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Sample records for driver support systems

  1. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. PMID:26277411

  2. Contributing Factors to Driver's Over-trust in a Driving Support System for Workload Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto

    Avoiding over-trust in machines is a vital issue in order to establish intelligent driver support systems. It is necessary to distinguish systems for workload reduction from systems for accident prevention/mitigation. This study focuses on over-trust in an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system as a typical driving support system for workload reduction. By conducting an experiment, we obtained a case in which a driver trusted the ACC system too much. Concretely speaking, the driver just watched the ACC system crashing into a stopped car even though the ACC system was designed to ignore such stopped cars. This paper investigates possible contributing factors to the driver' s over-trust in the ACC system. The results suggest that emerging trust in the dimension of performance may cause over-trust in the dimension of method or purpose.

  3. The Effect of Haptic Support Systems on Driver Performance: A Literature Survey.

    PubMed

    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Mark; de Winter, Joost C F

    2015-01-01

    A large number of haptic driver support systems have been described in the scientific literature. However, there is little consensus regarding the design, evaluation methods, and effectiveness of these systems. This literature survey aimed to investigate: (1) what haptic systems (in terms of function, haptic signal, channel, and supported task) have been experimentally tested, (2) how these haptic systems have been evaluated, and (3) their reported effects on driver performance and behaviour. We reviewed empirical research in which participants had to drive a vehicle in a real or simulated environment, were able to control the heading and/or speed of the vehicle, and a haptic signal was provided to them. The results indicated that a clear distinction can be made between warning systems (using vibrations) and guidance systems (using continuous forces). Studies typically used reaction time measures for evaluating warning systems and vehicle-centred performance measures for evaluating guidance systems. In general, haptic warning systems reduced the reaction time of a driver compared to no warnings, although these systems may cause annoyance. Guidance systems generally improved the performance of drivers compared to non-aided driving, but these systems may suffer from after-effects. Longitudinal research is needed to investigate the transfer and retention of effects caused by haptic support systems. PMID:26683254

  4. Drivers license display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  5. Natural and human drivers of salinity in reservoirs and their implications in water supply operation through a Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Linares-Sáez, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Salt can be a problem when is originally in aquifers or when it dissolves in groundwater and comes to the ground surface or flows into streams. The problem increases in lakes hydraulically connected with aquifers affecting water quality. This issue is even more alarming when water resources are used for urban and irrigation supply and water quantity and quality restrict that water demand. This work shows a data based and physical modeling approach in the Guadalhorce reservoir, located in southern Spain. This water body receives salt contribution from mainly groundwater flow, getting salinity values in the reservoir from 3500 to 5500 μScm-1. Moreover, Guadalhorce reservoir is part of a complex system of reservoirs fed from the Guadalhorce River that supplies all urban, irrigation, tourism, energy and ecology water uses, which makes that implementation and validation of methods and tools for smart water management is required. Meteorological, hydrological and water quality data from several monitoring networks and data sources, with both historical and real time data during a 40-years period, were used to analyze the impact salinity. On the other hand, variables that mainly depend on the dam operation, such as reservoir water level and water outflow, were also analyzed to understand how they affect to salinity in depth and time. Finally surface and groundwater inflows to the reservoir were evaluated through a physically based hydrological model to forecast when the major contributions take place. Reservoir water level and surface and groundwater inflows were found to be the main drivers of salinity in the reservoir. When reservoir water level is high, daily water inflow around 0.4 hm3 causes changes in salinity (both drop and rise) up to 500 μScm-1, but no significant changes are found when water level falls 2-3 m. However the gradual water outflows due to dam operation and consequent decrease in reservoir water levels makes that, after dry periods, salinity

  6. Home Discharge and Out-of-Hospital Follow-Up of Total Artificial Heart Patients Supported by a Portable Driver System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To enhance ambulation and facilitate hospital discharge of total artificial heart (TAH)–supported patients, we adapted a mobile ventricular assistance device (VAD) driver (Excor) for TAH use and report on the performance of Excor-driven TAH patients discharged home. Ten patients stabilized on a TAH, driven by the CSS (“Circulatory Support System”), were progressively switched over to the Excor in hospital over 14 days as a pilot, with daily hemodynamics and laboratory parameters measured. Twenty-two stable TAH patients were subsequently placed on the Excor, trained, and discharged home. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were followed. All pilot study patients were clinically stable on the Excor, with no decrease in TAH output noted (6.3 + 0.3 L/min [day 1] vs. 5.8 + 0.2 L/min [day 14], p = 0.174), with a trend suggesting improvement of both hepatic and renal function. Twenty-two TAH patients were subsequently successfully discharged home on the portable driver and were supported out of hospital for up to 598 days (range, 2–598; mean = 179 ± 140 days), remaining ambulatory, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I or II, and free of readmission for 88.5% of the time of support. TAH patients may be effectively and safely supported by a mobile drive system. As such, the utility of the TAH may be extended to support patients beyond the hospital, at home, with overall ambulatory freedom. PMID:24577369

  7. Integrating cost information with health management support system: an enhanced methodology to assess health care quality drivers.

    PubMed

    Kohli, R; Tan, J K; Piontek, F A; Ziege, D E; Groot, H

    1999-08-01

    Changes in health care delivery, reimbursement schemes, and organizational structure have required health organizations to manage the costs of providing patient care while maintaining high levels of clinical and patient satisfaction outcomes. Today, cost information, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction results must become more fully integrated if strategic competitiveness and benefits are to be realized in health management decision making, especially in multi-entity organizational settings. Unfortunately, traditional administrative and financial systems are not well equipped to cater to such information needs. This article presents a framework for the acquisition, generation, analysis, and reporting of cost information with clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction in the context of evolving health management and decision-support system technology. More specifically, the article focuses on an enhanced costing methodology for determining and producing improved, integrated cost-outcomes information. Implementation issues and areas for future research in cost-information management and decision-support domains are also discussed. PMID:10539425

  8. 49 CFR 395.11 - Supporting documents for drivers using EOBRs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supporting documents for drivers using EOBRs. 395... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.11 Supporting documents for drivers using EOBRs. (a) Motor... additional supporting documents (e.g., driver payroll records, fuel receipts) that provide the ability...

  9. 49 CFR 395.11 - Supporting documents for drivers using EOBRs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supporting documents for drivers using EOBRs. 395... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.11 Supporting documents for drivers using EOBRs. (a) Motor... additional supporting documents (e.g., driver payroll records, fuel receipts) that provide the ability...

  10. Vision-based method for detecting driver drowsiness and distraction in driver monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jaeik; Lee, Sung Joo; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2011-12-01

    Most driver-monitoring systems have attempted to detect either driver drowsiness or distraction, although both factors should be considered for accident prevention. Therefore, we propose a new driver-monitoring method considering both factors. We make the following contributions. First, if the driver is looking ahead, drowsiness detection is performed; otherwise, distraction detection is performed. Thus, the computational cost and eye-detection error can be reduced. Second, we propose a new eye-detection algorithm that combines adaptive boosting, adaptive template matching, and blob detection with eye validation, thereby reducing the eye-detection error and processing time significantly, which is hardly achievable using a single method. Third, to enhance eye-detection accuracy, eye validation is applied after initial eye detection, using a support vector machine based on appearance features obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Fourth, we propose a novel eye state-detection algorithm that combines appearance features obtained using PCA and LDA, with statistical features such as the sparseness and kurtosis of the histogram from the horizontal edge image of the eye. Experimental results showed that the detection accuracies of the eye region and eye states were 99 and 97%, respectively. Both driver drowsiness and distraction were detected with a success rate of 98%.

  11. Driver fatigue detection system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Fu liang; Song, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    To detect driver fatigue states effectively and in real time, a driver fatigue detection system was built, which take ICETEK-DM6347 module as system core, near-infrared LED as light source, and CCD camera as picture gathering device. An improved PER-NORFACE detection method combined several simple and efficient image processing algorithms was proposed, which based on principle of PERCLOS method and take the human face location as the main detection target. To ensure the ability of real-time processing, the algorithms on the DM6437 DaVinci processor were optimized. Experiments show that the system could complete the driver fatigue states detection accurately and in real time.

  12. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.220 Problem Driver Pointer System information. Before issuing a CLP or CDL to any person,...

  13. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.220 Problem Driver Pointer System information. Before issuing a CLP or CDL to any person,...

  14. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220... COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.220 Problem Driver Pointer System information. Before issuing a CLP or CDL to any person,...

  15. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  16. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  17. Activation of Neck and Low-Back Muscles Is Reduced with the Use of a Neck Balance System Together with a Lumbar Support in Urban Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Menotti, Federica; Labanca, Luciana; Laudani, Luca; Giombini, Arrigo; Pigozzi, Fabio; Macaluso, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Driving is associated with high activation of low-back and neck muscles due to the sitting position and perturbations imposed by the vehicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a neck balance system together with a lumbar support on the activation of low-back and neck muscles during driving. Twelve healthy male subjects (age 32±6.71 years) were asked to drive in two conditions: 1) with devices; 2) without devices. During vehicle accelerations and decelerations root mean square (RMS) of surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded from the erector spinae, semispinalis capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles and expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The pitch of the head was obtained by means of an inertial sensor placed on the subjects’ head. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess the level of perceived comfort. RMS of the low back muscles was lower with than without devices during both acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle (1.40±0.93% vs 29 2.32±1.90% and 1.88±1.45% vs 2.91±2.33%, respectively), while RMS of neck extensor muscles was reduced only during acceleration (5.18±1.96% vs 5.91±2.16%). There were no differences between the two conditions in RMS of neck flexor muscles, the pitch of the head and the VAS score. The use of these two ergonomic devices is therefore effective in reducing the activation of low-back and neck muscles during driving with no changes in the level of perceived comfort, which is likely due to rebalancing weight on the neck and giving a neutral position to lumbar segments. PMID:26474160

  18. Improved gauge driver for the generalized harmonic Einstein system

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, Lee; Szilagyi, Bela

    2009-10-15

    A new gauge driver is introduced for the generalized harmonic (GH) representation of Einstein's equation. This new driver allows a rather general class of gauge conditions to be implemented in a way that maintains the hyperbolicity of the combined evolution system. This driver is more stable and effective and, unlike previous drivers, allows stable evolutions using the dual-frame evolution technique. Appropriate boundary conditions for this new gauge driver are constructed, and a new boundary condition for the 'gauge' components of the spacetime metric in the GH Einstein system is introduced. The stability and effectiveness of this new gauge driver are demonstrated through numerical tests, which impose a new damped-wave gauge condition on the evolutions of single black-hole spacetimes.

  19. Computer vision for driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handmann, Uwe; Kalinke, Thomas; Tzomakas, Christos; Werner, Martin; von Seelen, Werner

    1998-07-01

    Systems for automated image analysis are useful for a variety of tasks and their importance is still increasing due to technological advances and an increase of social acceptance. Especially in the field of driver assistance systems the progress in science has reached a level of high performance. Fully or partly autonomously guided vehicles, particularly for road-based traffic, pose high demands on the development of reliable algorithms due to the conditions imposed by natural environments. At the Institut fur Neuroinformatik, methods for analyzing driving relevant scenes by computer vision are developed in cooperation with several partners from the automobile industry. We introduce a system which extracts the important information from an image taken by a CCD camera installed at the rear view mirror in a car. The approach consists of a sequential and a parallel sensor and information processing. Three main tasks namely the initial segmentation (object detection), the object tracking and the object classification are realized by integration in the sequential branch and by fusion in the parallel branch. The main gain of this approach is given by the integrative coupling of different algorithms providing partly redundant information.

  20. Feasibility of a driver performance data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Spelt, P.F.; Goodman, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) envisions many future situations in which the effectiveness and consequences of new intelligent vehicle-highway systems technologies will need to be studied in actual production vehicles. Such studies will enable evaluations in vehicles which are familiar to drivers. These studies would be future enhanced by the availability of an instrumentation package that can be easily installed in these vehicles to enable specific vehicle configurations of interest to be evaluated, thereby increasing the variety of vehicle options that are available for study. Ideally, an approach is needed that would allow data collection from a variety of vehicle models and types, and would address the issue of driver familiarity. Such an approach is embodied in the concept of a driver performance data acquisition system that could be installed in a wide range of vehicles within a relatively short period of time. As a universally adaptable system, it would provide researchers with the ability to manually input data as well as directly record information on driver, vehicle, roadway, and environmental parameters. Furthermore, it would enable the measurement of driver performance in the driver`s own vehicle, thereby ensuring vehicle familiarity. In addition, it would be possible to measure driver performance in relation to any vehicle design characteristic at relatively little expense and effort, and would make it easy to update existing models of driver/vehicle behavior to reflect performance characteristics in vehicles of current manufacture.

  1. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems.

    PubMed

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. PMID:21376858

  2. An Optimization Framework for Driver Feedback Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Aguilar, Juan P.

    2013-01-01

    Modern vehicles have sophisticated electronic control units that can control engine operation with discretion to balance fuel economy, emissions, and power. These control units are designed for specific driving conditions (e.g., different speed profiles for highway and city driving). However, individual driving styles are different and rarely match the specific driving conditions for which the units were designed. In the research reported here, we investigate driving-style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy and construct an optimization framework to optimize individual driving styles with respect to these driving factors. In this context, we construct a set of polynomial metamodels to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. Then, we compare the optimized driving styles to the original driving styles and evaluate the effectiveness of the optimization framework. Finally, we use this proposed framework to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in response to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

  3. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Iván G.; Bergasa, Luis M.; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, J. Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study. PMID:24412904

  4. Driver performance data acquisition system for ergonomics research

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Goodman, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    A portable ergonomics data acquisition system consisting of state-of-the-art hardware being designed is described here. It will be employed to record driver, vehicle, and environment parameter data from a wide range of vehicles and trucks. The system will be unobtrusive to the driver and inconspicuous to the outside world. It will have three modes of data gathering and provide for extended periods of data collection. Modularity, flexibility, and cost will be key drivers in the development effort. The ergonomics data acquisition system project is being conducted in two phases--a feasibility study and a development, construction, and validation phase.

  5. Health system drivers of hospital medicine in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Vandad; Maslowski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the underlying systemic drivers of the development and ongoing expansion of hospitalist programs in Canada. Data sources MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the terms hospitalist, hospital medicine, and Canada. Study selection All publications that addressed the study question, including review articles, original research, editorials, commentaries, and letters or news articles, were included in the review. Synthesis Constant comparative methodology was used to analyze and code the articles and to synthesize the identified codes into broader themes. Three broad categories were identified: physician-related drivers, health system–related drivers, and patient-related drivers. Within each category, we identified a number of drivers. Conclusion Many drivers have been cited in the literature as reasons behind the emergence and growth of the hospitalist model in the Canadian health care system. While their interplay makes simple cause-and-effect conclusions difficult, these drivers demonstrate that hospitalist programs in Canada have developed in response to a complex set of provider, system, and patient factors. PMID:23851546

  6. Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

  7. Investigating driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes using support vector machine models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Qian, Zhen; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Tian, Zong

    2016-05-01

    Rollover crash is one of the major types of traffic crashes that induce fatal injuries. It is important to investigate the factors that affect rollover crashes and their influence on driver injury severity outcomes. This study employs support vector machine (SVM) models to investigate driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes based on two-year crash data gathered in New Mexico. The impacts of various explanatory variables are examined in terms of crash and environmental information, vehicle features, and driver demographics and behavior characteristics. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is utilized to identify significant variables and SVM models with polynomial and Gaussian radius basis function (RBF) kernels are used for model performance evaluation. It is shown that the SVM models produce reasonable prediction performance and the polynomial kernel outperforms the Gaussian RBF kernel. Variable impact analysis reveals that factors including comfortable driving environment conditions, driver alcohol or drug involvement, seatbelt use, number of travel lanes, driver demographic features, maximum vehicle damages in crashes, crash time, and crash location are significantly associated with driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings provide insights for better understanding rollover crash causes and the impacts of various explanatory factors on driver injury severity patterns. PMID:26938584

  8. Wireless and wearable EEG system for evaluating driver vigilance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Sheng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Ko, Li-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Brain activity associated with attention sustained on the task of safe driving has received considerable attention recently in many neurophysiological studies. Those investigations have also accurately estimated shifts in drivers' levels of arousal, fatigue, and vigilance, as evidenced by variations in their task performance, by evaluating electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. However, monitoring the neurophysiological activities of automobile drivers poses a major measurement challenge when using a laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. This work presents a novel dry EEG sensor based mobile wireless EEG system (referred to herein as Mindo) to monitor in real time a driver's vigilance status in order to link the fluctuation of driving performance with changes in brain activities. The proposed Mindo system incorporates the use of a wireless and wearable EEG device to record EEG signals from hairy regions of the driver conveniently. Additionally, the proposed system can process EEG recordings and translate them into the vigilance level. The study compares the system performance between different regression models. Moreover, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for online analysis. A case study involving 15 study participants assigned a 90 min sustained-attention driving task in an immersive virtual driving environment demonstrates the reliability of the proposed system. Consistent with previous studies, power spectral analysis results confirm that the EEG activities correlate well with the variations in vigilance. Furthermore, the proposed system demonstrated the feasibility of predicting the driver's vigilance in real time. PMID:24860041

  9. Designing Fatigue Warning Systems: The perspective of professional drivers.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Peng, Qijia; Li, Musen; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six focus groups with 35 participants and a questionnaire survey with 600 respondents were conducted among Chinese truck and taxi drivers to collect qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current situation of fatigue driving and opinions regarding the design of FWSs. The results revealed that both truck and taxi drivers had a positive attitude toward FWSs, and they hoped this system could not only monitor and warn them regarding their fatigue but also somewhat relieve their fatigue before they could stop and rest. As for warning signals, participants preferred auditory warnings, as opposed to visual, vibrotactile or electric stimuli. Interestingly, it was proposed that verbal warnings involving the information regarding consequences of fatigue driving or the wishes of drivers' family members would be more effective. Additionally, different warning patterns, including graded, single and continuous warnings, were discussed in the focus group. Finally, the participants proposed many other suggestions, as well as their concerns regarding FWSs, which will provide valuable information for companies who wish to develop FWSs for professional drivers. PMID:26482894

  10. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, E.; Canga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight provides unique challenges that have not been encountered in prior spaceflight experience. Extended distance and timeframes introduce new challenges such as an inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, and communication delays that introduce a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these challenges the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a proposed three year Mars mission. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in the approach to medical risk mitigation for crew health and mission objectives threatened by inadequate medical capabilities in the setting of severely limited resources. A conceptual approach is outlined to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this new paradigm. Using NASA Design Reference Missions this process assesses each mission phase to deconstruct medical needs at any point during a mission. Two operational categories are proposed, nominal operations (pre-planned activities) and contingency operations (medical conditions requiring evaluation) that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. These definitions are used to derive a task level analysis to support quantifiable studies into a medical capabilities trade. This trade allows system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach to medical limitations in an exploration class mission.

  11. An innovative nonintrusive driver assistance system for vital signal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Yu, Xiong Bill

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes an in-vehicle nonintrusive biopotential measurement system for driver health monitoring and fatigue detection. Previous research has found that the physiological signals including eye features, electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and their secondary parameters such as heart rate and HR variability are good indicators of health state as well as driver fatigue. A conventional biopotential measurement system requires the electrodes to be in contact with human body. This not only interferes with the driver operation, but also is not feasible for long-term monitoring purpose. The driver assistance system in this paper can remotely detect the biopotential signals with no physical contact with human skin. With delicate sensor and electronic design, ECG, EEG, and eye blinking can be measured. Experiments were conducted on a high fidelity driving simulator to validate the system performance. The system was found to be able to detect the ECG/EEG signals through cloth or hair with no contact with skin. Eye blinking activities can also be detected at a distance of 10 cm. Digital signal processing algorithms were developed to decimate the signal noise and extract the physiological features. The extracted features from the vital signals were further analyzed to assess the potential criterion for alertness and drowsiness determination. PMID:25375690

  12. A high power accelerator driver system for spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, A.; Blind, B.; Channell, P.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For several years, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) have provided a successful driver for the nearly 100-kW Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) source. The authors have studied an upgrade to this system. The goal of this effort was to establish a credible design for the accelerator driver of a next-generation source providing 1-MW of beam power. They have explored a limited subset of the possible approaches to a driver and have considered only the low 1-MW beam power. The next-generation source must utilize the optimum technology and may require larger neutron intensities than they now envision.

  13. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may

  14. External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

  15. 49 CFR 384.220 - Problem Driver Pointer System information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Problem Driver Pointer System information. 384.220 Section 384.220 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL...

  16. DRIVER TO SUPPORT USE OF NUMERICAL SIMULATION TOOLS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-02-13

    UNIPACK is a computer interface that simplifies and enhances the use of numerical simulation tools to design a primary geometry and/or a forming die for a powder compact and/or to design the pressing process used to shape a powder by compaction. More particularly, it is an interface that utilizes predefined generic geometric configurations to simplify the use of finite element method modeling software to simply and more efficiently design: (1) the shape and size amore » powder compact; (2) a forming die to shape a powder compact; and/or (3) the pressing process used to form a powder compact. UNIPACK is a user interface for a predictive model for powder compaction that incorporates unprecedented flexibility to design powder press tooling and powder pressing processes. UNIPACK works with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Engineering Analysis Cide Access System (SEACAS) to generate a finite element (FE) mesh and automatically perform a FE analysis of powder compaction. UNIPACK was developed to allow a non-expert with minimal training to quickly and easily design/construct a variable dimension component or die in real time on a desktop or laptop personal computer.« less

  17. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  18. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice.

    PubMed

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Behrends, Arwen A; Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2016-07-01

    The use of cell phones while driving is ubiquitous, particularly in countries where the practice is legal. However, surveys indicate that most drivers favor legislation to limit the use of mobile devices during the operation of a vehicle. A study was conducted to understand this inconsistency between what drivers do and what they advocate for others. Participants completed a survey about their driving attitudes, abilities, and behaviors. Following previous research, drivers reported using cell phones for benefits such as getting work done. The hypocrisy of using cell phones while advocating restrictions appears to stem from differences in the perceived safety risks of self vs. others' use of cell phones. Many if not most drivers believe they can drive safely while using mobile devices. However, they lack confidence in others' ability to drive safely while distracted and believe that others' use of cell phones is dangerous. The threat to public safety of others' usage of mobile devices was one of the strongest independent predictors of support for legislation to restrict cell phone use. PMID:27035396

  19. Vessel structural support system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenko, J.X.; Ott, H.L.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1992-10-06

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon is disclosed. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of flat'' attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator. 19 figs.

  20. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  1. An integrated helmet and neck support (iHANS) for racing car drivers: a biomechanical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Newman, James A; Withnall, Christopher; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-10-01

    A new form of head and neck protection for racing car drivers is examined. The concept is one whereby the helmet portion of the system is attached, by way of a quick release clamp, to a collar-like platform which is supported on the driver's shoulders. The collar, which encircles the back and sides of the driver's neck, is held in place by way of the on-board restraint belts. The interior of the helmet portion of the assembly is large enough to provide adequate volitional head motion. The overall objective of the design is to remove the helmet from the wearer's head and thereby to mitigate the deleterious features of helmet wearing such as neck fatigue, poor ventilation and aerodynamic buffeting. Just as importantly, by transferring the weight of the helmet and all attendant reaction forces associated with inertial and impact loads to the shoulder complex (instead of to the neck), reduced head and neck injury probability should be achievable. This paper describes the concept development and the evolution of various prototype designs. Prototypes have been evaluated on track and sled tested in accordance with contemporary head neck restraint systems practice. Also discussed is a series of direct impact tests. In addition, low mass high velocity ballistic tests have been conducted and are reviewed herein. It is concluded that this new concept indeed does address most of the drawbacks of the customary helmet and that it generally can reduce the probability of head and neck injury. PMID:23625570

  2. Experiment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Experiment Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to experiments M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the experiment successfully. The Experiment Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.

  3. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  4. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  5. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) Program: Feasibility and Preliminary Support for a Psychosocial Intervention for Teenage Drivers with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Hulme, Kevin; Linke, Stuart; Nelson-Tuttle, Chris; Pariseau, Meaghan; Gangloff, Brian; Lewis, Kemper; Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha; Buck, Melina

    2011-01-01

    Teenage drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at considerable risk for negative driving outcomes, including traffic citations, accidents, and injuries. Presently, no efficacious psychosocial interventions exist for teenage drivers with ADHD. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program is a…

  6. System facilitators and barriers to discussing older driver safety in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Jones, Jacqueline; Carr, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians play a leading role in counseling older drivers, but discussions often do not occur until safety concerns arise. Prior work suggests that routine questioning about driving might facilitate these difficult conversations. Objective To explore system-level factors affecting driving discussions in primary care settings, in order to inform the design and implementation of a program supporting routine conversations. Methods This qualitative descriptive study used iterative interviews with providers (physicians, nurses, medical assistants, social workers, and administrative staff) working at two clinics (one geriatric, one general internal medicine) at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. General inductive techniques in transcript analysis were used to identify stakeholder-perceived system-level barriers and facilitators to routine conversations with older drivers. Results From fifteen interviews, four themes emerged: (1) complexity of defined provider roles within primary care setting (which can both support team work and hamper efficiency); (2) inadequate resources to support providers (including clinical prompts, local guides, and access to social workers and driving specialists); (3) gaps in education of providers and patients about discussing driving; and (4) suggested models to enhance provider conversations with older drivers (including following successful examples and using defined pathways integrated into the electronic medical record). A fifth theme was that participants characterized their experiences in terms of current and ideal states. Conclusions Physicians have been tasked with assessing older driver safety and guiding older patients through the process of “driving retirement.” Attention to system-level factors such as provider roles, resources, and training can support them in this process. PMID:25617342

  7. Characterizing fluvial systems at basin scale by fuzzy signatures of hydromorphological drivers in data scarce environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2014-06-01

    Despite the relevance of river hydromorphology (HYMO) for integrated water resource management, consistent geomorphic information at the scale of whole river basin is still scarce, especially in emerging economies. In this paper, we propose a new, scalable and globally applicable framework to analyze and classify fluvial systems in data-scarce environments. The framework is based on a data-driven analysis of a multivariate data set of 6 key hydro-morphologic drivers derived using freely available remote-sensing information and several in situ hydrological time series. Core of the framework is a fuzzy classifier that assigns a characteristic signature of HYMO drivers to individual river reaches. We demonstrate the framework on the Red River Basin, a large, trans-boundary river basin in Vietnam and China, where human-induced morphological change, concretely endangering local livelihoods, is contrasted by very limited HYMO information. The derived HYMO information covers spatial scales from the entire basin to individual reaches. It conveys relevant information on subbasin hydro-morphologic characteristic as well as on local geomorphologic forms and processes. The fuzzy classifier successfully distinguishes abrupt from continuous downstream change and spatially dissects the river system in segments with homogeneous hydro-morphologic forcings. Successful numerical modelling of morphologic forms and process rates based on the HYMO signatures indicates that the multivariate, basin-scale classification captures relevant morphological drivers, outperforms an analysis based on local drivers only, and can support river management from diverse, morphology related perspectives over a wide range of scales.

  8. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  9. Group Support Systems (GSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

  10. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  11. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  12. SAS Attitude Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. L.; Meyers, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    A unique ground control system was designed and implemented to support and meet the stringent mission requirements of the SAS-1. The important features of the system are described with emphasis on the software used to control the orientation of the spacecraft. A summary of the system's operation during the SAS-1 mission is given along with a discussion of the performance of the software subsystems relative to the mission requirements.

  13. Clarke Stations and mercurian mass-drivers: energy for large-scale transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three-week voyages across 1 AU could be made in large sailing craft propelled by microwaves generated at power stations operating at 0.1 AU from the sun. The power stations could be built of mercurian materials launched by mass driver to building sites in solar orbit. A Clarke Station 28 km in radius could generate 64 TW of microwaves and support the operation of a 1000-tonne, 1000-passenger vessel. The ability to build near-sun power stations of mercurian materials would not only support high-speed transport but solar system development in general.

  14. Tragedy on grade crossing: driver failure or systemic fragility?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; de Gouveia Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Mioto, Odilamar Lopes; Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Perin, Fernanda Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, an accident occurred in Americana-SP, Brazil, involving two trains and one bus on a Grade Crossing, when 10 people died and 17 were injured including workers. This paper aims to analyze the accident using the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents (MAPA). The method provides observation of work, interviews and analysis of documents to understand precedents of the event in the following stages: to understand the usual work from the involved people, the changes occurred in the system, the operation of barriers, managerial and organizational aspects. By the end, measures are suggested to avoid new occurrences. The accident took place at night in a site with insufficient lighting. The working conditions of bus drivers, train operators and watchmen are inadequate. There were only symbolic barriers (visual and acoustic signals) triggered manually by watchman upon train operator radio communication. The fragility of the barrier system associated to poor lighting and short time to trigger the signaling seem to play a critical role in the event. Contrary to the official report which resulted in guilt of the bus driver, the conclusion of the paper emphasizes the fragility of the safety system and the need of level crossing reproject. PMID:22317197

  15. Driver's adaptive glance behavior to in-vehicle information systems.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptive behavior of drivers as they engage with in-vehicle devices over time and in varying driving situations. Behavioral adaptation has been shown to occur among drivers after prolonged use of in-vehicle devices, but few studies have examined drivers' risk levels across different driving demands. A multi-day simulator study was conducted with 28 young drivers (under 30 years old) as they engaged in different text entry and reading tasks while driving in two different traffic conditions. Cluster analysis was used to categorize drivers based on their risk levels and random coefficient models were used to assess changes in drivers' eye glance behavior. Glance duration significantly increased over time while drivers were performing text entry tasks but not for text reading tasks. High-risk drivers had longer maximum eyes-off-road when performing long text entry tasks compared to low-risk drivers, and this difference increased over time. The traffic condition also had a significant impact on drivers' glance behavior. This study suggests that drivers may exhibit negative behavioral adaptation as they become more comfortable with using in-vehicle technologies over time. Results of this paper may provide guidance for the design of in-vehicle devices that adapt based on the context of the situation. It also demonstrates that random coefficient models can be used to obtain better estimations of driver behavior when there are large individual differences. PMID:26406538

  16. Elderly and young driver's reaction to an in-car enforcement and tutoring system.

    PubMed

    de Waard, D; van der Hulst, M; Brookhuis, K A

    1999-04-01

    A system that contrasts driver behaviour with normative behaviour was tested in an advanced driving simulator. Drivers were provided with auditory and visual tutoring messages if deviations were detected from normative, i.e. legally allowed behaviour with respect to a selection of offences. Results showed that the system was very effective in increasing law-abiding behaviour, which has a major positive effect on traffic safety. However, driver mental effort, as indicated by self-reports and drivers' physiological states, was slightly increased in conditions where drivers received feedback. Opinion about the tutoring system was positive in terms of usefulness. Self-reports on satisfaction differed between age groups; young drivers rated it low, while elderly drivers held a positive attitude. PMID:10098807

  17. Life support system definition study for long duration planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, T.; Meyer, P.; Reysa, R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a mission planners life support systems (LSS) guidebook for providing data on the impact of various LSS on mission parameters such as mass, power, and volume is discussed. The factors utilized to define LSS case study mission drivers, and driver and mission impact parameter definitions are described. An example of a guidebook table for a specific set of LSS drivers is provided. Four approaches for physical/chemical closed-loop LSS are examined. A preliminary LSS guidebook for a lunar base is presented.

  18. Detector driver systems and photometric estimates for RIMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Lyness, Eric I.; Muench, Marius; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Capone, John I.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2014-07-01

    The Rapid infrared IMAger-Spectrometer (RIMAS) is a rapid gamma-ray burst afterglow instrument that will provide photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the Y, J, H, and K bands. RIMAS separates light into two optical arms, YJ and HK, which allows for simultaneous coverage in two photometric bands. RIMAS utilizes two 2048 x 2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe (HAWAII-2RG) detectors along with a Spitzer Legacy Indium- Antimonide (InSb) guiding detector in spectroscopic mode to position and keep the source on the slit. We describe the software and hardware development for the detector driver and acquisition systems. The HAWAII- 2RG detectors simultaneously acquire images using Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. driver, timing, and processing boards with two C++ wrappers running assembly code. The InSb detector clocking and acquisition system runs on a National Instruments cRIO-9074 with a Labview user interface and clocks written in an easily alterable ASCII file. We report the read noise, linearity, and dynamic range of our guide detector. Finally, we present RIMAS's estimated instrument efficiency in photometric imaging mode (for all three detectors) and expected limiting magnitudes. Our efficiency calculations include atmospheric transmission models, filter models, telescope components, and optics components for each optical arm.

  19. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  20. Life Support Systems for Lunar Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Engineers designing life support systems for NASA s next Lunar Landers face unique challenges. As with any vehicle that enables human spaceflight, the needs of the crew drive most of the lander requirements. The lander is also a key element of the architecture NASA will implement in the Constellation program. Many requirements, constraints, or optimization goals will be driven by interfaces with other projects, like the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Lunar Surface Systems, and the Extravehicular Activity project. Other challenges in the life support system will be driven by the unique location of the vehicle in the environments encountered throughout the mission. This paper examines several topics that may be major design drivers for the lunar lander life support system. There are several functional requirements for the lander that may be different from previous vehicles or programs and recent experience. Some of the requirements or design drivers will change depending on the overall Lander configuration. While the configuration for a lander design is not fixed, designers can examine how these issues would impact their design and be prepared for the quick design iterations required to optimize a spacecraft.

  1. Systems Analysis for Modular Versus Multi-Beam HIF Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G

    2005-01-26

    Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small ({approx}1 cm dia.) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety and assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design.

  2. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, MarcoJavier; Armingol, JoséMaría; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving). Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  3. Driver education and teen crashes and traffic violations in the first two years of driving in a graduated licensing system.

    PubMed

    Shell, Duane F; Newman, Ian M; Córdova-Cazar, Ana Lucía; Heese, Jill M

    2015-09-01

    Our primary research question was whether teens obtaining their intermediate-level provisional operators permit (POP) in a graduated driver licensing (GDL) environment through driver education differed in crashes and traffic violations from teens who obtained their POP by completing a supervised driving certification log without taking driver education. A descriptive epidemiological study examining a census of all teen drivers in Nebraska (151,880 teens, 48.6% girls, 51.4% boys) during an eight year period from 2003 to 2010 was conducted. The driver education cohort had significantly fewer crashes, injury or fatal crashes, violations, and alcohol-related violations than the certification log cohort in both years one and two of driving following receipt of the POP. Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, median household income, urban-rural residence, and age receiving the POP. In both year one and two of driving, teens in the certification log cohort had higher odds of a crash, injury or fatal crash, violation, or alcohol-related violation. Findings support that relative to a supervised driving certification log approach, teens taking driver education are less likely to be involved in crashes or to receive a traffic violation during their first two years of driving in an intermediate stage in a graduated driver licensing system. Because teen crash and fatality rates are highest at ages 16-18, these reductions are especially meaningful. Driver education appears to make a difference in teen traffic outcomes at a time when risk is highest. PMID:26043429

  4. Systems modeling and analysis of heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.

    1998-06-03

    A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers based on induction linac technology has been used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Design parameters and estimated costs have been determined for drivers with various ions, different charge states, different front-end designs, with and without beam merging, and various pulse compression and acceleration schedules. We have examined the sensitivity of the results to variations in component cost assumptions, design constraints, and selected design parameters

  5. PILOT RESULTS ON FORWARD COLLISION WARNING SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS IN OLDER DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Benjamin D.; Sager, Lauren N.; Dawson, Jeffrey; Hacker, Sarah D.; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Kitazaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have largely been developed with a “one-size-fits-all” approach. This approach neglects the large inter-individual variability in perceptual and cognitive abilities that affect aging ADAS users. We investigated the effectiveness of a forward collision warning (FCW) with fixed response parameters in young and older drivers with differing levels of cognitive functioning. Drivers responded to a pedestrian stepping into the driver’s path on a simulated urban road. Behavioral metrics included response times (RT) for pedal controls and two indices of risk penetration (e.g., maximum deceleration and minimum time-to-collision (TTC)). Older drivers showed significantly slower responses at several time points compared to younger drivers. The FCW facilitated response times (RTs) for older and younger drivers. However, older drivers still showed smaller safety gains compared to younger drivers at accelerator pedal release and initial brake application when the FCW was active. No significant differences in risk metrics were observed within the condition studied. The results demonstrate older drivers likely differ from younger drivers using a FCW with a fixed parameter set. Finally, we briefly discuss how future research should examine predictive relationships between domains of cognitive functioning and ADAS responses to develop parameter sets to fit the individual. PMID:27135061

  6. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  7. On the highway measures of driver glance behavior with an example automobile navigation system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Dean P; Brooks, Aaron M; Weir, David H

    2004-05-01

    An over-the-road study of visual-manual destination entry using an example original equipment GPS-based navigation system was accomplished in traffic on urban streets and motorways. The evaluation used typical drivers, and a vehicle instrumented to record driver eye glances and fixations, driver control inputs, and lateral lane position. The primary task was to drive in a safe manner, in traffic, while maintaining speed and lateral lane position. As a secondary task, the drivers entered successive destinations while driving, using a touch screen, and at their own pace. They were told there was no need to enter the destination quickly. Results are shown for driver glance behavior, lane keeping performance, and subjective ratings. Overall, the drivers were able to accomplish the destination entry tasks with acceptably short glance durations, acceptable total task times, and with satisfactory subjective ratings for ease of entry. PMID:15145284

  8. Imperfect in-vehicle collision avoidance warning systems can aid drivers.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Masha; Shinar, David

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS) on driver performance. A driving simulator was driven by 135 licensed drivers. Of these, 120 received alerts from the IVCAWS when their headway to a lead car was less than 2 s, and the other 15 (the control group) received no alerts. Drivers received varied alert interfaces: auditory, visual, and multimodal. The system had varied levels of reliability, determined by both false alarm rate and failure of the IVCAWS to alert to short headway. Results indicated that the IVCAWS led to safer (longer) headway maintenance. High false alarm rates induced drivers to slow down unnecessarily; large numbers of missed alerts did not have any significant impact on drivers. Driver acceptance of the system was mixed. Interface played a role in driver reliance on the system, with the multimodal interfaces generating least reliance. Actual or potential applications of this research include IVCAWS interface selection for greater system efficacy and user acceptance and the advisability of implementation, even of imperfect systems, for drivers who seek to maintain a safer headway. PMID:15359683

  9. Drivers` activities and information needs in an automated highway system. Working paper, August 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Levitan, L.; Bloomfield, J.

    1996-10-01

    In most visions of the AHS--including that of the National Automated Highway System Consortium--it has been assumed that when a vehicle was under automated control, the driver would be allowed to engage in any of a variety of activities not related to driving (e.g, working, reading, sleeping). The objective of the first study reported here--one of the noncommuter studies--was to determine what drivers do when traveling under automated control, and whether the age of and/gender or the driver and/or the intrastring gap have an influence on those activities. One the objectives of the commuter experiment--of relevance for this report--was to determine whether what drivers do when traveling under automated control changes as a function of experience with the AHS (i.e., across trials). As conceptualization of the AHS proceeds, the details of the interface between the driver and the in-vehicle system will become more important. One part of that interface will be information supplied by the AHS to the driver, perhaps about such things as traffic conditions ahead predicted trip time to the driver`s selected exit, and so on. To maximize the utility of that information, it is important to determine what it is that drivers would like to know when traveling under automated control. The objective of the third study reported here--the second of the five noncommuter experiments--was to provide a first investigation of that issue.

  10. Emergency Vehicle Alarm System for Deaf Drivers by Using LEDs and Vibration Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Noriaki; Morimoto, Kazunari; Kozuki, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Tomonori

    We are developing the emergency vehicle alarm system for deaf drivers by using LEDs and vibration devices. In order to design the alarm for deaf drivers, we have conducted basic experiment in order to evaluate perceptual characteristic on visibility of LED.

  11. Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.

    PubMed

    Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

    2006-09-01

    In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased. PMID:16364231

  12. Drivers Impacting the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Management Practices and Production Systems of the Northeast and Southeast U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production responds to economic, social, environmental, and technological drivers operating both internal and external to the production system. These drivers influence producers’ decision making processes, and act to shape the individual production systems through modification of produ...

  13. Experimental Study on Forward Collision Warning System Adapted for Driver Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Takayoshi; Miyoshi, Noboru; Nagai, Masao

    This paper describes forward-collision warning system adapted for individual driver characteristics. Conventional forward-collision warning system has the problem to output warning signals excessively though the driver intends to stop the vehicle. The driver feels irritated by these useless warnings. The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm which solves this problem. In this algorithm, the warning output timing is determined to a value that the driver conducts braking action for possible collision avoidance when looking aside. In addition, the warning output timing is changed by foot position of the driver. From experimental result by young and elderly subjects using driving simulator, excessive output of warning signal was reduced without collision.

  14. Drivers and challenges of personal health systems in workplace health promotion.

    PubMed

    Ilvesmäki, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Novel technologies such as wearable sensors, electronic health diaries and personalized web services are thought to have the potential to improve population health in a cost- efficient manner. The use of personal health systems in workplace health promotion is of particular interest, since the workplace often provides an excellent setting and infrastructure to support health- related interventions. Compared to the elderly or those already debilitated by disease, working people are also generally more capable of taking advantage of information technology. Extant research on the use of ICT in health promotion has recognized several functional and technological requirements, but relatively little is known about other factors that affect the commercialization and adoption of such systems. This paper attempts to identify some economic and structural drivers and challenges that may be relevant to the success of personal health systems in workplace health promotion. PMID:18003351

  15. Estimated Cost of Crashes in Commercial Drivers Supports Screening and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Nkwuo, Jonathan E.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep apnea among commercial drivers may increase the risk of fall-asleep crashes, which incur large expenses. Drivers of passenger cars whose apnea is treated experience lower crash risk. Among community-based holders of commercial driver’s licenses, we considered three methods for identifying sleep apnea syndrome: 1) in-lab polysomnography; 2) selective in-lab polysomnography for high-risk drivers, where high risk is first identified by body mass index, age and gender, followed by oximetry in a subset of drivers; and 3) not screening. The costs for each of these three programs equaled the sum of the costs of testing, treatment of identified cases, and crashes. Assuming that treatment prevents apnea-related crashes, polysomnography is not cost-effective, because it was more expensive than the cost of crashes when no screening is done. Screening with BMI, age and gender, however, with confirmatory in-lab polysomnography only on high-risk drivers was cost-effective, as long as a high proportion (73.8%) of screened drivers accepts treatment. These findings indicate that strategies that reduce reliance on in-laboratory polysomnography may be more cost-effective than not screening, and that treatment acceptance may need to be a condition of employment for affected drivers. PMID:18215538

  16. Effectiveness and driver acceptance of a semi-autonomous forward obstacle collision avoidance system.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Makoto; Horikome, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    This paper proposes a semi-autonomous collision avoidance system for the prevention of collisions between vehicles and pedestrians and objects on a road. The system is designed to be compatible with the human-centered automation principle, i.e., the decision to perform a maneuver to avoid a collision is made by the driver. However, the system is partly autonomous in that it turns the steering wheel independently when the driver only applies the brake, indicating his or her intent to avoid the obstacle. With a medium-fidelity driving simulator, we conducted an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of this system for improving safety in emergency situations, as well as its acceptance by drivers. The results indicate that the system effectively improves safety in emergency situations, and the semi-autonomous characteristic of the system was found to be acceptable to drivers. PMID:23453775

  17. Biological life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepelev, Y. Y.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of human living environments by biologic methods, utilizing the appropriate functions of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms is examined. Natural biologic systems discussed in terms of modeling biologic life support systems (BLSS), the structure of biologic life support systems, and the development of individual functional links in biologic life support systems are among the factors considered. Experimental modeling of BLSS in order to determine functional characteristics, mechanisms by which stability is maintained, and principles underlying control and regulation is also discussed.

  18. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  19. Ultimate drivers of native biodiversity change in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Norton, David A; Reid, Nick; Young, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to address land degradation and biodiversity loss while maintaining the production of plant and animal products is a key global challenge. Biodiversity decline as a result of vegetation clearance, cultivation, grazing, pesticide and herbicide application, and plantation establishment, amongst other factors, has been widely documented in agricultural ecosystems. In this paper we identify six ultimate drivers that underlie these proximate factors and hence determine what native biodiversity occurs in modern agricultural landscapes; (1) historical legacies; (2) environmental change; (3) economy; (4) social values and awareness; (5) technology and knowledge; and (6) policy and regulation. While historical legacies and environmental change affect native biodiversity directly, all six indirectly affect biodiversity by influencing the decisions that land managers make about the way they use their land and water resources. Understanding these drivers is essential in developing strategies for sustaining native biodiversity in agricultural landscapes into the future. PMID:26834971

  20. Driver Behavioral Changes through Interactions with an Automatic Brake System for Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper discusses driver's behavioral changes as a result of driver's use of an automatic brake system for preventing a rear-end collision from occurring. Three types of automatic brake systems are investigated in this study. Type 1 brake system applies a strong automatic brake when a collision is very imminent. Type 2 brake system initiates brake operation softly when a rear-end crash may be anticipated. Types 1 and 2 are for avoidance of a collision. Type 3 brake system, on the other hand, applies a strong automatic brake to reduce the damage when a collision can not be avoided. An experiment was conducted with a driving simulator in order to analyze the driver's possible behavioral changes. The results showed that the time headway (THW) during car following phase was reduced by use of an automatic brake system of any type. The inverse of time to collision (TTC), which is an index of the driver's brake timing, increased by use of Type 1 brake system when the deceleration rate of the lead vehicle was relatively low. However, the brake timing did not change when the drivers used Type 2 or 3 brake system. As a whole, dangerous behavioral changes, such as overreliance on a brake system, were not observed for either type of brake system.

  1. Technological Support for Logistics Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujak, Andrzej; Śliwa, Zdzisław; Gębczyńska, Alicja

    The modern world is changing introducing robots, remotely controlled vehicles and other crewless means of transportation to reduce people's mistakes, as the main cause of incidents and crashes during traffic. New technologies are supporting operators and drivers, and according to some studies they can even replace them. Such programs as: AHS, UAH, IVBSS or MTVR are under development to improve traffic flow and its safety, to reduce traffic hazards and crashes. It is necessary to analyze such concepts and implement them boldly, including Polish logistics' companies, new programs, highways' system etc., as they will be applied in the future, so it is necessary to prepare logistics infrastructure ahead of time in order to capitalize on these improvements. The problem is quite urgent as transportation in the country must not be outdated to meet clients' expectations and to keep pace with competing foreign companies.

  2. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  3. Support systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The integration of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) ground support systems with the new launch processing system and new launch vehicle provided KSC with a unique challenge in system design and analysis for the Space Transportation System. Approximately 70 support systems are controlled and monitored by the launch processing system. Typical systems are main propulsion oxygen and hydrogen loading systems, environmental control life support system, hydraulics, etc. An End-to-End concept of documentation and analysis was chosen and applied to these systems. Unique problems were resolved in the areas of software analysis, safing under emergency conditions, sampling rates, and control loop analysis. New methods of performing End-to-End reliability analyses were implemented. The systems design approach selected and the resolution of major problem areas are discussed.

  4. A new design and implementation of an infrared device driver in embedded Linux systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li-li; Cui, Hua; Wang, Ru-li

    2009-07-01

    Wireless infrared communication systems are widely-used for the remote controls in portable terminals, particularly for systems requiring low cost, light weight, moderate data rates. They have already proven their electiveness for short-range temporary communications and in high data rate longer range point-to-point systems. This paper proposes the issue of design and implementation of an infrared device driver in a personal portable intelligent digital infrared communications system. After analyzing the various constraints, we use the embedded system based on Samsung S3C2440A 32-bit processor and Linux operating system to design the driver program. The program abandons its traditional Serial interface control mode, uses the generic GPIO to achieve infrared receiver device driver, and intends a user-defined communication protocol which is much more simple and convenient instead of traditional infrared communication protocol to design the character device drivers for the infrared receiver. The communication protocol uses interrupt counter to determine to receive the value and the first code.In this paper, the interrupt handling and an I/O package to reuse Linux device drivers in embedded system is introduced. Via this package, the whole Linux device driver source tree can be reused without any modifications. The driver program can set up and initialize the infrared device, transfer data between the device and the software, configure the device, monitor and trace the status of the device, reset the device, and shut down the device as requested. At last infrared test procedure was prepared and some testing and evaluations were made in a mobile infrared intelligent cicerone system, and the test result shows that the design is simple, practical, with advantages such as easy transplantation, strong reliability and convenience.

  5. Smart Roadside System for Driver Assistance and Safety Warnings: Framework and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use. PMID:22164025

  6. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  7. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  8. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  9. On an efficient and effective intelligent transportation system (ITS) safety and traffic efficiency application with corresponding driver behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekedebe, Nnanna; Yu, Wei; Lu, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Driver distraction could result in safety compromises attributable to distractions from in-vehicle equipment usage [1]. The effective design of driver-vehicle interfaces (DVIs) and other human-machine interfaces (HMIs) together with their usability, and accessibility while driving become important [2]. Driving distractions can be classified as: visual distractions (any activity that takes your eyes away from the road), cognitive distraction (any activity that takes your mind away from the course of driving), and manual distractions (any activity that takes your hands away from the steering wheel [2]). Besides, multitasking during driving is a distractive activity that can increase the risks of vehicular accidents. To study the driver's behaviors on the safety of transportation system, using an in-vehicle driver notification application, we examined the effects of increasing driver distraction levels on the evaluation metrics of traffic efficiency and safety by using two types of driver models: young drivers (ages 16-25 years) and middle-age drivers (ages 30-45 years). Our evaluation data demonstrates that as a drivers distraction level is increased, less heed is given to change route directives from the in-vehicle on-board unit (OBU) using textual, visual, audio, and haptic notifications. Interestingly, middle-age drivers proved more effective/resilient in mitigating the negative effects of driver distraction over young drivers [2].

  10. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  11. Drivers in current and future municipal solid waste management systems: cases in Yokohama and Boston.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Francisco; Ishii, Satoshi; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke; Connors, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Despite some progress, municipal solid waste (MSW) still poses pressure on cities and remains one of the major challenges in environmental management. There is no single solution to the problem since the drivers behind MSW systems may vary significantly from city to city. In this context, the development of a common strategy to attain a sustainable management has been increasingly difficult. This paper presents an issue-driven analytical framework to evaluate the past, present and future MSW management strategy for the cities of Yokohama and Boston considering four driver categories while evaluating if the relevance of these drivers has changed over time. These categories represent: (i) legal drivers (e.g. laws and regulations); (ii) technology development and institutional drivers (e.g. available technologies); (iii) regional and international drivers (e.g. solid waste flow as recyclable resources); and (iv) socio-economic drivers (e.g. population trends and public awareness). The analysis indicated that solid waste management capacity for both cases was under stress due to different reasons. In the case of Boston, the moratorium for disposal facilities played an important role while increasing population was a key driver for the city of Yokohama. The future management scenario suggests that various waste-to-energy alternatives and strong solid waste reduction policies will play a key role for Boston. In Yokohama, a shift on waste composition and generation triggered by a demographic change may open the path for new technologies while also considering the international demand of solid waste as a recyclable resource. PMID:19942650

  12. Supporting the Work Keys System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGintry, Louis

    1999-01-01

    Seeks faculty's understanding of and support for the Work Keys System, which is designed to determine the level of skill required for an occupation, assess the level of a skill of a prospective employee, and compare the skills requirements against the skills possessed. Describes how Work Keys supports various educational philosophies and Knowles'…

  13. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  14. Cost drivers and resource allocation in military health care systems.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Larry; Lasdon, Leon S; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2007-03-01

    This study illustrates the feasibility of incorporating technical efficiency considerations in the funding of military hospitals and identifies the primary drivers for hospital costs. Secondary data collected for 24 U.S.-based Army hospitals and medical centers for the years 2001 to 2003 are the basis for this analysis. Technical efficiency was measured by using data envelopment analysis; subsequently, efficiency estimates were included in logarithmic-linear cost models that specified cost as a function of volume, complexity, efficiency, time, and facility type. These logarithmic-linear models were compared against stochastic frontier analysis models. A parsimonious, three-variable, logarithmic-linear model composed of volume, complexity, and efficiency variables exhibited a strong linear relationship with observed costs (R(2) = 0.98). This model also proved reliable in forecasting (R(2) = 0.96). Based on our analysis, as much as $120 million might be reallocated to improve the United States-based Army hospital performance evaluated in this study. PMID:17436766

  15. Sensitivities of projected 1980 photovoltaic system costs to major system cost drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, L. W.; Smith, J. L.

    1984-12-01

    The sensitivity of projected 1990 photovoltaic (PV) system costs to major system cost drivers was examined. It includes: (1) module costs and module efficiencies; (2) area related balance of system (BOS) costs; (3) inverter costs and efficiencies; and (4) module marketing and distribution markups and system integration fees. Recent PV system cost experiences and the high costs of electricity from the systems are reviewed. The 1990 system costs are projected for five classes of PV systems, including four ground mounted 5-MWp systems and one residential 5-kWp system. System cost projections are derived by first projecting costs and efficiencies for all subsystems and components. Sensitivity analyses reveal that reductions in module cost and engineering and system integration fees seem to have the greatest potential for contributing to system cost reduction. Although module cost is clearly the prime candidate for fruitful PV research and development activities, engineering and system integration fees seem to be more amenable to reduction through appropriate choice of system size and market strategy. Increases in inverter and module efficiency yield significant benefits, especially for systems with high area related costs.

  16. Sensitivities of projected 1980 photovoltaic system costs to major system cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, L. W.; Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of projected 1990 photovoltaic (PV) system costs to major system cost drivers was examined. It includes: (1) module costs and module efficiencies; (2) area related balance of system (BOS) costs; (3) inverter costs and efficiencies; and (4) module marketing and distribution markups and system integration fees. Recent PV system cost experiences and the high costs of electricity from the systems are reviewed. The 1990 system costs are projected for five classes of PV systems, including four ground mounted 5-MWp systems and one residential 5-kWp system. System cost projections are derived by first projecting costs and efficiencies for all subsystems and components. Sensitivity analyses reveal that reductions in module cost and engineering and system integration fees seem to have the greatest potential for contributing to system cost reduction. Although module cost is clearly the prime candidate for fruitful PV research and development activities, engineering and system integration fees seem to be more amenable to reduction through appropriate choice of system size and market strategy. Increases in inverter and module efficiency yield significant benefits, especially for systems with high area related costs.

  17. [Remote radiation planning support system].

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy. PMID:23157128

  18. Child safety driver assistant system and its acceptance.

    PubMed

    Quendler, Elisabeth; Diskus, Christian; Pohl, Alfred; Buchegger, Thomas; Beranek, Ernst; Boxberger, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Farming machinery incidents frequently cause the injury and death of children on farms worldwide. The two main causes of this problem are the driver's view being restricted by construction and/or environmental factors and insufficient risk awareness by children and parents. It is difficult to separate working and living areas on family farms, and the adult supervision necessary to avoid work accidents is often lacking. For this reason, additional preventive measures are required to reduce the number of crushings. Electronic tools that deliver information about the presence of children in the blind spots surrounding vehicles and their attached machines can be very effective. Such an electronic device must cover all security gaps around operating agricultural vehicles and their attached machines, ensure collision-free stopping in risk situations, and be inexpensive. Wireless sensor network and electrical near-field electronic components are suited to the development of low-cost wireless detection devices. For reliable detection in a versatile environment, it is necessary for children to continuously wear a slumbering transponder. This means that children and adults must have a high acceptance of the device, which can be improved by easy usability, design, and service quality. The developed demonstrator achieved detection distances of up to 40 m in the far field and 2.5 m in the near field. Recognized far-field sensor detection weaknesses, determined by user-friendliness tests, are false alarms in farmyards and around buildings. The detection distance and reliability of the near-field sensor varied with the design of the attached machines' metallic components. PMID:19437262

  19. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  20. Detection of driver drowsiness using wavelet analysis of heart rate variability and a support vector machine classifier.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2013-01-01

    Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO) classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use. PMID:24316564

  1. Detection of Driver Drowsiness Using Wavelet Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and a Support Vector Machine Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2013-01-01

    Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO) classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use. PMID:24316564

  2. Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range < 1-79 mg m-3). The GM of the MTBE concentrations was 8.6 mg m-3 (range 1-67 mg m-3) without vapour recovery and 1.5 mg m-3 (range < 0.1-10 mg m-3) with vapour recovery. The differences between the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the MTBE exposure levels during the unloading of the road tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:11296758

  3. Applying support vector machine on hybrid fNIRS/EEG signal to classify driver's conditions (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thien; Ahn, Sangtae; Jang, Hyojung; Jun, Sung C.; Kim, Jae G.

    2016-03-01

    Driver's condition plays a critical role in driving safety. The fact that about 20 percent of automobile accidents occurred due to driver fatigue leads to a demand for developing a method to monitor driver's status. In this study, we acquired brain signals such as oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and neuronal electrical activity by a hybrid fNIRS/EEG system. Experiments were conducted with 11 subjects under two conditions: Normal condition, when subjects had enough sleep, and sleep deprivation condition, when subject did not sleep previous night. During experiment, subject performed a driving task with a car simulation system for 30 minutes. After experiment, oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin changes were derived from fNIRS data, while beta and alpha band relative power were calculated from EEG data. Decrement of oxy-hemoglobin, beta band power, and increment of alpha band power were found in sleep deprivation condition compare to normal condition. These features were then applied to classify two conditions by Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA). The ratio of alpha-beta relative power showed classification accuracy with a range between 62% and 99% depending on a subject. However, utilization of both EEG and fNIRS features increased accuracy in the range between 68% and 100%. The highest increase of accuracy is from 63% using EEG to 99% using both EEG and fNIRS features. In conclusion, the enhancement of classification accuracy is shown by adding a feature from fNIRS to the feature from EEG using FLDA which provides the need of developing a hybrid fNIRS/EEG system.

  4. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  5. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a close-up of the working parts of the PLSS.

  6. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a wider view of the exposed interior working parts of the PLSS and its removed cover.

  7. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  8. LANL GPIB Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-15

    This driver code adds a GPIB infrastructure and API features to 2.6 series Linux kernels. Currently supported hardware is National Instruments PCI-GPIB cards built on either the TNT4882 controller chip, or the TNT5004 controller chip. This driver is an improvement over previous GPIB drivers in Linux because it has all the features of the GPL, high performance DMA, supports Linux 2.6 and the new driver model, and has a cleaner API than the previous drivers. GPIB is the "general purpose interface bus", commonly used to control oscilloscopes, digital multimeters, function generators, and other electronic test equipment.

  9. LANL GPIB Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-15

    This driver code adds a GPIB infrastructure and API features to 2.6 series Linux kernels. Currently supported hardware is National Instruments PCI-GPIB cards built on either the TNT4882 controller chip, or the TNT5004 controller chip. This driver is an improvement over previous GPIB drivers in Linux because it has all the features of the GPL, high performance DMA, supports Linux 2.6 and the new driver model, and has a cleaner API than the previous drivers.more » GPIB is the "general purpose interface bus", commonly used to control oscilloscopes, digital multimeters, function generators, and other electronic test equipment.« less

  10. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns. PMID:26206570

  11. The Life Support Database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.

  12. Mobile mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1981-12-29

    A description is given of a mobile self-propelled mine roof support system employing pairs of individually self-propelled roof support units movable along opposite ribs of a mine room to follow an advancing mine face. Each support unit comprises an elongated, wheel-mounted frame positioned along the adjacent rib. Pairs of vertical jacks are connected to opposite sides of the frame, being positioned loosely, and vertically movable, within oversize openings in brackets attached to the frame. A foot plate is universally pivotally attached to the lower ends of each pair of jacks and extends across the underside of the frame. A top-supporting canopy is universally pivotally attached across the upper ends of each pair of jacks and has an overhanging portion extending cantileverly into the room toward the opposite support unit. The jacks have external flanges engagable with the brackets. When the jacks fully retract the foot plate from the mine bottom upwardly against the underside of the frame, the entire assembly including the canopies is clamped rigidly between the brackets and the underside of the frame to lock the canopies to the frame for tramming. After the pairs of jacks press the foot plates downwardly against the bottom, the jacks shift upwardly to disengage their external flanges from the brackets and to press the canopies against the mine top. In an alternate embodiment, the ends of the canopies of the opposite roof support units are interconnected by wire ropes or chains and tensioned by hydraulic cylinders to support the top at the center of the room. A horizontally swingable inbye section of the frame has at least one canopy to continuously support the top when the mining operation changes direction, as when it makes a breakthrough from one room to another.

  13. A 3.3 MJ, Rb{sup +1} Driver Design Based on an Integrated Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Barnard, J.J.; Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-09-15

    A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers has been developed and used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). The present work examines a driver for a close-coupled target design that requires less total beam energy but also smaller beam spots sizes than previous target designs. Design parameters and a cost estimate for a 160 beam, 3.3 MJ driver using rubidium ions (A = 85) are reported, and the sensitivity of the results to variations in selected design parameters is given.

  14. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of using the Series Resonant inverter as the driver module for the high frequency power system on the Space Station. This study evaluates the performance of the Series Resonant driver when it was operated with a dc input voltage and run through a series of tests to determine its start-up performance, response to load changes, load regulation, and efficiency. Also, this study compares the Series Resonant driver to another kind of driver that uses a Power Transistor snubber. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is initiated. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  15. Operator Performance Support System (OPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Marlen Z.

    1993-01-01

    In the complex and fast reaction world of military operations, present technologies, combined with tactical situations, have flooded the operator with assorted information that he is expected to process instantly. As technologies progress, this flow of data and information have both guided and overwhelmed the operator. However, the technologies that have confounded many operators today can be used to assist him -- thus the Operator Performance Support Team. In this paper we propose an operator support station that incorporates the elements of Video and Image Databases, productivity Software, Interactive Computer Based Training, Hypertext/Hypermedia Databases, Expert Programs, and Human Factors Engineering. The Operator Performance Support System will provide the operator with an integrating on-line information/knowledge system that will guide expert or novice to correct systems operations. Although the OPSS is being developed for the Navy, the performance of the workforce in today's competitive industry is of major concern. The concepts presented in this paper which address ASW systems software design issues are also directly applicable to industry. the OPSS will propose practical applications in how to more closely align the relationships between technical knowledge and equipment operator performance.

  16. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  17. Satellite operations support expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

  18. Emergence of multiple ocean ecosystem drivers in a large ensemble suite with an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, K. B.; Lin, J.; Frölicher, T. L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes. Marine ecosystem drivers that contribute to stressing ecosystems - including warming, acidification, deoxygenation and perturbations to biological productivity - can co-occur in space and time, but detecting their trends is complicated by the presence of noise associated with natural variability in the climate system. Here we use large initial-condition ensemble simulations with an Earth system model under a historical/RCP8.5 (representative concentration pathway 8.5) scenario over 1950-2100 to consider emergence characteristics for the four individual and combined drivers. Using a 1-standard-deviation (67% confidence) threshold of signal to noise to define emergence with a 30-year trend window, we show that ocean acidification emerges much earlier than other drivers, namely during the 20th century over most of the global ocean. For biological productivity, the anthropogenic signal does not emerge from the noise over most of the global ocean before the end of the 21st century. The early emergence pattern for sea surface temperature in low latitudes is reversed from that of subsurface oxygen inventories, where emergence occurs earlier in the Southern Ocean. For the combined multiple-driver field, 41% of the global ocean exhibits emergence for the 2005-2014 period, and 63% for the 2075-2084 period. The combined multiple-driver field reveals emergence patterns by the end of this century that are relatively high over much of the Southern Ocean, North Pacific, and Atlantic, but relatively low over the tropics and the South Pacific. For the case of two drivers, the tropics including habitats of coral reefs emerges earliest, with this driven by the joint effects of acidification and warming. It is precisely in the regions with pronounced emergence characteristics where marine ecosystems may be expected to be pushed outside of their comfort zone determined by the degree of natural background variability

  19. Intelligence supportability in future systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Brian; Watson, Mariah; Vayette, Corey; Fiduk, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Advanced weaponry is providing an exponential increase in intelligence data collection capabilities and the Intelligence Community (IC) is not properly positioned for the influx of intelligence supportabilitiy requirements the defense acquisition community is developing for it. The Air Force Material Command (AFMC) has initiated the Intelligence Supportability Analysis (ISA) process to allow the IC to triage programs for intelligence sensitivities as well as begin preparations within the IC for the transition of future programs to operational status. The ISA process is accomplished through system decomposition, allowing analysts to identify intelligence requirements and deficiencies. Early collaboration and engagement by program managers and intelligence analysts is crucial to the success of intelligence sensitive programs through the utilization of a repeatable analytical framework for evaluating and making cognizant trade-offs between cost, schedule and performance. Addressing intelligence supportability early in the acquisition process will also influence system design and provide the necessary lead time for intelligence community to react and resource new requirements.

  20. Collaboration and Human Factor as Drivers for Reputation System Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boella, Guido; Remondino, Marco

    Reputation management is about evaluating an agent's actions and other agents' opinions about those actions, reporting on those actions and opinions, and reacting to that report thus creating a feedback loop. This social mechanism has been successfully used, through Reputation Management Systems (RMSs) to classify agents within normative systems. Most RMSs rely on the feedbacks given by the member of the social network in which the RMS itself operates. In this way, the reputation index can be seen as an endogenous and self produced indicator, created by the users for the users' benefit. This implies that users' participation and collaboration is a key factor for the effectiveness a RMS. In this work the above factor is explored by means of an agent based simulation, and is tested on a P2P network for file sharing.

  1. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  2. Why differentiating between health system support and health system strengthening is needed

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Grace; Pielemeier, Nancy; Lion, Ann; Connor, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that efforts to improve global health cannot be achieved without stronger health systems. Interpretation of health system strengthening (HSS) has varied widely however, with much of the focus to-date on alleviating input constraints, whereas less attention has been given to other performance drivers. It is important to distinguish activities that support the health system, from ones that strengthen the health system. Supporting the health system can include any activity that improves services, from distributing mosquito nets to procuring medicines. These activities improve outcomes primarily by increasing inputs. Strengthening the health system is accomplished by more comprehensive changes to performance drivers such as policies and regulations, organizational structures, and relationships across the health system to motivate changes in behavior and/or allow more effective use of resources to improve multiple health services. Even organizations that have made significant investments in health systems have not provided guidance on what HSS entails. While both supporting and strengthening are important and necessary, it is nonetheless important to make a distinction. If activities fail to produce improvements in system performance because they were incorrectly labeled as system strengthening, the value of HSS investments could quickly be discredited. Not distinguishing supportive activities from strengthening ones will lead to unmet expectations of stronger health systems, as well as neglect of critical system strengthening activities. Distinguishing between these two types of activities will improve programming impact. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22777839

  3. Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

  4. Systems simulations supporting NASA telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, F. W., Jr.; Pennington, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Two simulation and analysis environments have been developed to support telerobotics research at the Langley Research Center. One is a high-fidelity, nonreal-time, interactive model called ROBSIM, which combines user-generated models of workspace environment, robots, and loads into a working system and simulates the interaction among the system components. Models include user-specified actuator, sensor, and control parameters, as well as kinematic and dynamic characteristics. Kinematic, dynamic, and response analyses can be selected, with system configuration, task trajectories, and arm states displayed using computer graphics. The second environment is a real-time, manned Telerobotic Systems Simulation (TRSS) which uses the facilities of the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). It utilizes a hierarchical structure of functionally distributed computers communicating over both parallel and high-speed serial data paths to enable studies of advanced telerobotic systems. Multiple processes perform motion planning, operator communications, forward and inverse kinematics, control/sensor fusion, and I/O processing while communicating via common memory. Both ROBSIM and TRSS, including their capability, status, and future plans are discussed. Also described is the architecture of ISRL and recent telerobotic system studies in ISRL.

  5. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  6. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This year's project, like the previous Aerospace Group's project, involves a lunar transportation system. The basic time line will be the years 2010-2030 and will be referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases would be present. The project design completed this year is referred to as the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS). The area chosen for analysis encompasses a great number of vehicles and personnel. The design of certain elements of the overall lunar mission are complete projects in themselves. For this reason the project chosen for the Senior Aerospace Design is the design of specific servicing vehicles and additions or modifications to existing vehicles for the area of concern involving servicing and maintenance of the lunar lander while on the surface.

  7. Skylab food system laboratory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

  8. Systems analysis of eleven rodent disease models reveals an inflammatome signature and key drivers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, I-Ming; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xia; Zhu, Jun; Stepaniants, Serguei; Zhang, Chunsheng; Meng, Qingying; Peters, Mette; He, Yudong; Ni, Chester; Slipetz, Deborah; Crackower, Michael A; Houshyar, Hani; Tan, Christopher M; Asante-Appiah, Ernest; O'Neill, Gary; Jane Luo, Mingjuan; Thieringer, Rolf; Yuan, Jeffrey; Chiu, Chi-Sung; Yee Lum, Pek; Lamb, John; Boie, Yves; Wilkinson, Hilary A; Schadt, Eric E; Dai, Hongyue; Roberts, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Common inflammatome gene signatures as well as disease-specific signatures were identified by analyzing 12 expression profiling data sets derived from 9 different tissues isolated from 11 rodent inflammatory disease models. The inflammatome signature significantly overlaps with known drug targets and co-expressed gene modules linked to metabolic disorders and cancer. A large proportion of genes in this signature are tightly connected in tissue-specific Bayesian networks (BNs) built from multiple independent mouse and human cohorts. Both the inflammatome signature and the corresponding consensus BNs are highly enriched for immune response-related genes supported as causal for adiposity, adipokine, diabetes, aortic lesion, bone, muscle, and cholesterol traits, suggesting the causal nature of the inflammatome for a variety of diseases. Integration of this inflammatome signature with the BNs uncovered 151 key drivers that appeared to be more biologically important than the non-drivers in terms of their impact on disease phenotypes. The identification of this inflammatome signature, its network architecture, and key drivers not only highlights the shared etiology but also pinpoints potential targets for intervention of various common diseases. PMID:22806142

  9. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  10. Structural support, not insulation, is the primary driver for avian cup-shaped nest design

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Caragh B.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    The nest micro-environment is a widely studied area of avian biology, however, the contribution of nest conductance (the inverse of insulation) to the energetics of the incubating adult and offspring has largely been overlooked. Surface-specific thermal conductance (W °C−1 cm−2) has been related to nest dimensions, wall porosity, height above-ground and altitude, but the most relevant measure is total conductance (G, W °C−1). This study is the first to analyse conductance allometrically with adult body mass (M, g), according to the form G = aMb. We propose three alternative hypotheses to explain the scaling of conductance. The exponent may emerge from: heat loss scaling (M0.48) in which G scales with the same exponent as thermal conductance of the adult bird, isometric scaling (M0.33) in which nest shape is held constant as parent mass increases, and structural scaling (M0.25) in which nests are designed to support a given adult mass. Data from 213 cup-shaped nests, from 36 Australian species weighing 8–360 g, show conductance is proportional to M0.25. This allometric exponent is significantly different from those expected for heat loss and isometric scaling and confirms the hypothesis that structural support for the eggs and incubating parent is the primary factor driving nest design. PMID:21325330

  11. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  12. Systems engineering considerations for operational support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    Operations support as considered here is the infrastructure of people, procedures, facilities and systems that provide NASA with the capability to conduct space missions. This infrastructure involves most of the Centers but is concentrated principally at the Johnson Space Center, the Kennedy Space Center, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes mission training and planning, launch and recovery, mission control, tracking, communications, data retrieval and data processing.

  13. Tracking Systems to Support the Common Lunar Lander (CLL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the tracking system for Artemis (the Common Lunar Lander) is presented. Among the topics presented are the following: major drivers for system definition, results of vendor survey, baseline system properties, program considerations, and mission phases requiring tracking.

  14. Cancer systems biology of TCGA SKCM: efficient detection of genomic drivers in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; Gupta, Rohit; Filipp, Fabian V

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the mutational landscape of human skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We analyzed next-generation sequencing data of somatic copy number alterations and somatic mutations in 303 metastatic melanomas. We were able to confirm preeminent drivers of melanoma as well as identify new melanoma genes. The TCGA SKCM study confirmed a dominance of somatic BRAF mutations in 50% of patients. The mutational burden of melanoma patients is an order of magnitude higher than of other TCGA cohorts. A multi-step filter enriched somatic mutations while accounting for recurrence, conservation, and basal rate. Thus, this filter can serve as a paradigm for analysis of genome-wide next-generation sequencing data of large cohorts with a high mutational burden. Analysis of TCGA melanoma data using such a multi-step filter discovered novel and statistically significant potential melanoma driver genes. In the context of the Pan-Cancer study we report a detailed analysis of the mutational landscape of BRAF and other drivers across cancer tissues. Integrated analysis of somatic mutations, somatic copy number alterations, low pass copy numbers, and gene expression of the melanogenesis pathway shows coordination of proliferative events by Gs-protein and cyclin signaling at a systems level. PMID:25600636

  15. Stereo sequences analysis for dynamic scene understanding in a driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, Boris V.; Vizilter, Yuri V.; Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Malin, Ivan K.; Vygolov, Oleg V.; Zheltov, Sergey Y.

    2015-05-01

    The improved stereo-based approach for dynamic road scene understanding in a Driver Assistance System (DAS) is presented. System calibration is addressed. Algorithms for road lane detection, road 3D model generation, obstacle predetection and object (vehicle) detection are described. Lane detection is based on the evidence analysis. Obstacle predetection procedure performs the comparison of radial ortophotos, obtained by left and right stereo images. Object detection algorithm is based on recognition of back part of cars by histograms of oriented gradients. Car Stereo Sequences (CSS) Dataset captured by vehicle-based laboratory and published for DAS algorithms testing.

  16. Damping Collaborative Optimization of Five-suspensions for Driver-seat-cab Coupled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Leilei; Zhou, Changcheng; Yu, Yuewei

    2016-04-01

    Both the seat and cab system of truck play a vital role in ride comfort. The damping matching methods of the two systems are studied separately at present. However, the driver, seat, and cab system are one inseparable whole. In order to further improve ride comfort, the seat suspension is regarded as the fifth suspension of the cab, a new idea of "Five-suspensions" is proposed. Based on this idea, a 4 degree-of-freedom driver-seat-cab coupled system model is presented. Using the tested cab suspensions excitations as inputs and seat acceleration response as compared output, the simulation model is built. Taking optimal ride comfort as target, a new method of damping collaborative optimization for Five-suspensions is proposed. With a practical example of seat and cab system, the damping parameters are optimized and validated by simulation and bench test. The results show the seat vertical frequency-weighted RMS acceleration values tested for the un-optimized and optimized Five-suspensions are 0.50 m/s2 and 0.39 m/s2, respectively, with a decrease by 22.0%, which proves the model and method proposed are correct and reliable. The idea of "Five-suspensions" and the method proposed provide a reference for achieving global optimal damping matching of seat suspension and cab suspensions.

  17. Safe driving in a green world: a review of driver performance benchmarks and technologies to support 'smart' driving.

    PubMed

    Young, Mark S; Birrell, Stewart A; Stanton, Neville A

    2011-05-01

    Road transport is a significant source of both safety and environmental concerns. With climate change and fuel prices increasingly prominent on social and political agendas, many drivers are turning their thoughts to fuel efficient or 'green' (i.e., environmentally friendly) driving practices. Many vehicle manufacturers are satisfying this demand by offering green driving feedback or advice tools. However, there is a legitimate concern regarding the effects of such devices on road safety--both from the point of view of change in driving styles, as well as potential distraction caused by the in-vehicle feedback. In this paper, we appraise the benchmarks for safe and green driving, concluding that whilst they largely overlap, there are some specific circumstances in which the goals are in conflict. We go on to review current and emerging in-vehicle information systems which purport to affect safe and/or green driving, and discuss some fundamental ergonomics principles for the design of such devices. The results of the review are being used in the Foot-LITE project, aimed at developing a system to encourage 'smart'--that is safe and green--driving. PMID:20863480

  18. Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: a systems approach to the management of distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving. PMID:24767853

  19. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  20. Teen Driver Safety: Additional Research Could Help States Strengthen Graduated Driver Licensing Systems. Report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and Its Subcommittee on Highways and Transit, House of Representatives. GAO-10-544

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers ages 16 to 20 have the highest fatality rate of any age group in the United States. As a result, states have increasingly adopted laws to limit teen driving exposure, such as Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) systems, which consist of three stages: a learner's permit allowing driving only under supervision; intermediate licensure…

  1. Designing Driver Assistance Systems with Crossmodal Signals: Multisensory Integration Rules for Saccadic Reaction Times Apply

    PubMed Central

    Steenken, Rike; Weber, Lars; Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror), presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel) was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic “time window of integration” model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target–nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed. PMID:24800823

  2. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2609 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support systems. 193.2609 Section 193.2609 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2609 Support systems. Each support system or foundation of...

  4. A Preliminary Study on the Possibility of Using Ultrasound in Driver Assistance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Honda, Hirohiko

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the possibility of using ultrasound in driver assistance systems. Subjects' lap time in a driving video game was measured as an index of their performance of driving operations under acoustic conditions with and without an ultrasound signal at 23kHz, 70dB. The results show that the performance characteristics of the subjects changed when the ultrasound signal was presented. Ultrasound signal tends to concentrate on handling the vehicle and decreasing an attention to check the over speed driving, as a second task. We prove the possibility to apply ultrasound signal to control operator's attention and behavior.

  5. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  6. A practical real-time detection visual system for driver's eye closure state tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tong; Li, Zheng-ming; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    We use an onboard computer and a smart webcam built a practical real-time detection visual system. Installed in a driving cabin in a specific way, it is able to determine the degree of closure of the driver's eyelids for further study of detecting and mitigating driver drowsiness and fatigue. For a practical real-time application, both the temporal resolution and the image resolution of video processing are key performances. Instead of the traditional video processing strategy which detects face in the first frame and keep tracking in the following, a frame-by-frame detecting and locating strategy is adopted, which firstly locates face region in a size-reduced image, secondly face region in original image is located by linear mapping calculation, thirdly eye region is located in face region according to the characteristics of a facial geometric model, this model allows personal calibration intuitively in run-time according to different individuals. A novel combination of several practical methods proved effective in computer vision is proposed, including capturing and resizing frames, face and eye localization, adaptive-threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology etc. Experiments show that the proposed system achieves a performance of image resolution of 640×480 pixels, temporal resolution of 53 frames / second, average eye-blink detection accuracy of 96% under various illumination conditions.

  7. A practical real-time detection visual system for driver's eye closure state tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tong; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jin

    2011-12-01

    We use an onboard computer and a smart webcam built a practical real-time detection visual system. Installed in a driving cabin in a specific way, it is able to determine the degree of closure of the driver's eyelids for further study of detecting and mitigating driver drowsiness and fatigue. For a practical real-time application, both the temporal resolution and the image resolution of video processing are key performances. Instead of the traditional video processing strategy which detects face in the first frame and keep tracking in the following, a frame-by-frame detecting and locating strategy is adopted, which firstly locates face region in a size-reduced image, secondly face region in original image is located by linear mapping calculation, thirdly eye region is located in face region according to the characteristics of a facial geometric model, this model allows personal calibration intuitively in run-time according to different individuals. A novel combination of several practical methods proved effective in computer vision is proposed, including capturing and resizing frames, face and eye localization, adaptive-threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology etc. Experiments show that the proposed system achieves a performance of image resolution of 640×480 pixels, temporal resolution of 53 frames / second, average eye-blink detection accuracy of 96% under various illumination conditions.

  8. The flight telerobotic servicer Tinman concept: System design drivers and task analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Hinkal, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preliminary definition of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) that could be used to understand the operational concepts and scenarios for the FTS. Called the Tinman, this design concept was also used to begin the process of establishing resources and interfaces for the FTS on Space Station Freedom, the National Space Transportation System shuttle orbiter, and the Orbital Maneuvering vehicle. Starting with an analysis of the requirements and task capabilities as stated in the Phase B study requirements document, the study identified eight major design drivers for the FTS. Each of these design drivers and their impacts on the Tinman design concept are described. Next, the planning that is currently underway for providing resources for the FTS on Space Station Freedom is discussed, including up to 2000 W of peak power, up to four color video channels, and command and data rates up to 500 kbps between the telerobot and the control station. Finally, an example is presented to show how the Tinman design concept was used to analyze task scenarios and explore the operational capabilities of the FTS. A structured methodology using a standard terminology consistent with the NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) was developed for this analysis.

  9. Far-infrared pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems using scene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is one of the most critical but challenging components in advanced driver assistance systems. Far-infrared (FIR) images are well-suited for pedestrian detection even in a dark environment. However, most current detection approaches just focus on pedestrian patterns themselves, where robust and real-time detection cannot be well achieved. We propose a fast FIR pedestrian detection approach, called MAP-HOGLBP-T, to explicitly exploit the scene context for the driver assistance system. In MAP-HOGLBP-T, three algorithms are developed to exploit the scene contextual information from roads, vehicles, and background objects of high homogeneity, and we employ the Bayesian approach to build a classifier learner which respects the scene contextual information. We also develop a multiframe approval scheme to enhance the detection performance based on spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians. Our empirical study on real-world datasets has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance is shown to be better than that of state-of-the-art low-level feature-based approaches.

  10. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver/vehicle system performance in discrete maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. H.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of discrete maneuver tasks were used to evaluate the effects of steering gain and directional mode dynamic parameters on driver/vehicle responses. The importance and ranking of these parameters were evaluated through changes in subjective driver ratings and performance measures obtained from transient maneuvers such as a double lane change, an emergency lane change, and an unexpected obstacle. The unexpected obstacle maneuver proved more sensitive to individual driver differences than to vehicle differences. Results were based on full scale tests with an experienced test driver evaluating many different dynamic configurations plus seventeen ordinary drivers evaluating six key configurations.

  11. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Mathews, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    This standard establishes requirements and guidance for design and fabrication of ground systems (GS) that includes: ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F GSS) to provide uniform methods and processes for design and development of robust, safe, reliable, maintainable, supportable, and cost-effective GS in support of space flight and institutional programs and projects.

  12. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  13. DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase 1 of this research, we will identify existing tools, methods, and models available to support establishment of cause-effect relationships. In Phase 2, we will investigate existing decision support systems and produce an appropriate decision support system design. Based ...

  14. Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment" is designed to help school systems evaluate their current Professional Growth & Support strategy. The self-assessment is organized around the "Eight Principles of Strategic Professional Growth & Support." Each section allows school leaders to identify the…

  15. Controlled Ecological Life Support System - CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a NASA effort to develop bioregenerative systems which provide required life support elements for crews on long duration space missions or extraterrestrial planetary colonizations, is briefly discussed. The CELSS analytical requirements are defined in relation to the life support objectives and priorities of a CELSS. The first phase of the CELSS Breadboard Concept is shown.

  16. Torsional Angle Driver (TorAD) System for HyperChem/Excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Ronald

    1999-02-01

    1 method, but other methods can be used. The calculation method and the restraint can be specified. · Tor2_180 and Tor2_360 rotate two torsional angles to provide a 3D plot of the resulting total energy surface. Tor2_180 performs a 0 to 180° rotation, in 10° steps, on each of the two torsional angle systems (tor1 and tor2) selected. Tor2_360 will do a -180° to +180° (360° total) rotation of the two torsional angles in 20° steps. Both tor2_180 and tor2_360 provide an x, y, z plot (x = angle 1, y = angle 2, z = energy) and a topo plot (x = angle 1, y = angle 2, z = topo lines and color coding). The molecular mechanics method and the restraint can be specified. Hardware and Software Requirement Hardware and software requirements for Torsional Angle Driver (TorAD) are shown in Table 1. These programs require a version of HyperChem 4.0 or later that supports DDE. Also required is Microsoft Excel 5.0 or higher. HyperChem and Excel are not included with the issue.

    Ordering and Information JCE Software is a publication of the Journal of Chemical Education. There is an order form inserted in this issue that provides prices and other ordering information. If this card is not available or if you need additional information, contact: JCE Software, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706-1396 phone: 608/262-5153 or 800/991-5534 fax: 608/265-8094; email: jcesoft@chem.wisc.edu Information about all of our publications (including abstracts, descriptions, updates) is available from the JCE Software World Wide Web site.

  17. Design of a hardware/software FPGA-based driver system for a large area high resolution CCD image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Xu, Wanpeng; Zhao, Rongsheng; Chen, Xiangning

    2014-09-01

    A hardware/software field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based driver system was proposed and demonstrated for the KAF-39000 large area high resolution charge coupled device (CCD). The requirements of the KAF-39000 driver system were analyzed. The structure of "microprocessor with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips" was implemented to design the driver system. The system test results showed that dual channels of imaging analog data were obtained with a frame rate of 0.87 frame/s. The frequencies of horizontal timing and vertical timing were 22.9 MHz and 28.7 kHz, respectively, which almost reached the theoretical value of 24 MHz and 30 kHz, respectively.

  18. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately operationalized treatment integrity procedures…

  19. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  20. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Harold T.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  1. A novel collinear optical system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye

    2008-12-01

    This paper focus on a novel collinear lens system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver, both information beam and reference beam are use same laser beam. The expanded and parallel laser beam, center part of it as the information beam then through Fourier transform lens, the beam around center part as a reference beam. On this axis, the ring reference beam reflected by two annulus shaped mirrors, then became a convergent beam, together with the information beam which through the first Fourier transform lens then produce holographic pattern to be write into the holographic disc behind of them, this lens system with two mirrors made the angle between information beam and reference beam more wide, can improved the multiplex level of holographic storage. Pair of Fourier transform lens with advance performance is designed in this paper.

  2. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  3. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    Academic support systems are characterized as those activities that center around a dean's office--office automation/information systems, institutional research and electronic communication. The basic and design and implementation issues that are encountered in providing these support systems are examined. (Author/MLW)

  4. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth J.

    Basic design and implementation issues encountered in providing academic support systems are examined. "Academic support systems" describes the growing class of university computing that is being developed to integrate administrative computing environments. These systems may be typically characterized by the activities that center around a dean's…

  5. Unmanned systems win unexpected support

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiderman, R.

    1991-09-01

    A review of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented in which emphasis is given to recent mission accomplishments and current directions of research. Existing and new military UAV programs are listed with reference to funding, the type of vehicle, and level of development. Several trends are established including the reliance of UVAs on global positioning satellites and advanced electronics and the growth of the UVA industry. UVAs that are in advanced stages of development or have been deployed include short-range UAV such as the Pioneer, the Pointer, the Sky Owl, and the Hunter. Key UAV systems are described such as the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System, the Maritime Vertical Takeoff and Landing, and other VTOL systems. Very small UVAs and Exdrones are also discussed, and a weather reconnaissance system and surveillance systems are mentioned.

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Maurice M.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA CELLS program is based upon the integration of biological and physiochemical processes in order to produce a system that will produce food, a breathable atmosphere, and potable water from metabolic and other wastes. The CELSS concept is described and a schematic system diagram is provided. Central to the CELSS concept is the Plant Growth Chamber, where green plant photosynthesis produces food, and aids in the production of oxygen and water. Progress to date at the Breadboard Facility at the Kennedy Space Center is summarized. The Breadboard Facility will implement the basic techniques and processes required for a CELSS based on photosynthetic plant growth in a ground-based system of practical size and results will be extrapolated to predict the performance of a full-sized system. Current available technology and near-future forecasts for plant growth techniques (focusing on maximum productivity), food sources (to select optimal CELSS plants), and waste management and contaminant control are discussed.

  8. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-08-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

  9. Selection of shuttle payload data processing drivers for the data system new technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of all payloads in the IBM disciplines and the selection of driver payloads within each discipline are described. The driver payloads were selected on the basis of their data processing requirements. These requirements are measured by a weighting scheme. The total requirements for each discipline are estimated by use of the technology payload model. The driver selection process which was both a payload by payload comparison and a comparison of expected groupings of payloads was examined.

  10. Integrated support systems for electric utility operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, H.W.; Imparato, C.F.; Becker, D.L.; Malinowski, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Power system dispatch, the real-time monitoring and coordination of transmission and generation facilities, is the focal point of power system operations. However, dispatch is just one of the many duties of the typical power system operations department. Many computer-based tools and systems are used in support of these duties. Energy management systems (EMS), the centralized, mainframe-, or mini-computer-based systems that support dispatch, have been widely publicized, but few of the other support systems have been given much notice. This article provides an overview of these support tools and systems, frames the major issues faced in systems integration, and describes the path taken to integrate EMS, workstations, desktop computers, networks and applications. Network architecture enables the distribution of real-time operations data throughout the company, from EMS to power plants to district offices, on an unprecedented scale.

  11. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  12. A simple model of driver behaviour to sustain design and safety assessment of automated systems in automotive environments.

    PubMed

    Cacciabue, Pietro Carlo; Carsten, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    This paper proposes a structure for an "active" model of driver that enables to predict behaviour and performances in dynamic changing traffic conditions, with potential application both offline and online. A simple prototype of the system has been realised in software, and has been compared against observed data in a rudimentary validation. The comparison reveals that the software's outputs accord reasonably with the observed values, not only in terms of central tendency but also in terms of capability to predict the between-driver variability. The next step is to create a system capable of identifying driver characteristics and state from observed data. However, further research is needed in order to expand the model in several dimensions, primarily to represent more complex scenarios in the presence of advanced automation technologies. PMID:19450791

  13. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  14. Instructional Support Software System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. - East, St. Louis, MO.

    This report describes the development of the Instructional Support System (ISS), a large-scale, computer-based training system that supports both computer-assisted instruction and computer-managed instruction. Written in the Ada programming language, the ISS software package is designed to be machine independent. It is also grouped into functional…

  15. Data Fusion to Develop a Driver Drowsiness Detection System with Robustness to Signal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Samiee, Sajjad; Azadi, Shahram; Kazemi, Reza; Nahvi, Ali; Eichberger, Arno

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a drowsiness detection approach based on the combination of several different detection methods, with robustness to the input signal loss. Hence, if one of the methods fails for any reason, the whole system continues to work properly. To choose correct combination of the available methods and to utilize the benefits of methods of different categories, an image processing-based technique as well as a method based on driver-vehicle interaction is used. In order to avoid driving distraction, any use of an intrusive method is prevented. A driving simulator is used to gather real data and then artificial neural networks are used in the structure of the designed system. Several tests were conducted on twelve volunteers while their sleeping situations during one day prior to the tests, were fully under control. Although the impact of the proposed system on the improvement of the detection accuracy is not remarkable, the results indicate the main advantages of the system are the reliability of the detections and robustness to the loss of the input signals. The high reliability of the drowsiness detection systems plays an important role to reduce drowsiness related road accidents and their associated costs. PMID:25256113

  16. Data fusion to develop a driver drowsiness detection system with robustness to signal loss.

    PubMed

    Samiee, Sajjad; Azadi, Shahram; Kazemi, Reza; Nahvi, Ali; Eichberger, Arno

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a drowsiness detection approach based on the combination of several different detection methods, with robustness to the input signal loss. Hence, if one of the methods fails for any reason, the whole system continues to work properly. To choose correct combination of the available methods and to utilize the benefits of methods of different categories, an image processing-based technique as well as a method based on driver-vehicle interaction is used. In order to avoid driving distraction, any use of an intrusive method is prevented. A driving simulator is used to gather real data and then artificial neural networks are used in the structure of the designed system. Several tests were conducted on twelve volunteers while their sleeping situations during one day prior to the tests, were fully under control. Although the impact of the proposed system on the improvement of the detection accuracy is not remarkable, the results indicate the main advantages of the system are the reliability of the detections and robustness to the loss of the input signals. The high reliability of the drowsiness detection systems plays an important role to reduce drowsiness related road accidents and their associated costs. PMID:25256113

  17. Business Management System Support Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a searchable database compiled with internal and external audit findings/observations. The data will correspond to the findings and observations from the date of Center-wide implementation of the ISO 9001-2000 standard to the present (2003-2008). It was derived and extracted from several sources and was in multiple formats. Once extracted, categorization of the findings/observations would be possible. The final data was mapped to the ISO 9001-2000 standard with the understanding that it will be displayed graphically. The data will be used to verify trends, associate risks, and establish timelines to identify strengths and weaknesses to determine areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center Business Management System Internal Audit Program.

  18. Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, July 19-20, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced group support systems and to identify the potential of these systems for use in future collaborative distributed design and synthesis environments. The presentations covered the current status and effectiveness of different group support systems.

  19. Innovative secondary support systems for gate roads

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.; Molinda, G.M.; Zelanko, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the development of the shield support, the primary requirement for successful ground control in longwall mining is to provide stable gate road and bleeder entries. Wood cribbing has been the dominant form of secondary and supplemental support. However, the cost and limited availability of timber, along with the poor performance of softwood crib supports, has forced western U.S. mines to explore the utilization of support systems other than conventional wood cribbing. The recent success of cable bolts has engendered much interest from western operators. Eastern U.S. coal operators are also now experimenting with various intrinsic and freestanding alternative support systems that provide effective ground control while reducing material handling costs and injuries. These innovative freestanding support systems include (1) {open_quotes}The Can{close_quotes} support by Burrell Mining Products International, Inc., (2) Hercules and Link-N-Lock wood cribs and Propsetter supports by Strata Products (USA) Inc., (3) Variable Yielding Crib and Power Crib supports by Mountainland Support Systems, (4) the Confined Core Crib developed by Southern Utah Fuels Corporation; and (5) the MEGA prop by MBK Hydraulik. This paper assesses design considerations and compares the performance and application of these alternative secondary support systems. Support performance in the form of load-displacement behavior is compared to conventional wood cribbing. Much of the data was developed through full-scale tests conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at the Strategic Structures Testing Laboratory in the unique Mine Roof Simulator load frame at the Pittsburgh Research Center. A summary of current mine experience with these innovative supports is also documented.

  20. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  1. An Active Substrate Driver for Enabling Mixed-Voltage SOI Systems-On-A-Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, S. A.; Blalock, B. J.; Mojarradi, M. M.; Li, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    The current trend for space application systems is towards fully integrated systems-on-a-chip. To facilitate this drive, high-voltage transistors must reside on the same substrate as low-voltage transistors. These systems must also be radiation tolerant, particularly for space missions such as the Europa Lander and Titan Explorer. SOI CMOS technology offers high levels of radiation hardness. As a result, a high-voltage lateral MOSFET has been developed in a partially-depleted (PD) SOI technology. Utilizing high voltages causes a parasitic transistor to have non-negligible effects on a circuit. Several circuit architectures have been used to compensate for the radiation induced threshold voltage shift of the parasitic back-channel transistor. However, a new architecture for high-voltage systems must be employed to bias the substrate to voltage levels insuring all parasitic transistors remain off. An active substrate driver has been developed to accomplish task. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Integration of Computer-Based Virtual Check Ride System--Pre-Trip Inspection in Commercial Driver License Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makwana, Alpesh P.

    2009-01-01

    "Pre-Trip Inspection" of the truck and trailer is one of the components of the current Commercial Driver's License (CDL) test. This part of the CDL test checks the ability of the student to identify the important parts of the commercial vehicle and their potential defects. The "Virtual Check Ride System" (VCRS), a computer-based application, is an…

  3. Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

  4. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  5. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  6. The importance of within-system spatial variation in drivers of marine ecosystem regime shifts

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, J. A. D.; Casini, M.; Frank, K. T.; Möllmann, C.; Leggett, W. C.; Daskalov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the dynamics of exploited marine ecosystems have led to differing hypotheses regarding the primary causes of observed regime shifts, while many ecosystems have apparently not undergone regime shifts. These varied responses may be partly explained by the decade-old recognition that within-system spatial heterogeneity in key climate and anthropogenic drivers may be important, as recent theoretical examinations have concluded that spatial heterogeneity in environmental characteristics may diminish the tendency for regime shifts. Here, we synthesize recent, empirical within-system spatio-temporal analyses of some temperate and subarctic large marine ecosystems in which regime shifts have (and have not) occurred. Examples from the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Bengula Current, North Sea, Barents Sea and Eastern Scotian Shelf reveal the largely neglected importance of considering spatial variability in key biotic and abiotic influences and species movements in the context of evaluating and predicting regime shifts. We highlight both the importance of understanding the scale-dependent spatial dynamics of climate influences and key predator–prey interactions to unravel the dynamics of regime shifts, and the utility of spatial downscaling of proposed mechanisms (as evident in the North Sea and Barents Sea) as a means of evaluating hypotheses originally derived from among-system comparisons.

  7. Drivers and Controls of the Zebra Mussel Invasion of the Mississippi-Missouri River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrandi, R.; Mari, L.; Bertuzzo, E.; Gatto, M.; Levin, S. A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has been haunting North American inland waters for the past twenty years. Due to the huge population densities reached by local colonies and the species' unparalleled dispersal ability, the zebra mussel represents a major threat from both an ecological and an economic perspective. We propose a novel ecohydrological model for the invasion of inland waters by this alien species and test it against field data gathered within the Mississippi-Missouri river system in North America. To incorporate both hydrologic controls and anthropogenic drivers of the invasion, the proposed multi-layer network model accounts explicitly for zebra mussel demographic dynamics, hydrologic transport and dispersal due to human activities. We show that hydrologic transport alone is not sufficient to explain the spread of the species at the basin scale. We also quantify the role played by commercial navigation in promoting the initial, selective colonization of the river system and show how recreational boating may have determined the capillary penetration of the species into the water system. The role of post-establishment dispersal mechanisms and the effectiveness of possible prevention measures are also discussed in the context of model sensitivity and robustness to reparameterization.

  8. Biomass Productivity Dynamics Monitoring and its Drivers in Sahelian Croplands and Rangelands to Support Food Security Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Sahelian population livelihood relies mainly on agropastoral activities, accurate information on biomass productivity dynamics and the underlying drivers are needed to manage a wide range of issues such as food security. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these drivers in rangeland and cropland, both at the Sahel and local scales (an agropastoral site in South-West Niger). At the Sahel scale, the MODIS Land Cover product was used to extract cropland and rangeland pixels. By analyzing MODIS NDVI trends together with TRMM3B43 annual rainfall (2000-2010), we developed a new classification scheme allowing to identify areas of persistent decline/improvement in biomass productivity and to separate rainfall-driven dynamics from other factors. The results showed an overall increase of productivity in the rangeland, and both an improvement and a degradation in the cropland. We found strong evidence that the increase in biomass productivity was generally linked to increasing rainfall, while the decrease could be attributed chiefly to other factors exclusively or to a combination of both climate- and human-induced factors (see the attached Figure). At the Niger site scale, biomass trends have been put in relation with a set of potential drivers via a RandomForest model, to define which were the explanatory factors of the observed trends. The factor set covered 5 categories: climate, natural constraints, demography, physical accessibility and land cover changes. We highlighted that tiger bushes areas were particularly prone to pressure due to overgrazing and overexploitation of wood, while positive trends were mainly observed near rivers and in fossil valleys where new agricultural practices might have been promoted. The approach developped here could help to delineate areas with decrease in crop and grassland production and thus to assess the vulnerability of the population, but also to target zones with good potential for planning long

  9. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  10. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  11. Developing Electronic Performance Support Systems for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Michael P.; And Others

    This paper discusses a variety of development strategies and issues involved in the development of electronic performance support systems (EPSS) for professionals. The topics of front-end analysis, development, and evaluation are explored in the context of a case study involving the development of an EPSS to support teachers in the use of…

  12. Perspectives on Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Glenda Rose; Yang, Chia-Shing

    The complexity of the modern workplace means that decision makers are entertaining the idea of providing employees with software applications that are designed to provide true support and on-the-job training from the employee's desktop computer. An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is the tool that can make such training a reality when…

  13. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subsystem, component, and part that can affect the reliability of the support system must have written... recording system required by paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Communications network. A flight safety system must include a communications network that connects all flight safety functions with all...

  14. Overview of TIMED CEDAR observations showing the MLTI system response to changing drivers from solar maximum to solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Crowley, G.; Doe, R. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Paxton, L. J.; Skinner, W. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Talaat, E.; Woods, T. N.; Wu, Q.; Yee, J.

    2007-12-01

    TIMED CEDAR observations have spanned a large range of solar activity conditions from just past solar maximum during which active region eruptions dominate, through the descending phase during which corotating interaction regions reach a maximum, and now fast approaching a 22-year minimum in magnetic activity during which inputs from below become increasingly prominent against a magnetically quieting state. During this interval, TIMED observed the response of the MLTI to a large number of powerful X-class flares, severe solar proton events, 7 superstorms, newly identified sawtooth events, high dynamic pressure during both southward and northward IMF, and to the strongest CIR-driven magnetic activity of the last 4 solar cycles. We will summarize new knowledge about the response of the MLTI to the very different characteristic inputs from this range of drivers and explore resulting insights into the behavior of the geospace system. As the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 begins, TIMED will observe the response of the MLTI to a new regime in the balance between solar irradiance and magnetic activity, specifically to rising F10.7 in the presence of low magnetic activity. An developing list of unanswered questions related to the MLTI state under these driving conditions will be presented in preparation for continuing community interactions in support of TIMED CEDAR MLTI science.

  15. Drunk Driver Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Systems Technology, Inc. developed a technique to study/measure behavioral changes brought on by long term isolation is now being used in a system for determining whether a driver is too drunk to drive. Device is intended to discourage intoxicated drivers from taking to the road by advising them they are in no condition to operate a vehicle. System is being tested experimentally in California.

  16. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-10-29

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification.

  17. Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Document contains proceedings of February, 1989 meeting of Scientists of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Includes 25 scientific papers and bibliography of CELSS documents published as NASA reports.

  18. Advanced driver assistance system for AHS over communication links with random packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Seshadhri; Ayyagari, Ramakalyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced driver assist system (ADAS) for platoon based automated highway system (AHS) with packet loss in inter-vehicle communication. Using the concept of rigidity, we first show that vehicles in a platoon tend to fall apart in the event of a packet loss among vehicles. To overcome this, we propose an estimation based dynamic platooning algorithm which employs the state estimate to maintain the platoon. Communication among the vehicle is reduced by using minimum spanning tree (MST) in state estimation algorithm. Effectiveness of the proposed ADAS scheme is illustrated by simulation wherein, dynamic platoons of holonomic vehicles with integrator dynamics are considered. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm maintains the platoon up to a packet loss rate of 48%. State transmission scheme proposed in our algorithm has three significant advantages, they are: (1) it handles packet loss in inter-vehicle communication, (2) reduces the effect of error in measured output, and (3) reduces the inter-vehicle communication. These advantages significantly increase the reliability and safety of the AHS.

  19. STEP-AIRSEDS System Engineering Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Tom; Taliaferro, Lanny

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes and highlights the activities in support of the Space Transportation using Electrodynamic Propulsion Atmospheric Ionospheric Research Small Expendable Deployer Satellite (STEP-AIRSEDS) Project for the period of May 16, 2000 through September 28, 2001. The Alpha Technology, Inc. was tasked to provide support to the MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in requirements development and in verification activities. Specifically, the Alpha Technology, Inc. task was to: (1) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements Database; (2) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS requirements verification definition and planning support database; (3) perform requirements flow down analysis of STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements to TMTC (The Michigan Technic Corporation) Level IV Requirements; (4) provide system engineering guidance to the Project as needed; (5) provide guidance to TMTC in preparation of Level IV Requirements; and (6) provide support to STEP-AIRSEDS meetings, reviews, and telecons as needed.

  20. Life support systems for Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

  1. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective. PMID:27490901

  2. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective. PMID:27490901

  3. System Review about Function Role of ESCC Driver Gene KDM6A by Network Biology Approach.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jihua; Li, Hui; Li, Huiwu

    2016-01-01

    Background. KDM6A (Lysine (K)-Specific Demethylase 6A) is the driver gene related to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In order to provide more biological insights into KDM6A, in this paper, we treat PPI (protein-protein interaction) network derived from KDM6A as a conceptual framework and follow it to review its biological function. Method. We constructed a PPI network with Cytoscape software and performed clustering of network with Clust&See. Then, we evaluate the pathways, which are statistically involved in the network derived from KDM6A. Lastly, gene ontology analysis of clusters of genes in the network was conducted. Result. The network includes three clusters that consist of 74 nodes connected via 453 edges. Fifty-five pathways are statistically involved in the network and most of them are functionally related to the processes of cell cycle, gene expression, and carcinogenesis. The biology themes of clusters 1, 2, and 3 are chromatin modification, regulation of gene expression by transcription factor complex, and control of cell cycle, respectively. Conclusion. The PPI network presents a panoramic view which can facilitate for us to understand the function role of KDM6A. It is a helpful way by network approach to perform system review on a certain gene. PMID:27294188

  4. System Review about Function Role of ESCC Driver Gene KDM6A by Network Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jihua; Li, Hui; Li, Huiwu

    2016-01-01

    Background. KDM6A (Lysine (K)-Specific Demethylase 6A) is the driver gene related to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In order to provide more biological insights into KDM6A, in this paper, we treat PPI (protein-protein interaction) network derived from KDM6A as a conceptual framework and follow it to review its biological function. Method. We constructed a PPI network with Cytoscape software and performed clustering of network with Clust&See. Then, we evaluate the pathways, which are statistically involved in the network derived from KDM6A. Lastly, gene ontology analysis of clusters of genes in the network was conducted. Result. The network includes three clusters that consist of 74 nodes connected via 453 edges. Fifty-five pathways are statistically involved in the network and most of them are functionally related to the processes of cell cycle, gene expression, and carcinogenesis. The biology themes of clusters 1, 2, and 3 are chromatin modification, regulation of gene expression by transcription factor complex, and control of cell cycle, respectively. Conclusion. The PPI network presents a panoramic view which can facilitate for us to understand the function role of KDM6A. It is a helpful way by network approach to perform system review on a certain gene. PMID:27294188

  5. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings. PMID:25956609

  6. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  7. Defensive And Supportive Communications In Family Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James F.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of Systems Theory concepts to family functioning involving 21 families provides data which demonstrates that normal families behave as adaptive systems, both in generating and reciprocating high rates of supportiveness. Information is also obtained concerning a possible cause of aggressive behavior. (RP)

  8. Decision support system for nursing management control

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge representation approach for expert systems supporting decision processes in business is proposed. A description of a knowledge representation schema using a logic programming metalanguage is described, then the role of such a schema in a management expert system is demonstrated through the problem of nursing management control in hospitals. 18 references.

  9. Systemic Thinking To Support Dine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Gorman, Roxanne

    This paper describes systemic thinking in support of the recently established Navajo Nation Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI). The RSI aims to create a standards-based student-centered teaching and learning environment in mathematics, science, and technology in the 173 elementary and secondary schools on or near the Navajo Nation, including public,…

  10. Building Bridges: Supporting Families across Service Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This double issue of the journal "Report" focuses on the collaboration among seven social service systems that support and serve children and families. Each of the sections discusses one of the seven systems, presents an overview essay, and profiles programs that execute the service. The first section, on education, emphasizes linkages between…

  11. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  12. The environmental control and life-support system for a lunar base: What drives its design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and briefly discuss some of the ground rules and mission scenario details that become drivers of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system design and of the logistics related to the design. This paper is written for mission planners and non-ECLS system engineers to inform them of the details that will be important to the ECLS engineer when the design phase is reached. In addition, examples illustrate the impact of some selected mission characteristics on the logistics associated with ECLS systems. The last section of this paper focuses on the ECLS system technology development sequence and highlights specific portions that need emphasis.

  13. Support systems for mineral mining installations

    SciTech Connect

    Tengler, J.; Von Viebahn, H.E.

    1980-03-11

    A mineral mining installation has a longwall scraper-chain conveyor with a machine, such as a plough, guided for movement back and forth alongside the conveyor to win mineral from a longwall face. A roof support system which may be arranged at the ends of the longwall working, i.e., at the so-called stable zones , is composed of several units each with hydraulic props protected within cylindrical telescopic casings. Each support unit may be displaceable as a whole to follow the working progress or else each support unit may be constructed with front and rear frame assemblies which are relatively displaceable. Each support unit has at least five narrow elongate roof bars disposed closely side-by-side in parallelism. The roof bars are guided for longitudinal advancement and hydraulic rams serve to advance the roof bars individually or in groups. A similar arrangement may also be employed as the floor structure of each support unit.

  14. Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

  15. Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

  16. Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

  17. Systematic review building a preceptor support system.

    PubMed

    Goss, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review identifies the significance of the preceptor role in affecting new graduate nurse retention. Findings from 20 research studies provide support that nurse preceptors receiving continuing education and perceiving reward and recognition from the preceptor position positively affect new graduate nurse retention. Hospital administration, nurse managers, nurse educators, preceptors, and new graduate nurses each play a role in the successful implementation of a preceptor support system. PMID:25325297

  18. Mission Requirements and Data Systems Support Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document was developed by the Flight Mission Support Office and prepared by the Forecast Analysis Section of the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to provide NASA management with detailed mission information. It is one of a number of sources used in planning Mission Operations and Data Systems resource commitments in support of mission requirements. All mission dates are based on information available as of May 28, 1993.

  19. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    describes the behavior of hydropower operators. This integrated model allows to quantitatively explore possible trajectories of future evolution of the hydropower systems under the combined effect of climate and socio-economic drivers. In a multi-objective perspective, the model can test how different hydropower operation strategies perform in terms of power production, reliability and flexibility of supply, profitability of operation, and ecosystem conservation. This contribution presents the methodological framework designed to formulate the integrated model, its expected outcomes, and some preliminary results on a pilot study.

  20. Control problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S. P.; Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Autonomous Life Support Systems (ALSS) are envisioned for long range permanence in space. ALSS would require little or no input of matter for extended periods of time. The design of such a system involves an understanding of both ecological principles and control theory of nonlinear, ill-defined systems. A distinction is drawn between ecosystem survival strategies and the aims of control theory. Experimental work is under way to help combine the two approaches.

  1. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Design specifications. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow driver performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During Phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volume 2 presents the related appendices. Volume three (this report) displays the design specifications developed for DASCAR during the ``develop design requirements and specifications for a portable driver performance data acquisition system`` task. Design specifications were assembled for each DASCAR element. The specifications were prepared in sufficient detail to allow a third party to use them to design, develop, procure, and subsequently construct the data acquisition system. This report also covers the background to the program.

  2. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  3. Cost analysis of life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict realistic relative cost of Life Support Systems (LSS) and to define areas of major cost impacts in the development cycle. Emphasis was given to tailoring the cost data for usage by program planners and designers. The equipment classifications used based on the degree of refinement were as follows: (1) Working model; (2) low-fidelity prototype; (3) high-fidelity prototype; and (4) flight-qualified system. The major advanced LSS evaluated included the following: (1) Carbon dioxide removal; (2) oxygen recovery systems; (3) water recovery systems; (4) atmosphere analysis system.

  4. Eaton AF5000+Genesis Communication Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-05-25

    Communication driver allows the Genesis Control Series software to interact with Eaton AF5000+ frequency drives via RS-232 communications. All Eaton AF5000+ parameters that support communications are supported by the Genesis driver. Multidrop addressing to multiple units is available with the Genesis communication driver.

  5. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-07-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must makerapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts ofheterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficientmethod of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time.However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with theappropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and notbecome cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of aprototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support systemare summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantlyimproves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulentconditions. Based on these results, design principles and implicationsfor cockpit decision support systems using visualization arepresented.

  6. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  7. Considerations Regarding the Development of an Environmental Control and Life Support System for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is engaged in early architectural analyses and trade studies aimed at identifying requirements, predicting performance and resource needs, characterizing mission constraints and sensitivities, and guiding technology development planning needed to conduct a successful human exploration campaign of the lunar surface. Conceptual designs and resource estimates for environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) within pressurized lunar surface habitats and rovers have been considered and compared in order to support these lunar campaign studies. This paper will summarize those concepts and some of the more noteworthy considerations that will likely remain as key drivers in the evolution of the lunar surface ECLSS architecture.

  8. A Real-Time Case Study in Driver Science: Physiological Strain and Related Variables.

    PubMed

    Potkanowicz, Edward S

    2015-11-01

    This case study was conducted as an attempt to quantify racecar-driver core body temperature and heart rate (HR) in real time on a minute-by-minute basis and to expand the volume of work in the area of driver science. Three drivers were observed during a 15-lap, 25-min maximal event. Each driver competed in the closed-wheel, closed-cockpit sports-car category. Data on core body temperature and HR were collected continuously using the HQ Inc. ingestible core probe system and HR monitoring. Driver 1 pre- and postrace core temperatures were 37.80°C and 38.79°C, respectively. Driver 2 pre- and postrace core temperatures were 37.41°C and 37.99°C. Driver 1 pre- and postrace HRs were 102 and 161 beats/min. Driver 2 pre- and postrace HRs were 94.3 and 142 beats/min. Driver 1's physiological strain index (PSI) at the start was 3.51. Driver 2's PSI at the start was 3.10. Driver 1 finished with a PSI of 7.04 and driver 2 with a PSI of 3.67. Results show that drivers are continuously challenged minute by minute. In addition, before getting into their cars, the drivers already experience physiological and thermal challenges. The data suggest that drivers are getting hot quickly. In longer events, this represents the potential for severe heat injury. Investigating whether the HRs observed are indicative of work or evidence of a thermoregulatory-associated challenge is a direction for future work. The findings support the value of real-time data collection and offer strong evidence for the expansion of research on driver-athletes. PMID:25803362

  9. Ion Thruster Support and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for supporting and selectively positioning an ion thruster relative to a surface of a spacecraft includes three angularly spaced thruster support assemblies. Each thruster support assembly includes a frame which has a rotary actuator mounted thereon. The rotary actuator is connected to an actuator member which is rotatably connected to a thruster attachment member connected to a body of the thruster. A stabilizer member is rotatably mounted to the frame and to the thruster attachment member. The thruster is selectively movable in the pitch and yaw directions responsive to movement of the actuator members by the actuators on the thruster support assemblies. A failure of any one actuator on a thruster support assembly will generally still enable limited thruster positioning capability in two directions. In a retracted position the thruster attachment members are held in nested relation in saddles supported on the frames of the thruster support assemblies. The thruster is securely held in the retracted position during periods of high loading such as during launch of the spacecraft.

  10. Birds of a Feather: Supporting Secure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell III, H V

    2006-04-24

    Over the past few years Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has begun the process of moving to a diskless environment in the Secure Computer Support realm. This movement has included many moving targets and increasing support complexity. We would like to set up a forum for Security and Support professionals to get together from across the Complex and discuss current deployments, lessons learned, and next steps. This would include what hardware, software, and hard copy based solutions are being used to manage Secure Computing. The topics to be discussed include but are not limited to: Diskless computing, port locking and management, PC, Mac, and Linux/UNIX support and setup, system imaging, security setup documentation and templates, security documentation and management, customer tracking, ticket tracking, software download and management, log management, backup/disaster recovery, and mixed media environments.

  11. Development of pre pre-driver amplifier stage for generator of SST-1 ICRH system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Sinh Makwana, Azad; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system for SST1 consists mainly of the cwrf power generator to deliver 1.5MW for 1000sec duration at the frequencies 22.8, 24.3 and 45.6±1MHz, the transmission line and the antenna. This is planned to develop a independent and dedicated cwrf generator that consists of a oscillator, buffer, rf switch, modulator, rf attenuator, directional coupler, three stage solid state low power amplifier and four stage triode & tetrode based high power amplifier with specific performance at 45.6±1MHz including frequencies 22.8 and 24.3±1MHz. The pre pre-driver high power amplifier stage is fabricated about triode 3CX3000A7. The tube has sufficient margin in terms of plate dissipation and grid dissipation that makes it suitable to withstand momentarily load mismatch and to upgrade the source in terms of output power later. This indigenously developed amplifier is integrated inside a radiation resistant rack with all required biasing power supplies, cooling blower, controls, monitors and interlocks for manual or remote control operation. This grounded grid mode amplifier will be operated at plate with 3.8KV/ 800mA in class AB for 1.8KW cwrf output power rating. The input circuit is broadband and the output circuit is tunable with slide variable inductor and a vacuum variable capacitor in the frequency range of 22.8 to 45.6MHz. It is designed for a gain of about 12dB, fabrication completed and undergoing cwrf power testing. This paper presents specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters, tests conducted and the results obtained.

  12. Support for User Interfaces for Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eychaner, Glenn; Niessner, Albert

    2005-01-01

    An extensible Java(TradeMark) software framework supports the construction and operation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for distributed computing systems typified by ground control systems that send commands to, and receive telemetric data from, spacecraft. Heretofore, such GUIs have been custom built for each new system at considerable expense. In contrast, the present framework affords generic capabilities that can be shared by different distributed systems. Dynamic class loading, reflection, and other run-time capabilities of the Java language and JavaBeans component architecture enable the creation of a GUI for each new distributed computing system with a minimum of custom effort. By use of this framework, GUI components in control panels and menus can send commands to a particular distributed system with a minimum of system-specific code. The framework receives, decodes, processes, and displays telemetry data; custom telemetry data handling can be added for a particular system. The framework supports saving and later restoration of users configurations of control panels and telemetry displays with a minimum of effort in writing system-specific code. GUIs constructed within this framework can be deployed in any operating system with a Java run-time environment, without recompilation or code changes.

  13. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  14. Drivers of the carbonate system seasonal variations in a Mediterranean gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Comici, Cinzia; Kralj, Martina; Piacentino, Salvatore; De Vittor, Cinzia; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different physical and biogeochemical drivers on the carbonate system were investigated in a semi-enclosed coastal area characterized by high alkalinity riverine discharge (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea). Our 2-year time-series showed that a large part of the seasonal carbonate chemistry variation was controlled by the large seasonal change of seawater temperature, though air-sea CO2 exchange, biological activity (primary production-respiration), and riverine inputs also exerted a significant influence. With the exception of summer, the Gulf of Trieste was a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, showing a very strong CO2 fluxes from atmosphere into the sea (-16.10 mmol m-2 day-1) during high wind speed event of north easterly Bora wind. The CO2 influx was particularly evident in winter, when the biological activity was at minimum and the low seawater temperature enhanced CO2 solubility. During spring, the drawdown of CO2 by primary production overwhelmed the CO2 physical pump, driving a significant decrease of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), [CO2], and increase of pHT25 °C. In summer the primary production in surface waters occurred with the same intensity as respiration in the bottom layer, so the net biological effect on the carbonate system was very low and the further reduction of seawater CO2 concentration observed was mainly due to carbon dioxide degassing induced by high seawater temperature. Finally, during autumn the respiration was the predominant process, which determined an overall increase of DIC, [CO2], and decrease of pHT25 °C. This was particularly evident when the breakdown of summer stratification occurred and a large amount of CO2, generated by respiration and segregated below the pycnocline, was released back to the whole water column. Local rivers also significantly affected the carbonate system by direct input of total alkalinity (AT) coming from the chemical weathering of carbonate rocks, which

  15. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  16. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  17. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    SciTech Connect

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  18. Virtual Tutoring and Student Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Jennifer Lee

    2005-01-01

    Virtual tutoring and student support systems may be pivotal in developing opportunities of equality and of outcome for students who study at a distance. Cookson (2002) mentions that it is important to assist students to have access to study programs. Cookson (2002) elaborates upon this and states, "If access is to be equitable, once they are…

  19. Environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

  20. Life support system development in West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented.

  1. A Personal Multimedia System for Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper presents a specific bottom-up implementation method for getting started with multimedia for instructional support at the personal level. Some minimal top-down design considerations for an institutional multimedia system include: (1) the instructor should be able to take work from/to the desktop to/from the classroom; (2) the capability…

  2. A Design of Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    The project described in this paper, representing the initial phases of a one-year on-going project, was organized to build a supportive environment for Instructional Systems Technology (IST) doctoral students at Indiana University-Bloomington to help them prepare for the Qualifying exams. An overview is provided of steps taken to create an…

  3. Life support system development in West Germany.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I

    1982-12-01

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented. PMID:11541695

  4. Control Problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of constructing life support systems which require little or no input of matter (food and gases) for long, or even indefinite, periods of time is addressed. Natural control in ecosystems, a control theory for ecosystems, and an approach to the design of an ALSS are addressed.

  5. Electronic Performance Support Systems and Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) can provide alternative learning opportunities to supplement traditional classroom or training strategies. Today's students may benefit from educational settings and strategies that they will use in the future. In using EPSS to nurture the development of technological literacy, workers and students can…

  6. ROI Calculations for Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of calculating the return on investment (ROI) for electronic performance support systems, beginning with the practical issues of identifying what will be measured and then assigning costs and benefits to each variable in monetary terms. Suggests the challenge is in defining and quantifying the real business benefits.…

  7. Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…

  8. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  9. Patient specific identification of the cardiac driver function in a cardiovascular system model.

    PubMed

    Hann, C E; Revie, J; Stevenson, D; Heldmann, S; Desaive, T; Froissart, C B; Lambermont, B; Ghuysen, A; Kolh, P; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2011-02-01

    The cardiac muscle activation or driver function, is a major determinant of cardiovascular dynamics, and is often approximated by the ratio of the left ventricle pressure to the left ventricle volume. In an intensive care unit, the left ventricle pressure is usually never measured, and the left ventricle volume is only measured occasionally by echocardiography, so is not available real-time. This paper develops a method for identifying the driver function based on correlates with geometrical features in the aortic pressure waveform. The method is included in an overall cardiovascular modelling approach, and is clinically validated on a porcine model of pulmonary embolism. For validation a comparison is done between the optimized parameters for a baseline model, which uses the direct measurements of the left ventricle pressure and volume, and the optimized parameters from the approximated driver function. The parameters do not significantly change between the two approaches thus showing that the patient specific approach to identifying the driver function is valid, and has potential clinically. PMID:20621383

  10. Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Christine; Silliman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation cascades arise where primary foundation species facilitate secondary (dependent) foundation species, and collectively, they increase habitat complexity and quality to enhance biodiversity. Whether such phenomena occur in nonmarine systems and if secondary foundation species enhance food web structure (e.g., support novel feeding guilds) and ecosystem function (e.g., provide nursery for juveniles) remain unclear. Here we report on field experiments designed to test whether trees improve epiphyte survival and epiphytes secondarily increase the number and diversity of adult and juvenile invertebrates in a potential live oak-Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) facilitation cascade. Our results reveal that trees reduce physical stress to facilitate Tillandsia, which, in turn, reduces desiccation and predation stress to facilitate invertebrates. In experimental removals, invertebrate total density, juvenile density, species richness and H' diversity were 16, 60, 1.7, and 1.5 times higher, and feeding guild richness and H' were 5 and 11 times greater in Tillandsia-colonized relative to Tillandsia-removal limb plots. Tillandsia enhanced communities similarly in a survey across the southeastern United States. These findings reveal that a facilitation cascade organizes this widespread terrestrial assemblage and expand the role of secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic structure and ecosystem function. We conceptualize the relationship between foundation species' structural attributes and associated species abundance and composition in a Foundation Species-Biodiversity (FSB) model. Importantly, the FSB predicts that, where secondary foundation species form expansive and functionally distinct structures that increase habitat availability and complexity within primary foundation species, they generate and maintain hot spots of biodiversity and trophic interactions. PMID:24649658

  11. Feasibility demonstration of a variable frequency driver-microwave transient regression rate measurement system. [for solid propellant combustion response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of a system capable of rapidly and directly measuring the low-frequency (motor characteristics length bulk mode) combustion response characteristics of solid propellants has been investigated. The system consists of a variable frequency oscillatory driver device coupled with an improved version of the JPL microwave propellant regression rate measurement system. The ratio of the normalized regression rate and pressure amplitudes and their relative phase are measured as a function of varying pressure level and frequency. Test results with a well-characterized PBAN-AP propellant formulation were found to compare favorably with the results of more conventional stability measurement techniques.

  12. 1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  13. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must make rapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts of heterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficient method of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time. However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with the appropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and not become cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of a prototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support system are summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantly improves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulent conditions. Based on these results, design principles and implications for cockpit decision support systems using visualization are presented.

  14. Web-Based Learning Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lisa

    Web-based learning support system offers many benefits over traditional learning environments and has become very popular. The Web is a powerful environment for distributing information and delivering knowledge to an increasingly wide and diverse audience. Typical Web-based learning environments, such as Web-CT, Blackboard, include course content delivery tools, quiz modules, grade reporting systems, assignment submission components, etc. They are powerful integrated learning management systems (LMS) that support a number of activities performed by teachers and students during the learning process [1]. However, students who study a course on the Internet tend to be more heterogeneously distributed than those found in a traditional classroom situation. In order to achieve optimal efficiency in a learning process, an individual learner needs his or her own personalized assistance. For a web-based open and dynamic learning environment, personalized support for learners becomes more important. This chapter demonstrates how to realize personalized learning support in dynamic and heterogeneous learning environments by utilizing Adaptive Web technologies. It focuses on course personalization in terms of contents and teaching materials that is according to each student's needs and capabilities. An example of using Rough Set to analyze student personal information to assist students with effective learning and predict student performance is presented.

  15. Situational adapting system supporting team situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldin, Tove; Erlandsson, Tina; Niklasson, Lars; Falkman, Göran

    2010-10-01

    Military fighter pilots have to make suitable decisions fast in an environment where continuously increasing flows of information from sensors, team members and databases are provided. Not only do the huge amounts of data aggravate the pilots' decision making process: time-pressure, presence of uncertain data and high workload are factors that can worsen the performance of pilot decision making. In this paper, initial ideas of how to support the pilots accomplishing their tasks are presented. Results from interviews with two fighter pilots are described as well as a discussion about how these results can guide the design of a military fighter pilot decision support system, with focus on team cooperation.

  16. In-flight medical support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, C.; Rose, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The In-flight Medical Support System for Skylab was designed to provide the onboard Crew Physician or Scientist Pilot (or other crewmember if the Scientist Pilot was unable to act) with information adequate to make diagnostic assessment of those injuries or illnesses most likely to occur in the Skylab environment. The necessary diagnostic, therapeutic, and laboratory equipment needed to diagnose and to render first aid, resuscitative or supportive measures was stored in the Skylab Orbital Workshop. The resupply kit containing refrigerated laboratory and drug resupply items was stored in the Command Module.

  17. Apollo 14 flight support and system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 13 incident and subsequent oxygen tank redesign for Apollo 14 placed unique requirements on the flight support activity. A major part of this activity was the integration of the various analytical efforts into a single team function. Additionally, the first flight of the redesigned system without an orbital test required an extensive analytical base. The support team philosophy, objectives, and organization are presented. Various analytical tools that were used during the flight are discussed. Investigations made during the postflight period are considered and their impact upon subsequent flights shown.

  18. Supporting multiple control systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Fermilab control system, ACNET, is used for controlling the Tevatron and all of its pre-accelerators. However, other smaller experiments at Fermilab have been using different controls systems, in particular DOOCS and EPICS. This paper reports some of the steps taken at Fermilab to integrate support for these outside systems. We will describe specific tools that we have built or adapted to facilitate interaction between the architectures. We also examine some of the difficulties that arise from managing this heterogeneous environment. Incompatibilities as well as common elements will be described.

  19. Highway 61 Revisited: Finding Drivers for Hypoxia in Aquatic Systems in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, F., Jr.; Murdock, J. N.; Lizotte, R. E., Jr.; Knight, S. S.; Locke, M. A.; Testa, S., III

    2011-12-01

    Streams and lakes in the intensively cultivated Mississippi River alluvial plain frequently experience periods of hypoxia that are evidence of ecological stress. Although hydrologic perturbations and sediments and nutrients derived from nonpoint sources are likely drivers of these conditions, the most efficient pathway for obtaining partial ecological recovery (e.g., N load reduction or P load reduction or flow augmentation or erosion control) is not clear. To gain deeper understanding of these systems, three similar ~20 km2 watersheds in northwestern Mississippi were selected for study and instrumented for collection of hydrologic and water quality data in 2011. Aquatic systems within each watershed consisted of shallow natural lakes embedded in networks of sporadically flowing ditches, natural channels and wetlands, with hydrology strongly impacted by irrigation withdrawals from groundwater and return flows to surface water bodies. Waters were usually turbid, with mean Secchi disk readings 10-15 cm and mean suspended solids concentrations 200-600 mg/L. Strong diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) occurred even in the wetter, cooler winter months, with up to 50% of daily means below state standards (5 mg/L). The average diurnal range (daily max-daily min) in DO varied from 0.9 to 2.5 mg/L for lakes and from 1.7 to 6.0 mg/L for channels. Attendant extreme diurnal variations in temperature and pH were also observed. Observations of chlorophyll a concentrations, water column phytoplankton, and attached algae indicate the importance of algal photosynthesis and respiration to DO levels, but these processes are limited by light availability and N and P concentrations in a complex fashion. Light levels are governed by channel width, water depth and turbidity, which is due to suspended sediment and algae. Preliminary nutrient limitation studies showed both N and P limit algal growth, and microbial production and respiration. N and N+P co

  20. An Environmental Control and Life Support System Concept for a Pressurized Lunar Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Stambaugh, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized rovers can add many attractive capabilities to a human lunar exploration campaign, most notably by extending the reach of astronauts far beyond the immediate vicinities of lunar landers and fixed assets such as habitats. Effective campaigns will depend on an efficient allocation of environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment amongst mobile rovers and fixed habitats such that widespread and sustainable exploration can be achieved. This paper will describe some of the key drivers that influence the design of an ECLSS for a pressurized lunar rover and a conceptual design that has been formulated to address those drivers. Opportunities to realize programmatic and operational efficiencies through commonality of rover ECLSS and extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment have also been explored and will be described. Plans for the inclusion of ECLSS functionality in prototype lunar rovers will be summarized

  1. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems facing researchers in the design of a life support system is to construct it so that it will be capable of regulating waste materials and gases, while at the same time supporting the inhabitants with adequate food and oxygen. The basis of any gaseous life supporting cycle is autotrophs (plants that photosynthesize). The major problem is to get the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the animals to be equivalent to the assimilatory quotient (AQ) of the plants. A technique is being developed to control the gas exchange. The goal is to determine the feasibility of manipulating the plant's AQ by altering the plants environment in order to eliminate the mismatch between the plant's AQ and the animal's RQ.

  2. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  3. Decision support system for theater missile defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul; Burge, Janet; Popp, Ben

    2003-08-01

    Military services require C4I systems that support a full spectrum of operations. This is specifically relevant to the theatre missile defense (TMD) mission planning and analysis community where there have been several recent concept changes; advancements in information technology, sensors, and weapons; and expansion in the diversity and capabilities of potential adversaries. To fully support campaign development and analysis in this new environment, there is a need for systems and tools that enhance understanding of adversarial behavior, assess potential threat capabilities and vulnerabilities, perform C4I system trades, and provide methods to identify macro-level novel or emergent combat tactics and behavior derived from simpler micro-level rules. Such systems must also be interactive, collaborative, and semi-autonomous, providing the INTEL analyst with the means for exploration and potential exploitation of novel enemy behavior patterns. To address these issues we have developed an Intelligent Threat Assessment Processor (ITAP) to provide prediction and interpretation of enemy courses of actions (eCOAs) for the TMD domain. This system uses a combination of genetic algorithm-based optimization in tandem with the spatial analysis and visualization capabilities of a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) geographic information system to generate and evaluate potential eCOAs.

  4. Resonant acoustic transducer and driver system for a well drilling string communication system

    DOEpatents

    Chanson, Gary J.; Nicolson, Alexander M.

    1981-01-01

    The acoustic data communication system includes an acoustic transmitter and receiver wherein low frequency acoustic waves, propagating in relatively loss free manner in well drilling string piping, are efficiently coupled to the drill string and propagate at levels competitive with the levels of noise generated by drilling machinery also present in the drill string. The transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring piezoelectric transmitter and amplifier combination that permits self-oscillating resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  5. Light Machines Operator Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.

    1998-06-15

    The objective of this project was to create a multimedia operator performance support system (OPSS) shell that would provide a framework for delivering appropriate information to the student/novice machine tool user just when needed and in the most appropriate form. In addition, the program was designed so that it could be expanded and further developed by Light Machines personnel. The expertise of AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) in the areas of performance support system design and multimedia creation was employed to create the most user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) while providing access to key topical areas. Light Machines provided a subject matter expert from their technical services group in order to provide the needed information for structuring the OPSS shell. They also provided a Benchman VMC 4000 machine tool at the ASFM and T New Mexico location as well as specific instruction on the safe and effective use of that machine tool.

  6. Assessment of older drivers in New Zealand: the current system, research and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hoggarth, Petra; Innes, Carrie; Dalrymple-Alford, John; Croucher, Matthew; Severinsen, Julie; Gray, Jane; Oxley, Jenny; Brook, Barbara; Abernethy, Paul; Jones, Richard

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to clarify the current New Zealand driving licensing requirements for older adults and to provide practical recommendations for those health professionals who make decisions regarding driving ability in older adults. Health professionals involved in the assessment of older drivers were asked to clarify areas where more efficient use could be made of assessment resources. A review of driving literature was performed to find specific factors associated with increased risk of negative driving outcomes in older adults. Particular attention was paid to the suitability of different types of on-road assessment for certain patient groups, the effect of specific diseases and medications on driving safety, and the effect of cognitive impairment. A list of seven recommendations were compiled which include a focus on appropriate on-road driving assessment referral, driver refresher courses, cognitive screening for those presenting for licence renewal and sensitive broaching of the topic of driving cessation. PMID:21923709

  7. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, K.

    1985-01-01

    A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is needed which would convert waste water to usable water, waste products to food, and CO2 to O2 to permit long duration space flight. Algae, representing the autotroph, and mice, representing the heterotroph are placed together in a controlled, gas closed environment to examine the gas exchange rate of O2 and CO2. The eventual goal is to develop biological controls that can stabilize atmospheres.

  8. Computer systems to support census geography.

    PubMed

    Deecker, G; Cunningham, R; Kidd, K

    1986-01-01

    The development of computer systems that support the geography of the census in Canada is described. The authors "present proposals for the 1991 Census that increase the level of automation, whether the geography changes or not. In addition, opportunities for change and improvement, should the geography change, are outlined. To minimize the risks involved, it is important to give these different proposals serious consideration early in the planning of a census." PMID:12341362

  9. Graduated Driver Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  10. Clinical Decision Support Systems for Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Stephen C.

    1984-01-01

    This conference serves to further the state of the art in the application of computers to medical care via a forum for the intercommunication of ideas. Papers discuss the experiences of diverse research projects. It is the purpose of this article to review the major developments in ambulatory care decision support. From this vantage point, the major impediments to broad applicability of information systems are discussed. The DUCHESS Medical Information Management System is then described as a step towards overcoming these obstacles. Two distinct but often overlapping issues are the representation of the data and its subsequent manipulation: records vs. knowledge. The complexity of the medical record requires state-of-the-art computer science. Clinical decision support requires flexible means for representing medical knowledge and the ability to input “rules.” Artificial intelligence has provided tools for simulating the decision making processes. A sample of the major systems are contrasted and compared. In the realm of medical records COSTAR, TMR, SCAMP, HELP, and STOR are considered. In clinical decision support CADEUCUS, REGENSTRIEF, PKC, and DUCHESS are reviewed.

  11. Telescience Support Center Data System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    The Telescience Support Center (TSC) team has developed a databasedriven, increment-specific Data Require - ment Document (DRD) generation tool that automates much of the work required for generating and formatting the DRD. It creates a database to load the required changes to configure the TSC data system, thus eliminating a substantial amount of labor in database entry and formatting. The TSC database contains the TSC systems configuration, along with the experimental data, in which human physiological data must be de-commutated in real time. The data for each experiment also must be cataloged and archived for future retrieval. TSC software provides tools and resources for ground operation and data distribution to remote users consisting of PIs (principal investigators), bio-medical engineers, scientists, engineers, payload specialists, and computer scientists. Operations support is provided for computer systems access, detailed networking, and mathematical and computational problems of the International Space Station telemetry data. User training is provided for on-site staff and biomedical researchers and other remote personnel in the usage of the space-bound services via the Internet, which enables significant resource savings for the physical facility along with the time savings versus traveling to NASA sites. The software used in support of the TSC could easily be adapted to other Control Center applications. This would include not only other NASA payload monitoring facilities, but also other types of control activities, such as monitoring and control of the electric grid, chemical, or nuclear plant processes, air traffic control, and the like.

  12. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Supervised Driver-Training System in France

    PubMed Central

    Page, Yves; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Cuny, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of the French Apprentissage Anticipé de la Conduite (AAC), which is an optional initial driver training that seeks to reduce accident risk by novice drivers. The effectiveness of the AAC is estimated using a Case-Control study (521 Cases and 624 Controls) and the adjusted Odds ratio (AAC versus regular) from a multivariate logistic regression. Thirteen risk factors are retained as explanatory variables in the regression. An Odds ratio of 0.9 indicates a non-significant reduction in accident involvement of AAC participants in the two years following the acquisition of their driver’s license. The discussion addresses the possible reasons underlying the lack of result, e.g. an absence of varied experience during the AAC period and possible undesirable effects under supervision such as a partial delegation of responsibility for driving tasks by the young driver to the supervisor. Our recommendations include that AAC be integrated into a gradual licensing scheme, and should focus on the gradual acquisition of various driving experiences (in terms of variety of driving situations). PMID:15319122

  13. Decision-Support System for Mitigating Long-Term Flood Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H. R.; van Delden, H.; Newman, J. P.; Riddell, G. A.; Zecchin, A. C.; Dandy, G. C.; Newland, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term flood risk in urban areas is expected to increase as a result of a number of factors, such as an increase in the severity of flood events due to the impact of climate change and the exposure of a larger number of people to flooding as a result of population growth. In order to facilitate the development of long-term flood mitigation plans, a framework for a decision-support system (DSS) is presented in this paper. The framework consists of an integrated model (see Figure) consisting of dynamic, spatially distributed land-use and flood inundation models. It also enables the impact of various flood mitigation strategies to be assessed, such as spatial planning, land management, structural measures (e.g. levees, changes in building codes), and community education. The framework considers a number of external drivers that are represented in the form of long-term planning scenarios. These include the impact of climate drivers on the extent of flooding via the flood inundation model and the impact of population and economic drivers on the size and distribution of the population via the land use allocation model. Using this framework, a DSS is being developed and applied to the Greater Adelaide region of South Australia. This DSS includes an intuitive, user-friendly interface for enabling different planning scenarios and mitigation portfolios to be selected, as well as temporal changes in flood risk maps under each of these scenarios to be observed. Changes in flood risk maps are investigated over a 30-year period with climate drivers represented by different representative concentration pathways, population drivers represented by different population projections and economic drivers represented by different employment rates. The impact of different combinations of mitigation measures is also investigated. The results indicate that climate, population and economic drivers have a significant impact on the temporal evolution of flood risk for the case study area

  14. The VST secondary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Perrotta, F.; Molfese, C.; Caputi, O.; Ferragina, L.; Marty, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gallieni, D.; Fumi, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Lazzarini, P.; De Paris, G.

    2008-07-01

    The VST telescope is equipped with an active optics system based on a wavefront sensor, a set of axial actuators to change the primary mirror shape and a secondary mirror positioner stage. The secondary mirror positioning capability allows the correction of defocus and coma optical aberrations, mainly caused by incorrect relative positions of the optics. The secondary mirror positioner is a 6-6 Stewart platform (also called "hexapod"). It is a parallel robot with a mobile platform moved by 6 linear actuators acting simultaneously. This paper describes the secondary mirror support system and the current status of the work.

  15. Apollo portable life support system performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

  16. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    KSC-DE-512-SM establishes overall requirements and best design practices to be used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the development of ground systems (GS) in support of operations at launch, landing, and retrieval sites. These requirements apply to the design and development of hardware and software for ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F-GSS) used to support the KSC mission for transportation, receiving, handling, assembly, test, checkout, servicing, and launch of space vehicles and payloads and selected flight hardware items for retrieval. This standards manual supplements NASA-STD-5005 by including KSC-site-specific and local environment requirements. These requirements and practices are optional for equipment used at manufacturing, development, and test sites.

  17. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  18. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  19. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  20. JPSS Common Ground System Multimission Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA & NASA jointly acquire the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS contributes the afternoon orbit & restructured NPOESS ground system (GS) to replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system run by NOAA. JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere & space. The JPSS GS is the Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control, & Communications (C3S) and Interface Data Processing (IDPS) segments, both developed by Raytheon Intelligence, Information & Services (IIS). CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers its mission data between ground facilities and processes its data into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & Defense (DoD) weather centers. CGS will expand to support JPSS-1 in 2017. The JPSS CGS currently does data processing (DP) for S-NPP, creating multiple TBs/day across over two dozen environmental data products (EDPs). The workload doubles after JPSS-1 launch. But CGS goes well beyond S-NPP & JPSS mission management & DP by providing data routing support to operational centers & missions worldwide. The CGS supports several other missions: It also provides raw data acquisition, routing & some DP for GCOM-W1. The CGS does data routing for numerous other missions & systems, including USN's Coriolis/Windsat, NASA's SCaN network (including EOS), NSF's McMurdo Station communications, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and NOAA's POES & EUMETSAT's MetOp satellites. Each of these satellite systems orbits the Earth 14 times/day, downlinking data once or twice/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/second, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. Raytheon and the US government invested much in Raytheon's mission-management, command & control and data-processing products & capabilities. CGS's flexible

  1. Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

  2. A vision-based driver nighttime assistance and surveillance system based on intelligent image sensing techniques and a heterogamous dual-core embedded system architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system. PMID:22736956

  3. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  4. IGENPRO knowledge-based operator support system.

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, J. A.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development is being performed on the knowledge-based IGENPRO operator support package for plant transient diagnostics and management to provide operator assistance during off-normal plant transient conditions. A generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first-principles approach is being implemented using automated reasoning, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic to produce a generic T-H system-independent/plant-independent package. The IGENPRO package has a modular structure composed of three modules: the transient trend analysis module PROTREN, the process diagnostics module PRODIAG and the process management module PROMANA. Cooperative research and development work has focused on the PRODIAG diagnostic module of the IGENPRO package and the operator training matrix of transients used at the Braidwood Pressurized Water Reactor station. Promising simulator testing results with PRODIAG have been obtained for the Braidwood Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), and the Component Cooling Water System. Initial CVCS test results have also been obtained for the PROTREN module. The PROMANA effort also involves the CVCS. Future work will be focused on the long-term, slow and mild degradation transients where diagnoses of incipient T-H component failure prior to forced outage events is required. This will enhance the capability of the IGENPRO system as a predictive maintenance tool for plant staff and operator support.

  5. Hail Disrometer Array for Launch Systems Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Sharp, David W.; Kasparis, Takis C.; Doesken, Nolan J.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to launch, the space shuttle might be described as a very large thermos bottle containing substantial quantities of cryogenic fuels. Because thermal insulation is a critical design requirement, the external wall of the launch vehicle fuel tank is covered with an insulating foam layer. This foam is fragile and can be damaged by very minor impacts, such as that from small- to medium-size hail, which may go unnoticed. In May 1999, hail damage to the top of the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 required a rollback from the launch pad to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for repair of the insulating foam. Because of the potential for hail damage to the ET while exposed to the weather, a vigilant hail sentry system using impact transducers was developed as a hail damage warning system and to record and quantify hail events. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Hail Monitor System, a joint effort of the NASA and University Affiliated Spaceport Technology Development Contract (USTDC) Physics Labs, was first deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain. Hail, and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in conjunction with Colorado State University were and continue to be active in testing duplicate hail monitor systems at sites in the hail prone high plains of Colorado. The KSC Hail Monitor System (HMS), consisting of three stations positioned approximately 500 ft from the launch pad and forming an approximate equilateral triangle (see Figure 1), was deployed to Pad 39B for support of STS-115. Two months later, the HMS was deployed to Pad 39A for support of STS-116. During support of STS-117 in late February 2007, an unusual hail event occurred in the immediate vicinity of the exposed space shuttle and launch pad. Hail data of this event was collected by the HMS and analyzed. Support of STS-118 revealed another important application of the hail monitor system. Ground Instrumentation personnel check the hail monitors daily when a

  6. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  7. Laser driver

    SciTech Connect

    Culpepper, C.F.

    1989-03-14

    A laser driver for a laser diode is described, consisting of: an impedance matched input buffer amplifier to which a modulation signal is applied; and a current source coupled to the output of the impedance matched input buffer amplifier, the output of the current source providing an essentially constant amplitude a.c. current component coupled to drive the laser diode.

  8. Do not blame the driver: a systems analysis of the causes of road freight crashes.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia

    2015-03-01

    Although many have advocated a systems approach in road transportation, this view has not meaningfully penetrated road safety research, practice or policy. In this study, a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussens's (1997) risk management framework and associated Accimap technique, is applied to the analysis of road freight transportation crashes. Twenty-seven highway crash investigation reports were downloaded from the National Transport Safety Bureau website. Thematic analysis was used to identify the complex system of contributory factors, and relationships, identified within the reports. The Accimap technique was then used to represent the linkages and dependencies within and across system levels in the road freight transportation industry and to identify common factors and interactions across multiple crashes. The results demonstrate how a systems approach can increase knowledge in this safety critical domain, while the findings can be used to guide prevention efforts and the development of system-based investigation processes for the heavy vehicle industry. A research agenda for developing an investigation technique to better support the application of the Accimap technique by practitioners in road freight transportation industry is proposed. PMID:25645163

  9. Visual Support System for Report Distinctiveness Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Toshiaki

    In recent years, as the Internet has grown, electronic reports have come to be used in educational organizations such as universities. Though reports written by hand must be evaluated by hand except for stereotype descriptions or numerical answers, electronic reports can be rated by computer. There are two major criteria in rating reports, correctness and distinctiveness. Correctness is rated by absolute criteria and distinctiveness is rated by relative criteria. Relative evaluation is difficult because raters should memorize all contents of submitted reports to provide objective rates. In addition, electronic data are easily copied or exchanged by students. This paper presents a report evaluation support system with which raters can compare each report and give objective rates for distinctiveness. This system evaluates each report by objective similarity criteria and visualizes them in a two-dimensional interface as the calculated distinctiveness order. Experimental results show the system is valid and effective for estimating associations between reports.

  10. Repulsive force support system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    A new concept in magnetic levitation and control is introduced for levitation above a plane. A set of five vertical solenoid magnets mounted flush below the plane supports and controls the model in five degrees of freedom. The compact system of levitation coils is contained in a space 2.4 m (96 in) diameter by 1 m (40 in) deep with the top of the levitation system 0.9 m (36 in) below the center line of the suspended model. The levitated model has a permanent magnet core held in position by the five parallel superconductive solenoids symmetrically located in a circle. The control and positioning system continuously corrects for model position in five dimensions using computer current pulses superimposed on the levitation coil base currents. The conceptual designs include: superconductive and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet model cores and levitation solenoids of either superconductive, cryoresistive, or room temperature windings.

  11. An intelligent ground operator support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerlach, Thomas; Ohlendorf, Gerhard; Plassmeier, Frank; Bruege, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents first results of the project 'Technologien fuer die intelligente Kontrolle von Raumfahrzeugen' (TIKON). The TIKON objective was the demonstration of feasibility and profit of the application of artificial intelligence in the space business. For that purpose a prototype system has been developed and implemented for the operation support of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), a scientific spacecraft designed to perform the first all-sky survey with a high-resolution X-ray telescope and to investigate the emission of specific celestial sources. The prototype integrates a scheduler and a diagnosis tool both based on artificial intelligence techniques. The user interface is menu driven and provides synoptic displays for the visualization of the system status. The prototype has been used and tested in parallel to an already existing operational system.

  12. File System Support for Digital Evidence Bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Golden; Roussev, Vassil

    Digital Evidence Bags (DEBs) are a mechanism for bundling digital evidence, associated metadata and audit logs into a single structure. DEB-compliant applications can update a DEB's audit log as evidence is introduced into the bag and as data in the bag is processed. This paper investigates native file system support for DEBs, which has a number of benefits over ad hoc modification of digital evidence bags. The paper also describes an API for DEB-enabled applications and methods for providing DEB access to legacy applications through a DEB-aware file system. The paper addresses an urgent need for digital-forensics-aware operating system components that can enhance the consistency, security and performance of investigations.

  13. Hybrid modelling and damping collaborative optimisation of Five-suspensions for coupling driver-seat-cab system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Leilei; Zhou, Changcheng; Yu, Yuewei; Yang, Fuxing

    2016-05-01

    For the complex structure and vibration characteristics of coupling driver-seat-cab system of trucks, there is no damping optimisation theory for its suspensions at present, which seriously restricts the improvement of vehicle ride comfort. Thus, in this paper, the seat suspension was regarded as 'the fifth suspension' of cab, the 'Five-suspensions' for this system was proposed. Based on this, using the mechanism modelling method, a 4 degree-of-freedom coupling driver-seat-cab system model was presented; then, by the tested cab suspensions excitation and seat acceleration response, its parameters identification mathematical model was established. Based on this, taking optimal ride comfort as target, its damping collaborative optimisation mathematical model was built. Combining the tested signals and a simulation model with the mathematical models of parameters identification and damping collaborative optimisation, a complete flow of hybrid modelling and damping collaborative optimisation of Five-suspensions was presented. With a practical example of seat and cab system, the damping parameters were optimised and validated by simulation and bench test. The results show that the model and method proposed are correct and reliable, providing a valuable reference for the design of seat suspension and cab suspensions.

  14. Support system for pathologists and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takumi; Takahashi, Junko; Kasai, Mai; Shiina, Takayuki; Iijima, Yuka; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists’ burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD). Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. Methods: We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i) Loading virtual slides, (ii) making a supervised database, (iii) learning image features, (iv) detecting cancerous areas, (v) displaying results of detection. Results: P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Conclusions: Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research area. PMID

  15. Why Do Tropical Mountains Support Exceptionally High Biodiversity? The Eastern Arc Mountains and the Drivers of Saintpaulia Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Nogués-Bravo, David; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2012-01-01

    We combine information about the evolutionary history and distributional patterns of the genus Saintpaulia H. Wendl. (Gesneriaceae; ‘African violets’) to elucidate the factors and processes behind the accumulation of species in tropical montane areas of high biodiversity concentration. We find that high levels of biodiversity in the Eastern Arc Mountains are the result of pre-Quaternary speciation processes and environmental stability. Our results support the hypothesis that climatically stable mountaintops may have acted as climatic refugia for lowland lineages during the Pleistocene by preventing extinctions. In addition, we found evidence for the existence of lowland micro-refugia during the Pleistocene, which may explain the high species diversity of East African coastal forests. We discuss the conservation implications of the results in the context of future climate change. PMID:23185283

  16. Why do tropical mountains support exceptionally high biodiversity? The Eastern Arc mountains and the drivers of Saintpaulia diversity.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Nogués-Bravo, David; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2012-01-01

    We combine information about the evolutionary history and distributional patterns of the genus Saintpaulia H. Wendl. (Gesneriaceae; 'African violets') to elucidate the factors and processes behind the accumulation of species in tropical montane areas of high biodiversity concentration. We find that high levels of biodiversity in the Eastern Arc Mountains are the result of pre-Quaternary speciation processes and environmental stability. Our results support the hypothesis that climatically stable mountaintops may have acted as climatic refugia for lowland lineages during the Pleistocene by preventing extinctions. In addition, we found evidence for the existence of lowland micro-refugia during the Pleistocene, which may explain the high species diversity of East African coastal forests. We discuss the conservation implications of the results in the context of future climate change. PMID:23185283

  17. Model implementation for dynamic computation of system cost for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, J. A.; Vaccari, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Life support system designs for long-duration space missions have a multitude of requirements drivers, such as mission objectives, political considerations, cost, crew wellness, inherent mission attributes, as well as many other influences. Evaluation of requirements satisfaction can be difficult, particularly at an early stage of mission design. Because launch cost is a critical factor and relatively easy to quantify, it is a point of focus in early mission design. The method used to determine launch cost influences the accuracy of the estimate. This paper discusses the appropriateness of dynamic mission simulation in estimating the launch cost of a life support system. This paper also provides an abbreviated example of a dynamic simulation life support model and possible ways in which such a model might be utilized for design improvement. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  19. Machine Maintenance Integrated Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-11

    The objectives of this partnership project were to develop a preventive maintenance checklist program, a troubleshooting system for the Vertical Turning Center (VTC)-5, an on-line manual, and to integrate these components with a custom browser that would run on the VTC-5 machine's controller and would support future internet/intranet delivery. Kingsbury provided subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. They also provided photographs, schematics, and CAD drawings, which AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) digitized for use in the final program. Information from The Kingsbury troubleshooting experts were interviewed regarding symptoms and root causes of system malfunctions This knowledge was captured and from it, fault trees were developed. These trees were then incorporated into the EPSS as a troubleshooting tool. The troubleshooting portion of the system presents simple questions to the machine operator in order to determine the likely cause or causes of malfunctions and then recommends systematic corrective actions. The on-line reference manual, covering operations and maintenance, provides text and illustrations to the machine operator in a traditional structure, but additionally offers the capability to search voluminous amounts of technical data and retrieve specific information on request. The maintenance portion of the EPSS includes checklists that are displayed daily, weekly, monthly, and annually, as appropriate, on the VTC-5 controller screen. The controller software is unavailable for machining parts until the machine tool operator goes through and checks off all of the checklist items. This project provided the team with a detailed understanding of the knowledge and information required to produce and support advanced machine tools. In addition, it resulted in the design and construction of a prototype VTC-5 EPSS containing all the logic and interfaces necessary to integrate operations

  20. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Regenerative Life Support Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of topics related to the extended support of humans in space are covered. Overviews of research conducted in Japan, Europe, and the U.S. are presented. The methods and technologies required to recycle materials, especially respiratory gases, within a closed system are examined. Also presented are issues related to plant and algal productivity, efficiency, and processing methods. Computer simulation of closed systems, discussions of radiation effects on systems stability, and modeling of a computer bioregenerative system are also covered.

  1. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  2. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  3. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  4. Effect of In-Vehicle Audio Warning System on Driver's Speed Control Performance in Transition Zones from Rural Areas to Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuedong; Wang, Jiali; Wu, Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Speeding is a major contributing factor to traffic crashes and frequently happens in areas where there is a mutation in speed limits, such as the transition zones that connect urban areas from rural areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an in-vehicle audio warning system and lit speed limit sign on preventing drivers' speeding behavior in transition zones. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to establish a roadway network with the transition zone. A total of 41 participants were recruited for this experiment, and the driving speed performance data were collected from the simulator. The experimental results display that the implementation of the audio warning system could significantly reduce drivers' operating speed before they entered the urban area, while the lit speed limit sign had a minimal effect on improving the drivers' speed control performance. Without consideration of different types of speed limit signs, it is found that male drivers generally had a higher operating speed both upstream and in the transition zones and have a larger maximum deceleration for speed reduction than female drivers. Moreover, the drivers who had medium-level driving experience had the higher operating speed and were more likely to have speeding behaviors in the transition zones than those who had low-level and high-level driving experience in the transition zones. PMID:27347990

  5. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  6. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L.; Reina, Antonio J.; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

  7. Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

  8. Minnesota's Child Support System Fails To Meet Children's Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Kids Count, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue provides an evaluation of child support systems and services of the 87 counties in Minnesota. No county in the state collects enough to support children, child support is often late or not paid in full, children whose parents never married are especially dependent on the child support systems, and child support services vary…

  9. Creation of closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably

  10. Coronal Mass Ejections: the Most Powerful Drivers of the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-05-01

    A large Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) can consist of billions of tonnes of matter, along with entangled magnetic field, erupting from the Sun at speeds well over 1,000 km/s. These giant disruptions of the solar atmosphere drive the most destructive space weather at Earth and throughout the solar system. Furthermore, CMEs are the most dramatic example of how slowly-evolving processes on the Sun can conspire to produce explosive activity. Understanding their origin has long been a central objective for astrophysical research. This talk will present some of the latest observations and theories for CMEs and discuss the outstanding challenges to modeling and predicting their initiation. This work was supported in part by NASA and ONR.

  11. Activation of theMercury Laser System: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Driver for Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Beach, R J; Bibeau, C; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Kanz, V K; Payne, S A; Schaffers, K I; Skulina, K M; Smith, L K; Tassano, J B

    2001-09-10

    Initial measurements are reported for the Mercury laser system, a scalable driver for rep-rated inertial fusion energy. The performance goals include 10% electrical efficiency at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length. We report on the first Yb:S-FAP crystals grown to sufficient size for fabricating full size (4 x 6 cm) amplifier slabs. The first of four 160 kW (peak power) diode arrays and pump delivery systems were completed and tested with the following results: 5.5% power droop over a 0.75 ms pulse, 3.95 nm spectral linewidth, far field divergence of 14.0 mrad and 149.5 mrad in the microlensed and unmicrolensed directions respectively, and 83% optical-to-optical transfer efficiency through the pump delivery system.

  12. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  13. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  14. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  15. A new melanoma diagnosis active support system.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, R A; Dacquino, G; Laguteta, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the operational performance of a new MDASS (Melanoma Diagnosis Active Support System) prototype able to distil optimal knowledge from acquired data to automatically capture and reliably discriminate and quantify the stage of disease evolution. Automated classification dermatoscopical parameters can be divided into two main classes: Size Descriptor (point size, local, and global) and Intrinsic Descriptor (morphological, geometrical, chromatic, others). Usually elementary geometric shape robust and effective characterization, invariant to environment and optical geometry transformations, on a rigorous mathematical level is a key and computational intensive problem. MDASS uses GEOGINE (GEOmetrical enGINE), a state-of-the-art OMG (Ontological Model Generator) based on n-D Tensor Moment Invariants for shape/texture effective description. MDASS main results show robust disease classification procedure with distillation of minimal reference grids for pathological cases and they ultimately achieve effective early diagnosis of melanocytic lesion. System results are validated by carefully designed experiments with certified clinical reference database. Overall system operational performance is presented. Finally, MDASS error analysis and computational complexity are addressed and discussed. PMID:17270962

  16. Embedded systems for supporting computer accessibility.

    PubMed

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Fazio, Maria; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, customized AT software solutions allow their users to interact with various kinds of computer systems. Such tools are generally available on personal devices (e.g., smartphones, laptops and so on) commonly used by a person with a disability. In this paper, we investigate a way of using the aforementioned AT equipments in order to access many different devices without assistive preferences. The solution takes advantage of open source hardware and its core component consists of an affordable Linux embedded system: it grabs data coming from the assistive software, which runs on the user's personal device, then, after processing, it generates native keyboard and mouse HID commands for the target computing device controlled by the end user. This process supports any operating system available on the target machine and it requires no specialized software installation; therefore the user with a disability can rely on a single assistive tool to control a wide range of computing platforms, including conventional computers and many kinds of mobile devices, which receive input commands through the USB HID protocol. PMID:26294501

  17. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  18. Knowledge-based systems and NASA's software support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Tim; Carmody, Cora; Lennington, Kent; Nelson, Bob

    1990-01-01

    A proposed role for knowledge-based systems within NASA's Software Support Environment (SSE) is described. The SSE is chartered to support all software development for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP). This includes support for development of knowledge-based systems and the integration of these systems with conventional software systems. In addition to the support of development of knowledge-based systems, various software development functions provided by the SSE will utilize knowledge-based systems technology.

  19. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production. PMID:11541773

  20. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  1. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  2. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  3. Decision Support Systems in Diuresis Renography

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew; Manatunga, Amita; Garcia, Ernest V.

    2013-01-01

    The volume of diagnostic imaging studies performed in the United States is rapidly increasing resulting from an increase in the number of patients as well as an increase in the volume of studies per patient. Concurrently, the number and complexity of images in each patient data set are also increasing. Nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists are required to master an ever-expanding knowledge base whereas the hours available to master this knowledge base and apply it to specific tasks are steadily shrinking. The convergence of an expanding knowledge base and escalating time constraints increases the likelihood of physician errors. The problem is particularly acute for low-volume studies such as MAG3 diuresis renography where many imagers may have had limited training or experience. To address this problem, renal decision support systems (DSS) are being developed to assist physicians evaluate suspected obstruction in patients referred for diuresis renography. Categories of DSS include neural networks, case-based reasoning, expert systems and statistical systems; RENEX and CART are examples of renal DSS currently in development. RENEX (renal expert) uses a set of rules obtained from human experts to analyze a knowledge base of expanded quantitative parameters obtained from diuresis MAG3 scintigraphy whereas CART (classification and regression tree analysis) is a statistical method that grows and prunes a decision tree based on an analysis of these quantitative parameters in a training data set. RENEX can be queried to provide the reasons for its conclusions. Initial data show that the interpretations provided by RENEX and CART are comparable to the interpretations of a panel of experts blinded to clinical information. This project should serve as a benchmark for the scientific comparison and collaboration of these 2 fields of medical decision-making. Moreover, we anticipate that these DSS will better define the essential interpretative criteria, foster

  4. Supported liquid extraction (SLE) for the analysis of methylamphetamine, methylenedioxymethylamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid and blood of drivers.

    PubMed

    Rositano, Joanna; Harpas, Peter; Kostakis, Chris; Scott, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Since 2006, the South Australian Government has been conducting roadside oral fluid testing of drivers for the illicit drugs methylamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) using the Securetec Drugwipe II Twin and Alere DDS 805 AP saliva collection kit. Forensic Science South Australia carries out the confirmatory analysis by LC/MS for the positive test results of oral fluid roadside testing along with the pre-screened ELISA positive road traffic accident blood samples. The number of blood and oral fluid samples received in the laboratory has been steadily increasing during this time, and over 10,000 samples were received in 2014. The proportion of positive results from these samples has also been increasing over the decade of driver drug testing, and this data is presented. A simple and efficient method has been developed for the analysis of the three drugs using Biotage Isolute(®) SLE+ 96-well plates. Sample preparation included 1:1 dilution with a dilute ammonia solution for buffered oral fluids (1:3 dilution for blood samples), and addition of deuterated internal standards. Samples were loaded onto the phase, left to absorb for 5min then eluted with methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The samples were evaporated and reconstituted in methanol. LC/MS analysis was performed on an AB Sciex 5500 Q-Trap in positive ion mode, monitoring 3 transitions for each analyte. Separation was achieved on a Restek Ultrabiphenyl 50×2.1mm column with a gradient system of acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid over 5min. Method validation and recoveries were carried out on drug free ante mortem blood and DDS buffer solution provided by Alere, Australia. Recoveries above 80% were achieved for MA and MDMA at a concentration of 25ng/mL, whilst recoveries of greater than 65% were achieved for THC at 4.5ng/mL. Accuracy and precision were acceptable down to the LLOQ for all three analytes (5, 5 and 1ng/mL for MA, MDMA and THC, respectively). Mean

  5. Earning a driver's license.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F

    1997-01-01

    Teenage drivers in the United States have greatly elevated crash rates, primarily a result of qualities associated with immaturity and lack of driving experience. State licensing systems vary substantially, but most have allowed quick and easy access to driving with full privileges at a young age, contributing to the crash problem. Formal driver education has not been an effective crash prevention measure. Following the introduction of graduated licensing in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada, this system has been considered in many states and has been implemented in some. Graduated systems phase in full privilege driving, requiring initial experience to be gained under conditions of lower risk. The author describes the first five multistage graduated systems enacted in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Factors that will influence the acceptability and effectiveness of these new licensing systems are discussed. Images p[452]-a p454-a p456-a p457-a p460-a PMID:10822470

  6. A Support Database System for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge F.; Turowski, Mark; Morris, John

    2007-01-01

    The development, deployment, operation and maintenance of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) applications require the storage and processing of tremendous amounts of low-level data. This data must be shared in a secure and cost-effective manner between developers, and processed within several heterogeneous architectures. Modern database technology allows this data to be organized efficiently, while ensuring the integrity and security of the data. The extensibility and interoperability of the current database technologies also allows for the creation of an associated support database system. A support database system provides additional capabilities by building applications on top of the database structure. These applications can then be used to support the various technologies in an ISHM architecture. This presentation and paper propose a detailed structure and application description for a support database system, called the Health Assessment Database System (HADS). The HADS provides a shared context for organizing and distributing data as well as a definition of the applications that provide the required data-driven support to ISHM. This approach provides another powerful tool for ISHM developers, while also enabling novel functionality. This functionality includes: automated firmware updating and deployment, algorithm development assistance and electronic datasheet generation. The architecture for the HADS has been developed as part of the ISHM toolset at Stennis Space Center for rocket engine testing. A detailed implementation has begun for the Methane Thruster Testbed Project (MTTP) in order to assist in developing health assessment and anomaly detection algorithms for ISHM. The structure of this implementation is shown in Figure 1. The database structure consists of three primary components: the system hierarchy model, the historical data archive and the firmware codebase. The system hierarchy model replicates the physical relationships between

  7. Design and implementation of fast bipolar clock drivers for CCD imaging systems in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarajan, Jayesh; Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Amarnath; Thaker, Ramkrishna

    2016-05-01

    Drive electronics for generating fast, bipolar clocks, which can drive capacitive loads of the order of 5-10nF are indispensable for present day Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). Design of these high speed bipolar clocks is challenging because of the capacitive loads that have to be driven and a strict constraint on the rise and fall times. Designing drive electronics circuits for space applications becomes even more challenging due to limited number of available discrete devices, which can survive in the harsh radiation prone space environment. This paper presents the design, simulations and test results of a set of such high speed, bipolar clock drivers. The design has been tested under a thermal cycle of -15 deg C to +55 deg C under vacuum conditions and has been designed using radiation hardened components. The test results show that the design meets the stringent rise/fall time requirements of 50+/-10ns for Multiple Vertical CCD (VCCD) clocks and 20+/-5ns for Horizontal CCD (HCCD) clocks with sufficient design margins across full temperature range, with a pixel readout rate of 6.6MHz. The full design has been realized in flexi-rigid PCB with package volume of 140x160x50 mm3.

  8. Linking plant disease risk and precipitation drivers: a dynamical systems framework.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sally; Levin, Simon; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens often respond sensitively to changes in their environmental conditions and consequently represent a potentially important ecological response to global change. Although several studies have considered the effects of increased temperature and CO(2) concentrations on plant pathogen risk, the effects of changing precipitation regimes have drawn less attention. Many classes of plant pathogen, however, are sensitive to changes in the water potential of their local environment. This study applied existing ecohydrological frameworks to connect precipitation, soil, and host properties with scenarios of pathogen risk, focusing on two water-sensitive pathogens: Phytophthora cinnamomi and Botryosphaeria doithidea. Simple models were developed to link the dynamics of these pathogens to water potentials. Model results demonstrated that the risk of host plants being colonized by the pathogens varied sensitively with soil and climate. The model was used to predict the distribution of Phytophthora in Western Australia and the severity of disease in horticultural blueberry trials with variable irrigation rates, illustrating potential applications of the framework. Extending the modeling framework to include spatial variation in hydrology, epidemic progression, and feedbacks between pathogens and soil moisture conditions may be needed to reproduce detailed spatial patterns of disease. At regional scales, the proposed modeling approach provides a tractable framework for coupling climatic drivers to ecosystem response while accounting for the probabilistic and variable nature of disease. PMID:23234853

  9. On-road experiment to assess drivers' detection of roadside targets as a function of headlight system, target placement, and target reflectance.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Ian J; Brumbelow, Matt; Frischmann, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Adaptive headlights swivel with steering input to keep the beams on the roadway as drivers negotiate curves. To assess the effects of this feature on driver's visual performance, a field experiment was conducted at night on a rural, unlit, and unlined two-lane road during which 20 adult participant drivers searched a set of 60 targets. High- (n=30) and low- (n=30) reflectance targets were evenly distributed on straight road sections and on the inside or outside of curves. Participants completed three target detection trials: once with adaptive high-intensity discharge (HID) headlights, once with fixed HID headlights, and once with fixed halogen headlights. Results indicated the adaptive HID headlights helped drivers detect targets that were most difficult to see (low reflectance) at the points in curves found by other researchers to be most crucial for successful navigation (inside apex). For targets placed on straight stretches of road or on the outside of curves, the adaptive feature provided no significant improvement in target detection. However, the pattern of results indicate that HID lamps whether fixed or adaptive improved target detection somewhat, suggesting that part of the real world crash reduction measured for this adaptive system (Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2012a) may be due to the differences in the light source (HID vs. halogen). Depending on the scenario, the estimated benefits to driver response time associated with the tested adaptive (swiveling HID) headlights ranged from 200 to 380ms compared with the fixed headlight systems tested. PMID:25603548

  10. Support System for Mental Health Professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks of support systems for mental health professionals wherein the Bombay Psychiatric Society (BPS) should devote some meetings exclusively to problems pertaining to the profession, e.g., long and odd working hours leading to potentially hazardous practice schedules, unhealthy competitive attitudes and culture. A crash course in self-defence against potentially psychotic patients and drug addicts is advocated as also awareness of the potential hazards in dealing with the litigious paranoid patients, erotomaniacs and some of the difficult hysterical patients. Potential medicolegal problems arise in treating an uncooperative patient without his knowledge and consent on an outpatient department basis, admitting such an uncooperative patient to a nursing home or a hospital, administering electroconvulsive therapies, maintaining detailed clinical records of patients, and legal issues involving smaller psychiatric private nursing homes. This paper stresses on the use of Yoga as a recognised psycho-physiological therapy. Furthermore, it suggests on the need for BPS, as a professional body, to have a cell to guide and help aspiring young professionals in setting up private practice. It points out the need to evolve some concrete programmes that in the long run should help alleviate stresses and strains and promote positive comprehensive health amongst mental health professionals. PMID:25838730

  11. Support system for mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks of support systems for mental health professionals wherein the Bombay Psychiatric Society (BPS) should devote some meetings exclusively to problems pertaining to the profession, e.g., long and odd working hours leading to potentially hazardous practice schedules, unhealthy competitive attitudes and culture. A crash course in self-defence against potentially psychotic patients and drug addicts is advocated as also awareness of the potential hazards in dealing with the litigious paranoid patients, erotomaniacs and some of the difficult hysterical patients. Potential medicolegal problems arise in treating an uncooperative patient without his knowledge and consent on an outpatient department basis, admitting such an uncooperative patient to a nursing home or a hospital, administering electroconvulsive therapies, maintaining detailed clinical records of patients, and legal issues involving smaller psychiatric private nursing homes. This paper stresses on the use of Yoga as a recognised psycho-physiological therapy. Furthermore, it suggests on the need for BPS, as a professional body, to have a cell to guide and help aspiring young professionals in setting up private practice. It points out the need to evolve some concrete programmes that in the long run should help alleviate stresses and strains and promote positive comprehensive health amongst mental health professionals. PMID:25838730

  12. The Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program is to develop systems composed of biological, chemical and physical components for purposes of human life support in space. The research activities supported by the program are diverse, but are focused on the growth of higher plants, food and waste processing, and systems control. Current concepts associated with the development and operation of a bioregenerative life support system will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Novel bioartificial liver support system: preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patzer, J F; Mazariegos, G V; Lopez, R; Molmenti, E; Gerber, D; Riddervold, F; Khanna, A; Yin, W Y; Chen, Y; Scott, V L; Aggarwal, S; Kramer, D J; Wagner, R A; Zhu, Y; Fulmer, M L; Block, G D; Amiot, B P

    1999-06-18

    Preclinical safety and efficacy evaluation of a novel bioartificial liver support system (BLSS) was conducted using a D-galactosamine canine liver failure model. The BLSS houses a suspension of porcine hepatocytes in a hollow fiber cartridge with the hepatocytes on one side of the membrane and whole blood flowing on the other. Porcine hepatocytes harvested by a collagenase digestion technique were infused into the hollow fiber cartridge and incubated for 16 to 24 hours prior to use. Fifteen purpose-bred male hounds, 1-3 years old, 25-30 kg, were administered a lethal dose, 1.5 g/kg, of D-galactosamine. The animals were divided into three treatment groups: (1b) no BLSS treatment (n = 6); (2b) BLSS treatment starting at 24-26 h post D-galactosamine (n = 5); and (2c) BLSS treatment starting at 16-18 h post D-galactosamine (n = 4). While maintained under isoflurane anesthesia, canine supportive care was guided by electrolyte and invasive physiologic monitoring consisting of arterial pressure, central venous pressure, extradural intracranial pressure (ICP), pulmonary artery pressure, urinary catheter, and end-tidal CO2. All animals were treated until death or death-equivalent (inability to sustain systolic blood pressure > 80 mmHg for 20 minutes despite massive fluid resuscitation and/or dopamine administration), or euthanized at 60 hours. All animals developed evidence of liver failure at 12-24 hours as evidenced by blood pressure lability, elevated ICP, marked hepatocellular enzyme elevation with microscopic massive hepatocyte necrosis and cerebral edema, elevated prothrombin time, and metabolic acidosis. Groups 2b and 2c marginally prolong survival compared with Group 1b (pairwise log rank censored survival time analysis, p = 0.096 and p = 0.064, respectively). Since survival times for Groups 2b and 2c are not significantly different (p = 0.694), the groups were combined for further statistical analysis. Survival times for the combined active treatment Groups 2b and

  14. A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

    2013-11-01

    A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based

  15. A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

    2013-08-01

    A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based

  16. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  17. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  18. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  19. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  20. Modeling driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication considering driver run tendency and roadway surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Elhenawy, Mohammed; Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham A; El-Shawarby, Ihab

    2015-10-01

    The ability to model driver stop/run behavior at signalized intersections considering the roadway surface condition is critical in the design of advanced driver assistance systems. Such systems can reduce intersection crashes and fatalities by predicting driver stop/run behavior. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper offers two contributions. First, it introduces a new predictor related to driver aggressiveness and demonstrates that this measure enhances the modeling of driver stop/run behavior. Second, it applies well-known artificial intelligence techniques including: adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random forest, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms as well as traditional logistic regression techniques on the data in order to develop a model that can be used by traffic signal controllers to predict driver stop/run decisions in a connected vehicle environment. The research demonstrates that by adding the proposed driver aggressiveness predictor to the model, there is a statistically significant increase in the model accuracy. Moreover the false alarm rate is significantly reduced but this reduction is not statistically significant. The study demonstrates that, for the subject data, the SVM machine learning algorithm performs the best in terms of optimum classification accuracy and false positive rates. However, the SVM model produces the best performance in terms of the classification accuracy only. PMID:26225822

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  2. Hydrological drivers of record-setting water level rise on Earth's largest lake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Bruxer, J.; Durnford, D.; Smith, J. P.; Clites, A. H.; Seglenieks, F.; Qian, S. S.; Hunter, T. S.; Fortin, V.

    2016-05-01

    Between January 2013 and December 2014, water levels on Lake Superior and Lake Michigan-Huron, the two largest lakes on Earth by surface area, rose at the highest rate ever recorded for a 2 year period beginning in January and ending in December of the following year. This historic event coincided with below-average air temperatures and extensive winter ice cover across the Great Lakes. It also brought an end to a 15 year period of persistently below-average water levels on Lakes Superior and Michigan-Huron that included several months of record-low water levels. To differentiate hydrological drivers behind the recent water level rise, we developed a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine for inferring historical estimates of the major components of each lake's water budget. Our results indicate that, in 2013, the water level rise on Lake Superior was driven by increased spring runoff and over-lake precipitation. In 2014, reduced over-lake evaporation played a more significant role in Lake Superior's water level rise. The water level rise on Lake Michigan-Huron in 2013 was also due to above-average spring runoff and persistent over-lake precipitation, while in 2014, it was due to a rare combination of below-average evaporation, above-average runoff and precipitation, and very high inflow rates from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River. We expect, in future research, to apply our new framework across the other Laurentian Great Lakes, and to Earth's other large freshwater basins as well.

  3. Operating Systems Support for Advanced Programming Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiatowicz, John

    2012-10-29

    As machines grow in scale and complexity, techniques to make the most effective use of network, memory, and processor resources will also become increasingly important. Programming models that rely on one-sided communication or global address space support have demonstrated advantages for productivity and performance, but they are most effective when used with proper OS support. We propose to develop OS and runtime support for programming models like UPC, GA, Charm++, and HPCS languages, which rely on one-sided communication. Rather than a full OS model, we envision applications bundled with only the necessary OS functions linked in to the application in user space -- relying on the hypervisor for protaction, resource sharing, and mangagement of Quality of Service guarantees. Our services will include support for remote reads and writes to memory, along with remote active message handlers, which are essential for support of fast noncontiguous memory operations, atomic operations, and event-driven applications.

  4. Drivers of Emerging Infectious Disease Events as a Framework for Digital Detection

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sarah H.; Benedum, Corey M.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Preston, Nicholas D.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Joly, Damien O.

    2015-01-01

    The growing field of digital disease detection, or epidemic intelligence, attempts to improve timely detection and awareness of infectious disease (ID) events. Early detection remains an important priority; thus, the next frontier for ID surveillance is to improve the recognition and monitoring of drivers (antecedent conditions) of ID emergence for signals that precede disease events. These data could help alert public health officials to indicators of elevated ID risk, thereby triggering targeted active surveillance and interventions. We believe that ID emergence risks can be anticipated through surveillance of their drivers, just as successful warning systems of climate-based, meteorologically sensitive diseases are supported by improved temperature and precipitation data. We present approaches to driver surveillance, gaps in the current literature, and a scientific framework for the creation of a digital warning system. Fulfilling the promise of driver surveillance will require concerted action to expand the collection of appropriate digital driver data. PMID:26196106

  5. Drivers of Emerging Infectious Disease Events as a Framework for Digital Detection.

    PubMed

    Olson, Sarah H; Benedum, Corey M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Preston, Nicholas D; Mazet, Jonna A K; Joly, Damien O; Brownstein, John S

    2015-08-01

    The growing field of digital disease detection, or epidemic intelligence, attempts to improve timely detection and awareness of infectious disease (ID) events. Early detection remains an important priority; thus, the next frontier for ID surveillance is to improve the recognition and monitoring of drivers (antecedent conditions) of ID emergence for signals that precede disease events. These data could help alert public health officials to indicators of elevated ID risk, thereby triggering targeted active surveillance and interventions. We believe that ID emergence risks can be anticipated through surveillance of their drivers, just as successful warning systems of climate-based, meteorologically sensitive diseases are supported by improved temperature and precipitation data. We present approaches to driver surveillance, gaps in the current literature, and a scientific framework for the creation of a digital warning system. Fulfilling the promise of driver surveillance will require concerted action to expand the collection of appropriate digital driver data. PMID:26196106

  6. Operational cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.

  7. Decision Technology Systems: A Vehicle to Consolidate Decision Making Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of management decision making and the support needed to manage successfully highlights a Decision Technology System (DTS) that integrates other information systems. Topics discussed include computer information systems (CISs); knowledge gateways; the decision-making process; decision support systems (DSS); expert systems; and facility…

  8. Automated support for pharmacovigilance: a proposed system.

    PubMed

    Bright, Roselie A; Nelson, Robert C

    2002-03-01

    Governments, manufacturers, and other entities are interested in adverse event surveillance of marketed medical products. FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research redesigned the post-marketing adverse reaction surveillance process to use the advantages of new technology. As part of this effort, a 'Pharmacovigilance Working Group' designed a new strategy for the review and analyses of adverse event reports received by FDA. It created requirements which divided signal detection into five tiers: (1) Single 'urgent' reports would be sent to reviewers' workstations nightly for immediate attention. Reviewers would be able to customize definitions of 'urgent' (events that should not wait for aggregate review). (2) Single urgent reports would be placed in a context matrix containing historical counts of similar events to aid in initial interpretation. (3) In this first level of aggregate review, graphical displays would highlight patterns within all the reports, both urgent and non-urgent, and (4) periodic drug-specific tabled-based reports would display the newly received reports across a pre-defined variety of displays. These four tiers would produce passive and criteria-based results which would be presented to safety reviewers' electronic workstations. (5) Active query capabilities (routine, such as age, sex, and year distributions, as well as ad hoc) would be available for exploring alerted issues. The historical database would be migrated into the new format. All historical and new reaction data would be coded with the new MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) scheme. The strategy was to design a full data capture system which effectively exploits current computing advances and technical performance to automate many aspects of initial adverse event review, supporting more efficient and effective clinical assessment of safety signals. PMID:11998536

  9. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  10. Using systems thinking to support clinical system transformation.

    PubMed

    Best, Allan; Berland, Alex; Herbert, Carol; Bitz, Jennifer; van Dijk, Marlies W; Krause, Christina; Cochrane, Douglas; Noel, Kevin; Marsden, Julian; McKeown, Shari; Millar, John

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Clinical Care Management initiative was used as a case study to better understand large-scale change (LSC) within BC's health system. Using a complex system framework, the purpose of this paper is to examine mechanisms that enable and constrain the implementation of clinical guidelines across various clinical settings. Design/methodology/approach - Researchers applied a general model of complex adaptive systems plus two specific conceptual frameworks (realist evaluation and system dynamics mapping) to define and study enablers and constraints. Focus group sessions and interviews with clinicians, executives, managers and board members were validated through an online survey. Findings - The functional themes for managing large-scale clinical change included: creating a context to prepare clinicians for health system transformation initiatives; promoting shared clinical leadership; strengthening knowledge management, strategic communications and opportunities for networking; and clearing pathways through the complexity of a multilevel, dynamic system. Research limitations/implications - The action research methodology was designed to guide continuing improvement of implementation. A sample of initiatives was selected; it was not intended to compare and contrast facilitators and barriers across all initiatives and regions. Similarly, evaluating the results or process of guideline implementation was outside the scope; the methods were designed to enable conversations at multiple levels - policy, management and practice - about how to improve implementation. The study is best seen as a case study of LSC, offering a possible model for replication by others and a tool to shape further dialogue. Practical implications - Recommended action-oriented strategies included engaging local champions; supporting local adaptation for implementation of clinical guidelines; strengthening local teams to guide implementation; reducing

  11. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    PubMed

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system. PMID:26141907

  12. Nuclear reactor heat transport system component low friction support system

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1980-01-01

    A support column for a heavy component of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor heat transport system which will deflect when the pipes leading coolant to and from the heavy component expand or contract due to temperature changes includes a vertically disposed pipe, the pipe being connected to the heavy component by two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles and the pipe being supported through two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles, each of the cylindrical surfaces bearing on a flat and horizontal surface.

  13. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  14. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ebanyat, Peter; de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J; Bekunda, Mateete A; Giller, Ken E

    2010-07-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems' sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the

  15. A Study on Support System for Distributed Simulation System of Manufacturing Systems Using HLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Hironori; Fukuda, Yoshiro

    In this paper, we firstly describe outlines of the developed distributed simulation system using HLA and the developed synchronization method in the past. We clarify requirement contrivances of the user support system. We explain requirement functions of the user support system that is premised on using the developed distributed simulation system and the developed synchronization method. We propose and develop the user support system. The case study was then carried out to evaluate the performance of the cooperative work.

  16. Teaching Driver Education Technology to Novice Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anthony

    A cybernetic unit in driver education was developed to help grade 10 students develop the skills needed to acquire and process driver education information and prepare for the driving phase of driver education in grade 11. Students used a simulator to engage in a series of scenarios designed to promote development of social, behavioral, and mental…

  17. Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short

  18. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise

  19. Desicion Support System For Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilov, E.

    2009-04-01

    recommendations should be reasonable. To resolve the above problems or to make them less significant it is necessary to develop decision support systems (DSS). DMs need not tables with initial data, analytical, forecasting and climatic information, but messages containing warnings on critical value accidence, information on probability of hazards, information on potential losses, and information on hazardous impacts and recommendations on decision making. DSS can do the following: take into account impacts on specific points and on the total area under consideration; allow for the effects of the environment on economic entities (objects) in any geographical region to be analyzed; distinguish impacts and changes caused both by different phenomena and by their combination; signal when objects are or can be in adverse environmental conditions, e.g. in the area affected by fog, storm, tropical cyclone or in the area where the probability of hazardous ice events is very high, etc. The main component of DSS is a knowledge base based on the following concept: if we know environmental conditions it is possible to predict potential impacts on the economy; if we know impacts it is possible to give a set of recommendations on how to prevent (reduce) losses or how to use natural resources most efficiently. Decision making criteria are safety of people and property, reduction of losses, increase of profit, materials saving, etc. Knowledge base is a set of rules formulated in a formalized way using if, that, else. If "Water level in S.-Petersburg >150 cm" that "To give out warning information "Hazards for building on coastal river Neva is possible" and recommendations "The valuable goods carry out in second floor" else "To switch another rule". To have a knowledge base in place it is necessary to: develop tools of identifying and getting knowledge from experts; arrange the information flow from available information systems (operational data, analyses, forecasts, climatic information) through

  20. A portable life support system for use in mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The portable life support system described in this paper represents a potential increase in the probability of survival for miners who are trapped underground by a fire or explosion. The habitability and life support capability of the prototype shelter have proved excellent. Development of survival chamber life support systems for wide use in coal mines is definitely within the capabilities of current technology.

  1. Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS): Making the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jardins, Susan; Davis, Harry, Jr.

    An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is a computerized system designed to increase productivity by supporting the performance of the worker on demand at the time of need. This way, workers are allowed to perform with a minimum of intervention from others. Popular examples of performance support tools, or partially implemented EPSSs,…

  2. Analysis of a Ubiquitous Performance Support System for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Hsiu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Chen, Shih-Hsuan; Huang, Shen-Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Ubiquitous Performance Support System for Teachers (UPSST) and its implementation model. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) were used as the platform to support high-school teachers. Based on concepts of Electronic Performance Support Systems and design-based research, the authors conducted an iterative process of analysis,…

  3. Special Issue: Decision Support and Knowledge-Based Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohr, Edward A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Six papers dealing with decision support and knowledge based systems are presented. Five of the papers are concerned in some way with the use of artificial intelligence techniques in individual or group decision support. The sixth paper presents empirical results from the use of a group decision support system. (CLB)

  4. Support Afferentation as the System of Proprioreception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, I.; Grigoriev, A.; Shenkman, B.

    2008-06-01

    Results of studies of phenomenology and nature of the hypogravitational motor syndrome, provided at the Institute of Biomedical Problems of the RAS, point out to important role in its development of the withdrawal of the support and, accordingly the decrease of the intensity of the support afferentation activities that provokes a decline of the muscle tone in the first phase and the development of atrophic processes in slow fibers of antigravitational muscles in the second one. The subjects exposed to the pure dry immersion (DI) environment revealed after exposition a significant decline of the transverse stiffness and of the maximal isokinetic force of the leg postural muscles, a significant decrease of the absolute force of m.soleus single skinned fibers evoked by Ca++, and an obvious decline of their transverse cross-sectional areas. Mechanical stimulation of the soles support zones eliminated all the above effects.

  5. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  6. Support Systems and Women of the Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are social beings endowed with intrinsic and extrinsic capabilities and a desire to seek and receive social support from one another. The extent to which this action takes place varies as people move farther away from their familiar environment to new locations. Many immigrant women have traveled far and wide in search of "better…

  7. An Intergenerational Support System for Child Welfare Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Children's Aid Society of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, called Intergenerational Support System (ISS), in which senior volunteers serve as support persons for problem families. (SAK)

  8. Evaluation of key driver categories influencing sustainable waste management development with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP): Serbia example.

    PubMed

    Tot, Bojana; Srđević, Bojan; Vujić, Bogdana; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares; Vujić, Goran

    2016-08-01

    The problems of waste management have become increasingly complex in recent decades. The increasing amount of generated waste, adopted legislation in the field of waste management, administrative issues, economic impacts and social awareness are important drivers in achieving a sustainable waste management system. However, in practice, there are many other drivers that are often mutually in conflict. The purpose of this research is to define the precise driver and their corresponding sub-drivers, which are relevant for developing a waste management system and, on the basis of their importance, to determine which has the predominant influence on the slow development of a waste management system at the national and regional level, within the Republic of Serbia and similar countries of southeast Europe. This research presents two levels of decision making: the first is a pair-wise comparison of the drivers in relation to the goal and the second is a pair-wise comparison of the sub-drivers in relation to the driver and in relation to the goal. Results of performed analyses on the waste management drivers were integrated via the decision-making process supported by an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The final results of this research shows that the Institutional-Administrative driver is the most important for developing a sustainable waste management system. PMID:27288689

  9. Changing human-ecological relationships and drivers using the Quesungual agroforestry system in western Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual Agroforestry System (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The his...

  10. Structural analysis of FAST reflector supporting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y. F.; Deng, C. G.; Li, G. Q.; He, Y. M.

    According to the deformation and movement requirements of the FAST reflector, a multi-purpose analysis, including the load-bearing behavior, deformation, construction costs of the reflector supporting structure and its model, is presented in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of steel and aluminum alloy structures are also discussed and compared through detailed design calculations under load-bearing capacity and normal working conditions.

  11. Disentangling the drivers of soil organic matter decay as temperature changes by integrating reductionist systems with soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Sharon; Ballantyne, Ford, IV; Min, Kyungjin; Lehmeier, Christoph; Ziegler, Susan

    2014-05-01

    soil microbes exhibited no change in resource demand or C allocation with altered C:N flow ratios and if relative C availability was tightly coupled to respiration, we would expect variation in C:N flow ratios predicted by purified solutions to be expressed in analogous, relative patterns of C mineralization. However, the positive response of heterotrophic CO2 release to similar temperature increases in five strongly acidic forest soils (three boreal, one cool temperate, and one warm temperate) was much smaller than in a neutral-pH grassland or an alkaline desert, the opposite of what we might predict if C:N flow ratio was the only driver of respiratory responses to temperature. We also observe distinct d13C of CO2 respired from pure cultures in which substrate composition and availability are strictly controlled as temperature changes, reflecting fundamental shifts in C flux through metabolic pathways. These changes in d13C-CO2 with warming are greater than those observed in soils. Combined, these CO2 and d13C-CO2 data suggest that soil microbial adaptation to temperature is a meaningful driver of heterotrophic respiratory responses to temperature. We highlight the utility of reductionist experimental systems for characterizing fundamental SOM decay rates and changes in microbial C metabolism at different temperatures, and integrating them with analogous data derived from soils to quantify the role of microbial adaptation as a driver of SOM decay.

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  14. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1) of... October 1, 2000, each State must have in effect an operational computerized support enforcement system... plans to use and how they will interface with the base system; (3) Provide documentation that...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  16. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  17. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  18. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  19. Description and operating performance of a parallel-rail electric-arc system with helium driver gas for the Langley 6-inch expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A parallel-rail arc-discharge system to heat and pressurize the initial helium driver gas of the Langley 6-inch expansion tube is described. This system was designed for a 2.44-m-long driver vessel rated at 138 MPa, with a distance between rails of 20.3 cm. Electric energy was obtained from a capacitor storage system rated at 12,000 V with a maximum energy of 5 MJ. Tests were performed over a range of energy from 1.74 MJ to the maximum value. The operating experience and system performance are discussed, along with results from a limited number of expansion-tube tests with air and carbon dioxide as test gases.

  20. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  1. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND TRAFFIC DECK - Hagerstown Road Bridge, Spanning Little Cotoctin Creek at Old Hagerstown Road, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  2. Information systems support for OR product standardization.

    PubMed

    Faetanini, C

    1994-02-01

    A critical reason why many healthcare institutions cannot effectively standardize OR products is that they cannot access necessary information. An OR information system that manages, tracks and generates documentation on OR inventory is an important answer to implementing change. At least four key areas any information system should address in order to make standardization a reality are 1) clinical preference, 2) supplying a changing case mix, 3) product usage data and 4) vendor performance. OR information systems operate on various hardware platforms. Users have more software choices than ever before, because connectivity issues have been effectively solved through the development of standard electronic transaction sets. PMID:10131895

  3. Database system support for simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This report addresses database system issues arising in the design, implementation and execution of queuing simulation experiments. The primary goal is to identify new features for inclusion in a custom database system implemented using an extensible database system. Simulation data is first identified as a distinct subset of scientific data. An overview of the experimental process is then presented along with a survey of related simulation environments. A queuing simulation paradigm is described in detail in order to identify the distinguishing characteristics of queuing simulation data and the modes of manipulation. This is the basis for a traditional ER/Relational implementation, which in turn serves as the focus of a complete simulation environment. Difficulties encountered in the use of traditional implementation tools motivate the custom database system extensions. 37 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  5. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  6. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  7. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  8. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  9. Global positioning system supported pilot's display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Erdogan, Temel; Schwalb, Andrew P.; Curley, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware, software, and operation of the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) Flight Inspection System Pilot's Display is discussed. The Pilot's Display is used in conjunction with flight inspection tests that certify the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System used at Space Shuttle landing facilities throughout the world. The Pilot's Display was developed for the pilot of test aircraft to set up and fly a given test flight path determined by the flight inspection test engineers. This display also aids the aircraft pilot when hazy or cloud cover conditions exist that limit the pilot's visibility of the Shuttle runway during the flight inspection. The aircraft position is calculated using the Global Positioning System and displayed in the cockpit on a graphical display.

  10. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  11. A survey of life support system automation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory K.

    1993-01-01

    The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

  12. Web Tutorials on Systems Thinking Using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    This set of tutorials provides an overview of incorporating systems thinking into decision-making, an introduction to the DPSIR framework as one approach that can assist in the decision analysis process, and an overview of DPSIR tools, including concept mapping and keyword lists,...

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the peripheral nervous system is a significant driver of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Inceoglu, Bora; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite intensive effort and resulting gains in understanding the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, limited success in therapeutic approaches have been attained. A recently identified, nonchannel, nonneurotransmitter therapeutic target for pain is the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The sEH degrades natural analgesic lipid mediators, epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs), therefore its inhibition stabilizes these bioactive mediators. Here we demonstrate the effects of EpFAs on diabetes induced neuropathic pain and define a previously unknown mechanism of pain, regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The activation of ER stress is first quantified in the peripheral nervous system of type I diabetic rats. We demonstrate that both pain and markers of ER stress are reversed by a chemical chaperone. Next, we identify the EpFAs as upstream modulators of ER stress pathways. Chemical inducers of ER stress invariably lead to pain behavior that is reversed by a chemical chaperone and an inhibitor of sEH. The rapid occurrence of pain behavior with inducers, equally rapid reversal by blockers and natural incidence of ER stress in diabetic peripheral nervous system (PNS) argue for a major role of the ER stress pathways in regulating the excitability of the nociceptive system. Understanding the role of ER stress in generation and maintenance of pain opens routes to exploit this system for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26150506

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the peripheral nervous system is a significant driver of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Inceoglu, Bora; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Haj, Fawaz G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-07-21

    Despite intensive effort and resulting gains in understanding the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, limited success in therapeutic approaches have been attained. A recently identified, nonchannel, nonneurotransmitter therapeutic target for pain is the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The sEH degrades natural analgesic lipid mediators, epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs), therefore its inhibition stabilizes these bioactive mediators. Here we demonstrate the effects of EpFAs on diabetes induced neuropathic pain and define a previously unknown mechanism of pain, regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The activation of ER stress is first quantified in the peripheral nervous system of type I diabetic rats. We demonstrate that both pain and markers of ER stress are reversed by a chemical chaperone. Next, we identify the EpFAs as upstream modulators of ER stress pathways. Chemical inducers of ER stress invariably lead to pain behavior that is reversed by a chemical chaperone and an inhibitor of sEH. The rapid occurrence of pain behavior with inducers, equally rapid reversal by blockers and natural incidence of ER stress in diabetic peripheral nervous system (PNS) argue for a major role of the ER stress pathways in regulating the excitability of the nociceptive system. Understanding the role of ER stress in generation and maintenance of pain opens routes to exploit this system for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26150506

  15. Drivers of Learning Management System Use in a South African Open and Distance Learning Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Peet; van Rensburg, Mari Jansen; Davis, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    The study on which this article reports examined the determinants of usage of an online learning management system (LMS) by fourth level business students at a South African open and distance learning university using an extension of the widely used technology acceptance model (TAM) as a theoretical basis. A survey was conducted among students at…

  16. Vision-based multi-scaled vehicle detection and distance relevant mix tracking for driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qin; Yang, Jianyu; Zhai, Yuqiang; Kong, Lingjiang

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to improve the robustness of vision-based multi-scaled vehicle detection and tracking for an actual driver assistance system. Considering the problem of discontinuity of detection and tracking for multi-scaled vehicles especially in an ultra-close area, we propose a novel detection framework which concludes short-range local feature (license plate) detection and long-range skeleton detection. Specially, the rear license plate can be located accurately by introducing a multi-scaled morphological operator and analyzing the color information. Then, vehicles in a long supervising range can be detected with a Look-up Table-based AdaBoost classifier synchronically. Finally, an inverse perspective mapping-based tracking strategy is proposed to unite the location results in the framework. It is proved to make up the leak vehicle detection in the near supervising area and improve the robustness of tracking. The accuracy of license-based detection and the robust mix tracking have both been testified in several groups of experiments.

  17. A PowerPC-based control system for the Read-Out-Driver module of the ATLAS IBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; D'Antone, I.; Dopke, J.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Gabrielli, A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Heim, T.; Joseph, J.; Krieger, N.; Kugel, A.; Morettini, P.; Neumann, M.; Polini, A.; Schroer, N.; Rizzi, M.; Travaglini, R.; Zannoli, S.; Zoccoli, A.

    2012-02-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC planned to upgrade the existing Pixel Detector with the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called Insertable B-layer (IBL). A new front-end ASIC has been foreseen (named FE-I4) and it will be read out with improved off-detector electronics. In particular, the new Read-Out Driver card (ROD) is a VME-based board designed to process a four-fold data throughput. Moreover, the ROD hosts the electronics devoted to control operations whose main tasks are providing setup busses to access configuration registers on several FPGAs, receiving configuration data from external PCs, managing triggers and running calibration procedures. In parallel with a backward-compatible solution with a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), a new ROD control circuitry with a PowerPC embedded into an FPGA has been implemented. In this paper the status of the PowerPC-based control system will be outlined with major focus on firmware and software development strategies.

  18. Development of a portable life support system and emergency life support pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The design, development, and fabrication of a feasibility model of a breathing bag life support system for extravehicular activity are discussed. The breathing vest and back pack portable life support system contains connectors which allow external water and gas supply. At a metabolic rate of 2000 BTU per hour, the two low pressure bottles provide 27 minutes of breathing gas for a total filled system weight of 30.5 pounds.

  19. Support for Quality Assurance in End-User Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Robert; McKenna, Edward G.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests an approach that organizations can take to provide centralized support services for quality assurance in end-user information systems, based on the experiences of a support group at Citicorp Mortgage, Inc. The functions of the support group include user education, software selection, and assistance in testing, implementation, and support…

  20. 45 CFR 302.85 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement system. 302.85 Section 302.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE...

  1. Using Collaborative Authoring To Develop a Hypermedia Performance Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjahjono, Benny; Greenough, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Considers the need of factory workers for support in rapidly changing tasks and suggests that electronic performance support systems can reduce training time, can be updated many times as procedures change, and can allow those with relevant manufacturing expertise to create electronic procedures that support shop floor workers more effectively.…

  2. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  3. Teleradiology as a driver for regional-scale, multi-organizational, high-volume telehealth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Carroll, Mark; Holcomb, Michael J.; Frost, Meryll M.; Yonsetto, Pete; Schwarz, Ron; Haber, Kai

    2003-05-01

    Many regions face a crucial shortage of radiologists, especially in rural areas. In 2001 the Navajo Area Indian Health Service issued an RFP for teleradiology services. The University of Arizona department of Radiology received the contract and worked with Navajo Area service units to create an effective teleradiology service while overcoming challenges of communications infrastructure and multiple organizational boundaries. Department personnel worked with Navajo Area to design and implement new high-speed communications infrastructure on Navajo lands to support teleradiology services. This deployment was completed in the Spring of 2002. Each Area service unit is essentially an independent organization and maintains separate information about patients. This creates a complex, multi-organizational information environment. The case volume for teleradiology, including three sites other than the Navajo Areas, is at approximately 2,000 cases per month. Teleradiology is a routine part of the work flow at the university and is increasingly becoming integrated into the work flow at the rural sites. We have found teleradiology to be extremely effective in addressing the problems of medically underserved areas. Multi-organizational operation presents challenges for electronic integration requiring collaboration from appropriate clinical and technical personnel. The multi-organizational factor also benefits from an evolutionary approach with gradually increasing integration.

  4. Mental Health System Transformation: Drivers for Change, Organizational Preparation, Engaging Partners and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Corring, Deborah J; Whittall, Sandy; MustinPowell, Jill; Jarmain, Sarah; Chapman, Patty; Sussman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    St. Joseph's Health Care London (hereafter referred to as St. Joseph's) is a publicly funded hospital that has led mental health (MH) service system transformation in south west Ontario following directives from the Health Services Restructuring Commission (HSRC) (Sinclair 2000). This paper documents how provincial policy; HSRC directives; use of change management activities; organizational planning; and partnerships with other hospitals, community agencies and LHINs drove, shaped and accomplished the transformational change. The transformation included divestment of beds and related ambulatory services to four other hospitals, closure of beds and employment services and the construction of two state-of-the-art facilities. This paper documents the tracking of system performance measures and the outcomes that resulted. PMID:26854541

  5. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  6. PILOT: An intelligent distributed operations support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Arthur N.

    1993-01-01

    The Real-Time Data System (RTDS) project is exploring the application of advanced technologies to the real-time flight operations environment of the Mission Control Centers at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The system, based on a network of engineering workstations, provides services such as delivery of real time telemetry data to flight control applications. To automate the operation of this complex distributed environment, a facility called PILOT (Process Integrity Level and Operation Tracker) is being developed. PILOT comprises a set of distributed agents cooperating with a rule-based expert system; together they monitor process operation and data flows throughout the RTDS network. The goal of PILOT is to provide unattended management and automated operation under user control.

  7. Bioregenerative Life Support System Research as part of the DLR EDEN Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul; Poulet, Lucie; Zeidler, Conrad

    In 2011, the DLR Institute of Space Systems launched a research initiative called EDEN - Evolution and Design of Environmentally-closed Nutrition-Sources. The research initiative focuses on bioregenerative life support systems, especially greenhouse modules, and technologies for future crewed vehicles. The EDEN initiative comprises several projects with respect to space research, ground testing and spin-offs. In 2014, EDEN’s new laboratory officially opened. This new biological cleanroom laboratory comprises several plant growth chambers incorporating a number of novel controlled environment agriculture technologies. This laboratory will be the nucleus for a variety of plant cultivation experiments within closed environments. The utilized technologies are being advanced using the pull of space technology and include such items as stacked growth systems, PAR-specific LEDs, intracanopy lighting, aeroponic nutrient delivery systems and ion-selective nutrient sensors. The driver of maximizing biomass output per unit volume and energy has much application in future bioregenerative life support systems but can also provide benefit terrestrially. The EDEN laboratory also includes several specially constructed chambers for advancing models addressing the interaction between bioregenerative and physical-chemical life support systems. The EDEN team is presently developing designs for containerized greenhouse modules. One module is planned for deployment to the German Antarctic Station, Neumayer III. The shipping container based system will provide supplementation to the overwintering crew’s diet, provide psychological benefit while at the same time advancing the technology and operational readiness of harsh environment plant production systems. In addition to hardware development, the EDEN team has participated in several early phase designs such as for the ESA Greenhouse Module for Space System and for large-scale vertical farming. These studies often utilize the

  8. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  9. Crop Simulation Models and Decision Support Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first computer simulation models for agricultural systems were developed in the 1970s. These early models simulated potential production for major crops as a function of weather conditions, especially temperature and solar radiation. At a later stage, the water component was added to be able to ...

  10. Mars Rover system loopwheel definition support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of the loopwheel suspension system for use on a Mars roving vehicle was analyzed. Various steering concepts were evaluated and an optimum concept was identified on the basis of maximum probability of mission success. In the structural analysis of the loopwheel core and tread as the major fatigue critical components, important technology areas were identified.

  11. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  12. 42 CFR 441.555 - Support system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reporting critical events. (xiv) Information about an advocate or advocacy systems available in the State... an individual before enrollment. (b) Provides appropriate information, counseling, training, and... information must be communicated to the individual in a manner and language understandable by the...

  13. 42 CFR 441.555 - Support system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reporting critical events. (xiv) Information about an advocate or advocacy systems available in the State... an individual before enrollment. (b) Provides appropriate information, counseling, training, and... information must be communicated to the individual in a manner and language understandable by the...

  14. 42 CFR 441.555 - Support system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reporting critical events. (xiv) Information about an advocate or advocacy systems available in the State... an individual before enrollment. (b) Provides appropriate information, counseling, training, and... information must be communicated to the individual in a manner and language understandable by the...

  15. Supporting Continuous Improvement in California's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Plank, David N.

    2015-01-01

    California's new accountability system originated in the radical decentralization of power and authority from Sacramento to local schools and their communities brought about by the Legislature's adoption of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) in 2013. Under California's previous accountability policies and the federal "No Child Left…

  16. A support architecture for reliable distributed computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Partha; Leblanc, Richard J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Clouds project is well underway to its goal of building a unified distributed operating system supporting the object model. The operating system design uses the object concept of structuring software at all levels of the system. The basic operating system was developed and work is under progress to build a usable system.

  17. Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  18. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal. PMID:26314050

  19. Radio-frequency-quadrupole linac in a heavy ion fusion driver system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Stokes, R.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of linear accelerator, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. The RFQ accelerator can be adapted to any high-current applications. A recent experimental test carried out at the Los Alamos Scienific Laboratory (LASL) has demonstrated the outstandig properties of RFQ systems. The test linac accepts a 30-mA proton beam of 100-keV energy and focuses, bunches, and accelerates the beam to an energy to 640 keV. This ia done in a length of 1.1 m, with a transmission efficiency of 87% and with a radial emittance growth of less than 60%. The proven capability of the RFQ linac, when extended to heavy ion acceleration, should provide an ideal technique for use in the low-velocity portion of a heavy-ion linac for inertial-confinement fusion. A specific concept for such an RFQ-based system is described.

  20. [Moving Mirror Scanning System Based on the Flexible Hinge Support].

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance. PMID:26672322

  1. Licensing Support Network: An Electronic Discovery System

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, A. V.; Jensen, D.; McKinnon, B.

    2002-02-26

    The necessary authorization for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to submit a License Application (LA) is contingent upon the policy process defined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended (NWPA), with some steps yet to occur. In spite of this uncertainty, the DOE must take prudent and appropriate action now, and over the next several years, to prepare for submittal of an application and to facilitate the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review of this application, if the Yucca Mountain site is recommended and approved for repository development. One of these steps the DOE has taken involves working with the NRC's Advisory Review Panel to develop Licensing Support Network (LSN) requirements and guidelines. The NRC has made a prototype of the LSN web page available at www.LSNNET.gov. The OCRWM part of the LSN currently has an indefinite life cycle and may need to remain in existence until the repository is closed, which could be as long as 325 years.

  2. Cable support systems for longwall gate road stability

    SciTech Connect

    Tadolini, S.C.; Trackemas, J.D.; Jensen, K.L.

    1995-11-01

    The US Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with the Cyprus-Plateau Mining Company, has conducted research to provide an alternative to traditional secondary support systems in a two-entry, yield pillar gate road. As recent as two years ago, it was impossible to imagine a gate road supported solely with internal high-strength resin-grouted cable supports that would virtually eliminate the necessity for crib or concrete external supports. The support system evaluated consisted of 1.6-m (5-ft) full-column resin-grouted bolts and 4.8-m (16-ft) long cable supports installed in conjunction with wire mesh and ``monster-mats.`` Cable loading and roof deformations were monitored to evaluate the behavior of the immediate and main roofs during first and second panel extractions. The stress and loading histories for the panels and yield pillar were monitored to evaluate the stress transfer and pillar performance in conjunction with the roof and floor behavior. The test results indicated that the designed support system successfully maintained the roof during the extraction of two longwall panels and dramatically reduced the cost of secondary support. This paper will describe the theory of a cribless support system, the advantages of cable supports, and present the pillar, roof, and floor measurements made to assess the support performance during longwall retreat mining.

  3. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  4. Status of frequency and time support for NASA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhnle, Paul F.; Kushmeider, Paul J.; Wardrip, S. Clark

    1994-01-01

    NASA has frequency and timing systems at many facilities and centers. Timing systems with specifications tighter than several microseconds are covered. These ground based systems support scientific experiments and spacecraft tracking for the following programs; NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (NSLR); Network Mission Operations Support (NMOS); Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI); Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ground Terminal Network; and the Deep Space Network (DSN). Major equipment assemblies, specifications, performance, and requirements, both present and future, are presented.

  5. System Administration Support/SWORDS G2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) rocket is a dedicated small satellite launcher that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow soldiers in the field to put payloads of up to 25kg into orbit from the field. The SWORDSG2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the SWORDS rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. In addition, observation of the current cryogenic fluid delivery system in the Kennedy Space Center Cry Lab has allowed me to gain valuable experience of fluid systems and propelant delivery that is valuable to our team when developing amd modeling our own system.The ultimate goal of having a test-ready application to show to the heads of the project, and demonstrating G2's capabilities, by late 2014 will require hard work and intense study and understanding of not only the programming aspect but also the physical phenomena we want to model, observe, and control.

  6. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Teacher. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching and learning. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Teacher Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all teachers improve. Through the Model, the goal is to help create a…

  7. PEGASUS: Designing a System for Supporting Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Pombortsis, Andreas; Karatasios, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the design and first results of the integration of a web-based system person-centred group-activity support system (PEGASUS) in university instruction, as a means for advancing person-centred learning by supporting group activity. The PEGASUS is expected to help students and teachers in two distinct…

  8. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  9. Automation and Accountability in Decision Support System Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    When the human element is introduced into decision support system design, entirely new layers of social and ethical issues emerge but are not always recognized as such. This paper discusses those ethical and social impact issues specific to decision support systems and highlights areas that interface designers should consider during design with an…

  10. A Performance Evaluation System for Professional Support Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Helm, Virginia M.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a conceptual framework for a professional support personnel (e.g., counselors, deans, librarians) performance evaluation system. Outlines steps in evaluating support personnel (identifying system needs, relating program expectations to job responsibilities, selecting performance indicators, setting job performance standards, documenting…

  11. Clouds: A support architecture for fault tolerant, distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Leblanco, R. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Clouds is a distributed operating system providing support for fault tolerance, location independence, reconfiguration, and transactions. The implementation paradigm uses objects and nested actions as building blocks. Subsystems and applications that can be supported by Clouds to further enhance the performance and utility of the system are also discussed.

  12. A Comparative Study of Electronic Performance Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) deliver relevant support information to users while they are performing tasks. The present study examined the effect of different types of EPSS on user performance, attitudes, system use and time on task. Employees at a manufacturing company were asked to complete a procedural software task and…

  13. Understanding how drivers learn to anticipate risk on the road: A laboratory experiment of affective anticipation of road hazards.

    PubMed

    Kinnear, Neale; Kelly, Steve W; Stradling, Stephen; Thomson, James

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether there is evidence that converging theories from the domains of risk and decision making, neuroscience, and psychology can improve our understanding of how drivers learn to appraise on-the-road hazards. Within the domain of decision making it is suggested that there are two distinct ways in which humans appraise risk: risk as feelings and risk as analysis. Meanwhile, current neurological theory, in the form of the Somatic Marker Hypothesis, supports the role of feelings and emotion as an evolved automated system of human risk appraisal that biases judgment and decision making. This study used skin conductance responses (SCRs) to measure learner, novice and experienced drivers' psycho-physiological responses to the development of driving hazards. Experienced drivers were twice as likely to produce an SCR to developing hazards as novice drivers and three times as likely when compared with learner drivers. These differences maintained significance when age, gender and exposure were controlled for. Further analysis revealed that novice drivers who had less than 1000 miles driving experience had anticipatory physiological responses similar to learner drivers, whereas novices who had driven more than 1000 miles had scores approaching those of experienced drivers. This demonstrated a learning curve mediated by driving experience supporting experiential learning as proposed within the Somatic Marker Hypothesis. A differentiation between cognitive and psycho-physiological responses was also found supporting theory that distinguishes between conscious and non-conscious risk appraisal. PMID:22963999

  14. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  15. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

  16. GCS support/development system configuration document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.

    1990-01-01

    The software programming environment used in the development of Guidance and Control Software (GCS) implementations used in a software error studies experiment conducted by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the NASA-Langley is described. The Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines are fulfilled, and requirements for document number 9 in which the hardware, software, and processes used to develop and maintain the software for the GCS project are described. The software programming environment for GCS largely consists of tools that are included in Digital Equipment Corporations software layered product library or are a part of the VAX/VMS baseline system.

  17. Dynamic drivers of a shallow-water hydrothermal vent ecogeochemical system (Milos, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Sievert, Stefan; Giovanelli, Donato; Foustoukos, Dionysis; DeForce, Emelia; Thomas, François; Vetriani, Constantino; Le Bris, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal vents share many characteristics with their deep-sea analogs. However, despite ease of access, much less is known about the dynamics of these systems. Here, we report on the spatial and temporal chemical variability of a shallow-water vent system at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece, and on the bacterial and archaeal diversity of associated sandy sediments. Our multi-analyte voltammetric profiles of dissolved O2 and hydrothermal tracers (e.g. Fe2+, FeSaq, Mn2+) on sediment cores taken along a transect in hydrothermally affected sediments indicate three different areas: the central vent area (highest temperature) with a deeper penetration of oxygen into the sediment, and a lack of dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+; a middle area (0.5 m away) rich in dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+ (exceeding 2 mM) and high free sulfide with potential for microbial sulfide oxidation as suggested by the presence of white mats at the sediment surface; and, finally, an outer rim area (1-1.5 m away) with lower concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+ and higher signals of FeSaq, indicating an aged hydrothermal fluid contribution. In addition, high-frequency temperature series and continuous in situ H2S measurements with voltammetric sensors over a 6-day time period at a distance 0.5 m away from the vent center showed substantial temporal variability in temperature (32 to 46 ºC ) and total sulfide (488 to 1329 µM) in the upper sediment layer. Analysis of these data suggests that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Despite substantial variability, the concentration of sulfide available for chemoautotrophic microbes remained high. These findings are consistent with the predominance of Epsilonproteobacteria in the hydrothermally influenced sediments Diversity and metagenomic analyses on sediments and biofilm collected along a transect from the center to the outer rim of the vent provide further insights on

  18. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  19. Drivers of Vaginal Drug Delivery System Acceptability from Internet-Based Conjoint Analysis.

    PubMed

    Primrose, Rachel J; Zaveri, Toral; Bakke, Alyssa J; Ziegler, Gregory R; Moskowitz, Howard R; Hayes, John E

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides potentially empower women to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially when culture, religion, or social status may prevent them from negotiating condom use. The open literature contains minimal information on factors that drive user acceptability of women's health products or vaginal drug delivery systems. By understanding what women find to be most important with regard to sensory properties and product functionality, developers can iteratively formulate a more desirable product. Conjoint analysis is a technique widely used in market research to determine what combination of elements influence a consumer's willingness to try or use a product. We applied conjoint analysis here to better understand what sexually-active woman want in a microbicide, toward our goal of formulating a product that is highly acceptable to women. Both sensory and non-sensory attributes were tested, including shape, color, wait time, partner awareness, messiness/leakage, duration of protection, and functionality. Heterosexually active women between 18 and 35 years of age in the United States (n = 302) completed an anonymous online conjoint survey using IdeaMap software. Attributes (product elements) were systematically presented in various combinations; women rated these combinations of a 9-point willingness-to-try scale. By coupling systematic combinations and regression modeling, we can estimate the unique appeal of each element. In this population, a multifunctional product (i.e., broad spectrum STI protection, coupled with conception) is far more desirable than a microbicide targeted solely for HIV protection; we also found partner awareness and leakage are potentially strong barriers to use. PMID:26999009

  20. Drivers of Vaginal Drug Delivery System Acceptability from Internet-Based Conjoint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Primrose, Rachel J.; Zaveri, Toral; Bakke, Alyssa J.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Moskowitz, Howard R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides potentially empower women to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially when culture, religion, or social status may prevent them from negotiating condom use. The open literature contains minimal information on factors that drive user acceptability of women’s health products or vaginal drug delivery systems. By understanding what women find to be most important with regard to sensory properties and product functionality, developers can iteratively formulate a more desirable product. Conjoint analysis is a technique widely used in market research to determine what combination of elements influence a consumer’s willingness to try or use a product. We applied conjoint analysis here to better understand what sexually-active woman want in a microbicide, toward our goal of formulating a product that is highly acceptable to women. Both sensory and non-sensory attributes were tested, including shape, color, wait time, partner awareness, messiness/leakage, duration of protection, and functionality. Heterosexually active women between 18 and 35 years of age in the United States (n = 302) completed an anonymous online conjoint survey using IdeaMap software. Attributes (product elements) were systematically presented in various combinations; women rated these combinations of a 9-point willingness-to-try scale. By coupling systematic combinations and regression modeling, we can estimate the unique appeal of each element. In this population, a multifunctional product (i.e., broad spectrum STI protection, coupled with conception) is far more desirable than a microbicide targeted solely for HIV protection; we also found partner awareness and leakage are potentially strong barriers to use. PMID:26999009

  1. Conceptual design of data acquisition and control system for two Rf driver based negative ion source for fusion R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Jigensh; Yadav, R. K.; Patel, A.; Gahlaut, A.; Mistry, H.; Parmar, K. G.; Mahesh, V.; Parmar, D.; Prajapati, B.; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2013-02-01

    Twin Source - An Inductively coupled two RF driver based 180 kW, 1 MHz negative ion source experimental setup is initiated at IPR, Gandhinagar, under Indian program, with the objective of understanding the physics and technology of multi-driver coupling. Twin Source [1] (TS) also provides an intermediate platform between operational ROBIN [2] [5] and eight RF drivers based Indian test facility -INTF [3]. A twin source experiment requires a central system to provide control, data acquisition and communication interface, referred as TS-CODAC, for which a software architecture similar to ITER CODAC core system has been decided for implementation. The Core System is a software suite for ITER plant system manufacturers to use as a template for the development of their interface with CODAC. The ITER approach, in terms of technology, has been adopted for the TS-CODAC so as to develop necessary expertise for developing and operating a control system based on the ITER guidelines as similar configuration needs to be implemented for the INTF. This cost effective approach will provide an opportunity to evaluate and learn ITER CODAC technology, documentation, information technology and control system processes, on an operational machine. Conceptual design of the TS-CODAC system has been completed. For complete control of the system, approximately 200 Nos. control signals and 152 acquisition signals are needed. In TS-CODAC, control loop time required is within the range of 5ms - 10 ms, therefore for the control system, PLC (Siemens S-7 400) has been chosen as suggested in the ITER slow controller catalog. For the data acquisition, the maximum sampling interval required is 100 micro second, and therefore National Instruments (NI) PXIe system and NI 6259 digitizer cards have been selected as suggested in the ITER fast controller catalog. This paper will present conceptual design of TS -CODAC system based on ITER CODAC Core software and applicable plant system integration processes.

  2. Infrastructure support for Clinical Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, Greg, A.

    2007-06-15

    Executive Summary: For the past 5 years, Adventist Health has been implementing a clinical information system, titled Project IntelliCare, throughout its 19 hospitals. To successfully do this, a commitment was made to ensure continuous availability of vital patient health information to the local hospitals. This commitment required a centralized data center with sufficient capacity and a backup data center to be used in case of technical software or natural disaster where interruptions could occur. The DOE grant provided financial assistance to purchase equipment to increase the capacity of an existing data center, along with purchase of more sophisticated software for the data center thus providing a reduction in time that information is unavailable to the local hospitals when hardware or software problems occur. Relative to public good, this translates into increased safety and convenience for the patients we serve because their electronic medical records are current and available a higher percentage of the time.

  3. Risk Interfaces to Support Integrated Systems Analysis and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Shelhamer, Mark; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives for systems analysis capability: Develop integrated understanding of how a complex human physiological-socio-technical mission system behaves in spaceflight. Why? Support development of integrated solutions that prevent unwanted outcomes (Implementable approaches to minimize mission resources(mass, power, crew time, etc.)); Support development of tools for autonomy (need for exploration) (Assess and maintain resilience -individuals, teams, integrated system). Output of this exercise: -Representation of interfaces based on Human System Risk Board (HSRB) Risk Summary information and simple status based on Human Research Roadmap; Consolidated HSRB information applied to support communication; Point-of-Departure for HRP Element planning; Ability to track and communicate status of collaborations. 4

  4. Constructivist Uses of Expert Systems to Support Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses constructivist uses of production rule expert systems that may be used to support learning for secondary and higher education. Highlights include locus of control; and objectivist and constructivist applications of expert systems as intelligent tutoring systems, as feedback systems, as personal knowledge representation tools, and for…

  5. Driver sleepiness and individual differences in preferences for countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran; Peters, Björn; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present national questionnaire study was to relate the use of sleepiness countermeasures among drivers to possible explanatory factors such as age, sex, education, professional driving, being a shift worker, having experience of sleepy driving, sleep-related crashes, problems with sleep and sleepiness in general and sleep length during working days. Also the attitude to countermeasures related to information or driver support system was studied. A random sample of 3041 persons was drawn from the national register of vehicle owners. The response rate was 62%. The most common countermeasures were to stop to take a walk (54%), turn on the radio/stereo (52%), open a window (47%), drink coffee (45%) and to ask passengers to engage in conversation (35%). Logistic regression analysis showed that counteracting sleepiness with a nap (a presumably efficient method) was practiced by those with experience of sleep-related crashes or of driving during severe sleepiness, as well as by professional drivers, males and drivers aged 46-64 years. The most endorsed means of information to the driver about sleepiness was in-car monitoring of driving performance providing drivers with information on bad or unsafe driving. This preference was related to experience of sleepy driving, not being a professional driver and male gender. Four clusters of behaviours were identified: alertness-enhancing activity while driving (A), stopping the car (S), taking a nap (N) and ingesting coffee or other sources of caffeine (C) (energy drinks, caffeine tablets). The participants were grouped according to their use of any of the four categories of countermeasures. The most common cluster was those who used activity, as well as stopping and drinking caffeine. PMID:18275551

  6. Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

  7. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  8. Sandia Material Model Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-28

    The Sandia Material Model Driver (MMD) software package allows users to run material models from a variety of different Finite Element Model (FEM) codes in a standalone fashion, independent of the host codes. The MMD software is designed to be run on a variety of different operating system platforms as a console application. Initial development efforts have resulted in a package that has been shown to be fast, convenient, and easy to use, with substantialmore » growth potential.« less

  9. Conceptual design for a linear-transformer driver (LTD)-based refurbishment and upgrade of the Saturn accelerator pulse-power system.

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Struve, Kenneth William

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a conceptual design for the Saturn accelerator using the modular Liner-Transformer Driver (LTD) technology to identify risks and to focus development and research for this new technology. We present a reference design for a Saturn class driver based on a number of linear inductive voltage adders connected in parallel. This design is very similar to a design reported five years ago [1]. However, with the design reported here we use 1-MA, 100-kV LTD cavities as building blocks. These cavities have already been built and are currently in operation at the HCEI in Tomsk, Russia [2]. Therefore, this new design integrates already-proven individual components into a full system design.

  10. Design Evolution and Analysis of the ITER Cryostat Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Han; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Songke

    2015-12-01

    The cryostat is a vacuum tight container enveloping the entire basic systems of the ITER tokamak machine, including a vacuum vessel, a superconducting magnet and thermal shield etc. It is evacuated to a pressure of 10-4 Pa to limit the heat transfer via gas conduction and convection to the cryogenically cooled components. Another important function of cryostat is to support all the loads from the tokamak to the concrete floor of the pit by its support system during different operational regimes and accident scenarios. This paper briefly presents the design evolution and associated analysis of the cryostat support system and the structural interface with the building.

  11. A prototype knowledge-based simulation support system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Roberts, S.D.

    1987-04-01

    As a preliminary step toward the goal of an intelligent automated system for simulation modeling support, we explore the feasibility of the overall concept by generating and testing a prototypical framework. A prototype knowledge-based computer system was developed to support a senior level course in industrial engineering so that the overall feasibility of an expert simulation support system could be studied in a controlled and observable setting. The system behavior mimics the diagnostic (intelligent) process performed by the course instructor and teaching assistants, finding logical errors in INSIGHT simulation models and recommending appropriate corrective measures. The system was programmed in a non-procedural language (PROLOG) and designed to run interactively with students working on course homework and projects. The knowledge-based structure supports intelligent behavior, providing its users with access to an evolving accumulation of expert diagnostic knowledge. The non-procedural approach facilitates the maintenance of the system and helps merge the roles of expert and knowledge engineer by allowing new knowledge to be easily incorporated without regard to the existing flow of control. The background, features and design of the system are describe and preliminary results are reported. Initial success is judged to demonstrate the utility of the reported approach and support the ultimate goal of an intelligent modeling system which can support simulation modelers outside the classroom environment. Finally, future extensions are suggested.

  12. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  13. On the heuristic nature of medical decision-support systems.

    PubMed

    Aliferis, C F; Miller, R A

    1995-03-01

    In the realm of medical decision-support systems, the term "heuristic systems" is often considered to be synonymous with "medical artificial intelligence systems" or with "systems employing informal model(s) of problem solving". Such a view may be inaccurate and possibly impede the conceptual development of future systems. This article examines the nature of heuristics and the levels at which heuristic solutions are introduced during system design and implementation. The authors discuss why heuristics are ubiquitous in all medical decision-support systems operating at non-trivial domains, and propose a unifying definition of heuristics that encompasses formal and ad hoc systems. System developers should be aware of the heuristic nature of all problem solving done in complex real world domains, and characterize their own use of heuristics in describing system development and implementation. PMID:9082138

  14. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  15. Dakota Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-02-14

    This code connects the SANDIA’a C++-based DAKOTA optimization and analyis tool with NASA’s python-based openMDAO systems engineering framework. It allows DAKOTA to be used as an openMDAO “Driver”. DAKOTA contains a wide array of advanced sensitivity, uncertainty quantification, and optimization methods. These are now available in a “pluggable” way to any openMDAO based workflow.

  16. Developing a Decision Support System: The Software and Hardware Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phillip M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the available software and hardware tools that can be used to develop a decision support system implemented on microcomputers. Activities that should be supported by software are discussed, including data entry, data coding, finding and combining data, and data compatibility. Hardware considerations include speed, storage…

  17. Use of a Group Support System for Collaborative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron C. W.; Ma, Jian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the use of an Internet-based Group Support System (GSS) for the collaborative assessment of student projects. Results of an empirical study that was conducted on undergraduate students show that GSS-supported collaborative assessment encourages students to take a deep approach to learning, which leads to better project performance.…

  18. A System for Supporting Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capstick, Joanne; Diagne, Abdel Kader; Erbach, Gregor; Uszkoreit, Hans; Leisenberg, Anne; Leisenberg, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    Describes the MULINEX system that supports cross-lingual searching of the World Wide Web. Users can formulate queries, filter the search results and read documents by using their native language. Discusses dictionary-based query translation, multilingual document categorization, and automatic translation that supports French, German, and English.…

  19. Automate Your Meetings: Computer-Based Group Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Milam W.

    1995-01-01

    A Group Support System (GSS) is a network of microcomputers with software for the support of meetings and other group work. Using a GSS, meeting participants are able to brainstorm by submitting comments over the network, ranking and rating items in a list, and performing collaborative work. GSS provides anonymity, parallel communication, and…

  20. Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, Dennis; Boehm, Al

    2005-01-01

    The Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap focuses on research and technology development and demonstration required to ensure the health, habitation, safety, and effectiveness of crews in and beyond low Earth orbit. It contains three distinct sub-capabilities: Human Health and Performance. Life Support and Habitats. Extra-Vehicular Activity.

  1. Scaffolding Strategies in Electronic Performance Support Systems: Types and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagiltay, Kursat

    2006-01-01

    In the study described in this paper, the major components of an electronic performance support system are described and the use of scaffolding techniques within such electronic environments is explored. Four different types of scaffolding are discussed: "conceptual" (supportive) scaffolding, "metacognitive" (reflective) scaffolding, "procedural"…

  2. On Two Roles Decision Support Systems Can Play in Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Gregory E.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the computer system in group decision making. Two systems used in solving negotiating problems--NEGO and MEDIATOR--and three procedures that can be utilized to develop group decision support systems are analyzed, based on multicriteria decision analysis and mathematical programming models. (Author/LRW)

  3. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.

  4. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  5. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  6. Guiding the development of a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The workshop is reported which was held to establish guidelines for future development of ecological support systems, and to develop a group of researchers who understand the interdisciplinary requirements of the overall program.

  7. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  8. Support System Effects on the NASA Common Research Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the NASA Common Research Model was conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from the experimental investigations was collected, a large difference in moment values was seen between the experimental and the computational data from the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This difference led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the Common Research Model. The configurations computed during this investigation were the wing/body/tail=0deg without the support system and the wing/body/tail=0deg with the support system. The results from this investigation confirm that the addition of the support system to the computational cases does shift the pitching moment in the direction of the experimental results.

  9. Interior detail, view to northnortheast showing support system for roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail, view to north-northeast showing support system for roof truss (typical), 90 mm lens plus electronic flash lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. 37. View showing support system below deck setting on pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View showing support system below deck setting on pier 2, looking west. Note rollers beneath pod (center photo) and navigational light on left center - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  11. PLC Support Software at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    P. Chevtsov; S. Higgins; S. Schaffner; D. Seidman

    2002-10-01

    Several Automation Direct (DirectNet) Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been integrated into the accelerator control system at Jefferson Lab. The integration is based on new software that consists of three main parts: a PLC driver with a state machine control block, a device support module, and a common serial driver. The components of new software and experience gained with the use of this software for beam dump systems at Jefferson Lab are presented.

  12. Automated support requirement system user's guide for nondata entry personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maryland, J. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    ASRS provides the capability to process intercenter/agency support requirements and commitments necessary for support of the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing, Flight, and Cargo operations. The instructions and commands that users will be allowed to utilize are presented. ASRS utilizes a data base stored on Honeywell DPS8 computer. ASRS programs are written in COBOL 74 utilizing the Honeywell DMIV-TP Processing System and the GCOS8 Operating System; they can also be accessed through Telenet or Datanet.

  13. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  14. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor); Thompson, Brad G. (Editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (Editor); Volk, Tyler (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  15. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  16. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  17. MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Hamar, V.

    2012-12-01

    Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.

  18. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system.

  19. Decision support systems for robotic surgery and acute care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Doctors must frequently make decisions during medical treatment, whether in an acute care facility, such as an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or in an operating room. These decisions rely on a various information sources, such as the patient's medical history, preoperative images, and general medical knowledge. Decision support systems can assist by facilitating access to this information when and where it is needed. This paper presents some research eorts that address the integration of information with clinical practice. The example systems include a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury, an augmented reality head- mounted display for neurosurgery, and an augmented reality telerobotic system for minimally-invasive surgery. While these are dierent systems and applications, they share the common theme of providing information to support clinical decisions and actions, whether the actions are performed with the surgeon's own hands or with robotic assistance.

  20. Driver License Examiner Supervisors; Basic Training Program. Instructor's Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, John T.; Patton, C. Duane

    Well-trained driver license examiner supervisors are necessary in professionalizing the driver licensing system. They should have the highest competence in the management of all technical aspects of the driver training system in their states, gained through formalized pre-service and in-service training. This Instructor's Lesson Plans book…

  1. Developing closed life support systems for large space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. M.; Harlan, A. D.; Krumhar, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    In anticipation of possible large-scale, long-duration space missions which may be conducted in the future, NASA has begun to investigate the research and technology development requirements to create life support systems for large space habitats. An analysis suggests the feasibility of a regeneration of food in missions which exceed four years duration. Regeneration of food in space may be justified for missions of shorter duration when large crews must be supported at remote sites such as lunar bases and space manufacturing facilities. It is thought that biological components consisting principally of traditional crop and livestock species will prove to be the most acceptable means of closing the food cycle. A description is presented of the preliminary results of a study of potential biological components for large space habitats. Attention is given to controlled ecosystems, Russian life support system research, controlled-environment agriculture, and the social aspects of the life-support system.

  2. Graduated Driver Licensing: The New Zealand Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Dorothy; Stephenson, Shaun

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the graduated driver-licensing (GDL) system in New Zealand. Describes driver licensing and crash fatality rates before and after the implementation of GDL in 1987. Reports that GDL has contributed to a reduction in crashes among young people. (Contains 2 figures and 6 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  3. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S.; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008–2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  4. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs. PMID:26982104

  5. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  6. Driver alertness detection using Google Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Yu; Huang, Chung-Lin

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent vehicle system (ITS) to monitor the driver driving behavior. Based on the first-person vision (FPV) technology (or Google glasses), our system can detect the vehicle exterior/interior scene from driver's viewpoint and estimate driver gazing direction. First, we use "bag of words" image classification approach by applying FAST and BRIEF feature descriptor in the dataset. Then, we use vocabulary dictionary to encode an input image as feature vectors. Finally, we apply SVM classifier to identify whether the input image is vehicle interior scene or not to monitor the driver driving attention. Second, we find the correspondence between the images of the Google glasses and the camera mounted on the wind shield of the vehicle to estimate the gazing direction of the driver. In the experiments, we illustrate the effectiveness of our system.

  7. Diverse Redundant Systems for Reliable Space Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable life support systems are required for deep space missions. The probability of a fatal life support failure should be less than one in a thousand in a multi-year mission. It is far too expensive to develop a single system with such high reliability. Using three redundant units would require only that each have a failure probability of one in ten over the mission. Since the system development cost is inverse to the failure probability, this would cut cost by a factor of one hundred. Using replaceable subsystems instead of full systems would further cut cost. Using full sets of replaceable components improves reliability more than using complete systems as spares, since a set of components could repair many different failures instead of just one. Replaceable components would require more tools, space, and planning than full systems or replaceable subsystems. However, identical system redundancy cannot be relied on in practice. Common cause failures can disable all the identical redundant systems. Typical levels of common cause failures will defeat redundancy greater than two. Diverse redundant systems are required for reliable space life support. Three, four, or five diverse redundant systems could be needed for sufficient reliability. One system with lower level repair could be substituted for two diverse systems to save cost.

  8. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA's Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of "supportability", in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in a environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test & Verification, Maintenance & Repair, and Scavenging & Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set of

  9. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  10. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Vigars, Mark L.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  11. Training in tooth preparation utilizing a support system.

    PubMed

    Nishida, M; Sohmura, T; Takahashi, J

    2004-02-01

    Tooth preparation is an essential technique for dental treatment, but it is a skill not easily learned by a dental student. To facilitate this leaning process, a new tooth preparation support system with a parallel link mechanism was developed. This study reports the educational efficiency of this system for dental students. Dental students with no experience in clinical practice were selected and divided into two groups; one trained with this support system; and the other, with freehand preparation. They prepared axial walls in right maxillary second premolars and molars mounted in a phantom manikin with an air-turbine handpiece. Convergence angles of the axial walls and parallelisms between axes of prepared teeth were evaluated. Training with the support system led to significantly smaller convergence angles and parallelisms as compared with freehand preparation training. With the freehand preparation after training, the convergence angles and parallelisms became smaller in the group trained with the support system than those trained with freehand. The above findings suggest that training in tooth preparation utilizing the newly developed support system can be one of practical programs that are useful for dental students to achieve greater competency in tooth preparation. PMID:15009599

  12. The High-efficiency LED Driver for Visible Light Communication Applications.

    PubMed

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lai, Jyun-Liang; Yu, Chueh-Hao; Huang, Li Ren; Yang, Chia-Yen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a LED driver for VLC. The main purpose is to solve the low data rate problem used to be in switching type LED driver. The GaN power device is proposed to replace the traditional silicon power device of switching LED driver for the purpose of increasing switching frequency of converter, thereby increasing the bandwidth of data transmission. To achieve high efficiency, the diode-connected GaN power transistor is utilized to replace the traditional ultrafast recovery diode used to be in switching type LED driver. This work has been experimentally evaluated on 350-mA output current. The results demonstrate that it supports the data of PWM dimming level encoded in the PPM scheme for VLC application. The experimental results also show that system's efficiency of 80.8% can be achieved at 1-Mb/s data rate. PMID:27498921

  13. The distracted driver.

    PubMed

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    2001-03-01

    A serious health problem is developing from automobile collisions caused by distracted drivers. This is a result of the rapid proliferation of portable cellular telephones and personal organisers used while driving, the development of more sophisticated entertainment systems and instrument panel controls, the advent of navigation and television displays in vehicles and promises of sophisticated wireless e-mail, FAX and Internet services in the vehicle. Preoccupation with electronic gadgets may also degrade human driving performance. Many drivers however, sincerely believe they have the talent to do several things at the same time, such as hold and look at a cellular telephone in one hand and drive with a beverage container in the other hand whilst at the same time, exercise their personal skills. Obviously, they believe that they do not need two hands on the steering wheel and two eyes on the road. This is a unique situation requiring intensive health promotion as distracted or 'offensive driving' may be habit forming and difficult to change, any significant design remedies will be slow to arrive and may be circumvented, and the regulatory laws have proved difficult or impossible to enforce. This special need may require research to determine the most effective techniques for health promotion. PMID:11329694

  14. Integrating Wraparound into a Schoolwide System of Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Lucille; Hyde, Kelly; Suter, Jesse C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure for implementation of the wraparound process within a multi-tiered system of school wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) to address the needs of the 1-5% of students with complex emotional/behavioral challenges. The installation of prerequisite system features that, based on a 3 year demonstration process, we consider…

  15. Decision Support Systems: An Introduction for Program Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Elizabethann

    1985-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) are automated information systems designed to aid administrative decision making. A literature review on the design, implementation, and evaluation of DSS, suggests that evaluators act as liasons between designers and managers, identify and collect data for DSS, and evaluate DSS. (Author/EGS)

  16. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  17. Software Application for Supporting the Education of Database Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vágner, Anikó

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces an application which supports the education of database systems, particularly the teaching of SQL and PL/SQL in Oracle Database Management System environment. The application has two parts, one is the database schema and its content, and the other is a C# application. The schema is to administrate and store the tasks and the…

  18. Decision Support Systems and the Art of Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Karl J.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes college enrollment management process and its inherent information requirements, followed by section on the limitations of traditional management information systems (MIS). Introduces decision support systems, emphasizing the improvement of MIS applications in the enrollment management process. Underscores competitive nature of…

  19. Developing a Management Support System in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Neil H.

    1983-01-01

    Some basic conceptual tools, knowledge, and experience that help evaluate needs for a management support system (MSS) to meet the planning and management challenges in academe are presented. An MSS must integrate the planning, control, forecasting, modeling, reporting, computing, and data administration functions of the system. (MLW)

  20. Decision Support System Development for the Treatment of Maladaptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hile, Matthew G.; Desrochers, Marcie N.

    The Mental Retardation-Expert (MR-E) is a microcomputer based expert decision support system that provides practitioners with state of the art assistance in the treatment of aggressive, self injurious, and destructive behaviors displayed by individuals with mental retardation or developmental disabilities. This system, based on human experts and…