcohol or drug influence, as well as a portion of their cross-level interaction effects with other variables are significantly associated with truck driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings are helpful to understand the respective or joint impacts of these attributes on truck driver injury patterns in rural truck-involved crashes. PMID:26454045

  14. Trends of Occupational Fatalities Involving Machines, United States, 1992–2010

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Suzanne M.; Fosbroke, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper describes trends of occupational machine-related fatalities from 1992–2010. We examine temporal patterns by worker demographics, machine types (e.g., stationary, mobile), and industries. Methods We analyzed fatalities from Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We used injury source to identify machine-related incidents and Poisson regression to assess trends over the 19-year period. Results There was an average annual decrease of 2.8% in overall machine-related fatality rates from 1992 through 2010. Mobile machine-related fatality rates decreased an average of 2.6% annually and stationary machine-related rates decreased an average of 3.5% annually. Groups that continued to be at high risk included older workers; self-employed; and workers in agriculture/forestry/fishing, construction, and mining. Conclusion Addressing dangers posed by tractors, excavators, and other mobile machines needs to continue. High-risk worker groups should receive targeted information on machine safety. PMID:26358658

  15. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  16. Florida Driver Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Susan H.

    This student edition contains the same basic information as the official Florida Driver Handbook, but the reading difficulty of the material has been sharply reduced. It also provides activity-oriented exercises and review tests on this material. Introductory materials include a complete listing of all activities given, some vocabulary exercises…

  17. The Bicycle Driver's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    Designed to emphasize the concept of the bicycle driver vs. the popular term, bicycle rider, this manual contains guidelines on bicycle safety, addressing itself both to parents and children. The main section topics are: (1) parent responsibility; (2) choosing a bicycle, fitting it to the child, and learning to drive; (3) bicycle equipment,…

  18. Driver Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brum, Herbert D.; And Others

    Intended for driver education instructors in Ohio, the guide is designed to acquaint teachers with special characteristics, capacities, and needs of the handicapped student population and to provide resources, information, and ideas for meeting those special needs. An introductory section discusses the purpose and use of the curriculum. Section 2…

  19. Assessment of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Reuben, D B

    1993-05-01

    As concern increases about the safety of the aging driver, it is clear that the principal goal of assessment is to identify the unsafe driver and provide effective medical and rehabilitative services to enable the resumption of safe driving. When adequate restorative therapy is not possible, it is necessary to restrict or revoke the privilege of driving. Assessment also can reassure the safe older driver that he or she can continue operating a motor vehicle without restrictions. The process of assessing the older driver is best accomplished through the collaboration of health professionals and governmental agencies. The former identify and treat, if possible, medical conditions that may pose threats to safe driving; the latter establish guidelines of competency for driving tasks. These roles are complementary, although the settings and methods for these assessments are different. Moreover, the responsibilities of the physician and other health care professionals extend beyond the decision regarding driving and must consider the individual needs for driving, as well as the ramifications associated with its cessation. PMID:8504391

  20. Seven Performance Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  1. Space Age Driver Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  2. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  3. Do Geographic Regions with Higher Suicide Rates Also Have Higher Rates of Nonfatal Intentional Self-Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Carmody, Thomas; Bossarte, Robert; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Elliott, Stephen; Currier, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal intentional self-harm events in eight U.S. states were compared using emergency department, hospital, and vital statistics data. Nonfatal event rates increased by an estimated 24.20% over 6 years. Case fatality ratios varied widely, but two northeastern states' total event rates (fatal plus nonfatal) were very high (New…

  4. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  5. Factors determining case fatality in myocardial infarction "who dies in a heart attack"?

    PubMed Central

    Wannamethee, G.; Whincup, P. H.; Shaper, A. G.; Walker, M.; MacFarlane, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the determinants of case fatality in the first major ischaemic heart disease event (heart attack) after screening. METHODS--Prospective study of 7735 middle aged men drawn from general practices in 24 British towns. RESULTS--During 11.5 years follow up there were 743 major ischaemic heart disease events of which 302 (40.6%) were fatal within 28 days of onset. Previous definite myocardial infarction or stroke and age at time of event were most strongly associated with case fatality. In men with no previous myocardial infarction or stroke, after adjustment for a range of risk factors, antihypertensive treatment (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, P < 0.05), arrhythmia (OR = 1.93, P = 0.06), increased heart rate (OR = 2.03, P = 0.06), and diabetes (OR = 2.61, P = 0.07) were associated with increased case fatality. High levels of physical activity (OR = 0.53, P < 0.05) and moderate drinking (16-42 units/week) (OR = 0.61, P < 0.05) were associated with lower case fatality, although moderate drinking was not associated with a lower incidence of major ischaemic heart disease events. Current smoking, serum total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure were not significantly associated with case fatality. In men with previous myocardial infarction or stroke, arrhythmia and to a lesser degree antihypertensive treatment, moderate or heavy drinking, and diabetes were associated with higher case fatality. CONCLUSION--These findings suggest that physical activity may be an important modifiable factor influencing the incidence of ischaemic heart disease and the chance of survival in men without a previous heart attack or stroke. Arrhythmia, increased heart rate, diabetes, and treatment for hypertension are also areas of concern. PMID:7547031

  6. Investigating the predictive of risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among Iranian drivers

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Haghi, Azam; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization findings shows that up to year 2020 the number of fatality due to driving accidents will increases up to 65%, which is 80% is in developing countries. Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic accident mortality rate in the world. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the center and west of Iran upon 540 ordinary and taxi drivers who were driving regularly from bus terminals and the travel agencies to other cities. Data collection tool is a questionnaire that measuring driving risk taking by two items of risky driving behaviors and risk taking attitudes. Findings: The results of this study showed that the averages of risk driving behaviors scores were higher than the average of risk taking attitudes scores. The results of logistic regression test showed that the risky driving behaviors can be a predictor of driving accidents due to individuals’ risk taking (P = 0.014). Among all these variables, attitude toward rule violations and speeding, aggressive driving and violation of the road laws respectively are important predictive of drivers’ risk taking (P < 0.0010). Discussion and Conclusion: Although attitude toward risk taking has been located at a low level by different ways, a desired result was not obtained from the reduction of those high risky behaviors; in fact, high-rate of accidents and traffic incidence in Iran indicates this matter well. PMID:24741659

  7. Reducing older driver motor vehicle collisions via earlier cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-12-01

    Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual's complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call "Current Practice" (CP) and "Earlier Surgery" (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost - all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures - is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60-64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): Child Welfare ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: 2016 https:// ...

  9. The effects of vehicle model and driver behavior on risk.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2005-05-01

    We study the dependence of risk on vehicle type and especially on vehicle model. Here, risk is measured by the number of driver fatalities per year per million vehicles registered. We analyze both the risk to the drivers of each vehicle model and the risk the vehicle model imposes on drivers of other vehicles with which it crashes. The "combined risk" associated with each vehicle model is simply the sum of the risk-to-drivers in all kinds of crashes and the risk-to-drivers-of-other-vehicles in two-vehicle crashes. We find that most car models are as safe to their drivers as most sport utility vehicles (SUVs); the increased risk of a rollover in a SUV roughly balances the higher risk for cars that collide with SUVs and pickup trucks. We find that SUVs and to a greater extent pickup trucks, impose much greater risks than cars on drivers of other vehicles; and these risks increase with increasing pickup size. The higher aggressivity of SUVs and pickups makes their combined risk higher than that of almost all cars. Effects of light truck design on their risk are revealed by the analysis of specific models: new unibody (or "crossover") SUVs appear, in preliminary analysis, to have much lower risks than the most popular truck-based SUVs. Much has been made in the past about the high risk of low-mass cars in certain kinds of collisions. We find there are other plausible explanations for this pattern of risk, which suggests that mass may not be fundamental to safety. While not conclusive, this is potentially important because improvement in fuel economy is a major goal for designers of new vehicles. We find that accounting for the most risky drivers, young males and the elderly, does not change our general results. Similarly, we find with California data that the high risk of rural driving and the high level of rural driving by pickups does not increase the risk-to-drivers of pickups relative to that for cars. However, other more subtle differences in drivers and the

  10. The association between high-risk behavior and central nervous system injuries: analysis of traffic-related fatalities in a large coroner's series.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Andrea; Shaker, Adel; Martin, Maureen; Skinner, Ruby

    2013-10-01

    High-risk behaviors leading to traffic fatalities are often a result of severe traumatic brain and spine injuries. The objective of the study was to analyze patterns of behavior in drivers and motorcyclists that are associated with central nervous system (CNS)-related prehospital deaths that may serve as a basis for future prevention initiatives. Our study group comprised 514 fatalities with severe CNS injuries documented at autopsy. The majority (n = 491) was the result of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). In this group, male drivers predominated and the majority, 80 per cent, wore seatbelts. Toxicology analysis revealed 53 per cent of drivers with a mean concentration of ethanol above the legal limit. Texting while driving comprised 45 per cent of the study group. Less than 5 per cent of the fatalities were the result of road or weather conditions. In the motorcycle group (n = 23), 100 per cent of the victims were unhelmeted. We report a large autopsy series of CNS-related deaths with analysis of behavioral factors associated with the fatalities. Substance abuse and distracted driving are dominant patterns of high-risk behavior in MVCs and not wearing a motorcycle helmet is deadly for victims of motorcycle crashes. PMID:24160804

  11. Impact of mandating a driving lesson for older drivers at license renewal in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Inada, Haruhiko

    2015-02-01

    In Japan, a driving lesson consisting of a lecture, a driver aptitude test, on-road driving assessment and a discussion session was added to the driving license renewal procedure for drivers aged 75 years or older in 1998 and for drivers aged 70 years or older in 2002. We investigated whether these additions contributed to a reduction in at-fault motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) by examining the trend of the at-fault MVC rates per licensed driver and the rate ratios of the older drivers relative to those aged 65-69 years for the years 1986-2011. All data were derived from nationwide traffic statistics. If the introduction of the lesson was effective in reducing at-fault MVCs of older drivers, the rate ratio should have declined, given that the lesson targeted only the older drivers. We found this was not the case, i.e., there was no declining trend in the at-fault MVC rate ratios of both drivers aged 75 years or older and drivers aged 70 years or older, relative to drivers aged 65-69 years, after the driving lesson at license renewal became mandatory for these older drivers. Therefore, the mandatory lesson for the older drivers at license renewal needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25460091

  12. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  13. The Effect of Bicycle Helmet Legislation on Bicycling Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren; Rutner, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    A number of states passed legislation in the 1990s requiring youths to wear helmets when riding bicycles. The effect of this legislation on bicycling fatalities is examined by subjecting data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System to a panel analysis, using a control-group methodology. A helmet law reduces fatalities by about 15 percent in…

  14. Two Innovations in Bus Driver Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Management, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Discusses driver and human relations training for school bus drivers. A driver training program in California aims at reaching all 19,000 school bus drivers. A human relations training program in Seattle focuses on bettering student-driver and driver-administrator relations. (DN)

  15. A fatal case of menthol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akshay; Baitha, Upendra; Aggarwal, Praveen; Jamshed, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is a monocyclic terpene alcohol, which is present naturally in peppermint and can be synthesized artificially as well. Generally, it is considered as very safe and has wide usage in medicine and food. There are case reports of toxicity due to excessive consumption of menthol, but a fatal intoxication has never been reported in the medical literature. We present a case of fatal menthol intoxication in a worker, who accidently got exposed when he was working in a peppermint factory. Emergency physicians must keep in mind this extremely rare manifestation of menthol poisoning. All necessary precaution should be taken to reduce its intake or exposure, as it has no specific antidote. Early recognition and supportive treatment of this poisoning is the key for a successful outcome. PMID:27127746

  16. Case report of fatal Mycobacterium tilburgii infection.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Timur; Bakkaloglu, Oguz K; Ince, Burak; Tufan, Fatih; Kose, Murat; Poda, Mehves; Tascioglu, Didem; Koksalan, O Kaya; Saka, Bulent; Erten, Nilgun; Buyukbabani, Nesimi; Kilicaslan, Zeki; Tascioglu, Cemil

    2015-07-01

    There are few reports concerning Mycobacterium tilburgii infection in humans because this bacterium is non-cultivatable. Herein, using new molecular techniques, we report the case of an immunocompromised patient with fatal disseminated lymphadenitis that was caused by M. tilburgii.26 years old Caucasian HIV negative female patient presented with abdominal pain. Her clinical assessment revealed disseminated lymphadenitis, that was acid fast bacilli positive. Further molecular evaluation showed the causative agent as M. tilburgii. Despite anti mycobacterial therapy and careful management of intervening complications patient died because of an intraabdominal sepsis. This is the first fatal M. tilburgii infection in the literature. This case points the importance of careful management of patient's immune status and intervening infections besides implementation of effective drug treatment. PMID:25818194

  17. A fatal case of menthol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akshay; Baitha, Upendra; Aggarwal, Praveen; Jamshed, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is a monocyclic terpene alcohol, which is present naturally in peppermint and can be synthesized artificially as well. Generally, it is considered as very safe and has wide usage in medicine and food. There are case reports of toxicity due to excessive consumption of menthol, but a fatal intoxication has never been reported in the medical literature. We present a case of fatal menthol intoxication in a worker, who accidently got exposed when he was working in a peppermint factory. Emergency physicians must keep in mind this extremely rare manifestation of menthol poisoning. All necessary precaution should be taken to reduce its intake or exposure, as it has no specific antidote. Early recognition and supportive treatment of this poisoning is the key for a successful outcome. PMID:27127746

  18. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  19. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  20. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction following ioversol administration.

    PubMed

    Jansman, Frank Ga; Kieft, Hans; Harting, Johannes W

    2007-12-01

    We report a fatal intravenous ioversol administration in a 60-year old male patient. Although the introduction of new low-osmolar non-ionogenic contrast media with a more favourable efficacy-toxicity balance has diminished the side-effects significantly, everyone involved in radiodiagnostic procedures should be aware of the potential life-threatening effects. Especially patients with risk factors for side-effects should be monitored carefully. PMID:17557212

  1. Fatal Alveolar Echinococcosis of the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Keutgens, Aurore; Simoni, Paolo; Detrembleur, Nancy; Frippiat, Frédéric; Giot, Jean-Baptiste; Spirlet, François; Aghazarian, Saro; Descy, Julie; Meex, Cécile; Huynen, Pascale; Melin, Pierrette; Müller, Norbert; Gottstein, Bruno; Carlier, Yves

    2013-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the southern part of Belgium has been recognized as a low-risk area of endemicity for alveolar echinococcosis. This infection, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, usually induces a severe liver condition and can sometimes spread to other organs. However, alveolar echinococcosis involving bones has been described only very rarely. Here, a fatal case of spondylodiscitis due to E. multilocularis contracted in southern Belgium is reported. PMID:23175265

  2. Operational cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.

  3. Contextual Determinants of Adolescent Perceived Early Fatality.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Rees, Carter; Farrell, Chelsea

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents overestimate their risk for early or premature death. In turn, perceived early fatality is associated with a host of adverse developmental outcomes. Research on the correlates of perceived early fatality is nascent, and an examination of the contextual determinants of perceived early fatality is largely absent from the literature. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study examines whether friendship networks and the school climate impact youth's perceptions of premature death. Analysis using hierarchical linear models on 9617 youth (52.0 % female) within 113 middle and high schools across the U.S. assess the extent to which peer and school future orientation climate and friendship network characteristics (network size, density, popularity, and centrality) impact respondents' life expectancy. Consistent with hypotheses: (1) higher levels of life expectancy in respondents' friendship networks and schools are associated with more optimistic expectations about the future among sample respondents; and (2) youth embedded in larger and denser friendship networks report higher levels of life expectancy. The results are consistent with the literature on peer effects, studies documenting the insulating effects of extensive and closely knit peer networks, and research on the contextual effects of the school environment. More generally, the results suggest that adolescent friendship networks and the school climate are key contexts in which youth develop expectations for the future. PMID:27325518

  4. Idiopathic Fatal Pancytopenia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Vijai

    2016-01-01

    Pancytopenia is defined as decrease in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Many disease processes involve the bone marrow primarily or secondarily resulting in pancytopenia. A 55-year-old male presented with generalized body weakness and few episodes of malena for last one year. Physical and systemic examination was unremarkable. CBC report revealed pancytopenia. Other haematological parameters were within normal limit. Stool for occult blood was positive. USG and CECT abdomen showed no abnormality. The patient was evaluated for any evidence of malignancy but no clue was found. Bone marrow examination was done as patient was having pancytopenia. Bone marrow smears, clot sections and bone marrow biopsy was normal. Immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics study was unremarkable. Patient was admitted in hospital for 1 month and his condition rapidly deteriorated. The cause of pancytopenia remained unexplained and therefore it was named as Idiopathic fatal pancytopenia. “Idiopathic Fatal Pancytopenia (IFP)” is an emerging new entity with a grave prognosis. We wish to sensitize the medical community and the scientists to this rapidly fatal condition. PMID:27504300

  5. Three fatal intoxications due to methylone.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Julia M; Hargraves, Tiffanie L; Hair, Laura S; Massucci, Charles J; Frazee, C Clinton; Garg, Uttam; Pietak, B Robert

    2012-07-01

    We present three fatal intoxications of methylone, a cathinone derivative. Blood was analyzed with a routine alkaline liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Methylone was identified by a full scan mass spectral comparison to an analytical standard of methylone. For a definitive and conclusive confirmation and quantitation, methylone was also derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analyzed by GC-MS. In all three fatalities, the deceased exhibited seizure-like activity and elevated body temperatures (103.9, 105.9 and 107°F) before death. Two of the three cases also exhibited metabolic acidosis. One of the three cases had prolonged treatment and hospitalization before death with symptoms similar to sympathomimetic toxicity, including metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The laboratory results for this patient over the 24 h period of hospitalization were significant for increased lactate, liver transaminases, creatinine, myoglobin, creatine kinase and clotting times, and decreased pH, glucose and calcium. Peripheral blood methylone concentrations in the three fatal cases were 0.84, 3.3 and 0.56 mg/L. In conlusion, peripheral blood methylone concentrations in excess of 0.5 mg/L may result in death due to its toxic properties, which can include elevated body temperature and other sympathomimetic-like symptoms. PMID:22589523

  6. Heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Chen, Cong; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Wang, Haizhong; Wei, Heng

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a mixed logit model is developed to identify the heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes. The random parameter of the variables in the mixed logit model, the heterogeneous mean, is elaborated by driver gender-based linear regression models. The model is estimated using crash data in New Mexico from 2010 to 2012. The percentage changes of factors' predicted probabilities are calculated in order to better understand the model specifications. Female drivers are found more likely to experience severe or fatal injuries in rollover crashes than male drivers. However, the probability of male drivers being severely injured is higher than female drivers when the road surface is unpaved. Two other factors with fixed parameters are also found to significantly increase driver injury severities, including Wet and Alcohol Influenced. This study provides a better understanding of contributing factors influencing driver injury severities in rollover crashes as well as their heterogeneous impacts in terms of driver gender. Those results are also helpful to develop appropriate countermeasures and policies to reduce driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes. PMID:27240126

  7. Fatal work-related injuries in the U.S. chemical industry 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Suruda, A; Wallace, D

    1996-01-01

    Several mortality studies of the chemical industry have examined fatal injuries, but most of these studies have been of employees of large chemical firms and have not separated work-related from non-work-related injuries. We examined all U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigation files in 1984-89 in 47 U.S. states of fatal injuries in the chemical industry, Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2800-2899. OSHA investigates all reported deaths over which it has jurisdiction; this includes most causes of work-related death except for homicide and motor vehicle crashes. For the 6 year period, there were 234 fatalities in the chemical industry, for a work-related fatality rate of 0.55 per 10,000 workers/year. The largest category of deaths was from explosions, with 99 (42%), followed by fire & burns, with 32 (14%), poisoning, with 31 (13%), and falls, with 18 (8%). Of the 99 deaths from explosions, 45 (45%) involved manufacture or handling of fireworks or other explosives. The fatality rate at firms with fewer than 50 employees was more than twice that of larger firms (P < 0.05) and employees at small firms were less likely to have been covered by a union contract (P < 0.05). OSHA issued citations for safety violations in 73% of the deaths. While regulatory authorities and the media often focus attention on large, multinational chemical corporations, the highest worker fatality rates are found at the smallest chemical firms. PMID:8891780

  8. Fatalism Revisited: Further Psychometric Testing Across Two Studies.

    PubMed

    Heiney, Sue P; Gullatte, Mary; Hayne, Pearman D; Powe, Barbara; Habing, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Cancer fatalism may impact outcomes, particularly for African American (AA) women with breast cancer (BrCa). We examined the psychometrics of the modified Powe Fatalism Inventory in sample of AA women with BrCa from two studies. Only the predetermination and God's will items satisfy the conditions to be classified as a strong subscale. Our analysis identified that five items had strong psychometric properties for measuring fatalism for AA women with BrCa. However, these items do not include all the defining attributes of fatalism. A strong measure of fatalism strengthens our understanding of how this concept influences AA patient outcomes. PMID:26661622

  9. Vulnerability of Female Drivers Involved in Motor Vehicle Crashes: An Analysis of US Population at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Segui-Gomez, Maria; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Motor vehicle trauma has been effectively reduced over the past decades; however, it is unclear whether the benefits are equally realized by the vehicle users of either sex. With increases in the number of female drivers involved in fatal crashes and similarity in driving patterns and risk behavior, we sought to evaluate if advances in occupant safety technology provide equal injury protection for drivers of either sex involved in a serious or fatal crash. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study with national crash data between 1998 and 2008 to determine the role of driver sex as a predictor of injury outcome when involved in a crash. Results. The odds for a belt-restrained female driver to sustain severe injuries were 47% (95% confidence interval = 28%, 70%) higher than those for a belt-restrained male driver involved in a comparable crash. Conclusions. To address the sex-specific disparity demonstrated in this study, health policies and vehicle regulations must focus on effective safety designs specifically tailored toward the female population for equity in injury reduction. PMID:22021321

  10. Implementation of Molecular Surveillance After a Cluster of Fatal Toxoplasmosis at 2 Neighboring Transplant Centers.

    PubMed

    Isa, Flonza; Saito, Kohta; Huang, Yao-Ting; Schuetz, Audrey; Babady, N Esther; Salvatore, Steven; Pessin, Melissa; van Besien, Koen; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Giralt, Sergio; Sepkowitz, Kent; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A; Soave, Rosemary; Kamboj, Mini

    2016-08-15

    After a cluster of fatal toxoplasmosis among stem cell transplant recipients at 2 hospitals, surveillance with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (blood) was instituted. Rate of reactivation among seropositive recipients was 2.2 and 16%. Parasitemia was successfully managed with preemptive treatment. For seropositive recipients unable to take prophylaxis, toxoplasma PCR surveillance should be routinely performed. PMID:27199460

  11. US Commercial Air Tour Crashes, 2000–2011: Burden, Fatal Risk Factors, and FIA Score Validation

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Beaty, Leland P.; Baker, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study provides new public health data concerning the US commercial air tour industry. Risk factors for fatality in air tour crashes were analyzed to determine the value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes. Methods Using the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and National Transportation Safety Board data, the incidence of commercial air tour crashes from 2000 through 2010 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes occurring from 2000 through 2011 were analyzed using regression methods. The FIA score, Li and Baker’s fatality risk index, was validated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The industry-wide commercial air tour crash rate was 2.7 per 100,000 flight hours. The incidence rates of Part 91 and 135 commercial air tour crashes were 3.4 and 2.3 per 100,000 flight hours, respectively (relative risk [RR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.1, P=0.015). Of the 152 air tour crashes that occurred from 2000 through 2011, 30 (20%) involved at least one fatality and, on average, 3.5 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with three major risk factors: fire (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.1, 95% CI 1.5–16.7, P=0.008), instrument meteorological conditions (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.1–26.4, P=0.038), and off-airport location (AOR 7.2, 95% CI 1.6–33.2, P=0.011). The area under the FIA Score’s ROC curve was 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88). Discussion Commercial air tour crash rates were high relative to similar commercial aviation operations. Disparities between Part 91 and 135 air tour crash rates reflect regulatory disparities that require FAA action. The FIA Score appeared to be a valid measurement of fatal risk in air tour crashes. The FIA should prioritize interventions that address the three major risk factors identified by this study. PMID:23631935

  12. Risk of fatal rollover in utility vehicles relative to static stability.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1989-01-01

    The risk of fatal rollover of utility vehicles per 100,000 registered vehicles relative to cars during 1982-87 was strongly correlated to the static stability of the vehicles. Distance between the center of the tires divided by twice the height of center of gravity explained 62 per cent of the variation in fatal rollover rates where rollover was the first harmful event. Statistical controls for 20 major risk factors indicated no correlations that would deflate the correlation between stability and rollover. Low stability utility vehicles roll over more often on the road suggesting that the lateral force of turning is often the tipping force. PMID:2916715

  13. Reduction in Fatalities, Ambulance Calls, and Hospital Admissions for Road Trauma After Implementation of New Traffic Laws

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Herbert; Brasher, Penelope; Erdelyi, Shannon; Desapriya, Edi; Asbridge, Mark; Purssell, Roy; Macdonald, Scott; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the public health benefits of traffic laws targeting speeding and drunk drivers (British Columbia, Canada, September 2010). Methods. We studied fatal crashes and ambulance dispatches and hospital admissions for road trauma, using interrupted time series with multiple nonequivalent comparison series. We determined estimates of effect using linear regression models incorporating an autoregressive integrated moving average error term. We used neighboring jurisdictions (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Washington State) as external controls. Results. In the 2 years after implementation of the new laws, significant decreases occurred in fatal crashes (21.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.3, 26.4) and in hospital admissions (8.0%; 95% CI = 0.6, 14.9) and ambulance calls (7.2%; 95% CI = 1.1, 13.0) for road trauma. We found a very large reduction in alcohol-related fatal crashes (52.0%; 95% CI = 34.5, 69.5), and the benefits of the new laws are likely primarily the result of a reduction in drinking and driving. Conclusions. These findings suggest that laws calling for immediate sanctions for dangerous drivers can reduce road trauma and should be supported. PMID:25121822

  14. Comparison of risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Manoogian, Sarah J

    2012-03-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of rollover crashes have focused primarily on serious and fatal injuries in general, while rollover crash testing has focused almost exclusively on cervical spine injury. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in real world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes from 1995-2008 in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) were investigated. A large data set of 6015 raw cases (2.5 million weighted) was generated. Nonparametric univariate analyses, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted. Complete or partial ejection, a lack of seatbelt use, a greater number of roof inversions, and older occupant age significantly increased the risk of all types of injuries studied (p<0.05). Far side seating position increased the risk of fatal, head, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not serious injury in general. Higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of fatal, serious, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not head injury. Greater roof crush was associated with a higher rate of fatal and cervical spine injury (p<0.05). Vehicle type, occupant height, and occupant gender had inconsistent and generally non-significant effects on injury. This study demonstrates both common and unique risk factors for different types of injuries in rollover crashes. PMID:22269486

  15. Adjusting for car occupant injury liability in relation to age, speed limit, and gender-specific driver crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael; Frith, William

    2004-12-01

    It is well established that older drivers' fragility is an important factor associated with higher levels of fatal crash involvement for older drivers. There has been less research on age-related fragility with respect to the sort of minor injuries that are more common in injury crashes. This study estimates a quantity that is related to injury fragility: the probability that a driver or a passenger of that driver will be injured in crashes involving two cars. The effects of other factors apart from drivers' fragility are included in this measure, including the fragility of the passengers, the crashworthiness of cars driven, seatbelt use by the occupants, and characteristics of crashes (including configuration and impact speed). The car occupant injury liability estimates appropriately includes these factors to adjust risk curves by age, gender, and speed limit accounting for overrepresentation in crashes associated with fragility and these other factors. PMID:15545071

  16. Characteristics and Risk Factors for Fatality in Patients with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Taiwan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsin-Yi; Shu, Pei-Yun; Hung, Min-Nan

    2016-08-01

    An unprecedented dengue outbreak involving more than 15,000 infections, including 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases and 20 fatalities, occurred in Taiwan in 2014. The median age of the DHF cases was 71 years (range: 4-92 years) and most of them (N = 100, 73.5%) had comorbidities, of which the majority were hypertension (56%) and diabetes mellitus (DM; 27%). Only approximately half of the DHF cases (59/136) were classified as severe dengue, based on the 2009 WHO-revised dengue classification. The fatality rate for this DHF outbreak was 14.7%. DM (odds ratio [OR] = 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-10.63) and presentation with severe plasma leakage (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.76-23.63) were independent risk factors for fatality. PMID:27273649

  17. The RIA driver linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K. W.

    2002-09-23

    The driver linac for the U.S. RIA project will be a 1.4 GV superconducting linac capable of accelerating the full mass range of ions from 900 MeV protons to 400 MeV/u uranium, and delivering a cw beam of 400 kW shared by at least two targets simultaneously. Elements of the linac are being developed at several U.S. laboratories. The current status of linac design and development is reviewed with emphasis on changes in the baseline design since the last linac conference.

  18. Sandia Material Model Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-28

    The Sandia Material Model Driver (MMD) software package allows users to run material models from a variety of different Finite Element Model (FEM) codes in a standalone fashion, independent of the host codes. The MMD software is designed to be run on a variety of different operating system platforms as a console application. Initial development efforts have resulted in a package that has been shown to be fast, convenient, and easy to use, with substantialmore » growth potential.« less

  19. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand, July 1997-June 1999.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

    2003-05-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand. Methods. Press records from a major English language newspaper for the period from July 1997 to June 1999 were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. From July 1997 to June 1999, up to 233 deaths were reported and up to a further 216 were reported injured in incidents involving tourists. One hundred and one deaths and 45 injured were reported following one major domestic jet aircraft crash in southern Thailand, however, it was not stated what proportion of casualties were tourists. Approximately 90 people perished in a single hotel fire in southeast Thailand. Most of the victims were local travellers attending meetings of two Thai companies. Sixteen deaths and 86 injured resulted from five road accidents. The majority of deaths and injuries involved foreigners. Twelve deaths and at least 33 injured resulted from three ferry and tour boat accidents. Most victims were reported to be foreigners. Three deaths and 35 injured resulted from a single cable car accident in northern Thailand. Most of these were Thai tourists, however, four of the injured were foreigners. Eight deaths and six injured resulted from 11 muggings and other violent incidents. All were foreigners. Six deaths were reportedly connected to a scam at the airport in Bangkok involving unlicensed airport taxis. Three deaths and four injured were due to other reported incidents. Conclusions. Newspaper reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand were probably uncommon, particularly given the volume of tourists entering the Kingdom, although better reporting mechanisms are needed. With the exception of the unusual major incidents, most reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists were due to road trauma and other transportation accidents, muggings, and occasional water sports and other accidents, which could occur at any major tourist

  20. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included. PMID

  1. A Social Gradient in Fatal Opioids and Cocaine Related Overdoses?

    PubMed Central

    Origer, Alain; Le Bihan, Etienne; Baumann, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the existence of a social gradient in fatal overdose cases related to non-prescribed opioids and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. Methods Overdose cases were individually matched with four controls in a nested case-control study design, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. The study sample, composed of 272 cases and 1,056 controls, was stratified according to a Social Inequality Accumulation Score (SIAS), based on educational attainment, employment, income, financial situation of subjects and the professional status of their father or legal guardian. Least squares linear regression analysis on overdose mortality rates and ridit scores were applied to determine the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) of the study sample. Results A negative linear relationship between the overdose mortality rate and the relative socioeconomic position was observed. We found a difference in mortality of 29.22 overdose deaths per 100 drug users in the lowest socioeconomic group compared to the most advantaged group. In terms of the Relative Inequality Index, the overdose mortality rate of opioid and cocaine users with lowest socioeconomic profiles was 9.88 times as high as that of their peers from the highest socioeconomic group (95% CI 6.49–13.26). Conclusions Our findings suggest the existence of a marked social gradient in opioids and cocaine related overdose fatalities. Harm reduction services should integrate socially supportive offers, not only because of their general aim of social (re)integration but crucially in order to meet their most important objective, that is to reduce drug-related mortality. PMID:25938451

  2. Parenting and the young driver problem.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Catalano, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    Crash rates increase sharply at the age at which teenagers begin to drive and remain elevated relative to adult levels until drivers are well into their twenties. Parents have important roles to play in managing the risk for teenage drivers before and after licensure. Parents can be involved in their teenagers' driving, allowing them to test for permit and licensure, supervising practice driving, providing access to a vehicle, and setting and enforcing limits on driving privileges after licensure. However, the management practices of many parents may not be sufficient to provide safety effects. The literature indicates that the two most important decisions parents can make to reduce teenagers' driving risk are to delay licensure and impose limits on high-risk driving conditions (such as driving at night and with teenage passengers) during the first year of licensure. Two intervention programs have been shown to increase parental limit setting as a means of reducing risky driving behaviors and improving driving performance among novice teenage drivers. This article describes the contexts of and opportunities for parental involvement in teenage driving and the effectiveness of interventions to increase and improve parental management of young drivers. PMID:18702985

  3. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles. PMID:9370009

  4. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    PubMed

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal. PMID:25026995

  5. Flow processes in electric discharge drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baganoff, D.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an electric discharge shock tube is discussed from the point of view that the conditions at the sonic station are the primary controlling variables (likewise in comparing designs), and that the analysis of the flow on either side of the sonic station should be done separately. The importance of considering mass-flow rate in matching a given driver design to the downstream flow required for a particular shock-wave speed is stressed. It is shown that a driver based on the principle of liquid injection (of H2) is superior to one based on the Ludwieg tube, because of the greater mass-flow rate and the absence of a massive diaphragm.

  6. Augmented reality cues to assist older drivers with gap estimation for left-turns.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Michelle L; Schall, Mark C; Lee, John D; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings. PMID:24950128

  7. AUGMENTED REALITY CUES TO ASSIST OLDER DRIVERS WITH GAP ESTIMATION FOR LEFT-TURNS

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings. PMID:24950128

  8. A comment on "Novel scavenger removal trials increase wind turbine-caused avian fatality estimates"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Erickson, Wallace P.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Smallwood et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare their “novel” approach to conducting carcass removal trials with what they term the “conventional” approach and to evaluate the effects of the different methods on estimated avian fatality at a wind power facility in California. A quick glance at Table 3 that succinctly summarizes their results and provides estimated fatality rates and 80% confidence intervals calculated using the 2 methods reveals a surprising result. The confidence intervals of all of their estimates and most of the conventional estimates extend below 0. These results imply that wind turbines may have the capacity to create live birds. But a more likely interpretation is that a serious error occurred in the calculation of either the average fatality rate or its standard error or both. Further evaluation of their methods reveals that the scientific basis for concluding that “many estimates of scavenger removal rates prior to [their] study were likely biased low due to scavenger swamping” and “previously reported estimates of avian fatality rates … should be adjusted upwards” was not evident in their analysis and results. Their comparison to conventional approaches was not applicable, their statistical models were questionable, and the conclusions they drew were unsupported.

  9. The Characteristics of Road Traffic Fatalities in Kazakhstan’s Semey Region, 2006-2010: A Descriptive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    MYSSAYEV, Ayan; MEIRMANOV, Serik; RAKHYPBEKOV, Tolebay; BULEGENOV, Tolkyn; SEMENOVA, Yuliya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Kazakhstan, a developing middle-income country, has the highest road traffic collision (RTC) mortality in the European Region. The aims of this study were to determine main characteristics of road traffic fatalities in Semey region, Kazakhstan and to compare findings with National data and middle-income European countries. Methods This descriptive surveillance study assesses RTC mortality rates and epidemiology in the Semey Region of East Kazakhstan Oblast. Data of all 318 road traffic fatalities form the Semey Regional Center for Forensic Medicine were analyzed for the 5-year period of January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2010. Results Over the study period, the average road traffic mortality in the Semey Region was 12.1 per 100,000 population with downward trend by 35.1% (p=0.002). The victims mean age was 37.1 (SD=17) years. Males predominated at 74.5%. Vehicle fatality was the most common mode of fatality at 61.3%. The majority of collisions, 53.1%, occurred on highways. Most victims, 67.3%, have died at the scene of collision; in 67.3% of fatalities, autopsies identified multiple injuries as cause of death. The high number of fatal collisions took place in “no snow” season (P<0.001), with an overall 5-years downward dynamic. Conclusion High proportion of males, pedestrians and car occupants among road traffic fatalities; high proportion of death on scene in case of highway collisions are specifics for Semey region, Kazakhstan. These findings can be used to formulate preventive strategies to reduce fatalities and to improve the medical care system for road traffic fatalities. PMID:26110146

  10. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive supportive care. Our case and a review of literature show that measles pneumonitis is routinely fatal in patients with cancer. We suggest that antiviral drugs should be considered as soon as the diagnosis has been established. PMID:24105383

  11. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive supportive care. Our case and a review of literature show that measles pneumonitis is routinely fatal in patients with cancer. We suggest that antiviral drugs should be considered as soon as the diagnosis has been established. PMID:24105383

  12. Fatal scorpion sting in a child.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, O A; Musa, T L; Adebami, O J; Oyedeji, G A

    2014-01-01

    Fatal scorpion stings are rare in Nigeria. Hitherto, there has been no report from Nigeria of death following scorpion stings. This report is that of a 2-year-old boy who was stung by a scorpion while playing outside his home environment in Osogbo, South West Nigeria. He subsequently presented to the Children Emergency Unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, in pain and with features of shock. He died within 2 h of admission despite all treatment given to relieve pain and manage shock. The case is reported in order to share the important lessons learned. PMID:24326819

  13. Sexual fatalities: behavioral reconstruction in equivocal cases.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E; Burgess, A W

    1982-10-01

    A few sexual fatalities show ambiguous or conflicting evidence of manner of death or, in cases involving partners, of the partner's intent. In such equivocal cases, postmortem behavioral analysis and reconstruction aid in understanding what happened and provide an explainable basis for expert judgment and opinion, even though some cases can never be resolved with certainty. Behavioral analysis and reconstruction are enhanced by experience with related cases that have been solved, detailed investigation of the death scene and other relevant settings, and interviews with survivors. PMID:7175460

  14. Sporadic Fatal Insomnia in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Blase, Jennifer L.; Cracco, Laura; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Maddox, Ryan A.; Cohen, Yvonne; Cali, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of sporadic prion disease among adolescents is extremely rare. A prion disease was confirmed in an adolescent with disease onset at 13 years of age. Genetic, neuropathologic, and biochemical analyses of the patient’s autopsy brain tissue were consistent with sporadic fatal insomnia, a type of sporadic prion disease. There was no evidence of an environmental source of infection, and this patient represents the youngest documented case of sporadic prion disease. Although rare, a prion disease diagnosis should not be discounted in adolescents exhibiting neurologic signs. Brain tissue testing is necessary for disease confirmation and is particularly beneficial in cases with an unusual clinical presentation. PMID:24488737

  15. Opportunities for reduction of fatalities in vehicle-guardrail collisions.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Hampton C; Gabauer, Douglas J

    2007-01-01

    In the United States in 2005, there were 1,189 fatal crashes and 35,000 injurious crashes into guardrails. Current efforts to reduce fatalities occurring in guardrail collisions have focused on frontal oblique collisions of cars and light trucks into guardrail. These crashes however represent a diminishing target population for fatality reduction. This paper examines the current opportunities for reducing fatalities in guardrail collisions in the United States. The analysis was based upon crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (GES) for the years 2000-2005. The greatest opportunity for fatality reduction is the protection of motorcyclists, who now account for 32% of guardrail fatalities, and car and light truck occupants in side impact, who now comprise 14% of all guardrail fatalities. Together, protection of motorcycle riders and protection of car and light truck occupants in side impacts account for nearly half of all fatalities (46%) which occur in vehicle-guardrail collisions. Additional targets for fatality reduction include light truck rollover and collisions with guardrail ends. PMID:18184483

  16. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  17. A simple wave driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kağan Temiz, Burak; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the wheel starts to turn at a constant angular speed. A rod that is fixed on the wheel turns at the same constant angular speed, too. A tight string that the wave will be created on is placed at a distance where the rod can touch the string. During each rotation of the wheel, the rod vibrates the string up and down. The vibration frequency of this rod equals the wheel’s rotation frequency, and this frequency value can be measured easily with a small magnet and a bicycle speedometer. In this way, the frequency of the waves formed in the rope can also be measured.

  18. The distracted driver.

    PubMed

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    2001-03-01

    A serious health problem is developing from automobile collisions caused by distracted drivers. This is a result of the rapid proliferation of portable cellular telephones and personal organisers used while driving, the development of more sophisticated entertainment systems and instrument panel controls, the advent of navigation and television displays in vehicles and promises of sophisticated wireless e-mail, FAX and Internet services in the vehicle. Preoccupation with electronic gadgets may also degrade human driving performance. Many drivers however, sincerely believe they have the talent to do several things at the same time, such as hold and look at a cellular telephone in one hand and drive with a beverage container in the other hand whilst at the same time, exercise their personal skills. Obviously, they believe that they do not need two hands on the steering wheel and two eyes on the road. This is a unique situation requiring intensive health promotion as distracted or 'offensive driving' may be habit forming and difficult to change, any significant design remedies will be slow to arrive and may be circumvented, and the regulatory laws have proved difficult or impossible to enforce. This special need may require research to determine the most effective techniques for health promotion. PMID:11329694

  19. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  20. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. PMID:26277411

  1. Vision-based method for detecting driver drowsiness and distraction in driver monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jaeik; Lee, Sung Joo; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2011-12-01

    Most driver-monitoring systems have attempted to detect either driver drowsiness or distraction, although both factors should be considered for accident prevention. Therefore, we propose a new driver-monitoring method considering both factors. We make the following contributions. First, if the driver is looking ahead, drowsiness detection is performed; otherwise, distraction detection is performed. Thus, the computational cost and eye-detection error can be reduced. Second, we propose a new eye-detection algorithm that combines adaptive boosting, adaptive template matching, and blob detection with eye validation, thereby reducing the eye-detection error and processing time significantly, which is hardly achievable using a single method. Third, to enhance eye-detection accuracy, eye validation is applied after initial eye detection, using a support vector machine based on appearance features obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Fourth, we propose a novel eye state-detection algorithm that combines appearance features obtained using PCA and LDA, with statistical features such as the sparseness and kurtosis of the histogram from the horizontal edge image of the eye. Experimental results showed that the detection accuracies of the eye region and eye states were 99 and 97%, respectively. Both driver drowsiness and distraction were detected with a success rate of 98%.

  2. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species). PMID

  3. A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species). PMID

  4. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  5. Serologic Survey for Exposure Following Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Kucerova, Zuzana; Roy, Sharon L.; Aguirre, Glenda; Weiss, Joli; Sriram, Rama; Yoder, Jonathan; Foelber, Rebecca; Baty, Steven; Derado, Gordana; Stramer, Susan L.; Winkelman, Valerie; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) from Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free-living ameba, has a case fatality rate exceeding 90% among recognized cases in the United States. In August 2010, a GAE cluster occurred following transplantation of infected organs from a previously healthy landscaper in Tucson, Arizona, USA, who died from a suspected stroke. As B. mandrillaris is thought to be transmitted through soil, a serologic survey of landscapers and a comparison group of blood donors in southern Arizona was performed. Three (3.6%) of 83 serum samples from landscapers and 11 (2.5%) of 441 serum samples from blood donors were seropositive (p = 0.47). On multivariable analysis, county of residence was associated with seropositivity, whereas age, sex, and ethnicity were not. Exposure to B. mandrillaris, previously unexamined in North America, appears to be far more common than GAE in Southern Arizona. Risk factors for disease progression and the ameba's geographic range should be examined. PMID:24458652

  6. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. PMID:26185119

  7. Fatal and Near-Fatal Asthma in Children: the Critical Care Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Newth, Christopher J. L.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Moler, Frank W.; Zuppa, Athena F.; Berg, Robert A.; Pollack, Murray M.; Sward, Katherine A.; Berger, John T.; Wessel, David L.; Harrison, Rick E.; Reardon, Jean; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Holubkov, Richard; Dean, J. Michael; Doctor, Allan; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the clinical course, therapies, and outcomes of children with fatal and near-fatal asthma admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Study design Retrospective chart abstraction across the eight tertiary-care PICUs in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN). Inclusion criteria: children (1–18 years) admitted 2005 to 2009 (inclusive) for asthma receiving ventilation (near-fatal) or died (fatal). Data collected included medications, ventilator strategies, concomitant therapies, demographics and risk variables. Results Of 261 eligible children, 33 (13%) had no previous history of asthma, 218 (84%) survived with no known complications, and 32 (12%) had complications. Eleven (4%) died, 10 having had cardiac arrest before admission. Patients intubated outside the PICU had shorter ventilation (median 25 vs. 84 hours, p<0.001). African-Americans were disproportionately represented by numbers intubated and had shorter durations of intubation. Barotrauma occurred in 15 (6%) children before admission. Pharmacological therapies were highly variable with similar outcomes. Conclusions Of children ventilated in CPCCRN PICUs, 96% survived to hospital discharge. Most children who died experienced cardiac arrest prior to admission. Intubation outside the PICU was correlated with shorter ventilation duration. The complications of barotrauma and neuromyopathy were uncommon. Practice patterns varied widely between CPCCRN sites. PMID:22494876

  8. Discrepancy analysis of driving performance of taxi drivers and non-professional drivers for red-light running violation and crash avoidance at intersections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiawei; Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam

    2016-06-01

    Due to comfort, convenience, and flexibility, taxis have become increasingly more prevalent in China, especially in large cities. However, many violations and road crashes that occurred frequently were related to taxi drivers. This study aimed to investigate differences in driving performance between taxi drivers and non-professional drivers from the perspectives of red-light running violation and potential crash involvement based on a driving simulation experiment. Two typical scenarios were established in a driving simulator, which includes the red-light running violation scenario and the crash avoidance scenario. There were 49 participants, including 23 taxi drivers (14 males and 9 females) and 26 non-professional drivers (13 males and 13 females) recruited for this experiment. The driving simulation experiment results indicated that non-professional drivers paid more attention to red-light running violations in comparison to taxi drivers who had a higher probability of red-light running violation. Furthermore, it was found that taxi drivers were more inclined to turn the steering wheel in an attempt to avoid a potential collision and non-professional drivers had more abrupt deceleration behaviors when facing a potential crash. Moreover, the experiment results showed that taxi drivers had a smaller crash rate compared to non-professional drivers and had a better performance in terms of crash avoidance at the intersection. PMID:26945471

  9. Idaho Driver Education Instructional Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This driver education instructional safety guide is organized in three sections: Driver Education; Motorcycle Education; and Driver Education for the Handicapped. The driver education section contains 10 units dealing with the following topics: parent orientation; student orientation; basic control skills; driver performance; driving regulations;…

  10. A collection of evidence for the impact of the economic recession on road fatalities in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Louise; Wallbank, Caroline; Broughton, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    There was a considerable reduction in the number of fatalities on British roads between 2007 and 2010. This substantial change led to debate as to the cause of the reduction. Multiple sources of information and evidence have been collated including STATS19 road accident data, population data, socio-demographic data, economic patterns, weather trends and traffic and vehicle data. Summary analyses of these data sources show a reduction in overall traffic, a large reduction in HGV traffic, a reduction in young male drivers, a reduction in speeding, and a reduction in drink driving during the recession period. All of these reductions can be associated with a reduction in fatal accidents and have led to the conclusion that the economic recession changed behaviours in such a way that fewer people were killed on the roads in Britain during this period. PMID:25956423

  11. Suicides may be overreported and accidents underreported among fatalities due to dextropropoxyphene.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, B; Jonasson, U; Saldeen, T

    1999-03-01

    Among prescribed drugs in Sweden dextropropoxyphene (DXP) is the medical compound most frequently responsible for self-inflicted fatal poisonings. To analyze the process leading to the classification of the manner of death in cases of fatalities where DXP caused or contributed to death, a set of explicit and implicit operational criteria was applied retrospectively to fatal DXP poisonings among autopsy cases performed at one department of forensic medicine in Sweden during the six-year period from 1992 to 1997. DXP fatality was found in 113 (2.6%) of the total 4306 autopsy cases. Suicide was recorded in 84 (74%) of these cases, and an undetermined manner of death in 24 (21%). Explicit unambiguous expressions of the intent of the decedent were found in 29 (26%) of the 109 analyzed cases. (In four cases no analysis could be performed). In 46 cases only implicit and no explicit criteria were found. The total number of implicit criteria in individual cases without explicit criteria never exceeded three and in 34 cases no criteria of any type were documented. It is concluded that the classification of the manner of death at DXP fatalities was often based on very limited grounds when the operational criteria were used as a standard for comparison. Information from relatives, friends and others concerning the decedent was rarely accessible. The shortage of information probably led to deficiencies in the death statistics concerning DXP fatalities. Considerable underreporting of accidents and probable overreporting of suicides were found. Failure to report DXP deaths as accidents may delay discovery of the high toxicity of this drug. This might be one of the reasons why the DXP fatality rate is still constantly high in Sweden, while both Denmark and Norway have managed to decrease their DXP death rates by vast restrictions, based on alarming reports of accidental DXP fatalities. In order to guarantee valid death statistics concerning self-inflicted poisoning, the

  12. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver/vehicle system performance in discrete maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. H.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of discrete maneuver tasks were used to evaluate the effects of steering gain and directional mode dynamic parameters on driver/vehicle responses. The importance and ranking of these parameters were evaluated through changes in subjective driver ratings and performance measures obtained from transient maneuvers such as a double lane change, an emergency lane change, and an unexpected obstacle. The unexpected obstacle maneuver proved more sensitive to individual driver differences than to vehicle differences. Results were based on full scale tests with an experienced test driver evaluating many different dynamic configurations plus seventeen ordinary drivers evaluating six key configurations.

  13. Civil aviation mortality, state differences, and the role of multi-fatality aircraft accidents.

    PubMed

    Ungs, T J

    1994-06-01

    Mortality due to transportation-related causes may differ by state of residence and state of occurrence. Aircraft accidents can cause multiple fatalities due to a single event. Population-based state-specific civil aviation accident mortality rates were calculated using National Center for Health Statistics data for the years 1980-89. Aircraft accident information for the same period was obtained from National Transportation Safety Board sources. The national 10-year mean mortality rate for civil aviation-related causes was 5.2 deaths/1,000,000 general population. State-specific mortality rates by state of residence varied between 2.1 and 79.9 deaths/1,000,000 general population. Rates by state of death occurrence varied between 1.5 and 98.0 deaths/1,000,000. Mortality rates, calculated by state of residence, differed from rates calculated by state of occurrence for most states. For some states the differences were considerable. Ten states experienced at least one aircraft accident between 1980 and 1989 which accounted for 20 or more fatalities. These multi-fatality events had a substantial effect on state-specific aviation-related mortality rates. PMID:8074629

  14. Fatal caffeine overdose: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Sarah; Lindsey, Tania

    2005-10-01

    Caffeine is a mild central nervous stimulant that occurs naturally in coffee beans, cocoa beans and tea leaves. In large doses, it can be profoundly toxic, resulting in arrhythmia, tachycardia, vomiting, convulsions, coma and death. The average cup of coffee or tea in the United States is reported to contain between 40 and 150 mg caffeine although specialty coffees may contain much higher doses. Over-the-counter supplements that are used to combat fatigue typically contain 100-200 mg caffeine per tablet and doses of 32-200mg are included in a variety of prescription drug mixtures. Fatal caffeine overdoses in adults are relatively rare and require the ingestion of a large quantity of the drug, typically in excess of 5 g. Over a period of approximately 12 months our office reported two cases of fatal caffeine intoxication. In the first case, the femoral blood of a 39-year-old female with a history of intravenous drug use contained 192 mg/L caffeine. In the second case, femoral blood from a 29-year-old male with a history of obesity and diabetes contained 567 mg/L caffeine. In both cases, the cause of death was ruled as caffeine intoxication and the manner of death was accidental. PMID:15935584

  15. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Harold B; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo G

    2014-04-01

    Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least one 15-24 year-old driver in New Zealand between 2002 and 2011 that resulted in minor, serious or fatal injuries. A mixed logit model accounting for heterogeneity and heteroscedasticity in the propensity to injury severity outcomes and for correlation between serious and fatal injuries proved a better fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers' behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers' vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females, dramatically increased the probability of serious and fatal injuries. The involvement of vulnerable road users, in particular on rural highways and open roads, considerably amplified the probability of higher crash injury severity. PMID:24456849

  16. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  18. Fatal and nonfatal injuries involving fishing vessel winches--Southern shrimp fleet, United States, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Workers in the commercial fishing industry have the highest occupational fatality rate in the United States, nearly 35 times higher in 2011 than the rate for all U.S. workers. During 2000-2009, a total of 504 fishermen were killed in the U.S. fishing industry, most commonly by drowning as a result of vessels sinking (51%) and falls overboard (30%). Another 10% of fatalities (51 deaths) were caused by injuries sustained onboard vessels, such as entanglement in machinery. This type of fatality occurred most often in the Gulf of Mexico. To analyze fatal and nonfatal injuries involving deck winches in the Southern shrimp fleet during 2000-2011, CDC obtained data from its Commercial Fishing Incident Database and the U.S. Coast Guard. Injury patterns were examined, and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated to compare the probability of fatal outcomes from incidents involving different winch mechanisms and operating situations. During 2000-2011, eight fatal and 27 work-related injuries involving deck winches occurred in the Southern shrimp fleet, which operates in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast from Florida to North Carolina. Injuries involving the winch drum had a higher risk for fatal outcomes compared with injuries involving the winch cathead. Fatal outcomes also were associated with being alone on the vessel and being alone on deck. Interventions to prevent deck winch injuries might include guarding of winch drums and catheads, avoiding working alone on deck, not wearing baggy clothing, and improvements to cable winding guides. Training of deckhands in first aid and emergency procedures might reduce the severity of injuries when entanglements occur. PMID:23466433

  19. Fatal intimate partner violence against women in Portugal: a forensic medical national study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. PMID:24237830

  20. Assessment of Mass Fatality Preparedness and Response Content in Dental Hygiene Education.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Ann M; Newcomb, Tara L; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi

    2016-05-01

    When mass fatality incidents (MFIs) occur, they can quickly overwhelm local, state, and government agencies, resources, and personnel. It is important to have a rapid and effective response with skilled, multidisciplinary victim identification teams since specific skill sets are necessary to participate in mass fatality preparedness and response. The aims of this study were to determine the extent of formal education related to mass fatality preparedness and response training in U.S. dental hygiene programs and to assess program directors' perceptions of the need for such training. A 23-item cross-sectional survey was emailed to 319 U.S. dental hygiene programs in 2015. Survey questions addressed if the program offered mass fatality preparedness and response training to its students and how much training was given, as well as collecting respondents' demographics and opinions regarding education and training. An overall response rate of 36% was obtained, with 111 program chairs completing the survey. The results showed that only a small percentage of responding programs incorporated coursework related to mass fatality and preparedness in their curricula. Of the responding programs, 84% had no formal instruction on the role of a dental hygienist in MFIs; however, 53 of 69 program directors agreed or strongly agreed that the role of dental hygienists in MFIs should be covered in dental hygiene curricula. The top three barriers to incorporating such training reported by respondents were time requirements, lack of faculty expertise, and lack of equipment. Future research is needed to establish standardized competencies for mass fatality preparedness and response in dental hygiene education. PMID:27139212

  1. Relating traffic fatalities to GDP in Europe on the long term.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Modeling road safety development can provide important insight into policies for the reduction of traffic fatalities. In order to achieve this goal, both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters, as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed, need to be considered. One of the key relationships in road safety links fatalities with risk and exposure, where exposure reflects the amount of travel, which in turn translates to how much travelers are exposed to risk. In general two economic variables: GDP and unemployment rate are selected to analyse the statistical relationships with some indicators of road accident fatality risk. The objective of this research is to provide an overview of relevant literature on the topic and outline some recent developments in macro-panel data analysis that have resulted in ongoing research that has the potential to improve our ability to forecast traffic fatality trends, especially under turbulent financial situations. For this analysis, time series of the number of fatalities and GDP in 30 European countries for a period of 38 years (1975-2012) are used. This process relies on estimating long-term models (as captured by long term time-series models, which model each country separately). Based on these developments, utilizing state-of-the-art modelling and analysis techniques such as the Common Correlated Effects Mean Group estimator (Pesaran), the long-term elasticity mean value equals 0.63, and is significantly different from zero for 10 countries only. When we take away the countries, where the number of fatalities is stationary, the average elasticity takes a higher value of nearly 1. This shows the strong sensitivity of the estimate of the average elasticity over a panel of European countries and underlines the necessity to be aware of the underlying nature of the time series, to get a suitable regression model. PMID:27042989

  2. Improving School Bus Driver Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    This reference source is intended to assist the school bus driver training instructor in course preparation. Instructional units for program planning each contain pertinent course questions, a summary, and evaluation questions. Unit 1, "Introduction to the School Bus Driver Training Program," focuses on basic course objectives and requirements and…

  3. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers?

    PubMed

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike

    2016-10-01

    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  4. A Real-Time Case Study in Driver Science: Physiological Strain and Related Variables.

    PubMed

    Potkanowicz, Edward S

    2015-11-01

    This case study was conducted as an attempt to quantify racecar-driver core body temperature and heart rate (HR) in real time on a minute-by-minute basis and to expand the volume of work in the area of driver science. Three drivers were observed during a 15-lap, 25-min maximal event. Each driver competed in the closed-wheel, closed-cockpit sports-car category. Data on core body temperature and HR were collected continuously using the HQ Inc. ingestible core probe system and HR monitoring. Driver 1 pre- and postrace core temperatures were 37.80°C and 38.79°C, respectively. Driver 2 pre- and postrace core temperatures were 37.41°C and 37.99°C. Driver 1 pre- and postrace HRs were 102 and 161 beats/min. Driver 2 pre- and postrace HRs were 94.3 and 142 beats/min. Driver 1's physiological strain index (PSI) at the start was 3.51. Driver 2's PSI at the start was 3.10. Driver 1 finished with a PSI of 7.04 and driver 2 with a PSI of 3.67. Results show that drivers are continuously challenged minute by minute. In addition, before getting into their cars, the drivers already experience physiological and thermal challenges. The data suggest that drivers are getting hot quickly. In longer events, this represents the potential for severe heat injury. Investigating whether the HRs observed are indicative of work or evidence of a thermoregulatory-associated challenge is a direction for future work. The findings support the value of real-time data collection and offer strong evidence for the expansion of research on driver-athletes. PMID:25803362

  5. Estimated Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Fatal Injuries--United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Florence, Curtis; Simon, Thomas; Haegerich, Tamara; Luo, Feijun; Zhou, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Injury-associated deaths have substantial economic consequences. In 2013, unintentional injury was the fourth leading cause of death, suicide was the tenth, and homicide was the sixteenth; these three causes accounted for approximately 187,000 deaths in the United States. To assess the economic impact of fatal injuries, CDC analyzed death data from the National Vital Statistics System for 2013, along with cost of injury data using the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. This report updates a previous study that analyzed death data from the year 2000, and employs recently revised methodology for determining the costs of injury outcomes, which uses the most current economic data and incorporates improvements for estimating medical costs associated with injury. Number of deaths, crude and age-specific death rates, and total lifetime work-loss costs and medical costs were calculated for fatal injuries by sex, age group, intent (intentional versus unintentional), and mechanism of injury. During 2013, the rate of fatal injury was 61.0 per 100,000 population, with combined medical and work-loss costs exceeding $214 billion. Costs from fatal injuries represent approximately one third of the total $671 billion medical and work-loss costs associated with all injuries in 2013. The magnitude of the economic burden associated with injury-associated deaths underscores the need for effective prevention. PMID:26421530

  6. The older adult driver.

    PubMed

    Carr, D B

    2000-01-01

    More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955

  7. [Fitness to drive under traffic ophthalmological aspects in elderly drivers].

    PubMed

    Schneebeli, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Roads Office (FEDRO), Switzerlands federal authority carries responsibility for the action program “Via Sicura” in order to reduce drastically the number of road traffic fatalities and serious injuries on Swiss roads. The revision of the VZV (Verkehrszulassungsverordnung) included in this program will come in to force on 1.July 2016. On that account the legal medical requirements for driver will be renewed. In particular, the requirements for vision (visual acuity, visual field) will be adjusted to international standards. Due to demographic changes the number of elderly drivers with old age (85 – 90+) with eye associated diseases increases. Therefore, questions concerning traffic ophthalmological problems have to be increasingly considered within traffic medical assessments. The driver's vision in traffic's safety must enable him to perceive relevant information, process information quickly and perform an adequate reaction in time, even if visibility is limited (e. g. due to rain, night, darkness) or in the presence of physical or psychical constraints. PMID:26982648

  8. Driver air bag effectiveness by severity of the crash.

    PubMed Central

    Segui-Gomez, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This analysis provided effectiveness estimates of the driver-side air bag while controlling for severity of the crash and other potential confounders. METHODS: Data were from the National Automotive Sampling System (1993-1996). Injury severity was described on the basis of the Abbreviated Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score, Functional Capacity Index, and survival. Ordinal, linear, and logistic multivariate regression methods were used. RESULTS: Air bag deployment in frontal or near-frontal crashes decreases the probability of having severe and fatal injuries (e.g., Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 4-6), including those causing a long-lasting high degree of functional limitation. However, air bag deployment in low-severity crashes increases the probability that a driver (particularly a woman) will sustain injuries of Abbreviated Injury Scale level 1 to 3. Air bag deployment exerts a net injurious effect in low-severity crashes and a net protective effect in high-severity crashes. The level of crash severity at which air bags are protective is higher for female than for male drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Air bag improvement should minimize the injuries induced by their deployment. One possibility is to raise their deployment level so that they deploy only in more severe crashes. PMID:11029991

  9. Effect of driver, roadway, collision, and vehicle characteristics on crash severity: a conditional logistic regression approach.

    PubMed

    Kadilar, Gamze Ozel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the factors that appear to have a higher potential for serious injury or death of drivers in traffic accidents in Turkey, such as collision type, roadway surface, vehicle speed, alcohol/drug use, and restraint use. Driver crash severity is the dependent variable of this study with two categories, fatal and non-fatal. Due to the binary nature of the dependent variable, a conditional logistic regression analysis was found suitable. Of the 16 independent variables obtained from Turkish police accident reports, 11 variables were found most significantly associated with driver crash severity. They are age, education level, restraint use, roadway condition, roadway type, time of day, collision location, collision type, number and direction of vehicles, vehicle speed, and alcohol/drug use. This study found that belted drivers aged 18-25 years involving two vehicles travelling in the same direction, in an urban area, during the daytime, and on an avenue or a street have better chances of survival in traffic accidents. PMID:25087577

  10. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    PubMed

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk. PMID:22405242

  11. Analysis of spatial variations in the effectiveness of graduated driver's licensing (GDL) program in the state of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Berrocal, Veronica J; Bingham, C Raymond; Song, Peter X K

    2014-04-01

    Injury resulting from motor vehicle crashes is the leading cause of death among teenagers in the US. Few programs or policies have been found to be effective in reducing the risk of fatal car crashes for young novice drivers. One effective policy that has been widely implemented is Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL). Published articles have mostly reported on the temporal effectiveness of GDL in the US. This article reports on the development of spatial statistical modeling approaches to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of GDL policy across eighty-three counties in the state of Michigan. Data were gathered from several publicly available databases, including the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), US Census Bureau, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, and US Department of Agriculture. To account for spatial dependence among crash counts from adjacent counties we invoke spatial random effects, which we provide with a Conditionally AutoRegressive (CAR) prior. Our analysis confirms previous findings that GDL in Michigan is an effective policy that significantly reduces the risk of fatal car crashes among novice teenage drivers. In addition, it indicates that rurality is an important contextual variable associated with spatial differences in GDL effectiveness across the state of Michigan. Finally, our findings provide information that can be used to strengthen GDL policy and its implementation to further enhance teenage-driver safety. PMID:24606991

  12. Fatal primary meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Shariq, Ali; Afridi, Faisal Iqbal; Farooqi, Badar Jahan; Ahmed, Sumaira; Hussain, Arif

    2014-07-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection. PMID:25052979

  13. Fatal cerebro-renal oxalosis after appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Weiss, F U; Karger, B; Aghdassi, A; Lerch, M M; Brinkmann, B

    2004-04-01

    A case of a 24-year-old male with fatal cerebro-renal oxalosis assumed to be due to infusions of the sugar surrogate xylitol after appendectomy is reported. The diagnosis was established only after intensive histological investigations following the autopsy. The clinical picture was characterized by an acute seizure, coma and renal failure 2 days after the first xylitol infusion. Death occurred due to cerebral dysregulation as a very rare complication after parenteral administration of xylitol. Subendothelial double refractive calcium oxalate crystals were found in the walls of cerebral blood vessels, in particular in the stem ganglion regions and in the cortical renal tubules. The most common type of primary oxalosis was excluded by sequencing analysis. The young age, the minor surgical intervention and the otherwise unremarkable history are special features of this case. Since the genetic background of xylitol intolerance is still unclear, it is suggested that it should be banned as a sugar surrogate in clinical practice. PMID:14634832

  14. Fatal falls from bicycles: a case report.

    PubMed

    Venara, A; Mauillon, D; Gaudin, A; Rouge-Maillart, C; Jousset, N

    2013-03-10

    Though rare occurrences, fatal falls from bicycles are generally linked to the absence of a protective helmet and/or a collision with another vehicle. The case presented here is exceptional due to its circumstances and the consequences of the accident: a fall with no obstacle at a low speed that brought about multiple traumas and the death of a cyclist wearing a protective helmet. Comparing this against a review of cyclist accidentology literature, this case is unique. The increased use of autopsy in terms of forensic accidentology is to be encouraged so as not to misunderstand the possibility of such lesion-based consequences following a simple fall from a bicycle. PMID:23312586

  15. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date. PMID:26115644

  16. Chronic fatal pneumocystosis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Goto, Y; Yamazaki, S; Fujiwara, K

    1977-12-01

    A chronic pulmonary disease was encountered in nude mice of a barrier sustained colony, and Pneumocystis carinii was identified as the causative agent histopathologically as well as on impression smear preparations in the affected lungs. Fatal infection was seen only in old nude mice aged more than 6 months, while focal pulmonary lesions were developed without clinical signs in young adult nudes 2 to 3 months of age. The lesions produced in aged nude mice were characterized by propagation of mononuclear cells with the presence of foamy masses of P. carinii. Heterozygous littermates were much less susceptible to the infection but pneumocystic lesions could be produced readily by multiple treatment with immunosuppressants. The infection could be transmitted without immunosuppressant to non-infected nudes but not to heterozygous littermates after intranasal inoculation of affected tissue emulsion or by cage mating with severely affected nudes. PMID:305493

  17. Fatal rhabdomyolysis in a flame burn patient.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, D; Hudson, D A

    1997-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis due to flame burns is not well described. A case of fatal rhabdomyolysis in an epileptic patient who sustained 65 per cent body surface area, very deep, flame burns is described. It appears as if the sustained muscle compression from the restrictive, circumferential eschar was the major factor in the aetiology of the rhabdomyolysis. Despite aggressive fluid management, the patient died of acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have subsequently identified three other cases of pigmenturia occurring following burns. It would seem as if rhabdomyolysis following extensive full thickness burns may be more common than previously suggested. Fluid requirements are in excess of those proposed by traditional protocols. Rhabdomyolysis in flame burn patients indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:9426917

  18. Fatal parathion poisoning in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R. A.; Forthal, D. N.; Hill, R. H.; Demby, A.

    1987-01-01

    In May and June 1986, 49 persons in Sierra Leone were acutely poisoned by the organothiophosphate insecticide, parathion. Fourteen people died. Illness occurred in three episodes at two different locations that were 44 km apart. A study of 21 cases and 22 household controls was undertaken to explore which factors were associated with the development of the symptoms. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten bread in the 4 hours before becoming ill (odds ratio, 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-83.8). Scrapings of residue from the floor of the truck that had brought the wheat flour from the mill to the general store where the baker purchased it were positive for parathion, suggesting that the flour had been contaminated during transport. Pesticide poisoning is a common problem in the developing world, and public health measures such as restricting the use of parathion may help to prevent fatal poisonings. PMID:3501344

  19. Fatal Staphylococcal Infection following Classic Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Stanley Almeida; Moreira, Daniel Ribeiro; Veloso, Juliana Marcia Ribeiro; Silva, Jenaine Oliveira; Barros, Vera Lucia Souza Reis; Nobre, Vandack

    2010-01-01

    Dengue represents an important public health issue in many tropical areas, leading to high morbidity and the employment of substantial health resources. Even though the number of fatalities related to dengue is unknown, several reports warn about the potential occurrence of severe infections and even death. The clinical spectrum of dengue is highly variable, ranging from a mild flu-like syndrome to severe disease, with shock and hemorrhage. The occurrence of bacterial superinfection, or coinfection, in patients with dengue has been noted by some authors, but the available information comes from anecdotic reports. In this study, we show the clinical and anatomopathological data of a patient infected with dengue, who subsequently died of acute multi-organic failure related to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The autopsy revealed a severe disseminated staphylococcal disease and confirmed dengue infection. PMID:20810838

  20. Lichtheimia ramosa: A Fatal Case of Mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mouronte-Roibás, Cecilia; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Botana-Rial, Maribel; Ramos-Hernández, Cristina; Lago-Preciado, Guillermo; Fiaño-Valverde, Concepción; Fernández-Villar, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis due to Lichtheimia ramosa is an infrequent opportunistic infection that can potentially be angioinvasive when affecting inmunocompromised hosts. We present a fatal case of mucormycosis, affecting a 56-year-old male with diabetes mellitus and siderosis, initially admitted to our hospital due to an H1N1 infection. The subject's clinical condition worsened and he finally died because of a necrotizing bilateral pneumonia with disseminated mycotic thromboses due to Lichtheimia ramosa, which is an emerging Mucoralean fungus. This is an infrequent case because of the extent to which it affected a subject without overt immunocompromise. This case underlines the importance of an early premortem diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent rapid progression of this disease, as well as the need of considering mucormycosis when facing subjects with multiple emboli and fever unresponsive to usual antimicrobials. PMID:27445521

  1. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  2. Fatal overdose of iron tablets in adults.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, Kundavaram P P; Arul, J Jonathan; Bala, Divya

    2013-09-01

    Acute iron toxicity is usually seen in children with accidental ingestion of iron-containing syrups. However, the literature on acute iron toxicity with suicidal intent in adults is scant. We report, the first instance of two adults with fatal ingestion of a single drug overdose with iron tablets from India. Two young adults developed severe gastro-intestinal bleeding and fulminant hepatic failure 48 h after deliberate consumption of large doses of iron tablets. Serum iron levels measured 36 h after ingestion were normal presumably due to the redistribution of iron to the intracellular compartment. Despite aggressive supportive management in medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital, the patients succumbed to the toxic doses of iron. PMID:24339645

  3. Fatal accident caused by isoflurane abuse.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, M; Haidekker, A; Grubwieser, P; Rabl, W

    2002-12-01

    A fatal accident after isoflurane abuse is presented in this report. A hospital employee was found dead in the operating area with a plastic bag over his head. In his locker an almost empty bottle of isoflurane was found. Autopsy revealed signs of asphyxiation and toxicological examination revealed nordazepam and isoflurane in non-toxic concentrations in the blood. Quantification of the anaesthetic was also carried out in urine, gastric contents, liver, kidney and brain samples, and in addition, oxazepam, prothipendyl and metabolites of midazolam and prothipendyl were found in the urine. Although the drug problems of the deceased were known before, no efforts had been made to restrict access to these drugs. PMID:12596784

  4. Retinal haemorrhages associated with fatal paediatric infections.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Marcus C; Lantz, Patrick E

    2015-04-01

    For many physicians, retinal haemorrhages (RHs) in infants and young children remain highly diagnostic of non-accidental (abusive) head trauma. Because clinicians have applied indirect ophthalmoscopy selectively to cases of suspected child abuse, the association between RH and other conditions such as infection, coagulopathy and accidental trauma has encountered habitual bias, creating the potential for iatrogenic misdiagnosis of child abuse. We present an autopsy case series of four children, aged three years old or younger, in whom RHs were detected by post-mortem monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy after the patients had died from infections. We discuss the laterality, number, type and location of RHs in these cases, and summarize proposed mechanisms of RH formation in fatalities from paediatric infection. We demonstrate that many of the ophthalmological findings that have been considered diagnostic of abusive head trauma can also occur in association with infective processes. PMID:24644226

  5. The Role of Spatial Disorientation in Fatal General Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, RIchard

    2005-01-01

    In-flight Spatial Disorientation (SD) in pilots is a serious threat to aviation safety. Indeed, SD may play a much larger role in aviation accidents than the approximate 6-8% reported by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) each year, because some accidents coded by the NTSB as aircraft control-not maintained (ACNM) may actually result from SD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SD is underestimated as a cause of fatal general aviation (GA) accidents in the NTSB database. Fatal GA airplane accidents occurring between January 1995 and December 1999 were reviewed from the NTSB aviation accident database. Cases coded as ACNM or SD as the probable cause were selected for review by a panel of aerospace medicine specialists. Using a rating scale, each rater was instructed to determine if SD was the probable cause of the accident. Agreement between the raters and agreement between the raters and the NTSB were evaluated by Kappa statistics. The raters agreed that 11 out of 20 (55%) accidents coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD (p less than 0.05). Agreement between the raters and the NTSB did not reach significance (p greater than 0.05). The 95% C.I. for the sampling population estimated that between 33-77% of cases that the NTSB identified as ACNM could be identified by aerospace medicine experts as SD. Aerospace medicine specialists agreed that some cases coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD. Consequently, a larger number of accidents may be caused by the pilot succumbing to SD than indicated in the NTSB database. This new information should encourage regulating agencies to insure that pilots receive SD recognition training, enabling them to take appropriate corrective actions during flight. This could lead to new training standards, ultimately saving lives among GA airplane pilots.

  6. Toxicological findings in fatal motor vehicle collisions in ontario, Canada: a one-year study.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Karen L; Chow, Betty L C; Lauwers, Albert; Cass, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Drug-impaired driving is a complex area of forensic toxicology due in part to limited data concerning the type of drugs involved and the concentrations detected. This study analyzed toxicological findings in drivers from fatal motor vehicle collisions (FMVCs) in Ontario, Canada, over a one-year period using a standardized protocol. Of the 229 cases included in the study, 56% were positive for alcohol and/or drugs. After alcohol, cannabis was the most frequently encountered substance (27%), followed by benzodiazepines (17%) and antidepressants (17%). There were differences in drugs detected by age but no marked difference in drugs detected between single and multiple FMVC's. Not all drugs detected were considered impairing either due to drug type, concentration or case history. The findings indicate the importance of comprehensive drug testing in FMVCs and highlight the need to consider a variety of factors, in addition to drug type and concentration, when assessing the role of drugs in driving impairment. PMID:25693690

  7. Elderly and young driver's reaction to an in-car enforcement and tutoring system.

    PubMed

    de Waard, D; van der Hulst, M; Brookhuis, K A

    1999-04-01

    A system that contrasts driver behaviour with normative behaviour was tested in an advanced driving simulator. Drivers were provided with auditory and visual tutoring messages if deviations were detected from normative, i.e. legally allowed behaviour with respect to a selection of offences. Results showed that the system was very effective in increasing law-abiding behaviour, which has a major positive effect on traffic safety. However, driver mental effort, as indicated by self-reports and drivers' physiological states, was slightly increased in conditions where drivers received feedback. Opinion about the tutoring system was positive in terms of usefulness. Self-reports on satisfaction differed between age groups; young drivers rated it low, while elderly drivers held a positive attitude. PMID:10098807

  8. Increasing influenza vaccination in New York City taxi drivers: A community driven approach.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Mujawar, Imran

    2015-05-21

    The Healthy People 2020 influenza immunization goal is 80% for non-institutionalized adults 18-64. However, vaccination rates remain stubbornly low. Culturally tailored approaches to communities with poor vaccine uptake are necessary. Taxi drivers are at risk for influenza and its complications, could serve as vectors for influenza infection, and could be an effective vaccination target to enhance herd immunity of the urban population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study related to influenza vaccination among taxi drivers. The NYC Taxi Network surveyed a convenience sample of 53 taxi drivers to understand vaccination barriers. Only 17% had been vaccinated. Results informed a pilot tailored workplace intervention, which resulted in vaccinations for 44% of unvaccinated drivers. The study revealed that older drivers were more likely to be vaccinated than younger drivers, while the most common barrier to immunization was that drivers thought vaccination was 'not necessary'. PMID:25850021

  9. Risk Factors for Fatal Outcome From Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in a Highly Endemic Area—Arizona, 2002–2011

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Joanna J.; Traeger, Marc S.; Humpherys, Dwight; Mahoney, Dianna L.; Martinez, Michelle; Emerson, Ginny L.; Tack, Danielle M.; Geissler, Aimee; Yasmin, Seema; Lawson, Regina; Williams, Velda; Hamilton, Charlene; Levy, Craig; Komatsu, Ken; Yost, David A.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a disease that now causes significant morbidity and mortality on several American Indian reservations in Arizona. Although the disease is treatable, reported RMSF case fatality rates from this region are high (7%) compared to the rest of the nation (<1%), suggesting a need to identify clinical points for intervention. Methods The first 205 cases from this region were reviewed and fatal RMSF cases were compared to nonfatal cases to determine clinical risk factors for fatal outcome. Results Doxycycline was initiated significantly later in fatal cases (median, day 7) than nonfatal cases (median, day 3), although both groups of case patients presented for care early (median, day 2). Multiple factors increased the risk of doxycycline delay and fatal outcome, such as early symptoms of nausea and diarrhea, history of alcoholism or chronic lung disease, and abnormal laboratory results such as elevated liver aminotransferases. Rash, history of tick bite, thrombocytopenia, and hyponatremia were often absent at initial presentation. Conclusions Earlier treatment with doxycycline can decrease morbidity and mortality from RMSF in this region. Recognition of risk factors associated with doxycycline delay and fatal outcome, such as early gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of alcoholism or chronic lung disease, may be useful in guiding early treatment decisions. Healthcare providers should have a low threshold for initiating doxycycline whenever treating febrile or potentially septic patients from tribal lands in Arizona, even if an alternative diagnosis seems more likely and classic findings of RMSF are absent. PMID:25697742

  10. Other High-Risk Factors for Young Drivers--How Graduated Licensing Does, Doesn't, or Could Address Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the risk factors underlying the high crash rates of newly licensed drivers and assesses the extent to which existing graduated driver-licensing programs address these risks. Discusses such risks as driver fatigue, not using seat belts, high speeds, high-powered vehicles, and in-vehicle distractions. (Contains 66 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  11. "My Son Is Reliable": Young Drivers' Parents' Optimism and Views on the Norms of Parental Involvement in Youth Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    The high crash rates among teenage drivers are of great concern across nations. Parents' involvement is known to help increase their young drivers' driving safety. In particular, parents can place restrictions on their son's/daughter's driving (e.g., restrict night time driving), which can enable the young driver to gain driving experience in…

  12. The influences of drivers/riders in road traffic crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-07-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  13. The Influences of Drivers/Riders in Road Traffic Crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-01-01

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country. PMID:24999145

  14. Fatal and non-fatal outcome by accidental intoxication with paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, A M; Dolapsakis, G; Troulakis, G; Christodoulou, P; Relakis, K; Trikilis, N; Michalodimitrakis, M N

    1997-09-01

    Although poisonings (fatal and non-fatal) due to intentional or accidental acute exposure to toluene or toluene mixture fumes have been previously reported in the literature, several issues concerning lethal doses or lasting post-exposure neuropathological impairments still remain unclear. Two male painters (18 and 30 years old) were accidentally exposed to toxic concentrations of paint diluent fumes containing toluene (TL), acetone (ACT) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (60:15:15 w/w/w respectively) during their work in an underground reservoir. Both workers were found unresponsive by colleagues and were immediately transferred to the regional hospital. On admission, the younger man was pronounced dead, while the other remained in the intensive care unit for 3 days and then 4 days in the internal medicine ward. TL, ACT and MEK concentrations in blood samples taken from the survivor on admission were 6.3, 30.6 and 40.5 microg/mL. Postmortem toxicology of the dead worker revealed TL, ACT and MEK blood levels of 12.4, 90.8 and 80.4 microg/mL respectively. The solvent levels in the liver, kidney, lung, brain, testis and gland were also quantified and showed a somewhat similar distribution of the chemicals among these tissues with the highest levels found in the brain and the liver. The fatal and the non-fatal outcome that resulted despite similar intoxication conditions, most probably demonstrates the interindividual tolerance among the painters who also had similar body weights. The surviving painter did not develop any neuropsychological impairment in post-exposure time. The reported case strongly emphasizes the necessity to take precautions when using paint diluents in enclosed spaces. PMID:15335573

  15. Factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aircraft crashes--Alaska, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    2002-04-26

    Despite its large geographic area, Alaska has only 12,200 miles of public roads, and 90% of the state's communities are not connected to a highway system. Commuter and air-taxi flights are essential for transportation of passengers and delivery of goods, services, and mail to outlying communities (Figure 1). Because of the substantial progress in decreasing fatalities in the fishing and logging industries, aviation crashes are the leading cause of occupational death in Alaska. During 1990-1999, aircraft crashes in Alaska caused 107 deaths among workers classified as civilian pilots. This is equivalent to 410 fatalities per 100,000 pilots each year, approximately five times the death rate for all U.S. pilots and approximately 100 times the death rate for all U.S. workers. As part of a collaborative aviation safety initiative that CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is implementing with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and the National Weather Service, CDC analyzed data from NTSB crash reports to determine factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aviation crashes in Alaska. This report summarizes the result of this analysis, which found that the following factors were associated with pilot fatalities: crashes involving a post-crash fire, flights in darkness or weather conditions requiring instrument use, crashes occurring away from an airport, and crashes in which the pilot was not using a shoulder restraint. Additional pilot training, improved fuel systems that are less likely to ignite in crashes, and company policies that discourage flying in poor weather conditions might help decrease pilot fatalities. More detailed analyses of crash data, collaborations with aircraft operators to improve safety, and evaluation of new technologies are needed. PMID:12004985

  16. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  17. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  18. Fatality Analysis Reporting System, General Estimates System: 2001 Data Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which became operational in 1975, contains data on a census of fatal traffic crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The General Estimates System (GES), which began in 1988, provides data from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all…

  19. First Case Report of Fatal Sepsis Due to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Itaru; Omori, Nami; Umeda, Ayaka; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a rare case of severe fatal infection in a 70-year-old woman due to Campylobacter upsaliensis, identified by PCR amplification and sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene using DNA extracted from the isolates. To our knowledge, fatal sepsis due to this organism has never been described to date. PMID:25411172

  20. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented. PMID:23307861

  1. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  2. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Tommy M.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  3. Work-energy level, personal characteristics, and fatal heart attack: a birth-cohort effect.

    PubMed

    Paffenbarger, R S; Hale, W E; Brand, R J; Hyde, R T

    1977-03-01

    In a 22-year followup of 3686 San Francisco longshoremen, a cohort analysis assessed job activity and six personal characteristics in relation to 395 fatal heart attacks. Four cohorts aged 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 in 1951 were studied annually for job shifts affecting energy output and for sudden or delayed death from heart attack by age 75. All subjects underwent multiphasic screening for heavy cigarette smoking, higher blood pressure, history of prior heart disease, obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, and higher blood cholesterol. The first three of these characteristics added risk of fatal heart attack. The amount of risk varied in the four cohorts. Higher energy output on the job reduced risk of fatal heart attack, especially sudden death, in the two younger cohorts, where less active workers were at threefold increased risk. Lack of this effect in the two older cohorts could imply real differences in their work habits, such as being less energetic in heavy jobs or more energetic in light jobs than the younger cohorts. Or, before the study began, early deaths may have winnowed susceptibles from the two older cohorts. Combined low-energy output, heavy smoking, and higher blood pressure increased risk by as much as 20-fold. By elimination of these adverse influences, this population might have had an 88% reduction in its rate of fatal heart attack during the 22 years. PMID:848474

  4. Pedestrian fatality risk in accidents at unsignalized zebra crosswalks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Piotr; Szagała, Piotr; Wolański, Maciej; Zielińska, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Poland has the second worst pedestrian fatality rate in the European Union. In the years 2007-2012, 9101 pedestrians were killed and 71328 injured on Polish roads. Almost 30% of pedestrian injury accidents took place at unsignalized zebra crosswalks. Based on police accident database, the worst problem in terms of numbers of fatalities occurs in built-up areas, on two-way undivided roads and at mid-block locations. Especially at risk are older people - almost 73% of pedestrians killed were 55 years or older. In order to show the effect of various factors on pedestrian fatality risk, a binary logit model with interaction terms was developed. The model shows that the following factors increase the probability of pedestrian's death at unsignalized zebra crosswalks: darkness, especially with no street lighting, divided road, two-way road, non built-up area, mid-block crosswalk location and summer time period. Speed limit is a crucial factor: probability of death increases by 37% with every 10km/h rise in the speed limit. Fatality risk increases also with victim's age and is higher for male pedestrians. PMID:26322732

  5. Novice drivers' accidents and violations--a failure on higher or lower hierarchical levels of driving behaviour.

    PubMed

    Laapotti, S; Keskinen, E; Hatakka, M; Katila, A

    2001-11-01

    The study compared accident and offence rates of 28 500 novice drivers in Finland. The purpose was to study differences in accident and offence rates between male and female novice drivers of different age. The drivers reported in a mailed questionnaire, how many accidents they had been involved in and how much they had driven during their whole driving career. All the drivers had a driving experience of 6-18 months. Information about offences for a 2-year period was obtained from an official register of drivers' licences. The drivers were classified into three age brackets: 18-20, 21-30 and 31-50 years. The effect of driving experience was controlled by dividing the drivers into different mileage brackets. The data was analysed and the results were discussed in the framework of the hierarchical model of driving behaviour. Young novice drivers and especially young male drivers showed more problems connected to the higher hierarchical levels of driving behaviour than middle-aged novice drivers. The number of accidents and offences was highest among the young males and their accidents took place more often at night than female or older drivers' accidents. Female drivers showed more problems connected to the lower hierarchical levels of driving behaviour, e.g. problems in vehicle handling skills. Ways of measuring accident risk of different driver groups were also discussed, as well as the usefulness and reliability of self-reports in accident studies. PMID:11579978

  6. Rosalind Driver studentships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    The School of Education at King's College London can now offer funded studentships to those wishing to undertake research in science education. These studentships, which are funded through the generous benefaction of the late Rosalind Driver, can be for a full-time student (over a maximum of three years) or several part-time students (a maximum of six years). Applications from anyone working in science education are welcome but preference will be given to those originating from practising science teachers. Applicants will be expected to register for the award of a MPhil/PhD or EdD and are normally expected to have a first degree. Preliminary ideas about a topic for investigation would also be helpful. Further details and application forms are obtainable from Chiz Dube, School of Education, King's College London, Franklin - Wilkins Building, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA (tel: 020-7848-3089, e-mail: chiz.dube@kcl.ac.uk). The deadline for the first round of applications was the middle of October, but preliminary informal enquiries may be made to Dr Jonathan Osborne at the School of Education (tel: 020-7848-3094, e-mail: jonathan.osborne@kcl.ac.uk).

  7. Innovation Driver Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakner, Hubert

    2013-03-01

    When addressing the global societal challenges most solutions will require Nano electronics and Smart Systems - therefore innovation today is mainly based on nanoelectronics which has become one of the most important key enabling technologies and innovation drivers. Nanoelectronics has been extended by other microtechnologies. This results in additional functionalities. The combination of analog and digital electronics, the integration of sensors and actuators, of power devices and rf components on wafer level makes it possible to shrink shoebox sized systems to the size of a matchbox. But there is no innovation without research. Europe (Germany) is top in invention but poor in commercialization - many good ideas fail when going from research to production within the so-called Valley of Death. To overcome this, a clear strategy is necessary. Silicon Saxony, the big Saxonian cluster on micro- and nanoelectronics is presented as a best practice example: clear focus, addressing whole value chains and establishing joint technology platforms has led to a remarkable commercial success in the Dresden area.

  8. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  9. The relative risk of involvement in fatal crashes as a function of race/ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.; de la Rosa, Mario; Lacey, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature presents a puzzling picture of Latinos being overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes, but not in noncrash drinking and driving. This report examines if, like other demographic variables in which some groups are at a higher crash risk than others (e.g., young drivers), different racial/ethnic groups face different crash risks Method This study compares blood-alcohol information from the 2006–2007 U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control data from the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey. Logistic regression, including a dual interaction between BAC and race/ethnicity, was used to estimate crash risk at different BAC levels. Results It was found that, although Hispanic and African-American drivers were less likely to be involved in single-vehicle crashes than their White counterparts, all drivers face similar BAC relative crash risk regardless of their group membership. The overrepresentation of Latino drivers in alcohol-related crashes could be explained by differences in patterns of consumption, driving exposure, lack of awareness of driving rules, and/or socioeconomics. PMID:24529097

  10. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. PMID:27449416

  11. Personality predictors of driver vengeance.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Roseborough, James E W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality and individual difference measures related to driver vengeance, as measured by the Driver Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ; Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Gibson, 2000). There were 170 undergraduate students who completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires including the DVQ and measures of narcissism, impulsivity, and trait driver stress. A hierarchical linear regressidn predicting DVQ score revealed that being male (β = .25), narcissism (β = .19), and trait driver stress (β = .41) were significantly associated with vengeance. Impulsivity was significant in the third block of the regression but was not a significant predictor of vengeance in the final block. Interactions between gender and the individual difference measures were not significant. The final model accounted for 34% of the variance. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25774420

  12. Biodiversity: Interacting global change drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settele, Josef; Wiemers, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Climate change impacts on species do not occur in isolation. Now research on drought-sensitive British butterflies uses citizen science to attribute the drivers of population changes and shows landscape management to be a key part of the solution.

  13. Parenting and the Young Driver Problem

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Crash rates increase sharply at the age teenagers begin to drive and remain elevated relative to adult levels well into the twenties. Parents have important roles to play in managing the risk for teenage drivers before and after licensure. Parents can be involved in their teenagers’ driving, allowing them to test for permit and licensure, supervising practice driving, providing access to a vehicle, and setting and enforcing limits on driving privileges after licensure. However, the management practices of many parents may not be sufficient to provide safety effects. The literature indicates that the two most important decisions parents can make to reduce teenagers driving risk is to delay licensure and impose limits on high-risk driving conditions (such as driving at night and with teenage passengers) during the first year of licensure. Two intervention programs have been shown to increase parent limit setting as a means of reducing risky driving behaviors and improving driving performance among novice teenage drivers. This article describes the contexts of and opportunities for parent involvement in teenage driving and the efficacy of interventions to increase and improve parental management of young drivers. PMID:18702985

  14. Inaccuracy of Federal Highway Administration licensed driver data: Implications on young driver trends

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Allison E.; Kim, Konny H.; Pfeiffer, Melissa R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) collects and publishes annual state-based counts of licensed drivers, which have been used to estimate per-driver crash rates and document a decline in young licensed drivers. The accuracy of these data has been questioned. Methods We compared the number of young licensed drivers as reported by the FHWA (2006-2012) with that generated directly from New Jersey (NJ) administrative licensing data. Census data were used to estimate the proportion of NJ adolescents who were licensed. Results FHWA data showed a decline in the proportion of licensed 17- to 20-year-olds over the seven-year period (77% to 63%), while analysis of NJ licensing data revealed a more stable trend (75% to 74%). Conclusions We advise against use of FHWA licensing data for research purposes and encourage FHWA to work with state licensing agencies to review and enhance data collection and quality control procedures with the goal of ensuring the accuracy of licensing data. PMID:25151055

  15. Syringe driver in terminal care.

    PubMed Central

    Dover, S B

    1987-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous infusions of drugs by syringe driver are used often and successfully in the terminal care of patients when drugs cannot be given orally. Diamorphine is the opioid of choice because of its high solubility. If other drugs such as antiemetics, anticholinergics, sedatives, or steroids are required they may also be given by syringe driver. This method is particularly useful for domiciliary care, where the practical difficulties of providing regular parenteral analgesia are otherwise formidable. PMID:3103774

  16. On the highway measures of driver glance behavior with an example automobile navigation system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Dean P; Brooks, Aaron M; Weir, David H

    2004-05-01

    An over-the-road study of visual-manual destination entry using an example original equipment GPS-based navigation system was accomplished in traffic on urban streets and motorways. The evaluation used typical drivers, and a vehicle instrumented to record driver eye glances and fixations, driver control inputs, and lateral lane position. The primary task was to drive in a safe manner, in traffic, while maintaining speed and lateral lane position. As a secondary task, the drivers entered successive destinations while driving, using a touch screen, and at their own pace. They were told there was no need to enter the destination quickly. Results are shown for driver glance behavior, lane keeping performance, and subjective ratings. Overall, the drivers were able to accomplish the destination entry tasks with acceptably short glance durations, acceptable total task times, and with satisfactory subjective ratings for ease of entry. PMID:15145284

  17. How do drivers overtake cyclists?

    PubMed

    Dozza, Marco; Schindler, Ron; Bianchi-Piccinini, Giulio; Karlsson, Johan

    2016-03-01

    In Europe, the number of road crashes is steadily decreasing every year. However, the incidence of bicycle crashes is not declining as fast as that of car crashes. In Sweden, cyclists are the most frequently injured road users. Collisions between bicycles and motorized vehicles are of particular concern because the high speed and large mass of motorized vehicles create a high risk of serious injury to cyclists. In Sweden's urban areas, bicycle lanes keep bicycles separated from motorized vehicles, but on rural roads bicycle lanes are often absent, requiring drivers to interact with cyclists-usually by overtaking them. During this maneuver, drivers regulate speed and lateral position, negotiating with potential oncoming traffic to stay within their comfort zones while approaching and passing cyclists. In this study an instrumented bicycle recorded 145 overtaking maneuvers performed by car and truck drivers on public rural roads in Sweden. The bicycle was equipped with a LIDAR and two cameras to assess how drivers approached and circumvented the bicycle. The collected data allowed us to identify four overtaking phases and quantify the corresponding driver comfort zones. The presence of an oncoming vehicle was the factor that most influenced the maneuver, whereas neither vehicle speed, lane width, shoulder width nor posted speed limit significantly affected the driver comfort zone or the overtaking dynamics. PMID:26717348

  18. Validation of selected temperament and personality questionnaires for diagnosing drivers' aptitude for safe driving. A Polish study.

    PubMed

    Łuczak, Anna; Tarnowski, Adam

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at validating psychological questionnaires evaluating temperamental and personality features. It discusses their usefulness in diagnosing drivers' aptitude for safe driving and working as professional drivers. Three psychological questionnaires were validated: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised and Short Scale (EPQ-R (S)) and the Impulsiveness Questionnaire (IVE). Three groups of drivers (n=246) aged 19-75 participated in the study. Group I (professional drivers; n=96) and Group II (nonprofessional drivers; n=75) had never been involved in road crashes, whereas Group III (nonprofessional drivers; n=75) were offenders involved in fatal injury road crashes. Criterion-related validity, Cronbach's alpha and Guttman split-half reliability coefficient were in assessing the psychometric properties of the questionnaires. There were some significant differences between Groups II and III for most traits. However, contrary to expectations, higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration and lower Endurance as well as higher Neuroticism, Impulsiveness and Venturesomeness were determined for Group II than for Group III. Additionally, the temperament and personality profile of Group II turned out to be less fitted to the profile of safe drivers than that of Group III, whose profile was actually similar to that of Group I. This seems to result from a high tendency for a positive self-presentation among Group I and Group III (a significantly higher result on the Lie scale in comparison with Group II). The results suggest that if psychological tests are to decide on whether a person may be a professional driver or may drive vehicles, the three questionnaires (FCB-TI, EPQ-R(S) and IVE) do not provide a valid diagnosis of professional drivers' aptitude because of drivers' high tendency for positive self-presentation. However, they can be used in job

  19. Characteristics of Two Groups of Angry Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Filetti, Linda B.; Richards, Tracy L.; Lynch, Rebekah S.; Oetting, Eugene R.

    2003-01-01

    High anger drivers acknowledging problems with driving anger and interest in counseling (high anger/problem [HP] drivers) were compared with high and low anger drivers not acknowledging problems with driving anger and seeking counseling (high and low/nonproblem [HNP and LNP, respectively] drivers). High anger groups reported more anger while…

  20. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  1. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  2. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  3. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  4. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  5. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  6. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  7. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  8. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driver inspection. 396.13 Section 396.13... MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle...

  9. 49 CFR 380.507 - Driver responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driver responsibilities. 380.507 Section 380.507... REQUIREMENTS Entry-Level Driver Training Requirements § 380.507 Driver responsibilities. Each entry-level driver must receive training required by § 380.503....

  10. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  11. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  12. [Fatal methadone poisoning of a child].

    PubMed

    Klupp, N; Risser, D; Stichenwirth, M; Hönigschnabl, S; Stimpfl, T; Bauer, G

    2000-04-21

    The substance methadone is used for substitution therapy since the 1960s in the U.S. Mainly because of the endemic spread of HIV-1 infections among intravenous drug abusers methadone was made legally available through medical prescription in Austria in 1987. Legal authorities today also allow the patient to take home the necessary daily consumption for weekends or public holidays. The drug is distributed as a watery solution in tiny bottles, which are fitted with an ordinary screw cap. This kind of distribution may, however, have fatal consequences. This is demonstrated in the following case of accidental poisoning of an infant: A two-year-old girl whose parents were both participating in the substitution scheme was found dead in her bed in Vienna in 1997. Forensic autopsy revealed a methadone concentration in the liver tissue of 640 ng/g. The criminal investigation determined that the girl had opened a bottle of methadone solution and subsequently had taken the drug. Considering the circumstances of this accident, from the medical point of view safety devices for the screw caps of the methadone bottles should be required by law, in order to avoid future accidental poisoning. PMID:10849943

  13. Interviews with widows following fatal farming incidents.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, A; Brandt, V

    2001-05-01

    Farm families have been identified traditionally with a strong family bond resulting from both living and working together. When a farming fatality occurs, surviving family members are left to deal with not only the tragedy of losing a loved one, but also the loss of a coworker. Although every family experiencing a loss will deal with bereavement issues, farm families are faced with additional challenges that differentiate them from other family situations. A qualitative research methodology was employed to understand the complex mix of challenges facing farm families after the death of a family member. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming widows in Kentucky to explore the stresses and challenges related to the farm business, family relationships, and the mental health of the individual members. Becoming the primary decision maker for the farm and household was a difficult role for the widows. Economic issues were an underlying consideration in many aspects of the experiences and changes they encountered. The need to make economic decisions almost immediately while continuing the necessary chores to maintain crops and livestock was very stressful and left little time for bereavement. Often the support from family, friends, and neighbors went beyond emotional comforting to providing help with farm chores and guidance on financial decisions. In developing resources for farm families in similar circumstances, it is important to understand how intertwined their lives are with their environment and the economics of the business. PMID:11465387

  14. Fatalities from black powder percussion handguns.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Teige, K

    1998-12-21

    Three suicides and one homicide from black powder muzzle loading handguns are reported and the muzzle velocities of two weapons are recorded. The fatal head shots caused wide wound tracts traversing the brains and intracerebral haemorrhages remote from the tract were present in every case. The skulls showed considerable fractures which were pronounced in the cases of contact shots but were also present when the range of fire was 5 m. These extensive injuries from soft lead spheres with muzzle velocities of only approximately 200 m/s are attributed to the expansion of the spheres. The regularly occurring deformation resulted in 13-16 mm calibre missiles in the cases of .44 spheres. The special features of black powder such as incomplete and slow combustion resulted in intense soot deposits in the vicinity of the entrance wound and in long ranges the gunshot residues travelled. In contact shots, large pocket-like underminings even in deeper tissue layers, abundant soot along the trajectory and skin burns were observed. PMID:9924783

  15. Acute fatal metabolic complications in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Davison, A S; Milan, A M; Gallagher, J A; Ranganath, L R

    2016-03-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder of tyrosine metabolism that results from a defect in an enzyme called homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The result of this is that homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates in the body. HGA is central to the pathophysiology of this disease and the consequences observed; these include spondyloarthropathy, rupture of ligaments/muscle/tendons, valvular heart disease including aortic stenosis and renal stones. While AKU is considered to be a chronic progressive disorder, it is clear from published case reports that fatal acute metabolic complications can also occur. These include oxidative haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. The exact mechanisms underlying the latter are not clear, but it is proposed that disordered metabolism within the red blood cell is responsible for favouring a pro-oxidant environment that leads to the life threatening complications observed. Herein the role of red blood cell in maintaining the redox state of the body is reviewed in the context of AKU. In addition previously reported therapeutic strategies are discussed, specifically with respect to why reported treatments had little therapeutic effect. The potential use of nitisinone for the management of patients suffering from the acute metabolic decompensation in AKU is proposed as an alternative strategy. PMID:26596578

  16. Identifying contributing factors to fatal and serious injury motorcycle collisions involving children in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Oxley, Jennifer; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Yuen, Jeremy; Hoareau, Effie; Hashim, Hizal Hanis

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, motorcycle crashes constitute approximately 60 percent of all road trauma, and a substantial proportion involve children 16 years and younger. There are, however, many gaps in our knowledge on contributing factors to crashes and injury patterns amongst children killed and seriously injured in motorcycle crashes. The aim of this study was to examine fatal and serious injury motorcycle-related collisions to identify contributing factors and injury patterns amongst child motorcyclists. All identified motorcyclist fatal crashes between 2007 and 2011 (inclusive) were extracted from the national Police-reported crash database (M-ROADS) and a range of variables were selected for examination. A total of 17,677 crashes were extracted where a rider or pillion was killed and of these crashes 2,038 involved children, equating to 12 percent. Examination of crashes involving children revealed that some crashes involved more than two children on the motorcycle, therefore, overall children constituted 9.5% of fatal and 18.4% of serious injury collisions. A high proportion of child fatal or serious injury collisions involved the child as the rider (62%), and this was most common for children aged between 10 and 16 years. The majority of collisions occurred on rural roads, in speed limit zones of 50–70km/h, and approximately one-third occurred at an intersection. Collisions involving another motorcycle or a passenger vehicle contributed to 41% and 53% of the total fatalities and severe injuries, respectively. A high proportion (43.9%) of the children (25.5% riders and 18.8% pillion) sustained head injuries with 37.7% being in the 10–16 age group. Furthermore, 52.4% of the children sustaining head injuries did not wear a helmet. The implications of these findings for countermeasures within a Safe System framework, particularly interventions aimed at reducing the rate of unlicensed riding and helmet wearing, and infrastructure countermeasures are discussed. PMID

  17. Non-fatal injuries in three Central and Eastern European urban population samples: the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Topor-Madry, Roman; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite high mortality from injuries and accidents, data on rates and distribution of non-fatal injuries in Central and Eastern European populations are scarce. Methods: Cross-sectional study of random population samples of 45–69-year-old men and women (n = 28 600) from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six Czech towns, participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Participants provided information on non-fatal injuries in the past 12 months, socio-economic characteristics, alcohol consumption and other covariates. Results: The period prevalence of non-fatal injuries in the last year among Czech, Russian and Polish men was 12.5, 9.4 and 5.3%, respectively; among women, the respective proportions were 9.9, 9.8 and 6.4%. Injury prevalence declined with age in men and increased with age in women. Higher injury prevalence was associated with being unmarried, material deprivation, higher drinking frequency and problem drinking. In the pooled data, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest material deprivation category was 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–1.79]; for problem drinking, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI 1.23–1.69). Alcohol did not mediate the link between socio-economic status and injury. Conclusion: Non-fatal injuries were associated with material deprivation, other socio-economic characteristics and with alcohol. These results not only underscore the universality of the inequality phenomenon, but also suggest that the mediating role of alcohol in social differentials in non-fatal injury remains an unresolved issue. PMID:19959615

  18. Fatal Firearm Injuries in Tennessee: A Comparison Study of Tennessee's Two Most Populous Counties 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Amy McMaster; Chancellor, Karen E; Rogers, William R; Ledford, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Firearm injuries are a leading cause of violent death in Tennessee. This study was designed to compare the demographic and epidemiologic features of fatal firearm injuries in Shelby County and Davidson County, Tennessee between 2009 and 2012. We identified 1081 gunshot fatalities for the study period in these two counties. Shelby County had a higher overall, age-adjusted gunshot mortality rate, a higher male age-adjusted gunshot mortality rate, and a higher age-adjusted gunshot homicide rate than Davidson. Age groups 25-34 years and 35-44 years had higher crude mortality rates for gunshot deaths in Shelby County than Davidson County. Both counties had higher age-adjusted gunshot mortality rates for black males than white males, higher homicide rate for black race than white, and higher suicide rate for white race than black. Homicide was the most common manner of death, and handguns were the most common type of firearm used in both counties. PMID:27113699

  19. Fatal anaphylaxis in the United States 1999-2010: temporal patterns and demographic associations

    PubMed Central

    Jerschow, Elina; Lin, Robert Y.; Scaperotti, Moira M.; McGinn, Aileen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis-related deaths in the United States (US) have not been well characterized in recent years. Objectives To define epidemiological features and time trends of fatal anaphylaxis in the US from 1999 to 2010. Methods Anaphylaxis-related deaths were identified by the 10th clinical modification of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system diagnostic codes on death certificates from the US National Mortality Database. Rates were calculated using census population estimates. Results There were a total of 2,458 anaphylaxis deaths in the US from 1999 to 2010. Medications were the most common cause (58.8%), followed by unspecified anaphylaxis (19.3%), venom (15.2%), and food (6.7%). There was a significant increase in fatal drug anaphylaxis over twelve years: from 0.27 (95%CI: 0.23-0.30) in 1999-2001 to 0.51 (95%CI: 0.47-0.56) per million in 2008-2010, P<0.001. Fatal anaphylaxis due to medications, food, and unspecified allergens was significantly associated with African-American race and older age, P<0.001. Fatal anaphylaxis to venom was significantly associated with White race, older age, and male gender, P<0.001. The rates of fatal anaphylaxis to foods in African-American males increased from 0.06 (95%CI 0.01-0.17) in 1999-2001 to 0.21 (95%CI 0.11-0.37) per million in 2008-2010, P<0.001. The rates of unspecified fatal anaphylaxis decreased overtime from 0.30 (95%CI: 0.26-0.34) in 1999-2001 to 0.09 (95%CI: 0.07-0.11) per million in 2008-2010, P<0.001. Conclusion There are strong and disparate associations between race and specific classes of anaphylaxis mortality in the United States. The increase in medication-related anaphylaxis deaths likely relates to increased medication and radiocontrast use, enhanced diagnosis, and coding changes. PMID:25280385

  20. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Muttart, Jeffrey W.; Peck, Louis R.; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P.; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L.; Manning, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum. PMID:23112436

  1. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections.

    PubMed

    Muttart, Jeffrey W; Peck, Louis R; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L; Manning, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum. PMID:23112436

  2. NASA direct detection laser diode driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seery, B. D.; Hornbuckle, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    TRW has developed a prototype driver circuit for GaAs laser diodes as part of the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Direct Detection Laser Transceiver (DDLT) program. The circuit is designed to drive the laser diode over a range of user-selectable data rates from 1.7 to 220 Mbps, Manchester-encoded, while ensuring compatibility with 8-bit and quaternary pulse position modulation (QPPM) formats for simulating deep space communications. The resulting hybrid circuit has demonstrated 10 to 90 percent rise and fall times of less than 300 ps at peak currents exceeding 100 mA.

  3. Has the difference in accident patterns between male and female drivers changed between 1984 and 2000?

    PubMed

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko

    2004-07-01

    The motorcar accident pattern of culpable young (18-25 years old) and middle-aged (35-55 years old) male and female drivers was studied in Finland. The aim was to see whether the difference in accident patterns between males and females has remained constant or whether it has changed over a 16-year period. Two different sets of traffic accident data were used. The first set of data covered all motorcar accidents for which damages were paid between 1987 and 2000, a total of 140802 accidents. The second set of data covered all fatal motor vehicle accidents in Finland during the time period between 1984 and 2000, a total of 2401 accidents. The results are analysed and discussed in the framework of a four-level hierarchical model of driving behaviour [Keskinen, E., 1996. Why do young drivers have more accidents? In: Junge, F., Fahrerinnen (Eds.), Young Drivers (in German and in English). Berichte der Bundesanstalt für Strabetaenwesen, Mensch und Sicherheit, Heft M 52, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany; Hatakka, M., Keskinen, E., Gregersen, N.P., Glad, A., Hernetkoski, K., 2002. From control of the vehicle to personal self-control; broadening the perspectives to driver education. Transportation Res. Part F 5 (3), 201-215]. Female drivers had proportionally more accidents that were connected to vehicle manoeuvring and control of traffic situations, e.g. reversing and loss-of-control accidents in a sober state and when not speeding. Male drivers, and especially young male drivers, had proportionally more accidents connected to higher levels of driving behaviour like motives for driving and attitudes. Factors that characterised these accidents were speeding and alcohol consumption. Male drivers also had previous traffic offences more often than female drivers. The study concludes that the difference in accident patterns between male and female drivers has remained constant, i.e. the accident pattern of female drivers was as dissimilar to the accident pattern of male drivers in

  4. Restricted driver licensing for medical impairments: Does it work?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Shawn C.; Spasoff, Robert; Nair, Rama; Walraven, Carl van

    2002-01-01

    Background Medical conditions may adversely affect driving ability. Many North American jurisdictions provide restricted driving licences that permit people with certain medical conditions to drive under limited conditions, but the effectiveness of such programs has not yet been determined. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rates of crashes and traffic violations among drivers with a restricted licence, compared with the rates in the general driving population, and to compare the crash and traffic violation rates before and after driving restrictions were imposed. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of all licensed Saskatchewan drivers registered from Jan. 1, 1992, to Apr. 19, 1999. The cohort was divided into those with a restricted licence and those with an unrestricted general licence. We used multivariate Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for at-fault crashes and traffic violations, adjusting for age, sex and residence (urban v. rural). We used interventional time series analysis to compare rates of crashes and traffic violations before and after the imposition of driving restrictions. Results Of the 703 758 drivers in the study, 23 185 (3.3%) had a restricted licence. Restricted licence holders had a higher crash rate than drivers without restrictions (adjusted IRR 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.17). However, this rate was lower than that among male drivers (adjusted IRR 2.01, 95% CI 1.99–2.02) and urban drivers (adjusted IRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.37–1.39). Drivers with restricted licences had a lower traffic violation rate than those without restrictions (adjusted IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91–0.95). At-fault crash rates decreased by 12.8% (95% CI 2.4%–23.2%) and adjusted traffic violation rates decreased by 10.0% (95% CI 4.4%–15.7%) after restrictions were imposed. During the study period, licence restrictions likely averted up to 816 crashes and 751 traffic violations. Interpretation Province

  5. Headlamps for light based driver assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, M.; Kleinkes, M.

    2008-04-01

    Driving at night is dangerous. Although only 25% of all driving tasks are performed at night, nearly half of all fatal accidents happen in this time. In order to increase safety when driving under poor visibility conditions, automotive front lighting systems have undergone a strong development in the last fifteen years. One important milestone was the introduction of Xenon headlamps in 1992, which provide more and brighter light for road illumination than ever before. Since then the paradigm of simply providing more light has changed toward providing optimised light distributions, which support the driver's perception. A first step in this direction was the introduction of dynamic bend lighting and cornering light in 2003. In 2006 the first full AFS headlamp (Adaptive Front Lighting System) allowed an optimised adoption of the light distribution to the driving situation. These systems use information provided by vehicle sensors and an intelligent algorithm to guide light towards those areas where needed. Nowadays, even more information about the vehicle's environment is available. Image processing systems, for example, allow to detect other traffic participants, their speed and their driving directions. In future headlamp systems these data will be used to constantly regulate the reach of the light distribution thus allowing a maximal reach without providing glare. Moreover, technologies that allow to constantly use a high-beam light distribution are under development. These systems will illuminate the whole traffic area only excluding other traffic participants. LED light sources will play a significant role in these scenarios, since they allow to precisely illuminate certain areas of the road, while neighbouring parts will be left in dark.

  6. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant. PMID:18754211

  7. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways. PMID:22684174

  8. Differences in the epidemiology and virology of mild, severe and fatal human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jianping; Chen, Xiaowen; Ren, Yajin; Chen, Haijun; Wu, Zuqun; Ying, Dong; Zhang, Zhiruo; Liu, Shelan

    2016-05-01

    A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus caused 5-10 % mild and 30.5 % fatal human infections as of December 10, 2015. In order to investigate the reason for the higher rate of fatal outcome of this infection, this study compared the molecular epidemiology and virology of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses from mild (N = 14), severe (N = 50) and fatal (N = 35) cases, as well as from non-human hosts (N = 73). The epidemiological results showed that the average age of the people in the mild, severe and fatal groups was 27.6, 52 and 62 years old, respectively (p < 0.001). Males accounted for 42.9 % (6/14), 58.0 % (29/50), and 74.3 % (26/35) of cases in the mild, severe and fatal group respectively (p = 0.094). Median days from onset to start of antiviral treatment were 2, 5 and 7 days in the mild, severe and fatal group, respectively (p = 0.002). The median time from onset to discharge/death was 12, 40 and 19 days in the mild, severe and fatal group, respectively (p < 0.001). Analysis of whole genome sequences showed that PB2 (E627K), NA (R294K) and PA (V100A) mutations were markedly associated with an increased fatality rate, while HA (N276D) and PB2 (N559T) mutations were clearly related to mild cases. There were no differences in the genotypes, adaptation to mammalian hosts, and genetic identity between the three types of infection. In conclusion, advanced age and delayed confirmation of diagnosis and antiviral intervention were risk factors for death. Furthermore, PB2 (E627K), NA (R294K) and PA (V100A) mutations might contribute to a fatal outcome in human H7N9 infection. PMID:26887968

  9. Analysis of driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes on rural and urban roadways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaoyue Cathy; Tarefder, Rafiqul

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzes driver injury severities for single-vehicle crashes occurring in rural and urban areas using data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. Nested logit models and mixed logit models are developed in order to account for the correlation between severity categories (No injury, Possible injury, Visible injury, Incapacitating injury and fatality) and individual heterogeneity among drivers. Various factors, such as crash and environment characteristics, geometric features, and driver behavior are examined in this study. Nested logit model and mixed logit model reveal similar results in terms of identifying contributing factors for driver injury severities. In the analysis of urban crashes, only the nested logit model is presented since no random parameter is found in the mixed logit model. The results indicate that significant differences exist between factors contributing to driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes in rural and urban areas. There are 5 variables found only significant in the rural model and six significant variables identified only in the urban crash model. These findings can help transportation agencies develop effective policies or appropriate strategies to reduce injury severity resulting from single-vehicle crashes. PMID:27240127

  10. Youthfulness, inexperience, and sleep loss: the problems young drivers face and those they pose for us

    PubMed Central

    Groeger, J A

    2006-01-01

    Young inexperienced drivers are more likely to be involved in road traffic crashes than drivers who are older and more experienced. This paper argues that neither age nor inexperience are, in and of themselves, sufficient explanations of the association between age, experience, and casualty rates. The aim here is to consider what it is about inexperienced young drivers in particular that may increase crash risk. Evidence is reviewed showing differential sleep loss among different teenage groups, which may relate to recently presented evidence that young teenagers are more crash involved than drivers in their early twenties. Potential acute and chronic effects of sleep loss among teenagers and young adults are described. PMID:16788107

  11. Youthfulness, inexperience, and sleep loss: the problems young drivers face and those they pose for us.

    PubMed

    Groeger, J A

    2006-06-01

    Young inexperienced drivers are more likely to be involved in road traffic crashes than drivers who are older and more experienced. This paper argues that neither age nor inexperience are, in and of themselves, sufficient explanations of the association between age, experience, and casualty rates. The aim here is to consider what it is about inexperienced young drivers in particular that may increase crash risk. Evidence is reviewed showing differential sleep loss among different teenage groups, which may relate to recently presented evidence that young teenagers are more crash involved than drivers in their early twenties. Potential acute and chronic effects of sleep loss among teenagers and young adults are described. PMID:16788107

  12. Gun Injuries More Often Fatal Now, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States, a new study suggests. "Americans mourn firearm-related fatalities every day," said lead researcher Dr. ... that trauma can be traced to increasingly powerful firearms, such as the assault rifle used in the ...

  13. Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

  14. Fatal Legionellosis after Water Birth, Texas, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Kay; Threadgill, Heidi; Cervantes, Diana

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, a fatal infection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 occurred in a neonate after a water birth. The death highlighted the need for infection control education, client awareness, and standardization of cleaning procedures in Texas midwife facilities. PMID:25531804

  15. Newly Released Inmates Account for 1 in 10 Fatal ODs

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159858.html Newly Released Inmates Account for 1 in 10 Fatal ODs Many may not realize ... the general population," Persaud added. Not only did one in 10 overdose deaths involve a recently released ...

  16. The economic cost of farm-related fatalities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pollock, K S; Griffith, G R; Fragar, L J

    2012-01-01

    Farm-related fatalities are a significant problem in Australian agriculture. Over the period 2001-2004, there were 404 fatalities that occurred as a direct consequence of visiting, residing, or working on a farm. This study employed a human capital approach to establish the economic costs of farm-related fatalities to the Australian economy. Modeling of direct and indirect costs associated with farm-related fatalities estimated that the 404 traumatic deaths over the period 2001-2004 cost the Australian economy $650.6 million in 2008 Australian dollars (AUD). This equates to 2.7% of the 2008 farm gross domestic product (GDP) due to potentially preventable farm accidents and injuries. Farm-related deaths are a significant economic cost to the Australian economy. Greater resources need to be directed to farm health and safety interventions to increase their effectiveness at reducing the risk exposure of those visiting, residing, and working on Australian farms. PMID:22458013

  17. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are ... dangers associated with leaving anyone, especially children in hot, unventilated vehicles during the summer. Children throughout the ...

  18. Attitudes of commercial motor vehicle drivers towards safety belts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karl; Yamashita, Eric Y

    2007-11-01

    Despite the fact that Hawaii has one of the highest seat belt use rates for passenger vehicles in the United States, and has had a mandatory seat belt use law since the 1980s, studies have shown that commercial motor vehicles (CMV) seat belt use rates are low. To better understand this phenomenon, a comprehensive survey of commercial vehicle drivers was conducted in Hawaii to ascertain attitudes and self-reported behaviors regarding seat belt use. A total of 791 drivers responded to a written questionnaire implemented at weigh stations and distributed to various trucking firms and transport centers. Approximately 67% reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a CMV (commercial motor vehicle), yet when asked how often do other CMV drivers use seat belts, only 31% responded "always." Interestingly, 86% of these same drivers reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a personal vehicle. The major reason cited for non-use of belts was "frequent stops/inconvenience" (29%), and "not safety conscious" (23%). Notably, the self-reported use of safety belts is highest among operators of vans (88% said "always"), followed by buses (87% said "always") and lowest among truck drivers (only 60% said "always"). In this paper, some of the differences between self-reported users and non-users are explored and a multivariate logit model was developed to predict the odds of belt use as a function of various factors. PMID:17920831

  19. Effectiveness of mandatory license testing for older drivers in reducing crash risk among urban older Australian drivers.

    PubMed

    Langford, Jim; Fitzharris, Michael; Koppel, Sjaanie; Newstead, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    Most licensing jurisdictions in Australia maintain mandatory assessment programs targeting older drivers, whereby a driver reaching a specified age is required to prove his or her fitness to drive through medical assessment and/or on-road testing. Previous studies both in Australia and elsewhere have consistently failed to demonstrate that age-based mandatory assessment results in reduced crash involvement for older drivers. However studies that have based their results upon either per-population or per-driver crash rates fail to take into account possible differences in driving activity. Because some older people maintain their driving licenses but rarely if ever drive, the proportion of inactive license-holders might be higher in jurisdictions without mandatory assessment relative to jurisdictions with periodic license assessment, where inactive drivers may more readily either surrender or lose their licenses. The failure to control for possible differences in driving activity across jurisdictions may be disguising possible safety benefits associated with mandatory assessment. The current study compared the crash rates of drivers in Melbourne, Australia, where there is no mandatory assessment and Sydney, Australia, where there is regular mandatory assessment from 80 years of age onward. The crash rate comparisons were based on four exposure measures: per population, per licensed driver, per distance driven, and per time spent driving. Poisson regression analysis incorporating an offset to control for inter-jurisdictional road safety differences indicated that there was no difference in crash risk for older drivers based on population. However drivers aged 80 years and older in the Sydney region had statistically higher rates of casualty crash involvement than their Melbourne counterparts on a per license issued basis (RR: 1.15, 1.02-1.29, p=0.02) and time spent driving basis (RR: 1.19, 1.06-1.34, p=0.03). A similar trend was apparent based on distance travelled

  20. Crash involvement of drivers with multiple crashes.

    PubMed

    Chandraratna, Susantha; Stamatiadis, Nikiforos; Stromberg, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    A goal for any licensing agency is the ability to identify high-risk drivers. Kentucky data show that a significant number of drivers are repeatedly involved in crashes. The objective of this study is the development of a crash prediction model that can be used to estimate the likelihood of a driver being at fault for a near future crash occurrence. Multiple logistic regression techniques were employed using the available data for the Kentucky licensed drivers. This study considers as crash predictors the driver's total number of previous crashes, citations accumulated, the time gap between the latest two crashes, crash type, and demographic factors. The driver's total number of previous crashes was further disaggregated into the drivers' total number of previous at-fault and not-at-fault crashes. The model can be used to correctly classify at-fault drivers up to 74.56% with an overall efficiency of 63.34%. The total number of previous at-fault crash involvements, and having previous driver license suspensions and traffic school referrals are strongly associated with a driver being responsible for a subsequent crash. In addition, a driver's likelihood to be at fault in a crash is higher for very young or very old, males, drivers with both speeding and non-speeding citations, and drivers that had a recent crash involvement. Thus, the model presented here enables agencies to more actively monitor the likelihood of a driver to be at fault in a crash. PMID:16405858

  1. Fatal Tenofovir-Associateacd Lactic Acidosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Hasriza; Sahari, Narisa Sulaiman; Sazlly Lim, Sazlyna Mohd; Hoo, Fan Kee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in 1996, has resulted in marked reductions in the rate of illness and death, due to HIV infection. The HAART has transformed HIV infection into a manageable chronic disease. However, although many regimens lower plasma viral load, to below the limit of detection, in most patients, maintaining viral load suppression remains challenging, because of adverse effects and toxicity in the long term, which can lead to non-adherence, virologic failure and drug resistance. Although rare, lactic acidosis often develops fatal complications, as reported in several human immunodeficiency virus infected patients treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The purpose of this paper is to report a case of tenofovir induced lactic acidosis and review the literature. Case Presentation: A 52-year-old Malay gentleman, with hepatitis C virus and HIV infection was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe lactic acidosis, with concurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia with multiorgan dysfunction. The patient was started on highly active antiretroviral therapy, which included tenofovir, 5 weeks before presentation. Antimicrobial therapy, continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, and other supportive treatments were instituted. However, the patient eventually succumbed to his illness. Conclusions: It is essential for clinicians to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis in NRTIs treated HIV patients, as an early diagnosis is important to institute treatment. PMID:26568856

  2. Injury patterns associated with direction of impact: drivers admitted to trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Dischinger, P C; Cushing, B M; Kerns, T J

    1993-09-01

    Clinical data on the nature and severity of injuries was linked with data from police crash reports for 3675 car or truck drivers admitted to trauma centers. Different patterns of injuries were noted for drivers in frontal compared with left lateral collisions. Injuries to the face and lower extremities were significantly greater in frontal collisions; thorax, abdominal, and pelvic injuries were significantly greater in lateral collisions. In addition, drivers in lateral collisions were found to have significantly more multiple injuries to the abdomen and thorax. Despite no difference in mean injury Severity Score, drivers in left lateral collisions had a significantly higher mortality rate; moreover, this increased mortality was not merely a reflection of the increased incidence of lateral collisions among older drivers. In conclusion, information on direction of impact has potential use for clinical decision making, since drivers in lateral collisions have a higher incidence of occult abdominal and thoracic injuries. PMID:8371306

  3. The Influence of Motion Cues on Driver-Vehicle Performance in a Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repa, B. S.; Leucht, P. M.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    Four different motion base configurations were studied on driving simulator. Differently responding vehicles were simulated on each motion configurations and the effects of the vehicle characteristics on driver vehicle system performance, driver control activity, and driver opinion ratings of vehicle performance during driving are compared for different motion configurations. Data show that: (1)) the effects of changes in vehicle characteristics on the different objective and subjective measures of driver vehicle performance are not disguised by the lack of physical motion; (2) fixed base simulator can be used to draw inferences despite the lack of motion; (3) the presence of motion tends to reduce path keeping errors and driver control activity; (4) roll and yaw motions are recommended because of their marked influence on driver vehicle performance (5) the importance of motion increases as the driving maneuvers become more extreme.

  4. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  5. [Case report: fatal diving-accident. Or: accident while diving?].

    PubMed

    Böttcher, F; Jüttner, B; Krause, A; Rocha, M; Koppert, W

    2012-02-01

    This example of a fatal diving accident shows how challenging such cases can be in pre-hospital and clinical care. There is no common mechanism in diving fatalities and more than one group of disorders coming along with decompression sickness. Diving medicine is not an element of medical education, which results in insecurity and hampers adequate therapy of diving incidents. This is aggravated by an insufficient availability of hyperbaric chambers in Germany. PMID:22354401

  6. Fatal food allergy and opportunities for risk minimisation.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jan

    2013-05-31

    IgE-mediated food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 2% of adults. Fatal food allergic reactions are rare. Management of food allergy requires accurate identification of allergen(s), risk assessment, education on allergen avoidance / management of allergic reaction, and follow up. A case of fatal allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is reported, illustrating the importance of these aspects of management. PMID:23824029

  7. Acute fatal poisoning cases due to furathiocarb ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Ameno, K; In, S W; Yang, W K; Koo, K S; Yoo, Y C; Kubota, T; Ameno, S; Ijiri, I

    1999-04-12

    Seven cases involving acute fatalities due to ingestion of furathiocarb, a carbamate insecticide, are presented. Furathiocarb was detected in the gastric contents using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS), and quantified in the blood using a gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). The fatal levels of furathiocarb in the blood ranged from 0.1 to 21.6 micrograms/ml. PMID:10376339

  8. Drivers of the primate thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Rovó, Zita; Ulbert, István; Acsády, László

    2012-01-01

    The activity of thalamocortical neurons is largely determined by giant excitatory terminals, called drivers. These afferents may arise from neocortex or from subcortical centers; however their exact distribution, segregation or putative absence in given thalamic nuclei are unknown. To unravel the nucleus-specific composition of drivers, we mapped the entire macaque thalamus utilizing vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 to label cortical and subcortical afferents, respectively. Large thalamic territories were innervated exclusively either by giant vGLUT2- or vGLUT1-positive boutons. Co-distribution of drivers with different origin was not abundant. In several thalamic regions, no giant terminals of any type could be detected at light microscopic level. Electron microscopic observation of these territories revealed either the complete absence of large multisynaptic excitatory terminals (basal ganglia-recipient nuclei) or the presence of both vGLUT1- and vGLUT2-positive terminals, which were significantly smaller than their giant counterparts (intralaminar nuclei, medial pulvinar). In the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus, giant inhibitory terminals replaced the excitatory driver inputs. The pulvinar and the mediodorsal nucleus displayed subnuclear heterogeneity in their driver assemblies. These results show that distinct thalamic territories can be under pure subcortical or cortical control; however there is significant variability in the composition of major excitatory inputs in several thalamic regions. Since thalamic information transfer depends on the origin and complexity of the excitatory inputs, this suggests that the computations performed by individual thalamic regions display considerable variability. Finally, the map of driver distribution may help to resolve the morphological basis of human diseases involving different parts of the thalamus. PMID:23223308

  9. Determining the Relationship between Drivers' Level of Education, Training, Working Conditions, and Job Performance in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Hinton, Barbara E.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data from 143 public transportation drivers in Kenya indicated that driver experience and hours worked were significantly related to rates of traffic accidents. Educational level, training, salary, and average speed were not related. (Contains 45 references.) (SK)

  10. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J.; Geruschat, Duane R.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the “yield to pedestrian” sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach

  11. Occupational aviation fatalities--Alaska, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    Aircraft crashes are the second leading cause of occupational deaths in Alaska; during the 1990s, a total of 108 fatal aviation crashes resulted in 155 occupational fatalities. To update data and identify risk factors for occupational death from aircraft crashes, CDC reviewed data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System. During 2000--2010, a total of 90 occupational fatalities occurred as a result of 54 crashes, an average of five fatal aircraft crashes and eight fatalities per year. Among those crashes, 21 (39%) were associated with intended takeoffs or landings at landing sites not registered with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Fifteen crashes (28%) were associated with weather, including poor visibility, wind, and turbulence. In addition, 11 crashes (20%) resulted from pilots' loss of aircraft control; nine (17%) from pilots' failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects; and seven (13%) from engine, structure, or component failure. To reduce occupational fatalities resulting from aircraft crashes in the state, safety interventions should focus on providing weather and other flight information to increase pilots' situational awareness, maintaining pilot proficiency and decision-making abilities, and expanding the infrastructure used by pilots to fly by instruments. PMID:21716197

  12. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Vigars, Mark L.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  13. Professional drivers: protection needed for a high-risk occupation.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Wong, J; Baron, R D

    1976-01-01

    "On the job" motor vehicle deaths number more than 4,000 annually in the U.S. and comprise nearly one-third of all work-related deaths. Yet the Department of Labor has set no standards relating to on-the-road safety of the millions of workers whose jobs entail large amounts of driving, and Department of Transportation standards affecting occupational safety cover only drivers in interstate commerce. Drivers of some commercial vehicles, such as heavy trucks, are at special risk of injury because trucks have usually been exempted for many years from federal motor vehicle safety standards--such as standards for brakes and seatbelts--designed to prevent crashes or protect occupants in crashes. Observations based on a series of 150 fatal crashes involving tractor trailers illustrate the need for better protection of this large population of high-risk workers. Clarification of responsibility within the various federal agencies and application of available knowledge and technology are essential. PMID:937611

  14. Prediction of fatal or near-fatal cardiac arrhythmia events in patients with depressed left ventricular function after an acute myocardial infarction†

    PubMed Central

    Huikuri, Heikki V.; Raatikainen, M.J. Pekka; Moerch-Joergensen, Rikke; Hartikainen, Juha; Virtanen, Vesa; Boland, Jean; Anttonen, Olli; Hoest, Nis; Boersma, Lucas V.A.; Platou, Eivind S.; Messier, Marc D.; Bloch-Thomsen, Poul-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Aims To determine whether risk stratification tests can predict serious arrhythmic events after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 0.40). Methods and results A total of 5869 consecutive patients were screened in 10 European centres, and 312 patients (age 65 ± 11 years) with a mean LVEF of 31 ± 6% were included in the study. Heart rate variability/turbulence, ambient arrhythmias, signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG), T-wave alternans, and programmed electrical stimulation (PES) were performed 6 weeks after AMI. The primary endpoint was ECG-documented ventricular fibrillation or symptomatic sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). To document these arrhythmic events, the patients received an implantable ECG loop-recorder. There were 25 primary endpoints (8.0%) during the follow-up of 2 years. The strongest predictors of primary endpoint were measures of heart rate variability, e.g. hazard ratio (HR) for reduced very-low frequency component (<5.7 ln ms2) adjusted for clinical variables was 7.0 (95% CI: 2.4–20.3, P < 0.001). Induction of sustained monomorphic VT during PES (adjusted HR = 4.8, 95% CI, 1.7–13.4, P = 0.003) also predicted the primary endpoint. Conclusion Fatal or near-fatal arrhythmias can be predicted by many risk stratification methods, especially by heart rate variability, in patients with reduced LVEF after AMI. PMID:19155249

  15. Estimating wind-turbine-caused bird and bat fatality when zero carcasses are observed.

    PubMed

    Huso, Manuela M P; Dalthorp, Dan; Dail, David; Madsen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Many wind-power facilities in the United States have established effective monitoring programs to determine turbine-caused fatality rates of birds and bats, but estimating the number of fatalities of rare species poses special difficulties. The loss of even small numbers of individuals may adversely affect fragile populations, but typically, few (if any) carcasses are observed during monitoring. If monitoring design results in only a small proportion of carcasses detected, then finding zero carcasses may give little assurance that the number of actual fatalities is small. Fatality monitoring at wind-power facilities commonly involves conducting experiments to estimate the probability (g) an individual will be observed, accounting for the possibilities that it falls in an unsearched area, is scavenged prior to detection, or remains undetected even when present. When g < 1, the total carcass count (X) underestimates the total number of fatalities (M). Total counts can be 0 when M is small or when M is large and g < 1. Distinguishing these two cases is critical when estimating fatality of a rare species. Observing no individuals during searches may erroneously be interpreted as evidence of absence. We present an approach that uses Bayes' theorem to construct a posterior distribution for M, i.e., P(M \\ X, ĝ), reflecting the observed carcass count and previously estimated g. From this distribution, we calculate two values important to conservation: the probability that M is below a predetermined limit and the upper bound (M*) of the 100(1 - α)% credible interval for M. We investigate the dependence of M* on α, g, and the prior distribution of M, asking what value of g is required to attain a desired M for a given α. We found that when g < -0.15, M* was clearly influenced by the mean and variance of ĝ and the choice of prior distribution for M, but the influence of these factors is minimal when g > -0.45. Further, we develop extensions for temporal replication that

  16. Estimating wind-turbine-caused bird and bat fatality when zero carcasses are observed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Dalthorp, Daniel; Dail, David; Madsen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many wind-power facilities in the United States have established effective monitoring programs to determine turbine-caused fatality rates of birds and bats, but estimating the number of fatalities of rare species poses special difficulties. The loss of even small numbers of individuals may adversely affect fragile populations, but typically, few (if any) carcasses are observed during monitoring. If monitoring design results in only a small proportion of carcasses detected, then finding zero carcasses may give little assurance that the number of actual fatalities is small. Fatality monitoring at wind-power facilities commonly involves conducting experiments to estimate the probability (g) an individual will be observed, accounting for the possibilities that it falls in an unsearched area, is scavenged prior to detection, or remains undetected even when present. When g < 1, the total carcass count (X) underestimates the total number of fatalities (M). Total counts can be 0 when M is small or when M is large and g ≪1. Distinguishing these two cases is critical when estimating fatality of a rare species. Observing no individuals during searches may erroneously be interpreted as evidence of absence. We present an approach that uses Bayes' theorem to construct a posterior distribution for M, i.e., P(M | X, ĝ), reflecting the observed carcass count and previously estimated g. From this distribution, we calculate two values important to conservation: the probability that M is below a predetermined limit and the upper bound (M*) of the 100(1 − α)% credible interval for M. We investigate the dependence of M* on α, g, and the prior distribution of M, asking what value of g is required to attain a desired M* for a given α. We found that when g < ~0.15, M* was clearly influenced by the mean and variance of ĝ and the choice of prior distribution for M, but the influence of these factors is minimal when g > ~0.45. Further, we develop

  17. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  18. Driver sleepiness and individual differences in preferences for countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran; Peters, Björn; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present national questionnaire study was to relate the use of sleepiness countermeasures among drivers to possible explanatory factors such as age, sex, education, professional driving, being a shift worker, having experience of sleepy driving, sleep-related crashes, problems with sleep and sleepiness in general and sleep length during working days. Also the attitude to countermeasures related to information or driver support system was studied. A random sample of 3041 persons was drawn from the national register of vehicle owners. The response rate was 62%. The most common countermeasures were to stop to take a walk (54%), turn on the radio/stereo (52%), open a window (47%), drink coffee (45%) and to ask passengers to engage in conversation (35%). Logistic regression analysis showed that counteracting sleepiness with a nap (a presumably efficient method) was practiced by those with experience of sleep-related crashes or of driving during severe sleepiness, as well as by professional drivers, males and drivers aged 46-64 years. The most endorsed means of information to the driver about sleepiness was in-car monitoring of driving performance providing drivers with information on bad or unsafe driving. This preference was related to experience of sleepy driving, not being a professional driver and male gender. Four clusters of behaviours were identified: alertness-enhancing activity while driving (A), stopping the car (S), taking a nap (N) and ingesting coffee or other sources of caffeine (C) (energy drinks, caffeine tablets). The participants were grouped according to their use of any of the four categories of countermeasures. The most common cluster was those who used activity, as well as stopping and drinking caffeine. PMID:18275551

  19. Children's Understanding of Drivers' Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…

  20. Fuel-Cell Drivers Wanted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd; Jones, Rick

    2004-01-01

    While the political climate seems favorable for the development of fuel-cell vehicles for personal transportation, the market's demand may not be so favorable. Nonetheless, middle level students will be the next generation of drivers and voters, and they need to be able to make informed decisions regarding the nation's energy and transportation…