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Sample records for driveways

  1. Driveway identification signing and marking

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    A primary purpose of a public highway is to provide access to commercial establishments. Driveways to fast-food restaurants, banks, retail stores, and office buildings line many road sections. A bewildering array of reflectorized, unreflectorized, lighted, and unlighted high- and low-mounted signs with varying messages direct motorists in and out of many of the driveways, while other access points have no signs. In a very few cases, the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices-type signing for one-way roads has been installed for the one-way-type circulation design at some of these establishments. Should MUTCD-type one-way signs be recommended practice to control and provide a more uniform identification of these driveways when necessary. Are there signs not presently in the MUTCD that should be added to cope with this situation.

  2. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp...

  3. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. Mining claims on lands within stock driveway withdrawals, located prior...

  4. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. Mining claims on lands within stock driveway withdrawals, located prior...

  5. 43 CFR 3815.7 - Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mining claims subject to stock driveway... SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.7 Mining claims subject to stock driveway withdrawals. Mining claims on lands within stock driveway withdrawals, located prior...

  6. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, TWELFTH STREET DRIVEWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, TWELFTH STREET DRIVEWAY ENTRANCE, August 31, 1929, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. FACILITY 89. FRONT OBLIQUE TAKEN FROM DRIVEWAY. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 89. FRONT OBLIQUE TAKEN FROM DRIVEWAY. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Junior Officers' Quarters Type K, Makin Place, & Halawa, Makalapa, & Midway Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south court and driveway toward main entrance; and parts of north and south wings of main building; facing east. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 7. ELEVATION OF STREET (NORTH) FACADE FROM DRIVEWAY OF LOWELL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ELEVATION OF STREET (NORTH) FACADE FROM DRIVEWAY OF LOWELL'S FORMER RESIDENCE. NOTE BUILDERS VERTICALLY ALIGNED STEM OF BOATS WITH CORNER OF HOUSE BEHIND CAMERA POSITION. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  10. 2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  11. 2. GENERAL VIEW: MAIN DRIVEWAY: CORD CABIN IS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW: MAIN DRIVEWAY: CORD CABIN IS TO THE RIGHT OF KIOSK THE FAGEOL CABIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Camp Richardson Resort, Cord Cabin, U.S. Highway 89, 3 miles west of State Highway 50 & 89, South Lake Tahoe, El Dorado County, CA

  12. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  13. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  14. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  15. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  16. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Parking Lots and Driveways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The latest information for designing full-depth asphalt pavements for parking lots and driveways is covered in relationship to the continued increase in vehicle registration. It is based on The Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual, Series No. 1 (MS-1), Seventh Edition, which covers all aspects of asphalt pavement thickness design in detail,…

  17. THE KINETH HOUSE FROM THE CENTRAL DRIVEWAY, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE KINETH HOUSE FROM THE CENTRAL DRIVEWAY, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The two-story vernacular farm house, with its early addition to the east, faces Highway 20. Its yard is lined with split rail fence. - Kineth Farm, House, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section....15 Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  19. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section....15 Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  20. DRAWING R100131, COMPANY OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRAWING R-1001-31, COMPANY OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, LAS LOMAS AND BUENA VISTA DRIVES. Ink on linen, signed by H.B. Nurse. Date has been erased, but probably June 15, 1933. Also marked "PWC 104288." - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  1. DRAWING R100132, FIELD OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRAWING R-1001-32, FIELD OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, SOUTH CIRCLE, CASA GRANDE REAL, AND SEQUOIA DRIVES. Ink on linen, signed by H.B. Nurse. Date has been erased, but probably June 15, 1933. Also marked "PWC 104289." - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  2. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  3. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  4. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  8. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  9. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  10. Cultural resource survey report for construction of office building, driveway, and parking lot at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment and associated documentation is reported for the construction of an office building and parking lot in support of environmental management personnel activities. As part of the documentation process, the DOE determined that the proposed project constituted an undertaking as defined in Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. In accordance with the regulations implementing Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, a records and literature search and historic resource identification effort were carried out on behalf of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This report summarizes cultural resource literature and record searches and a historic resource identification effort.

  11. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, December 30, 1936 WROUGHT IRON GATE TO DRIVEWAY ON SOUTH SIDE OF HOME, LOOKING EAST - Gibbons-Torry House, Gate & Privy, 60 South Conception Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. IMPERVIOUS SURFACES AND STREAMFLOW DISCHARGE: A HISTORICAL REMOTE SENSING PERSPECTIVE IN A NORTHERN VIRGINIA SUBWATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces are a leading contributor to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for determining impervious surface growth a...

  13. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. 18 CFR 1304.205 - Other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concrete boat launching ramp with associated driveway may be located within the access corridor... concrete is allowable; asphalt is not permitted. (b) Tables or benches for cleaning fish are permitted...

  16. 18 CFR 1304.205 - Other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concrete boat launching ramp with associated driveway may be located within the access corridor... concrete is allowable; asphalt is not permitted. (b) Tables or benches for cleaning fish are permitted...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.205 - Other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... concrete boat launching ramp with associated driveway may be located within the access corridor... concrete is allowable; asphalt is not permitted. (b) Tables or benches for cleaning fish are permitted...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.205 - Other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concrete boat launching ramp with associated driveway may be located within the access corridor... concrete is allowable; asphalt is not permitted. (b) Tables or benches for cleaning fish are permitted...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.313 - Site and building requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... direct access from a street, road, or driveway. Streets and roads must be hard surface or all-weather... security covers both the unit and the lot: (i) A new unit and related site development work on a site...

  20. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  1. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  2. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  3. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  4. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  5. MULTI-SCALE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACES: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALING ISSUES RELATED TO ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces are leading contributors to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sideways, and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for...

  6. USEPA EPIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACE RESEARCH IN THE MID-ATLANTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. The amount of impervious surface area in a ...

  7. Crossing Guards: A Safety Patrol Program at a Residential School for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired. Practice Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besden, Cheryl; Crow, Nita; Delgado Greenberg, Maya; Finkelstein, Gerri; Shrieves, Gary; Vickroy, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the California School for the Blind (CSB) was faced with a dilemma. The dropoff point for the day buses had to be changed. The new route to the only logical location for this change sent the buses through a driveway where residential students crossed to travel between the school and the dormitories. Some staff members wanted to eliminate…

  8. ASPHALT FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS, 3RD EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    THIS PAMPHLET DISCUSSES THE ALTERNATIVE METHODS, APPLICATIONS, AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS. OFF-STREET PAVING INCLUDES--(1) ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING AREAS, (2) ROOF DECK PARKING AREAS, (3) ASPHALT-PAVED DRIVEWAYS, (4) ASPHALT-PAVED SERVICE STATION LOTS, AND (5) SIDEWALKS. THE DISCUSSION OF PLAY AREAS…

  9. 2. Detail view of center block and E wing's N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail view of center block and E wing's N elevation, showing remodeled vehicle doors and lowered grade of driveway; looking S. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 32 CFR 751.6 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., hurricane, or other unusual occurrence, or to theft or vandalism. As a general rule, however, travel is not..., carports, driveways, assigned parking spaces, if the loss or damage is caused by fire, flood, hurricane... installation, if the loss or damage is caused by fire, flood, hurricane, theft, or vandalism, or other...

  11. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  12. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  13. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  14. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  15. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  16. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  17. 43 CFR 3815.2 - Prospecting and mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prospecting and mining. 3815.2 Section... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.2 Prospecting and mining. All prospecting and mining operations shall be conducted in such manner as to cause no interference with the use of...

  18. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  19. USING GIS AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY TO DETERMINE A HISTORICAL IMPERVIOUS SURFACE/STREAMFLOW RELATIONSHIP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces are a leading contributor to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops and driveways. Arcview GIS and the Image Analysis extension have been utilized to geo-register and map imp...

  20. 36 CFR 520.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... traffic. 520.14 Section 520.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.14 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles in or on the premises shall drive... police and all posted traffic signs. (b) The blocking of entrances, driveways, walks, loading...

  1. 36 CFR 520.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... traffic. 520.14 Section 520.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.14 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (a) Drivers of all vehicles in or on the premises shall drive... police and all posted traffic signs. (b) The blocking of entrances, driveways, walks, loading...

  2. 32 CFR 842.22 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... indigenous employees. (5) Garages, carports, driveways, and parking lots assigned to quarters the government provides for the occupants of the quarters to use. (6) Street parking: (i) At quarters. (ii) In the.... (2) Any area on a military installation designated for parking or storing vehicles. (3) A...

  3. 3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 19061010 ONESTORY SHED ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION AND 1906-1010 ONE-STORY SHED ADDITION AT LEFT; NORTHWEST ELEVATION AND PARKING AREA AT RIGHT; PARKING AREA WAS SITE OF FORMER STOREHOUSE 'A' AND 'B'; LANE AT LEFT IS NORTH DRIVEWAY, BUILT CA. 1935 - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  4. 78 FR 1265 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Southeast Regional Office--entry gates are located at the main driveway entrance on 3rd Street South (this... Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting TIME AND DATE: The Marine Mammal Commission will meet in open session on Friday, 25 January 2013, in St. Petersburg, Florida, from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and on Tuesday,...

  5. Evaluation of Service Station Attendant-Auto Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Ronald J.

    The project described offers an approach to providing occupational skills to socially and educationally handicapped youth, specifically the skills necessary for a service station attendant in driveway salesmanship and auto care. The 10-page evaluation report presents project goals and objectives with evaluation data (represented graphically) and…

  6. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  7. 43 CFR 3815.4 - Protection of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of stock. 3815.4 Section 3815.4... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.4 Protection of stock. All excavations and other mining work... prevent the same from being a menace to stock on the land....

  8. 43 CFR 3815.5 - Access to stock watering places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to stock watering places. 3815.5... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.5 Access to stock watering places. No watering places shall be inclosed, nor proper and lawful access of stock thereto prevented, nor the watering...

  9. Detail view to show the bronze gates hanging in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to show the bronze gates hanging in the driveway portals; the open grille is foliated and crowned with patriotic eagle emblems - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  11. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  12. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  13. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  14. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.1 Mineral locations. Under authority of the provisions of...

  15. 24 CFR 5.703 - Physical condition standards for HUD housing that is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../driveways, play areas and equipment, refuse disposal, roads, storm drainage and walkways must be free of... certifications of such (see 24 CFR part 35). (g) Compliance with State and local codes. The physical condition... condition, usable in privacy, and adequate for personal hygiene and the disposal of human waste. (4)...

  16. 24 CFR 5.703 - Physical condition standards for HUD housing that is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../driveways, play areas and equipment, refuse disposal, roads, storm drainage and walkways must be free of... certifications of such (see 24 CFR part 35). (g) Compliance with State and local codes. The physical condition... condition, usable in privacy, and adequate for personal hygiene and the disposal of human waste. (4)...

  17. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks,...

  18. 1. View looking northeast, showing from left, ID65D, ID65B and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northeast, showing from left, ID-65-D, ID-65-B and ID-65-A from the location of the former driveway. - Buffalo Guard Station, U.S. Highway 20/191 at Buffalo River, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

  19. 43 CFR 3815.3 - Surface limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface limitation. 3815.3 Section 3815.3... Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.3 Surface limitation. While a mining location will be made in... so much of the surface of the claim as may be required for all purposes reasonably incident to...

  20. 76 FR 2947 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... a relocated County Road 90 and at County State Aid Highway 25, median and driveway closures, and new... Transportation Road, Willmar, MN 56201, Telephone: (320) 214-6367, e-mail: Lowell.Flaten@state.mn.us . The Mn... Transportation Act of 1966 ; Landscaping and Scenic Enhancement (Wildflowers) . 3. Wildlife: Endangered...

  1. Student Drivers Will Find This Defensive Course Difficult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Map and description of 40-acre defensive driving range being built for secondary school driver education programs in the Burke County Public Schools of North Carolina. Features include a beginner course, streets, driveways, expressway, gravel road, a driver education building, and an emergency skid area. (Author/DN)

  2. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks,...

  3. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks,...

  4. 44 CFR 15.14 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE... entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the...) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit: (1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks,...

  5. 43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... therefor shall arise, as including Indian and military reservations, naval and petroleum reserves, national parks, national forests, stock driveways, reservations established under the Act of June 25, 1910 (36... reserved for waterpower purposes, or included in any pending suit or proceedings in the courts of...

  6. 43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... therefor shall arise, as including Indian and military reservations, naval and petroleum reserves, national parks, national forests, stock driveways, reservations established under the Act of June 25, 1910 (36... reserved for waterpower purposes, or included in any pending suit or proceedings in the courts of...

  7. 43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... therefor shall arise, as including Indian and military reservations, naval and petroleum reserves, national parks, national forests, stock driveways, reservations established under the Act of June 25, 1910 (36... reserved for waterpower purposes, or included in any pending suit or proceedings in the courts of...

  8. The World beyond MapQuest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Regina Robbins

    2009-01-01

    The author was impressed the first time she used MapQuest for a journey from Massachusetts to North Carolina's Outer Banks. The directions took her from her driveway to her brother's summer rental without a missed step for the entire 712 miles. She thought, life is amazing, and technology adds to the shine. In this article, the author shares how…

  9. IMPERVIOUS SURFACE RESEARCH IN THE MID-ATLANTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. The amount of impervious surface area in a ...

  10. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE POURED CONCRETE WALLS. ETR IS AT LEFT OF VIEW. NOTE DRIVEWAY INSET AT RIGHT FORMED BY DEMINERALIZER WING AT RIGHT. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ETR, TRA-642, IN VIEW AT UPPER LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  12. 19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIERFREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PRIVATE SIDE ENTRANCE ADDED IN 1921 TO GIVE BARRIER-FREE ACCESS FROM THE DRIVEWAY TO THE ELEVATOR. Wrought iron railings, extended upper step of stoop (indicated by the darker concrete between the two vertical posts), and wooden ramp added by the National Trust to meet modern barrier-free access codes, circa 1980. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Using acceleration characteristics in air quality and energy consumption analyses. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, W.L.; Turner, S.M.; Benz, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of detailed speed and acceleration characteristics on energy consumption utilizing several fuel consumption models. The relationships between speed and acceleration characteristics, geometric characteristics (e.g., number of lanes, signal density, driveway density), and traffic flow variability for various roadways were also investigated. Finally, distributions were produced that summarize the operating characteristics of freeway and arterial streets in Houston, Texas using an electronic distance-measuring instrument (DMI) and the floating car technique.

  14. Risk factors associated with injury and mortality from paediatric low speed vehicle incidents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paul Anthikkat, Anne; Page, Andrew; Barker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) incidents involving children aged 0-15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems), housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas), and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children) are discussed. PMID:23781251

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paul Anthikkat, Anne; Page, Andrew; Barker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems), housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas), and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children) are discussed. PMID:23781251

  16. Major transport mechanisms of pyrethroids in residential settings and effects of mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Paul C; Jones, Russell L; Harbourt, Christopher M; Hendley, Paul; Goodwin, Gregory E; Slizy, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The major pathways for transport of pyrethroids were determined in runoff studies conducted at a full-scale test facility in central California, USA. The 6 replicate house lots were typical of front lawns and house fronts of California residential developments and consisted of stucco walls, garage doors, driveways, and residential lawn irrigation sprinkler systems. Each of the 6 lots also included a rainfall simulator to generate artificial rainfall events. Different pyrethroids were applied to 5 surfaces—driveway, garage door and adjacent walls, lawn, lawn perimeter (grass near the house walls), and house walls above grass. The volume of runoff water from each house lot was measured, sampled, and analyzed to determine the amount of pyrethroid mass lost from each surface. Applications to 3 of the house lots were made using the application practices typically used prior to recent label changes, and applications were made to the other 3 house lots according to the revised application procedures. Results from the house lots using the historic application procedures showed that losses of the compounds applied to the driveway and garage door (including the adjacent walls) were 99.75% of total measured runoff losses. The greatest losses were associated with significant rainfall events rather than lawn irrigation events. However, runoff losses were 40 times less using the revised application procedures recently specified on pyrethroid labels. PMID:24105831

  17. MAJOR TRANSPORT MECHANISMS OF PYRETHROIDS IN RESIDENTIAL SETTINGS AND EFFECTS OF MITIGATION MEASURES

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Paul C; Jones, Russell L; Harbourt, Christopher M; Hendley, Paul; Goodwin, Gregory E; Sliz, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The major pathways for transport of pyrethroids were determined in runoff studies conducted at a full-scale test facility in central California, USA. The 6 replicate house lots were typical of front lawns and house fronts of California residential developments and consisted of stucco walls, garage doors, driveways, and residential lawn irrigation sprinkler systems. Each of the 6 lots also included a rainfall simulator to generate artificial rainfall events. Different pyrethroids were applied to 5 surfaces—driveway, garage door and adjacent walls, lawn, lawn perimeter (grass near the house walls), and house walls above grass. The volume of runoff water from each house lot was measured, sampled, and analyzed to determine the amount of pyrethroid mass lost from each surface. Applications to 3 of the house lots were made using the application practices typically used prior to recent label changes, and applications were made to the other 3 house lots according to the revised application procedures. Results from the house lots using the historic application procedures showed that losses of the compounds applied to the driveway and garage door (including the adjacent walls) were 99.75% of total measured runoff losses. The greatest losses were associated with significant rainfall events rather than lawn irrigation events. However, runoff losses were 40 times less using the revised application procedures recently specified on pyrethroid labels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:52–60. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24105831

  18. Collection and analysis of samples for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust and other solids related to sealed and unsealed pavement from 10 cities across the United States, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Parking lots and driveways are dominant features of the modern urban landscape, and in the United States, sealcoat is widely used on these surfaces. One of the most widely used types of sealcoat contains refined coal tar; coal-tar-based sealcoat products have a mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration of about 5 percent. A previous study reported that parking lots in Austin, Texas, treated with coal-tar sealcoat were a major source of PAH compounds in streams. This report presents methods for and data from the analysis of concentrations of PAH compounds in dust from sealed and unsealed pavement from nine U.S. cities, and concentrations of PAH compounds in other related solid materials (sealcoat surface scrapings, nearby street dust, and nearby soil) from three of those same cities and a 10th city. Dust samples were collected by sweeping dust from areas of several square meters with a soft nylon brush into a dustpan. Some samples were from individual lots or driveways, and some samples consisted of approximately equal amounts of material from three lots. Samples were sieved to remove coarse sand and gravel and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PAHs vary greatly among samples with total PAH (sigmaPAH), the sum of 12 unsubstituted parent PAHs, ranging from nondetection for all 12 PAHs (several samples from Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington; sigmaPAH of less than 36,000 micrograms per kilogram) to 19,000,000 micrograms per kilogram for a sealcoat scraping sample (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). The largest PAH concentrations in dust are from a driveway sample from suburban Chicago, Illinois (sigmaPAH of 9,600,000 micrograms per kilogram).

  19. Collection and Analysis of Samples for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Dust and Other Solids Related to Sealed and Unsealed Pavement From 10 Cities Across the United States, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Parking lots and driveways are dominant features of the modern urban landscape, and in the United States, sealcoat is widely used on these surfaces. One of the most widely used types of sealcoat contains refined coal tar; coal-tar-based sealcoat products have a mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration of about 5 percent. A previous study reported that parking lots in Austin, Texas, treated with coal-tar sealcoat were a major source of PAH compounds in streams. This report presents methods for and data from the analysis of concentrations of PAH compounds in dust from sealed and unsealed pavement from nine U.S. cities, and concentrations of PAH compounds in other related solid materials (sealcoat surface scrapings, nearby street dust, and nearby soil) from three of those same cities and a 10th city. Dust samples were collected by sweeping dust from areas of several square meters with a soft nylon brush into a dustpan. Some samples were from individual lots or driveways, and some samples consisted of approximately equal amounts of material from three lots. Samples were sieved to remove coarse sand and gravel and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PAHs vary greatly among samples with total PAH (sigmaPAH), the sum of 12 unsubstituted parent PAHs, ranging from nondetection for all 12 PAHs (several samples from Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington; sigmaPAH of less than 36,000 micrograms per kilogram) to 19,000,000 micrograms per kilogram for a sealcoat scraping sample (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). The largest PAH concentrations in dust are from a driveway sample from suburban Chicago, Illinois (sigmaPAH of 9,600,000 micrograms per kilogram).

  20. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  1. LPT. Plot plan and site layout. Includes shield test pool/EBOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Plot plan and site layout. Includes shield test pool/EBOR facility. (TAN-645 and -646) low power test building (TAN-640 and -641), water storage tanks, guard house (TAN-642), pump house (TAN-644), driveways, well, chlorination building (TAN-643), septic system. Ralph M. Parsons 1229-12 ANP/GE-7-102. November 1956. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 038-0102-00-693-107261 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Assessing the safety effects of multiple roadside treatments using parametric and nonparametric approaches.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the safety effectiveness of multiple roadside elements on roadway segments by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs) using the cross-sectional method. To consider the nonlinearity in crash predictors, the study develops generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models. The MARS is one of the promising data mining techniques due to its ability to consider the interaction impact of more than one variables and nonlinearity of predictors simultaneously. The CMFs were developed for four roadside elements (driveway density, poles density, distance to poles, and distance to trees) and combined safety effects of multiple treatments were interpreted by the interaction terms from the MARS models. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 were collected for rural undivided four-lane roadways in Florida for different crash types and severity levels. The results show that the safety effects decrease as density of driveways and roadside poles increase. The estimated CMFs also indicate that increasing distance to roadside poles and trees reduces crashes. The study demonstrates that the GNMs show slightly better model fitness than negative binomial (NB) models. Moreover, the MARS models outperformed NB and GNM models due to its strength to reflect the nonlinearity of crash predictors and interaction impacts among variables under different ranges. Therefore, it can be recommended that the CMFs are estimated using MARS when there are nonlinear relationships between crash rate and roadway characteristics, and interaction impacts among multiple treatments. PMID:26291920

  3. Radiological assessment and remedial action report for the ''Son of Lansdowne'' property, 186 North Lansdowne Avenue, Lansdowne, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    This document reports the results of a radiological assessment and remedial action program conducted by Argonne National Laboratory personnel at a radioactively contaminated private residence in Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. The program was conducted on the residence at 186 Lansdowne Avenue. The survey conducted by the ANL personnel indicated that several dozen areas or spots of contamination were present on all floors and the basement of the three-story house. Contamination was found on furniture, carpeting, walls, floors, woodwork, and ceilings. Remedial action undertaken to remove the contamination ranged from scrubbing, to scraping, to shaving of wood, to removal and disposal of items and material that could not be adequately decontaminated. Outdoors, contaminated soil was removed from the backyard, and the driveway was dug up so the contaminated subsurface material could be removed. The remedial action generated quantities of radioactive waste, including four 55-gallon drums and one M-III bin (120 ft/sup 3/) containing floor tile, concrete, personal items, furniture, floor scrapings, vermiculite absorbed scrub water, and other items. In addition, there were 24 M-III bins containing approximately 112 tons of contaminated soil and rock from the two contaminated areas in the backyard and from the contaminated subsurface of the driveway. 2 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Trauma Center-Based Surveillance of Nontraffic Pedestrian Injury among California Children

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas M.; Trent, Roger B.; Bernacki, Kate; Rice, Jennifer K.; Lovette, Bonnie; Hoover, Eileen; Fennell, Janette; Aistrich, Anna Zacher; Wiltsek, Dana; Corman, Ellen; Anderson, Craig L.; Sherck, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Every year in the United States, thousands of young children are injured by passenger vehicles in driveways or parking areas. Little is known about risk factors, and incidence rates are difficult to estimate because ascertainment using police collision reports or media sources is incomplete. This study used surveillance at trauma centers to identify incidents and parent interviews to obtain detailed information on incidents, vehicles, and children. Methods Eight California trauma centers conducted surveillance of nontraffic pedestrian collision injury to children aged 14 years or younger from January 2005 to July 2007. Three of these centers conducted follow-up interviews with family members. Results Ninety-four injured children were identified. Nine children (10%) suffered fatal injury. Seventy children (74%) were 4 years old or younger. Family members of 21 victims from this study (23%) completed an interview. Of these 21 interviewed victims, 17 (81%) were male and 13 (62%) were 1 or 2 years old. In 13 cases (62%), the child was backed over, and the driver was the mother or father in 11 cases (52%). Fifteen cases (71%) involved a sport utility vehicle, pickup truck, or van. Most collisions occurred in a residential driveway. Conclusion Trauma center surveillance can be used for case ascertainment and for collecting information on circumstances of nontraffic pedestrian injuries. Adoption of a specific external cause-of-injury code would allow passive surveillance of these injuries. Research is needed to understand the contributions of family, vehicular, and environmental characteristics and injury risk to inform prevention efforts. PMID:22900102

  5. Effects of formulation on transport of pyrethroids in residential settings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell L; Trask, Jennifer R; Hendley, Paul; Cox, Megan J; Chepega, Joseph C; Harbourt, Christopher M; Davidson, Paul C

    2016-02-01

    Washoff of 17 pyrethroid products resulting from a 1-h, 25.4-mm rainfall occurring 24 h after application was measured in indoor studies with concrete slabs. These products included different pyrethroid active ingredients and a range of formulation types. Based on this replicated study, 5 product pairs with contrasting washoff behaviors were chosen for an outdoor study using 6 full-scale house fronts in central California. Products in 4 of these pairs were applied once to different rectangular areas on the driveway (1 product in each pair to 3 house lots and the other to the remaining 3 house lots). The products in the fifth pair were applied 3 times at 2-mo intervals to vertical stucco walls above the driveway. All house lots received natural and simulated rainfall over 7 mo. Indoor studies showed differences up to 170-fold between paired products, whereas the maximum difference between paired products in the field was only 5-fold. In the pair applied to the wall, 1 product had 91 times the washoff of the other in the indoor study, whereas in the field the same product had 15% lower washoff. These results show that, although the formulation may influence washoff under actual use conditions, its influence is complex and not always as predicted by indoor experiments. Because the formulation also affects insect control, washoff research needs to be conducted together with efficacy testing. PMID:26235307

  6. An examination of the environmental attributes associated with pedestrian-vehicular crashes near public schools.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Kelly J; Kreamer-Fults, Kandice

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines pedestrian-vehicular crashes in the vicinity of public schools, the severity of injuries sustained, and their relationship to the physical and social attributes near the schools. Multivariate models of crash severity and crash risk exposure were estimated as a function of social and physical characteristics of the area immediately surrounding schools in Baltimore City, Maryland. Results show that the presence of a driveway or turning bay on the school entrance decreases both crash occurrence and injury severity. Conversely, the presence of recreational facilities on the school site is positively associated with crash occurrence and injury severity of crashes. Findings related to neighborhood characteristics were mixed but the significant variables - transit access, commercial access, and population density - are generally associated with increased pedestrian demand and should be interpreted with care. The results of this study are relevant for Safe Routes to School projects and point to areas meriting further study. PMID:17174259

  7. Homemade chemical bomb events and resulting injuries--selected states, January 1996-March 2003.

    PubMed

    2003-07-18

    Homemade chemical bombs (HCBs), also known as acid bombs, bottle bombs, and MacGyver bombs, are explosive devices that can be made easily from volatile household chemicals (e.g., toilet bowl, drain, and driveway cleaners) purchased at a local hardware or grocery store. When these and other ingredients are combined and shaken in a capped container, the internal gas pressure generated from the chemical reaction causes the container to expand and explode. The subsequent explosion can cause injuries or death to persons in the immediate vicinity of the detonation. Since 1996, some of the states participating in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)'s Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system have been documenting HCB events. This report describes examples of HCB events, summarizes all reported HCB events, discusses associated injuries, and suggests injury-prevention methods. PMID:12869905

  8. Results of the radiological survey at 15 Frost Place, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 15 Frost Place in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/ 16 m wide by 33 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  10. Results of the radiological survey at 1052 Central Avenue, Albany, New York (AL208)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1052 Central Avenue in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated August 26, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story block and frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and a 6-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/17.5 m wide by 43.5 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Reid vapor-pressure regulation of gasoline, 1987-1990. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Butters, R.A.

    1990-09-30

    Although it is generally only a summertime problem, smog, as represented by its criteria pollutant, ozone, is currently the number one air pollution problem in the United States. Major contributors to smog formation are the various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which react with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form the ozone and other harmful chemicals known as smog. Gasoline is a major source of VOC's, not only as it is burned in car engines, but as it evaporates. Gasoline evaporates in storage tanks, as it is transferred during loading and refueling operations, and in automobiles, both while they are running and while parked in the driveway. In 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began an almost unprecedented effort to reduce the evaporative quality of commercial gasolines by mandating reductions in its Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

  12. Results of the radiological survey at 12 Frost Place, Albany, New York (AL178)

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. Radiological surveys were performed at 27 properties by members of the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July 13-July 26, 1986. The property at 12 Frost Place in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/13 m wide by 29 m deep. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Results of the radiological survey at 16 Yardboro Avenue, Albany, New York (AL137)

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 16 Yardboro Avenue in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 5, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway was on the east side of the house, with broken paving extending to a building at the rear of the lot. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/19 m wide by 35 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Results of the radiological survey at 8 Maplewood Avenue, Colonie, New York (AL180)

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminate with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 8 Maplewood Avenue in Colonie, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 23, 1986. The residential property consists of a one-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 4-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/12 m wide by 35 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Results of the radiological survey at 23 Lily Street, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 23 Lily Street in Albany, New York (AL174), was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 21, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/20 m wide by 30 m deep. Front and side views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Results of the radiological survey at 7 Maplewood Avenue, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 7 Maplewood Avenue in Colonie, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 8, 1986. The residential property consisted of a house and a garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt-paved driveway connected the garage with the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 4-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/12 m wide by 35.5 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Modeling hydrologic processes at the residential scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Q.; McPherson, G.; Simpson, J.; Ustin, S.

    2003-12-01

    In California, urbanization has led to polluted runoff, flooding during winter, and water shortages during summer. There is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions that eliminate storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically-based numerical model was developed to better understand hydrologic processes at the residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different Best Management Practices (BMPs). This model calculates all in-flow and out-flow using an hourly interval over a full year or for specific storm events. Water enters the system via precipitation and irrigation and leaves the system via evapotranspiration, surface and subsurface runoff, and from percolation to groundwater. The model was applied to two single-family residential parcels in Los Angeles. Two years of data collected from the control and treatment sites were used to calibrate and validate the model. More than 97% of storm runoff to the street was eliminated with installation of low-cost BMPs (i.e., rain gutters that direct roof runoff to a lawn retention basin and a driveway interceptor that directs runoff to a drywell in the lawn retention basin). Evaluated individually, the driveway interceptor was the most effective BMP for storm runoff reduction (65%), followed by the rain gutter installation (28%), and lawn converted to retention basin (12%). Installation of an 11 m3 cistern did not substantially reduce runoff, but did provide storage for 9% of annual irrigation demand. Simulated landscape irrigation demand was reduced 53% by increasing efficiency through use of a drip irrigation system for shrubs, and adjusting monthly application rates based on evapotranspirational water demand. The model showed that infiltration and surface runoff processes were particularly sensitive to the soil's physical properties and its effective depth. If the existing loam soil were replaced by clay soil annual runoff discharge to the street

  18. Coal-Tar-Sealcoated Parking Lots: "Hot spots" of PAHs and N-heterocycles to Urban Streams and Lakes Result in "Hot Moments" of Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar (CT) sealcoat, a potent source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles, is applied to asphalt pavement of parking lots and driveways in many parts of the U.S. and Canada every 1 to 5 years. We measured the chemistry and toxicity of unfiltered runoff resulting from rain events simulated from 5 hours to 111 days after application of CT or asphalt (AS) sealcoat. PAHs and N-heterocycles were measured by GC/EIMS. Toxicity tests were done with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas exposed 48 hours to undiluted and diluted (1 part runoff 9 parts control water) runoff under ambient lighting. Organisms were then transferred to fresh control water and subjected to a 4-hour pulse of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Concentrations of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs and N-heterocycles in CT runoff, initially high (sum of 6 PAHs, 220 μg/L; sum of 7 N-heterocycles, 904 μg/L), decreased rapidly, whereas concentrations of 4-, 5- and 6-ringed PAHs more than doubled by 7 days after application (sum of 9 PAHs, 378 μg/L) and remained elevated 111 days after application (sum of 9 PAHs, 283 μg/L). Concentrations of PAHs and N-heterocycles in AS sealcoated runoff followed a similar pattern, but were ~10 times lower than those in CT runoff; concentrations in a sample of runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement were near or less than the detection limit. Organisms exposed to samples of undiluted CT-runoff collected during the 36 days following CT sealcoat application (no UVR exposure) experienced 100% mortality. Mortality (as much as 100%) of organisms exposed to the 10% dilution of CT runoff or to undiluted AS runoff occurred only with UVR; mortality of organisms exposed to the 10% solution of AS runoff and UVR was minimal. Results demonstrate that freshly CT-sealed parking lots and driveways are "hot spots" of PAH and N-heterocycle contamination and that prolonged "hot moments" of toxicity follow CT sealcoat application.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  20. Bicycle safety knowledge and behavior in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, S R; Nagel, R W

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine school age children's knowledge of bicycling rules of the road and their bicycling behaviors. A one-page questionnaire was administered in the classroom to 276 of 300 children in grades 4 through 8 of an upper middle class suburban school district. The children were questioned regarding their knowledge of three basic bicycling rules of the road, prior bicycle safety instruction, use of bicycle helmets, and the occurrence and severity of previous bicycle accidents. Students who reported receiving previous bicycle safety instruction were more knowledgeable than those receiving no instruction regarding rule 2, always stop at a stop sign or red light (90% compared with 74%), and rule 3, always stop and look when approaching a street from a driveway or alley (74% compared with 60%). Students who did not know rule 3 were more likely to have had a recent bicycle accident in which their bicycle was damaged (21% compared with 8%) and to have ever gone to the hospital or a physician because of injuries sustained in a bicycle accident (19% compared with 9%). Children who lacked knowledge of basic bicycling rules were more likely to have had a significant bicycling accident. Bicycle safety instruction increases children's knowledge of these rules and should be promoted by physicians caring for children. PMID:2345336

  1. The temporal changes in road stormwater runoff quality and the implications to first flush control in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiaoke; Hou, Peiqiang; Wan, Wuxing; Ren, Yufen; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Yang, Le

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the quality of stormwater runoff from a driveway in the southwest mountainous urban area of Chongqing, China, from 2010 to 2011. The results showed that the mean concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 4.1, 2.4, and 2.2 times the grade V levels of the national surface water standard of China. The pollutant concentration peak preceded or synchronized with the rainfall intensity peak and occurred 10 min after the runoff started. The significant high pollutant concentration in the initial stage of the rainfall suggested that first flush control is necessary, especially for the most polluted constitutes, such as total suspended solids, COD, and TN. Three potential pollution sources were identified: the atmospheric dry and wet deposition (TN, NO₃(-)-N, NH₄(+)-N, and DCu), the road sediment and materials (total suspended solids, COD, and TP), and the vehicle emissions (DPb and DZn). Therefore, this study indicates that reductions in road sediments and material pollution and dry and wet deposition should be the priority factors for pollution control of road stormwater runoff in mountainous urban areas. PMID:23793645

  2. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Sutton, Paul S.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Howard, Ara T.; Milesi, Cristina; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2007-01-01

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density of constructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots, buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatial resolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimated density of ISA on a one-km2 grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA – the brightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The model was calibrated using 30-meter resolution ISA of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey. Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights and reference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States land area is impervious surface (83,337 km2) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703 km2) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country (87,182 km2), but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in the USA. The distribution of ISA in the world's primary drainage basins indicates that watersheds damaged by ISA are primarily concentrated in the USA, Europe, Japan, China and India. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  3. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  4. Cooler paving materials for heat-island mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.

    1998-07-01

    Many cities suffer summer daytime temperatures greater than their suburban or rural surroundings. One of the causes of this heat island phenomenon is the absorption of sunlight by dark pavements. In warm climates, the urban heating damages the environment by adding to air-conditioning demand and creating smog. If urban roads, driveways and walkways were paved with light colored, and consequently cooler, materials these penalties would be diminished. However, lighter materials may cost more than the usual asphalt materials, In this report, the dollar value of potential air conditioning and smog savings from lighter pavements is estimated, and compared to the extra cost of such roads. The extra cost is minimized if the lighter-colored coating is applied as a thin layer when normal maintenance is performed. The authors find that, in Los Angeles, increasing the albedo from 0.1 to 0.35, could produce an air-conditioning saving of $0.012/m{sub 2}-yr. and smog savings of about $0.06/m{sub 2}-yr. The present value of these savings, for the 5 year lifetime of the resurfacing, is about 5 times the annual saving, or about $0.36/m{sub 2}. (The particular climate and smog problem clearly influence this result.) Thus one could purchase a cooler material whose extra cost is this amount, with no net expense. If roads are cooler they may also last longer and thus save money.

  5. Passive heating of the ground surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyburczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The phenomenon of phase change is one of the most important contemporary issues of thermal engineering. In particular, this applies to all kinds of heat exchanger systems, which should achieve the highest possible efficiency while reducing investment and operating costs. Some of these systems are heat pipes or thermosyphons, which, among others, are used for the heat transfer, temperature stabilization and the regulation of heat flux density. Additionally, they are passive systems, and therefore do not require an external power supply. Heat pipes can be used to stabilize the surface temperature of roads and driveways. Large heat tubes can be applied for heating the surface of bridges and overpasses, which become icy in unfavorable climatic conditions. The paper presents research on the test facility, whose main component is a long vertical copper fin. The temperature at the base of the fin was kept constant for a given series of measurements. Heat receiving fluid was ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The measurement methodology and the results of investigations were discussed. The surface temperature distribution was measured with the infrared camera, and on this basis the local values of heat flow and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. The results were presented as boiling curves for both the fin with the smooth surface and the one covered with a metal capillary-porous structure. The results obtained are useful in the design of heat exchangers, including passive heating of the ground.

  6. Field study and source attribution for PM2.5 and PM10 with resulting reduction in concentrations in the neighborhood north of the Houston Ship Channel based on voluntary efforts.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, David W; Price, James H; Lambeth, Bryan; Sheedy, Keith A; Savanich, Kasey; Tropp, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    When annual average PM2.5 (fine particulate matter sized 2.5 microns and less) data for 2005 became available in April 2006 and the 3-yr average PM2.5 concentration in an area just north of the Houston Ship Channel reached 15.0 microg/m3, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) initiated daily collection of quartz fiber as well as Teflon PM2.5 filter samples for chemical speciation analysis. The purpose of the chemical speciation analysis was to use the speciation data, together with meteorological data and hourly TEOM (tapered element oscillating microbalance) PM2.5 mass data, to identify the causes of the high PM2.5 concentrations affecting the monitoring site and the neighborhood. The ultimate purpose was to target emission reduction efforts to sources contributing to the high measured PM2.5 concentrations. After a year of data collection, it was recognized that a specific source, unpaved driveways and loading areas along the Ship Channel and dirt tracked onto Clinton Drive, the main artery running east-west north of the Ship Channel, were the primary cause for the Clinton Drive site's measuring PM2.5 concentrations significantly higher than other sites in Houston. The source characterization and remediation steps that have led to sustained reduced concentrations are described in this paper. PMID:24151682

  7. Distribution of pesticides in dust particles in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jaben; Reif, Ruben; Luo, Yuzhuo; Gan, Jay

    2016-07-01

    In regions with a mild climate, pesticides are often used around homes for pest control. Recent monitoring studies have linked pesticide use in residential areas to aquatic toxicity in urban surface water ecosystems, and suggested dust particles on paved surfaces as an important source of pesticides. To test the hypothesis that dust on hard surfaces is a significant source of pesticides, we evaluated spatial and temporal patterns of current-use insecticides in Southern California, and further explored their distribution as a function of particle sizes. Pyrethroid insecticides were detected in dust from the driveway, curb gutter and street at 53.5-94.8%, with median concentrations of 1-46 ng g(-1). Pyrethroid residues were uniformly distributed in areas adjacent to a house, suggesting significant redistribution. The total levels of pyrethroids in dust significantly (p < 0.01) decreased from October to February, suggesting rainfalls as a major mechanism to move pesticide residues offsite. Fipronil as well as its degradation products, were detected at 50.6-75.5%, and spatial and temporal patterns of fipronil residues suggested rapid transformations of fipronil to its biologically active intermediates. Moreover, pyrethroids were found to be enriched in fine particles that have a higher mobility in runoff than coarse particles. Results from this study highlight the widespread occurrence of pesticides in outdoor dust around homes and the potential contribution to downstream surface water contamination via rain-induced runoff. PMID:27105165

  8. Court rejects plea for on-street handicapped-parking sign.

    PubMed

    1999-07-23

    The Michigan Court of Appeals has ruled that city governments are not obligated under State or Federal disability laws to designate on-street handicapped parking spaces for homeowners who have mobility problems. [Name removed] [name removed] and [name removed] asked the city of Jackson, MI, to erect a handicapped sign in front of their house when [name removed] developed serious health problems which prevented him from walking more than 50 feet without resting. The city refused, even though the men agreed to pay for the sign, saying the city would have to comply with Federal guidelines on handicapped spaces. As a compromise, the city offered to put a bus stop in front of their house, or to allow [name removed] and [name removed] to put a driveway in their yard. The owners refused, and sued the city. The appeals court ruled that the plaintiffs failed to prove that the city actions were discriminatory and remanded the case to the trial court for entry of judgement in favor of the city. PMID:11366601

  9. Notes from the field: Exposures to discarded sulfur mustard munitions - Mid-Atlantic and New England States 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-04-26

    Before the 1970s, the United States sometimes disposed of at sea excess, obsolete, or unserviceable munitions, including chemical munitions. Chemical munitions known to have been disposed of at sea included munitions filled with sulfur mustard, a vesicant (i.e., an agent that causes chemical burns or blisters of the skin and mucous membranes). Signs and symptoms of exposure to a mustard agent can include redness and blistering of the skin, eye irritation, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, shortness of breath, and (rarely) diarrhea and abdominal discomfort. Since 2004, CDC has received notification of three separate incidents of exposure to sulfur mustard munitions. In one incident, a munition was found with ocean-dredged marine shells used to pave a driveway. The other two incidents involved commercial clam fishing operations. This report highlights the importance of considering exposure to sulfur mustard in the differential diagnosis of signs and symptoms compatible with exposure to a vesicant agent, especially among persons involved with clam fishing or sea dredging operations. PMID:23615677

  10. Formulating a programme of repairs to structural home injury hazards in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G; Kamalesh, Venugopal; Cunningham, Malcolm; Cunningham, Chris; Guria, Jagadish; Draper, Robert; Skelton, Pounamu

    2013-08-01

    Home injuries are a substantial health burden worldwide, with the home setting being at least as important as the road for injury. Focusing on common injury hazards presented by the home environment, we sought to examine the justification for significant expenditure on safety-related repairs to the housing stock. Trained inspectors assessed 961 New Zealand houses for injury hazards. Using administrative data from the Accident Compensation Corporation (the national injury insurance agency), 1328 home injuries were identified amongst the 1612 occupants of these houses over the 2006-2009 period. Telephone interviews gathered data on the location and nature of these injuries, and the attitudes of those injured to potential injury hazards in their homes. Commonly occurring injury hazards that could be repaired at modest cost were identified based on their prevalence estimated by the housing inspection, and their location with respect to the areas of the home where the injuries occurred (identified during the telephone interviews). About 38% of the home injuries studied were potentially related to a structural aspect of the home environment. Common safety hazards included the lack of working smoke detectors (65% of the sample), inadequately fenced driveways (55%), hot water temperatures measured at over 60° (49%) and poorly lit access to the house (34%). A protocol for identifying and repairing important common hazards was designed. The actual safety effects of this protocol are in the process of being examined in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:23669741

  11. Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20−35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

  12. Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Dearwent, Steve M; Durant, James T; Dyken, Jill J; Freed, Jennifer A; Moore, Susan McAfee; Wheeler, John S

    2005-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway. PMID:15881979

  13. Permeable pavement and stormwater management systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Imran, H M; Akib, Shatirah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled stormwater runoff not only creates drainage problems and flash floods but also presents a considerable threat to water quality and the environment. These problems can, to a large extent, be reduced by a type of stormwater management approach employing permeable pavement systems (PPS) in urban, industrial and commercial areas, where frequent problems are caused by intense undrained stormwater. PPS could be an efficient solution for sustainable drainage systems, and control water security as well as renewable energy in certain cases. Considerable research has been conducted on the function of PPS and their improvement to ensure sustainable drainage systems and water quality. This paper presents a review of the use of permeable pavement for different purposes. The paper focuses on drainage systems and stormwater runoff quality from roads, driveways, rooftops and parking lots. PPS are very effective for stormwater management and water reuse. Moreover, geotextiles provide additional facilities to reduce the pollutants from infiltrate runoff into the ground, creating a suitable environment for the biodegradation process. Furthermore, recently, ground source heat pumps and PPS have been found to be an excellent combination for sustainable renewable energy. In addition, this study has identified several gaps in the present state of knowledge on PPS and indicates some research needs for future consideration. PMID:24527626

  14. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles. PMID:9370009

  15. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade. PMID:18684162

  16. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    PubMed

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. PMID:23689202

  17. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  18. Omaha utility tests trenchless units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Like all gas utilities, Metropolitan Utility District of Omaha, Neb., is always looking for better, more efficient ways of installing underground facilities. The utility's growth plan was having an effect on the type of work performed by the construction division. Gas main installations in fully developed, all-electric subdivisions were becoming more common. This paper reports that this type of work involved extensive restoration when performed by conventional methods, due to the presence of established lawns, landscaping, driveways and other underground utilities, that added significantly to the overall cost of the project. Disruption of the lawns was an inconvenience and nuisance to the utility's customers, which the district wanted to minimize in the interest of good customer and public relations. As a result, the utility scheduled field demonstrations by various boring equipment makers. After several less-than-successful demonstrations by various manufacturers, the MUD contacted Midwest Pow-R Mole Co. Inc., for a test of the new Pow-R Mole directional boring system. The system was developed by Pow-R Devices Inc., Clarence Center, N.Y.

  19. Using the KINEROS2 modeling framework to evaluate the increase in storm runoff from residential development in a semi-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Goodrich, David C.; Unkrich, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in runoff from urbanization is well known; one extreme example comes from a 13 hectare residential neighborhood in southeast Arizona where runoff was 27 times greater than an adjacent grassland watershed over a forty‐month period from 2005 to 2008. Rainfall‐runoff modeling using the newly‐described KINEROS2 urban element and tension infiltrometer measurements indicate that 17±14 percent of this increase in runoff is due to a 53 percent decrease in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of constructed pervious areas, as compared to the undeveloped grassland. Directly connected impervious areas, primarily streets and driveways, cause 56 percent of the increase in runoff, and indirectly connected impervious areas, primarily rooftops and sidewalks, and a decrease in canopy interception account for the remaining 27 percent increase. Tension infiltrometer measurements show that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is about double in the grassland watershed than in the urban watershed, 6.2 ± 3.5mm/hr and 2.9 ± 1.6mm/hr, respectively. Ks in the urban watershed identified from calibrating the rainfall‐runoff model to measured runoff is 9.5 ± 2.8 mm/hr—higher than what was measured but much lower than the 26 mm/hr value indicated by a soil‐texture based KINEROS2 parameter look‐up table. A new component of the KINEROS2 modeling framework, the urban element, forms the basis for the model by simulating a contiguous row of houses and the adjoining street as a series of pervious and impervious overland flow planes. Tests using different levels of discretization found that watershed geometry can be represented in a simplified manner, although more detailed discretization led to better model performance.

  20. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  1. An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

    1986-09-01

    To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs

  2. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity. PMID:25795989

  3. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  4. Results of radiological measurements taken in the Niagara Falls, New York, area (NF002)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.K.; Berven, B.A.

    1986-11-01

    The results of a radiological survey of 100 elevated gamma radiation anomalies in the Niagara Falls, New York, area are presented. These radiation anomalies were identified by a mobile gamma scanning survey during the period October 3-16, 1984, and were recommended for an onsite survey to determine if the elevated levels of radiation may be related to the transportation of radioactive waste material to the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works for storage. In this survey, radiological measurements included outdoor gamma exposure rates at 1 m above the surface; outdoor gamma exposure rates at the surface, range of gamma exposure rates during scan; and uranium, radium, and thorium concentrations in biased surface soil samples. The results show 38 anomalies (35 located along Pletcher Road and 3 associated with other unreleated locations) were found to exceed Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) remedial action guidelines and were recommended for formal characterization surveys. (Since the time of this survey, remedial actions have been conducted on the 38 anomalies identified as exceeding FUSRAP guidelines, and the radioactive material above guidelines has been removed.) The remaining 62 anomalies are associated with asphalt driveways and parking lots, which used a phosphate slag material (previously identified as cyclowollastonite, synthetic CaSiO/sub 3/). This rocky-slag waste material was used for bedding under asphalt surfaces and in general gravel applications. Most of the contaminated soil and rock samples collected at the latter anomalies had approximately equal concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 238/U and, therefore, are not related to materials connected with the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), including material that was transported to the NFSS. 13 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ΣPAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ΣPAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  6. EMERGENCY BRAKING IN ADULTS VERSUS NOVICE TEEN DRIVERS: RESPONSE TO SIMULATED SUDDEN DRIVING EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Venk; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death in teens in the United States. Newly licensed drivers are the group most at risk for crashes. Their driving skills are very new, still very often untested, so that their ability to properly react in an emergency situation remains a research question. Since it is impossible to expose human subjects to critical life threatening driving scenarios, researchers have been increasingly using driving simulators to assess driving skills. This paper summarizes the results of a driving scenario in a study comparing the driving performance of novice teen drivers (n=21) 16–17 year olds with 90 days of provisional licensure with that of experienced adult drivers (n=17) 25–50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years. As part of a 30 to 35 simulated drive that encompassed the most common scenarios that result in serious crashes, participants were exposed to a sudden car event. As the participant drove on a suburban road, a car surged from a driveway hidden by a fence on the right side of the road. To avoid the crash, participants must hard brake, exhibiting dynamic control over both attentional and motor resources. The results showed strong differences between the experienced adult and novice teen drivers in the brake pressure applied. When placed in the same situation, the novice teens decelerated on average 50% less than the experienced adults (p<0.01). PMID:26709330

  7. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Sutton, Paul S.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Howard, Ara T.; Milesi, Christina; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2007-01-01

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density of constructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots, buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatial resolution is required to observe these features, the product we made is at one km2 resolution and is based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA. Inputs into the product include the brightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The reference data used in the calibration were derived from 30 meter resolution ISA estimates of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey. Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights and reference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States land area is impervious surface (83,337 km2) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703 km2) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country (87,182 km2), but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in the USA. Hyrdologic and environmental impacts of ISA begin to be exhibited when the density of ISA reaches 10% of the land surface. An examination of the areas with 10% or more ISA in watersheds finds that with the exception of Europe, the majority of watershed areas have less than 0.4% of their area at or above the 10% ISA threshold. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  8. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  9. Implications of Use of Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat on Urban Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and improve the appearance of asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central and eastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35% crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—median total PAH concentrations in dust from CT-sealcoated pavement are 2,200 mg/kg compared to a median concentration of 11 mg/kg for dust from unsealed pavement. Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, often resulting in sediment concentrations above toxicity thresholds based on effects-based sediment quality guidelines. Acute 2-day laboratory toxicity testing of simulated runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) demonstrated that toxicity continues for samples collected for weeks or months following sealcoat application and that toxicity is enhanced by exposure to UV light. Using the fish-liver cell line RTL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  10. Time for prediction? The effect of presentation rate on predictive sentence comprehension during word-by-word reading.

    PubMed

    Wlotko, Edward W; Federmeier, Kara D

    2015-07-01

    Predictive processing is a core component of normal language comprehension, but the brain may not engage in prediction to the same extent in all circumstances. This study investigates the effects of timing on anticipatory comprehension mechanisms. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read two-sentence mini-scenarios previously shown to elicit prediction-related effects for implausible items that are categorically related to expected items ('They wanted to make the hotel look more like a tropical resort. So along the driveway they planted rows of PALMS/PINES/TULIPS.'). The first sentence of every pair was presented in its entirety and was self-paced. The second sentence was presented word-by-word with a fixed stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of either 500 msec or 250 msec that was manipulated in a within-subjects blocked design. Amplitudes of the N400 ERP component are taken as a neural index of demands on semantic processing. At 500 msec SOA, implausible words related to predictable words elicited reduced N400 amplitudes compared to unrelated words (PINES vs TULIPS), replicating past studies. At 250 msec SOA this prediction-related semantic facilitation was diminished. Thus, timing is a factor in determining the extent to which anticipatory mechanisms are engaged. However, we found evidence that prediction can sometimes be engaged even under speeded presentation rates. Participants who first read sentences in the 250 msec SOA block showed no effect of semantic similarity for this SOA, although these same participants showed the effect in the second block with 500 msec SOA. However, participants who first read sentences in the 500 msec SOA block continued to show the N400 semantic similarity effect in the 250 msec SOA block. These findings add to results showing that the brain flexibly allocates resources to most effectively achieve comprehension goals given the current processing environment. PMID:25987437

  11. Changing spatial patterns of evapotranspiration and deep drainage in response to the interactions among impervious surface arrangement, soil characteristics, and weather on a residential parcel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voter, C. B.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction impervious surfaces in urban areas is a key driver of hydrologic change. It is now well understood that the amount of "effective" impervious area directly connected to the storm sewer network is a better indicator of hydrologic behavior than the total amount of impervious area. Most studies in urban hydrology have focused on the relationship between impervious connectivity and stormwater runoff or other surface water flows, with the result that the effect on subsurface flow is not as well understood. In the field, we observe differences in soil moisture availability that are dependent on proximity to impervious features and significant from a root water uptake perspective, which indicates that parcel-scale subsurface and plant water fluxes may also be sensitive to fine-scaled heterogeneity in impervious surface arrangement and connectivity. We use ParFlow with CLM, a watershed model with fully integrated variably-saturated subsurface flow, overland flow, and land-surface processes, to explore the extent to which soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and deep drainage vary under various impervious surface arrangement and soil condition scenarios, as well as under a range of precipitation regimes. We investigate the effect of several impervious surface and soil characteristics, including general lot layout, downspout disconnect, and direction of driveway/sidewalk slope, and soil compaction. We show that that some impervious connectivity schemes transfer more water from impervious areas to pervious ones and promote localized recharge by developing well-defined, fast-moving wetting fronts that are able to penetrate the root zone. Enhanced infiltration is translated more directly to recharge in normal to wet years but partitioned more often to transpiration in dry years, leading to a nonlinear relationship among precipitation, runoff and recharge.

  12. The Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Heat Risk–Related Land Cover in Relation to Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Cushing, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the distribution of heat risk–related land cover (HRRLC) characteristics across racial/ethnic groups and degrees of residential segregation. Methods: Block group–level tree canopy and impervious surface estimates were derived from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset for densely populated urban areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, and linked to demographic characteristics from the 2000 Census. Racial/ethnic groups in a given block group were considered to live in HRRLC if at least half their population experienced the absence of tree canopy and at least half of the ground was covered by impervious surface (roofs, driveways, sidewalks, roads). Residential segregation was characterized for metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico using the multigroup dissimilarity index. Results: After adjustment for ecoregion and precipitation, holding segregation level constant, non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely (95% CI: 37%, 69%), non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely (95% CI: 18%, 47%), and Hispanics 21% more likely (95% CI: 8%, 35%) to live in HRRLC conditions compared with non-Hispanic whites. Within each racial/ethnic group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan area-level segregation. Further adjustment for home ownership and poverty did not substantially alter these results, but adjustment for population density and metropolitan area population attenuated the segregation effects, suggesting a mediating or confounding role. Conclusions: Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be explained partly by the concentration of racial/ethnic minorities into densely populated neighborhoods within larger, more segregated cities. In anticipation of greater frequency and duration of extreme heat events, climate change adaptation strategies, such as planting trees in urban areas, should explicitly incorporate an environmental justice framework that addresses

  13. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity.

  14. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  15. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. PMID

  16. Rapid Mapping of Surface Rupture from the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C. C.; Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid documentation (<1 day) of co-seismic surface rupture location and slip is essential for scientific and emergency response. We demonstrate how social media (text messaging and Twitter) and the emerging 3D data collection technique known as Structure from Motion (SfM), used in conjunction with traditional field reconnaissance, enabled us to rapidly locate and document surface ruptures from the Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake. On the morning of the event, our field team used information available on social media to identify locations with potential surface rupture. Preliminary observations of surface rupture (measurements and geo-tagged photographs) were texted to the office-based team member who created digital maps of the rupture trace and shared them online via Twitter in near-real time. We documented many ephemeral features (such as offset roads, curbs, and driveways) along the rupture trace within 12 hours of the event, before these features were destroyed by road and infrastructure repair. We were able to return to most sites again within several days, allowing us to document continuing slip and create time-series datasets of offset features. After the collection and re-collection of data at selected sites, we made detailed measurements remotely using 3D models constructed with SfM. The ability to quantitatively project features into the fault plane using these models allows for accurate measurements of small features often difficult to observe and quantify in the field. Traditionally, even preliminary maps of rupture extent and offset magnitudes are not available for several days after an event because office-based processing and compilation is required. Because we were able to compile our data in real time, we distributed our results while they were still valuable for ongoing scientific response. Our work helped other science teams efficiently target fieldwork and instrument deployment; for example, one geodetic survey team used our surface rupture map to

  17. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of California Almond Orchards Using Advanced Farming Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Schellenberg, Daniel; Saa Silva, Sebastian; Muhammad, Saiful; Sanden, Blake; Brown, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Mobilization of reactive nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, NOx, N2O, NO2- and NO3-) is perceived as one of the foremost challenges for modern agricultural production systems. Yet information to address the question of how advanced nitrogen (N) management alters reactive N mobilization is lacking. During 2009 to 2012 we monitored spatially constrained N2O emissions and potential leachable NO3-, along with yield-N content to examine their contribution to nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, fruit-N exported/fertilizer-N applied) for a modern, high yielding almond production system. This modern production system schedules irrigation to match evapotranspiration (ETc) estimated from the Penman-Montieth calculation of a reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times a seasonal crop coefficient (Kc) which was verified using eddy covariance and surface renewal latent heat flux estimates. Split N-fertilizer applications were targeted to tree-N demand and root proliferation. These production systems demand upwards of 300 kg N ha-1. NUE was found to be nearly 80% at an N application level allowing for economic sustainability of the system (308 kg N ha-1). When mobilization of N2O and NO3- were included in the NUE assessment, these systems were still highly sustainable in terms of N applied. We also monitored production and consumption of the greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). These systems had relatively low levels of N2O emissions with emissions of N2O as a fraction of N-fertilizer applied being consistently less than IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors, and lower than the average estimated for most continental US farming systems. The system also demonstrated a capacity for net CH4 oxidation over the course of a season that occurred mainly in the driveways between tree rows that are kept dry over the course of the season in this arid environment. Our study indicated that tight management of water resources and targeted applications of N-fertilizer resulted in net positive

  18. Wisconsin builds a distributed resources collaborative: Looking for local solutions that work

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.

    1995-12-01

    I`d like to tell you how I got involved in the DR Collaborative and why I`m here. John Nesbitt asked me to come, to be the public advocate, the bumblebee on the EPRI body politic. What follows is my own thought, not that of John or my fellow collaborators, who may or may not agree with me. How did I come to know John Nesbitt? In August 1991, I found that some Wisconsin utilities intended to run a 138 kV transmission line across my property, along the driveway where my kids ride their bikes, along the high ground where we walk to escape the mosquitoes in the summer, where we ski cross-country and admire the snowy view in the winter. As a result, I became intensely interested in the electric power business. One thing led to another. I got on the Board of Wisconsin Demand-Side Demonstrations (WDSD), representing a group called the Citizens` Utility Board (CUB). I met Mr. Nesbitt. We shared an interest in distributed resources (DR). Along with some others, we conspired to initiate the Targeted Area Planning (TAP) collaborative. TAP is what we call DR in Wisconsin. I began to talk in acronyms. The simple truth is, I detest transmission lines. And, since transmission lines are invariably hooked up to central generation, I have no love for big power plants either. That whole system approach looks excessive and outdated to me, a vestige of the nineteenth century, Jules Verne without the romance. My opinion is, who needs it? I am aware that my opinion is not shared by everyone. I grant you that transmission lines might be a mite more acceptable if the thousands of landowners like me who presently subsidize their existence were receiving compensation, say an annual commodity transfer fee, that reflected some small portion of the value of transmission lines in the present system. That is certainly not the case, and if it were, the present system, when and if deregulated, would price itself out of existence all the more quickly.

  19. PAH Concentrations Decline Following 2006 Ban on Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealants in Austin, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    U.S. (including Lady Bird Lake) and were the primary cause of increasing PAH trends in recent decades. The results presented here are the first direct evidence that removing this source can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies. CT sealants are sprayed or painted on asphalt parking lots and driveways. The sealant abrades into fine particles that can be washed into streams and lakes and tracked into homes.

  20. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a

  1. Back to the Future -Precipitation Extremes, Climate Variability, Environmental Planning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    --"The last major climatic oscillation peak was about 1856, or 74 years ago. Practically all of our important railroad and public highway work has been done since that time. Most of our parks systems driveways, and roads of all type for auto travel, in the various States, have been completed within the past 30 years, namely, beginning at the very lowest point of our climatic swing (1900-1910). There is every reason to believe, therefore, as the next 20 years comes on apace, we will witness considerable damage to work done during the past regime of weather."-- Schuman, 1931 At the beginning of the 21st century, as at the beginning of the 20th century, the fundamental question is whether the nation is more prepared for natural disasters today than it was eight decades ago. Indeed, the question is whether the best science, engineering and policy tools are in place to prepare for and respond to extreme events. Changes in the risk and magnitude of extreme precipitation events rank among the most studied impacts, and indicators (symptoms) of climatic variations. Extreme precipitation translates generally into extreme flooding, landslides, collapse of lifeline infrastructure, and the breakdown of public health services among others. In approaching the problem of quantifying the risk and magnitude of extreme precipitation events, there are two major challenges: 1) it is difficult to characterize "observed" (20th century) conditions due to the lack of long-term observations - i.e., short and incomplete historical records; and 2) it is difficult to characterize "predicted" (21st century) conditions due to the lack of skill of precipitation forecasts at spatial and temporal scales meaningful for impact studies, and the short-duration of climate model simulations themselves. The first challenge translates in estimating the probability of occurrence (rare) and magnitude (very large) of events that may have not happened yet. The second challenge is that of quantifying

  2. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p < 0.005), rainfall amount during the event (p < 0.02) and the weighted lag time between glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p < 0.05). A regression analysis showed that these three factors can explain more than 85% of the variation in the loss rate of glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering

  3. Environmental setting, water budget, and stream assessment for the Broad Run watershed, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.

    2005-01-01

    . Assessment of fluvial-geomorphic conditions included large-scale mapping of stream classes within the Broad Run watershed and in-depth study of three representative stream reaches also within the Broad Run watershed. Based on the total distance of all stream reaches classified within the Broad Run watershed, 61 percent were classified as C-class, 14 percent as E-class, 13 percent as B-class, 5 percent as F-class, 4 percent as undifferentiated B- and F-class, 2 percent as G-class, and less than 1 percent as A-class. The map of stream classes indicates that the Broad Run watershed currently has no large-scale areas of stream impairment and that, generally, the stream is not entrenched and the main branch of the Broad Run has an available, functioning flood plain. Smaller tributary streams, however, showed signs of localized entrenchment due to site-specific influences such as natural stream-channel evolution, localized channelization, localized contraction due to road and driveway crossings, and (or) increased localized runoff. For example, one small reach along a tributary channel was observed to become entrenched due to runoff originating from a new housing development. Entrenched stream reaches are merely located by large-scale mapping and require individual assessment to determine potential causes of entrenchment and (or) future restorative actions. Three in-depth geomorphic study sites showed that the Broad Run can currently be considered graded or in a state of dynamic equilibrium. The sites did, however, identify certain vulnerabilities to future changes within the watershed. These vulnerabilities included disruption of the present sediment supply, including both increases and (or) reductions in the current sediment loads within the Broad Run; increases in both magnitude and duration of storm-water runoff; encroachment of development onto present flood-plain areas, and (or) alterations to riparian zones. Assessment of stream-quality conditions includ

  4. Cartographic visualization of firehydrants accessibility for the purpose of decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebski, Łukasz; Medyńska-Gulij, Beata

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to present an exemplary cartographic visualization of fire hydrants data consisting of a set of thematic maps containing various information related to the location of hydrants, buildings and driveways in geographic space, and relationships existing between them. Identification of these relationships requires spatial analysis, and illustrating them requires the use of appropriate cartographic presentation methods. The study was conducted on a part of the city of Poznan using data on hydrants' location and type collected and provided by the Fire Department. Geometric data, obtained using geoprocessing algorithms, were assigned appropriate symbols, which lets differentiate them qualitatively and quantitatively. An emphasis is placed on the use of adequate visual variables and on the cartographic communication efficiency. The result of the study is a cartographic visualization in the form of series of thematic maps arranged in a logical sequence, and providing information about the secured area. The thematic layers presenting the same area were arranged in different arrangements with maintenance of the reference layers, ensuring the ease of correlation. Such a cartographic visualization provides knowledge about the spatial distribution and diversity of objects and the relationships between them. It may be an important source of knowledge both at the identification stage and at the operational stage when conducting a firefighting action. Celem niniejszego artykułu stało się zaprezentowanie przykładowej wizualizacji kartograficznej dla danych dotyczących hydrantów ulicznych, złożonej z szeregu map tematycznych przybliżających różne informacje związane z lokalizacją w przestrzeni geograficznej hydrantów, budynków i dróg dojazdowych oraz tworzonymi przez nie relacjami. Zidentyfikowanie tych zależności wymaga przeprowadzenia analiz przestrzennych, a ich zobrazowanie zastosowania odpowiednich metod prezentacji kartograficznej