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1

Teen Driver Support System Field Operational Test  

E-print Network

Teen Driver Support System Field Operational Test Preliminary Results (First 24 weeks) JanetFIRST Laboratory #12;Minnesota Department of Transportation Susan Sheehan MnDOT Technical Liaison #12;The U.S. Teen #12;Factors that Can Increase Teen Driver Fatality Risk · Speeding · Not Using Seat Belt · Teen

Minnesota, University of

2

EPICS : operating system independent device/driver support.  

SciTech Connect

Originally EPICS input/output controllers (IOCs) were only supported on VME-based systems running the vxWorks operating system. Now IOCs are supported on many systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, Solaris, HPUX, Linux, WIN32, and Darwin. A challenge is to provide operating-system-independent device and driver support. This paper presents some techniques for providing such support. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a set of software tools, libraries, and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed, real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators, telescopes, and other large scientific experiments. An important component of all EPICS-based control systems is a collection of input/output controllers (IOCs). An IOC has three primary components: (1) a real-time database; (2) channel access, which provides network access to the database; and (3) device/driver support for interfacing to equipment. This paper describes some projects related to providing device/driver support on non-vxWorks systems. In order to support IOCs on platforms other than vxWorks, operating-system-independent (OSI) application program interfaces (APIs) were defined for threads, semaphores, timers, etc. Providing support for a new platform consists of providing an operating-system-dependent implementation of the OSI APIs.

Kraimer, M. R.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2003-01-01

3

Drivers license display system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

Prokoski, Francine J.

1997-01-01

4

Driver Steering Support Interfaces Near the Vehicles Handling Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this thesis is to propose steering support systems that can reduce the drivers control effort, mental load and promote safety. The driver dictates the vehicles motion and the support should centralize him\\/her in the control loop; thus our design philosophy is to increase drivers responsibility and support him\\/her in the sense of information rather than automation. Incarnating

D. Katzourakis

2012-01-01

5

EPICS: Allen Bradley driver and device support  

SciTech Connect

EPICS provides support for the Allen Bradley VMEbus I/O Scanner. Support consists of a driver and device support. The driver provides the following features: Support for 8, 16, and 32 bit digital I/O modules. Inputs can be scanned such that the caller is notified whenever one or more bits of an input or output card change. Arbitrary Block Transfers (Input and Output) with the caller being notified when the block transfer completes or times out. Software scanning of analog output and input modules. Device support is provided for the following record types: ai, ao, bi, bo, mbbi, mbbo, mbbiDirect, and mbboDirect. This document describes the version of the Allen Bradley support that first appeared in EPICS release 3.12.beta11. The adapter and card status commands were not available until 3.12.beta12. The reader should also consult the manuals EPICS: Allen Bradley - Hardware Reference Manual, Greg Nawrocki, Allen Bradley manuals: VME scanner, I/O concepts, and various I/O modules.

Kraimer, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Daelsio, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-02-01

6

Real-Time Detection of Driver Cognitive Distraction Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As use of in-vehicle information systems (IVISs) such as cell phones, navigation systems, and satellite radios has increased, driver distraction has become an important and growing safety concern. A promising way to overcome this problem is to detect driver distraction and adapt in-vehicle systems accordingly to mitigate such distractions. To realize this strategy, this paper applied support vector machines (SVMs),

Yulan Liang; Michelle L. Reyes; John D. Lee

2007-01-01

7

Using Vehicular Communication to Support Older Drivers at Road Intersections  

E-print Network

of traffic safety systems, followed by a detailed description of the road intersection accident scenario of the accidents involving older drivers happen in complex traffic situations such as road intersections [4 in road intersections, which is the most common accident setting for older drivers. Using a temporal

Aberg, Johan

8

MACHINE LEARNING SYSTEMS FOR DETECTING DRIVER DROWSINESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advance of computing technology has provided the means for building intelligent vehicle systems. Drowsy driver detection system is one of the potential applications of intelligent vehicle systems. Previous approaches to drowsiness detection primarily make pre-assumptions about the relevant behavior, focusing on blink rate, eye closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine learning to data-mine actual human behavior during drowsiness

Esra Vural; Mjdat etin; Aytl Eril

9

A drowsy driver detection system for heavy vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver drowsiness\\/fatigue is an important cause of combination-unit truck crashes. Drowsy driver detection methods can form the basis of a system to potentially reduce accidents related to drowsy driving. We report on efforts performed at the Carnegie Mellon Driving Research Center to develop such in vehicle driver monitoring systems. Commercial motor vehicle truck drivers were studied in actual fleet operations.

R. Grace; V. E. Byrne; D. M. Bierman; J.-M. Legrand; D. Gricourt; B. K. Davis; J. J. Staszewski; B. Carnahan

1998-01-01

10

Human-factors engineering for smart transport: design support for car drivers and train traffic controllers.  

PubMed

The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate human-system symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual man-machine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering human factors in the vehicle ergonomics and train traffic control domain. The examples are representative of an ongoing trend in automation and they show how the human role changes from controller to supervisor. Section 2 focuses on the car driver and systems that support, or sometimes even take over, critical parts of the driving task. Due to the diversity of driver ability, driving context and dependence between driver and context factors, there is a need for personalised, adaptive and integrated support. Systematic research is needed to establish sound systems. Section 3 focuses on the train dispatcher support systems that predict train movements, detect potential conflicts and show the dispatcher the possibilities available to solve the detected problems. Via thorough analysis of both the process to be controlled and the dispatcher's tasks and cognitive needs, support functions were developed as part of an already very complex supervision and control system. The two examples, although from a different field, both show the need for further development in cognitive modelling as well as for the value of sound ergonomics task analysis in design practice. PMID:16765905

Lenior, Dick; Janssen, Wiel; Neerincx, Mark; Schreibers, Kirsten

2006-07-01

11

Active gated imaging in driver assistance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

Grauer, Yoav

2014-04-01

12

Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challengehow to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called the older driver problem. Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014

Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David

2011-01-01

13

On the efficiency of driver state monitoring systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical data on road traffic and the results of laboratory studies are used to construct a mathematical model of a driver-driver state monitor-automobile-traffic system. In terms of the model, the probability of an accident resulting from the drowsy state of the driver is determined both in the absence and presence of a monitor. The model takes into account the efficiency and safety level provided by different monitoring systems, as well as psychological factors associated with the excessive reliance of drivers upon monitoring.

Dementienko, V. V.; Dorokhov, V. B.; Gerus, S. V.; Markov, A. G.; Shakhnarovich, V. M.

2007-06-01

14

Adaptation in hindsight: Dynamics and drivers shaping urban wastewater systems.  

PubMed

Well-planned urban infrastructure should meet critical loads during its design lifetime. In order to proceed with design, engineers are forced to make numerous assumptions with very little supporting information about the development of various drivers. For the wastewater sector, these drivers include the future amount and composition of the generated wastewater, effluent requirements, technologies, prices of inputs such as energy or chemicals, and the value of outputs produced such as nutrients for fertilizer use. When planning wastewater systems, there is a lack of methods to address discrepancies between the timescales at which fundamental changes in these drivers can occur, and the long physical life expectancy of infrastructure (on the order of 25-80 years). To explore these discrepancies, we take a hindsight perspective of the long-term development of wastewater infrastructure and assess the stability of assumptions made during previous designs. Repeatedly we find that the drivers influencing wastewater loads, environmental requirements or technological innovation can change at smaller timescales than the infrastructure design lifetime, often in less than a decade. Our analysis shows that i) built infrastructure is continuously confronted with challenges it was not conceived for, ii) significant adaptation occurs during a structure's lifetime, and iii) "muddling-through" is the pre-dominant strategy for adaptive management. As a consequence, we argue, there is a need to explore robust design strategies which require the systematic use of scenario planning methods and instruments to increase operational, structural, managerial, institutional and financial flexibility. Hindsight studies, such as this one, may inform the development of robust design strategies and assist in the transition to more explicit forms of adaptive management for urban infrastructures. PMID:25594746

Neumann, Marc B; Rieckermann, Jrg; Hug, Thomas; Gujer, Willi

2015-03-15

15

Feasibility of a driver performance data acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) envisions many future situations in which the effectiveness and consequences of new intelligent vehicle-highway systems technologies will need to be studied in actual production vehicles. Such studies will enable evaluations in vehicles which are familiar to drivers. These studies would be future enhanced by the availability of an instrumentation package that can be easily installed in these vehicles to enable specific vehicle configurations of interest to be evaluated, thereby increasing the variety of vehicle options that are available for study. Ideally, an approach is needed that would allow data collection from a variety of vehicle models and types, and would address the issue of driver familiarity. Such an approach is embodied in the concept of a driver performance data acquisition system that could be installed in a wide range of vehicles within a relatively short period of time. As a universally adaptable system, it would provide researchers with the ability to manually input data as well as directly record information on driver, vehicle, roadway, and environmental parameters. Furthermore, it would enable the measurement of driver performance in the driver`s own vehicle, thereby ensuring vehicle familiarity. In addition, it would be possible to measure driver performance in relation to any vehicle design characteristic at relatively little expense and effort, and would make it easy to update existing models of driver/vehicle behavior to reflect performance characteristics in vehicles of current manufacture.

Carter, R.J.; Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Goodman, M.J. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Crash Avoidance Research

1994-06-01

16

78 FR 68475 - Certain Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...vision-based driver assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of infringement...vision-based driver assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of...

2013-11-14

17

Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Driver Drowsiness Detection  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study. PMID:24412904

Daza, Ivn G.; Bergasa, Luis M.; Bronte, Sebastin; Yebes, J. Javier; Almazn, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

2014-01-01

18

CAMAC Driver Support for Windows NT{trademark} and Lunux{trademark}  

SciTech Connect

CAMAC is a Modular Instrumentation and Digital Interface System defined as a standardized instrumentation system for Computer Automated Measurement and Control. CAMAC hardware and software has been defined by the NIM Committee (National Instrumentation Methods Committee) of the US Department of Energy and the ESONE Committee (European Standards on Nuclear Electronics Committee) of European Laboratories. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has for many years produced software packages that follow the ANSI/IEEE standard 758-1979 for a variety of computers, CAMAC controller interfaces, and operating systems. In order to enable the re-use of existing hardware and software, Fermilab now supports standard routine libraries and drivers for Windows NT 4.0 and the Linux operating systems for the Jorway 411s SCSI Bus CAMAC Driver[l] and the Jorway73A SCSI Bus CAMAC Crate Controller. A number of test stands and small experiments both on-site and off-site are using this software for their CAMAC data acquisition needs.

D.A. Slimmer and J.M. Streets

1999-07-27

19

Driver performance data acquisition system for ergonomics research  

SciTech Connect

A portable ergonomics data acquisition system consisting of state-of-the-art hardware being designed is described here. It will be employed to record driver, vehicle, and environment parameter data from a wide range of vehicles and trucks. The system will be unobtrusive to the driver and inconspicuous to the outside world. It will have three modes of data gathering and provide for extended periods of data collection. Modularity, flexibility, and cost will be key drivers in the development effort. The ergonomics data acquisition system project is being conducted in two phases--a feasibility study and a development, construction, and validation phase.

Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Physics and Mathematics Div.; Goodman, M.J. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Crash Avoidance Research

1994-12-31

20

Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

2010-01-01

21

Video-based lane estimation and tracking for driver assistance: survey, system, and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver-assistance systems that monitor driver intent, warn drivers of lane departures, or assist in vehicle guidance are all being actively considered. It is therefore important to take a critical look at key aspects of these systems, one of which is lane-position tracking. It is for these driver-assistance objectives that motivate the development of the novel \\

Joel C. Mccall; Mohan M. Trivedi

2006-01-01

22

Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may be particularly impactful. PMID:24500026

Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

2014-06-01

23

An innovative nonintrusive driver assistance system for vital signal monitoring.  

PubMed

This paper describes an in-vehicle nonintrusive biopotential measurement system for driver health monitoring and fatigue detection. Previous research has found that the physiological signals including eye features, electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and their secondary parameters such as heart rate and HR variability are good indicators of health state as well as driver fatigue. A conventional biopotential measurement system requires the electrodes to be in contact with human body. This not only interferes with the driver operation, but also is not feasible for long-term monitoring purpose. The driver assistance system in this paper can remotely detect the biopotential signals with no physical contact with human skin. With delicate sensor and electronic design, ECG, EEG, and eye blinking can be measured. Experiments were conducted on a high fidelity driving simulator to validate the system performance. The system was found to be able to detect the ECG/EEG signals through cloth or hair with no contact with skin. Eye blinking activities can also be detected at a distance of 10cm. Digital signal processing algorithms were developed to decimate the signal noise and extract the physiological features. The extracted features from the vital signals were further analyzed to assess the potential criterion for alertness and drowsiness determination. PMID:25375690

Sun, Ye; Yu, Xiong Bill

2014-11-01

24

Stress-oriented driver assistance system for electric vehicles.  

PubMed

Stress is physiological and physical reaction that appears in highly demanding situations and affects human's perception and reaction capability. Occurrence of stress events within highly dynamic road environment could lead to life-threatening situation. With the perspective of safety and comfort driving provision to anxious drivers, in this paper a stress-oriented Driver Assistance System (DAS) is proposed. The DAS deployed on Electric Vehicle. This novel DAS customizes driving command signal in respect to road context, when stress is detected. The effectiveness of this novel DAS is verified by simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. PMID:25571348

Athanasiou, Georgia; Tsotoulidis, Savvas; Mitronikas, Epaminondas; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios

2014-08-01

25

External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

26

The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) Program: Feasibility and Preliminary Support for a Psychosocial Intervention for Teenage Drivers with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teenage drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at considerable risk for negative driving outcomes, including traffic citations, accidents, and injuries. Presently, no efficacious psychosocial interventions exist for teenage drivers with ADHD. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program is a

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Hulme, Kevin; Linke, Stuart; Nelson-Tuttle, Chris; Pariseau, Meaghan; Gangloff, Brian; Lewis, Kemper; Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha; Buck, Melina

2011-01-01

27

Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type. PMID:19664441

Staubach, Maria

2009-09-01

28

Intelligent Physiological Monitoring and Feedback System for Driver Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of driving, sudden disease outbreak often cause serious traffic accidents. If drivers can real-time understand their physiological state, and then they could have a chance to get the best solution at the first time. Maybe accidents will be largely reduced. Therefore, we developed a wearable real-time physiological monitoring and feedback system that consists of a small-size measuring

Yuan-Hsiang Lin; Chih-Fong Lin; Chong-Rong Wu; Yuan-Chang Hsu; He-Zhong You

2011-01-01

29

Imperfect In-Vehicle Collision Avoidance Warning Systems Can Aid Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS) on driver performance. A driving simulator was driven by 135 licensed drivers. Of these, 120 received alerts from the IVCAWS when their headway to a lead car was less than 2 s, and the other 15 (the control group) received no alerts. Drivers received

Masha Maltz; David Shinar

2004-01-01

30

Roof insulation support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A roof insulator support system includes a plurality of longitudinally extending beams supporting a plurality of regularly spaced, laterally extending purlins of Z-shaped cross section with an upturned lip portion on the lower flange of each purlin. Elongated liner support members, being extrusions of a generally inverted T-shape, are attached to and extend along the bottom of each purlin. Each

L. J. Fischer; T. J. McNellis

1977-01-01

31

Reactor vessel support system  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

1982-01-01

32

Clarke Stations and mercurian mass-drivers: energy for large-scale transportation systems  

SciTech Connect

Three-week voyages across 1 AU could be made in large sailing craft propelled by microwaves generated at power stations operating at 0.1 AU from the sun. The power stations could be built of mercurian materials launched by mass driver to building sites in solar orbit. A Clarke Station 28 km in radius could generate 64 TW of microwaves and support the operation of a 1000-tonne, 1000-passenger vessel. The ability to build near-sun power stations of mercurian materials would not only support high-speed transport but solar system development in general.

Jones, E.M.

1985-01-01

33

The driver, the road, the rules and the rest? A systems-based approach to young driver road safety.  

PubMed

The persistent overrepresentation of young drivers in road crashes is universally recognised. A multitude of factors influencing their behaviour and safety have been identified through methods including crash analyses, simulated and naturalistic driving studies, and self-report measures. Across the globe numerous, diverse, countermeasures have been implemented; the design of the vast majority of these has been informed by a driver-centric approach. An alternative approach gaining popularity in transport safety is the systems approach which considers not only the characteristics of the individual, but also the decisions and actions of other actors within the road transport system, along with the interactions amongst them. This paper argues that for substantial improvements to be made in young driver road safety, what has been learnt from driver-centric research needs to be integrated into a systems approach, thus providing a holistic appraisal of the young driver road safety problem. Only then will more effective opportunities and avenues for intervention be realised. PMID:24602807

Scott-Parker, B; Goode, N; Salmon, P

2015-01-01

34

Permanent circulatory support systems at the Pennsylvania State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two systems which provide long-term circulatory support are described: the left ventricular assist system and the total artificial heart. These systems are based on the design of a pusher plate actuated blood pump, driven by a small brushless DC electric motor and rollerscrew driver. An implantable motor controller maintains suitable physiologic flow rates for both systems and controls left-right balance

W. J. Weiss; G. Rosenberg; A. J. Snyder; T. J. Cleary; R. P. Gaumond; D. B. Geselowitz; W. S. Pierce

1990-01-01

35

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1988-01-01

36

Detector driver systems and photometric estimates for RIMAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rapid infrared IMAger-Spectrometer (RIMAS) is a rapid gamma-ray burst afterglow instrument that will provide photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the Y, J, H, and K bands. RIMAS separates light into two optical arms, YJ and HK, which allows for simultaneous coverage in two photometric bands. RIMAS utilizes two 2048 x 2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe (HAWAII-2RG) detectors along with a Spitzer Legacy Indium- Antimonide (InSb) guiding detector in spectroscopic mode to position and keep the source on the slit. We describe the software and hardware development for the detector driver and acquisition systems. The HAWAII- 2RG detectors simultaneously acquire images using Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. driver, timing, and processing boards with two C++ wrappers running assembly code. The InSb detector clocking and acquisition system runs on a National Instruments cRIO-9074 with a Labview user interface and clocks written in an easily alterable ASCII file. We report the read noise, linearity, and dynamic range of our guide detector. Finally, we present RIMAS's estimated instrument efficiency in photometric imaging mode (for all three detectors) and expected limiting magnitudes. Our efficiency calculations include atmospheric transmission models, filter models, telescope components, and optics components for each optical arm.

Toy, Vicki L.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Lyness, Eric I.; Muench, Marius; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Capone, John I.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

2014-07-01

37

An optimized eye locating and tracking system for driver fatigue monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye locating and tracking are the most difficult and crucial tasks of real-time driver fatigue monitoring system based on computer vision. An optimized eye locating and tracking system, with a new eye tracking algorithm for monitoring driver's vigilance, is presented in this paper, which is based on a hardware system using active IR (Infrared) illuminator. The system can work

He Huang; You-Sheng Zhou; Fan Zhang; Feng-Chen Liu

2007-01-01

38

Group Support Systems (GSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

1996-01-01

39

49 CFR 571.203 - Standard No. 203; Impact protection for the driver from the steering control system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the driver from the steering control system. 571.203 Section 571...for the driver from the steering control system. S1. Purpose and scope...specifies requirements for steering control systems that will minimize chest,...

2013-10-01

40

Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

Barta, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

41

Emergency Helicopter Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardly a day passes by without a news headline giving an account of a portion of the national landscape stricken with disaster. In order to effectively combat the increasing complexity and frequency of disasters, such as hurricanes, storms, earthquakes, and terrorist attacks; there exists a need for an emergency helicopter support system (EHS) that assimilates seamlessly into a network centric

Jonathan Norris; E. Vogel; I. Noboa-Heredia; D. Adkins; A. Karamalla

2006-01-01

42

Imperfect in-vehicle collision avoidance warning systems can aid drivers.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS) on driver performance. A driving simulator was driven by 135 licensed drivers. Of these, 120 received alerts from the IVCAWS when their headway to a lead car was less than 2 s, and the other 15 (the control group) received no alerts. Drivers received varied alert interfaces: auditory, visual, and multimodal. The system had varied levels of reliability, determined by both false alarm rate and failure of the IVCAWS to alert to short headway. Results indicated that the IVCAWS led to safer (longer) headway maintenance. High false alarm rates induced drivers to slow down unnecessarily; large numbers of missed alerts did not have any significant impact on drivers. Driver acceptance of the system was mixed. Interface played a role in driver reliance on the system, with the multimodal interfaces generating least reliance. Actual or potential applications of this research include IVCAWS interface selection for greater system efficacy and user acceptance and the advisability of implementation, even of imperfect systems, for drivers who seek to maintain a safer headway. PMID:15359683

Maltz, Masha; Shinar, David

2004-01-01

43

Effects of an `Expert Mode' Voice Command System on Task Performance, Glance Behavior & Driver Physiology  

E-print Network

, there has been a shift in automotive driver-vehicle interfaces (DVIs) from purely visual-manual interactions of the literature compares voice systems with handheld visual-manual based tasks (texting and phone dialing), voice may still impart considerable visual demands on the driver [18]. These demands might be due in part

de Weck, Olivier L.

44

A non-intrusive multi-sensor system for characterizing driver behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding driver behavior is critical towards ensuring superior levels of safety and environmental sustainability in intelligent transportation systems. Existing solutions for vital sign extraction are generally intrusive in that they affect the comfort of the driver and may consequently lead to biased observations. Moreover, low-complexity devices such as GPS receivers and the multitude of sensors present in the vehicle are

J. G. P. Rodrigues; F. Vieira; T. T. V. Vinhoza; J. Barros; J. P. S. Cunha

2010-01-01

45

Driver monitoring--new challenges for smart sensor-based systems.  

PubMed

Decreased vigilance and fatigue are major factors accounting for driver error. Moreover, it is one of the most common causes of traffic accidents. The development and integration of non invasive systems to detect driver fatigue in real time is a challenging task for the near future. Smart systems promise new approaches to sensor development, signal processing and interpretation to asses the evolution of the physiological state of the driver. At the same time, however, driver monitoring should be realistic in terms of automotive constraints, price and robustness. Can smart materials meet those requirements? Issues involved in driver monitoring will be discussed and an overview of the demands placed on smart materials by the automotive environment will be given. PMID:15718636

Hermann, Sonja

2004-01-01

46

Multi-driver agent-based traffic simulation systems for evaluating the effects of advanced driver assistance systems on road traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent investigation revealed that there is a substantiated need for the development of a micro-simulation system designed for traffic safety assessment. This paper describes the development of a road traffic simulation system, which uses a nanoscopic model of driver behaviour and an integrated analysis-evaluation system designed for traffic safety assessment. The primary focus is on estimating the effects of

Naohiro Yuhara; Jun Tajima

2006-01-01

47

Imperfect in-vehicle collision avoidance warning systems can aid distracted drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a type of in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS) under conditions of driver distraction. Forty-three participants responded to an imperfect warning system while simultaneously driving a simulator and performing a visual\\/cognitive task. The major concerns were whether drivers would be more inclined to rely on such a system when

Masha Maltz; David Shinar

2007-01-01

48

Dingo: taming device drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Device drivers are notorious for being a major source of failure in operating systems. In analysing a sample of real defects in Linux drivers, we found that a large propor- tion (39%) of bugs are due to two key shortcomings in the device-driver architecture enforced by current operat ing systems: poorly-defined communication protocols between drivers and the OS, which confuse

Leonid Ryzhyk; Peter Chubb; Ihor Kuz; Gernot Heiser

2009-01-01

49

New Driver Laser System for Double Target X-Ray Lasers at JAEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new driver laser system with repetition rate of 0.1 Hz for the double target x-ray laser at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. We named the new driver laser TOPAZ. TOPAZ delivers two beams with energy of < 5 J and duration of ps. Ni-like Mo and Ag lasers at wavelength of 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm respectively have been successfully generated using TOPAZ

Ochi, Y.; Hasegawa, N.; Kawachi, T.; Nishikino, M.; Tanaka, M.; Kishimoto, M.; Ohba, T.

50

A new design and implementation of an infrared device driver in embedded Linux systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless infrared communication systems are widely-used for the remote controls in portable terminals, particularly for systems requiring low cost, light weight, moderate data rates. They have already proven their electiveness for short-range temporary communications and in high data rate longer range point-to-point systems. This paper proposes the issue of design and implementation of an infrared device driver in a personal portable intelligent digital infrared communications system. After analyzing the various constraints, we use the embedded system based on Samsung S3C2440A 32-bit processor and Linux operating system to design the driver program. The program abandons its traditional Serial interface control mode, uses the generic GPIO to achieve infrared receiver device driver, and intends a user-defined communication protocol which is much more simple and convenient instead of traditional infrared communication protocol to design the character device drivers for the infrared receiver. The communication protocol uses interrupt counter to determine to receive the value and the first code.In this paper, the interrupt handling and an I/O package to reuse Linux device drivers in embedded system is introduced. Via this package, the whole Linux device driver source tree can be reused without any modifications. The driver program can set up and initialize the infrared device, transfer data between the device and the software, configure the device, monitor and trace the status of the device, reset the device, and shut down the device as requested. At last infrared test procedure was prepared and some testing and evaluations were made in a mobile infrared intelligent cicerone system, and the test result shows that the design is simple, practical, with advantages such as easy transplantation, strong reliability and convenience.

Jia, Li-li; Cui, Hua; Wang, Ru-li

2009-07-01

51

Smart Roadside System for Driver Assistance and Safety Warnings: Framework and Applications  

PubMed Central

The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use. PMID:22164025

Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

2011-01-01

52

Active Vibration Control System for the Driver's Seat for Off-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with an electrohydraulic active vibration control system for the driver's seat for off-road vehicles. After a general description of the problem a serial electrohydraulic active vibration control system, working on the compensation principle, is mathematically analyzed. Results of computer simulation, based on an analogue model, indicate, that the system could effectively absorb vibrations in a chosen frequency

G. J. STEIN; I. BALLO

1991-01-01

53

How countries link REDD+ interventions to drivers in their readiness plans: implications for monitoring systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Countries participating in the REDD+ scheme are in the readiness phase, designing policy interventions to address drivers of deforestation and forest degradation (DD). In order for REDD+ interventions to be effective, it is essential that they take into account the specific drivers that they aim to address. Moreover it is crucial to design systems that monitor the effectiveness of the planned interventions. In this article we provide a comprehensive and comparative assessment of interventions proposed by 43 REDD+ countries in 98 readiness documents. We summarize the types of interventions and assess if they are formulated referring to the drivers of DD that they are aiming to address. Based on this assessment we consider the implications for systems for monitoring effectiveness of proposed interventions. Most countries reviewed link proposed interventions to specific drivers of DD. The majority of the countries making this link have better driver data quality, in particularly those that present their data in ratio or ordinal terms. Proposed interventions focus not only on activities to reduce deforestation, but also on other forest related REDD+ activities such as sustainable forest management, which reduce forest degradation and enhance forest stocks. Moreover, driver-specific interventions often relate to drivers not only inside but also outside the forest sector. Hence we suggest that monitoring systems need to assess not only deforestation rates through remote sensing, but also degradation and other carbon stock changes within the forest, using more detailed ground level surveys and measurements. In addition, the performance of interventions outside the forest need to be monitored, even if the impacts of these cannot be linked to specific changes in forest carbon stock in specific locations.

Salvini, G.; Herold, M.; De Sy, V.; Kissinger, G.; Brockhaus, M.; Skutsch, M.

2014-07-01

54

Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

1980-05-09

55

A fuel economy optimization system with applications in vehicles with human drivers and autonomous vehicles  

E-print Network

A fuel economy optimization system with applications in vehicles with human drivers and autonomous University of New York, Buffalo, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Vehicle fuel economy Eco-driving Human developed and validated a new fuel-economy optimization system (FEOS), which receives input from vehicle

Wu, Changxu (Sean)

56

Interactive Clothes Design Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a clothes design support system. Interactive Genetic Algorithms are applied to the support system in order\\u000a to reflect userss Kansei to clothes design. The system presents several designed clothes candidates to a user and a user\\u000a evaluates them. According to users evaluation, the system gives genetic algorithms (GA) operations, selection, crossover\\u000a and mutations, to clothes candidates. Repeating

Yuki Ogata; Takehisa Onisawa

2007-01-01

57

Detection of Driver Drowsiness Using Wavelet Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and a Support Vector Machine Classifier  

PubMed Central

Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO) classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use. PMID:24316564

Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

2013-01-01

58

Detection of driver drowsiness using wavelet analysis of heart rate variability and a support vector machine classifier.  

PubMed

Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO) classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use. PMID:24316564

Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

2013-01-01

59

System Support for Online Reconfiguration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online reconfiguration provides a way to extend and re- place active operating system components. This pro- vides administrators, developers, applications, and the system itself with a way to update code, adapt to chang- ing workloads, pinpoint performance problems, and per- form a variety of other tasks while the system is running. With generic support for interposition and hot-swapping, a system

Craig A. N. Soules; Jonathan Appavoo; Kevin Hui; Robert W. Wisniewski; Dilma Da Silva; Gregory R. Ganger; Orran Krieger; Michael Stumm; Marc A. Auslander; Michal Ostrowski; Bryan S. Rosenburg; Jimi Xenidis

2003-01-01

60

Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

Roman, Monserrate C.

2009-01-01

61

Transportation efficiency support systems  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade, the steel industry in the US has been severely affected by depressed markets, overcapacity and economic turmoil. The Timken Co., a domestic manufacturer of alloy steel products, has continued to invest in its steel business to maintain its position in the markets it serves. Through a successful business-wide effort, continuous improvement has become a driving force in the company's ability to compete in today's global economy. The TESYS computer system is one initiative that is providing productivity dividends for The Timken Co. This computer system optimizes the radio dispatch of trucks transporting material among production departments and storage facilities in the company's three plants in the Canton area. The system is designed for transportation environments where a dispatch center is responsible for the timely and efficient execution of move orders between various in-plant or inter-plant locations. Compared to decentralized vehicles searching for loads within limited areas of responsibility, a centralized real-time truck dispatch is often more efficient in many ways: pooled resources reduce the total number of vehicles and personnel needed to service the plant; service reliability increases and workload pattern is optimized by leveling peaks and conforming to requester requirements; and computerized materials tracking improves reliability and can remove tedious manual inventory control functions.

Bowman, S.A. (Timken Co., Canton, OH (United States)); Weiler, A. (Inform Software Corp., Evanston, IL (United States))

1993-09-01

62

Sensitivities of projected 1980 photovoltaic system costs to major system cost drivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensitivity of projected 1990 photovoltaic (PV) system costs to major system cost drivers was examined. It includes: (1) module costs and module efficiencies; (2) area related balance of system (BOS) costs; (3) inverter costs and efficiencies; and (4) module marketing and distribution markups and system integration fees. Recent PV system cost experiences and the high costs of electricity from the systems are reviewed. The 1990 system costs are projected for five classes of PV systems, including four ground mounted 5-MWp systems and one residential 5-kWp system. System cost projections are derived by first projecting costs and efficiencies for all subsystems and components. Sensitivity analyses reveal that reductions in module cost and engineering and system integration fees seem to have the greatest potential for contributing to system cost reduction. Although module cost is clearly the prime candidate for fruitful PV research and development activities, engineering and system integration fees seem to be more amenable to reduction through appropriate choice of system size and market strategy. Increases in inverter and module efficiency yield significant benefits, especially for systems with high area related costs.

Zimmerman, L. W.; Smith, J. L.

1984-01-01

63

Emergence of multiple ocean ecosystem drivers in a large ensemble suite with an earth system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystems are increasingly impacted by human-induced changes. Ocean ecosystem drivers - including warming, acidification, deoxygenation and perturbations to biological productivity - can co-occur in space and time, but detecting their trends is complicated by the presence of noise associated with natural variability in the climate system. Here we use Large Initial-Condition Ensemble Simulations with a comprehensive Earth System Model under a historical/RCP8.5 pathway over 1950-2100 to consider emergence characteristics for the four individual and combined drivers. Using a one-standard deviation (67% confidence) threshold of signal-to-noise to define emergence with a 30 yr trend window, we show that ocean acidification emerges much earlier than other drivers, namely during the 20th century over most of the global ocean. For biological productivity, the anthropogenic signal does not emerge from the noise over most of the global ocean before the end of the 21st century. The early emergence pattern for sea surface temperature in low latitudes is reversed from that of subsurface oxygen inventories, where emergence occurs earlier in the Southern Ocean. For the combined multiple-driver field, 41% of the global ocean exhibits emergence for the 2005-2014 period, and 63% for the 2075-2084 period. The combined multiple-driver field reveals emergence patterns by the end of this century that are relatively high over much of the Southern Ocean, North Pacific, and Atlantic, but relatively low over the tropics and the South Pacific. In regions with pronounced emergence characteristics, marine ecosystems can be expected to be pushed outside of their comfort zone determined by the degree of natural background variability to which they are adapted. The results here thus have implications not only for optimization of the ocean observing system, but also for risk assessment and mitigation strategies.

Rodgers, K. B.; Lin, J.; Frlicher, T. L.

2014-12-01

64

Behavioral adaptation of young and older drivers to an intersection crossing advisory system.  

PubMed

An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about the right of way regulation and safety to cross an upcoming intersection. Effects were studied in a longer-term study involving 18 healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 18 healthy young drivers between the ages of 20 and 25 years. Participants repeatedly drove 25 km city routes in eight sessions on separate days over a period of two months in a driving simulator. In each age group, participants were randomly assigned to the control (no ADAS) and treatment (ADAS) group. The control group completed the whole experiment without the ADAS. The treatment group drove two sessions without (sessions 1 and 7) and six times with ADAS. Results indicate effects of ADAS on driving safety for young and older drivers, as intersection time and percentage of stops decreased, speed and critical intersection crossings increased, the number of crashes was lower for treatment groups than for control groups. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. PMID:25463941

Dotzauer, Mandy; de Waard, Dick; Caljouw, Simone R; Phler, Gloria; Brouwer, Wiebo H

2015-01-01

65

OPTO-22 DRIVER. OPTO-22 Driver for LabView  

SciTech Connect

OPTO-22 DRIVER consists of a set of LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) virtual instruments (VIs) that handle low-level communications with signal conditioning equipment by Opto-22 (Huntington Beach, CA). The OPTOMUX protocol is support, which requires the use of a serial port and supports multidrop communications. With this package, users can connect hundreds of Opto-22 modules to their LabVIEW system and access all features of the hardware, including analog and digital input and outputs.

Johnson, G.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-01-28

66

Systems analysis of eleven rodent disease models reveals an inflammatome signature and key drivers  

PubMed Central

Common inflammatome gene signatures as well as disease-specific signatures were identified by analyzing 12 expression profiling data sets derived from 9 different tissues isolated from 11 rodent inflammatory disease models. The inflammatome signature significantly overlaps with known drug targets and co-expressed gene modules linked to metabolic disorders and cancer. A large proportion of genes in this signature are tightly connected in tissue-specific Bayesian networks (BNs) built from multiple independent mouse and human cohorts. Both the inflammatome signature and the corresponding consensus BNs are highly enriched for immune response-related genes supported as causal for adiposity, adipokine, diabetes, aortic lesion, bone, muscle, and cholesterol traits, suggesting the causal nature of the inflammatome for a variety of diseases. Integration of this inflammatome signature with the BNs uncovered 151 key drivers that appeared to be more biologically important than the non-drivers in terms of their impact on disease phenotypes. The identification of this inflammatome signature, its network architecture, and key drivers not only highlights the shared etiology but also pinpoints potential targets for intervention of various common diseases. PMID:22806142

Wang, I-Ming; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xia; Zhu, Jun; Stepaniants, Serguei; Zhang, Chunsheng; Meng, Qingying; Peters, Mette; He, Yudong; Ni, Chester; Slipetz, Deborah; Crackower, Michael A; Houshyar, Hani; Tan, Christopher M; Asante-Appiah, Ernest; O'Neill, Gary; Jane Luo, Mingjuan; Thieringer, Rolf; Yuan, Jeffrey; Chiu, Chi-Sung; Yee Lum, Pek; Lamb, John; Boie, Yves; Wilkinson, Hilary A; Schadt, Eric E; Dai, Hongyue; Roberts, Christopher

2012-01-01

67

ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

S. Roy

2004-06-24

68

Mobile mine roof support system  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a mobile self-propelled mine roof support system employing pairs of individually self-propelled roof support units movable along opposite ribs of a mine room to follow an advancing mine face. Each support unit comprises an elongated, wheel-mounted frame positioned along the adjacent rib. Pairs of vertical jacks are connected to opposite sides of the frame, being positioned loosely, and vertically movable, within oversize openings in brackets attached to the frame. A foot plate is universally pivotally attached to the lower ends of each pair of jacks and extends across the underside of the frame. A top-supporting canopy is universally pivotally attached across the upper ends of each pair of jacks and has an overhanging portion extending cantileverly into the room toward the opposite support unit. The jacks have external flanges engagable with the brackets. When the jacks fully retract the foot plate from the mine bottom upwardly against the underside of the frame, the entire assembly including the canopies is clamped rigidly between the brackets and the underside of the frame to lock the canopies to the frame for tramming. After the pairs of jacks press the foot plates downwardly against the bottom, the jacks shift upwardly to disengage their external flanges from the brackets and to press the canopies against the mine top. In an alternate embodiment, the ends of the canopies of the opposite roof support units are interconnected by wire ropes or chains and tensioned by hydraulic cylinders to support the top at the center of the room. A horizontally swingable inbye section of the frame has at least one canopy to continuously support the top when the mining operation changes direction, as when it makes a breakthrough from one room to another.

Nelson, R.C.

1981-12-29

69

Structural support, not insulation, is the primary driver for avian cup-shaped nest design  

PubMed Central

The nest micro-environment is a widely studied area of avian biology, however, the contribution of nest conductance (the inverse of insulation) to the energetics of the incubating adult and offspring has largely been overlooked. Surface-specific thermal conductance (W C?1 cm?2) has been related to nest dimensions, wall porosity, height above-ground and altitude, but the most relevant measure is total conductance (G, W C?1). This study is the first to analyse conductance allometrically with adult body mass (M, g), according to the form G = aMb. We propose three alternative hypotheses to explain the scaling of conductance. The exponent may emerge from: heat loss scaling (M0.48) in which G scales with the same exponent as thermal conductance of the adult bird, isometric scaling (M0.33) in which nest shape is held constant as parent mass increases, and structural scaling (M0.25) in which nests are designed to support a given adult mass. Data from 213 cup-shaped nests, from 36 Australian species weighing 8360 g, show conductance is proportional to M0.25. This allometric exponent is significantly different from those expected for heat loss and isometric scaling and confirms the hypothesis that structural support for the eggs and incubating parent is the primary factor driving nest design. PMID:21325330

Heenan, Caragh B.; Seymour, Roger S.

2011-01-01

70

A new audio device driver abstraction Dickon Reed  

E-print Network

A new audio device driver abstraction Dickon Reed Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge­ ence ``Networks and Operating Systems Support for distributed audio and video'', 1998 Traditional audio device drivers are unable to pro­ vide low latency audio services and often do not pro­ vide audio mixing

Hand, Steven

71

Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

2010-01-01

72

Anti-lock brake system: an assessment of training on driver effectiveness.  

PubMed

When activated correctly, Anti-Lock Brake Systems (ABS) can provide drivers with the ability to stop a vehicle in shorter distances and allow for more vehicle control under heavy braking than conventional brake systems. This is especially true under wet or icy road conditions. However, it is believed that many drivers are either unaware of the correct method of activation or they revert back to the old method of pumping the brakes when they are faced with a hard braking situation. This paper examines the effectiveness of implementing low-cost training methods for alerting drivers to the correct brake activation technique. A 4-page, color training pamphlet was developed and subjects were given a short period of time to read it over before being asked to drive on an icy test track. Results indicated that those subjects who received the training were able to stop in shorter distances in a straight line braking event and more often used the correct brake activation technique than those subjects who did not receive the training. However, the stopping distance benefits were not realized in the curved and surprise braking events. These results suggest that the transfer of verbal knowledge may have value as a means for solving the apparent problem of improper ABS usage. However, some additional research should be done to validate these results. Since this experiment was conducted directly after the material was read, the possibility exists that without reinforcement, the trained braking techniques might become extinct in a short period of time. PMID:9110044

Mollenhauer, M A; Dingus, T A; Carney, C; Hankey, J M; Jahns, S

1997-01-01

73

UK innovation systems for new and renewable energy technologies: drivers, barriers and systems failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of the systemic processes by which innovation occurs is useful, both conceptually and to inform policy-making in support of innovation in more sustainable technologies. This paper analyses current innovation systems in the UK for a range of new and renewable energy technologies, and generates policy recommendations for improving the effectiveness of these innovation systems. Although incentives are

T. J. Foxon; R. Gross; A. Chase; J. Howes; A. Arnall; D. Anderson

2005-01-01

74

Modeling Advance Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

1996-01-01

75

Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

1994-01-01

76

Satellite operations support expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

1985-01-01

77

Human-factors engineering for smart transport: Decision support for car drivers and train traffic controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate humansystem symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual manmachine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering

Dick Lenior; Wiel Janssen; Mark Neerincx; Kirsten Schreibers

2006-01-01

78

Human-factors engineering for smart transport: Decision support for car drivers and train traffic controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate human-system symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual man-machine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering

Dick Leniora

79

Cancer systems biology of TCGA SKCM: Efficient detection of genomic drivers in melanoma.  

PubMed

We characterized the mutational landscape of human skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We analyzed next-generation sequencing data of somatic copy number alterations and somatic mutations in 303 metastatic melanomas. We were able to confirm preeminent drivers of melanoma as well as identify new melanoma genes. The TCGA SKCM study confirmed a dominance of somatic BRAF mutations in 50% of patients. The mutational burden of melanoma patients is an order of magnitude higher than of other TCGA cohorts. A multi-step filter enriched somatic mutations while accounting for recurrence, conservation, and basal rate. Thus, this filter can serve as a paradigm for analysis of genome-wide next-generation sequencing data of large cohorts with a high mutational burden. Analysis of TCGA melanoma data using such a multi-step filter discovered novel and statistically significant potential melanoma driver genes. In the context of the Pan-Cancer study we report a detailed analysis of the mutational landscape of BRAF and other drivers across cancer tissues. Integrated analysis of somatic mutations, somatic copy number alterations, low pass copy numbers, and gene expression of the melanogenesis pathway shows coordination of proliferative events by Gs-protein and cyclin signaling at a systems level. PMID:25600636

Guan, Jian; Gupta, Rohit; Filipp, Fabian V

2015-01-01

80

Cancer systems biology of TCGA SKCM: Efficient detection of genomic drivers in melanoma  

PubMed Central

We characterized the mutational landscape of human skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We analyzed next-generation sequencing data of somatic copy number alterations and somatic mutations in 303 metastatic melanomas. We were able to confirm preeminent drivers of melanoma as well as identify new melanoma genes. The TCGA SKCM study confirmed a dominance of somatic BRAF mutations in 50% of patients. The mutational burden of melanoma patients is an order of magnitude higher than of other TCGA cohorts. A multi-step filter enriched somatic mutations while accounting for recurrence, conservation, and basal rate. Thus, this filter can serve as a paradigm for analysis of genome-wide next-generation sequencing data of large cohorts with a high mutational burden. Analysis of TCGA melanoma data using such a multi-step filter discovered novel and statistically significant potential melanoma driver genes. In the context of the Pan-Cancer study we report a detailed analysis of the mutational landscape of BRAF and other drivers across cancer tissues. Integrated analysis of somatic mutations, somatic copy number alterations, low pass copy numbers, and gene expression of the melanogenesis pathway shows coordination of proliferative events by Gs-protein and cyclin signaling at a systems level. PMID:25600636

Guan, Jian; Gupta, Rohit; Filipp, Fabian V.

2015-01-01

81

Teen Driver Safety: Additional Research Could Help States Strengthen Graduated Driver Licensing Systems. Report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and Its Subcommittee on Highways and Transit, House of Representatives. GAO-10-544  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teen drivers ages 16 to 20 have the highest fatality rate of any age group in the United States. As a result, states have increasingly adopted laws to limit teen driving exposure, such as Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) systems, which consist of three stages: a learner's permit allowing driving only under supervision; intermediate licensure

Fleming, Susan A.

2010-01-01

82

Regenerative life support system research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

1988-01-01

83

Space Transportation System (STS): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for emergency support of the Space Transportation System (STS) are summarized. Coverage would be provided by the DSN during emergencies that would prevent communications between the shuttle and the White Sands TDRSS receiving station. The DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

Janoski, T.; Nicholson, L.

1991-01-01

84

Safe driving in a green world: a review of driver performance benchmarks and technologies to support 'smart' driving.  

PubMed

Road transport is a significant source of both safety and environmental concerns. With climate change and fuel prices increasingly prominent on social and political agendas, many drivers are turning their thoughts to fuel efficient or 'green' (i.e., environmentally friendly) driving practices. Many vehicle manufacturers are satisfying this demand by offering green driving feedback or advice tools. However, there is a legitimate concern regarding the effects of such devices on road safety--both from the point of view of change in driving styles, as well as potential distraction caused by the in-vehicle feedback. In this paper, we appraise the benchmarks for safe and green driving, concluding that whilst they largely overlap, there are some specific circumstances in which the goals are in conflict. We go on to review current and emerging in-vehicle information systems which purport to affect safe and/or green driving, and discuss some fundamental ergonomics principles for the design of such devices. The results of the review are being used in the Foot-LITE project, aimed at developing a system to encourage 'smart'--that is safe and green--driving. PMID:20863480

Young, Mark S; Birrell, Stewart A; Stanton, Neville A

2011-05-01

85

Skylab food system laboratory support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

Sanford, D.

1974-01-01

86

Systems simulations supporting NASA telerobotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two simulation and analysis environments have been developed to support telerobotics research at the Langley Research Center. One is a high-fidelity, nonreal-time, interactive model called ROBSIM, which combines user-generated models of workspace environment, robots, and loads into a working system and simulates the interaction among the system components. Models include user-specified actuator, sensor, and control parameters, as well as kinematic and dynamic characteristics. Kinematic, dynamic, and response analyses can be selected, with system configuration, task trajectories, and arm states displayed using computer graphics. The second environment is a real-time, manned Telerobotic Systems Simulation (TRSS) which uses the facilities of the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). It utilizes a hierarchical structure of functionally distributed computers communicating over both parallel and high-speed serial data paths to enable studies of advanced telerobotic systems. Multiple processes perform motion planning, operator communications, forward and inverse kinematics, control/sensor fusion, and I/O processing while communicating via common memory. Both ROBSIM and TRSS, including their capability, status, and future plans are discussed. Also described is the architecture of ISRL and recent telerobotic system studies in ISRL.

Harrison, F. W., Jr.; Pennington, J. E.

1987-01-01

87

Systems simulations supporting NASA telerobotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two simulation and analysis environments have been developed to support telerobotics research at the Langley Research Center. One is a high-fidelity, nonreal-time, interactive model called ROBSIM, which combines user-generated models of workspace environment, robots, and loads into a working system and simulates the interaction among the system components. Models include user-specified actuator, sensor, and control parameters, as well as kinematic and dynamic characteristics. Kinematic, dynamic, and response analyses can be selected, with system configuration, task trajectories, and arm states displayed using computer graphics. The second environment is a real-time, manned Telerobotic Systems Simulation (TRSS) which uses the facilities of the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). It utilizes a hierarchical structure of functionally distributed computers communicating over both parallel and high-speed serial data paths to enable studies of advanced telerobotic systems. Multiple processes perform motion planning, operator communications, forward and inverse kinematics, control/sensor fusion, and I/O processing while communicating via common memory. This paper describes both ROBSIM and TRSS, including their capability, status, and future plans. Also described is the architecture of ISRL and recent telerobotic system studies in ISRL.

Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.; Pennington, Jack E.

1987-01-01

88

Tracking Systems to Support the Common Lunar Lander (CLL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion of the tracking system for Artemis (the Common Lunar Lander) is presented. Among the topics presented are the following: major drivers for system definition, results of vendor survey, baseline system properties, program considerations, and mission phases requiring tracking.

Culpepper, William X.

1991-01-01

89

Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: A systems approach to the management of distracted driving.  

PubMed

Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving. PMID:24767853

Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

2015-01-01

90

Designing driver assistance systems with crossmodal signals: multisensory integration rules for saccadic reaction times apply.  

PubMed

Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror), presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel) was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic "time window of integration" model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target-nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed. PMID:24800823

Steenken, Rike; Weber, Lars; Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

2014-01-01

91

Designing Driver Assistance Systems with Crossmodal Signals: Multisensory Integration Rules for Saccadic Reaction Times Apply  

PubMed Central

Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror), presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel) was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic time window of integration model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on targetnontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed. PMID:24800823

Steenken, Rike; Weber, Lars; Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

2014-01-01

92

Integration of decision support systems to improve decision support performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision support system (DSS) is a well-established research and development area. Traditional isolated, stand-alone DSS has been recently facing new challenges. In order to improve the performance of DSS to meet the challenges, research has been actively carried out to develop integrated decision support systems (IDSS). This paper reviews the current research efforts with regard to the development of IDSS.

Shaofeng Liu; Alex H. B. Duffy; Robert Ian Whitfield; Iain M. Boyle

2010-01-01

93

Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

Macas, R.; Garca, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Brags, R.; Fernndez, M.

2013-04-01

94

[Work with night shift as a factor dysregulation of autonomic nervous system of locomotive drivers].  

PubMed

Work with night shift is an obligate necessity of modem industrial urban society. In developed countries in the work on the night shift use up to 20%. These categories of workers are definitely the locomotive drivers. The consequence of a regular work with night shifts is a violation of human circadian rhythms, which, through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system, is reflected in a greater risk of disease and transport accidents. The need to find ways and criteria of preventive monitoring dysregulatory changes in the human body is an urgent and challenging issue in terms of the health of the working population, disease prevention, and transportation security. PMID:23805720

Merkulov, Y A; Pyatkov, A A; Merkulova, D M

2013-01-01

95

A Preliminary Study on the Possibility of Using Ultrasound in Driver Assistance Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a preliminary study on the possibility of using ultrasound in driver assistance systems. Subjects' lap time in a driving video game was measured as an index of their performance of driving operations under acoustic conditions with and without an ultrasound signal at 23kHz, 70dB. The results show that the performance characteristics of the subjects changed when the ultrasound signal was presented. Ultrasound signal tends to concentrate on handling the vehicle and decreasing an attention to check the over speed driving, as a second task. We prove the possibility to apply ultrasound signal to control operator's attention and behavior.

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Honda, Hirohiko

96

Older Drivers  

MedlinePLUS

... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

97

Dingo: Taming Device Drivers  

E-print Network

Device drivers are notorious for being a major source of failure in operating systems. In analysing a sample of real defects in Linux drivers, we found that a large proportion (39%) of bugs are due to two key shortcomings in the device-driver architecture enforced by current operating systems: poorly-defined communication protocols between drivers and the OS, which confuse developers and lead to protocol violations, and a multithreaded model of computation that leads to numerous race conditions and deadlocks. We claim that a better device driver architecture can help reduce the occurrence of these faults, and present our Dingo framework as constructive proof. Dingo provides a formal, state-machine based, language for describing driver protocols, which avoids confusion and ambiguity, and helps driver writers implement correct behaviour. It also enforces an event-driven model of computation, which eliminates most concurrency-related faults. Our implementation of the Dingo architecture in Linux offers these improvements, while introducing negligible performance overhead. It allows Dingo and native Linux drivers to coexist, providing a gradual migration path to more reliable device drivers.

Leonidf Ryzhyk; et al.

2009-01-01

98

Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver/vehicle system performance in discrete maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of discrete maneuver tasks were used to evaluate the effects of steering gain and directional mode dynamic parameters on driver/vehicle responses. The importance and ranking of these parameters were evaluated through changes in subjective driver ratings and performance measures obtained from transient maneuvers such as a double lane change, an emergency lane change, and an unexpected obstacle. The unexpected obstacle maneuver proved more sensitive to individual driver differences than to vehicle differences. Results were based on full scale tests with an experienced test driver evaluating many different dynamic configurations plus seventeen ordinary drivers evaluating six key configurations.

Klein, R. H.; Mcruer, D. T.

1975-01-01

99

Design of a hardware/software FPGA-based driver system for a large area high resolution CCD image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hardware/software field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based driver system was proposed and demonstrated for the KAF-39000 large area high resolution charge coupled device (CCD). The requirements of the KAF-39000 driver system were analyzed. The structure of "microprocessor with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips" was implemented to design the driver system. The system test results showed that dual channels of imaging analog data were obtained with a frame rate of 0.87 frame/s. The frequencies of horizontal timing and vertical timing were 22.9 MHz and 28.7 kHz, respectively, which almost reached the theoretical value of 24 MHz and 30 kHz, respectively.

Chen, Ying; Xu, Wanpeng; Zhao, Rongsheng; Chen, Xiangning

2014-09-01

100

Torsional Angle Driver (TorAD) System for HyperChem/Excel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The torsional angle driver system for HyperChem/Excel is a package of several Excel spreadsheets and macro programs to be used with HyperChem to obtain and plot information, such as total energy, for the conformations that result from a 360 rotation about a torsional angle system in a molecule. The TorAD system also includes several HyperChem scripts to facilitate its use. TorAD was developed for use in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. The results obtained with TorAD could be obtained manually with HyperChem, but it would take considerable time and would not be instructive to the students. Use of the TorAD system allows students to spend their time on the more important aspect of conformation analysisinterpretation of results. The Excel spreadsheet/macro programs in TorAD include:

Tor_xl_a and tor_xl obtain and plot the total energy at 5 torsional-angle intervals. The calculation method, the torsional-angle restraint, and the structure to be used at each angle can be set by the user. The advanced version, tor_xl_a, which requires HyperChem 4.5 or later, also allows torsional-angle structures to be saved for later recall as individual structures or, using a HyperChem script, in a movie format. It also provides a rapid scan of the 360 rotation where only single-point calculations, rather than geometry optimizations, are performed. The tor_xl system will perform routine tasks in a manner suitable for most instructional settings. Tor_Comp performs molecular mechanics optimizations at 5 intervals and obtains and plots four energy parameters (total, torsional, nonbonded, and bond [bend plus stretch] energy) as a function of torsional angle. The calculation method and the restraint can be specified. TorDipol produces a plot of the total energy and the calculated dipole moment at 5 steps of the torsional angle. The default calculation is the semi-empirical AM1 method, but other methods can be used. The calculation method and the restraint can be specified. Tor2_180 and Tor2_360 rotate two torsional angles to provide a 3D plot of the resulting total energy surface. Tor2_180 performs a 0 to 180 rotation, in 10 steps, on each of the two torsional angle systems (tor1 and tor2) selected. Tor2_360 will do a -180 to +180 (360 total) rotation of the two torsional angles in 20 steps.
Both tor2_180 and tor2_360 provide an x, y, z plot (x = angle 1, y = angle 2, z = energy) and a topo plot (x = angle 1, y = angle 2, z = topo lines and color coding). The molecular mechanics method and the restraint can be specified. Hardware and Software Requirement Hardware and software requirements for Torsional Angle Driver (TorAD) are shown in Table 1. These programs require a version of HyperChem 4.0 or later that supports DDE. Also required is Microsoft Excel 5.0 or higher. HyperChem and Excel are not included with the issue.
Ordering and Information JCE Software is a publication of the Journal of Chemical Education. There is an order form inserted in this issue that provides prices and other ordering information. If this card is not available or if you need additional information, contact: JCE Software, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706-1396 phone: 608/262-5153 or 800/991-5534 fax: 608/265-8094; email: jcesoft@chem.wisc.edu Information about all of our publications (including abstracts, descriptions, updates) is available from the JCE Software World Wide Web site.

Starkey, Ronald

1999-02-01

101

Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

Brush, Harold T.

1986-01-01

102

Decision support system for fire support command and control  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a computer based intelligent decision aid system called BATTLE, developed for the United States Marine Corps. Its objective is to improve the marine integrated fire and air support system (MIFASS) by providing recommendations for the allocation of a set of weapons to a set of targets. The key to the MIFASS concept is the forward observer (FO) equipped with a digital communications terminal (DCT) with burst communication to provide for the establishment of fire and air support centers to plan, integrate, direct, and coordinate the fires of supporting arms. The information provided by the FO can be used by BATTLE for its allocation task. 8 references.

Gaynor, M.W.; Hamburger, H.

1983-08-01

103

Conceptual Design Studies of a Laser Diode Pumped Solid State Laser System for the Laser Fusion Reactor Driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a conceptual designing technique of a laser diode pumped solid state laser system having high peak power, high efficiency, good beam quality, and high repetition rate. Using this technique, we evaluated the feasibility of the systems with several solid state laser materials for the laser fusion reactor driver with 10 MJ blue output, 10% overall efficiency, and

Kenta Naito; Masanobu Yamanaka; Masahiro Nakatsuka; Tadashi Kanabe; Kunioki Mima; Chiyoe Yamanaka; Sadao Nakai

1992-01-01

104

Creating Systems to Support Outreach Scholarship  

E-print Network

Systems Systems General Environment Industry Structure Design Components Culture Organization organization members · Measurement systems ­ Methods of gathering, assessing, and disseminating informationCreating Systems to Support Outreach Scholarship Patricia Book, Kent State University Hiram

105

Bioregenerative life-support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

Mitchell, C. A.

1994-01-01

106

Selection of shuttle payload data processing drivers for the data system new technology study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of all payloads in the IBM disciplines and the selection of driver payloads within each discipline are described. The driver payloads were selected on the basis of their data processing requirements. These requirements are measured by a weighting scheme. The total requirements for each discipline are estimated by use of the technology payload model. The driver selection process which was both a payload by payload comparison and a comparison of expected groupings of payloads was examined.

1976-01-01

107

DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

In Phase 1 of this research, we will identify existing tools, methods, and models available to support establishment of cause-effect relationships. In Phase 2, we will investigate existing decision support systems and produce an appropriate decision support system design. Based ...

108

Backing collisions: a study of drivers eye and backing behaviour using combined rear-view camera and sensor systems  

PubMed Central

Context Backing crash injures can be severe; approximately 200 of the 2,500 reported injuries of this type per year to children under the age of 15 years result in death. Technology for assisting drivers when backing has limited success in preventing backing crashes. Objectives Two questions are addressed: Why is the reduction in backing crashes moderate when rear-view cameras are deployed? Could rear-view cameras augment sensor systems? Design 46 drivers (36 experimental, 10 control) completed 16 parking trials over 2 days (eight trials per day). Experimental participants were provided with a sensor camera system, controls were not. Three crash scenarios were introduced. Setting Parking facility at UMass Amherst, USA. Subjects 46 drivers (33 men, 13 women) average age 29 years, who were Massachusetts residents licensed within the USA for an average of 9.3 years. Interventions Vehicles equipped with a rear-view camera and sensor system-based parking aid. Main Outcome Measures Subjects eye fixations while driving and researchers observation of collision with objects during backing. Results Only 20% of drivers looked at the rear-view camera before backing, and 88% of those did not crash. Of those who did not look at the rear-view camera before backing, 46% looked after the sensor warned the driver. Conclusions This study indicates that drivers not only attend to an audible warning, but will look at a rear-view camera if available. Evidence suggests that when used appropriately, rear-view cameras can mitigate the occurrence of backing crashes, particularly when paired with an appropriate sensor system. PMID:20363812

Hurwitz, David S; Pradhan, Anuj; Fisher, Donald L; Knodler, Michael A; Muttart, Jeffrey W; Menon, Rajiv; Meissner, Uwe

2012-01-01

109

Using an Event-Triggered Video Intervention System to Expand the Supervised Learning of Newly Licensed Adolescent Drivers  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether feedback from an event-triggered video intervention system reduced the number of safety-relevant driving errors made by newly licensed adolescents. Methods. We used a 1-group pretestposttest quasi-experimental design to compare the rate of coachable error events per 1000 miles for 18 drivers who were aged 16 years. The intervention consisted of immediate visual feedback provided to the drivers and weekly event reports and videos provided to the drivers and their parents. Results. The number of coachable events was reduced by 61% overall during the intervention (?2 = 11.42; P = .001) and did not significantly increase during the second baseline, which was assessed after the intervention ended (?2 = 1.49; P = .223). The greatest reduction was seen in the category of improper turns or curves and for drivers identified at the first baseline as high-event drivers. Conclusions. Our results show that immediate visual feedback for adolescents and cumulative video feedback for parents and adolescents during the early period of independent driving can have a dramatic influence on the rate of safety-relevant driving events. To the extent that such events are a proxy for crash risk, we suggest that feedback can enhance adolescent driving safety. PMID:20395588

Carney, Cher; Lee, John D.; Reyes, Michelle L.; Raby, Mireille

2010-01-01

110

Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding\\u000a of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems sustainability\\u000a is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems\\u000a in eastern Uganda from 1960

Peter Ebanyat; Nico de Ridder; Andre de Jager; Robert J. Delve; Mateete A. Bekunda; Ken E. Giller

2010-01-01

111

Motivation for continuous haptic gas pedal feedback to support car following  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last years, increased effort has been dedicated to the design of systems that assist the driver in car following. The need for assistance systems arises from the fallibility of the visual feedback loop, for example due to inattention. Existing driver assistance systems either automate the car-following task or support drivers with binary warning systems to redirect their attention when

David A. Abbink; Erwin R. Boer; Mark Mulder

2008-01-01

112

Integration of Computer-Based Virtual Check Ride System--Pre-Trip Inspection in Commercial Driver License Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Pre-Trip Inspection" of the truck and trailer is one of the components of the current Commercial Driver's License (CDL) test. This part of the CDL test checks the ability of the student to identify the important parts of the commercial vehicle and their potential defects. The "Virtual Check Ride System" (VCRS), a computer-based application, is an

Makwana, Alpesh P.

2009-01-01

113

Data Fusion to Develop a Driver Drowsiness Detection System with Robustness to Signal Loss  

PubMed Central

This study proposes a drowsiness detection approach based on the combination of several different detection methods, with robustness to the input signal loss. Hence, if one of the methods fails for any reason, the whole system continues to work properly. To choose correct combination of the available methods and to utilize the benefits of methods of different categories, an image processing-based technique as well as a method based on driver-vehicle interaction is used. In order to avoid driving distraction, any use of an intrusive method is prevented. A driving simulator is used to gather real data and then artificial neural networks are used in the structure of the designed system. Several tests were conducted on twelve volunteers while their sleeping situations during one day prior to the tests, were fully under control. Although the impact of the proposed system on the improvement of the detection accuracy is not remarkable, the results indicate the main advantages of the system are the reliability of the detections and robustness to the loss of the input signals. The high reliability of the drowsiness detection systems plays an important role to reduce drowsiness related road accidents and their associated costs. PMID:25256113

Samiee, Sajjad; Azadi, Shahram; Kazemi, Reza; Nahvi, Ali; Eichberger, Arno

2014-01-01

114

Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

Macelroy, R. D. (editor); Smernoff, D. T. (editor); Klein, H. P. (editor)

1985-01-01

115

Plans in Decision Support Systems and Decisions in Planning Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klosterman (1997), among others, distinguishes between information systems that support planning and those that support decisions. One of the key dierences that is identified is that Decision Support Systems (DSS) cater to a short term pol- icy making decisions by single organisation acting alone, where as Planning Support Systems (PSS) are meant to facilitate collaborative long term strategic choice. In

Nikhil Kaza

116

An Active Substrate Driver for Enabling Mixed-Voltage SOI Systems-On-A-Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current trend for space application systems is towards fully integrated systems-on-a-chip. To facilitate this drive, high-voltage transistors must reside on the same substrate as low-voltage transistors. These systems must also be radiation tolerant, particularly for space missions such as the Europa Lander and Titan Explorer. SOI CMOS technology offers high levels of radiation hardness. As a result, a high-voltage lateral MOSFET has been developed in a partially-depleted (PD) SOI technology. Utilizing high voltages causes a parasitic transistor to have non-negligible effects on a circuit. Several circuit architectures have been used to compensate for the radiation induced threshold voltage shift of the parasitic back-channel transistor. However, a new architecture for high-voltage systems must be employed to bias the substrate to voltage levels insuring all parasitic transistors remain off. An active substrate driver has been developed to accomplish task. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Jackson, S. A.; Blalock, B. J.; Mojarradi, M. M.; Li, H. W.

2001-01-01

117

Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems  

SciTech Connect

According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individuals cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

2007-08-01

118

Human volunteer and anthropomorphic dummy tests of driver air cushion system.  

PubMed

The dynamic impact tests at Southwest Research Institute for the first time exposed human volunteers to production-like driver air cushion system depolyments at impact levels equivalent to a 30 mph barrier crash (48 kph). No significant injury was produced. At no time was it necessary for the secondary restraint systems to be utilized and the entire program schedule was carried out as planned. All tests were conducted under the most safe and controlled conditions possible, and typify only what the air cushions might accomplish in direct, head-on impacts up to 30 mph (48 kph). In comparing the test results, the anthropomorphic dummies' response to impact was conservative compared to the human volunteers. These and other human volunteer tests were run to help understand what might be expected in real world driving conditions. To further understand the value of this new safety system, 1000 1973 Chevrolets were built and places in a high mileage fleet across the couhtry. They now have accumulated 41 millions miles of experience and have had 15 accidents of sufficient severity that the air cushion depolyed. This fleet was followed with 1974 vehicles with air cushions sold to the general public as an option. These cars, combined with the test fleet, have accumulated approximately 60 million miles and have a total of 25 depolyments with 34 occupants in the front seat. There has been one fatality in accidents involving these vehicles, a seven week old baby boy. The child was not restrained in any protective carrier. All other injuries have been classified AIS-1 except for three AIS-2. Facial injuries have been very minimal and there have been no known hearing impairments as a result of these accident situations. To date, the results have been encouraging but caution must be taken in their interpretation. The population of drivers is not to be considered normal. The 60 million miles may appear to be a large number, but only represents 25 minutes of driving time of the total U.S. car population in 1 year. PMID:1116324

Smith, G R; Gulash, E C; Baker, R G

1975-01-01

119

Flight software requirements and design support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The desirability and feasibility of computer-augmented support for the pre-implementation activities occurring during the development of flight control software was investigated. The specific topics to be investigated were the capabilities to be included in a pre-implementation support system for flight control software system development, and the specification of a preliminary design for such a system. Further, the pre-implementation support system was to be characterized and specified under the constraints that it: (1) support both description and assessment of flight control software requirements definitions and design specification; (2) account for known software description and assessment techniques; (3) be compatible with existing and planned NASA flight control software development support system; and (4) does not impose, but may encourage, specific development technologies. An overview of the results is given.

Riddle, W. E.; Edwards, B.

1980-01-01

120

Advanced driver assistance system for AHS over communication links with random packet dropouts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an advanced driver assist system (ADAS) for platoon based automated highway system (AHS) with packet loss in inter-vehicle communication. Using the concept of rigidity, we first show that vehicles in a platoon tend to fall apart in the event of a packet loss among vehicles. To overcome this, we propose an estimation based dynamic platooning algorithm which employs the state estimate to maintain the platoon. Communication among the vehicle is reduced by using minimum spanning tree (MST) in state estimation algorithm. Effectiveness of the proposed ADAS scheme is illustrated by simulation wherein, dynamic platoons of holonomic vehicles with integrator dynamics are considered. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed algorithm maintains the platoon up to a packet loss rate of 48%. State transmission scheme proposed in our algorithm has three significant advantages, they are: (1) it handles packet loss in inter-vehicle communication, (2) reduces the effect of error in measured output, and (3) reduces the inter-vehicle communication. These advantages significantly increase the reliability and safety of the AHS.

Srinivasan, Seshadhri; Ayyagari, Ramakalyan

2014-12-01

121

Fault-tolerant control design for trajectory tracking in driver assistance systems  

E-print Network

-lab, Grenoble Institute of Technology, France E-mail: {olivier moment control was proposed by Jianyong et al. (2007). Active steering and suspension controllers were National Office for Research and Technology through the project "Innovation of distributed driver

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Unmanned systems win unexpected support  

SciTech Connect

A review of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented in which emphasis is given to recent mission accomplishments and current directions of research. Existing and new military UAV programs are listed with reference to funding, the type of vehicle, and level of development. Several trends are established including the reliance of UVAs on global positioning satellites and advanced electronics and the growth of the UVA industry. UVAs that are in advanced stages of development or have been deployed include short-range UAV such as the Pioneer, the Pointer, the Sky Owl, and the Hunter. Key UAV systems are described such as the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System, the Maritime Vertical Takeoff and Landing, and other VTOL systems. Very small UVAs and Exdrones are also discussed, and a weather reconnaissance system and surveillance systems are mentioned.

Schneiderman, R.

1991-09-01

123

Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, July 19-20, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced group support systems and to identify the potential of these systems for use in future collaborative distributed design and synthesis environments. The presentations covered the current status and effectiveness of different group support systems.

Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

124

Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

1984-01-01

125

Driver circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A driver circuit which has low power requirements, a relatively small number of components and provides flexibility in output voltage setting. The driver circuit comprises, essentially, two portions which are selectively activated by the application of input signals. The output signal is determined by which of the two circuit portions is activated. While each of the two circuit portions operates in a manner similar to silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), the circuit portions are on only when an input signal is supplied thereto.

Matsumoto, Raymond T. (Inventor); Higashi, Stanley T. (Inventor)

1976-01-01

126

The environmental control and life-support system for a lunar base: What drives its design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify and briefly discuss some of the ground rules and mission scenario details that become drivers of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system design and of the logistics related to the design. This paper is written for mission planners and non-ECLS system engineers to inform them of the details that will be important to the ECLS engineer when the design phase is reached. In addition, examples illustrate the impact of some selected mission characteristics on the logistics associated with ECLS systems. The last section of this paper focuses on the ECLS system technology development sequence and highlights specific portions that need emphasis.

Hypes, Warren D.; Hall, John B., Jr.

1992-01-01

127

Network support for system initiated checkpoints  

DOEpatents

A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

2013-01-29

128

Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

1994-01-01

129

An Evaluation of Graduated Driver Licensing Effects on Fatal Crash Involvements of Young Drivers in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective Graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems are designed to reduce the high crash risk of young novice drivers. Almost all states in the United States have some form of a three-phased GDL system with various restrictions in the intermediate phase. Studies of the effects of GDL in various states show significant reductions in fatal crash involvements of 16- and 17-year-old drivers; however, only a few national studies of GDL effects have been published. The objective of this national panel study was to evaluate the effect of GDL laws on the fatal crash involvements of novice drivers while controlling for possible confounding factors not accounted for in prior studies. Methods The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) was used to examine 16- and 17-year-old driver involvement in fatal crashes (where GDL laws are applied) relative to two young driver age groups (19-20, 21-25) where GDL would not be expected to have an effect. Dates when various GDL laws were adopted in the states between 1990 and 2007 were coded from a variety of sources. Covariates in the longitudinal panel regression analyses conducted included four laws that could have an effect on 16- and 17-year-old drivers: primary enforcement seat belt laws, zero-tolerance (ZT) alcohol laws for drivers younger than age 21, lowering the blood alcohol concentration limit for driving to .08, and so-called use and lose laws where drivers aged 20 and younger lose their licenses for underage drinking violations. Results The adoption of a GDL law of average strength was associated with a significant decrease in fatal crash involvements of 16- and 17-year-old drivers relative to fatal crash involvements of one of the two comparison groups. GDL laws rated as good showed stronger relationships to fatal crash reductions, and laws rated as less than good showed no reductions in crash involvements relative to the older driver comparison groups. Conclusions States that adopt a basic GDL law can expect a decrease of 8 to 14% in the proportion of 16- and 17-year-old drivers involved in fatal crashes (relative to 21- to 25-year-old drivers), depending upon their other existing laws that affect novice drivers, such as those used in these analyses. This finding is consistent with recent national studies that used different outcome measures and covariates. The results of this study provide additional support for states to adopt, maintain, and upgrade GDL systems to reduce youthful traffic crash fatalities. PMID:21972851

Fell, James C.; Jones, Kristina; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert

2013-01-01

130

Design Rules for Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

Jones, Harry

2002-01-01

131

Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Design specifications. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow driver performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During Phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volume 2 presents the related appendices. Volume three (this report) displays the design specifications developed for DASCAR during the ``develop design requirements and specifications for a portable driver performance data acquisition system`` task. Design specifications were assembled for each DASCAR element. The specifications were prepared in sufficient detail to allow a third party to use them to design, develop, procure, and subsequently construct the data acquisition system. This report also covers the background to the program.

Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.

1998-01-01

132

Decision support system for theater missile defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military services require C4I systems that support a full spectrum of operations. This is specifically relevant to the theatre missile defense (TMD) mission planning and analysis community where there have been several recent concept changes; advancements in information technology, sensors, and weapons; and expansion in the diversity and capabilities of potential adversaries. To fully support campaign development and analysis in

Paul Gonsalves; Janet Burge; Ben Popp

2003-01-01

133

Closed-Loop Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

Fisher, John W.

2003-01-01

134

Authoring Support Framework for Intelligent Educational Systems  

E-print Network

Authoring Support Framework for Intelligent Educational Systems Lora AROYO1 and Riichiro MIZOGUCHI2@ei.sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp Abstract. In this paper we discuss how Semantic web concepts can be beneficial for the authoring support SmartTrainer [3] and AIMS [1]. Authoring Task Ontology (ATO) is envisioned as main driving force

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

135

Driver and Right-Front Passenger Restraint System Interaction, Injury Potential, and Thoracic Injury Prediction  

PubMed Central

Restrained driver and right-front passenger kinematics and injury outcome in frontal collisions are compared using FARS data and human cadaver sled tests. The FARS data indicate that a frontal airbag may provide greater benefit for a passenger than for a driver. The thoracic injuries sustained by passenger subjects restrained by a force-limited, pretensioned belt and airbag are evaluated, and kinematics are compared to driver-side subjects. The injury-predictive ability of existing thoracic injury criteria is evaluated for passenger-side occupants. Driver and passenger kinematic differences are identified and the implications are discussed. The chest acceleration of the passenger-side subjects exhibited a bimodal profile with an initial (and global) maximum before the subject loaded the airbag. A second acceleration peak occurred as the subject loaded both the belt and the airbag. A similarly restrained driver-side subject loaded the belt and airbag concurrently at the time of peak chest acceleration and therefore did not exhibit this biomodal chest acceleration. PMID:11558087

Kent, Richard W.; Crandall, Jeff R.; Bolton, James R.; Duma, Stefan M.

2000-01-01

136

Considerations Regarding the Development of an Environmental Control and Life Support System for Lunar Surface Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is engaged in early architectural analyses and trade studies aimed at identifying requirements, predicting performance and resource needs, characterizing mission constraints and sensitivities, and guiding technology development planning needed to conduct a successful human exploration campaign of the lunar surface. Conceptual designs and resource estimates for environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) within pressurized lunar surface habitats and rovers have been considered and compared in order to support these lunar campaign studies. This paper will summarize those concepts and some of the more noteworthy considerations that will likely remain as key drivers in the evolution of the lunar surface ECLSS architecture.

Bagdigian, Robert M.

2008-01-01

137

Reliability Evaluation of Defence Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The motivation for the preparation of this chapter is my wish to create an integrated introductory resource for the study\\u000a of the systems reliability principles based on Defence Supports Systems (DSS). The focus across the chapter created is the\\u000a support of design activities that lead to the production of dependable and efficient Defence equipments. Notwithstanding the\\u000a emphasis upon initial study,

R. K. Saket

138

Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

Roman, Monsi C.

2010-01-01

139

Climate data system supports FIRE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Climate Data System (NCDS) at Goddard Space Flight Center is serving as the FIRE Central Archive, providing a centralized data holding and data cataloging service for the FIRE project. NCDS members are carrying out their responsibilities by holding all reduced observations and data analysis products submitted by individual principal investigators in the agreed upon format, by holding all satellite data sets required for FIRE, by providing copies of any of these data sets to FIRE investigators, and by producing and updating a catalog with information about the FIRE holdings. FIRE researchers were requested to provide their reduced data sets in the Standard Data Format (SDF) to the FIRE Central Archive. This standard format is proving to be of value. An improved SDF document is now available. The document provides an example from an actual FIRE SDF data set and clearly states the guidelines for formatting data in SDF. NCDS has received SDF tapes from a number of investigators. These tapes were analyzed and comments provided to the producers. One product which is now available is William J. Syrett's sodar data product from the Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation. Sample plots from all SDF tapes submitted to the archive will be available to FSET members. Related cloud products are also available through NCDS. Entries describing the FIRE data sets are being provided for the NCDS on-line catalog. Detailed information for the Extended Time Observations is available in the general FIRE catalog entry. Separate catalog entries are being written for the Cirrus Intensive Field Observation (IFO) and for the Marine Stratocumulus IFO. Short descriptions of each FIRE data set will be installed into the NCDS Summary Catalog.

Olsen, Lola M.; Iascone, Dominick; Reph, Mary G.

1990-01-01

140

Drivers and Challenges of Personal Health Systems in Workplace Health Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel technologies such as wearable sensors, electronic health diaries and personalized web services are thought to have the potential to improve population health in a cost-efficient manner. The use of personal health systems in workplace health promotion is of particular interest, since the workplace often provides an excellent setting and infrastructure to support health-related interventions. Compared to the elderly or

Antti Ilvesmki

2007-01-01

141

Life support systems for Mars transit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

1992-01-01

142

Development of pre pre-driver amplifier stage for generator of SST-1 ICRH system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system for SST1 consists mainly of the cwrf power generator to deliver 1.5MW for 1000sec duration at the frequencies 22.8, 24.3 and 45.61MHz, the transmission line and the antenna. This is planned to develop a independent and dedicated cwrf generator that consists of a oscillator, buffer, rf switch, modulator, rf attenuator, directional coupler, three stage solid state low power amplifier and four stage triode & tetrode based high power amplifier with specific performance at 45.61MHz including frequencies 22.8 and 24.31MHz. The pre pre-driver high power amplifier stage is fabricated about triode 3CX3000A7. The tube has sufficient margin in terms of plate dissipation and grid dissipation that makes it suitable to withstand momentarily load mismatch and to upgrade the source in terms of output power later. This indigenously developed amplifier is integrated inside a radiation resistant rack with all required biasing power supplies, cooling blower, controls, monitors and interlocks for manual or remote control operation. This grounded grid mode amplifier will be operated at plate with 3.8KV/ 800mA in class AB for 1.8KW cwrf output power rating. The input circuit is broadband and the output circuit is tunable with slide variable inductor and a vacuum variable capacitor in the frequency range of 22.8 to 45.6MHz. It is designed for a gain of about 12dB, fabrication completed and undergoing cwrf power testing. This paper presents specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters, tests conducted and the results obtained.

Kumar, Sunil; Sinh Makwana, Azad; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

2010-02-01

143

Feasibility demonstration of a variable frequency driver-microwave transient regression rate measurement system. [for solid propellant combustion response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of a system capable of rapidly and directly measuring the low-frequency (motor characteristics length bulk mode) combustion response characteristics of solid propellants has been investigated. The system consists of a variable frequency oscillatory driver device coupled with an improved version of the JPL microwave propellant regression rate measurement system. The ratio of the normalized regression rate and pressure amplitudes and their relative phase are measured as a function of varying pressure level and frequency. Test results with a well-characterized PBAN-AP propellant formulation were found to compare favorably with the results of more conventional stability measurement techniques.

Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

1976-01-01

144

Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit  

DOEpatents

Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

2013-01-15

145

Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for advanced life support.

Subramanian, Devika

2004-01-01

146

Integrating concurrency control and energy management in device drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management is a critical concern in wireless sensornets. De- spite its importance, sensor network operating systems today pro- vide minimal energy management support, requiring applications to explicitly manage system power states. To address this problem, we present ICEM, a device driver architecture that enables simple, energy efficient wireless sensornet applications. The key insight behind ICEM is that the most

Kevin Klues; Vlado Handziski; Chenyang Lu; Adam Wolisz; David E. Culler; David Gay; Philip Levis

2007-01-01

147

Integrating concurrency control and energy management in device drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy management is a critical concern in wireless sensornets. Despite its importance, sensor network operating systems today provide minimal energy management support, requiring applications to explicitly manage system power states. To address this problem, we present ICEM, a device driver architecture that enables simple, energy efficient wireless sensornet applications. The key insight behind ICEMis that the most valuable information an

Kevin Klues; Vlado Handziski; Chenyang Lu; Adam Wolisz; David Culler; David Gay; Philip Levis

2007-01-01

148

Oscillation annealing and driver/tire load torque estimation in Electric Power Steering Systems  

E-print Network

torque), and the load torque (tire/ground contact friction). Finally, we also revisited the LuGre tire driver forces, and tire-road contact friction forces). The control framework should also include loads involved in a real driving situation (torsion torque due to force sensors flexibility, applied

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

Decision support system for nursing management control  

SciTech Connect

A knowledge representation approach for expert systems supporting decision processes in business is proposed. A description of a knowledge representation schema using a logic programming metalanguage is described, then the role of such a schema in a management expert system is demonstrated through the problem of nursing management control in hospitals. 18 references.

Ernst, C.J.

1983-01-01

150

1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

1992-01-01

151

Advanced DSRC system for supporting mobile IP  

Microsoft Academic Search

ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) will provide traffic efficiency and mobile safety without construction of new roads. To provide ITS services, DSRC (Dedicated Short-Range Communication) has been developed to provide high-speed radio link between RSE (Road Side Equipment) and OBE (On Board Equipment). In this paper, we present the requirements and structure of advanced DSRC system for supporting Mobile IP service

Hyun Mee Choi; Choon Sik Yim; Deock Gil Oh

2001-01-01

152

Derived data for decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In decision-making situations requiring what-if analysis, in statistical databases, and in distributed databases, it is desirable to explicitly store derived data without losing consistency with the original data. We introduce independently-updated views (IUVs) for storage and use of derived data for decision-support systems. IUVs support multiple versions, provide derivation transparency, maintain data consistency, and afford control over time of derivation.

Richard G. Ramirez; Uday R. Kulkarni; Kathleen A. Moser

1996-01-01

153

Mission Requirements and Data Systems Support Forecast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document was developed by the Flight Mission Support Office and prepared by the Forecast Analysis Section of the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to provide NASA management with detailed mission information. It is one of a number of sources used in planning Mission Operations and Data Systems resource commitments in support of mission requirements. All mission dates are based on information available as of May 28, 1993.

1993-01-01

154

Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

1982-01-01

155

Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

1981-01-01

156

ELSEVIER Decision Support Systems 14 (1995) 369-391 Decion Support  

E-print Network

/k'ld et al. /Decision Support Systems 14 (1995) 369-391 the simultaneous evaluation of multiple positionsELSEVIER Decision Support Systems 14 (1995) 369-391 Decion Support By m,q GENIE: A decision support situations. This paper demonstrates the ability of one such decision support system, GENIE, to help decision

Kraus, Sarit

157

Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems  

SciTech Connect

In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must makerapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts ofheterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficientmethod of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time.However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with theappropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and notbecome cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of aprototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support systemare summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantlyimproves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulentconditions. Based on these results, design principles and implicationsfor cockpit decision support systems using visualization arepresented.

Aragon, Cecilia R.

2005-07-01

158

Ion Thruster Support and Positioning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for supporting and selectively positioning an ion thruster relative to a surface of a spacecraft includes three angularly spaced thruster support assemblies. Each thruster support assembly includes a frame which has a rotary actuator mounted thereon. The rotary actuator is connected to an actuator member which is rotatably connected to a thruster attachment member connected to a body of the thruster. A stabilizer member is rotatably mounted to the frame and to the thruster attachment member. The thruster is selectively movable in the pitch and yaw directions responsive to movement of the actuator members by the actuators on the thruster support assemblies. A failure of any one actuator on a thruster support assembly will generally still enable limited thruster positioning capability in two directions. In a retracted position the thruster attachment members are held in nested relation in saddles supported on the frames of the thruster support assemblies. The thruster is securely held in the retracted position during periods of high loading such as during launch of the spacecraft.

Haag, Thomas W. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

159

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

160

A Vision-Based Driver Nighttime Assistance and Surveillance System Based on Intelligent Image Sensing Techniques and a Heterogamous Dual-Core Embedded System Architecture  

PubMed Central

This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system. PMID:22736956

Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

2012-01-01

161

Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FAA and NASA are investigating concepts for providing automated support to pilots in obtaining and using weather information. The pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) activity is using computer technology to assist the pilot in acquiring and displaying weather information in the cockpit, and to assist in assessing and applying weather data in flight management and en route support. The PAWSS concepts include data link communications with a short update cycle of new weather data, color-coded map depictions with alpha-numeric data available for backup and detailed data presentation, automated monitoring of weather trends with alerting for hazardous conditions, and expert system technology applications in weather data assessments and flight management applications.

Crabill, N. L; Dash, E. R.

1991-01-01

162

Support for User Interfaces for Distributed Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensible Java(TradeMark) software framework supports the construction and operation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for distributed computing systems typified by ground control systems that send commands to, and receive telemetric data from, spacecraft. Heretofore, such GUIs have been custom built for each new system at considerable expense. In contrast, the present framework affords generic capabilities that can be shared by different distributed systems. Dynamic class loading, reflection, and other run-time capabilities of the Java language and JavaBeans component architecture enable the creation of a GUI for each new distributed computing system with a minimum of custom effort. By use of this framework, GUI components in control panels and menus can send commands to a particular distributed system with a minimum of system-specific code. The framework receives, decodes, processes, and displays telemetry data; custom telemetry data handling can be added for a particular system. The framework supports saving and later restoration of users configurations of control panels and telemetry displays with a minimum of effort in writing system-specific code. GUIs constructed within this framework can be deployed in any operating system with a Java run-time environment, without recompilation or code changes.

Eychaner, Glenn; Niessner, Albert

2005-01-01

163

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

164

Ham Tries Out His Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ham tries out his combination couch and life support system in preparation for his flight in Mercury Redstone-2 (MR-2). The couch is plugged into the circuit that normally would supply the astronaut's full pressure suit. The MR-2 flight was one in a series of flights that led to the manned orbital flights of NASA's Project Mercury program.

1961-01-01

165

Environmental control and life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

Ray, Charles D.

1990-01-01

166

The Cricket location-support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of Cricket, a location-support system for in-building, mobile, location- dependent applications. It allows applications running on mobile and static nodes to learn their physical location by using listeners that hear and analyze information from beacons spread throughout the building. Cricket is the result of several design goals, including user privacy, decentralized administration,

Nissanka B. Priyantha; Anit Chakraborty; Hari Balakrishnan

2000-01-01

167

Environmental Control and Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

1990-01-01

168

Regenerative life support system research and concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

1988-01-01

169

Tools for Life Support Systems Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the optimum level of closure of a life support system is a complex task involving hundreds, if not thousands, of parameters. In the absence of complete data on candidate technologies and a complete definition of the mission architecture and requirements, many assumptions are necessary. Because of the large number of parameters, it is difficult to fully comprehend and compare studies performed by different analysts. The Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Project Element within NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project has taken measures to improve this situation by issuing documents that define ALS requirements, baseline assumptions, and reference missions. As a further step to capture and retain available knowledge and to facilitate system-level studies, various software tools are being developed. These include a database tool for storing, organizing, and updating technology parameters, modeling tools for evaluating time-average and dynamic system performance, and sizing tools for estimating overall system mass, volume, power, cooling, logistics, and crew time. This presentation describes ongoing work on the development and integration of these tools for life support systems analysis.

Lange, K.; Ewert, M.

170

Model implementation for dynamic computation of system cost for advanced life support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support system designs for long-duration space missions have a multitude of requirements drivers, such as mission objectives, political considerations, cost, crew wellness, inherent mission attributes, as well as many other influences. Evaluation of requirements satisfaction can be difficult, particularly at an early stage of mission design. Because launch cost is a critical factor and relatively easy to quantify, it is a point of focus in early mission design. The method used to determine launch cost influences the accuracy of the estimate. This paper discusses the appropriateness of dynamic mission simulation in estimating the launch cost of a life support system. This paper also provides an abbreviated example of a dynamic simulation life support model and possible ways in which such a model might be utilized for design improvement. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Levri, J. A.; Vaccari, D. A.

2004-01-01

171

Resonant acoustic transducer and driver system for a well drilling string communication system  

DOEpatents

The acoustic data communication system includes an acoustic transmitter and receiver wherein low frequency acoustic waves, propagating in relatively loss free manner in well drilling string piping, are efficiently coupled to the drill string and propagate at levels competitive with the levels of noise generated by drilling machinery also present in the drill string. The transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring piezoelectric transmitter and amplifier combination that permits self-oscillating resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

Chanson, Gary J. (Weston, MA); Nicolson, Alexander M. (Concord, MA)

1981-01-01

172

1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

1992-01-01

173

Drivolution: rethinking the database driver lifecycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current design of database drivers - a necessar y evil for interacting with a DBMS - imposes undue burdens on those who install, upgrade, and manage database systems and their applications. In this paper, we introduce Drivoluti on, a new architecture for DB drivers that reduces the cost, risk, and downtime associated with driver distribution, deplo yment and upgrade

Emmanuel Cecchet; George Candea

2009-01-01

174

Driver Magician Lite 3.5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While Driver Magician Lite is quite simple in its layout, it is still an effective tool for persons looking to back up their device drivers. The application identifies all the hardware in the system, extracts their associated drivers from the hard disk, and them backs them up to any designated location. Also, Driver Magician Lite will also detect unknown devices. This version is compatible with Windows 98 and newer.

2009-04-19

175

State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make the change financially feasible as well as increasing efficiency levels. The success of the policy is based on the attainment of regulation standards, economic growth within the energy-efficiency industry, and energy-efficiency business savings. The key to the policy was its ability to "level the playing field" for manufacturers who could then choose the technology and design that best fit their products and compliance levels while at the same time lowering the cost of production.

Klementich, Eloisa Y.

2011-12-01

176

Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.  

PubMed

Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

Morales, Jess; Mandow, Anthony; Martnez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; Garca-Cerezo, Alfonso

2013-01-01

177

Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit  

PubMed Central

Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

Morales, Jess; Mandow, Anthony; Martnez, Jorge L.; Reina, Antonio J.; Garca-Cerezo, Alfonso

2013-01-01

178

Light Machines Operator Performance Support System  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to create a multimedia operator performance support system (OPSS) shell that would provide a framework for delivering appropriate information to the student/novice machine tool user just when needed and in the most appropriate form. In addition, the program was designed so that it could be expanded and further developed by Light Machines personnel. The expertise of AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) in the areas of performance support system design and multimedia creation was employed to create the most user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) while providing access to key topical areas. Light Machines provided a subject matter expert from their technical services group in order to provide the needed information for structuring the OPSS shell. They also provided a Benchman VMC 4000 machine tool at the ASFM and T New Mexico location as well as specific instruction on the safe and effective use of that machine tool.

Bohley, M.C.

1998-06-15

179

Group Support in Multimedia Communications Systems  

E-print Network

: Communication among multiple entities is becoming more and more widespread in computing and telecommunications. Although many existing communications protocols and services do offer some limited support for multicast or group communication, the new requirements of multipeer applications make it difficult to find efficient and comprehensive solutions. In this paper we discuss the required characteristics of group services and survey the extent of the support provided by today's services and protocols. In addition, a brief outline of standardisation efforts in this area within ISO and ITU is given and selected examples of research projects which deal with different aspects of group communication are presented. 1 Introduction The use of computers for interpersonal communication among multiple users has provoked a new trend called group communication. Although group communication is also used for distributed file systems, distributed data bases, fault tolerant systems, etc., the main req...

A. Mauthe; G. Coulson; D. Hutchison; S. Namuye

180

Support system for management of shares ergonomic.  

PubMed

This article discusses the development of a computerized support to demands for treatment of a wide spectrum and diverse nature. Developed under SPM platform (Situao, Problema e Melhoria), the practitioner seeks to provide an ergonomic aid from the identification and characterization of the processes of analysis demands. The interest of a technological support the practice of ergonomics is a domestic origin, which already features a wide universe. For purposes of this article will be drawn the line defined by the universe in the Federal Public Service occupations within the guidelines set Subsystem Integrated System for Health Care Workers of the Federal Government. The development of this system initially intended to assist the practitioner in ergonomics mapping situations in which the federal public servant has been undergoing for the second time that can classify and then treat them. PMID:22317598

da Rocha, Raphael Pacheco; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez

2012-01-01

181

Decision support system for theater missile defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military services require C4I systems that support a full spectrum of operations. This is specifically relevant to the theatre missile defense (TMD) mission planning and analysis community where there have been several recent concept changes; advancements in information technology, sensors, and weapons; and expansion in the diversity and capabilities of potential adversaries. To fully support campaign development and analysis in this new environment, there is a need for systems and tools that enhance understanding of adversarial behavior, assess potential threat capabilities and vulnerabilities, perform C4I system trades, and provide methods to identify macro-level novel or emergent combat tactics and behavior derived from simpler micro-level rules. Such systems must also be interactive, collaborative, and semi-autonomous, providing the INTEL analyst with the means for exploration and potential exploitation of novel enemy behavior patterns. To address these issues we have developed an Intelligent Threat Assessment Processor (ITAP) to provide prediction and interpretation of enemy courses of actions (eCOAs) for the TMD domain. This system uses a combination of genetic algorithm-based optimization in tandem with the spatial analysis and visualization capabilities of a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) geographic information system to generate and evaluate potential eCOAs.

Gonsalves, Paul; Burge, Janet; Popp, Ben

2003-08-01

182

Telescience Support Center Data System Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Telescience Support Center (TSC) team has developed a databasedriven, increment-specific Data Require - ment Document (DRD) generation tool that automates much of the work required for generating and formatting the DRD. It creates a database to load the required changes to configure the TSC data system, thus eliminating a substantial amount of labor in database entry and formatting. The TSC database contains the TSC systems configuration, along with the experimental data, in which human physiological data must be de-commutated in real time. The data for each experiment also must be cataloged and archived for future retrieval. TSC software provides tools and resources for ground operation and data distribution to remote users consisting of PIs (principal investigators), bio-medical engineers, scientists, engineers, payload specialists, and computer scientists. Operations support is provided for computer systems access, detailed networking, and mathematical and computational problems of the International Space Station telemetry data. User training is provided for on-site staff and biomedical researchers and other remote personnel in the usage of the space-bound services via the Internet, which enables significant resource savings for the physical facility along with the time savings versus traveling to NASA sites. The software used in support of the TSC could easily be adapted to other Control Center applications. This would include not only other NASA payload monitoring facilities, but also other types of control activities, such as monitoring and control of the electric grid, chemical, or nuclear plant processes, air traffic control, and the like.

Rahman, Hasan

2010-01-01

183

Apollo portable life support system performance report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

Carson, M. A.

1972-01-01

184

JPSS Common Ground System Multimission Support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA & NASA jointly acquire the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS contributes the afternoon orbit & restructured NPOESS ground system (GS) to replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system run by NOAA. JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere & space. The JPSS GS is the Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control, & Communications (C3S) and Interface Data Processing (IDPS) segments, both developed by Raytheon Intelligence, Information & Services (IIS). CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers its mission data between ground facilities and processes its data into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & Defense (DoD) weather centers. CGS will expand to support JPSS-1 in 2017. The JPSS CGS currently does data processing (DP) for S-NPP, creating multiple TBs/day across over two dozen environmental data products (EDPs). The workload doubles after JPSS-1 launch. But CGS goes well beyond S-NPP & JPSS mission management & DP by providing data routing support to operational centers & missions worldwide. The CGS supports several other missions: It also provides raw data acquisition, routing & some DP for GCOM-W1. The CGS does data routing for numerous other missions & systems, including USN's Coriolis/Windsat, NASA's SCaN network (including EOS), NSF's McMurdo Station communications, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and NOAA's POES & EUMETSAT's MetOp satellites. Each of these satellite systems orbits the Earth 14 times/day, downlinking data once or twice/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/second, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. Raytheon and the US government invested much in Raytheon's mission-management, command & control and data-processing products & capabilities. CGS's flexible, multimission capabilities offer major chances for cost reduction & improved information integration across missions. Raytheon has a unique ability to provide complex, highly-secure, multi-mission GSs. As disaggregation, hosted CGS multimission payloads, and other space-architecture trades are implemented and new sensors come on line that collect orders of magnitude more data, the importance of a flexible, expandable and virtualized modern GS architecture increases. The CGS offers that solution support. JPSS CGS supports 5 global ground stations that can receive S-NPP & JPSS-1 mission data. These, linked with high-bandwidth commercial fiber, quickly transport data to the IDPS for EDP creation & delivery. CGS will process & deliver JPSS-1 data to US operational users in < 80 minutes from time of collection. And CGS leverages this fiber network to provide added data routing for a wide array of global missions. The JPSS CGS is a mature, tested solution for support to operational weather forecasting for civil, military and international partners and climate research. It features a flexible design handling order-of-magnitude increases in data over legacy satellite GSs and meets demanding science accuracy needs. The Raytheon-built JPSS CGS gives the full GS capability, from design & development through operations & sustainment. This lays the foundation for CGS future evolution to support additional missions like Polar Free Flyers.

Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

2013-12-01

185

Thermal control extravehicular life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

1975-01-01

186

Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (editor)

1993-01-01

187

Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

188

Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

1998-03-04

189

Hail Disrometer Array for Launch Systems Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to launch, the space shuttle might be described as a very large thermos bottle containing substantial quantities of cryogenic fuels. Because thermal insulation is a critical design requirement, the external wall of the launch vehicle fuel tank is covered with an insulating foam layer. This foam is fragile and can be damaged by very minor impacts, such as that from small- to medium-size hail, which may go unnoticed. In May 1999, hail damage to the top of the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 required a rollback from the launch pad to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for repair of the insulating foam. Because of the potential for hail damage to the ET while exposed to the weather, a vigilant hail sentry system using impact transducers was developed as a hail damage warning system and to record and quantify hail events. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Hail Monitor System, a joint effort of the NASA and University Affiliated Spaceport Technology Development Contract (USTDC) Physics Labs, was first deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain. Hail, and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in conjunction with Colorado State University were and continue to be active in testing duplicate hail monitor systems at sites in the hail prone high plains of Colorado. The KSC Hail Monitor System (HMS), consisting of three stations positioned approximately 500 ft from the launch pad and forming an approximate equilateral triangle (see Figure 1), was deployed to Pad 39B for support of STS-115. Two months later, the HMS was deployed to Pad 39A for support of STS-116. During support of STS-117 in late February 2007, an unusual hail event occurred in the immediate vicinity of the exposed space shuttle and launch pad. Hail data of this event was collected by the HMS and analyzed. Support of STS-118 revealed another important application of the hail monitor system. Ground Instrumentation personnel check the hail monitors daily when a vehicle is on the launch pad, with special attention after any storm suspected of containing hail. If no hail is recorded by the HMS, the vehicle and pad inspection team has no need to conduct a thorough inspection of the vehicle immediately following a storm. On the afternoon of July 13, 2007, hail on the ground was reported by observers at the VAB, about three miles west of Pad 39A, as well as at several other locations around Kennedy Space Center. The HMS showed no impact detections, indicating that the shuttle had not been damaged by any of the numerous hail events which occurred that day.

Lane, John E.; Sharp, David W.; Kasparis, Takis C.; Doesken, Nolan J.

2008-01-01

190

Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

2001-01-01

191

IGENPRO knowledge-based operator support system.  

SciTech Connect

Research and development is being performed on the knowledge-based IGENPRO operator support package for plant transient diagnostics and management to provide operator assistance during off-normal plant transient conditions. A generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first-principles approach is being implemented using automated reasoning, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic to produce a generic T-H system-independent/plant-independent package. The IGENPRO package has a modular structure composed of three modules: the transient trend analysis module PROTREN, the process diagnostics module PRODIAG and the process management module PROMANA. Cooperative research and development work has focused on the PRODIAG diagnostic module of the IGENPRO package and the operator training matrix of transients used at the Braidwood Pressurized Water Reactor station. Promising simulator testing results with PRODIAG have been obtained for the Braidwood Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), and the Component Cooling Water System. Initial CVCS test results have also been obtained for the PROTREN module. The PROMANA effort also involves the CVCS. Future work will be focused on the long-term, slow and mild degradation transients where diagnoses of incipient T-H component failure prior to forced outage events is required. This will enhance the capability of the IGENPRO system as a predictive maintenance tool for plant staff and operator support.

Morman, J. A.

1998-07-01

192

Decision support system for drinking water management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

Jana, M.

2012-04-01

193

Operational cost drivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.

Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.

1988-01-01

194

Repulsive force support system feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new concept in magnetic levitation and control is introduced for levitation above a plane. A set of five vertical solenoid magnets mounted flush below the plane supports and controls the model in five degrees of freedom. The compact system of levitation coils is contained in a space 2.4 m (96 in) diameter by 1 m (40 in) deep with the top of the levitation system 0.9 m (36 in) below the center line of the suspended model. The levitated model has a permanent magnet core held in position by the five parallel superconductive solenoids symmetrically located in a circle. The control and positioning system continuously corrects for model position in five dimensions using computer current pulses superimposed on the levitation coil base currents. The conceptual designs include: superconductive and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet model cores and levitation solenoids of either superconductive, cryoresistive, or room temperature windings.

Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.

1987-01-01

195

An intelligent ground operator support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents first results of the project 'Technologien fuer die intelligente Kontrolle von Raumfahrzeugen' (TIKON). The TIKON objective was the demonstration of feasibility and profit of the application of artificial intelligence in the space business. For that purpose a prototype system has been developed and implemented for the operation support of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), a scientific spacecraft designed to perform the first all-sky survey with a high-resolution X-ray telescope and to investigate the emission of specific celestial sources. The prototype integrates a scheduler and a diagnosis tool both based on artificial intelligence techniques. The user interface is menu driven and provides synoptic displays for the visualization of the system status. The prototype has been used and tested in parallel to an already existing operational system.

Goerlach, Thomas; Ohlendorf, Gerhard; Plassmeier, Frank; Bruege, Uwe

1994-01-01

196

Advanced integrated life support system update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

Whitley, Phillip E.

1994-01-01

197

Knowledge-based systems and NASA's software support environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed role for knowledge-based systems within NASA's Software Support Environment (SSE) is described. The SSE is chartered to support all software development for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP). This includes support for development of knowledge-based systems and the integration of these systems with conventional software systems. In addition to the support of development of knowledge-based systems, various software development functions provided by the SSE will utilize knowledge-based systems technology.

Dugan, Tim; Carmody, Cora; Lennington, Kent; Nelson, Bob

1990-01-01

198

Teaching Driver Education Technology to Novice Drivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cybernetic unit in driver education was developed to help grade 10 students develop the skills needed to acquire and process driver education information and prepare for the driving phase of driver education in grade 11. Students used a simulator to engage in a series of scenarios designed to promote development of social, behavioral, and mental

Young, Anthony

199

Conceptual foundations for the development of organizational decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that the effort to construct organizational decision support systems (ODSS) is new to the field of information systems but draws heavily on previous experience with decision support systems (DSS) and group decision support systems (GDSS). The conceptual foundations of this new venture are not well established, but the most logical approach to designing ODSS would be to

John Leslie King; Susan Leigh Star

1990-01-01

200

An agent-based framework for building decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a framework for building decision support systems using software agent technology to support organizations characterized by physically distributed, enterprise-wide, heterogeneous information systems. Intelligent agents have offered tremendous potential in supporting well-defined tasks such as information filtering, data mining and data conversion. However, the use of intelligent agents to support decisions has not been explored and merits serious

Tung Bui; Jintae Lee

1999-01-01

201

Science Nation: Tongue Driver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past four years, Maysam Ghovanloo has been working with a team at Georgia Institute of Technology to improve life for quadriplegics. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), they have devised a headset that responds to a magnet. Using a laptop, a wireless connection and navigation software, the headset is programmed to allow someone to steer a wheelchair by moving his tongue. Since the tongue driver could help control any number of devices like the TV or a computer, it could one day mean even more of the most precious commodity of all: independence.

202

Nursing Acuity Sensitive Decision Support System  

PubMed Central

It has been widely accepted that there is a need to sensitize hospital planning and budgeting to the changing staffing requirements caused by reimbursement, regulation, and demographic shifts. Direct patient care providers, primarily nurses, are typically one-quarter to one-third of a hospital's personnel pool and comprise an even quarter share of a hospital's budget. In most instances, their services are neither directly charged for, nor are they directly reimbursed. We have created a modeling tool that incorporates nursing acuity scores into a clinical cost accounting-decision support system. We have used this tool successfully for decision support management reporting and analysis. The resultant examination is far more sensitive to shifts in nursing hours of care and therefore permits managers to plan and implement staffing changes that more accurately reflect nursing needs. We feel this type of tool will help in the recruitment and retention of a valued and shrinking portion of our personnel pool by providing for more rational and realistic decision making.

Weitzman, Leslie J.; Clapham, Kathleen T.

1989-01-01

203

Composting in advanced life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

1998-01-01

204

INTRODUCTION Mechanical circulatory support system are widely used  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Mechanical circulatory support system are widely used as cardiopulmonary bypass circulatory support systems, focusing on implantable circulatory assist applications are in progress generation implantable circulatory device. In the early stages of development, arguments against their long

Kim, Chris H.

205

Technology and teen drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid evolution of computing, communication, and sensor technology is likely to affect young drivers more than others. The distraction potential of infotainment technology stresses the same vulnerabilities that already lead young drivers to crash more frequently than other drivers. Cell phones, text messaging, MP3 players, and other nomadic devices all present a threat because young drivers may lack the

John D. Lee

2007-01-01

206

Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the diversity and heterogeneity between farms to ensure efficient use of these external inputs. PMID:20628448

de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.

2010-01-01

207

Complex View Support for a Library Database System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interface mechanism called "complex view support" to be used with a relational database system (RDBS) in supporting increasingly complex distributed environments in automated library systems. The interface system refers queries to multidimensional tables as well as to flat tables on RDBS and is shown to efficiently support libraries

Nishimoto, Hideki; Ura, Shoji

1989-01-01

208

Marko Bohanec: Systems and Techniques of Decision Support  

E-print Network

Marko Bohanec: Systems and Techniques of Decision Support Questions Version 16.11.2010 1 and Descriptive approach to Decision Science. 9. What is Decision Support? 10. Define Decision Support Systems? 11 between Decision Sciences and Decision Systems? 8. Explain the difference between Normative

Bohanec, Marko

209

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES  

E-print Network

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES Svetlana implemented as a decision support system allowing simulation and evaluation of various proposals and scenarios and dependencies. Applying the system as an "on-the-fly" decision-support facility for the policy-makers has

Reiterer, Harald

210

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES  

E-print Network

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGING EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN UNIVERSITIES Svetlana implemented as a decision support system allowing simulation and evaluation of various proposals and scenarios and dependencies. Applying the system as "on-the-fly" decision-support facility by the policy-makers has resulted

Scholl, Marc H.

211

Building Decision Support Systems in Discretionary Legal Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of intelligent legal decision support systems in discretionary domains will enhance consistent decision-making leading to increased confidence in the justice system and provide support for alternative dispute resolution. To build such intelligent decision support systems, we classify discretionary legal domains into four (not necessarily distinct) categories. Domains in which the number of outputs is limited are shown to

John Zeleznikow

2000-01-01

212

Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

1971-01-01

213

Driver eye height measurement  

E-print Network

and Cumulative Distribution of Driver Eye Heights. 24 TABLE 5, ? Passenger Vehicles: Frequency of Driver Eye Heights. 25 TABLE 6. ? Passenger Vehicles: Cumulative Distributions of Driver Eye Heights 26 TABLE 7. ? Summary Results f rom Analysis of Variance... the driver eye height and the height of an assumed object are required in these computations. Format and style based cn the Transportation En ineering Journal of hg A + ' S ~fC~1 Guaranteeing drivers a safe stopping distance on horizontal curves requires...

Abrahamson, Anthony Daniel

1978-01-01

214

A model for information support of environmental management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature of environmental management systems has shown a steady development of theory supporting the production of well supported environmental management systems integrated to enterprise information systems. Research into the differences between Australian Chief Financial Officers and Information Systems Managers has shown that there is a gap between company policy on environmental management systems and existing information

Bill Davey; Clive Mathews

1996-01-01

215

Driver sleepiness and individual differences in preferences for countermeasures.  

PubMed

The aim of the present national questionnaire study was to relate the use of sleepiness countermeasures among drivers to possible explanatory factors such as age, sex, education, professional driving, being a shift worker, having experience of sleepy driving, sleep-related crashes, problems with sleep and sleepiness in general and sleep length during working days. Also the attitude to countermeasures related to information or driver support system was studied. A random sample of 3041 persons was drawn from the national register of vehicle owners. The response rate was 62%. The most common countermeasures were to stop to take a walk (54%), turn on the radio/stereo (52%), open a window (47%), drink coffee (45%) and to ask passengers to engage in conversation (35%). Logistic regression analysis showed that counteracting sleepiness with a nap (a presumably efficient method) was practiced by those with experience of sleep-related crashes or of driving during severe sleepiness, as well as by professional drivers, males and drivers aged 46-64 years. The most endorsed means of information to the driver about sleepiness was in-car monitoring of driving performance providing drivers with information on bad or unsafe driving. This preference was related to experience of sleepy driving, not being a professional driver and male gender. Four clusters of behaviours were identified: alertness-enhancing activity while driving (A), stopping the car (S), taking a nap (N) and ingesting coffee or other sources of caffeine (C) (energy drinks, caffeine tablets). The participants were grouped according to their use of any of the four categories of countermeasures. The most common cluster was those who used activity, as well as stopping and drinking caffeine. PMID:18275551

Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Gran; Peters, Bjrn; Akerstedt, Torbjrn

2008-03-01

216

Effects of Single versus Multiple Warnings on Driver Performance  

E-print Network

Objective: To explore how a single master alarm system affects drivers responses when compared to multiple, distinct warnings. Background: Advanced driver warning systems are intended to improve safety, yet inappropriate ...

Cummings, M. L.

2007-01-01

217

A Support Database System for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, deployment, operation and maintenance of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) applications require the storage and processing of tremendous amounts of low-level data. This data must be shared in a secure and cost-effective manner between developers, and processed within several heterogeneous architectures. Modern database technology allows this data to be organized efficiently, while ensuring the integrity and security of the data. The extensibility and interoperability of the current database technologies also allows for the creation of an associated support database system. A support database system provides additional capabilities by building applications on top of the database structure. These applications can then be used to support the various technologies in an ISHM architecture. This presentation and paper propose a detailed structure and application description for a support database system, called the Health Assessment Database System (HADS). The HADS provides a shared context for organizing and distributing data as well as a definition of the applications that provide the required data-driven support to ISHM. This approach provides another powerful tool for ISHM developers, while also enabling novel functionality. This functionality includes: automated firmware updating and deployment, algorithm development assistance and electronic datasheet generation. The architecture for the HADS has been developed as part of the ISHM toolset at Stennis Space Center for rocket engine testing. A detailed implementation has begun for the Methane Thruster Testbed Project (MTTP) in order to assist in developing health assessment and anomaly detection algorithms for ISHM. The structure of this implementation is shown in Figure 1. The database structure consists of three primary components: the system hierarchy model, the historical data archive and the firmware codebase. The system hierarchy model replicates the physical relationships between system elements to provide the logical context for the database. The historical data archive provides a common repository for sensor data that can be shared between developers and applications. The firmware codebase is used by the developer to organize the intelligent element firmware into atomic units which can be assembled into complete firmware for specific elements.

Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge F.; Turowski, Mark; Morris, John

2007-01-01

218

Improved support concept for the Helias reactor coil system  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the Helias reactor (HSR) a system of non-planar superconducting coils has been developed. The distributions of the magnetic field and the forces are calculated. In order to support the magnetic forces a scheme of mutual support of the coils is applied. The common vault support concept of earlier studies has been modified: Two toroidal support rings, connected to each

E. Harmeyer; J. Kilinger

2003-01-01

219

Description and operating performance of a parallel-rail electric-arc system with helium driver gas for the Langley 6-inch expansion tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parallel-rail arc-discharge system to heat and pressurize the initial helium driver gas of the Langley 6-inch expansion tube is described. This system was designed for a 2.44-m-long driver vessel rated at 138 MPa, with a distance between rails of 20.3 cm. Electric energy was obtained from a capacitor storage system rated at 12,000 V with a maximum energy of 5 MJ. Tests were performed over a range of energy from 1.74 MJ to the maximum value. The operating experience and system performance are discussed, along with results from a limited number of expansion-tube tests with air and carbon dioxide as test gases.

Moore, J. A.

1976-01-01

220

DMDSS: data mining based decision support system to integrate data mining and decision support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern organizations use several types of decision support systems to facilitate decision support. In many cases OLAP based tools are used in the business area, which enable multiple views on data and through that a deductive approach to data analysis. Data mining extends the possibilities for decision support by discovering patterns and relationships hidden in data and therefore enabling the

Rok Rupnik; M. Kukar; M. Bajec; M. Krisper

2006-01-01

221

Information Granulation for Web based Information Retrieval Support Systems  

E-print Network

Information Granulation for Web based Information Retrieval Support Systems J.T. Yao Y.Y. Yao of Web based information retrieval support systems (IRSS). In particular, we apply clustering methods granulation supports a different user task. Keywords: Information retrieval, Granular computing, Information

Yao, JingTao

222

Intelligent Decision Support System in Defense Maintenance Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated logistics support (ILS) systems are becoming more sophisticated as the defense operations demand increasing levels of service from contractors and maintainers. Intelligent decision support system (IDSS) are required to provide adaptive automated responses for provisioning and maintenance of an increasing number of defense platforms that are now being supported either by defense organizations or by long term maintenance contracts

Kamal Haider; Jeffrey Tweedale; Pierre Urlings; Lakhmi Jain

2006-01-01

223

A portable life support system for use in mines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The portable life support system described in this paper represents a potential increase in the probability of survival for miners who are trapped underground by a fire or explosion. The habitability and life support capability of the prototype shelter have proved excellent. Development of survival chamber life support systems for wide use in coal mines is definitely within the capabilities of current technology.

Zeller, S. S.

1972-01-01

224

Process Evolution Support in the AHEAD System Markus Heller  

E-print Network

Process Evolution Support in the AHEAD System Markus Heller ¡ and Ansgar Schleicher describes a demonstration of the AHEAD system which shows the benefits of process evolution support from to a limited extent. In this paper, we present the comprehen- sive evolution support [1] offered by AHEAD [2

Westfechtel, Bernhard

225

Distributed collaborative decision support system for rocket launch operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of a decision support system for rocket launch operation from the viewpoint of distributed collaboration mechanisms. The system comprises interface agents that mediate between operators on site or support engineers in distance and various Web services that function as large-grain-size task modules for operation support. In order to orchestrate the distributed Web services over the

Shohei Misono; Seiji Koide; Norikazu Shimada; Masanori Kawamura; Susumu Nagano

2005-01-01

226

Function, equipment, and field testing of a route guidance and information system for drivers (ALI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic flow has already been improved in the German autobahn network by guidance systems utilizing data collection and calculating forecasts. Some examples of this are the remote-controlled traffic signs in the autobahn network Rhein-Main, the congestion warning system on the Aichelherg, and the lane-controlling system of the Frankfurt-Cologne autobahn. An improvement of the prediction accuracy can be expected if the

PETER BRAEGAS

1980-01-01

227

A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype  

SciTech Connect

A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operators ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energys Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment.

Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

2013-08-01

228

A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype  

SciTech Connect

A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operators ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energys Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment.

Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

2013-11-01

229

MACHINE LEARNING SYSTEMS FOR DETECTING DRIVER DROWSINESS Esra Vural, Mjdat etin, Aytl Eril  

E-print Network

closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine learning to data-mine actual human behavior during drowsiness episodes. Auto- matic classifiers for 30 facial actions from the Facial Ac- tion Coding system were classifiers such as Adaboost and multinomial ridge regression. The system was able to predict sleep and crash

Yanikoglu, Berrin

230

Transportation Decision Support Systems Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Transportation Decision Support Systems Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC Passenger Flows Supply Chain Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle and implementation of automated transportation decision support models for the scheduling and routing of cargo

231

A PowerPC-based control system for the Read-Out-Driver module of the ATLAS IBL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS experiment at LHC planned to upgrade the existing Pixel Detector with the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called Insertable B-layer (IBL). A new front-end ASIC has been foreseen (named FE-I4) and it will be read out with improved off-detector electronics. In particular, the new Read-Out Driver card (ROD) is a VME-based board designed to process a four-fold data throughput. Moreover, the ROD hosts the electronics devoted to control operations whose main tasks are providing setup busses to access configuration registers on several FPGAs, receiving configuration data from external PCs, managing triggers and running calibration procedures. In parallel with a backward-compatible solution with a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), a new ROD control circuitry with a PowerPC embedded into an FPGA has been implemented. In this paper the status of the PowerPC-based control system will be outlined with major focus on firmware and software development strategies.

Balbi, G.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; D'Antone, I.; Dopke, J.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Gabrielli, A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Heim, T.; Joseph, J.; Krieger, N.; Kugel, A.; Morettini, P.; Neumann, M.; Polini, A.; Schroer, N.; Rizzi, M.; Travaglini, R.; Zannoli, S.; Zoccoli, A.

2012-02-01

232

Modelling and simulation of a fore-and-aft driver's seat suspension system with road excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simplified simulation of two configurations of the fore-and-aft seat suspension system. A fore-and-aft suspension system model was proposed based on the laboratory measurements of the seat vibration isolation performance. Friction was identified as an important parameter, so different approaches to simulating the suspension friction were investigated. Predicted seat vibration mitigation properties were compared with those measured

G. J. Stein; R. Zahoransk; T. P. Gunston; L. Burstrm; L. Meyer

2008-01-01

233

Nuclear reactor heat transport system component low friction support system  

DOEpatents

A support column for a heavy component of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor heat transport system which will deflect when the pipes leading coolant to and from the heavy component expand or contract due to temperature changes includes a vertically disposed pipe, the pipe being connected to the heavy component by two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles and the pipe being supported through two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles, each of the cylindrical surfaces bearing on a flat and horizontal surface.

Wade, Elman E. (Ruffs Dale, PA)

1980-01-01

234

Graduated Driver Licensing  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button Graduated Driver Licensing Language: English Espaol (Spanish) Share Compartir Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Language: English Espaol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

235

Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

1998-01-01

236

Resilience and challenges of marine social-ecological systems under complex and interconnected drivers.  

PubMed

In this paper, we summarize the contributions made by an interdisciplinary group of researchers from different disciplines (biology, ecology, economics, and law) that deal with key dimensions of marine social-ecological systems. Particularly, the local and global seafood provision; the feasibility and management of marine protected areas; the use of marine ecosystem services; the institutional dimension in European fisheries, and the affordable models for providing scientific advice to small-scale fisheries. This Special Issue presents key findings from selected case studies around the world available to educators, policy makers, and the technical community. Together, these papers show that a range of diverse ecological, economic, social, and institutional components often mutually interact at spatial and temporal scales, which evidence that managing marine social-ecological systems needs a continuous adaptability to navigate into new governance systems. PMID:24213990

Villasante, Sebastin; Macho, Gonzalo; Antelo, Manel; Rodrguez-Gonzlez, David; Kaiser, Michel J

2013-12-01

237

Facilities and support systems for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 90-day test is reported of a regenerative life support system which was completed in a space station simulator. The long duration of the test and the fact that it was manned, imposed rigid reliability and safety requirements on the facility. Where adequate reliability could not be built into essential facility systems, either backup systems or components were provided. Awareness was intensified by: (1) placing signs on every piece of equipment that could affect the test, (2) painting switches on all breaker panels a bright contrasting color, (3) restricting access to the test control area, and (4) informing personnel in the facility (other than test personnel) of test activities. It is concluded that the basic facility is satisfactory for conducting long-duration manned tests, and it is recommended that all monitor and alarm functions be integrated into a single operation.

Malin, R. L.

1972-01-01

238

Innovation processes in large technical systems: Market liberalization as a driver for radical change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity supply is a large technical system, which exhibits strong path dependencies and high barriers for radical innovations. Recent market liberalization, however, has initiated a fundamental restructuring. The paper analyzes how liberalization has altered innovation processes in the field of electricity supply. We examine three radical innovations under monopoly conditions and contrast the findings with the results from a survey

Jochen Markard; Bernhard Truffer

2006-01-01

239

Web Tutorials on Systems Thinking Using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Framework  

EPA Science Inventory

This set of tutorials provides an overview of incorporating systems thinking into decision-making, an introduction to the DPSIR framework as one approach that can assist in the decision analysis process, and an overview of DPSIR tools, including concept mapping and keyword lists,...

240

The Cognitive Ergonomics of Knowledge-Based Design Support Systems  

E-print Network

The Cognitive Ergonomics of Knowledge-Based Design Support Systems Tamara Sumner Knowledge Media, Cognitive Ergonomics, Design, Design Environments, Knowledge-based Systems, Phone-based Interfaces ergonomic; i.e., systems that effectively support designers' cognitive work without hindering their creative

241

Analysis of multiple criteria decision support systems for cooperative groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on multiple criteria decision support systems for cooperative groups. The systems included in this survey integrate concepts from group decision theory, multiple criteria decision methodology, and decision support system technology. Three dimensions are considered in the analysis of existing research: the multiple criteria decision technique used to generate decision alternatives or to choose from a given

Peri H. Iz; Lorraine R. Gardiner

1993-01-01

242

Architectural and Operating System Support for Orthogonal Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past ten years much research effort has been expended in attempting to build systems which support orthogonal persistence. Such systems allow all data to persist for an arbitrary length of time, possibly longer than the creating program, and support access and manipulation of data in a uniform manner, regardless of how long it persists. Persistent systems are usually

John Rosenberg

1992-01-01

243

Use Semantic Decision Tables to Improve Meaning Evolution Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meaning Evolution Support Systems have been recently introduced as a real-time, scalable, community-based cooperative systems to support the ontology evolution. In this paper, we intend to address the problems of accuracy and effectiveness in Meaning Evolution Support Systems in general. We use Semantic Decision Tables to tackle these problems. A Semantic Decision\\u000a Table separates general decision rules from the processes,

Yan Tang; Robert Meersman

2008-01-01

244

Conceptual design of data acquisition and control system for two Rf driver based negative ion source for fusion R&D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twin Source - An Inductively coupled two RF driver based 180 kW, 1 MHz negative ion source experimental setup is initiated at IPR, Gandhinagar, under Indian program, with the objective of understanding the physics and technology of multi-driver coupling. Twin Source [1] (TS) also provides an intermediate platform between operational ROBIN [2] [5] and eight RF drivers based Indian test facility -INTF [3]. A twin source experiment requires a central system to provide control, data acquisition and communication interface, referred as TS-CODAC, for which a software architecture similar to ITER CODAC core system has been decided for implementation. The Core System is a software suite for ITER plant system manufacturers to use as a template for the development of their interface with CODAC. The ITER approach, in terms of technology, has been adopted for the TS-CODAC so as to develop necessary expertise for developing and operating a control system based on the ITER guidelines as similar configuration needs to be implemented for the INTF. This cost effective approach will provide an opportunity to evaluate and learn ITER CODAC technology, documentation, information technology and control system processes, on an operational machine. Conceptual design of the TS-CODAC system has been completed. For complete control of the system, approximately 200 Nos. control signals and 152 acquisition signals are needed. In TS-CODAC, control loop time required is within the range of 5ms - 10 ms, therefore for the control system, PLC (Siemens S-7 400) has been chosen as suggested in the ITER slow controller catalog. For the data acquisition, the maximum sampling interval required is 100 micro second, and therefore National Instruments (NI) PXIe system and NI 6259 digitizer cards have been selected as suggested in the ITER fast controller catalog. This paper will present conceptual design of TS -CODAC system based on ITER CODAC Core software and applicable plant system integration processes.

Soni, Jigensh; Yadav, R. K.; Patel, A.; Gahlaut, A.; Mistry, H.; Parmar, K. G.; Mahesh, V.; Parmar, D.; Prajapati, B.; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

2013-02-01

245

Radio-frequency-quadrupole linac in a heavy ion fusion driver system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of linear accelerator, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. The RFQ accelerator can be adapted to any high-current applications. A recent experimental test carried out at the Los Alamos Scienific Laboratory (LASL) has demonstrated the outstandig properties of RFQ systems. The test linac accepts a 30-mA proton beam of

L. D. Hansborough; R. Stokes; D. A. Swenson; T. P. Wangler

1980-01-01

246

Multibody approach to dynamic analysis of driver-interactive seatbelt system with motorized retractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to analyze the dynamic behavior of a seatbelt system, focusing on the kinematics of its motorized\\u000a retractor mechanism as well as its overall performance. The motorized retractor was modeled based on the multibody principle,\\u000a taking into consideration of the detailed kinematic configuration of the one-way clutch mechanism, which is the critical component\\u000a of the

Sugil Choi; Taeoh Tak

2011-01-01

247

A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board  

SciTech Connect

A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system.

Wiley, J.C.

1991-01-01

248

Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber Support Systems  

E-print Network

Carbon fiber support structures have become common elements of detector designs for high energy physics experiments. Carbon fiber has many mechanical advantages but it is also characterized by high conductivity, particularly at high frequency, with associated design issues. This paper discusses the elements required for sound electrical performance of silicon detectors employing carbon fiber support elements. Tests on carbon fiber structures are presented indicating that carbon fiber must be regarded as a conductor for the frequency region of 10 to 100 MHz. The general principles of grounding configurations involving carbon fiber structures will be discussed. To illustrate the design requirements, measurements performed with a silicon detector on a carbon fiber support structure at small radius are presented. A grounding scheme employing copper-kapton mesh circuits is described and shown to provide adequate and robust detector performance.

W. Cooper; C. Daly; M. Demarteau; J. Fast; K. Hanagaki; M. Johnson; W. Kuykendall; H. Lubatti; M. Matulik; A. Nomerotski; B. Quinn; J. Wang

2005-04-19

249

A survey of life support system automation and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

Finn, Cory K.

1993-01-01

250

Development of a portable life support system and emergency life support pack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and fabrication of a feasibility model of a breathing bag life support system for extravehicular activity are discussed. The breathing vest and back pack portable life support system contains connectors which allow external water and gas supply. At a metabolic rate of 2000 BTU per hour, the two low pressure bottles provide 27 minutes of breathing gas for a total filled system weight of 30.5 pounds.

1970-01-01

251

Support Systems and Women of the Diaspora  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans are social beings endowed with intrinsic and extrinsic capabilities and a desire to seek and receive social support from one another. The extent to which this action takes place varies as people move farther away from their familiar environment to new locations. Many immigrant women have traveled far and wide in search of "better

Ojo, Elizabeth D.

2009-01-01

252

Graduated Driver Licensing: The New Zealand Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the graduated driver-licensing (GDL) system in New Zealand. Describes driver licensing and crash fatality rates before and after the implementation of GDL in 1987. Reports that GDL has contributed to a reduction in crashes among young people. (Contains 2 figures and 6 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

Begg, Dorothy; Stephenson, Shaun

2003-01-01

253

xDSL line driver design  

E-print Network

xDSL line driver is a very important element in xDSL systems. This thesis proposes a three stage xDSL line driver solution based on a multipath feedforward compensation principle. TSMC 0.8 micro meter high voltage BiCMOS technology is used as a...

Zhang, Xiaoyong

2001-01-01

254

Atlas Pulsed Power System: a Driver for Multi-Megagauss Fields  

SciTech Connect

Atlas is a pulsed power machine designed for hydrodynamic experiments for the Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics Experimental program. It is presently under construction and should be operational in late 2000. Atlas will store 23 MJ at an erected voltage of 240 kV. This will produce a current of 30 MA into a static load and as much as 32 MA into a dynamic load. The current pulse will have a rise time of {approximately}5{micro}s and will produce a magnetic field driving the impactor liner of several hundred Tesla at the target radius of one to two centimeters. The collision can produce shock pressures of {approximately}15 megabars. Design of the pulsed power system will be presented along with data obtained from the Atlas prototype Marx module.

Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Bennett, G.A.; Bowman, D.W.; Davis, H.A.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Gribble, R.F.; Kimerly, H.J.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parsons, W.M.; Paul, J.D.; Scudder, D.W.; Trainor, R.J.; Thompson, M.C.; Watt, R.G.

1998-10-18

255

Decision support systems based on LSP method In the area of decision support systems, our main emphasis is further  

E-print Network

Decision support systems based on LSP method In the area of decision support systems, our main emphasis is further development of the LSP method: theoretical infrastructure, techniques, and software a new efficient system optimization algorithm (the "stepwise filtering algorithm") and expanded LSP

Dujmovic, Jozo J.

256

Developing Negotiation Decision Support Systems that Support Mediators: A Case Study of the Family_Winner System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiation Support Systems have traditionally modelled the process of negotiation. They often rely on mathematical optimisation techniques and ignore heuristics and other methods derived from practice. Our goal is to develop systems capable of decision support to help resolve a given dispute. A system we have constructed, Family_Winner, uses empirical evidence to dynamically modify initial preferences throughout the negotiation process.

Emilia Bellucci; John Zeleznikow

2005-01-01

257

Dynamic drivers of a shallow-water hydrothermal vent ecogeochemical system (Milos, Eastern Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow-water hydrothermal vents share many characteristics with their deep-sea analogs. However, despite ease of access, much less is known about the dynamics of these systems. Here, we report on the spatial and temporal chemical variability of a shallow-water vent system at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece, and on the bacterial and archaeal diversity of associated sandy sediments. Our multi-analyte voltammetric profiles of dissolved O2 and hydrothermal tracers (e.g. Fe2+, FeSaq, Mn2+) on sediment cores taken along a transect in hydrothermally affected sediments indicate three different areas: the central vent area (highest temperature) with a deeper penetration of oxygen into the sediment, and a lack of dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+; a middle area (0.5 m away) rich in dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+ (exceeding 2 mM) and high free sulfide with potential for microbial sulfide oxidation as suggested by the presence of white mats at the sediment surface; and, finally, an outer rim area (1-1.5 m away) with lower concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+ and higher signals of FeSaq, indicating an aged hydrothermal fluid contribution. In addition, high-frequency temperature series and continuous in situ H2S measurements with voltammetric sensors over a 6-day time period at a distance 0.5 m away from the vent center showed substantial temporal variability in temperature (32 to 46 C ) and total sulfide (488 to 1329 M) in the upper sediment layer. Analysis of these data suggests that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Despite substantial variability, the concentration of sulfide available for chemoautotrophic microbes remained high. These findings are consistent with the predominance of Epsilonproteobacteria in the hydrothermally influenced sediments Diversity and metagenomic analyses on sediments and biofilm collected along a transect from the center to the outer rim of the vent provide further insights on the metabolic activities and the environmental factors shaping these microbial communities . Both bacterial and archaeal diversity changed along the transect as well as with sediment depth, in line with the geochemical measurements. Beside the fact that it harbors an unexpected diversity of yet undescribed bacteria and archaea, this site is also a relevant model to investigate the link between ecological and abiotic dynamics in such instable hydrothermal environments. Our results provide evidence for the importance of transient geodynamic and hydrodynamic events in the dynamics and distribution of chemoautotrophic communities in the hydrothermally influenced sediments of Paleochori Bay.

Ycel, Mustafa; Sievert, Stefan; Giovanelli, Donato; Foustoukos, Dionysis; DeForce, Emelia; Thomas, Franois; Vetriani, Constantino; Le Bris, Nadine

2014-05-01

258

Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

2014-04-01

259

Detection of new in-path targets by drivers using Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the design and evaluation of in-car displays used to support Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control. Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control is an extension of Adaptive Cruise Control, as it is able to bring the vehicle to a complete stop. Previous versions of Adaptive Cruise Control have only operated above 26kph. The greatest concern for these technologies is the appropriateness of the driver's response in any given scenario. Three different driver interfaces were proposed to support the detection of modal, spatial and temporal changes of the system: an iconic display, a flashing iconic display, and a representation of the radar. The results show that drivers correctly identified more changes detected by the system with the radar display than with the other displays, but higher levels of workload accompanied this increased detection. PMID:20870216

Stanton, Neville A; Dunoyer, Alain; Leatherland, Adam

2011-05-01

260

Meta Data Support for Evolutionary Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of the paper is the software engineering process of a special class of important software systems, namely large, heterogeneous, distributed information systems based on several underlying autonomous databases and applications. Increasingly, these systems are subject to integration and interoperability requirements using middleware (e.g. CORBA) and\\/or the Internet as integration platforms. One major characteristic in this scenario is the

Ralf-detlef Kutsche; Asuman Snbl

1998-01-01

261

UWB dual burst transmit driver  

DOEpatents

A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA); Pratt, Garth C. (Discovery Bay, CA); Haugen, Peter C. (Livermore, CA); Zumstein, James M. (Livermore, CA); Vigars, Mark L. (Livermore, CA); Romero, Carlos E. (Livermore, CA)

2012-04-17

262

45 CFR 302.85 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...States. This guide is available from the Child Support Information Systems Division, Office of State Systems, ACF, 370 L'Enfant Promenade, SW., Washington, DC 20447; and (2) By October 1, 2000, which meets all the requirements of title...

2010-10-01

263

A support architecture for reliable distributed computing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds project is well underway to its goal of building a unified distributed operating system supporting the object model. The operating system design uses the object concept of structuring software at all levels of the system. The basic operating system was developed and work is under progress to build a usable system.

Dasgupta, Partha; Leblanc, Richard J., Jr.

1988-01-01

264

Applied Research of Scheme Optimization in the Drilling Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of current characteristics of well drilling support system, analyzing mass of well history data, logging data and drilling materials of each oil field in China, a new scheme optimization method is established using comprehensive comparison and analysis of multi-well data. The new method is successfully applied to a distributed drilling support system that uses network and computer as

Cui Meng; Zhai Ying-hu

2010-01-01

265

A hand rehabilitation support system with improvements based on clinical  

E-print Network

A hand rehabilitation support system with improvements based on clinical practices Satoshi Ito. INTRODUCTION In this project, a hand rehabilitation support system is developed (Ito et al. (2007); Kawasaki et al. (2007); Ueki et al. (2008)). Stroke patients in the acute stage are selected as the target

Ito, Satoshi

266

DESIGNING A GENERALIZED MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision support systems are of many kinds depending on themodels and techniques employed in them. Multiple criteriadecision making techniques constitute an important class of DSSwith unique software requirements. This paper stresses theimportance of interactive MCDM methods since these facilitatelearning through all stages of the decision making process. Wefirst describe some features of Multiple Criteria Decision SupportSystems ( MCDSSs) that distinguish

Mohamed Tawfik Jelassi; Matthias Jarke; Edward A. Stohr

1984-01-01

267

MULTIOBJECTIVE DECISION THEORY - DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS WITH EMBEDDED SIMULATION MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tne concepts of multiobjective decision making utilizing embedded computer simulation models and dimensionless scoring functions are described in the context of a decision support system (DSS). This methodology consists of procedures to help make practical decisions using simulation models when the decision makers are faced with multiple, often conflicting, objectives. An example application describes a decision support system for design

W. Lafayette

268

Connectionist decision support systems for multiple criteria decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a general framework for connectionist decision support systems for solving deterministic multiple criteria decision problems. The decision support systems are driven by preferential data and based on prescriptive decision models, with artificial neural networks in their core. They are able to interact with decision makers and construct, verify, and validate themselves autonomously from available preferential data. As

Jun Wang; Myron Bender

1991-01-01

269

Modeling drivers of organizational change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose It is the purpose of this paper to analyze drivers of organizational change as well as their inhibitors with a particular focus on the influence of management and the environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The question will be addressed with the help of the case study of the New York Stock Exchange's (NYSE) move towards electronic trading. A system dynamical

Peter M. Milling; Nicole S. Zimmermann

2010-01-01

270

Accident risk and driver behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of risk compensation and risk homeostasis are often used to describe or to explain drivers' tendencies to react to traffic system changes whether in roads, vehicles, weather conditions or in their own skills. However, it is important to distinguish between the general phenomenon and mechanisms underlying it. This paper first points out that to understand the basic mechanisms

Heikki Summala

1996-01-01

271

Effective dialogues in driver education.  

PubMed

The Norwegian driver education programme is extensive, systematic and comprehensive. The syllabus intentions have high expectations for pupil learning, and in the learning situation the ability of teachers to utilise dialogue as an effective learning tool is put to the test. Over a 5-year period we have studied learning situations in all areas of the Norwegian driver education programme. In this article we present findings based on observations of teacher-pupil interaction during on-road practice and discuss how teachers may form the dialogue into an effective learning tool in order to tap the learning potential that is embedded in driver education programmes. The education of responsible drivers requires that teacher-pupil dialogues bring about a shared understanding of a full traffic context during on-road practice. It becomes evident that different teacher supportive approaches pave the way to 'intersubjectivity' of occurring traffic contexts in qualitatively different ways. Teachers use both 'clarifying' and 'elaborative' processes to prepare the learner for responsible driving. The establishment of a mutual understanding is a continuous dialogical process in which concepts become mediating tools. How the two conceptual worlds of teacher and learner merge makes a basic level for subsequent scaffolding processes during on-road practice. PMID:17098203

Rismark, Marit; Slvberg, Astrid M

2007-05-01

272

Influence of Support Media Characteristics on Biofilm Activity in Graywater Treatment Systems for Advanced Life Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced life support systems for long-duration space missions will require efficient recycling of water and air. Biological treatment systems may be used as the initial process in a multistep recycling system. Biofilm reactors (or biotrickling filters) have been shown to be effective for treatment of air and water. A major design consideration for these reactors is the selection of biofilm

Neepa Shah; Sybill E. Sharvelle; M. Katherine Banks

2007-01-01

273

Switched mode piezo-panel driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract\\u000aThe subject of this thesis is the design of a system which can drive piezo-panels. This system is called the piezo driver. The piezo-panels are used for an Active Noise Cancelling (ANC) system which is being developed to be used inside the cabin of airplanes. The piezo driver fills the gap between the calculating system, which provides the anti-noise

R. J. Slakhorst

2007-01-01

274

14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...onboard the launch vehicle. (4) If a tracking system uses radar as one of the independent tracking sources, the system must...than 6 dB above noise throughout the period of flight that the radar is used. The flight safety limits must account for the...

2014-01-01

275

SMART AIRCREW INTEGRATED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM (SAILSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

of the lower body, as blood from the upper part of the body shifts into these lower vessels. The pooling of blood in the lower extremities translates into reduced cardiac output Cardiovascular system reflexes respond by increasing heart rate to maintain adequate blood flow to the central nervous system in an attempt to preserve normal brain function. The physical symptoms

E. Forster; P. Whitley; B. Shender

276

Cost-effective applications in space transportation decision support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost space transportation is essential to assure proper expansion of the utilization of space and to maintain the required ground and space-based logistical support. This paper examines how a space transportation decision support system could be built and, in particular, how cost-effectiveness techniques and analysis routines would be integrated into this system. The objective is to provide a computerized decision support system that allows the user to configure and evaluate space transportation architectures with respect to cost, schedule and technical parameters. This system would be highly interactive allowing the user to evaluate and compare numerous space transportation architectures against the same and changing evaluation criteria.

Davis, Michael J.; Greenberg, Joel S.

277

Teenaged Drivers and Fatal Crash Responsibility. Preliminary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than

Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.

278

14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from optical program and flight line cameras. (4) The controls must allow the...system must include hardware or procedural security provisions for controlling access to...controls and other related hardware. These security provisions must ensure that only...

2013-01-01

279

14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...from optical program and flight line cameras. (4) The controls must allow the...system must include hardware or procedural security provisions for controlling access to...controls and other related hardware. These security provisions must ensure that only...

2012-01-01

280

Global positioning system supported pilot's display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hardware, software, and operation of the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) Flight Inspection System Pilot's Display is discussed. The Pilot's Display is used in conjunction with flight inspection tests that certify the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System used at Space Shuttle landing facilities throughout the world. The Pilot's Display was developed for the pilot of test aircraft to set up and fly a given test flight path determined by the flight inspection test engineers. This display also aids the aircraft pilot when hazy or cloud cover conditions exist that limit the pilot's visibility of the Shuttle runway during the flight inspection. The aircraft position is calculated using the Global Positioning System and displayed in the cockpit on a graphical display.

Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Erdogan, Temel; Schwalb, Andrew P.; Curley, Charles H.

1991-01-01

281

Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Homeland Securitys Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSPs current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

Robert Evans

2009-01-01

282

Clinical Application of Bioartificial Liver Support Systems  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the present status of bioartificial liver (BAL) devices and their obtained clinical results. Background: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a disease with a high mortality. Standard therapy at present is liver transplantation. Liver transplantation is hampered by the increasing shortage of organ donors, resulting in high incidence of patients with ALF dying on the transplantation waiting list. Among a variety of liver assist therapies, BAL therapy is marked as the most promising solution to bridge ALF patients to liver transplantation or to liver regeneration, because several BAL systems showed significant survival improvement in animal ALF studies. Until today, clinical application of 11 different BAL systems has been reported. Methods: A literature review was performed using MEDLINE and additional library searches. Only BAL systems that have been used in a clinical trial were included in this review. Results: Eleven BAL systems found clinical application. Three systems were studied in a controlled trial, showing no significant survival benefits, in part due to the insufficient number of patients included. The other systems were studied in a phase I trial or during treatment of a single patient and all showed to be safe. Most BAL therapies resulted in improvement of clinical and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: Bioartificial liver therapy for bridging patients with ALF to liver transplantation or liver regeneration is promising. Its clinical value awaits further improvement of BAL devices, replacement of hepatocytes of animal origin by human hepatocytes, and assessment in controlled clinical trials. PMID:15273544

van de Kerkhove, Maarten Paul; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

2004-01-01

283

The cognitive ergonomics of knowledge-based design support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critiquing systems are a type of active, knowledge-based design support system. They propose to positively influence designers' cognitive processes by pointing out potential problems and contentious issues while designers work. To investigate the effects such systems have on the activities of professional designers, a design environment containing a critiquing system was designed, built, and evaluated for a specific area: phone-based

Tamara Sumner; Nathalie Bonnardel; Benedikte Harstad Kallak

1997-01-01

284

Development of decision support systems for bioenergy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the amount and complexity of information relating to the development of bioenergy systems increases so does the problem of how to handle the information in a manner which is helpful for decision making. Hypertext-based information systems and decision support systems are being developed to aid deployment of bioenergy systems.These approaches are discussed with reference to a short rotation forestry

C. P Mitchell

2000-01-01

285

Using Ontologies for Adaptive Navigation Support in Educational Hypermedia Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational hypermedia systems seek to provide adaptive naviga- tion, whereas intelligent web-based learning systems seek to provide adaptive courseware generation. The design of powerful frameworks by merging the ap- proaches used in the above mentioned systems is recognized as one of the most interesting questions in adaptive web-based educational systems. In this paper we address adaptive navigation support in educational

Pythagoras Karampiperis; Demetrios Sampson

2004-01-01

286

Designs for Systems to Support Collaborative Information Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing systems that support collaborative information behavior (CIB) pose many unique challenges that single-user systems typically do not face. This chapter attempts to take the reader through a variety of notions, design principles, and instantiations of CIB systems. Requirements and guidelines for a good CIB system are provided based on various research studies and projects done in different domains. It

Chirag Shah

2010-01-01

287

Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

1994-01-01

288

Towards a computer-aided economic planning support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this paper are (i) to outline a conceptual framework of a computer-based DSS directed to support the development planning process, and (ii) to present the main features and structure of a model-based management system designed to assist in formulating and testing medium-term economic plans. The system has proven to be useful for organizing, systemizing and supporting the

Motaz Khorshid

1995-01-01

289

Negotiation Support and E-negotiation Systems: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

With negotiation being an often difficult process involving complex problems, computer-based support has been employed in\\u000a its various phases and tasks. This article provides a historical overview of software used to support negotiations, aid negotiators,\\u000a and automate one or more negotiation activities. First, it presents several system classifications, including implemented\\u000a models, system architectures, and configurations of various systems interacting with

Gregory E. Kersten; Hsiangchu Lai

2007-01-01

290

PILOT: An intelligent distributed operations support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Real-Time Data System (RTDS) project is exploring the application of advanced technologies to the real-time flight operations environment of the Mission Control Centers at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The system, based on a network of engineering workstations, provides services such as delivery of real time telemetry data to flight control applications. To automate the operation of this complex distributed environment, a facility called PILOT (Process Integrity Level and Operation Tracker) is being developed. PILOT comprises a set of distributed agents cooperating with a rule-based expert system; together they monitor process operation and data flows throughout the RTDS network. The goal of PILOT is to provide unattended management and automated operation under user control.

Rasmussen, Arthur N.

1993-01-01

291

Older driver distraction: a naturalistic study of behaviour at intersections.  

PubMed

This study examined older driver engagement in distracting behaviours (secondary activities) at intersections using naturalistic driving data from a larger study based in Melbourne, Australia. Of interest was whether engagement in secondary activities at intersections was influenced by factors such as driver gender and situational variables, in particular, those relating to the complexity of the driving environment. Specifically we expected that when making left/right turns, older drivers would reduce the proportion of time engaged in secondary behaviours at intersections which required gap judgements (partly controlled or uncontrolled) compared with intersections that were fully controlled by traffic signals. Consideration was given to engagement in secondary activity with hands off the wheel and when the vehicle was moving versus stationary. Older drivers aged between 65 and 83 years drove an instrumented vehicle (IV) on their regular trips for approximately two weeks. The IV was equipped with a video camera system, enabling recording of the road environment and driver and a data acquisition unit, enabling recording of trip distance, vehicle speed, braking, accelerating, steering and indicator use. Driving experience and demographics were collected and functional abilities were assessed using the Useful Field of View (UFOV), Trail Making Test B, Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The study yielded a total of 371 trips with 4493 km (99.8 h) of naturalistic driving data including 1396 left and right turns. Trips were randomly selected from the dataset and in-depth analysis was conducted on 200 intersection manoeuvres (approximately 50% left turns, 50% right turns). The most frequently observed secondary activities were scratching/grooming (42.5%), talking/singing (30.2%) and manipulating the vehicle control panel (12.2%). Glances "off road" 2s or longer were associated with reading, reaching and manipulation of the vehicle control panel. Hands off the wheel was associated with reading. Key parameters associated with the percent of intersection time that drivers engaged in secondary activities were intersection complexity, vehicle status (moving vs. stationary) and traffic density. In conclusion, older drivers appeared to engage selectively in secondary activities according to roadway/driving situations, supporting the notion that drivers self-regulate by engaging in secondary tasks less frequently when the driving task is more challenging compared with less challenging manoeuvres. PMID:23332726

Charlton, Judith L; Catchlove, Matthew; Scully, Michelle; Koppel, Sjaan; Newstead, Stuart

2013-09-01

292

Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

2002-01-01

293

Decision Support System for Fighter Pilots  

E-print Network

.g. enemy radar systems. If the enemy detects the aircraft a missile may be fired to seek and destroy the aircraft. Such a missile will almost always be either radar guided or heat seeking. It will be launched. The probability of a missile being detected by on- board sensors depends on the type of missile. If a missile

294

Crop Simulation Models and Decision Support Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The first computer simulation models for agricultural systems were developed in the 1970s. These early models simulated potential production for major crops as a function of weather conditions, especially temperature and solar radiation. At a later stage, the water component was added to be able to ...

295

Mars Rover system loopwheel definition support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of the loopwheel suspension system for use on a Mars roving vehicle was analyzed. Various steering concepts were evaluated and an optimum concept was identified on the basis of maximum probability of mission success. In the structural analysis of the loopwheel core and tread as the major fatigue critical components, important technology areas were identified.

Trautwein, W.

1977-01-01

296

Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

2014-01-01

297

Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

Jones, Harry W.

2014-01-01

298

Backing collisions: a study of drivers' eye and backing behaviour using combined rear-view camera and sensor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextBacking crash injures can be severe; approximately 200 of the 2,500 reported injuries of this type per year to children under the age of 15 years result in death. Technology for assisting drivers when backing has limited success in preventing backing crashes.ObjectivesTwo questions are addressed: Why is the reduction in backing crashes moderate when rear-view cameras are deployed? Could rear-view

David S Hurwitz; Anuj Pradhan; Donald L Fisher; Michael A Knodler; Jeffrey W Muttart; Rajiv Menon; Uwe Meissner

2010-01-01

299

A prototype knowledge-based simulation support system  

SciTech Connect

As a preliminary step toward the goal of an intelligent automated system for simulation modeling support, we explore the feasibility of the overall concept by generating and testing a prototypical framework. A prototype knowledge-based computer system was developed to support a senior level course in industrial engineering so that the overall feasibility of an expert simulation support system could be studied in a controlled and observable setting. The system behavior mimics the diagnostic (intelligent) process performed by the course instructor and teaching assistants, finding logical errors in INSIGHT simulation models and recommending appropriate corrective measures. The system was programmed in a non-procedural language (PROLOG) and designed to run interactively with students working on course homework and projects. The knowledge-based structure supports intelligent behavior, providing its users with access to an evolving accumulation of expert diagnostic knowledge. The non-procedural approach facilitates the maintenance of the system and helps merge the roles of expert and knowledge engineer by allowing new knowledge to be easily incorporated without regard to the existing flow of control. The background, features and design of the system are describe and preliminary results are reported. Initial success is judged to demonstrate the utility of the reported approach and support the ultimate goal of an intelligent modeling system which can support simulation modelers outside the classroom environment. Finally, future extensions are suggested.

Hill, T.R.; Roberts, S.D.

1987-04-01

300

Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

Rodriquez, Luis F.

2004-01-01

301

Driver Fatigue Detection: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driver fatigue is an important factor in a large number of accidents. There has been much work done in driver fatigue detection. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of research on driver fatigue detection and provides structural categories for the methods which have been proposed. The methods of fatigue detection mainly focused on measures of the driver's state, driver performance

Qiong Wang; Jingyu Yang; Mingwu Ren; Yujie Zheng

2006-01-01

302

Multi-Entry System for Supporting Teachers in Designing Instruction  

E-print Network

Multi-Entry System for Supporting Teachers in Designing Instruction Toshinobu Kasaia , Kazuo of school education, teachers are faced with the design of new instruction problems which are different from support teachers in the instructional design process flexibly and dynamically for their various requests

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

303

Designing Electronic Performance Support Systems: Models and Instructional Strategies Employed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine whether instructional designers and performance technologists utilize instructional design models when designing and developing electronic performance support systems (EPSS). The study also explored if these same designers were utilizing instructional strategies within their EPSS to support

Nekvinda, Christopher D.

2011-01-01

304

Office Support Systems. Curriculum Guide [and] Simulations [and] Test Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of a curriculum guide combined with separately published "Simulations" and "Test Bank" volumes designed to support instructors using the curriculum guide. The curriculum guide was developed to provide instructional materials to teachers of office support systems courses in Texas. The guide contains the following : (1)

Peace, Betty; Patton, Jan

305

A Support System for Building Hypermedia Training Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current multimedia platforms are not suitable for the development of hypermedia training applications because they lack features dedicated to support the specific task of training. HTAS is an integrated and customisable support system for building and executing hypermedia training applications by adopting the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) methodology [14] and the Hypertext Design Model HDM [9]. HTAS also provides

Aphrodite Tsalgatidou; Z. Palaskas; Constantine Halatsis; Michael Hatzopoulos

1994-01-01

306

Decision Support as Knowledge Creation: An Information System Design Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of decision support systems (DSS) is to improve the quality of decisions. This paper suggests that improvement in decision quality is a function of the creation of new data and information applicable to the decision domain and the understanding and learning of that new knowledge by the decision maker; i.e., the purpose of decision support is knowledge

David M. Steiger; Natalie M. Steiger

2007-01-01

307

The Library as a Support System for Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many students who have a mild to moderate learning, emotional, social, or mental problems, the school librarian is an unparalleled resource, and the library becomes a refuge and an important support system outside of the general classroom. This article provides a brief review of literature and concrete information on creating a supportive

Jurkowski, Odin L.

2006-01-01

308

GCS support/development system configuration document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The software programming environment used in the development of Guidance and Control Software (GCS) implementations used in a software error studies experiment conducted by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the NASA-Langley is described. The Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines are fulfilled, and requirements for document number 9 in which the hardware, software, and processes used to develop and maintain the software for the GCS project are described. The software programming environment for GCS largely consists of tools that are included in Digital Equipment Corporations software layered product library or are a part of the VAX/VMS baseline system.

Lowman, Douglas S.

1990-01-01

309

Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) primary mirror is a 4.24-m diameter, 75-mm thick, off-axis parabola solid meniscus mirror made out of a glass or glass ceramic material. Its baseline support system consists of 120 axial supports mounted at the mirror back surface and 24 lateral supports along the outer edge with an active optics capability. This primary mirror support system was optimized for the telescope at a near horizon position to achieve the best gravity and thermal effects. To fulfill the optical and mechanical performance requirements, extensive finite element analyses using I-DEAS and optical analyses with PCFRINGE have been conducted for the support optimization. Analyses include static deformation (gravity and thermal), frequency calculations, and support system sensitivity evaluations. An influence matrix was established to compensate potential errors using an active optics system. Performances of the primary mirror support system were evaluated from mechanical deformation calculations and the optical analyses before and after active optics corrections. The performance of the mirror cell structure was also discussed.

Cho, Myung K.; Price, Ronald S.; Moon, Il K.

2006-06-01

310

Infrastructure support for Clinical Information Systems  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary: For the past 5 years, Adventist Health has been implementing a clinical information system, titled Project IntelliCare, throughout its 19 hospitals. To successfully do this, a commitment was made to ensure continuous availability of vital patient health information to the local hospitals. This commitment required a centralized data center with sufficient capacity and a backup data center to be used in case of technical software or natural disaster where interruptions could occur. The DOE grant provided financial assistance to purchase equipment to increase the capacity of an existing data center, along with purchase of more sophisticated software for the data center thus providing a reduction in time that information is unavailable to the local hospitals when hardware or software problems occur. Relative to public good, this translates into increased safety and convenience for the patients we serve because their electronic medical records are current and available a higher percentage of the time.

McGovern, Greg, A.

2007-06-15

311

An Analysis of Hybrid Life Support Systems for Sustainable Habitats  

E-print Network

The design of sustainable habitats on Earth, on other planetary surfaces, and in space, has motivated strategic planning with respect to life support (LS) system technology development and habitat design. Such planning ...

Shaw, Margaret Miller

2014-01-01

312

A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting  

EPA Science Inventory

There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

313

Guiding the development of a controlled ecological life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop is reported which was held to establish guidelines for future development of ecological support systems, and to develop a group of researchers who understand the interdisciplinary requirements of the overall program.

Mason, R. M. (editor); Carden, J. L. (editor)

1979-01-01

314

Support System Effects on the NASA Common Research Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the NASA Common Research Model was conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from the experimental investigations was collected, a large difference in moment values was seen between the experimental and the computational data from the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This difference led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the Common Research Model. The configurations computed during this investigation were the wing/body/tail=0deg without the support system and the wing/body/tail=0deg with the support system. The results from this investigation confirm that the addition of the support system to the computational cases does shift the pitching moment in the direction of the experimental results.

Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.

2012-01-01

315

Interior detail, view to northnortheast showing support system for roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior detail, view to north-northeast showing support system for roof truss (typical), 90 mm lens plus electronic flash lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

316

Automation and Accountability in Decision Support System Interface Design  

E-print Network

When the human element is introduced into decision support system design, entirely new layers of social and ethical issues emerge but are not always recognized as such. This paper discusses those ethical and social impact ...

Cummings, M. L.

2006-01-01

317

Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m^2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

1996-01-01

318

Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

1996-01-01

319

Supporting Rule System Interoperability on the Semantic Web with SWRL  

E-print Network

Supporting Rule System Interoperability on the Semantic Web with SWRL Martin O'Connor1 , Holger Echopass Corp., San Francisco, CA 95105 wgrosso@echopass.com Rule languages and rule systems are widely monitoring, and process control. However, there is little interoperability between current rule-based systems

Polz, Martin

320

Supporting Human-Intensive Systems Lori A. Clarke  

E-print Network

Supporting Human-Intensive Systems Lori A. Clarke Department of Computer Science University +1 413-545- 0510 avrunin@cs.umass.edu ABSTRACT Executing critical systems often rely on humans, the potential for human error to lead to system failures also increases. In the medical domain, for example

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

321

An integrated process for system maintenance, fault diagnosis and support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of an integrated process for system maintenance, fault diagnosis and support. The solution is based on Qualtech Systems, Inc.'s (QSI's) TEAMS toolset for integrated diagnostics and involves several key innovations. As a showcase of the integrated solution, QSI, along with Antech Systems and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), have recently completed a research project for the

S. Ghoshal; R. Shrestha; A. Ghoshal; V. Malepati; S. Deb; K. Patripati; D. Kleinman

1999-01-01

322

Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.

1972-01-01

323

Automated support requirement system user's guide for nondata entry personnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASRS provides the capability to process intercenter/agency support requirements and commitments necessary for support of the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing, Flight, and Cargo operations. The instructions and commands that users will be allowed to utilize are presented. ASRS utilizes a data base stored on Honeywell DPS8 computer. ASRS programs are written in COBOL 74 utilizing the Honeywell DMIV-TP Processing System and the GCOS8 Operating System; they can also be accessed through Telenet or Datanet.

Maryland, J. E., Jr.

1985-01-01

324

BMP decision support system for evaluating stormwater management alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prince Georges County, Maryland, in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area has developed a best management practice decision\\u000a support system (BMPDSS) to support analysis and decision making for stormwater management planning and design at both the\\u000a site scale and the watershed levels. This paper presents a detailed description of the BMPDSS. A case study that demonstrates\\u000a the application of the system

Mow-Soung Cheng; Jenny X. Zhen; Leslie Shoemaker

2009-01-01

325

Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

Roman, Monserrate

2009-01-01

326

Web2.0Based Learning Support Service System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis took the fine courses in colleges and universities as the starting point, proposed the architecture and functional module design of Web2.0-based learning Support Service System based on analysis of the characteristics of Web2.0 and concept of learning support services system, explored the achievement process of partial functional modules, provided a new paradigm for the e-learning of Web2.0 era.

Huixia Wang; Pingli Li; Fang He; Chaoyang Zhang; Zhaoxia Dai

2009-01-01

327

Help Wanted: Drivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A booming economy and low unemployment make it harder than ever before to lure and retain good school-bus drivers. Lack of money for good wages has prompted some innovative recruitment and retention tactics. Chicago has turned to the rolls of people going off welfare as a source of bus-driver candidates. The Trans Group, headquartered in Chestnut

Hoober, Scott

1999-01-01

328

Driver Authorization Training Requirements  

E-print Network

Off-road recovery Off-road hill ascent/ decent/ traversing #12;Additional Driver Training Drivers University supplied vehicle 45 ­ 60 minutes Practice defensive driving course concepts Backing Optional Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Training #12;Contact Info Fleet.Safety@ualberta.ca Phone 780-492-1233 Cell 780

Machel, Hans

329

Support system for a 1750A VHSIC multiprocessor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design approach for a support system or test station necessary to functionally operate a very high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) microprocessor brassboard is presented. Major subsystems which make up the support are the following: (1) power supply unit; (2) temperature controller unit; (3) input/output module; and (4) mechanical test fixture. Theoretical analyses and experimental techniques were utilized to design and implement the power and temperature requirements for the VHSIC processor. A functional description of the input/output module and test fixture is discussed. The support system provides the means to evaluate and functionally test a VHSIC microprocessor.

Ruggles, Stephen L.

1990-01-01

330

Supporting GGOS through the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) is NASA's active archive for space geodesy data, products, and information. The system has provided data archiving and distribution support to a global research community for over thirty years. The CDDIS archive consists of GNSS, laser ranging, VLBI, and DORIS data sets and products derived from these data. The system is supported through NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is one of its distributed data centers, serving a wide, diverse user community. The CDDIS is a key data center supporting the geometric services of the International Association of Geodesy and therefore is an active participant in the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The CDDIS has recently developed new capabilities to help users with data discovery and has increased its archiving capabilities in several areas. The CDDIS has expanded its archive to support the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and has tested capabilities to support the activities of the IGS Real-Time IGS Service. This poster will include background information about the system and its user communities, archive contents and updates, enhancements for data discovery, new system architecture, and future plans.

Noll, Carey; Michael, Patrick; Dube, Maurice; Pollack, Nathan; Tyahla, Lori; Limbacher, Rebecca

2014-05-01

331

Improving Driver Alertness through Music Selection Using a Mobile EEG to Detect Brainwaves  

PubMed Central

Driving safety has become a global topic of discussion with the recent development of the Smart Car concept. Many of the current car safety monitoring systems are based on image discrimination techniques, such as sensing the vehicle drifting from the main road, or changes in the driver's facial expressions. However, these techniques are either too simplistic or have a low success rate as image processing is easily affected by external factors, such as weather and illumination. We developed a drowsiness detection mechanism based on an electroencephalogram (EEG) reading collected from the driver with an off-the-shelf mobile sensor. This sensor employs wireless transmission technology and is suitable for wear by the driver of a vehicle. The following classification techniques were incorporated: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and k Nearest Neighbor. These classifiers were integrated with integration functions after a genetic algorithm was first used to adjust the weighting for each classifier in the integration function. In addition, since past studies have shown effects of music on a person's state-of-mind, we propose a personalized music recommendation mechanism as a part of our system. Through the in-car stereo system, this music recommendation mechanism can help prevent a driver from becoming drowsy due to monotonous road conditions. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed drowsiness detection method to determine a driver's state of mind, and the music recommendation system is therefore able to reduce drowsiness. PMID:23803789

Liu, Ning-Han; Chiang, Cheng-Yu; Hsu, Hsiang-Ming

2013-01-01

332

Improving driver alertness through music selection using a mobile EEG to detect brainwaves.  

PubMed

Driving safety has become a global topic of discussion with the recent development of the Smart Car concept. Many of the current car safety monitoring systems are based on image discrimination techniques, such as sensing the vehicle drifting from the main road, or changes in the driver's facial expressions. However, these techniques are either too simplistic or have a low success rate as image processing is easily affected by external factors, such as weather and illumination. We developed a drowsiness detection mechanism based on an electroencephalogram (EEG) reading collected from the driver with an off-the-shelf mobile sensor. This sensor employs wireless transmission technology and is suitable for wear by the driver of a vehicle. The following classification techniques were incorporated: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and k Nearest Neighbor. These classifiers were integrated with integration functions after a genetic algorithm was first used to adjust the weighting for each classifier in the integration function. In addition, since past studies have shown effects of music on a person's state-of-mind, we propose a personalized music recommendation mechanism as a part of our system. Through the in-car stereo system, this music recommendation mechanism can help prevent a driver from becoming drowsy due to monotonous road conditions. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed drowsiness detection method to determine a driver's state of mind, and the music recommendation system is therefore able to reduce drowsiness. PMID:23803789

Liu, Ning-Han; Chiang, Cheng-Yu; Hsu, Hsiang-Ming

2013-01-01

333

MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.

Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Hamar, V.

2012-12-01

334

S. Yang and H. Peng, "Development of an Errorable Car-Following Driver Model," Vehicle System Dynamics, Volume 48, Issue 6, October 2009, pp.751-773.  

E-print Network

that emulates human driver's functions and can generate both nominal (error-free) as well as devious (with error error-inducing behaviors were then introduced. First, human perceptual limitation was studied that reported in traffic statistics. Keywords: Active Safety, Car-Following, Driver Model, Driver Errors 1

Peng, Huei

335

Performance prediction of the TMT secondary mirror support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ritchey-Chretien (RC) design of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) optics calls for a 3.1 m diameter Secondary Mirror (M2), which is a large meniscus convex hyperboloid. The M2 converts the beam reflected from the f/1 primary mirror into an f/15 beam for the science instruments. The M2 Mirror (M2M) has a mass of approximately two metric tons and the mirror support system will need to maintain the mirror figure at different gravity orientations. Recent changes in the telescope configuration to RC from Aplanatic Gregorian (AG) prescription and reduction of the fully-illuminated field of view to 15 arc minutes required a design change in the M2 mirror figure from a concave radius to a convex radius, with a significant reduction in diameter, which in turn requires re-optimization of the mirror support systems. The optical performance evaluations were made based on the optimized support systems resulting from the change from AG to RC. The M2 optimized support system consists of 60 axial supports, mounted at the mirror back surface, and 24 lateral supports mounted along the outer edge. The predicted print-though errors of the M2M supports are 10nm RMS surface for axial gravity and 2nm RMS surface for lateral gravity. This M2M support system has an active optics capability to accommodate potential mechanical or thermal errors; its performance to correct low-order aberrations has been analyzed. A structure function of the axial gravity support print-through was calculated.

Cho, Myung K.

2008-07-01

336

A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA's Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of "supportability", in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in a environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test & Verification, Maintenance & Repair, and Scavenging & Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set of technologies with widest possible capability and utility with a minimum impact on crew time and training and remain within the time and cost constraints of the Constellation program

Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

2009-01-01

337

Developing closed life support systems for large space habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In anticipation of possible large-scale, long-duration space missions which may be conducted in the future, NASA has begun to investigate the research and technology development requirements to create life support systems for large space habitats. An analysis suggests the feasibility of a regeneration of food in missions which exceed four years duration. Regeneration of food in space may be justified for missions of shorter duration when large crews must be supported at remote sites such as lunar bases and space manufacturing facilities. It is thought that biological components consisting principally of traditional crop and livestock species will prove to be the most acceptable means of closing the food cycle. A description is presented of the preliminary results of a study of potential biological components for large space habitats. Attention is given to controlled ecosystems, Russian life support system research, controlled-environment agriculture, and the social aspects of the life-support system.

Phillips, J. M.; Harlan, A. D.; Krumhar, K. C.

1978-01-01

338

The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

Jones, Harry

2005-01-01

339

Bevel gear driver and method having torque limit selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention comprises a torque drive mechanism utilizing axially translatable, mutually engageable transmission members having mating crown gears, driven and driving members with a three-element drive train being biased together by resilient means or by a fluid actuator system, the apparatus being operable to transmit a precisely controlled degree of torque to a driven member. The apparatus is applicable for use in hand tools and as a replacement for impact torque drivers, torque wrenches, motorized screw drivers, or the like, wherein the applied torque must be precisely controlled or limited. The bevel torque drive includes a drive gear which is axially displaceable and rotatable within cylindrical driver housing, a rotatable intermediate gear, and an output gear. Key rotationally secures displaceable gear with respect to input shaft but permits axial movement therebetween. A thrust bearing is preferably connected to the lower end of shaft for support to reduce play and friction between shaft and a transmission joint disc during rotation of the gear train. Coaxially mounted coiled spring is footed against displaceable gear for biasing the displaceable gear toward and into engagement with the intermediate gear for driving intermediate gear and output gear. Torque control is achieved by the use of straight or spiral beveled gears which are of configurations adapted to withdraw from mutual engagement upon the torque exceeding a predetermined limit. The novel, advantageous features of the invention include the configuration of the mating, crown gear sets and the axially translatable, slidable drive gear. The mechanism is capable of transmitting a high degree of torque within a narrow, compact transmission housing. The compact size and narrow, elongated configuration of the housing is particularly applicable for use in hand tools and in multiple torque driver mechanisms in which it is necessary to drive multiple fasteners which are located in close proximity. Prior torque drivers such as 'click-type' torque wrenches do not actually limit torque application but only provide an audible warning that the limit has been reached.

Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

1994-08-01

340

Bevel gear driver and method having torque limit selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention comprises a torque drive mechanism utilizing axially translatable, mutually engageable transmission members having mating crown gears, driven and driving members with a three-element drive train being biased together by resilient means or by a fluid actuator system, the apparatus being operable to transmit a precisely controlled degree of torque to a driven member. The apparatus is applicable for use in hand tools and as a replacement for impact torque drivers, torque wrenches, motorized screw drivers, or the like, wherein the applied torque must be precisely controlled or limited. The bevel torque drive includes a drive gear which is axially displaceable and rotatable within cylindrical driver housing, a rotatable intermediate gear, and an output gear. Key rotationally secures displaceable gear with respect to input shaft but permits axial movement therebetween. A thrust bearing is preferably connected to the lower end of shaft for support to reduce play and friction between shaft and a transmission joint disc during rotation of the gear train. Coaxially mounted coiled spring is footed against displaceable gear for biasing the displaceable gear toward and into engagement with the intermediate gear for driving intermediate gear and output gear. Torque control is achieved by the use of straight or spiral beveled gears which are of configurations adapted to withdraw from mutual engagement upon the torque exceeding a predetermined limit. The novel, advantageous features of the invention include the configuration of the mating, crown gear sets and the axially translatable, slidable drive gear. The mechanism is capable of transmitting a high degree of torque within a narrow, compact transmission housing. The compact size and narrow, elongated configuration of the housing is particularly applicable for use in hand tools and in multiple torque driver mechanisms in which it is necessary to drive multiple fasteners which are located in close proximity. Prior torque drivers such as 'click-type' torque wrenches do not actually limit torque application but only provide an audible warning that the limit has been reached.

Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (inventor)

1994-01-01

341

Performance prediction of the TMT tertiary mirror support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ritchey-Chretien (RC) optical design of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) calls for a 3.1m diameter secondary mirror (M2M) and an elliptical tertiary mirror (M3M) of 3.5m along its major axis and 2.5m along its minor axis. The M3M is a thin, large, flat, solid elliptical mirror which directs the f/15 beam from the M2M to the multiple instruments on both Nasmyth platforms. The M3M will weigh approximately two metric tons and the mirror support system will maintain the mirror figure at different gravity orientations. A recent reduction of the field of view to 15 arc minutes allows a reduction in the size of the M3M, which in turn requires re-optimization of the mirror support system. The proposed M3M optimized support system consists of 60 tri-axial supports mounted at the mirror back surface. These tri-axial supports accommodate motions of M3M in three gravity directions. The print-though RMS surface errors of M3M are 10nm for axial gravity loadings and 1nm for lateral gravity loadings. The M3 system (M3S) has an active optics (aO) capability to accommodate potential mechanical or thermal errors; its ability to correct low-order aberrations has been analyzed. A structure function (SF) of the axial gravity support print-through was calculated.

Cho, Myung K.

2008-07-01

342

Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

2006-01-01

343

RTEMS CENTRE - Support and Maintenance CENTRE to RTEMS Operating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real Time Operating System for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS) CENTRE is a project under the ESA-Portugal Task Force aiming to develop a support and maintenance centre to RTEMS operating system. The project can be summarized in two main streams, first one related to design, development, maintenance and integration of tools to augment and sustain RTEMS operating system and second stream linked to the creation of technical competences with a support site to RTEMS operating system in Europe. RTEMS CENTRE intends to minimize the cost of the incorporation/integration of airborne and space applications in this Real Time Operating System. The centre started officially in the 15th of November 2006 and is currently in the study definition and system engineering phase.

Silva, H.; Constantino, A.; Mota, M.; Freitas, D.; Zulianello, M.

2007-08-01

344

California's Electricity System of the Future: Scenario Analysis in Support  

E-print Network

California's Electricity System of the Future: Scenario Analysis in Support of Public-Interest Transmission System R&D Planning CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CONSULTANTREPORT OCTOBER 2003 P500-03-084F Gray Davis, Governor #12;2 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Prepared By: CERTS Program Office Lawrence Berkeley

345

Integrating Wraparound into a Schoolwide System of Positive Behavior Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the structure for implementation of the wraparound process within a multi-tiered system of school wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) to address the needs of the 1-5% of students with complex emotional/behavioral challenges. The installation of prerequisite system features that, based on a 3 year demonstration process, we consider

Eber, Lucille; Hyde, Kelly; Suter, Jesse C.

2011-01-01

346

RRSS -Rating Reviews Support System purpose built for movies recommendation  

E-print Network

RRSS - Rating Reviews Support System purpose built for movies recommendation Grzegorz Dziczkowski1 allows the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of reviews and opinions of the movies. First the system searches and retrieves texts supposed to be movie reviews from the Internet. Subsequently

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

A Decision Support System for Urban Climate Change Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of a decision support system for scientists and city planners which shall be suitable to assess climate change effects on urban environments, and which shall enable city planners to investigate different measures to cope with potential effects of climate change. The system named SUDPLAN (Sustainable Urban Development Planner) is currently under development and the first

Ralf Denzer; Sascha Schlobinski; Lars Gidhagen

2011-01-01

348

Multidimensional intelligent diagnosis system based on Support Vector Machine Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heeding the diagnostic requirements of electro- mechanical systems applied in automotive and aeronautical sectors, a multidimensional diagnostic system based on Support Vector Machine classifier is presented in this paper. In this context, different stationary and non-stationary speed and torque conditions are taken into account over an experimental actuator, in the same way, different single and combined failures scenarios are analyzed.

M. Delgado; A. Garcia; J. A. Ortega; J. J. Cardenas; L. Romeral

2011-01-01

349

A fuzzy multiobjective programming algorithm in decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicriteria analysis is one of the analytical functions in the problem processing system of decision support systems (DSS). In this paper, an interactive and iterative fuzzy programming method for solving a quasi-optimization problem in complex decisions under constraints involving a multiple objective function is proposed. Comparing with an adapted gradient search method, a surrogate worth tradeoff method, and a ZiontsWallenius

Li D. Xu

1988-01-01

350

Multimedia in a design rationale decision support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture and use of design rationale information is widely recognized to be essential for the design and maintenance of large systems. Design rationale information needs to be captured from a variety of sources and contexts. A design rationale management system should be capable of representing and reasoning with both formal and informal information. REMAP\\/MM is a hypermedia decision support

Balasubramaniam Ramesh; Kishore Sengupta

1995-01-01

351

Support Vector Learning for Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems  

E-print Network

1 Support Vector Learning for Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems Yixin Chen, Student Member DRAFT #12;2 Abstract To design a fuzzy rule-based classification system (fuzzy classifier) with good infinite) dimensional feature space. This paper investigates the connection between fuzzy classifiers

Chen, Yixin

352

Declarative systems architecture: a quantitative approach Case for support  

E-print Network

Declarative systems architecture: a quantitative approach Case for support Simon L Peyton Jones in computer architecture 1 . The importance of this quantitative approach goes well beyond computer this quantitative feedback process in the field of declarative systems architecture. Specifically we are interested

Jones, Simon Peyton

353

Malaria elimination: moving forward with spatial decision support systems.  

PubMed

Operational challenges facing contemporary malaria elimination have distinct geospatial elements including the need for high-resolution location-based surveillance, targeted prevention and response interventions, and effective delivery of essential services at optimum levels of coverage. Although mapping and geographical reconnaissance (GR) has traditionally played an important role in supporting malaria control and eradication, its full potential as an applied health systems tool has not yet been fully realised. As accessibility to global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and mobile computing technology increases, the role of an integrated spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework for supporting the increased operational demands of malaria elimination requires further exploration, validation and application; particularly in the context of resource-poor settings. PMID:22607693

Kelly, Gerard C; Tanner, Marcel; Vallely, Andrew; Clements, Archie

2012-07-01

354

Fieldbus Device Drivers for Accelerator Control at DESY  

E-print Network

In order to interface the DESY fieldbus adapter, SEDAC (SErial Data Acquisition and Control system), a full duplex device driver was developed for the Windows NT, Linux, VxWorks, and Solaris operating systems. Detailed driver development issues as well as a common user interface will be presented, along with a comparison of the device drivers among the different operating systems. In particular, we shall present benchmark results concerning general performance as well as ease of development.

H. G. Wu

2001-11-21

355

Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.  

SciTech Connect

As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

2007-11-01

356

Synchrotron based proton drivers  

SciTech Connect

Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

Weiren Chou

2002-09-19

357

Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluids velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

Zhao, Ming

358

A Automated Tool for Supporting FMEAs of Digital Systems  

SciTech Connect

Although designs of digital systems can be very different from each other, they typically use many of the same types of generic digital components. Determining the impacts of the failure modes of these generic components on a digital system can be used to support development of a reliability model of the system. A novel approach was proposed for such a purpose by decomposing the system into a level of the generic digital components and propagating failure modes to the system level, which generally is time-consuming and difficult to implement. To overcome the associated issues of implementing the proposed FMEA approach, an automated tool for a digital feedwater control system (DFWCS) has been developed in this study. The automated FMEA tool is in nature a simulation platform developed by using or recreating the original source code of the different module software interfaced by input and output variables that represent physical signals exchanged between modules, the system, and the controlled process. For any given failure mode, its impacts on associated signals are determined first and the variables that correspond to these signals are modified accordingly by the simulation. Criteria are also developed, as part of the simulation platform, to determine whether the system has lost its automatic control function, which is defined as a system failure in this study. The conceptual development of the automated FMEA support tool can be generalized and applied to support FMEAs for reliability assessment of complex digital systems.

Yue,M.; Chu, T.-L.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Lehner, J.

2008-09-07

359

Key Reliability Drivers of Liquid Propulsion Engines and A Reliability Model for Sensitivity Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is to address the in-flight reliability of a liquid propulsion engine system for a launch vehicle. We first establish a comprehensive list of system and sub-system reliability drivers for any liquid propulsion engine system. We then build a reliability model to parametrically analyze the impact of some reliability parameters. We present sensitivity analysis results for a selected subset of the key reliability drivers using the model. Reliability drivers identified include: number of engines for the liquid propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine thrust size, reusability, engine de-rating or up-rating, engine-out design (including engine-out switching reliability, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction), propellant specific hazards, engine start and cutoff transient hazards, engine combustion cycles, vehicle and engine interface and interaction hazards, engine health management system, engine modification, engine ground start hold down with launch commit criteria, engine altitude start (1 in. start), Multiple altitude restart (less than 1 restart), component, subsystem and system design, manufacturing/ground operation support/pre and post flight check outs and inspection, extensiveness of the development program. We present some sensitivity analysis results for the following subset of the drivers: number of engines for the propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine de-rating or up-rating requirements, engine-out design, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction, and engine health management system implementation (basic redlines and more advanced health management systems).

Huang, Zhao-Feng; Fint, Jeffry A.; Kuck, Frederick M.

2005-01-01

360

Volunteer Drivers: Their Contributions to Older Adults and to Themselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why

Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Helene

2008-01-01

361

A Decision-Support System for Quote Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a prototype agent-based decision- support system for helping suppliers respond to requests for quote in a business-to-business supply chain. The system provides suggested ways of fulfilling requests and shows alternatives that illustrate tradeoffs in quality, cost and timelines, which allows the decision maker to consider alternatives that reduce cost and improve customer value. The system

Richard Goodwin; Rama Akkiraju; Frederick Y. Wu

2002-01-01

362

A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

Daues, Katherine R.

2006-01-01

363

An Information Systems Design Theory for Supporting WMD Knowledge Reachback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an information systems design theory (ISDT) for supporting knowledge reachback during weapons of mass destruction (WMD) events and exercises. WMD reachback is complex because managing their consequences\\u000a involves identifying, integrating and leveraging knowledge from a broad spectrum of knowledge sources including published\\u000a and classified resources, systems and other technology tools, and, especially, people. Information systems design theories

Steven R. Haynes; Jonathan M. Singel; Thomas George Kannampallil

2008-01-01

364

Portable, space-saving medical patient support system  

DOEpatents

A support platform having a stowed configuration and a deployed configuration on a floor. The support platform is related to stretcher devices that are used for transporting, confining, or conducting medical procedures on medical patients in medical emergencies. The support platform typically includes a work surface that has a geometric extent. A base that typically includes a plurality of frame members is provided, and the frame members are disposed across the geometric extent of, and proximal to, the work surface in the stowed configuration. The frame members are typically disposed on the floor in the deployed configuration. There is a foldable bracing system engaged with the work surface and engaged with the base. At least a portion of the foldable bracing system is disposed substantially inside at least a portion of the plurality of frame members in the stowed configuration. Further, the foldable bracing system is configured for translocation of the work surface distal from the base in the deployed configuration.

Bzorgi; Fariborz (Knoxville, TN)

2011-02-01

365

RTEMS CENTRE- Support and Maintenance CENTRE to RTEMS Operating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RTEMS stands for Real-Time Operating System for Multiprocessor Systems. It is a full featured Real Time Operating System that supports a variety of open APIs and interface standards. It provides a high performance environment for embedded applications, including a fixed-priority preemptive/non-preemptive scheduler, a comprehensive set of multitasking operations and a large range of supported architectures. Support and maintenance CENTRE to RTEMS operating system (RTEMS CENTRE) is a joint initiative of ESA-Portugal Task force, aiming to build a strong technical competence in the space flight (on- board) software, to offer support, maintenance and improvements to RTEMS. This paper provides a high level description of the current and future activities of the RTEMS CENTRE. It presents a brief description of the RTEMS operating system, a description of the tools developed and distributed to the community [1] and the improvements to be made to the operating system, including facilitation for the qualification of RTEMS (4.8.0) [2] for the space missions.

Silva, H.; Constantino, A.; Coutunho, M.; Freitas, D.; Faustino, S.; Mota, M.; Colao, P.; Zulianello, M.

2008-08-01

366

A Study of Driver's Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent. PMID:25610455

Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Deng, Wei

2014-01-01

367

Innate Immunity, Environmental Drivers,  

E-print Network

Innate Immunity, Environmental Drivers, and Disease Ecology of Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates immunity, ecological immunity, outbreak, prophenoloxidase pathway Abstract Despite progress in the past, and antimicrobial compounds. To demonstrate the links between immunity and the environment, we summarize mechanisms

Harvell, Catherine Drew

368

Mass drivers. 3: Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.

Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

1979-01-01

369

Vehicle Management Driver Safety Program  

E-print Network

Vehicle Management and Driver Safety Program Manual Facilities & Operations / Finance & Administration Version 2 April 2012 #12;© 2012 University of Alberta. #12;The Vehicle Management and Driver of employment. Driver Acknowledgement I have received the University of Alberta, Vehicle Management and Driver

Machel, Hans

370

Novel Applications of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Digraphs in Decision Support Systems  

PubMed Central

Many problems of practical interest can be modeled and solved by using graph algorithms. In general, graph theory has a wide range of applications in diverse fields. In this paper, the intuitionistic fuzzy organizational and neural network models, intuitionistic fuzzy neurons in medical diagnosis, intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in vulnerability assessment of gas pipeline networks, and intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in travel time are presented as examples of intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in decision support system. We have also designed and implemented the algorithms for these decision support systems. PMID:25045752

Sarwar, Mansoor

2014-01-01

371

Novel applications of intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in decision support systems.  

PubMed

Many problems of practical interest can be modeled and solved by using graph algorithms. In general, graph theory has a wide range of applications in diverse fields. In this paper, the intuitionistic fuzzy organizational and neural network models, intuitionistic fuzzy neurons in medical diagnosis, intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in vulnerability assessment of gas pipeline networks, and intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in travel time are presented as examples of intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in decision support system. We have also designed and implemented the algorithms for these decision support systems. PMID:25045752

Akram, Muhammad; Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

2014-01-01

372

Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

2014-11-01

373

Controlled ecological life support systems for space habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of regenerative life support systems to meet the physiological requirements of humans in space is described. A review of previous research on regenerative systems is presented. NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program, which is to develop an environment for a human space crew, is discussed. The table of physiological requirements of an average human and the logical system approach to planning a closed system created by Spurlock and Modell (1976, 1978) are examined. The weight of food and oxygen with respect to lift-off weight is investigated. The creation of the proper atmosphere for space, by balancing all the necessary parameters is studied. The need for a mineral and fluid balance and methods of maintaining it are analyzed. The required cooperation between physicians, physiologists, and nutritionists for the success of the CELSS program is discussed.

Buchanan, P.

1984-01-01

374

A closed life-support system for space colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1975, a system design study was performed to examine a completely self-contained system for a permanent colony of 10,000 inhabitants in space. Fundamental to this design was the life support system. Since resupply from earth is prohibitive in transportation costs, it was decided to use a closed system with the initial supply of oxygen coming from processing of lunar ores, and the supply of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen from earth. The problem of life support was treated starting with the nutritional and metabolic requirements for the human population, creating a food and water chain sufficient to supply these demands, adding the additional requirements for the animal and plant sources in the food chain, feeding back useful waste products, supplying water as required from different sources, and closing the loop by processing organic wastes into CO2. This concept places the burden of the system upon plants for O2 generation and waste processing the CO2 generation.

Johnson, R. D.; Jebens, H. J.; Sweet, H. C.

1977-01-01

375

Information security requirements in patient-centred healthcare support systems.  

PubMed

Enabling Patient-Centred (PC) care in modern healthcare requires the flow of medical information with the patient between different healthcare providers as they follow the patient's treatment plan. However, PC care threatens the stability of the balance of information security in the support systems since legacy systems fall short of attaining a security balance when sharing their information due to compromises made between its availability, integrity, and confidentiality. Results show that the main reason for this is that information security implementation in discrete legacy systems focused mainly on information confidentiality and integrity leaving availability a challenge in collaboration. Through an empirical study using domain analysis, observations, and interviews, this paper identifies a need for six information security requirements in legacy systems to cope with this situation in order to attain the security balance in systems supporting PC care implementation in modern healthcare. PMID:23920670

Alsalamah, Shada; Gray, W Alex; Hilton, Jeremy; Alsalamah, Hessah

2013-01-01

376

Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) facsimile system directory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This directory provides a system description, a station listing, and operating procedures for the Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) NASA Facsimile System. The NASA Facsimile System is a convenient and efficient means of spanning the distance, time, and cost of transmitting documents from one person to another. In the spectrum of communication techniques, facsimile bridges the gap between mail and data transmission. Facsimile can transmit in a matter of minutes or seconds what would take a day or more by mail delivery. The NASA Facsimile System is composed of several makes and models of facsimile machines. The system also supports the 3M FaxXchange network controllers located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

1992-01-01

377

Driving Support Control of Electric Vehicle Adapting to Environment with a Haptic Accelerator Pedal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in the number of drivers, traffic accidents have increased in number. The process of driving includes acknowledgment, judgment, and operation. Among these, acknowledgment is the most important because mistakes in acknowledgment accounts for 70% of the human factors causing accidents. This paper proposes the cooperation between a haptic pedal system and the driver, which gives the driver information about the road condition. It is confirmed that the proposed method helps in accurate acquisition of road condition information and transmission of this information to drivers; then, the driver's response is analyzed to check whether the information transmission is efficient and the support provided to the driver is adequate. Simulation and experiments were carried out to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

Igari, Yoshihide; Murakami, Toshiyuki

378

Kin-Driver: a database of driver mutations in protein kinases  

PubMed Central

Somatic mutations in protein kinases (PKs) are frequent driver events in many human tumors, while germ-line mutations are associated with hereditary diseases. Here we present Kin-driver, the first database that compiles driver mutations in PKs with experimental evidence demonstrating their functional role. Kin-driver is a manual expert-curated database that pays special attention to activating mutations (AMs) and can serve as a validation set to develop new generation tools focused on the prediction of gain-of-function driver mutations. It also offers an easy and intuitive environment to facilitate the visualization and analysis of mutations in PKs. Because all mutations are mapped onto a multiple sequence alignment, analogue positions between kinases can be identified and tentative new mutations can be proposed for studying by transferring annotation. Finally, our database can also be of use to clinical and translational laboratories, helping them to identify uncommon AMs that can correlate with response to new antitumor drugs. The website was developed using PHP and JavaScript, which are supported by all major browsers; the database was built using MySQL server. Kin-driver is available at: http://kin-driver.leloir.org.ar/ PMID:25414382

Simonetti, Franco L.; Tornador, Cristian; Nabau-Moret, Nuria; Molina-Vila, Miguel A.; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

2014-01-01

379

Kin-Driver: a database of driver mutations in protein kinases.  

PubMed

Somatic mutations in protein kinases (PKs) are frequent driver events in many human tumors, while germ-line mutations are associated with hereditary diseases. Here we present Kin-driver, the first database that compiles driver mutations in PKs with experimental evidence demonstrating their functional role. Kin-driver is a manual expert-curated database that pays special attention to activating mutations (AMs) and can serve as a validation set to develop new generation tools focused on the prediction of gain-of-function driver mutations. It also offers an easy and intuitive environment to facilitate the visualization and analysis of mutations in PKs. Because all mutations are mapped onto a multiple sequence alignment, analogue positions between kinases can be identified and tentative new mutations can be proposed for studying by transferring annotation. Finally, our database can also be of use to clinical and translational laboratories, helping them to identify uncommon AMs that can correlate with response to new antitumor drugs. The website was developed using PHP and JavaScript, which are supported by all major browsers; the database was built using MySQL server. Kin-driver is available at: http://kin-driver.leloir.org.ar/ PMID:25414382

Simonetti, Franco L; Tornador, Cristian; Nabau-Moret, Nuria; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

2014-01-01

380

Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed.

Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

2004-01-01

381

SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families  

E-print Network

SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families Page 1 SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans Aligata, SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans

Mather, Patrick T.

382

Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for the evaluation of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m(exp 2) growing area. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), will be capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in Lunar or Martian habitats; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) will operate at ambient atmospheric pressure. The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: (1) in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; (2) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; (3) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and (4) monitoring and control strategies.

Henninger, Donald L.; Tri, Terry O.; Barta, Daniel J.; Stahl, Randal S.

1991-01-01

383

Systems Analysis of Life Support for Long-Duration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work defining advanced life support (ALS) technologies and evaluating their applicability to various long-duration missions has continued. Time-dependent and time-invariant costs have been estimated for a variety of life support technology options, including International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technologies and improved options under development by the ALS Project. These advanced options include physicochemical (PC) and bioregenerative (BIO) technologies, and may in the future include in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) in an attempt to reduce both logistics costs and dependence on supply from Earth. PC and bioregenerative technologies both provide possibilities for reducing mission equivalent system mass (ESM). PC technologies are most advantageous for missions of up to several years in length, while bioregenerative options are most appropriate for longer missions. ISRU can be synergistic with both PC and bioregenerative options.

Drysdale, Alan E.; Maxwell, Sabrina; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.

2000-01-01

384

Conceptual designs for lunar base life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three designs for lunar-base life support are described emphasizing the choices of individual processes for initial, intermediate, and advanced systems. Mass balances for the systems are employed to demonstrate the interactions of air, water, and waste loops, and several waste-treatment processes are considered for the initial life-support system. NASA space-station technologies are adopted for the start-up air, water, and waste treatment subsystems, and the intermediate subsystems provide enhanced capabilities. The intermediate waste-management subsystem permits the recovery of reusable waste, and the advanced system provides biological waste treatment. The reduction of resupply requirements and power use are identified as critical issues as is the ability to operate over extended periods.

Dall-Bauman, Liese; Edeen, Marybeth; Brown, Mariann

1991-01-01

385

Separations technologies supporting the development of a deployable ATW system  

SciTech Connect

A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The first several years of the program will be directed toward an elucidation of related technical issues and to the establishment, by means of comprehensive trade studies, of an optimum configuration of the elements of the chemical processing infrastructure required for support of the total ATW system. By adopting this sort of disciplined systems engineering approach, it is expected that development and demonstration costs can be minimized and that it will be possible to deploy an ATW system that is an environmentally sound and economically viable venture.

Laidler, J. J.

2000-01-07

386

EXODUS: Integrating intelligent systems for launch operations support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing knowledge-based systems to automate critical operations functions for the space shuttle fleet. Intelligent systems will monitor vehicle and ground support subsystems for anomalies, assist in isolating and managing faults, and plan and schedule shuttle operations activities. These applications are being developed independently of one another, using different representation schemes, reasoning and control models, and hardware platforms. KSC has recently initiated the EXODUS project to integrate these stand alone applications into a unified, coordinated intelligent operations support system. EXODUS will be constructed using SOCIAL, a tool for developing distributed intelligent systems. EXODUS, SOCIAL, and initial prototyping efforts using SOCIAL to integrate and coordinate selected EXODUS applications are described.

Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

1991-01-01

387

NUCLEAR-FUELED CIRCULATORY SUPPORT SYSTEMS IV: RADIOLOGIC PERSPECTIVES  

PubMed Central

If an implantable artificial heart can be developed, it should prove beneficial to a significant group of patients. A variety of energy sources, such as biologic, electromagnetic, and nuclear, are under evaluation. Currently, biologic fuel cell technology is not sufficiently advanced to permit its extrapolation to the power levels required for implantable circulatory support systems. Electromagnetic systems have the disadvantage of heavy batteries of considerable bulk requiring frequent recharging. Radioisotope-fueled thermal engine systems have the potential of providing degrees of freedom not possible with rechargeable units. However, radiosotope circulatory support systems subject their recipients to prolonged intracorporeal radiation, add to environmental background radiation, and constitute an exceedingly small, but finite, hazard due to possible violation of fuel containment. PMID:15215965

Huffman, F. N.; Norman, J. C.

1974-01-01

388

Space Station Freedom thermal control and life support system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom thermal control system (TCS) and environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are reviewed. Differences in the TCS and ECLSS are discussed between the early man-tended configuration (MTC) compared to the eventual evolutions to the permanently manned configuration (PMC). Concurrent analytical and developmental testing programs are included in the systems discussions as well as a description of an early 1993 flight test program on elements of the PMC water recovery system. Recent TCS design changes to the air cooling of rack mounted equipment are discussed. An overview of all TCS and ECLSS subsystems is included.

Wegrich, R. D.

1992-01-01

389

Dynamic Considerations for Control of Closed Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliability of closed life support systems depend on their ability to continue supplying the crew's needs during perturbations and equipment failures. The dynamic considerations interact with the basic static design through the sizing of storages, the specification of excess capacities in processors, and the choice of system initial state. A very simple system flow model was used to examine the possibilities for system failures even when there is sufficient storage to buffer the immediate effects of the perturbation. Two control schemes are shown which have different dynamic consequences in response to component failures.

Babcock, P. S.; Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.

1985-01-01

390

Development of an Ecological Decision Support System 1  

E-print Network

.), Tasks and Methods in Applied Artificial Intelligence (Proceedings of the 11th International Conference, vol. 1416, Springer Verlag, 1998, pp. 815­825 #12; 816 organisations International Plant Technology815 Development of an Ecological Decision Support System 1 Frits van Beusekom*, Frances Brazier

Treur, Jan

391

OASIS: A GRAPHICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Three new software technologies were applied to develop an efficient and easy to use decision support system far ground-water contaminant modeling. raphical interfaces create a more intuitive and effective form of communication with the computer compared to text-based interfaces....

392

Support Systems for Adult Education. Final Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project provided three types of supportive services to adult education programming in the State of New York. The first component of the project was the development of a literacy information and referral system to link potential students and volunteers with program providers. The second phase of the project involved the development and

Winter, Gene M.

393

Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

2013-01-01

394

Modeling a Decision Support System to Prevent Adverse Drug Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug events are known to be a major health problem worldwide. Decision support systems (DSSs) that assist drug ordering have demonstrated to be a powerful tool to prevent prescription errors and adverse drug events. On the other hand, some issues related to the development, implementation, configuration and evaluation of these DDSs still need further research. The objective of this

Guilherme Del Fiol; Percy Nohama; Beatriz H. S. C. Rocha

2000-01-01

395

A MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Great Lakes National Program Office in conjunction with the Great Lakes Commission and other researchers is leading a large scale collaborative effort that will yield, in unprecedented detail, a management support system for Great Lakes coastal wetlands. This entails the dev...

396

Supporting Systems Development by Capturing Deliberations During Requirements Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support for various stakeholders involved in software projects (designers, maintenance personnel, project managers and executives, end users) can be provided by capturing the history about design decisions in the early stages of the system's development life cycle in a structured manner. Much of this knowledge, which is called the process knowledge, involving the deliberation on alternative requirements and design decisions,

Balasubramaniam Ramesh; Vasant Dhar

1992-01-01

397

Management Control System Support of Initiatives for Disruptive Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the management control system (MCS) support of school initiatives to develop the school climate and to re-engage disruptive students. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an approach of critical action research interviews with management and document reviews informed by Habermasian

Scott, Colin

2011-01-01

398

Applying a Spruce Budworm Decision Support System to Maine: Projecting  

E-print Network

Applying a Spruce Budworm Decision Support System to Maine: Projecting Spruce-Fir Volume ImpactsLean, and Robert G. Wagner Spruce budworm (SBW) infestations and defoliation in forests of eastern North America (e.g., 1910s, 1940s, and 1970­1980s) have had significant negative impacts on growth and survival of spruce

Wagner, Robert G.

399

An Integrated Decision Support System for Global Logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the globalization of business activities broadens and diversifies logistics operations, many logistics managers have found themselves challenged by extreme complexities and uncertainties. Consequently, planning and control of multinational firms (MNFs) have become onerous due to the multiplicity of international decision environments. Perhaps the most effective way of coping with such challenges is to utilize an integrated decision support system

Hokey Min; Sean B. Eom

1994-01-01

400

Web-based intervention support system for health promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web has attracted considerable attention as an avenue to improve healthcare delivery. This paper describes the development of a Web-based intervention support system (WISS) that helps provide tailored interventions to enhance health-related behavior change. The tailoring strategy is based on the transtheoretical model (TTM). The performance of WISS was assessed by a pilot study, a controlled randomized longitudinal experiment

Huigang Liang; Yajiong Xue; Bruce A. Berger

2006-01-01

401

Real estate's knowledge and device?based decision support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper participated in the European Union's Sixth Framework Programme project Intelligent Cities (INTELCITIES, 2005). One of INTELCITIES's goals (on the Lithuanian side) was to develop a Real Estate's Knowledge and Device?based Decision Support System (KDDSS?RE). Major KDDSS ?RE functions include creating and maintaining customer's personalized real estate objectives, preferences, and evaluation criteria; participation of various stakeholders

Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas; Art?ras Kaklauskas; Audrius Banaitis

2010-01-01

402

A decision support system for green data centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a decision support system for green computing in data centers on campuses. Green computing aims at the development of technologies for a greener and more sustainable planet. In this work we focus on the greening of data centers that house servers on campuses. It is known that servers consume a huge amount of power and

Michael J. Pawlish; Aparna S. Varde

2010-01-01

403

Prototyping a Legal Decision Support System: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a project to develop a prototype of an intelligent computer system that contains legal domain knowledge which is capable of being accessed via the World Wide Web, and which can support legal decision- making and advice in the area of Scottish divorce law. The results of both the initial feasibility analysis and the issues encountered in the

John Kingston; Lillian Edwards; Jean Hall

2002-01-01

404

Supporting Real-world Activities in Database Management Systems  

E-print Network

measurements. These real-world activities may take long time to prepare for and to perform, and hence introduceSupporting Real-world Activities in Database Management Systems Mohamed Y. Eltabakh #1 , Walid G@cs.purdue.edu Abstract-- The cycle of processing the data in many applica- tion domains is complex and may involve real-world

Elmagarmid, Ahmed K.

405

A Design of Grid Supported Services for Mobile Learning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handheld devices such as mobile phone and PDA have become widespread in every areas of life. In higher education context, these devices can be transformed into mobile learning tools which students can use to download and study learning materials anytime and anywhere. MAVGRID is designed as a system that support ubiquitous learning environment or m-Learning (Mobile Learning) environment. It uses

M. N. S. M. Sayuti; Sham Mohd; Bandar Baru Nilai

2010-01-01

406

A Phone-based Support System to Assist Alcohol Recovery  

E-print Network

; Human Factors; Introduction For alcoholic abuse patients, making it through a rehabilitation program] have shown that the relapse rates for alcohol patients three months after treatment are around 60A Phone-based Support System to Assist Alcohol Recovery Abstract This study explores the use

Ouhyoung, Ming

407

Flexible Support for Adaptable Software and Systems Engineering Processes  

E-print Network

Flexible Support for Adaptable Software and Systems Engineering Processes Richard Mordinyi, Thomas and therefore inflexible adapta- tions in case of even minimal changes to engineering processes or engineering and existing engineering tools. We evaluate the EngSB by implementing a standard software engineering process

408

Physical Media Independence: System Support for Dynamically Available Network Interfaces  

E-print Network

], allow users to dynamically insert and remove network devices while the computer is operating to enable seamless operation while network devices are added and removed. Several examples are listed belowPhysical Media Independence: System Support for Dynamically Available Network Interfaces Jon Inouye

Walpole, Jonathan

409

MISS: Medicine Information Support System in the Smart Home Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smart Home uses different technology to facilitate the lives of the resident and is especially useful for assisting the\\u000a elderly and persons with special needs. One area where this population would benefit is managing their prescribed medications.\\u000a This paper presents the Medicine Information Support System (MISS) which integrates the patients information to assist with\\u000a the prescriptions management. The system

Jos M. Reyes lamo; Johnny Wong; Ryan Babbitt; Carl K. Chang

2008-01-01

410

Unintentional HPM exposure from satellite launch support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the vulnerability of sensitive electronics to HPM (high-power microwave) illumination, electronics located near high-power systems must be protected from unintentional HPM exposure. Such exposure can occur at satellite launch facilities, where support systems, such as tracking radars, use high-power RF designs and are close to satellite launch sites. The RF environment in a typical launch site is described.

T. G. Crean; R. B. Dybda; A. E. Pope

1990-01-01

411

An Expert System to Support Clothing Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of expert systems technologies and human computer interaction, the goal of this project is to construct an\\u000a interactive design support to fashion designers when designing workwear or corporatewear clothes. This system will be fed\\u000a by a semantic database that describes the relations between function and clothes specific context of use under the users\\u000a perspective. This application will

Michele Santos; Francisco Rebelo

2007-01-01

412

Development of a Decision Support System for Fixture Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comprehensive decision support system is developed to design fixtures for machining centers. The CAD interface provided\\u000a to the system enables it to exchange drawings and data with other commercial CAD software tools. A set of structured queries\\u000a incorporated in the preprocessor prompts the designer to extract qualitative and quantitative part features. The database,\\u000a rule base and knowledge base built

Manisha Yadav; Suhas Mohite

413

DATABASE APPROACH FOR MULTIPLE-CRITERIA DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on data management aspects of computerizeddecision support systems which use interactive multiple criteriadecision methods. In this context, we point out the technicalrequirements for such systems and the importance of the datamanagement tool to MCDSS.After a discussion of candidate data models (i.e.relational, hierarchical, and network), we examine the criteria touse in choosing the data model for MCDSS.In the

Mohamed Tawfik Jelassi; Matthias Jarke; Alain Checroun

1983-01-01

414

Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

Knott, W. M.

1990-01-01

415

Decision support system for pump-and-treat remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Pump-and-Treat Decision Support System (P and T DSS) has been developed that allows users to design and evaluate the performance of pump-and-treat remediation systems at their sites. The P and T DSS is composed of three modules: the GENERAL, SITE SPECIFIC, and the SIMULATOR module. The DSS runs on a Macintosh and a Windows-based platform and has a simple

H. S. Rifai; P. B. Bedient

2008-01-01

416

Lunar Dust Characterization for Exploration Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar dust effects can have a significant impact on the performance and maintenance of future exploration life support systems. Filtration systems will be challenged by the additional loading from lunar dust, and mitigation technology and strategies have to be adapted to protect sensitive equipment. An initial characterization of lunar dust and simulants was undertaken. The data emphasize the irregular morphology of the dust particles and the frequency dependence of lunar dust layer detachment from shaken surfaces.

Agui, Juan H.

2007-01-01

417

Integrating Wraparound into a Schoolwide System of Positive Behavior Supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the structure for implementation of the wraparound process within a multi-tiered system of school wide positive\\u000a behavior support (SWPBS) to address the needs of the 15% of students with complex emotional\\/behavioral challenges. The installation\\u000a of prerequisite system features that, based on a 3year demonstration process, we consider critical to full operation of the\\u000a Tier 3 wraparound intervention within

Lucille Eber; Kelly Hyde; Jesse C. Suter

418

Supporting health systems in Europe: added value of EU actions?  

PubMed

Since the start of the economic crisis, the European Union's (EU's) predominant discourse has been austerity and fiscal consolidation. The detrimental effects on Europe's health systems and the health status of its citizens are well described. However, little is known about the emerging EU-level initiatives to support national health systems handle the challenges of efficient care provision and system reorganisation aimed to meet their future needs. This review analyses the manner, conditions and prospects of such EU support. First, health system objectives are increasingly entering the EU health policy agenda. Second, professional and patient mobility provisions may support member states (MS) in copying with crisis related health challenges but can potentially acerbate them at the same time. Third, in recent initiatives health system goals are more closely tied to the EU's economic growth narrative. And fourth, health system issues are taken up in existing EU-level structures for debate and exchange between MS. In addition, the design of some policies may have the potential to intensify socioeconomic and health inequalities rather than ameliorate them. PMID:23968231

Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

2014-01-01

419

Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

Glover, R. D.

1982-01-01

420

Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

421

Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a desertified (or degraded) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of environmental refugees displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different regions around the world.

D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

2013-01-01

422

Smartphone-Based NoviceTeenage Driver Support System www.its.umn.edu/Research/ProjectComplete.html?id=2009015  

E-print Network

.TheTDSS prototype also monitors seat belt use and detects the presence of unauthorized pas- sengers (e.g., based via a secure Web site where they can monitor their teen's behavior over time. A usability review for monitoring and encouraging safe driving behavior, with and without GDL provisions, and make sug- gestions

Minnesota, University of

423

Young Drivers. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving young drivers. Data tables include: (1) driver fatalities and drivers involved in fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old, 1990-2000; (2) drivers involved in fatal crashes and driver involvement rates by age group, 2000; (3) drivers 15 to 20 years old

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

424

Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Young Drivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving young drivers. Data tables include: (1) driver fatalities and drivers involved in fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old, 1991-2001; (2) drivers involved in fatal crashes and driver involvement rates by age group, 2001; (3) drivers 15 to 20 years old

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

425

Prolog: A Practical Language for Decision Support Systems in Nursing?  

PubMed Central

Developing decision support systems for nursing has been limited by difficulties in defining and representing nursing's knowledge base and by a lack of knowledge of how nurses make decisions. Recent theoretical and empirical work offers solutions to those problems. The challenge now is to represent nursing knowledge in a way that is comprehensible to both nurse and computer and to design decision support modalities that are accurate, efficient, and appropriate for nurses with different levels of expertise. This paper reviews the issues and critically evaluates Prolog as a tool for meeting the challenge.

Ozbolt, Judy G.

1987-01-01

426

Damping and support in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatuses to provide improved auxiliary damping for superconducting bearings in superconducting levitation systems are disclosed. In a superconducting bearing, a cryostat housing the superconductors is connected to a ground state with a combination of a damping strip of material, a set of linkage arms to provide vertical support, and spring washers to provide stiffness. Alternately, the superconducting bearing may be supported by a cryostat connected to a ground state by posts constructed from a mesh of fibers, with the damping and stiffness controlled by the fiber composition, size, and mesh geometry.

Hull, John R. (Sammamish, WA); McIver, Carl R. (Everett, WA); Mittleider, John A. (Kent, WA)

2009-12-15

427

Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

2001-01-01

428

A requirements specification for a software design support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most existing software design systems (SDSS) support the use of only a single design methodology. A good SDSS should support a wide variety of design methods and languages including structured design, object-oriented design, and finite state machines. It might seem that a multiparadigm SDSS would be expensive in both time and money to construct. However, it is proposed that instead an extensible SDSS that directly implements only minimal database and graphical facilities be constructed. In particular, it should not directly implement tools to faciliate language definition and analysis. It is believed that such a system could be rapidly developed and put into limited production use, with the experience gained used to refine and evolve the systems over time.

Noonan, Robert E.

1988-01-01

429

MULTIOBJECTIVE DECISION THEORY - DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS WITH EMBEDDED SIMULATION MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract _.,. . Tne concepts of multiobjective decision making utilizing,embedded,computer,simulation,models,and dimensionless,scoring,functions,are described,in the context,of,a decision,support,system,(DSS).,This methodology,consists,of procedures,to help,make practical,decisions,using,simulation,models,when,the decision makers are faced with multiple, often conflicting, objectives. An example application describes,a decision,support,system,for,design,or remediation,of shallow,land,burial,systems,to control release,of,radioactive,and,hazardous,chemicals,into,the environment.,Applications,under,development,include selection,of best,farming,practices,to minimize,water pollution,from,nutrients,and,pesticides.

J. c. Ascough; T. E. Hakonson

430

Graduated Driver Licensing: An international review.  

PubMed

Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

Bates, Lyndel J; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Davey, Jeremy

2014-11-01

431

System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

2006-01-01

432

Measuring the Resilience of Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the central importance of crew safety in designing and operating a life support system, the metric commonly used to evaluate alternative Advanced Life Support (ALS) technologies does not currently provide explicit techniques for measuring safety. The resilience of a system, or the system s ability to meet performance requirements and recover from component-level faults, is fundamentally a dynamic property. This paper motivates the use of computer models as a tool to understand and improve system resilience throughout the design process. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data can then be used to test alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system s ability to recover from component-level faults. A novel approach to measuring system resilience using a Markov chain model of performance data is also developed. Results emphasize that resilience depends on the complex interaction of faults, controls, and system dynamics, rather than on simple fault probabilities.

Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

2002-01-01

433

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the life support and airlock support systems, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) was selected in June 1986 to perform an Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL). The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Life Support and Airlock Support Systems (LSS and ALSS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. The discrepancies were flagged for potential future resolution. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter LSS and ALSS hardware. Volume 2 continues the presentation of IOA worksheets and contains the critical items list and NASA FMEA to IOA worksheet cross reference and recommendations.

Barickman, K.

1988-01-01

434

Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers opportunities for licensing to commercial entities. In the case of the HRWRS, commercial markets with broad applications have not been identified but some terrestrial applications are being explored where this approach has advantages over other methods of waste water processing. Although these potential applications do not appear to have the same broad attraction from the standpoint of rapid commercialization, they represent niches where commercialization possibilities as well as social benefits could be realized.

Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

1994-01-01

435

The webbased real estate multiple criteria negotiation decision support system: A new generation of decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negotiations are an inseparable part of the real estate buying and selling process. Currently real estate are characterized by the intensive creation and use of information, knowledge and automation (software, knowledge and decision support systems, neural networks, etc.) applications. It is commonly agreed that a better integration of information, knowledge and automation applications, as well use of voice stress

Vita Urbanavi?iene; Art?ras Kaklauskas; Edmundas K. Zavadskas; Mark Seniut

2009-01-01

436

Adriatic Sea Decision Support System (ADRI-DSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adriatic Sea decision support system (ADRI-DSS) consists of an on-line service built upon a set of integrated operational oceanography products. ADRI-DSS integrates the Adriatic Sea monitoring and forecasting system (AFS) with local in-situ observations and is built to support the Emilia-Romagna coastal monitoring system for marine environment and ecosystem health. The target user is the Regional Environment Prevention Agency from Emilia-Romagna (Italy) called ARPA-EMR. Specifically ADRI-DSS will support the daily action of the oceanographic section of ARPA-EMR called ARPA-DAPHNE providing all the available products (forecast, observations, simulations) from Adriatic Forecasting System. The product is shaped as required by the user and moreover ADRI-DSS also integrates with the routinely observations that the user carry out on a weekly basis. The system has been designed through the interaction with ARPA-DAPHNE and consists of a online portal containing simulation and forecast for the relevant north Adriatic region. Moreover the model products are compared with in-situ observations of temperature and salinity collected by the ARPA-DAPHNE itself. In the coming future also satellite observations and indicators will be made available by ADRI-DSS. The final aim of ADRI-DSS is to integrate selected products from the AFS with the insitu and satellite observation to support the monitoring activities of ARPA-DAPNHE and to improve ARPA-DAPHNE capabilities for the Emilia-Romagna marine environment status assessment. ADRI-DSS has been developed within ECOOP project (European COastal-shelf sea OPerational Observing and forecasting system Integrated Project). ADRI-DSS is a web-based application available via internet browsers with JavaScript capability. The server part is implemented on PHP (data management) and NCL (graphics production). The NCL is NCAR Command Language, a free interpreted language designed specifically for scientific data processing and visualization, see www.ncl.ucar.edu.

Coppini, Giovanni; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Pinardi, Nadia; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Serra, Stefano; Santoleri, Rosalia

2010-05-01

437

Space shuttle engineering and operations support. Avionics system engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle avionics integration laboratory (SAIL) requirements for supporting the Spacelab/orbiter avionics verification process are defined. The principal topics are a Spacelab avionics hardware assessment, test operations center/electronic systems test laboratory (TOC/ESL) data processing requirements definition, SAIL (Building 16) payload accommodations study, and projected funding and test scheduling. Because of the complex nature of the Spacelab/orbiter computer systems, the PCM data link, and the high rate digital data system hardware/software relationships, early avionics interface verification is required. The SAIL is a prime candidate test location to accomplish this early avionics verification.

Broome, P. A.; Neubaur, R. J.; Welsh, R. T.

1976-01-01

438

Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support System (ASCLSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support Systems (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of space station subsystems. The automation system features a hierarchical and distributed real-time control architecture which places maximum controls authority at the lowest or process control level which enhances system autonomy. The ASCLSS demonstration system pioneered many automation and control concepts currently being considered in the space station data management system (DMS). Heavy emphasis is placed on controls hardware and software commonality implemented in accepted standards. The approach demonstrates successfully the application of real-time process and accountability with the subsystem or process developer. The ASCLSS system completely automates a space station subsystem (air revitalization group of the ASCLSS) which moves the crew/operator into a role of supervisory control authority. The ASCLSS program developed over 50 lessons learned which will aide future space station developers in the area of automation and controls..

Block, Roger F.

1987-01-01

439

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM, DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, AND URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The full report reviews the application of Geographic Inforamtion System (GIS) technology to the field of urban stormwater modeling. The GIS literature is reviewed in the context of its use as a spatial database for urban stormwater modeling, integration of GIS and hydroloic time...

440

Life Support Systems for a New Lunar Lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A life support system concept has been developed for a new NASA lunar lander concept. The ground rules and assumptions driving the design of this vehicle are different from the Constellation Altair vehicle, and have led to a different design solution. For example, this concept assumes that the lander vehicle arrives in lunar orbit independently of the crew. It loiters in lunar orbit for months before rendezvousing with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), resulting in the use of solar power for this new lander, rather than fuel cells that provided product water to the life support system in the Altair vehicle. Without the need to perform a single Lunar Orbit Insertion burn for both the lander and the MPCV, the modules do not have to be centered in the same way, so the new lander has a smaller ascent module than Altair and a large habitat rather than a small airlock. This new lander utilizes suitport technology to perform EVAs from the habitat, which leads to significantly different requirements for the pressure control system. This paper describes the major trades and resulting concept design for the life support system of a new lunar lander concept. I

Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

2012-01-01

441

Biennial Workshop on DSP for In-Vehicle Systems, Kiel, Germany, 2011 Assessment of driver's distraction using perceptual evaluations, self assessments  

E-print Network

's distraction using perceptual evaluations, self assessments and multimodal feature analysis Jinesh J Jain of the driver can play a key role in preven- ting accidents by alerting the driver about possible hazardous. An important question is how to defi- ne reference labels that can be used as ground truth to train machine

Busso, Carlos

442

RTEMS Centre - Support and Maintenance Centre to RTEMS Operating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RTEMS CENTRE - Support and Maintenance Centre to RTEMS Operating System is a joint ESA/Portuguese Task Force initiative to develop a support and maintenance centre to the Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS). This paper gives a high level visibility of the progress, the results obtained and the future work in the RTEMS CENTRE [6] and in the RTEMS Improvement [7] projects. RTEMS CENTRE started officially in November 2006, with the RTEMS 4.6.99.2 version. A full analysis of RTEMS operating system was produced. The architecture was analysed in terms of conceptual, organizational and operational concepts. The original objectives [1] of the centre were primarily to create and maintain technical expertise and competences in this RTOS, to develop a website to provide the European Space Community an entry point for obtaining support (http://rtemscentre.edisoft.pt), to design, develop, maintain and integrate some RTEMS support tools (Timeline Tool, Configuration and Management Tools), to maintain flight libraries and Board Support Packages, to develop a strong relationship with the World RTEMS Community and finally to produce some considerations in ARINC-653, DO-178B and ECSS E-40 standards. RTEMS Improvement is the continuation of the RTEMS CENTRE. Currently the RTEMS, version 4.8.0, is being facilitated for a future qualification. In this work, the validation material is being produced following the Galileo Software Standards Development Assurance Level B [5]. RTEMS is being completely tested, errors analysed, dead and deactivated code removed and tests produced to achieve 100% statement and decision coverage of source code [2]. The SW to exploit the LEON Memory Management Unit (MMU) hardware will be also added. A brief description of the expected implementations will be given.

Silva, H.; Constantino, A.; Freitas, D.; Coutinho, M.; Faustino, S.; Mota, M.; Colao, P.; Sousa, J.; Dias, L.; Damjanovic, B.; Zulianello, M.; Rufino, J.

2009-05-01

443

Life support in small one-atmosphere underwater work systems.  

PubMed

Manned submersibles and atmospheric diving suits share a number of characteristics, with the most obvious being the rigid hull structure required to maintain a one-atmosphere cabin pressure in the presence of high external pressures. The rigid pressure hull results in a fixed internal volume that allow a simple, mechanical means of precisely controlling the input of make up oxygen to replace that metabolized by the occupant(s). The field-proven life support hardware described in this article is peculiar to monobaric systems but may have applications in other manned cabin situations where a fixed volume is present--regardless of maintenance pressure. Also briefly described is a state-of-the-art life support monitoring system developed by Nuytco Research Ltd. under contract to the National Energy Board of Canada. The "Biosensor" is thought to have broad application potential in the manned undersea field. PMID:11876198

Nuytten, P

1998-01-01

444

System support software for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The highly transportable programming system designed and implemented to support the development of software for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) is described. The SUMC system support software consists of program modules called processors. The initial set of processors consists of the supervisor, the general purpose assembler for SUMC instruction and microcode input, linkage editors, an instruction level simulator, a microcode grid print processor, and user oriented utility programs. A FORTRAN 4 compiler is undergoing development. The design facilitates the addition of new processors with a minimum effort and provides the user quasi host independence on the ground based operational software development computer. Additional capability is provided to accommodate variations in the SUMC architecture without consequent major modifications in the initial processors.

Hill, T. E.; Hintze, G. C.; Hodges, B. C.; Austin, F. A.; Buckles, B. P.; Curran, R. T.; Lackey, J. D.; Payne, R. E.

1974-01-01

445

Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

1992-01-01

446

Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

1984-01-01

447

Evaluation of Online Handwritten Characters for Penmanship Learning Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a method for the evaluation of online handwritten characters for a penmanship learning support system.\\u000a In Japan, many people desire to write beautiful characters, as evidenced by the fact that correspondence courses on penmanship\\u000a are very popular. However, correspondence courses lack real-time feedback because of the time required for sending materials,\\u000a namely, the learners copy and the

Tatsuya Yamaguchi; Noriaki Muranaka; Masataka Tokumaru

448

Measuring driver responses at railway level crossings.  

PubMed

Railway level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety control systems, due to the conflicts between road vehicles and rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. Driver behaviour at railway crossings is the major collision factor. The main objective of the present paper was to evaluate the existing conventional warning devices in relation to driver behaviour. The common conventional warning devices in Australia are a stop sign (passive), flashing lights and a half boom-barrier with flashing lights (active). The data were collected using two approaches, namely: field video recordings at selected sites and a driving simulator in a laboratory. This paper describes and compares the driver response results from both the field survey and the driving simulator. The conclusion drawn is that different types of warning systems resulted in varying driver responses at crossings. The results showed that on average driver responses to passive crossings were poor when compared to active ones. The field results were consistent with the simulator results for the existing conventional warning devices and hence they may be used to calibrate the simulator for further evaluation of alternative warning systems. PMID:21819844

Tey, Li-Sian; Ferreira, Luis; Wallace, Angela

2011-11-01

449

Applying Technology Ranking and Systems Engineering in Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.

Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

450

Application of GIS in foreign direct investment decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to make decisions on how to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to China and know how the inequality of FDI introduction by locational different provinces. Following background descriptions on China's FDI economic environments and FDI-related policies, this paper demonstrates the uses of geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) framework in solving a spatial multi-objective problem of evaluating and ranking China's provinces for FDI introduction. It implements a foreign direct investment decision support system, which reveals the main determinants of FDI in China and gives some results of regional geographical analysis over spatial data.

Zhou, Jianlan; Sun, Koumei

2007-06-01

451

Carbon recycling in materially closed ecological life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of studies are presented of materially closed energetically open microbial ecosystems or 'closed ecosystems'. These are natural marine ecosystems that have been sealed in glass containers to prevent material exchange with the environment but allow energy to pass freely through them. They represent model life support systems for the future human habitation of space. The results are discussed analytically and indicate that these ecosystems, when subjected to a constant energy flux, seem to be reliable and self-sufficient systems for recycling of biologically produced carbon compounds.

Obenhuber, D. C.; Folsome, C. E.

1988-01-01

452

Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design decisions to aid the development of future space-based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. Here the biochemical stoichiometry is developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady-state system with wheat as the sole food source.

Volk, Tyler; Rumel, John D.

1987-01-01

453

Methods for the development of a bioregenerative life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is a rudimentary approach to designing a life support system based on the utilization of plants and animals. The biggest stumbling block in the initial phases of developing a bioregenerative life support system is encountered in collecting and consolidating the data. If a database existed for the systems engineer so that he or she may have accurate data and a better understanding of biological systems in engineering terms, then the design process would be simplified. Also addressed is a means of evaluating the subsystems chosen. These subsystems are unified into a common metric, kilograms of mass, and normalized in relation to the throughput of a few basic elements. The initial integration of these subsystems is based on input/output masses and eventually balanced to a point of operation within the inherent performance ranges of the organisms chosen. At this point, it becomes necessary to go beyond the simplifying assumptions of simple mass relationships and further define for each organism the processes used to manipulate the throughput matter. Mainly considered here is the fact that these organisms perform input/output functions on differing timescales, thus establishing the need for buffer volumes or appropriate subsystem phasing. At each point in a systematic design it is necessary to disturb the system and discern its sensitivity to the disturbance. This can be done either through the introduction of a catastrophic failure or by applying a small perturbation to the system. One example is increasing the crew size. Here the wide range of performance characteristics once again shows that biological systems have an inherent advantage in responding to systemic perturbations. Since the design of any space-based system depends on mass, power, and volume requirements, each subsystem must be evaluated in these terms.

Goldman, Michelle; Gomez, Shawn; Voorhees, Mike

1990-01-01

454

Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the fifth generation Urine Processor Development Hardware. The Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) is a part of the Water Recovery System (WRS) on the ISS. It uses a chase change process called vapor compression distillation technology to remove contaminants from urine. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

2001-01-01

455

Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post processing. For the Phase II test the water recovery rate ranged from 95 to 98%, depending on the processor. LMLSTP Phase III, the fourth test of the series, had a duration of 91 days and included four crew members. The test demonstrated an integration of physicochemical and biological technologies for air revitalization, water recovery and waste processing. Wheat supplemented the physicochemical air revitalization systems by providing approximately 25% of the oxygen required for the 4-person crew. The water recovery system included immobilized cell and trickling filter bioreactors for primary water treatment, reverse osmosis and air evaporation systems for secondary water treatment, followed by post processing. The 8 day initial supply of water was recycled through the chamber and crew 10 times over the course of the test. Grain from the wheat together with fresh lettuce from a small growth chamber within the crew chamber provided supplementation to the stored food system, but at a level less than 5% of the crew s caloric requirement. An incinerator was used to demonstrate mineralization of the crew s solid waste, with the combustion products (mainly carbon dioxide) returned to the wheat for conversion to oxygen.

Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

2006-01-01

456

Adsorption Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water imperative. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are frequently good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: gas-phase trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal from cabin air, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each of these applications are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption separation and purification processes can be expected to continue to fulfill environmental control and life support needs on future missions.

Bauman, Liese Dall; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

457

Matching 68000 support systems to your microprocessor applications  

SciTech Connect

The author explores the support systems that are available for Motorola's 16-bit MC68000 microprocessor, and highlights how to select and use them most effectively. The EXORMACS system is described as a 68000-based microprocessor application, representing a new generation in microprocessor development systems. Its modern systems architecture effectively takes advantage of distributed processing via multiple microprocessors. High-level software and easy CRT interfacing provide both the programmer and the hardware designer with new facilities specifically aimed at the needs of microprocessor-based projects. EXORMACS represents a powerful computing resource that may be shared by multiple users. It provides an immediate shortcut to designing 68000-based applications, while possessing obvious growth capabilities for future 8-, 16-, and 32-bit microprocessors.

Scanlon, F.T.

1980-01-01

458

Improving the implementation of clinical decision support systems.  

PubMed

Clinical decision support (CDS) systems promise to improve the quality of clinical care by helping physicians to make better, more informed decisions efficiently. However, the design and testing of CDS systems for practical medical use is cumbersome. It has been recognized that this may easily lead to a problematic mismatch between the developers' idea of the system and requirements from clinical practice. In this paper, we will present an approach to reduce the complexity of constructing a CDS system. The approach is based on an ontological annotation of data resources, which improves standardization and the semantic processing of data. This, in turn, allows to use data mining tools to automatically create hypotheses for CDS models, which reduces the manual workload in the creation of a new model. The approach is implemented in the context of EU research project p-medicine. A proof of concept implementation on data from an existing Leukemia study is presented. PMID:24110412

Rping, Stefan; Anguita, Alberto; Bucur, Anca; Cirstea, Traian Cristian; Jacobs, Bjrn; Torge, Antje

2013-01-01

459

The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers  

PubMed Central

Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (19982005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes. PMID:19389192

Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott

2009-01-01

460

Drivers 65 Plus  

MedlinePLUS

... of smartphones - E&T magazine Tougher distracted driving laws could be coming - KING5.com Distracted Driving Ordinance to Take Effect Jan. 1 - TWC News Why Older Novice Drivers Are More Dangerous - Fox Business New technology to help prevent auto accidents - MENAFN. ...