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Sample records for drosophila assay system

  1. Methods to assay Drosophila behavior.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Becnel, Jaime; Pandey, Udai B

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, has been used to study molecular mechanisms of a wide range of human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and various neurological diseases(1). We have optimized simple and robust behavioral assays for determining larval locomotion, adult climbing ability (RING assay), and courtship behaviors of Drosophila. These behavioral assays are widely applicable for studying the role of genetic and environmental factors on fly behavior. Larval crawling ability can be reliably used for determining early stage changes in the crawling abilities of Drosophila larvae and also for examining effect of drugs or human disease genes (in transgenic flies) on their locomotion. The larval crawling assay becomes more applicable if expression or abolition of a gene causes lethality in pupal or adult stages, as these flies do not survive to adulthood where they otherwise could be assessed. This basic assay can also be used in conjunction with bright light or stress to examine additional behavioral responses in Drosophila larvae. Courtship behavior has been widely used to investigate genetic basis of sexual behavior, and can also be used to examine activity and coordination, as well as learning and memory. Drosophila courtship behavior involves the exchange of various sensory stimuli including visual, auditory, and chemosensory signals between males and females that lead to a complex series of well characterized motor behaviors culminating in successful copulation. Traditional adult climbing assays (negative geotaxis) are tedious, labor intensive, and time consuming, with significant variation between different trials(2-4). The rapid iterative negative geotaxis (RING) assay(5) has many advantages over more widely employed protocols, providing a reproducible, sensitive, and high throughput approach to quantify adult locomotor and negative geotaxis behaviors. In the RING assay, several genotypes or drug treatments can be tested simultaneously

  2. The Drosophila visual system

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A compact genome and a tiny brain make Drosophila the prime model to understand the neural substrate of behavior. The neurogenetic efforts to reveal neural circuits underlying Drosophila vision started about half a century ago, and now the field is booming with sophisticated genetic tools, rich behavioral assays, and importantly, a greater number of scientists joining from different backgrounds. This review will briefly cover the structural anatomy of the Drosophila visual system, the animal’s visual behaviors, the genes involved in assembling these circuits, the new and powerful techniques, and the challenges ahead for ultimately identifying the general principles of biological computation in the brain.   A typical brain utilizes a great many compact neural circuits to collect and process information from the internal biological and external environmental worlds and generates motor commands for observable behaviors. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, despite of its miniature body and tiny brain, can survive in almost any corner of the world.1 It can find food, court mate, fight rival conspecific, avoid predators, and amazingly fly without crashing into trees. Drosophila vision and its underlying neuronal machinery has been a key research model for at least half century for neurogeneticists.2 Given the efforts invested on the visual system, this animal model is likely to offer the first full understanding of how visual information is computed by a multi-cellular organism. Furthermore, research in Drosophila has revealed many genes that play crucial roles in the formation of functional brains across species. The architectural similarities between the visual systems of Drosophila and vertebrate at the molecular, cellular, and network levels suggest new principles discovered at the circuit level on the relationship between neurons and behavior in Drosophila shall also contribute greatly to our understanding of the general principles for how bigger brains work.3

  3. Paired nanoinjection and electrophysiology assay to screen for bioactivity of compounds using the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Monica; Heghinian, Mari D; Busch, Alexandra; Marí, Frank; Godenschwege, Tanja A

    2012-01-01

    Screening compounds for in vivo activity can be used as a first step to identify candidates that may be developed into pharmacological agents. We developed a novel nanoinjection/electrophysiology assay that allows the detection of bioactive modulatory effects of compounds on the function of a neuronal circuit that mediates the escape response in Drosophila melanogaster. Our in vivo assay, which uses the Drosophila Giant Fiber System (GFS, Figure 1) allows screening of different types of compounds, such as small molecules or peptides, and requires only minimal quantities to elicit an effect. In addition, the Drosophila GFS offers a large variety of potential molecular targets on neurons or muscles. The Giant Fibers (GFs) synapse electrically (Gap Junctions) as well as chemically (cholinergic) onto a Peripheral Synapsing Interneuron (PSI) and the Tergo Trochanteral Muscle neuron (TTMn. The PSI to DLMn (Dorsal Longitudinal Muscle neuron) connection is dependent on Dα7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Finally, the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of the TTMn and the DLMn with the jump (TTM) and flight muscles (DLM) are glutamatergic. Here, we demonstrate how to inject nanoliter quantities of a compound, while obtaining electrophysiological intracellular recordings from the Giant Fiber System and how to monitor the effects of the compound on the function of this circuit. We show specificity of the assay with methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA), a nAChR antagonist, which disrupts the PSI to DLMn connection but not the GF to TTMn connection or the function of the NMJ at the jump or flight muscles. Before beginning this video it is critical that you carefully watch and become familiar with the JoVE video titled "Electrophysiological Recordings from the Giant Fiber Pathway of D. melanogaster" from Augustin et al, as the video presented here is intended as an expansion to this existing technique. Here we use the electrophysiological recordings method and focus in

  4. Developmental Toxicity Assays Using the Drosophila Model

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Matthew D.; Montgomery, Sara L.; Prince, Lisa; Vorojeikina, Daria

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has long been a premier model for developmental biologists and geneticists. The utility of Drosophila for toxicology studies has only recently gained broader recognition as a tool to elaborate molecular genetic mechanisms of toxic substances. In this article two practical applications of Drosophila for developmental toxicity assays are described. The first assay takes advantage of newly developed methods to render the fly embryo accessible to small molecules, toxicants and drugs. The second assay engages straightforward exposures to developing larvae and easy to score outcomes of adult development. With the extensive collections of flies that are publicly available and the ease with which to create transgenic flies, these two assays have a unique power for identifying and characterizing molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways specific to the mode of action of a number of toxicants and drugs. PMID:24789363

  5. Drosophila tools and assays for the study of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Berrak; Chen, Kuchuan; Bellen, Hugo J

    2016-03-01

    Many of the internal organ systems of Drosophila melanogaster are functionally analogous to those in vertebrates, including humans. Although humans and flies differ greatly in terms of their gross morphological and cellular features, many of the molecular mechanisms that govern development and drive cellular and physiological processes are conserved between both organisms. The morphological differences are deceiving and have led researchers to undervalue the study of invertebrate organs in unraveling pathogenic mechanisms of diseases. In this review and accompanying poster, we highlight the physiological and molecular parallels between fly and human organs that validate the use of Drosophila to study the molecular pathogenesis underlying human diseases. We discuss assays that have been developed in flies to study the function of specific genes in the central nervous system, heart, liver and kidney, and provide examples of the use of these assays to address questions related to human diseases. These assays provide us with simple yet powerful tools to study the pathogenic mechanisms associated with human disease-causing genes. PMID:26935102

  6. Drosophila tools and assays for the study of human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Berrak; Chen, Kuchuan; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many of the internal organ systems of Drosophila melanogaster are functionally analogous to those in vertebrates, including humans. Although humans and flies differ greatly in terms of their gross morphological and cellular features, many of the molecular mechanisms that govern development and drive cellular and physiological processes are conserved between both organisms. The morphological differences are deceiving and have led researchers to undervalue the study of invertebrate organs in unraveling pathogenic mechanisms of diseases. In this review and accompanying poster, we highlight the physiological and molecular parallels between fly and human organs that validate the use of Drosophila to study the molecular pathogenesis underlying human diseases. We discuss assays that have been developed in flies to study the function of specific genes in the central nervous system, heart, liver and kidney, and provide examples of the use of these assays to address questions related to human diseases. These assays provide us with simple yet powerful tools to study the pathogenic mechanisms associated with human disease-causing genes. PMID:26935102

  7. A Single-fly Assay for Foraging Behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zaninovich, Orel A.; Kim, Susy M.; Root, Cory R.; Green, David S.; Ko, Kang I.; Wang, Jing W.

    2013-01-01

    For many animals, hunger promotes changes in the olfactory system in a manner that facilitates the search for appropriate food sources. In this video article, we describe an automated assay to measure the effect of hunger or satiety on olfactory dependent food search behavior in the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In a light-tight box illuminated by red light that is invisible to fruit flies, a camera linked to custom data acquisition software monitors the position of six flies simultaneously. Each fly is confined to walk in individual arenas containing a food odor at the center. The testing arenas rest on a porous floor that functions to prevent odor accumulation. Latency to locate the odor source, a metric that reflects olfactory sensitivity under different physiological states, is determined by software analysis. Here, we discuss the critical mechanics of running this behavioral paradigm and cover specific issues regarding fly loading, odor contamination, assay temperature, data quality, and statistical analysis. PMID:24299900

  8. The Drosophila Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff-Falk, Grace; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a functional auditory system in Drosophila requires specification and differentiation of the chordotonal sensilla of Johnston’s organ (JO) in the antenna, correct axonal targeting to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain, and synaptic connections to neurons in the downstream circuit. Chordotonal development in JO is functionally complicated by structural, molecular and functional diversity that is not yet fully understood, and construction of the auditory neural circuitry is only beginning to unfold. Here we describe our current understanding of developmental and molecular mechanisms that generate the exquisite functions of the Drosophila auditory system, emphasizing recent progress and highlighting important new questions arising from research on this remarkable sensory system. PMID:24719289

  9. An assay for social interaction in Drosophila fragile X mutants

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Francois V.; Valente, Dan; Nguyen, Antoinette T.; Mitra, Partha P.; Tully, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We developed a novel assay to examine social interactions in Drosophila and, as a first attempt, apply it here at examining the behavior of Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation gene (dfmr1) mutants. Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of single gene intellectual disability (ID) and is frequently associated with autism. Our results suggest that dfmr1 mutants are less active than wild-type flies and interact with each other less often. In addition, mutants for one allele of dfmr1, dfmr1B55, are more likely to come in close contact with a wild-type fly than another dfmr1B55 mutant. Our results raise the possibility of defective social expression with preserved receptive abilities. We further suggest that the assay may be applied in a general strategy of examining endophenoypes of complex human neurological disorders in Drosophila, and specifically in order to understand the genetic basis of social interaction defects linked with ID. PMID:20519966

  10. Induction of mutations by tritiated water and 3H-thymidine in Drosophila melanogaster assayed by the somatic zeste-white eye mutation system.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, A; Xamena, N; Creus, A; Marcos, R

    1988-01-01

    In order to study the mutagenic effect of exposure to tritium, Drosophila melanogaster larvae were treated with tritiated water (3H2O) or tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) during development. Dose rates ranged from 0.0058 to 0.058 rad/h per nucleus for 3H-TdR and from 0.049 to 0.122 rad/h for 3H2O. Induction of mutations was measured by the appearance of somatic mutations in the eyes of an unstable strain of Drosophila melanogaster. Both substances caused a significant increase in mutation frequency. With the assumption that each mutation observed in this assay is caused by one DNA break, the effectiveness of tritium to create DNA breaks is estimated to be 0.20 breaks per decay for 3H-TdR and 0.27 breaks per decay for 3H2O. PMID:3128734

  11. Statistical Analysis of Nondisjunction Assays in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yong; Li, Hua; Schweppe, Nicole M.; Hawley, R. Scott; Gilliland, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Many advances in the understanding of meiosis have been made by measuring how often errors in chromosome segregation occur. This process of nondisjunction can be studied by counting experimental progeny, but direct measurement of nondisjunction rates is complicated by not all classes of nondisjunctional progeny being viable. For X chromosome nondisjunction in Drosophila female meiosis, all of the normal progeny survive, while nondisjunctional eggs produce viable progeny only if fertilized by sperm that carry the appropriate sex chromosome. The rate of nondisjunction has traditionally been estimated by assuming a binomial process and doubling the number of observed nondisjunctional progeny, to account for the inviable classes. However, the correct way to derive statistics (such as confidence intervals or hypothesis testing) by this approach is far from clear. Instead, we use the multinomial-Poisson hierarchy model and demonstrate that the old estimator is in fact the maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE). Under more general assumptions, we derive asymptotic normality of this estimator and construct confidence interval and hypothesis testing formulae. Confidence intervals under this framework are always larger than under the binomial framework, and application to published data shows that use of the multinomial approach can avoid an apparent type 1 error made by use of the binomial assumption. The current study provides guidance for researchers designing genetic experiments on nondisjunction and improves several methods for the analysis of genetic data. PMID:20660647

  12. Microinjection wound assay and in vivo localization of epidermal wound response reporters in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Michelle T; Patterson, Rachel A; Li, Wilson; McGinnis, William

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila embryo develops a robust epidermal layer that serves both to protect the internal cells from a harsh external environment as well as to maintain cellular homeostasis. Puncture injury with glass needles provides a direct method to trigger a rapid epidermal wound response that activates wound transcriptional reporters, which can be visualized by a localized reporter signal in living embryos or larvae. Puncture or laser injury also provides signals that promote the recruitment of hemocytes to the wound site. Surprisingly, severe (through and through) puncture injury in late stage embryos only rarely disrupts normal embryonic development, as greater than 90% of such wounded embryos survive to adulthood when embryos are injected in an oil medium that minimizes immediate leakage of hemolymph from puncture sites. The wound procedure does require micromanipulation of the Drosophila embryos, including manual alignment of the embryos on agar plates and transfer of the aligned embryos to microscope slides. The Drosophila epidermal wound response assay provides a quick system to test the genetic requirements of a variety of biological functions that promote wound healing, as well as a way to screen for potential chemical compounds that promote wound healing. The short life cycle and easy culturing routine make Drosophila a powerful model organism. Drosophila clean wound healing appears to coordinate the epidermal regenerative response, with the innate immune response, in ways that are still under investigation, which provides an excellent system to find conserved regulatory mechanisms common to Drosophila and mammalian epidermal wounding. PMID:24300796

  13. Olfactory Behaviors Assayed by Computer Tracking Of Drosophila in a Four-quadrant Olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Riabinina, Olena; Potter, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in neurobiology is to understand how neural circuits function to guide appropriate animal behaviors. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for such investigations due to its complex behaviors, powerful genetic techniques, and compact nervous system. Laboratory behavioral assays have long been used with Drosophila to simulate properties of the natural environment and study the neural mechanisms underlying the corresponding behaviors (e.g. phototaxis, chemotaxis, sensory learning and memory)(1-3). With the recent availability of large collections of transgenic Drosophila lines that label specific neural subsets, behavioral assays have taken on a prominent role to link neurons with behaviors(4-11). Versatile and reproducible paradigms, together with the underlying computational routines for data analysis, are indispensable for rapid tests of candidate fly lines with various genotypes. Particularly useful are setups that are flexible in the number of animals tested, duration of experiments and nature of presented stimuli. The assay of choice should also generate reproducible data that is easy to acquire and analyze. Here, we present a detailed description of a system and protocol for assaying behavioral responses of Drosophila flies in a large four-field arena. The setup is used here to assay responses of flies to a single olfactory stimulus; however, the same setup may be modified to test multiple olfactory, visual or optogenetic stimuli, or a combination of these. The olfactometer setup records the activity of fly populations responding to odors, and computational analytical methods are applied to quantify fly behaviors. The collected data are analyzed to get a quick read-out of an experimental run, which is essential for efficient data collection and the optimization of experimental conditions. PMID:27585032

  14. An assay of behavioral plasticity in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Min, Virginia A.; Condron, Barry G.

    2010-01-01

    Stress, or threats to homeostasis, is a universal part of life. Organisms face changing and challenging situations everyday, and the ability to respond to such stress is essential for survival. When subjected to acute stress, the body responds molecularly and behaviorally in order to recover a steady state. We developed a simple and robust assay of behavioral plasticity for Drosophila larvae in which well-defined behavioral responses and recovery can be observed and quantified. After experiencing different control and bright light treatments, populations of photophobic fly larvae were placed a defined distance from a food source to which they crawled. Half-times (t½), or times at which half the total number of larvae reached the food, were used to compare different treatments and larval populations. Repeated control treatments with a main experimental strain gave tight, reproducible t½ ranges. Control treatments with the wild type strains Oregon R and Canton S, the “rover” and “sitter” alleles of the forager locus, and eyeless mutants gave comparable results to those of the experimental strain. Exposure to bright light for a defined time period resulted in a reproducible slowing of locomotion. However, given a defined recovery period, the larvae recover full, normal locomotion. In addition, bright light treatments with Canton S gave comparable results to those of the experimental strain. Eyeless mutants, which are partially blind, do not show a response to bright light treatment. Thus, our assay measures the behavioral responses to bright light in Drosophila larvae and therefore might be useful as a general assay for studying behavioral plasticity and, potentially, adaptation to a stressful stimulus. PMID:15922026

  15. Assessing neurodegenerative phenotypes in Drosophila dopaminergic neurons by climbing assays and whole brain immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Barone, Maria Cecilia; Bohmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model organism to study aging and pathological degenerative processes in the nervous system. The advantages of the fly as an experimental system include its genetic tractability, short life span and the possibility to observe and quantitatively analyze complex behaviors. The expression of disease-linked genes in specific neuronal populations of the Drosophila brain, can be used to model human neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's (5). Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are among the most vulnerable neuronal populations in the aging human brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, the accelerated loss of DA neurons leads to a progressive and irreversible decline in locomotor function. In addition to age and exposure to environmental toxins, loss of DA neurons is exacerbated by specific mutations in the coding or promoter regions of several genes. The identification of such PD-associated alleles provides the experimental basis for the use of Drosophila as a model to study neurodegeneration of DA neurons in vivo. For example, the expression of the PD-linked human α-synuclein gene in Drosophila DA neurons recapitulates some features of the human disease, e.g. progressive loss of DA neurons and declining locomotor function (2). Accordingly, this model has been successfully used to identify potential therapeutic targets in PD (8). Here we describe two assays that have commonly been used to study age-dependent neurodegeneration of DA neurons in Drosophila: a climbing assay based on the startle-induced negative geotaxis response and tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining of whole adult brain mounts to monitor the number of DA neurons at different ages. In both cases, in vivo expression of UAS transgenes specifically in DA neurons can be achieved by using a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter-Gal4 driver line (3, 10). PMID:23644755

  16. Assaying Blood Cell Populations of the Drosophila melanogaster Larva

    PubMed Central

    Petraki, Sophia; Alexander, Brandy; Brückner, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, hematopoiesis is regulated by inductive microenvironments (niches). Likewise, in the invertebrate model organism Drosophila melanogaster, inductive microenvironments known as larval Hematopoietic Pockets (HPs) have been identified as anatomical sites for the development and regulation of blood cells (hemocytes), in particular of the self-renewing macrophage lineage. HPs are segmentally repeated pockets between the epidermis and muscle layers of the larva, which also comprise sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. In the larva, resident (sessile) hemocytes are exposed to anti-apoptotic, adhesive and proliferative cues from these sensory neurons and potentially other components of the HPs, such as the lining muscle and epithelial layers. During normal development, gradual release of resident hemocytes from the HPs fuels the population of circulating hemocytes, which culminates in the release of most of the resident hemocytes at the beginning of metamorphosis. Immune assaults, physical injury or mechanical disturbance trigger the premature release of resident hemocytes into circulation. The switch of larval hemocytes between resident locations and circulation raises the need for a common standard/procedure to selectively isolate and quantify these two populations of blood cells from single Drosophila larvae. Accordingly, this protocol describes an automated method to release and quantify the resident and circulating hemocytes from single larvae. The method facilitates ex vivo approaches, and may be adapted to serve a variety of developmental stages of Drosophila and other invertebrate organisms. PMID:26650404

  17. Novel Whole-tissue Quantitative Assay of Nitric Oxide Levels in Drosophila Neuroinflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Ajjuri, Rami R.; O'Donnell, Janis M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a complex innate immune response vital to the healthy function of the central nervous system (CNS). Under normal conditions, an intricate network of inducers, detectors, and activators rapidly responds to neuron damage, infection or other immune infractions. This inflammation of immune cells is intimately associated with the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease and ALS. Under compromised disease states, chronic inflammation, intended to minimize neuron damage, may lead to an over-excitation of the immune cells, ultimately resulting in the exacerbation of disease progression. For example, loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, a hallmark of PD, is accelerated by the excessive activation of the inflammatory response. Though the cause of PD is largely unknown, exposure to environmental toxins has been implicated in the onset of sporadic cases. The herbicide paraquat, for example, has been shown to induce Parkinsonian-like pathology in several animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we have used the conserved innate immune response in Drosophila to develop an assay capable of detecting varying levels of nitric oxide, a cell-signaling molecule critical to the activation of the inflammatory response cascade and targeted neuron death. Using paraquat-induced neuronal damage, we assess the impact of these immune insults on neuroinflammatory stimulation through the use of a novel, quantitative assay. Whole brains are fully extracted from flies either exposed to neurotoxins or of genotypes that elevate susceptibility to neurodegeneration then incubated in cell-culture media. Then, using the principles of the Griess reagent reaction, we are able to detect minor changes in the secretion of nitric oxide into cell-culture media, essentially creating a primary live-tissue model in a simple procedure. The utility of this model is amplified by the robust genetic and molecular

  18. An Assay to Detect In Vivo Y Chromosome Loss in Drosophila Wing Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szabad, Janos; Bellen, Hugo J.; Venken, Koen J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the Y chromosome in Drosophila has no impact on cell viability and therefore allows us to assay the impact of environmental agents and genetic alterations on chromosomal loss. To detect in vivo chromosome loss in cells of the developing Drosophila wing primordia, we first engineered a Y chromosome with an attP docking site. By making use of the ΦC31 integrase system, we site-specifically integrated a genomic transgene encompassing the multiple wing hair (mwh) locus into this attP site, leading to a mwh+Y chromosome. This chromosome fully rescues the mwh mutant phenotype, an excellent recessive wing cell marker mutation. Loss of this mwh+Y chromosome in wing primordial cells then leads to manifestation of the mwh mutant phenotype in mwh-homozygous cells. The forming mwh clones permit us to quantify the effect of agents and genetic alterations by assaying frequency and size of the mwh mosaic spots. To illustrate the use of the mwh+Y loss system, the effects of four known mutagens (X-rays, colchicine, ethyl methanesulfonate, and formaldehyde) and two genetic conditions (loss- and gain-of-function lodestar mutant alleles) are documented. The procedure is simple, sensitive, and inexpensive. PMID:22973547

  19. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. An improved method for nematode infection assays in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Pavel; Wang, Zhi; Markus, Robert; Theopold, Ulrich; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) seek out host insects and release their symbiotic bacteria into their body cavity causing septicaemia, which eventually leads to host death. The interaction between EPNs and their hosts are only partially understood, in particular the host immune responses appears to involve pathways other than phagocytosis and the canonical transcriptional induction pathways. These pathways are genetically tractable and include for example clotting factors and lipid mediators. The aim of this study was to optimize the nematode infections in Drosophila melanogaster larvae, a well-studied and genetically tractable model organism. Here we show that two nematode species namely Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora display different infectivity toward Drosophila larvae with the latter being less pathogenic. The effects of supporting media and IJ dosage on the mortality of the hosts were assessed and optimized. Using optimum conditions, a faster and efficient setup for nematode infections was developed. This newly established infection model in Drosophila larvae will be applicable in large scale screens aimed at identifying novel genes/pathways involved in innate immune responses. PMID:22614785

  1. An Inexpensive, Scalable Behavioral Assay for Measuring Ethanol Sedation Sensitivity and Rapid Tolerance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simran; Kollah, Arnavaz; Chan, Robin; Lewellyn, Lara; Grotewiel, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious health challenge. Despite a large hereditary component to AUDs, few genes have been unambiguously implicated in their etiology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful model for exploring molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying alcohol-related behaviors and therefore holds great promise for identifying and understanding the function of genes that influence AUD. The use of the Drosophila model for these types of studies depends on the availability of assays that reliably measure behavioral responses to ethanol. This report describes an assay suitable for assessing ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in flies. Ethanol sensitivity measured in this assay is influenced by the volume and concentration of ethanol used, a variety of previously reported genetic manipulations, and also the length of time the flies are housed without food immediately prior to testing. In contrast, ethanol sensitivity measured in this assay is not affected by the vigor of fly handling, sex of the flies, and supplementation of growth medium with antibiotics or live yeast. Three different methods for quantitating ethanol sensitivity are described, all leading to essentially indistinguishable ethanol sensitivity results. The scalable nature of this assay, combined with its overall simplicity to set-up and relatively low expense, make it suitable for small and large scale genetic analysis of ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila. PMID:25939022

  2. An inexpensive, scalable behavioral assay for measuring ethanol sedation sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Simran; Kollah, Arnavaz P; Lewellyn, Lara; Chan, Robin F; Grotewiel, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious health challenge. Despite a large hereditary component to AUD, few genes have been unambiguously implicated in their etiology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful model for exploring molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying alcohol-related behaviors and therefore holds great promise for identifying and understanding the function of genes that influence AUD. The use of the Drosophila model for these types of studies depends on the availability of assays that reliably measure behavioral responses to ethanol. This report describes an assay suitable for assessing ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in flies. Ethanol sensitivity measured in this assay is influenced by the volume and concentration of ethanol used, a variety of previously reported genetic manipulations, and also the length of time the flies are housed without food immediately prior to testing. In contrast, ethanol sensitivity measured in this assay is not affected by the vigor of fly handling, sex of the flies, and supplementation of growth medium with antibiotics or live yeast. Three different methods for quantitating ethanol sensitivity are described, all leading to essentially indistinguishable ethanol sensitivity results. The scalable nature of this assay, combined with its overall simplicity to set-up and relatively low expense, make it suitable for small and large scale genetic analysis of ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila. PMID:25939022

  3. Small flies to tackle big questions: assaying complex bacterial virulence mechanisms using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fauvarque, Marie-Odile

    2014-06-01

    A successful raid on a fortress requires ingenious strategies in addition to a large number of soldiers. When a microorganism faces a potential host many factors are important, including not only the capacity to proliferate but also the ability to hide, escape or subvert the defence arsenal of the infected organism. This ability confers microbial pathogenicity and relies on complex virulence mechanisms, which are tightly regulated during the course of the infection. The amazing versatility of some microbes that can infect a wide broad of hosts undoubtedly relies on virulence factors intent on fighting evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanisms. This makes the use of alternative invertebrate models, which are of outstanding interest because they demand less ethical consideration and lower experimental costs, extremely relevant. These simpler organisms are used to analyse genes and mechanisms involved in resistance or tolerance to microorganisms. They can also be used to study bacterial virulence factors that allow proliferation or persistence in the host. In particular, the Drosophila fruit fly has a complex immune response (similar to the mammalian innate immune response) and is particularly appropriate for deciphering many events underlying bacterial pathogenicity from acute virulence to biofilm formation. As highlighted in this review, Drosophila has been notably extensively used to study virulence traits of the opportunistic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, such as proliferation or persistence, translocation through an epithelial barrier, subversion of the phagocytic machinery, in vivo biofilm formation and enhanced virulence provided by commensal flora or a polymicrobial community. Moreover, these small flies now appear to be a useful system for assaying chemicals with therapeutic potential. PMID:24628939

  4. Mechanisms of systemic wound response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Jae; Miura, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In response to cellular and tissue losses caused by physical or chemical injuries, organisms must activate multiple wound repair systems at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. The systemic wound response (SWR) that occurs via interorgan communication between local wound sites and remote organs ensures that the host is protected efficiently in response to a local wound. The local wound response around the wound site is fairly well documented, but the molecular mechanisms that allow the host to launch SWR are poorly understood. Recent studies on the Drosophila adult model system have shown that the local wound response is not restricted to the wound site because it plays an essential role in generating signals transmitted to remote organs that subsequently achieve SWR. By exploiting the genetic methods available for investigating Drosophila, we are just beginning to understand the complex interorgan networks that operate during SWRs. This review discusses the basic processes involved with classical integumental wound responses and tissue regeneration, such as epithelial cell movement, hemocyte recruitment, apoptosis, melanization, and generation of reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described intestinal epithelial cell renewal program that occurs in response to gut cell damages. Furthermore, we discuss how these local wound responses integrate with organ-to-organ communication to launch SWR. Genetic analysis of SWRs using the Drosophila model system will provide a unique opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanisms that control wound-induced organ-to-organ communication. PMID:24512709

  5. Assaying Locomotor Activity to Study Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Parameters in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Joanna C.; Low, Kwang Huei; Pike, Douglas H.; Yildirim, Evrim; Edery, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Most life forms exhibit daily rhythms in cellular, physiological and behavioral phenomena that are driven by endogenous circadian (≡24 hr) pacemakers or clocks. Malfunctions in the human circadian system are associated with numerous diseases or disorders. Much progress towards our understanding of the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms has emerged from genetic screens whereby an easily measured behavioral rhythm is used as a read-out of clock function. Studies using Drosophila have made seminal contributions to our understanding of the cellular and biochemical bases underlying circadian rhythms. The standard circadian behavioral read-out measured in Drosophila is locomotor activity. In general, the monitoring system involves specially designed devices that can measure the locomotor movement of Drosophila. These devices are housed in environmentally controlled incubators located in a darkroom and are based on using the interruption of a beam of infrared light to record the locomotor activity of individual flies contained inside small tubes. When measured over many days, Drosophila exhibit daily cycles of activity and inactivity, a behavioral rhythm that is governed by the animal's endogenous circadian system. The overall procedure has been simplified with the advent of commercially available locomotor activity monitoring devices and the development of software programs for data analysis. We use the system from Trikinetics Inc., which is the procedure described here and is currently the most popular system used worldwide. More recently, the same monitoring devices have been used to study sleep behavior in Drosophila. Because the daily wake-sleep cycles of many flies can be measured simultaneously and only 1 to 2 weeks worth of continuous locomotor activity data is usually sufficient, this system is ideal for large-scale screens to identify Drosophila manifesting altered circadian or sleep properties. PMID:20972399

  6. Proposal of an in vivo comet assay using haemocytes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Erico R; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the first application of an in vivo alkaline comet assay using haemocytes of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. These cells, which play a role similar to that of mammalian blood, can be easily obtained and represent an overall exposure of the treated larvae. To validate the assay, we evaluated the response of these cells to three well-known mutagenic agents: ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), potassium dichromate (PD), and gamma radiation (γ-irradiation). Third-instar Drosophila larvae were exposed to different concentrations of EMS (1, 2, and 4 mM) and PD (0.5, 1, and 2.5 mM) and to different doses of γ-irradiation (2, 4, and 8 Gγ). Subsequently, haemolymph was extracted from the larvae, and haemocytes were isolated by centrifugation and used in the comet assay. Haemocytes exhibited a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, indicating that these cells are clearly sensitive to the treatments. These results suggest that the proposed in vivo comet test, using larvae haemocytes of D. melanogaster, may be a useful in vivo assay for genotoxicity assessment. PMID:20740640

  7. Performance of 181 chemicals in a Drosophila assay predominantly monitoring interchromosomal mitotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Vogel, E W; Nivard, M J

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the effects of 181 chemicals in the (white/white+) (w/w+) eye mosaic assay, an in vivo short-term test measuring genetic damage in somatic cells of Drosophila after treatment of larvae. The genetic principle of this system is loss of heterozygosity for the wild-type reporter gene w+, an event predominantly resulting from homologous interchromosomal mitotic recombination between the two X chromosomes of female genotypes. The w/w+ eye mosaic test detects a broad spectrum of DNA modifications, since all distinct classes of genotoxins are monitored. Non-DNA-reactive chemicals are in principle not detected by this system. Occasional positive responses obtained for chemicals such as amitrole, ethionine and hexachloeroethane are probably not related to the mechanism responsible for their tumorigenicity. The principle outcome of this analysis is the necessity for classification of responses into three categories. (i) Positive, '++'. The 92 chemicals (Tables II and III) falling into this category were clearly recombinagenic in the assay, meaning that dose-response relations were obtained (or could have been established as was evident from the strong responses obtained at one or two exposure doses). Among the 92 chemicals were 49 promutagens including volatile chemicals such as vinyl bromide and vinyl chloride. (ii) Marginally positive, '+w'. The definition of a weakly positive response is the absence of a dose-response relationship due to the fact that a weak but reproducible effect, in most cases no more than a doubling of the spontaneous clone frequency, is inherently related to toxicity. The 40 chemicals (Tables IV and V) belonging to this category mainly represented four distinct types. (a) Procarcinogens, such as 2-acetylaminofluorene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 2-naphthylamine and safrole, for which metabolic conversion was the apparent problem in the assay. (b) Electrophilic chemicals of high nucleophilic

  8. A HRM Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid and Specific Identification of the Emerging Pest Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)

    PubMed Central

    Dhami, Manpreet K.; Kumarasinghe, Lalith

    2014-01-01

    Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is an emerging pest that began spreading in 2008 and its distribution now includes 13 countries across two continents. Countries where it is established have reported significant economic losses of fresh produce, such as cherries due to this species of fly. At larval stages, it is impossible to identify due to its striking similarities with other cosmopolitan and harmless drosophilids. Molecular methods allow identification but the current technique of DNA barcoding is time consuming. We developed and validated a rapid, highly sensitive and specific assay based on real-time PCR and high resolution melt (HRM) analysis using EvaGreen DNA intercalating dye chemistry. Performance characteristics of this qualitative assay, validation and applicability in a New Zealand quarantine framework are discussed. Application of this robust and independently validated assay across the spectrum of key food production and border protection industries will allow us to reduce the further spread of this damaging species worldwide. PMID:24927410

  9. Methodological aspects of the white-ivory assay of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, J A; Sierra, L M; Comendador, M A

    1995-10-01

    The white-ivory somatic assay of Drosophila melanogaster was developed to detect genotoxic agents which induce loss of a tandem duplication. Although the mechanism of this loss is not known, some suggestions point to intrachromosomal recombination as the main reversion mechanism. Since the few papers published to date on this assay present controversial methodologies, prior to a larger study of chemicals with different mechanisms of action, we have carried out an analysis to optimize some conditions of this assay. For this purpose, we have used three different strains and four well characterized mutagenic chemicals: N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and hexamethyl phosphoramide (HMPA). The results obtained allow us to conclude that: (i) the best strain for this assay is C(1)DX,y,f/Dp(1:1:1:1)wi,y2, although the use of strain FM6,l(1)66a/Dp(1:1:1:1)wi,y2;st/st could be considered for some mechanistical studies; (ii) developmental reasons make it necessary to use as estimate of reversion frequency the proportion of eyes showing at least one spot; (iii) reversion frequency cannot be used as estimate of mutation efficiency, neither can spot size evaluate time of spot induction; (iv) the four chemicals clearly induce loss of the wi duplication; according to their activities they rank ENU > HMPA > MMS approximately EMS. PMID:7477046

  10. A Follicle Rupture Assay Reveals an Essential Role for Follicular Adrenergic Signaling in Drosophila Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Deady, Lylah D.; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation is essential for the propagation of the species and involves a proteolytic degradation of the follicle wall for the release of the fertilizable oocyte. However, the precise mechanisms for regulating these proteolytic events are largely unknown. Work from our lab and others have shown that there are several parallels between Drosophila and mammalian ovulation at both the cellular and molecular levels. During ovulation in Drosophila, posterior follicle cells surrounding a mature oocyte are selectively degraded and the residual follicle cells remain in the ovary to form a corpus luteum after follicle rupture. Like in mammals, this rupturing process also depends on matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) activity localized at the posterior end of mature follicles, where oocytes exit. In the present study, we show that Mmp2 activity is regulated by the octopaminergic signaling in mature follicle cells. Exogenous octopamine (OA; equivalent to norepinephrine, NE) is sufficient to induce follicle rupture when isolated mature follicles are cultured ex vivo, in the absence of the oviduct or ovarian muscle sheath. Knocking down the alpha-like adrenergic receptor Oamb (Octoampine receptor in mushroom bodies) in mature follicle cells prevents OA-induced follicle rupture ex vivo and ovulation in vivo. We also show that follicular OA-Oamb signaling induces Mmp2 enzymatic activation but not Mmp2 protein expression, likely via intracellular Ca2+ as the second messenger. Our work develops a novel ex vivo follicle rupture assay and demonstrates the role for follicular adrenergic signaling in Mmp2 activation and ovulation in Drosophila, which is likely conserved in other species. PMID:26473732

  11. Characterization of a method for quantitating food consumption for mutation assays in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, E.D.; Reeder, B.A.; Bruce, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitation of food consumption is necessary when determining mutation responses to multiple chemical exposures in the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila. One method proposed for quantitating food consumption by Drosophila is to measure the incorporation of 14C-leucine into the flies during the feeding period. Three sources of variation in the technique of Thompson and Reeder have been identified and characterized. First, the amount of food consumed by individual flies differed by almost 30% in a 24 hr feeding period. Second, the variability from vial to vial (each containing multiple flies) was around 15%. Finally, the amount of food consumed in identical feeding experiments performed over the course of 1 year varied nearly 2-fold. The use of chemical consumption values in place of exposure levels provided a better means of expressing the combined mutagenic response. In addition, the kinetics of food consumption over a 3 day feeding period for exposures to cyclophosphamide which produce lethality were compared to non-lethal exposures. Extensive characterization of lethality induced by exposures to cyclophosphamide demonstrate that the lethality is most likely due to starvation, not chemical toxicity.

  12. Context-specific comparison of sleep acquisition systems in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Garbe, David S.; Bollinger, Wesley L.; Vigderman, Abigail; Masek, Pavel; Gertowski, Jill; Sehgal, Amita; Keene, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sleep is conserved across phyla and can be measured through electrophysiological or behavioral characteristics. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent model for investigating the genetic and neural mechanisms that regulate sleep. Multiple systems exist for measuring fly activity, including video analysis and single-beam (SB) or multi-beam (MB) infrared (IR)-based monitoring. In this study, we compare multiple sleep parameters of individual flies using a custom-built video-based acquisition system, and commercially available SB- or MB-IR acquisition systems. We report that all three monitoring systems appear sufficiently sensitive to detect changes in sleep duration associated with diet, age, and mating status. Our data also demonstrate that MB-IR detection appeared more sensitive than the SB-IR for detecting baseline nuances in sleep architecture, while architectural changes associated with varying life-history and environment were generally detected across all acquisition types. Finally, video recording of flies in an arena allowed us to measure the effect of ambient environment on sleep. These experiments demonstrate a robust effect of arena shape and size as well as light levels on sleep duration and architecture, and highlighting the versatility of tracking-based sleep acquisition. These findings provide insight into the context-specific basis for choosing between Drosophila sleep acquisition systems, describe a novel cost-effective system for video tracking, and characterize sleep analysis using the MB-IR sleep analysis. Further, we describe a modified dark-place preference sleep assay using video tracking, confirming that flies prefer to sleep in dark locations. PMID:26519516

  13. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model System to Study Mitochondrial Biology

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Miguel Angel; Farr, Carol L.; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Garesse, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular homeostasis. Although in the last few decades our knowledge of mitochondria has increased substantially, the mechanisms involved in the control of mitochondrial biogenesis remain largely unknown. The powerful genetics of Drosophila combined with a wealth of available cell and molecular biology techniques, make this organism an excellent system to study mitochondria. In this chapter we will review briefly the opportunities that Drosophila offers as a model system and describe in detail how to purify mitochondria from Drosophila and to perform the analysis of developmental gene expression using in situ hybridization. PMID:18314716

  14. Drosophila blood as a model system for stress sensing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jiwon

    2015-04-01

    The Drosophila lymph gland is the hematopoietic organ in which stem-like progenitors proliferate and give rise to myeloid-type blood cells. Mechanisms involved in Drosophila hematopoiesis are well established and known to be conserved in the vertebrate system. Recent studies in Drosophila lymph gland have provided novel insights into how external and internal stresses integrate into blood progenitor maintenance mechanisms and the control of blood cell fate decision. In this review, I will introduce a developmental overview of the Drosophila hematopoietic system, and recent understandings of how the system uses developmental signals not only for hematopoiesis but also as sensors for stress and environmental changes to elicit necessary blood responses. PMID:25560697

  15. Aging Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2015-01-01

    Summary Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity. PMID:23929099

  16. Differential effects of arsenite and arsenate to Drosophila melanogaster in a combined adult/developmental toxicity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.H.; Babich, H.

    1989-02-01

    Current concern of the environmental consequences of chemical wastes in soils has led to the development of microbial, plant, and, to a lesser extent, animal bioassays for terrestrial ecosystems. This paper evaluated a Drosophila assay that yields data both on acute toxicity to adults and on developmental toxicity to offspring and which is applicable for screening extracts from soils contaminated with chemical wastes. Acute toxicity assays with Drosophila have been used to evaluate the relative potencies of chemicals. The acute toxicity to adults and the developmental exposure bioassays were designed to be performed as separate tests. This paper combined these two tests into a single bioassay, using arsenic compounds as the test agents. Arsenite and arsenate were selected to evaluate the sensitivity of this combined assay in distinguishing between the toxicities of closely related chemicals.

  17. Genotoxic testing of titanium dioxide anatase nanoparticles using the wing-spot test and the comet assay in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Erico R; Escobar, Bibi; Vales, Gerard; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used for preparations of sunscreens, cosmetics, food and personal care products. However, the possible genotoxic risk associated with this nano-scale material exposure is not clear, especially in whole organisms. In the present study, we explored the in vivo genotoxic activity of TiO2 NPs as well as their TiO2 bulk form using two well-established genotoxic assays, the wing spot test and the comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster. To determine the extent of tissue damage induced by TiO2 NPs in Drosophila larvae, the trypan blue dye exclusion test was also applied. Both compounds were supplied to third instar larvae by ingestion at concentration ranging from 0.08 to 1.60 mg/mL. The results obtained in the present study indicate that TiO2 NPs can reach and induce cytotoxic effects on midgut and imaginal disc tissues of larvae, but they do not promote genotoxicity in the wing-spot test of Drosophila. However, when both nano- and large-size forms of TiO2 were evaluated with the comet assay in Drosophila hemocytes, a significant increase in DNA damage, with a direct dose-response pattern, was observed for TiO2 NPs. The results obtained with the comet assay suggest that the primary DNA damage associated with TiO2 NPs exposure in Drosophila could be associated with specific physico-chemical properties of nano-TiO2, since no effects were observed with the bulk form. This study remarks the usefulness of using more than one genetic end-point in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of nanomaterials. PMID:25726144

  18. Method for selecting exposure levels for the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, E.D.; Reeder, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay for detecting mutagenicity of chemicals is well established. When compounds are tested by feeding adult flies, the National Toxicology Program protocol specifies a 3-day feeding regimen at an exposure level that produces about 30% mortality. Uptake of the test compound is monitored by feeding behavior, amount of excretion, or abdomen size. An alternate method for determining uptake is to add radiolabeled sucrose to the feeding solution and then to determine the amount of radioactivity in the flies. We have found that the addition of radiolabeled sucrose underestimates consumption for feeding exposures longer than 24 hr because sucrose is metabolized and as much as 30% of the label is excreted, presumably as /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ or /sup 3/H/sub 2/O. Here we describe a method for determining uptake of chemicals by adding /sup 14/C-leucine to the feeding solution. The incorporation of /sup 14/c-leucine is essentially linear over the 3-day feeding period, which permits accurate estimates of food consumption. Use of this method demonstrates that lower exposure levels of a chemical that do not produce mortality actually results in higher consumption by the flies. The method is proposed as a prescreen to select the appropriate exposure level for the sex-linked recessive lethal assay.

  19. A Method of Permeabilization of Drosophila Embryos for Assays of Small Molecule Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila embryo has long been a powerful laboratory model for elucidating molecular and genetic mechanisms that control development. The ease of genetic manipulations with this model has supplanted pharmacological approaches that are commonplace in other animal models and cell-based assays. Here we describe recent advances in a protocol that enables application of small molecules to the developing fruit fly embryo. The method details steps to overcome the impermeability of the eggshell while maintaining embryo viability. Eggshell permeabilization across a broad range of developmental stages is achieved by application of a previously described d-limonene embryo permeabilization solvent (EPS1) and by aging embryos at reduced temperature (18 °C) prior to treatments. In addition, use of a far-red dye (CY5) as a permeabilization indicator is described, which is compatible with downstream applications involving standard red and green fluorescent dyes in live and fixed preparations. This protocol is applicable to studies using bioactive compounds to probe developmental mechanisms as well as for studies aimed at evaluating teratogenic or pharmacologic activity of uncharacterized small molecules. PMID:25046169

  20. Drosophila GRAIL: An intelligent system for gene recognition in Drosophila DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ying; Einstein, J.R.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Helt, G.; Rubin, G.

    1995-06-01

    An AI-based system for gene recognition in Drosophila DNA sequences was designed and implemented. The system consists of two main modules, one for coding exon recognition and one for single gene model construction. The exon recognition module finds a coding exon by recognition of its splice junctions (or translation start) and coding potential. The core of this module is a set of neural networks which evaluate an exon candidate for the possibility of being a true coding exon using the ``recognized`` splice junction (or translation start) and coding signals. The recognition process consists of four steps: generation of an exon candidate pool, elimination of improbable candidates using heuristic rules, candidate evaluation by trained neural networks, and candidate cluster resolution and final exon prediction. The gene model construction module takes as input the clustered exon candidates and builds a ``best`` possible single gene model using an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. 129 Drosophila sequences consisting of 441 coding exons including 216358 coding bases were extructed from GenBank and used to build statistical matrices and to train the neural networks. On this training set the system recognized 97% of the coding messages and predicted only 5% false messages. Among the ``correctly`` predicted exons, 68% match the actual exon exactly and 96% have at least one edge predicted correctly. On an independent test set consisting of 30 Drosophila sequences, the system recognized 96% of the coding messages and predicted 7% false messages.

  1. The Dopaminergic System in the Aging Brain of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    White, Katherine E.; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Hirth, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease are characterized by two principal phenotypes: the specific loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the aging brain and defects in motor behavior. However, an age-related analysis of these baseline parameters in wildtype Drosophila is lacking. Here we analyzed the DA system and motor behavior in aging Drosophila. DA neurons in the adult brain can be grouped into bilateral symmetric clusters, each comprising a stereotypical number of cells. Analysis of TH > mCD8::GFP and cell type-specific MARCM clones revealed that DA neurons show cluster-specific, stereotypical projection patterns with terminal arborization in target regions that represent distinct functional areas of the adult brain. Target areas include the mushroom bodies, involved in memory formation and motivation, and the central complex, involved in the control of motor behavior, indicating that similar to the mammalian brain, DA neurons in the fly brain are involved in the regulation of specific behaviors. Behavioral analysis revealed that Drosophila show an age-related decline in startle-induced locomotion and negative geotaxis. Motion tracking however, revealed that walking activity, and exploration behavior, but not centrophobism increase at late stages of life. Analysis of TH > Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic behavior, indicating that the siRNA pathway may modulate distinct DA behaviors in Drosophila. Moreover, DA neurons were maintained between early- and late life, as quantified by TH > mCD8::GFP and anti-TH labeling, indicating that adult onset, age-related degeneration of DA neurons does not occur in the aging brain of Drosophila. Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson's disease as well as other disorders affecting DA neurons and movement control. PMID:21165178

  2. Drosophila as a model system to study autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zirin, Jonathan; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Originally identified as a response to starvation in yeast, autophagy is now understood to fulfill a variety of roles in higher eukaryotes, from the maintenance of cellular homeostasis to the cellular response to stress, starvation, and infection. Although genetics and biochemical studies in yeast have identified many components involved in autophagy, the findings that some of the essential components of the yeast pathway are missing in higher organisms underscore the need to study autophagy in more complex systems. This review focuses on the use of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for analysis of autophagy. Drosophila is an organism well-suited for genetic analysis and represents an intermediate between yeast and mammals with respect to conservation of the autophagy machinery. Furthermore, the complex biology and physiology of Drosophila presents an opportunity to model human diseases in a tissue specific and analogous context. PMID:20798940

  3. Whole-central nervous system functional imaging in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, William C.; Pulver, Stefan R.; Höckendorf, Burkhard; McDole, Katie; Branson, Kristin; Freeman, Jeremy; Keller, Philipp J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works in tight concert with the rest of the central nervous system (CNS) hinges upon knowledge of coordinated activity patterns across the whole CNS. We present a method for measuring activity in an entire, non-transparent CNS with high spatiotemporal resolution. We combine a light-sheet microscope capable of simultaneous multi-view imaging at volumetric speeds 25-fold faster than the state-of-the-art, a whole-CNS imaging assay for the isolated Drosophila larval CNS and a computational framework for analysing multi-view, whole-CNS calcium imaging data. We image both brain and ventral nerve cord, covering the entire CNS at 2 or 5 Hz with two- or one-photon excitation, respectively. By mapping network activity during fictive behaviours and quantitatively comparing high-resolution whole-CNS activity maps across individuals, we predict functional connections between CNS regions and reveal neurons in the brain that identify type and temporal state of motor programs executed in the ventral nerve cord. PMID:26263051

  4. Rapid enzyme kinetic assays of individual Drosophila and comparisons of field-caught D. melanogaster and D. simulans.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Keith, L E

    1989-06-01

    Techniques for performing numerous enzyme kinetic assays with minimum time and effort would be valuable to studies of the evolutionary genetics of metabolic control and the quantitative genetics of determinants of kinetic parameters. Microtiter plate readers have been used for a variety of repetitious analytical techniques, and instruments are available that can take repetitive readings with sufficient speed to perform kinetic assays. The ability of these instruments to assay rapidly the kinetic properties of small samples makes them potentially useful for a number of problems in population genetics. While the ability to handle large numbers of samples is very attractive, the small sample volumes and optical imprecision of microtiter plates result in some sacrifice in accuracy. This paper presents methods for performing kinetic assays on individual field-caught Drosophila, quantifies the precision of these methods, and characterizes differences among Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans from samples caught in California and Pennsylvania. Comparisons between field-caught and laboratory reared D. melanogaster show that most of the characters are very similar, with the exception of alpha GPDH, which has a threefold higher mean activity among field-caught flies. The phenotypic correlations are presented with a brief discussion of their relevance to assessing the evolution of metabolic control of these enzymes. PMID:2508620

  5. Genotoxic potency in Drosophila melanogaster of selected aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as assayed in the DNA repair test.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, K; Fort, F L; Samejima, K; Sakamoto, Y

    1993-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster stock consisting of meiotic recombination deficient (Rec-) double mutant mei-9a mei-41D5 males and Rec+ females was exposed at the larval stage to an aromatic amine or a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. After emergence as adult flies, the males and the females were scored separately. When the treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the male to female ratio from the control level; the experiment was repeated with a larval stock consisting of Rec+ males and Rec+ females under comparable conditions. A preferential killing effect upon Rec- larvae was taken as evidence of DNA damaging effect of the test compound. Among 16 compounds tested, 1-AP, B(a)P, 2-AF, DAF, 4-AAF, 2-AAF, 1-AA, 2-AA, DMA, B(a)A and DMBA were registered as positive; Py and 3-MC were weakly positive; and B(e)P, Fluo and Ant were negative. The selective killing effects of the compounds in each of the pyrene, fluorene and anthracene series varied drastically as a function of structure in a way similar to that reported for the genotoxicity in Drosophila and the carcinogenicity in rodents. The Drosophila DNA repair assay will serve as a simple adjunct to the already available means for studying the genotoxic potency of aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:7694108

  6. Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral assays.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT) gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling. PMID:25232310

  7. An infrared system for monitoring Drosophila motility during microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Fortney, Michael D.; Keller, Tony S.

    2002-01-01

    Presently, the precise mechanisms of the aging process are unknown. Examination and comprehension of the aging process in other species could lead to significant advances in the understanding of human aging. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), commonly used for aging studies, is a widely studied organism in terms of behavior, development, and genetics. Previous microgravity experiments have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. This decrease in lifespan may be related to locomotor activity, a convenient measure of overall physiological performance. This study describes the design and performance of a Drosophila Infrared Motility Monitoring System (DIMMS). The DIMMS uses a unique design of two infrared (IR) beams per fly to measure the locomotor activity of 240 flies. Locomotor activity is measured in terms of number of IR crossings per unit time, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity. Ground-based results using the DIMMS equipment agree well with previous values for Drosophila locomotor velocity. DIMMS is an improvement over equipment previously used due to its ability to continuously monitor locomotor activity throughout short-duration microgravity exposure. DIMMS is also lightweight, compact, and power efficient. DIMMS has been flight tested onboard NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft and a Nike-Orion sounding rocket.

  8. An infrared system for monitoring Drosophila motility during microgravity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark S; Fortney, Michael D; Keller, Tony S

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the precise mechanisms of the aging process are unknown. Examination and comprehension of the aging process in other species could lead to significant advances in the understanding of human aging. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), commonly used for aging studies, is a widely studied organism in terms of behavior, development, and genetics. Previous microgravity experiments have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. This decrease in lifespan may be related to locomotor activity, a convenient measure of overall physiological performance. This study describes the design and performance of a Drosophila Infrared Motility Monitoring System (DIMMS). The DIMMS uses a unique design of two infrared (IR) beams per fly to measure the locomotor activity of 240 flies. Locomotor activity is measured in terms of number of IR crossings per unit time, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity. Ground-based results using the DIMMS equipment agree well with previous values for Drosophila locomotor velocity. DIMMS is an improvement over equipment previously used due to its ability to continuously monitor locomotor activity throughout short-duration microgravity exposure. DIMMS is also lightweight, compact, and power efficient. DIMMS has been flight tested onboard NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft and a Nike-Orion sounding rocket. PMID:14638462

  9. Systemic Bacterial Infection and Immune Defense Phenotypes in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Sarah; Jacobson, Eliana; Chambers, Moria C.; Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the premier model organisms for studying the function and evolution of immune defense. Many aspects of innate immunity are conserved between insects and mammals, and since Drosophila can readily be genetically and experimentally manipulated, they are powerful for studying immune system function and the physiological consequences of disease. The procedure demonstrated here allows infection of flies by introduction of bacteria directly into the body cavity, bypassing epithelial barriers and more passive forms of defense and allowing focus on systemic infection. The procedure includes protocols for the measuring rates of host mortality, systemic pathogen load, and degree of induction of the host immune system. This infection procedure is inexpensive, robust and quantitatively repeatable, and can be used in studies of functional genetics, evolutionary life history, and physiology. PMID:25992475

  10. Model systems, taxonomic bias, and sexual selection: beyond Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Marlene; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Herberstein, Marie Elisabeth; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    Although model systems are useful in entomology, allowing generalizations based on a few well-known species, they also have drawbacks. It can be difficult to know how far to generalize from information in a few species: Are all flies like Drosophila? The use of model systems is particularly problematic in studying sexual selection, where variability among taxa is key to the evolution of different behaviors. A bias toward the use of a few insect species, particularly from the genus Drosophila, is evident in the sexual selection and sexual conflict literature over the past several decades, although the diversity of study organisms has increased more recently. As the number of model systems used to study sexual conflict increased, support for the idea that sexual interactions resulted in harm to females decreased. Future work should choose model systems thoughtfully, combining well-known species with those that can add to the variation that allows us to make more meaningful generalizations. PMID:24160422

  11. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. The iFly Tracking System for an Automated Locomotor and Behavioural Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhoff, Kai J.; Jahn, Thomas R.; Lomas, David A.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Crowther, Damian C.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The use of animal models in medical research provides insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of human disease, and helps identify and test novel therapeutic strategies. Drosophila melanogaster – the common fruit fly – is one of the most established model organisms, as its study can be performed more readily and with far less expense than for other model animal systems, such as mice, fish, or indeed primates. In the case of fruit flies, standard assays are based on the analysis of longevity and basic locomotor functions. Here we present the iFly tracking system, which enables to increase the amount of quantitative information that can be extracted from these studies, and to reduce significantly the duration and costs associated with them. The iFly system uses a single camera to simultaneously track the trajectories of up to 20 individual flies with about 100μm spatial and 33ms temporal resolution. The statistical analysis of fly movements recorded with such accuracy makes it possible to perform a rapid and fully automated quantitative analysis of locomotor changes in response to a range of different stimuli. We anticipate that the iFly method will reduce very considerably the costs and the duration of the testing of genetic and pharmacological interventions in Drosophila models, including an earlier detection of behavioural changes and a large increase in throughput compared to current longevity and locomotor assays. PMID:21698336

  13. Tissue communication in a systemic immune response of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hairu; Hultmark, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Several signaling pathways, including the JAK/STAT and Toll pathways, are known to activate blood cells (hemocytes) in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. They are believed to regulate the immune response against infections by parasitoid wasps, such as Leptopilina boulardi, but how these pathways control the hemocytes is not well understood. Here, we discuss the recent discovery that both muscles and fat body take an active part in this response. Parasitoid wasp infection induces Upd2 and Upd3 secretion from hemocytes, leading to JAK/STAT activation mainly in hemocytes and in skeletal muscles. JAK/STAT activation in muscles, but not in hemocytes, is required for an efficient encapsulation of wasp eggs. This suggests that Upd2 and Upd3 are important cytokines, coordinating different tissues for the cellular immune response in Drosophila. In the fat body, Toll signaling initiates a systemic response in which hemocytes are mobilized and activated hemocytes (lamellocytes) are generated. However, the contribution of Toll signaling to the defense against wasps is limited, probably because the wasps inject inhibitors that prevent the activation of the Toll pathway. In conclusion, parasite infection induces a systemic response in Drosophila larvae involving major organ systems and probably the physiology of the entire organism. PMID:27116253

  14. Drosophila Neurotrophins Reveal a Common Mechanism for Nervous System Formation

    PubMed Central

    McQuilton, Peter; Forero, Manuel G; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Sutcliffe, Ben; Gu, Chun-Jing; Fenton, Janine C; Hidalgo, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Neurotrophic interactions occur in Drosophila, but to date, no neurotrophic factor had been found. Neurotrophins are the main vertebrate secreted signalling molecules that link nervous system structure and function: they regulate neuronal survival, targeting, synaptic plasticity, memory and cognition. We have identified a neurotrophic factor in flies, Drosophila Neurotrophin (DNT1), structurally related to all known neurotrophins and highly conserved in insects. By investigating with genetics the consequences of removing DNT1 or adding it in excess, we show that DNT1 maintains neuronal survival, as more neurons die in DNT1 mutants and expression of DNT1 rescues naturally occurring cell death, and it enables targeting by motor neurons. We show that Spätzle and a further fly neurotrophin superfamily member, DNT2, also have neurotrophic functions in flies. Our findings imply that most likely a neurotrophin was present in the common ancestor of all bilateral organisms, giving rise to invertebrate and vertebrate neurotrophins through gene or whole-genome duplications. This work provides a missing link between aspects of neuronal function in flies and vertebrates, and it opens the opportunity to use Drosophila to investigate further aspects of neurotrophin function and to model related diseases. PMID:19018662

  15. Drosophila C Virus Systemic Infection Leads to Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Lamiable, Olivier; Lee, Kwang-Zin; Galiana, Delphine; Troxler, Laurent; Meignin, Carine; Hetru, Charles; Hoffmann, Jules A.; Daeffler, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of flies infected with DCV or two other positive-sense RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus, reveals that DCV infection, unlike those of the other two viruses, represses the expression of a large number of genes. Several of these genes are expressed specifically in the midgut and also are repressed by starvation. We show that systemic DCV infection triggers a nutritional stress in Drosophila which results from intestinal obstruction with the accumulation of peritrophic matrix at the entry of the midgut and the accumulation of the food ingested in the crop, a blind muscular food storage organ. The related virus cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), which efficiently grows in Drosophila, does not trigger this pathology. We show that DCV, but not CrPV, infects the smooth muscles surrounding the crop, causing extensive cytopathology and strongly reducing the rate of contractions. We conclude that the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection results from the tropism of the virus for an important organ within the foregut of dipteran insects, the crop. IMPORTANCE DCV is one of the few identified natural viral pathogens affecting the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. As such, it is an important virus for the deciphering of host-virus interactions in insects. We characterize here the pathogenesis associated with DCV infection in flies and show that it results from the

  16. Automated optical sensing system for biochemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroszlan, Peter; Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new system called FOBIA that was developed and optimized with respect to automated operation of repetitive assay cycles with regenerable bioaffinity sensors. The reliability and precision of the new system is demonstrated by an application in a competitive assay for the detection of the triazine herbicide Atrazine. Using one sensor in more than 300 repetitive cycles, a signal precision better than 5% was achieved.

  17. Visualization of protein interactions in living Drosophila embryos by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein interactions control the regulatory networks underlying developmental processes. The understanding of developmental complexity will, therefore, require the characterization of protein interactions within their proper environment. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technology offers this possibility as it enables the direct visualization of protein interactions in living cells. However, its potential has rarely been applied in embryos of animal model organisms and was only performed under transient protein expression levels. Results Using a Hox protein partnership as a test case, we investigated the suitability of BiFC for the study of protein interactions in the living Drosophila embryo. Importantly, all BiFC parameters were established with constructs that were stably expressed under the control of endogenous promoters. Under these physiological conditions, we showed that BiFC is specific and sensitive enough to analyse dynamic protein interactions. We next used BiFC in a candidate interaction screen, which led to the identification of several Hox protein partners. Conclusion Our results establish the general suitability of BiFC for revealing and studying protein interactions in their physiological context during the rapid course of Drosophila embryonic development. PMID:21276241

  18. Enhancing Undergraduate Teaching and Research with a "Drosophila" Virginizing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venema, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using "Drosophila" crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using "Drosophila." A significant barrier to using "Drosophila" for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill…

  19. Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNAi spread

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Maria-Carla; Tassetto, Michel; van Rij, Ronald P.; Goic, Bertsy; Gausson, Valérie; Berry, Bassam; Jacquier, Caroline; Antoniewski, Christophe; Andino, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular organisms evolved sophisticated defense systems to confer protection against pathogens. An important characteristic of these immune systems is their ability to act both locally at the site of infection and at distal uninfected locations1-4. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, RNA interference (RNAi) mediates antiviral immunity5-7. However, the antiviral RNAi defense in flies is thought to be a local, cell-autonomous process, since flies are considered unable to generate a systemic RNAi response8. Here we show that a recently defined double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) uptake pathway9 is essential for effective antiviral RNAi immunity in adult flies. Mutant flies defective in this dsRNA uptake pathway were hypersensitive to infection with Drosophila C virus (DCV) and Sindbis virus. Mortality in dsRNA-uptake defective flies was accompanied by 100-to 105-fold increases in viral titers and higher levels of viral RNA. Furthermore, inoculating naked dsRNA into flies elicited a sequence specific antiviral immune response that required an intact dsRNA uptake pathway. These findings suggest that spread of dsRNA to uninfected sites is essential for effective antiviral immunity. Strikingly, infection with Sindbis-GFP suppressed expression of host-encoded GFP at a distal site. Thus, similar to protein-based immunity in vertebrates, the antiviral RNAi-response in flies also relies on the systemic spread of a virus-specific immunity signal. PMID:19204732

  20. A Miniaturized Video System for Monitoring Drosophila Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Inan, Omer; Kovacs, Gregory; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Sanchez, Max; Marcu, Oana

    2011-01-01

    Long-term spaceflight may induce a variety of harmful effects in astronauts, resulting in altered motor and cognitive behavior. The stresses experienced by humans in space - most significantly weightlessness (microgravity) and cosmic radiation - are difficult to accurately simulate on Earth. In fact, prolonged and concomitant exposure to microgravity and cosmic radiation can only be studied in space. Behavioral studies in space have focused on model organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is often used due to its short life span and generational cycle, small size, and ease of maintenance. Additionally, the well-characterized genetics of Drosophila behavior on Earth can be applied to the analysis of results from spaceflights, provided that the behavior in space is accurately recorded. In 2001, the BioExplorer project introduced a low-cost option for researchers: the small satellite. While this approach enabled multiple inexpensive launches of biological experiments, it also imposed stringent restrictions on the monitoring systems in terms of size, mass, data bandwidth, and power consumption. Suggested parameters for size are on the order of 100 mm3 and 1 kg mass for the entire payload. For Drosophila behavioral studies, these engineering requirements are not met by commercially available systems. One system that does meet many requirements for behavioral studies in space is the actimeter. Actimeters use infrared light gates to track the number of times a fly crosses a boundary within a small container (3x3x40 mm). Unfortunately, the apparatus needed to monitor several flies at once would be larger than the capacity of the small satellite. A system is presented, which expands on the actimeter approach to achieve a highly compact, low-power, ultra-low bandwidth solution for simultaneous monitoring of the behavior of multiple flies in space. This also provides a simple, inexpensive alternative to the current systems for monitoring Drosophila

  1. Phylogeography, Interaction Patterns and the Evolution of Host Choice in Drosophila-Parasitoid Systems in Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Island biotas provide a great opportunity to study not only the phylogeographic patterns of a group of species, but also to explore the differentiation in their coevolutionary interactions. Drosophila and their parasitoids are exemplary systems for studying complex interaction patterns. However, there is a lack of studies combining interaction-based and molecular marker-based methods. We applied an integrated approach combining phylogeography, interaction, and host-choice behavior studies, with the aim to understand how coevolutionary interactions evolve in Drosophila-parasitoid island populations. The study focused on the three most abundant Drosophila species in Ryukyu archipelago and Taiwan: D. albomicans, D. bipectinata, and D. takahashii, and the Drosophila-parasitoid Leptopilina ryukyuensis. We determined mitochondrial COI haplotypes for samples representing five island populations of Drosophila and four island populations of L. ryukyuensis. We additionally sequenced parts of the autosomal Gpdh for Drosophila samples, and the ITS2 for parasitoid samples. Phylogenetic and coalescent analyses were used to test for demographic events and to place them in a temporal framework. Geographical differences in Drosophila-parasitoid interactions were studied in host-acceptance, host-suitability, and host-choice experiments. All four species showed species-specific phylogeographic patterns. A general trend of the haplotype diversity increasing towards the south was observed. D. albomicans showed very high COI haplotype diversity, and had the most phylogeographically structured populations, with differentiation into the northern and the southern population-group, divided by the Kerama gap. Differentiation in host suitability was observed only between highly structured populations of D. albomicans, possibly facilitated by restricted gene flow. Differentiation in host-acceptance in D. takahashii, and host-acceptance and host-choice in L. ryukyuensis was found, despite there

  2. Phylogeography, Interaction Patterns and the Evolution of Host Choice in Drosophila-Parasitoid Systems in Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Novković, Biljana; Kimura, Masahito T

    2015-01-01

    Island biotas provide a great opportunity to study not only the phylogeographic patterns of a group of species, but also to explore the differentiation in their coevolutionary interactions. Drosophila and their parasitoids are exemplary systems for studying complex interaction patterns. However, there is a lack of studies combining interaction-based and molecular marker-based methods. We applied an integrated approach combining phylogeography, interaction, and host-choice behavior studies, with the aim to understand how coevolutionary interactions evolve in Drosophila-parasitoid island populations. The study focused on the three most abundant Drosophila species in Ryukyu archipelago and Taiwan: D. albomicans, D. bipectinata, and D. takahashii, and the Drosophila-parasitoid Leptopilina ryukyuensis. We determined mitochondrial COI haplotypes for samples representing five island populations of Drosophila and four island populations of L. ryukyuensis. We additionally sequenced parts of the autosomal Gpdh for Drosophila samples, and the ITS2 for parasitoid samples. Phylogenetic and coalescent analyses were used to test for demographic events and to place them in a temporal framework. Geographical differences in Drosophila-parasitoid interactions were studied in host-acceptance, host-suitability, and host-choice experiments. All four species showed species-specific phylogeographic patterns. A general trend of the haplotype diversity increasing towards the south was observed. D. albomicans showed very high COI haplotype diversity, and had the most phylogeographically structured populations, with differentiation into the northern and the southern population-group, divided by the Kerama gap. Differentiation in host suitability was observed only between highly structured populations of D. albomicans, possibly facilitated by restricted gene flow. Differentiation in host-acceptance in D. takahashii, and host-acceptance and host-choice in L. ryukyuensis was found, despite there

  3. Mutational Analysis of Drosophila Basigin Function in the Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle; Akkam, Yazan; Curtin, Kathryn D.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila basigin is a cell-surface glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily and a member of a protein family that includes mammalian EMMPRIN/CD147/basigin, neuroplastin, and embigin. Our previous work on Drosophila basigin has shown that it is required for normal photoreceptor cell structure and normal neuron-glia interaction in the fly visual system. Specifically, the photoreceptor neurons of mosaic animals that are mutant in the eye for basigin show altered cell structure with nuclei, mitochondria and rER misplaced and variable axon diameter compared to wild-type. In addition, glia cells in the optic lamina that contact photoreceptor axons are misplaced and show altered structure. All these defects are rescued by expression of either transgenic fly basigin or transgenic mouse basigin in the photoreceptors demonstrating that mouse basigin can functionally replace fly basigin. To determine what regions of the basigin protein are required for each of these functions, we have created mutant basigin transgenes coding for proteins that are altered in conserved residues, introduced these into the fly genome, and tested them for their ability to rescue both photoreceptor cell structure defects and neuron-glia interaction defects of basigin. The results suggest that the highly conserved transmembrane domain and the extracellular domains are crucial for basigin function in the visual system while the short intracellular tail may not play a role in these functions. PMID:19782733

  4. Mutational analysis of Drosophila basigin function in the visual system.

    PubMed

    Munro, Michelle; Akkam, Yazan; Curtin, Kathryn D

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila basigin is a cell-surface glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily and a member of a protein family that includes mammalian EMMPRIN/CD147/basigin, neuroplastin, and embigin. Our previous work on Drosophila basigin has shown that it is required for normal photoreceptor cell structure and normal neuron-glia interaction in the fly visual system. Specifically, the photoreceptor neurons of mosaic animals that are mutant in the eye for basigin show altered cell structure with nuclei, mitochondria and rER misplaced and variable axon diameter compared to wild-type. In addition, glia cells in the optic lamina that contact photoreceptor axons are misplaced and show altered structure. All these defects are rescued by expression of either transgenic fly basigin or transgenic mouse basigin in the photoreceptors demonstrating that mouse basigin can functionally replace fly basigin. To determine what regions of the basigin protein are required for each of these functions, we have created mutant basigin transgenes coding for proteins that are altered in conserved residues, introduced these into the fly genome, and tested them for their ability to rescue both photoreceptor cell structure defects and neuron-glia interaction defects of basigin. The results suggest that the highly conserved transmembrane domain and the extracellular domains are crucial for basigin function in the visual system while the short intracellular tail may not play a role in these functions. PMID:19782733

  5. Ontogeny of Drosophila melanogaster in a system of dysgenic crosses

    SciTech Connect

    Grishaeva, T.M.; Ivashchenko, N.I.

    1995-09-01

    Three families of mobile elements that induce P-M, H-E, and I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster were activated by crossing flies of different cytotypes. Manifestation of gonadal sterility in F{sub 1} hybrid progeny was dependent on the temperature of development. The systems differed significantly in lethality of F{sub 2} hybrids at various stages of ontogeny (embyros, larvae, pupae, and adult flies). The highest embryo lethality was found in the P-M system at the cleavage stage. In the I-R and H-E systems, the peak of embryonic death corresponded to the stages of blastoderm and organogenesis, respectively. Experimental results are discussed in view of molecular and cytological characteristics of interacting strains and existing hypotheses for regulation of transposition of P, hobo, and I mobile elements. 44 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  7. Effect of sterol metabolism in the yeast-Drosophila system on the frequency of radiation-induced aneuploidy in the Drosophila melanogaster oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Savitskii, V.V.; Luchnikova, E.M.; Inge-Vechtomov, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of sterol metabolism on induced mutagenesis of Drosophila melanogaster was studied in the ecogenetic system of yeast-Drosophila. Sterol deficiency was created in Drosophila by using the biomass of live cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 9-2-P712 till mutation in locus nys/sup r1/ blocking the synthesis of ergosterol as the food. It was found that rearing of Drosophila females on the mutant yeast increases the frequency of loss and nondisjunction of X chromosomes induced in mature oocytes by X rays (1000 R). Addition of 0.1% of cholesterol solution in 10% ethanol to the yeast biomass restores the resistance of oocyte to X irradiation to the control level. The possible hormonal effect on membrane leading to increased radiation-induced aneuploidy in Drosophila and the role of sterol metabolism in determining the resistance to various damaging factors are discussed.

  8. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C; Bourne, Mark M; Crooks, William J; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R; Miko, David K; Salazar, William R; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I; Vigil, Georgiana M

    2012-07-13

    Waste will be removed from confinement vessels remaining from 1970s-era experiments. Los Alamos has 9+ spherical confinement vessels remaining from experiments. Each vessel contains {approx} 500 lbs of radioactive debris such as actinide metals and oxides, metals, powdered silica, graphite, and wires and hardware. In order to dispose of the vessels, debris and contamination must be removed. Neutron assay system was designed to assay vessels before and after cleanout. System requirements are: (1) Modular and moveable; (2) Capable of detecting {approx}100g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a 2-inch thick steel sphere with 6 foot diameter; and (3) Capable of safeguards-quality assays. Initial design parameters arethe use of 4-atm {sup 3}He tubes with length of 6 feet, and {sup 3}He tubes embedded in polyethelene for moderation. This paper describes the calibration of the Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) and quantification of its uncertainties. Assay uncertainty depends on five factors: (1) Statistical uncertainty in the assay measurement; (2) Statistical uncertainty in the background measurement; (3) Statistical uncertainty in the isotopics determination - This should be much smaller than the other uncertainties; (4) Systematic uncertainty due to position bias; and (5) Systematic uncertainty due to fluctuations in cosmic ray spallation. This one can be virtually eliminated by performing the background measurement with an empty vessel - but that may not be possible. We used modeling and experiments to quantify the systematic uncertainties. The calibration assumes a uniform distribution of material, but reality will be different. MCNPX modeling was used to quantify the positional bias. The model was benchmarked to build confidence in its results. Material at top of vessel is 44% greater than amount assayed, according to singles. Material near 19-tube detector is 38% less than amount assayed, according to singles. Cosmic ray spallation contributes significantly to the

  9. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-07-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le}100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  10. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  11. Matrix effects of TRU (transuranic) assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of {sup 239}Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  13. Tumor promotion: models and assay systems.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, D J; Yamasaki, H

    1990-01-01

    Tumor promotion is defined operationally from two-stage models of experimental carcinogenesis. It is, therefore, in a strict sense, possible to identify tumor promoters only from such models. The development and use of in vitro two-stage cell transformation assays was a logical extension toward in vitro short-term testing for tumor promoters. Another approach is to apply mechanistic knowledge of the tumor promotion process in developing end points for such assays. In this context, we have been examining the role of blocked gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in tumor promotion, using in vitro and in vivo systems. Many promoters have been shown to block GJIC in vitro; our studies support the idea that inhibition of GJIC does play an important role in the promotion stage of BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation. In animal studies, we have shown that the rat liver tumor promoter phenobarbital can decrease the level of expression of the 32 Kd gap junction protein gene specifically in liver upon systemic exposure in rats. Further examination of the role of GJIC in tumor promotion is indeed warranted. Also, deployment of in vitro GJIC and transformation assay systems should provide useful short-term tests for detecting tumor promoting activity of environmental chemicals. PMID:1973858

  14. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  15. System and method for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    DiPrete, David P; Whiteside, Tad; Pak, Donald J; DiPrete, Cecilia C

    2013-11-12

    A system for assaying radiation includes a sample holder configured to hold a liquid scintillation solution. A photomultiplier receives light from the liquid scintillation solution and generates a signal reflective of the light. A control circuit biases the photomultiplier and receives the signal from the photomultiplier reflective of the light. A light impermeable casing surrounds the sample holder, photomultiplier, and control circuit. A method for assaying radiation includes placing a sample in a liquid scintillation solution, placing the liquid scintillation solution in a sample holder, and placing the sample holder inside a light impermeable casing. The method further includes positioning a photomultiplier inside the light impermeable casing and supplying power to a control circuit inside the light impermeable casing.

  16. Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to study neurotransmitter transporters

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ciara A.; Krantz, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, uses many of the same neurotransmitters as mammals and very similar mechanisms of neurotransmitter storage, release and recycling. This system offers a variety of powerful molecular-genetic methods for the study of transporters, many of which would be difficult in mammalian models. We review here progress made using Drosophila to understand the function and regulation of neurotransmitter transporters and discuss future directions for its use. PMID:24704795

  17. A microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity suitable for the analysis of large numbers of samples, and its application to the study of Drosophila learning mutants.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, J D; Dudai, Y

    1988-02-15

    We have developed a microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity which depends on the immobilization of substrate proteins to nitrocellulose. The technique makes use of a filtration manifold, allowing as much as a 10-fold increase in efficiency as compared to other protein kinase assays. We have used this assay to measure cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in Drosophila learning and memory mutants, with exogenous and endogenous substrates. An alteration was found in the affinity of PKA in the mutant turnip. The procedure should be useful for rapid screening of mutants and drugs and could be adapted to additional types of protein kinases as well as protein phosphatases. PMID:3369684

  18. A novel sulfonylurea receptor family member expressed in the embryonic Drosophila dorsal vessel and tracheal system.

    PubMed

    Nasonkin, I; Alikasifoglu, A; Ambrose, C; Cahill, P; Cheng, M; Sarniak, A; Egan, M; Thomas, P M

    1999-10-01

    Sulfonylurea receptors (SURx) are required subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. SURx alone is electrophysiologically inert. However, when SURx is combined with an inward rectifier Kir6.2 subunit, ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity is generated. We report the identification, characterization, and localization of Dsur, a novel Drosophila gene that is highly related to the vertebrate SUR family. The Dsur coding sequence contains structural features characteristic of the ABC transporter family and, in addition, harbors 1.7 kilobases of a distinctive sequence that does not share homology with any known gene. When Dsur alone is expressed in Xenopus oocytes glibenclamide-sensitive potassium channel activity occurs. During Drosophila embryogenesis, the Dsur gene is specifically expressed in the developing tracheal system and dorsal vessel. Studies of the Drosophila genome support that only a single Dsur gene is present. Our data reveal conservation of glibenclamide-sensitive potassium channels in Drosophila and suggest that Dsur may play an important role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The lack of gene duplication in the Drosophila system provides a unique opportunity for functional studies of SUR using a genetic approach. PMID:10506204

  19. Evaluation of titanium dioxide nanocrystal-induced genotoxicity by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Reis, Érica de Melo; Rezende, Alexandre Azenha Alves de; Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli de; Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Silva, Anielle Christine Almeida; Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Spanó, Mário Antônio

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) crystalline structures include anatase, rutile and brookite. This study evaluated the genotoxic effects of 3.4 and 6.2 nm anatase TiO2 NCs and 78.0 nm predominantly rutile TiO2 NCs through an in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay using V79 cells and an in vivo somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila wings. The MN assay was performed with nontoxic concentrations of TiO2 NCs. Only anatase (3.4 nm) at the highest concentration (120 μM) induced genotoxicity in V79 cells. In the in vivo test, Drosophila melanogaster larvae obtained from standard (ST) or high bioactivation (HB) crosses were treated with TiO2 NCs. In the ST cross, no mutagenic effects were observed. However, in the HB cross, TiO2 NCs (3.4 nm) were mutagenic at 1.5625 and 3.125 mM, while 78.0 nm NCs increased mutant spots at all concentrations tested except 3.125 mM. Only the smallest anatase TiO2 NCs induced mutagenic effects in vitro and in vivo. For rutile TiO2 NCs, no clastogenic/aneugenic effects were observed in the MN assay. However, they were mutagenic in Drosophila. Therefore, both anatase and rutile TiO2 NCs induced mutagenicity. Further research is necessary to clarify the TiO2 NCs genotoxic/mutagenic action mechanisms. PMID:27562929

  20. Trithorax regulates systemic signaling during Drosophila imaginal disc regeneration.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Andrea; Khan, Sumbul Jawed; Smith-Bolton, Rachel K

    2015-10-15

    Although tissue regeneration has been studied in a variety of organisms, from Hydra to humans, many of the genes that regulate the ability of each animal to regenerate remain unknown. The larval imaginal discs of the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster have complex patterning, well-characterized development and a high regenerative capacity, and are thus an excellent model system for studying mechanisms that regulate regeneration. To identify genes that are important for wound healing and tissue repair, we have carried out a genetic screen for mutations that impair regeneration in the wing imaginal disc. Through this screen we identified the chromatin-modification gene trithorax as a key regeneration gene. Here we show that animals heterozygous for trithorax are unable to maintain activation of a developmental checkpoint that allows regeneration to occur. This defect is likely to be caused by abnormally high expression of puckered, a negative regulator of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, at the wound site. Insufficient JNK signaling leads to insufficient expression of an insulin-like peptide, dILP8, which is required for the developmental checkpoint. Thus, trithorax regulates regeneration signaling and capacity. PMID:26487779

  1. Missense variants in the middle domain of DNM1L in cases of infantile encephalopathy alter peroxisomes and mitochondria when assayed in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu-Hsin; Robak, Laurie A; Xia, Fan; Koenig, Mary K; Adesina, Adekunle; Bacino, Carlos A; Scaglia, Fernando; Bellen, Hugo J; Wangler, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Defects in organelle dynamics underlie a number of human degenerative disorders, and whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful tool for studying genetic changes that affect the cellular machinery. WES may uncover variants of unknown significance (VUS) that require functional validation. Previously, a pathogenic de novo variant in the middle domain of DNM1L (p.A395D) was identified in a single patient with a lethal defect of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. We identified two additional patients with infantile encephalopathy and partially overlapping clinical features, each with a novel VUS in the middle domain of DNM1L (p.G350R and p.E379K). To evaluate pathogenicity, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing wild-type or variant DNM1L. We find that human wild-type DNM1L rescues the lethality as well as specific phenotypes associated with the loss of Drp1 in Drosophila. Neither the p.A395D variant nor the novel variant p.G350R rescue lethality or other phenotypes. Moreover, overexpression of p.A395D and p.G350R in Drosophila neurons, salivary gland and muscle strikingly altered peroxisomal and mitochondrial morphology. In contrast, the other novel variant (p.E379K) rescued lethality and did not affect organelle morphology, although it was associated with a subtle mitochondrial trafficking defect in an in vivo assay. Interestingly, the patient with the p.E379K variant also has a de novo VUS in pyruvate dehydrogenase 1 (PDHA1) affecting the same amino acid (G150) as another case of PDHA1 deficiency suggesting the PDHA1 variant may be pathogenic. In summary, detailed clinical evaluation and WES with functional studies in Drosophila can distinguish different functional consequences of newly-described DNM1L alleles. PMID:26931468

  2. The Drosophila neural lineages: a model system to study brain development and circuitry.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Shana R; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-06-01

    In Drosophila, neurons of the central nervous system are grouped into units called lineages. Each lineage contains cells derived from a single neuroblast. Due to its clonal nature, the Drosophila brain is a valuable model system to study neuron development and circuit formation. To better understand the mechanisms underlying brain development, genetic manipulation tools can be utilized within lineages to visualize, knock down, or over-express proteins. Here, we will introduce the formation and development of lineages, discuss how one can utilize this model system, offer a comprehensive list of known lineages and their respective markers, and then briefly review studies that have utilized Drosophila neural lineages with a look at how this model system can benefit future endeavors. PMID:20306203

  3. The Drosophila neural lineages: a model system to study brain development and circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Shana R.

    2010-01-01

    In Drosophila, neurons of the central nervous system are grouped into units called lineages. Each lineage contains cells derived from a single neuroblast. Due to its clonal nature, the Drosophila brain is a valuable model system to study neuron development and circuit formation. To better understand the mechanisms underlying brain development, genetic manipulation tools can be utilized within lineages to visualize, knock down, or over-express proteins. Here, we will introduce the formation and development of lineages, discuss how one can utilize this model system, offer a comprehensive list of known lineages and their respective markers, and then briefly review studies that have utilized Drosophila neural lineages with a look at how this model system can benefit future endeavors. PMID:20306203

  4. Enhancing Undergraduate Teaching and Research with a Drosophila Virginizing System

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using Drosophila crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using Drosophila. A significant barrier to using Drosophila for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill required to accurately collect virgins for use in controlled crosses. Erroneously collecting males or nonvirgin females contaminates crosses with unintended genotypes and confounds the results. Collecting adequate numbers of virgins requires large amounts of time, even for those skilled in virgin collection. I have adapted an effective method for virgin collection that eliminates these concerns and is straightforward to use in undergraduate settings. Using a heat-shock–induced, conditional lethal transgene specifically in males, male larvae can be eliminated from a culture before adults eclose. Females thus eclose in the absence of males and remain virgin, eliminating the need to laboriously score and segregate freshly eclosed females. This method is reliable, easily adaptable to any desired phenotypic marker, and readily scaleable to provide sufficient virgins for large laboratory classes or undergraduate research projects. In addition, it allows instructors lacking Drosophila expertise to use this organism as a pedagogical tool. PMID:17146043

  5. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System for assaying HTO from detritiation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L.; Naruse, Y.

    1992-07-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) is being added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system is an upgrade to the TWT to provide accurate measurements of the liquid waste generated from this system. Within the TWT, hydrogen isotopes are removed from the effluent gas stream by the catalytic conversion to water and the subsequent removal of water by molecular sieve trapping prior to the release to the environment. Within the TWT and similar systems, molecular sieve regeneration is required to rejuvenate the beds. The major difference of the MSRS and other regeneration systems is the capability of direct assay of long-term storage waste containers. This is accomplished with loop-flow regeneration, water collection, and tritiated water assay by scintillation and calorimetric techniques. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the Tritium Waste Treatment system.

  6. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System for assaying HTO from detritiation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L. ); Naruse, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) is being added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system is an upgrade to the TWT to provide accurate measurements of the liquid waste generated from this system. Within the TWT, hydrogen isotopes are removed from the effluent gas stream by the catalytic conversion to water and the subsequent removal of water by molecular sieve trapping prior to the release to the environment. Within the TWT and similar systems, molecular sieve regeneration is required to rejuvenate the beds. The major difference of the MSRS and other regeneration systems is the capability of direct assay of long-term storage waste containers. This is accomplished with loop-flow regeneration, water collection, and tritiated water assay by scintillation and calorimetric techniques. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the Tritium Waste Treatment system.

  7. 233U Assay A Neutron NDA System

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.C.; Lucero, A.J.; Pierce, L.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of highly enriched {sup 233}U material presents some unique challenges. Techniques which apply to the assay of materials of Pu or enriched {sup 235}U do not convert easily over to the assay of {sup 233}U. A specialized neutron assay device is being fabricated to exploit the singles neutron signal, the weak correlated neutron signal, and an active correlated signal. These pieces of information when combined with {gamma} ray isotopics information should give a good overall determination of {sup 233}U material now stored in bldg. 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Drosophila melanogaster, a model system for comparative studies on the responses to real and simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Marco, R; Laván, D A; van Loon, J J W A; Leandro, L J; Larkin, O J; Dijkstra, C; Anthony, P; Villa, A; Davey, M R; Lowe, K C; Power, J B; Medina, F J

    2007-07-01

    A key requirement to enhance our understanding of the response of biological organisms to different levels of gravity is the availability of experimental systems that can simulate microgravity and hypergravity in ground-based laboratories. This paper compares the results obtained from analysing gene expression profiles of Drosophila in space versus those obtained in a random position machine (RPM) and by centrifugation. The correlation found validates the use of the RPM simulation technique to establish the effects of real microgravity on biological systems. This work is being extended to investigate Drosophila development in another gravity modifying instrument, the levitation magnet. PMID:18372731

  9. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  10. Systems, devices, and methods for agglutination assays using sedimentation

    DOEpatents

    Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-26

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods for conducting agglutination assays using sedimentation. Aggregates may be exposed to sedimentation forces and travel through a density medium to a detection area. Microfluidic devices, such as microfluidic disks, are described for conducting the agglutination assays, as are systems for conducting the assays.

  11. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. They are using a Schlumberger neutron generator for the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel, in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics for the detection of very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. They have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The results to data are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference.

  12. Automated rapid iterative negative geotaxis assay and its use in a genetic screen for modifiers of Aβ(42)-induced locomotor decline in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Han, Meng; Li, Qingyi; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Wen-An; Huang, Fu-De

    2015-10-01

    The negative-geotaxis climbing assay is used to efficiently study aging and neurodegeneration in Drosophila. To make it suitable for large-scale study, a method called the rapid iterative negative geotaxis (RING) assay has been established by simultaneously photographing the climbing of multiple groups of flies when they are manually tapped down in test tubes. Here, we automated the assay by using a well-controlled electric motor to drive the tapping, and a homemade program to analyze the climbing height of flies. Using the automated RING (aRING) assay, we found that the climbing ability of a strain of wild-type flies, males in particular, declined rapidly before day 21 after eclosion, but slowly from day 21 to 35. We also found that the expression of arctic mutant Aβ42 accelerated the age-dependent decline in the climbing ability of flies. Moreover, using aRING, we examined the effect of third chromosome deficiencies on the accelerated locomotor decline in Aβ42-expressing flies, and isolated 7 suppressors and 15 enhancers. PMID:26077703

  13. Variables Affecting Two Electron Transport System Assays

    PubMed Central

    Burton, G. Allen; Lanza, Guy R.

    1986-01-01

    Several methodological variables were critical in two commonly used electron transport activity assays. The dehydrogenase assay based on triphenyl formazan production exhibited a nonlinear relationship between formazan production (dehydrogenase activity) and sediment dilution, and linear formazan production occurred for 1 h in sediment slurries. Activity decreased with increased time of sediment storage at 4°C. Extraction efficiencies of formazan from sediment varied with alcohol type; methanol was unsatisfactory. Phosphate buffer (0.06 M) produced higher activity than did either U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reconstituted hard water or Tris buffer sediment diluents. Intracellular formazan crystals were dissolved within minutes when in contact with immersion oil. Greater crystal production (respiration) detected by a tetrazolium salt assay occurred at increased substrate concentrations. Test diluents containing macrophyte exudates produced greater activity than did phosphate buffer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water, or ultrapure water diluents. Both assays showed decreases in sediment or bacterial activity through time. PMID:16347067

  14. Drosophila as a model for the two myeloid blood cell systems in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Katrina S.; Brückner, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Fish, mice and men rely on two coexisting myeloid blood cell systems. One is sustained by hematopoietic progenitor cells, which reside in specialized microenvironments in hematopoietic organs and give rise to cells of the monocyte lineage. The other system corresponds to the independent lineage of self-renewing tissue macrophages, which colonize organs during embryonic development and are maintained during later life by proliferation in local tissue microenvironments. However, little is known about the nature of these microenvironments and their regulation. Moreover, many vertebrate tissues contain a mix of both tissue-resident and monocyte-derived macrophages, posing a challenge to the study of lineage-specific regulatory mechanisms and function. This review highlights how research in the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster can address many of these outstanding questions in the field. Drawing parallels between hematopoiesis in Drosophila and vertebrates, we illustrate the evolutionary conservation of the two myeloid systems across animal phyla. Much like vertebrates, Drosophila possesses a lineage of self-renewing tissue-resident macrophages, as well as a ‘definitive’ lineage of macrophages that derive from hematopoiesis in the progenitor-based lymph gland. We summarize key findings from Drosophila hematopoiesis that illustrate how local microenvironments, systemic signals, immune challenges and nervous inputs regulate adaptive responses of tissue-resident macrophages and progenitor-based hematopoiesis to achieve optimal fitness of the animal. PMID:24946019

  15. Drosophila Stathmin: A Microtubule-destabilizing Factor Involved in Nervous System Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ozon, Sylvie; Guichet, Antoine; Gavet, Olivier; Roth, Siegfried; Sobel, André

    2002-01-01

    Stathmin is a ubiquitous regulatory phosphoprotein, the generic element of a family of neural phosphoproteins in vertebrates that possess the capacity to bind tubulin and interfere with microtubule dynamics. Although stathmin and the other proteins of the family have been associated with numerous cell regulations, their biological roles remain elusive, as in particular inactivation of the stathmin gene in the mouse resulted in no clear deleterious phenotype. We identified stathmin phosphoproteins in Drosophila, encoded by a unique gene sharing the intron/exon structure of the vertebrate stathmin and stathmin family genes. They interfere with microtubule assembly in vitro, and in vivo when expressed in HeLa cells. Drosophila stathmin expression is regulated during embryogenesis: it is high in the migrating germ cells and in the central and peripheral nervous systems, a pattern resembling that of mammalian stathmin. Furthermore, RNA interference inactivation of Drosophila stathmin expression resulted in germ cell migration arrest at stage 14. It also induced important anomalies in nervous system development, such as loss of commissures and longitudinal connectives in the ventral cord, or abnormal chordotonal neuron organization. In conclusion, a single Drosophila gene encodes phosphoproteins homologous to the entire vertebrate stathmin family. We demonstrate for the first time their direct involvement in major biological processes such as development of the reproductive and nervous systems. PMID:11854423

  16. Drosophila stathmin: a microtubule-destabilizing factor involved in nervous system formation.

    PubMed

    Ozon, Sylvie; Guichet, Antoine; Gavet, Olivier; Roth, Siegfried; Sobel, André

    2002-02-01

    Stathmin is a ubiquitous regulatory phosphoprotein, the generic element of a family of neural phosphoproteins in vertebrates that possess the capacity to bind tubulin and interfere with microtubule dynamics. Although stathmin and the other proteins of the family have been associated with numerous cell regulations, their biological roles remain elusive, as in particular inactivation of the stathmin gene in the mouse resulted in no clear deleterious phenotype. We identified stathmin phosphoproteins in Drosophila, encoded by a unique gene sharing the intron/exon structure of the vertebrate stathmin and stathmin family genes. They interfere with microtubule assembly in vitro, and in vivo when expressed in HeLa cells. Drosophila stathmin expression is regulated during embryogenesis: it is high in the migrating germ cells and in the central and peripheral nervous systems, a pattern resembling that of mammalian stathmin. Furthermore, RNA interference inactivation of Drosophila stathmin expression resulted in germ cell migration arrest at stage 14. It also induced important anomalies in nervous system development, such as loss of commissures and longitudinal connectives in the ventral cord, or abnormal chordotonal neuron organization. In conclusion, a single Drosophila gene encodes phosphoproteins homologous to the entire vertebrate stathmin family. We demonstrate for the first time their direct involvement in major biological processes such as development of the reproductive and nervous systems. PMID:11854423

  17. Conservation of neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila to vertebrate central nervous systems.

    PubMed Central

    Bossy, B; Ballivet, M; Spierer, P

    1988-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are found both in vertebrate and insect central nervous systems. We have isolated a Drosophila gene by crosshybridization with a vertebrate probe. Structural conservation of domains of the deduced protein and of intron/exon boundaries indicate that the Drosophila gene encodes an nAChR alpha-like subunit (ALS). That the Drosophila gene product most resembles the neuronal set of vertebrate nAChRs alpha-subunits is also indicated by the failure of an ALS-beta-galactosidase fusion protein to bind alpha-bungarotoxin on blots in contrast to vertebrate endplate alpha-subunit constructions. The ALS encoding gene exceeds 54 kb in length and the transcript has a very long and unusual 5' leader. As we found previously for a gene whose product is also involved in cholinergic synapses, acetylcholinesterase, the leader encodes short open reading frames, which might be involved in translation control. We also note the presence of opa repeats in the gene, as has been found for various Drosophila genes expressed in the nervous system. Images PMID:2840281

  18. Two Enhancers Control Transcription of Drosophila muscleblind in the Embryonic Somatic Musculature and in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Cerro-Herreros, Estefanía; Artero, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetically conserved family of Muscleblind proteins are RNA-binding factors involved in a variety of gene expression processes including alternative splicing regulation, RNA stability and subcellular localization, and miRNA biogenesis, which typically contribute to cell-type specific differentiation. In humans, sequestration of Muscleblind-like proteins MBNL1 and MBNL2 has been implicated in degenerative disorders, particularly expansion diseases such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 2. Drosophila muscleblind was previously shown to be expressed in embryonic somatic and visceral muscle subtypes, and in the central nervous system, and to depend on Mef2 for transcriptional activation. Genomic approaches have pointed out candidate gene promoters and tissue-specific enhancers, but experimental confirmation of their regulatory roles was lacking. In our study, luciferase reporter assays in S2 cells confirmed that regions P1 (515 bp) and P2 (573 bp), involving the beginning of exon 1 and exon 2, respectively, were able to initiate RNA transcription. Similarly, transgenic Drosophila embryos carrying enhancer reporter constructs supported the existence of two regulatory regions which control embryonic expression of muscleblind in the central nerve cord (NE, neural enhancer; 830 bp) and somatic (skeletal) musculature (ME, muscle enhancer; 3.3 kb). Both NE and ME were able to boost expression from the Hsp70 heterologous promoter. In S2 cell assays most of the ME enhancer activation could be further narrowed down to a 1200 bp subregion (ME.3), which contains predicted binding sites for the Mef2 transcription factor. The present study constitutes the first characterization of muscleblind enhancers and will contribute to a deeper understanding of the transcriptional regulation of the gene. PMID:24667536

  19. Programmed cell death acts at different stages of Drosophila neurodevelopment to shape the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Teixeira, Filipe; Konstantinides, Nikolaos; Desplan, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Nervous system development is a process that integrates cell proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is an evolutionary conserved mechanism and a fundamental developmental process by which the final cell number in a nervous system is established. In vertebrates and invertebrates, PCD can be determined intrinsically by cell lineage and age, as well as extrinsically by nutritional, metabolic, and hormonal states. Drosophila has been an instrumental model for understanding how this mechanism is regulated. We review the role of PCD in Drosophila central nervous system development from neural progenitors to neurons, its molecular mechanism and function, how it is regulated and implemented, and how it ultimately shapes the fly central nervous system from the embryo to the adult. Finally, we discuss ideas that emerged while integrating this information. PMID:27404003

  20. Mapping chromatic pathways in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yang; Luo, Jiangnan; Shinomiya, Kazunori; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, color vision and wavelength-selective behaviors are mediated by the compound eye's narrow-spectrum photoreceptors R7 and R8 and their downstream medulla projection (Tm) neurons Tm5a, Tm5b, Tm5c, and Tm20 in the second optic neuropil or medulla. These chromatic Tm neurons project axons to a deeper optic neuropil, the lobula, which in insects has been implicated in processing and relaying color information to the central brain. The synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons in the lobula are not known, however. Using a modified GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) method to probe connections between the chromatic Tm neurons and 28 known and novel types of lobula neurons, we identify anatomically the visual projection neurons LT11 and LC14 and the lobula intrinsic neurons Li3 and Li4 as synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons. Single-cell GRASP analyses reveal that Li4 receives synaptic contacts from over 90% of all four types of chromatic Tm neurons, whereas LT11 is postsynaptic to the chromatic Tm neurons, with only modest selectivity and at a lower frequency and density. To visualize synaptic contacts at the ultrastructural level, we develop and apply a "two-tag" double-labeling method to label LT11's dendrites and the mitochondria in Tm5c's presynaptic terminals. Serial electron microscopic reconstruction confirms that LT11 receives direct contacts from Tm5c. This method would be generally applicable to map the connections of large complex neurons in Drosophila and other animals. PMID:26179639

  1. Spatiotemporal gene expression targeting with the TARGET and gene-switch systems in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sean E; Mao, Zhengmei; Davis, Ronald L

    2004-02-17

    Targeted gene expression has become a standard technique for the study of biological questions in Drosophila. Until recently, transgene expression could be targeted in the dimension of either time or space, but not both. Several new systems have recently been developed to direct transgene expression simultaneously in both time and space. We describe here two such systems that we developed in our laboratory. The first system provides a general method for temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) with the conventional GAL4-upstream activator sequence (UAS) system and a temperature-sensitive GAL80 molecule, which represses GAL4 transcriptional activity at permissive temperatures. The second system, termed Gene-Switch, is based on a GAL4-progesterone receptor chimera that is hormone-inducible. We have used both systems for simultaneous spatial and temporal rescue of memory dysfunction in the rutabaga (rut) memory mutant of Drosophila. In this protocol, we provide guidelines for the use of these two novel systems, which should have general utility in studying Drosophila biology and in using the fly as a model for human disease. PMID:14970377

  2. A Toolkit of CRISPR-Based Genome Editing Systems in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Ren, Xingjie; Sun, Jin; Wang, Xia; Qiao, Huan-Huan; Xu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Lu-Ping; Ni, Jian-Quan

    2015-04-20

    The last couple of years have witnessed an explosion in development of CRISPR-based genome editing technologies in cell lines as well as in model organisms. In this review, we focus on the applications of this popular system in Drosophila. We discuss the effectiveness of the CRISPR/Cas9 systems in terms of delivery, mutagenesis detection, parameters affecting efficiency, and off-target issues, with an emphasis on how to apply this powerful tool to characterize gene functions. PMID:25953352

  3. FGF /FGFR Signal Induces Trachea Extension in the Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wei-Chen; Lee, Yuan-Ming; Henry Sun, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila compound eye is a large sensory organ that places a high demand on oxygen supplied by the tracheal system. Although the development and function of the Drosophila visual system has been extensively studied, the development and contribution of its tracheal system has not been systematically examined. To address this issue, we studied the tracheal patterns and developmental process in the Drosophila visual system. We found that the retinal tracheae are derived from air sacs in the head, and the ingrowth of retinal trachea begin at mid-pupal stage. The tracheal development has three stages. First, the air sacs form near the optic lobe in 42-47% of pupal development (pd). Second, in 47-52% pd, air sacs extend branches along the base of the retina following a posterior-to-anterior direction and further form the tracheal network under the fenestrated membrane (TNUFM). Third, the TNUFM extend fine branches into the retina following a proximal-to-distal direction after 60% pd. Furthermore, we found that the trachea extension in both retina and TNUFM are dependent on the FGF(Bnl)/FGFR(Btl) signaling. Our results also provided strong evidence that the photoreceptors are the source of the Bnl ligand to guide the trachea ingrowth. Our work is the first systematic study of the tracheal development in the visual system, and also the first study demonstrating the interactions of two well-studied systems: the eye and trachea. PMID:23991208

  4. Regulation of Sleep by Insulin-like Peptide System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Xiaona; Wang, Haili; Liu, Zhenxing; He, Chunxia; An, Chunju; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Most organisms have behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms, which are controlled by an endogenous clock. Although genetic analysis has revealed the intracellular mechanism of the circadian clock, the manner in which this clock communicates its temporal information to produce systemic regulation is still largely unknown. Design: Sleep behavior was measured using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring System (DAMS) monitor under a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle and constant darkness (DD), and 5 min without recorded activity were defined as a bout of sleep. Results: Here we show that Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and their receptor (DInR) regulate sleep behavior. All mutants of the seven dilps and the mutant of their receptor exhibit decreases of total sleep except dilp4 mutants, whereas upregulation of DILP and DInR in the nervous system led to increased sleep. Histological analysis identified four previously unidentified neurons expressing DILP: D1, P1, L1, and L2, of which L1 and L2 belong to the LNd and LNv clock neurons that separately regulate different times of sleep. In addition, dilp2 levels significantly decrease when flies were fasted, which is consistent with a previous report that starvation inhibits sleep, further indicating that the dilp system is involved in sleep regulation. Conclusion: Taken together, the results indicate that the Drosophila insulin-like peptide system is a crucial regulator of sleep. Citation: Cong X, Wang H, Liu Z, He C, An C, Zhao Z. Regulation of sleep by insulin-like peptide system in Drosophila melanogaster. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1075–1083. PMID:25581915

  5. Toll-6 and Toll-7 function as neurotrophin receptors in the Drosophila central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Graham; Foldi, Istvan; Aurikko, Jukka; Wentzell, Jill S.; Lim, Mei Ann; Fenton, Janine C.; Gay, Nicholas J.; Hidalgo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophin receptors corresponding to vertebrate Trk, p75NTR or Sortilin have not been identified in Drosophila, thus it is unknown how neurotrophism may be implemented in insects. Two Drosophila neurotrophins, DNT1 and DNT2, have nervous system functions, but their receptors are unknown. The Toll receptor superfamily has ancient evolutionary origins and a universal function in innate immunity. Here we show that Toll paralogues unrelated to the mammalian neurotrophin receptors function as neurotrophin receptors in fruit-flies. Toll-6 and Toll-7 are expressed in the central nervous system throughout development, and regulate locomotion, motoraxon targeting and neuronal survival. DNT1 and 2 interact genetically with Toll-6 and 7, bind to Toll-7 and 6 promiscuously, and are distributed in vivo in complementary or overlapping domains. We conclude that in fruit-flies, Tolls are not only involved in development and immunity but also in neurotrophism, revealing an unforeseen relationship between the neurotrophin and Toll protein families. PMID:23892553

  6. Fine-scale topography in sensory systems: insights from Drosophila and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Takuya; Ye, Bing

    2015-01-01

    To encode the positions of sensory stimuli, sensory circuits form topographic maps in the central nervous system through specific point-to-point connections between pre- and post-synaptic neurons. In vertebrate visual systems, the establishment of topographic maps involves the formation of a coarse topography followed by that of fine-scale topography that distinguishes the axon terminals of neighboring neurons. It is known that intrinsic differences in the form of broad gradients of guidance molecules instruct coarse topography while neuronal activity is required for fine-scale topography. On the other hand, studies in the Drosophila visual system have shown that intrinsic differences in cell adhesion among the axon terminals of neighboring neurons instruct the fine-scale topography. Recent studies on activity-dependent topography in the Drosophila somatosensory system have revealed a role of neuronal activity in creating molecular differences among sensory neurons for establishing fine-scale topography, implicating a conserved principle. Here we review the findings in both Drosophila and vertebrates and propose an integrated model for fine-scale topography. PMID:26091779

  7. Fine-scale topography in sensory systems: insights from Drosophila and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takuya; Ye, Bing

    2015-09-01

    To encode the positions of sensory stimuli, sensory circuits form topographic maps in the central nervous system through specific point-to-point connections between pre- and postsynaptic neurons. In vertebrate visual systems, the establishment of topographic maps involves the formation of a coarse topography followed by that of fine-scale topography that distinguishes the axon terminals of neighboring neurons. It is known that intrinsic differences in the form of broad gradients of guidance molecules instruct coarse topography while neuronal activity is required for fine-scale topography. On the other hand, studies in the Drosophila visual system have shown that intrinsic differences in cell adhesion among the axon terminals of neighboring neurons instruct the fine-scale topography. Recent studies on activity-dependent topography in the Drosophila somatosensory system have revealed a role of neuronal activity in creating molecular differences among sensory neurons for establishing fine-scale topography, implicating a conserved principle. Here we review the findings in both Drosophila and vertebrates and propose an integrated model for fine-scale topography. PMID:26091779

  8. Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for assessing development under conditions of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. K.; Hilgenfeld, R. B.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    More is known about the regulation of early developmental events in Drosophila than any other animal. In addition, its size and short life cycle make it a facile experimental system. Since developmental perturbations have been demonstrated when both oogenesis and embryogenesis occur in the space environment, there is a strong rationale for using this organism for the elucidation of specific gravity-sensitive developmental events.

  9. Bacteria sensing mechanisms in Drosophila gut: Local and systemic consequences.

    PubMed

    Capo, Florence; Charroux, Bernard; Royet, Julien

    2016-11-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on their exoskeleton, their gut and even in some cases within their own somatic and germ line cells. This microbiota that can represent up to a few percent of the insect biomass may have a pervasive impact on many aspects of insect biology including physiology, nutrient acquisition, ageing, behaviour and resistance to infection. Mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, the mouth-gut axis represents the first and principal access of external bacteria to the host. Soon after ingestion, the feeding insect needs to rapidly and accurately identify the ingested microbes and decide whether to preserve them if beneficial or neutral, or to eliminate them if potentially harmful. We will review here the recent data acquired in Drosophila on the mechanisms that invertebrate enterocytes rely on to detect the presence of bacteria in the gut. We will compare these modes of bacteria sensing to those in other immune competent tissues and try to rationalize differences that may exist. We will also analyse the physiological consequences of bacteria detection not only locally for the gut itself but also for remote tissues. Finally, we will describe the physiological disorders that can occur due to inaccurate bacteria identification by the gut epithelium. PMID:26778296

  10. The calcium-dependent proteolytic system calpain-calpastatin in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, M; Friedrich, P

    1988-01-01

    Ca2+-dependent proteolytic activity was detected at pH 7.5 in head extracts of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This activity was abolished by iodoacetate, but was unaffected by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. These properties resemble those of the Ca2+-dependent thiol-proteinase calpain. The activity appeared at Mr 280,000 on Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography. DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two activity peaks, with elution positions corresponding to vertebrate calpains I and II. The fly head enzymes were inhibited by a heat-stable and trypsin-sensitive component of the fly head extract, which also inhibited calpains from rat kidney. The inhibitor emerged from Sepharose CL-6B columns at Mr 310,000 and from DEAE-cellulose at a position corresponding to the protein inhibitor calpastatin from other sources. It is concluded that Drosophila heads comprise the Ca2+-dependent calpain-calpastatin proteolytic system. PMID:2845920

  11. An Integrated Drosophila Model System Reveals Unique Properties for F14512, a Novel Polyamine-Containing Anticancer Drug That Targets Topoisomerase II

    PubMed Central

    Chelouah, Sonia; Monod-Wissler, Caroline; Bailly, Christian; Barret, Jean-Marc; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Vispé, Stéphane; Käs, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    F14512 is a novel anti-tumor molecule based on an epipodophyllotoxin core coupled to a cancer-cell vectoring spermine moiety. This polyamine linkage is assumed to ensure the preferential uptake of F14512 by cancer cells, strong interaction with DNA and potent inhibition of topoisomerase II (Topo II). The antitumor activity of F14512 in human tumor models is significantly higher than that of other epipodophyllotoxins in spite of a lower induction of DNA breakage. Hence, the demonstrated superiority of F14512 over other Topo II poisons might not result solely from its preferential uptake by cancer cells, but could also be due to unique effects on Topo II interactions with DNA. To further dissect the mechanism of action of F14512, we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants whose genetic background leads to an easily scored phenotype that is sensitive to changes in Topo II activity and/or localization. F14512 has antiproliferative properties in Drosophila cells and stabilizes ternary Topo II/DNA cleavable complexes at unique sites located in moderately repeated sequences, suggesting that the drug specifically targets a select and limited subset of genomic sequences. Feeding F14512 to developing mutant Drosophila larvae led to the recovery of flies expressing a striking phenotype, "Eye wide shut," where one eye is replaced by a first thoracic segment. Other recovered F14512-induced gain- and loss-of-function phenotypes similarly correspond to precise genetic dysfunctions. These complex in vivo results obtained in a whole developing organism can be reconciled with known genetic anomalies and constitute a remarkable instance of specific alterations of gene expression by ingestion of a drug. "Drosophila-based anticancer pharmacology" hence reveals unique properties for F14512, demonstrating the usefulness of an assay system that provides a low-cost, rapid and effective complement to mammalian models and permits the elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of action of candidate

  12. Intracellular Trafficking in Drosophila Visual System Development: A Basis for Pattern Formation Through Simple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chih-Chiang; Epstein, Daniel; Hiesinger, P. Robin

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular trafficking underlies cellular functions ranging from membrane remodeling to receptor activation. During multicellular organ development, these basic cell biological functions are required as both passive machinery and active signaling regulators. Exocytosis, endocytosis, and recycling of several key signaling receptors have long been known to actively regulate morphogenesis and pattern formation during Drosophila eye development. Hence, intracellular membrane trafficking not only sets the cell biological stage for receptor-mediated signaling but also actively controls signaling through spatiotemporally regulated receptor localization. In contrast to eye development, the role of intracellular trafficking for the establishment of the eye-to-brain connectivity map has only recently received more attention. It is still poorly understood how guidance receptors are spatiotemporally regulated to serve as meaningful synapse formation signals. Yet, the Drosophila visual system provides some of the most striking examples for the regulatory role of intracellular trafficking during multicellular organ development. In this review we will first highlight the experimental and conceptual advances that motivate the study of intracellular trafficking during Drosophila visual system development. We will then illuminate the development of the eye, the eye-to-brain connectivity map and the optic lobe from the perspective of cell biological dynamics. Finally, we provide a conceptual framework that seeks to explain how the interplay of simple genetically encoded intracellular trafficking events governs the seemingly complex cellular behaviors, which in turn determine the developmental product. PMID:21714102

  13. The peripheral nervous system supports blood cell homing and survival in the Drosophila larva

    PubMed Central

    Makhijani, Kalpana; Alexander, Brandy; Tanaka, Tsubasa; Rulifson, Eric; Brückner, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Interactions of hematopoietic cells with their microenvironment control blood cell colonization, homing and hematopoiesis. Here, we introduce larval hematopoiesis as the first Drosophila model for hematopoietic colonization and the role of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) as a microenvironment in hematopoiesis. The Drosophila larval hematopoietic system is founded by differentiated hemocytes of the embryo, which colonize segmentally repeated epidermal-muscular pockets and proliferate in these locations. Importantly, we show that these resident hemocytes tightly colocalize with peripheral neurons and we demonstrate that larval hemocytes depend on the PNS as an attractive and trophic microenvironment. atonal (ato) mutant or genetically ablated larvae, which are deficient for subsets of peripheral neurons, show a progressive apoptotic decline in hemocytes and an incomplete resident hemocyte pattern, whereas supernumerary peripheral neurons induced by ectopic expression of the proneural gene scute (sc) misdirect hemocytes to these ectopic locations. This PNS-hematopoietic connection in Drosophila parallels the emerging role of the PNS in hematopoiesis and immune functions in vertebrates, and provides the basis for the systematic genetic dissection of the PNS-hematopoietic axis in the future. PMID:22071105

  14. Electroretinograms in Drosophila: A Robust and Genetically Accessible Electrophysiological System for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Vilinsky, Ilya; Johnson, Karl G.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory courses in neurophysiology fulfill a critical need for inquiry-based training in undergraduate programs in neuroscience and biology. These courses typically use classical electrophysiological preparations to explore the basic features of neuronal function. However, current neuroscience research also focuses on elucidating the molecular and genetic mechanisms of neuronal function, using model systems that include mutant and transgenic animals. To bridge laboratory training in neurophysiology with modern molecular genetics, we describe a teaching model based on electroretinography of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a long-established model system for basic neuroscience research. Drosophila are easily maintained, economical, and have hundreds of neurophysiologically relevant mutant strains and genetic tools readily available. The Drosophila electroretinogram (ERG) is a simple and accessible extracellular recording of a neural signal in the fly eye in response to flashes of light. The signal is multifaceted and the response is sensitive to stimulation parameters such as intensity, duration and wavelength, thus forming a rich source of analysis for students. Most importantly, different mutations affecting key components of intracellular signaling, synaptic transmission or neuronal function can affect the ERG waveform in characteristic ways. Recording wild type and mutant ERGs allows students to examine firsthand the connection between genetics, biochemical pathways, and electrophysiology. This neurophysiology laboratory course can facilitate and enhance an understanding of the cellular and molecular contributions to neurophysiological recordings. PMID:23494679

  15. Assaying benzene, a parquet varnish, and a synthetic thinner with respect to induction of in vivo chromosome loss in wing primordial cells of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Soós, István; Szabad, János

    2014-03-15

    An assay detecting the in vivo loss of mwh(+)Y, a genetically engineered Y chromosome, in cells of the Drosophila wing primordia was published recently. Loss of the mwh(+)Y chromosome in any of the wing-disk cells - in a multiple wing hairs homozygous background - leads to the formation of an mwh mosaic spot (clone) in the emerging wing. The frequency and the size of the mwh clones allow detection and quantitative evaluation of environmental and/or genetic agents inducing chromosome loss. Using this novel technique, we analyzed the potential of vapors of benzene, a parquet varnish, and a synthetic thinner to induce chromosome loss. Exposure to 0.047μg/ml benzene vapor for one day or to 0.175μg/ml for four hours resulted in a significantly elevated mwh clone-frequency confirming the ability of benzene to induce chromosome loss. A one-day exposure to vapors of a parquet varnish or a 6-h exposure to vapors of a synthetic thinner slightly, yet significantly elevated the frequency of chromosome loss. Results of the present paper show the potential of vapors of the analyzed parquet varnish and synthetic thinner to induce chromosome loss, and illustrate the usefulness of the new technique. PMID:24530351

  16. Genotoxic profile of inhibitors of topoisomerases I (camptothecin) and II (etoposide) in a mitotic recombination and sex-chromosome loss somatic eye assay of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sortibrán, América Nitxin Castañeda; Téllez, María Guadalupe Ordaz; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2006-04-30

    Genotoxic carcinogens which interact with DNA may produce double-strand breaks as normal intermediates of homologous mitotic recombination, and may give rise to structural chromosome aberrations and inter-chromosomal deletion-recombination. The genotoxic profile of two inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases were evaluated using an in vivo somatic w/w+ eye assay of Drosophila melanogaster for the detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) by homologous mitotic recombination, intra-chromosomal recombination and structural chromosomal aberrations. We studied camptothecin (CPT) as a topoisomerase-I-interactive agent and etoposide (ETOP) as a topoisomerase II inhibitor. These drugs act by stabilizing a ternary complex consisting of topoisomerases covalently linked to DNA at single-strand or at double-strand breaks, thereby preventing the relegation step of the breakage/rejoining reaction mediated by the enzyme. The genotoxic profiles were determined from the appearance of eye tissue in adult flies, in which LOH and expression of the reporter gene white produced light clones. The results demonstrated that both compounds were significantly genotoxic, with CPT being more effective than ETOP. Inter-chromosomal mitotic recombination was the major mechanism responsible for the induction of light spots by both compounds in XX females. Loss of the ring X chromosome (rX), was significantly enhanced by CPT, and this topoisomerase blocker also produced intra-chromosomal recombination (XY males). PMID:16529987

  17. Expression of a Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholine receptor-related gene in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, S.C.; Rosenthal, L.S.; Kammermeyer, K.L.; Potter, M.B.; Nelson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    The authors isolated Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequences with nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology to subunits of vertebrate acetylcholine receptor by hybridization with a Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunit cDNA probe. Five introns are present in the portion of the Drosophila gene encoding the unprocessed protein and are positionally conserved relative to the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene. The Drosophila genomic clone hybridized to salivary gland polytene chromosome 3L within region 64B and was termed AChR64B. A 3-kilobasae poly(A)-containing transcript complementary to the AChR64B clone was readily detectable by RNA blot hybridizations during midembryogenesis, during metamorphosis, and in newly enclosed adults. AChR64B transcripts were localized to the cellular regions of the central nervous system during embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages of development. During metamorphosis, a temporal relationship between the morphogenesis of the optic lobe and expression of AChR64B transcripts was observed.

  18. Identification of immune system and response genes, and novel mutations causing melanotic tumor formation in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A.; Zhou, Zhijian; Tang, My Lien

    1996-06-01

    We are using Drosophila as a model system for analysis of immunity and tumor formation and have conducted two types of screens using enhancer detector strains to find genes related to these processes: genes expressed in the immune system (type A; hemocytes, lymph glands and fat body) and genes increased in expression by bacterial infection (type B). For type A, tissue-specific reporter gene activity was determined. For type B, a variation of enhancer detection was devised in which {beta}-galactosidase is assayed spectrophotometrically with and without bacterial infection. Because of immune system involvement in melanotic tumor formation, a third type was hypothesized to be found among types A and B: genes that, when mutated, have a melanotic tumor phenotype. Enhancer detector strains (2800) were screened for type A, 900 for B, and 11 retained for further analysis. Complementation tests, cytological mapping, P-element mobilization, and determination of lethal phase and mutant phenotype have identified six novel genes, Dorothy, wizard, toto, viking, Thor and dappled, and one previously identified gene, Collagen IV. All are associated with reporter gene expression in at least one immune system tissue. Thor has increased expression upon infection. Mutations of wizard and dappled have a melanotic tumor phenotype. 72 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Microarray assays for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Pérez-Mercader, Juan; Parro García, Victor

    2001-08-01

    The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

  20. Multiple spectral inputs improve motion discrimination in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Wardill, Trevor J; List, Olivier; Li, Xiaofeng; Dongre, Sidhartha; McCulloch, Marie; Ting, Chun-Yuan; O'Kane, Cahir J; Tang, Shiming; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko

    2012-05-18

    Color and motion information are thought to be channeled through separate neural pathways, but it remains unclear whether and how these pathways interact to improve motion perception. In insects, such as Drosophila, it has long been believed that motion information is fed exclusively by one spectral class of photoreceptor, so-called R1 to R6 cells; whereas R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which exist in multiple spectral classes, subserve color vision. Here, we report that R7 and R8 also contribute to the motion pathway. By using electrophysiological, optical, and behavioral assays, we found that R7/R8 information converge with and shape the motion pathway output, explaining flies' broadly tuned optomotor behavior by its composite responses. Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. PMID:22605779

  1. Additional data in support of the quadruplicated white-ivory reversion system to test for somatic genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Xamena, N; Egido, A; Velázquez, A; Creus, A; Marcos, R

    1991-06-01

    Cyclophosphamide, ethyl methanesulfonate, propyleneimine and tritiated water were tested in a new short-term somatic mutation bioassay, previously described by Green and coworkers (1986), to evaluate the suitability of the quadruplicated white-ivory system of Drosophila melanogaster for genotoxicity testing of chemicals. A 2.9-kb tandemly duplicated sequence of w+ within a w+ gene is responsible for the white-ivory phenotype. Reversion of wi to w+ is, in general, associated with the loss of the appended 2.9 kb or other alterations affecting this duplicated region. The appearance of light (white or nearly white) phenotypes could be due to the loss of some wi copies. Thus, in the eyes of adult males resulting from treated larvae, we can detect 2 types of sectors (red and light) on the orange-yellow background. Our results indicate that the genetic system used in this somatic assay is sensitive to the genotoxic effects of the 4 compounds tested. All 4 compounds tested were positive. Tritiated water had weak effects, cyclophosphamide was characterized by small revertant clones and ethyl methanesulfonate and propyleneimine by large clone size. From the available data, we feel that the wi system can be considered of potential value for genotoxicity testing. PMID:1646957

  2. Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft{sup 3} boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites.

  3. Analysis of cell identity, morphology, apoptosis and mitotic activity in a primary neural cell culture system in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, most neurogenetic research is carried out in vivo. Mammalian research demonstrates that primary cell culture techniques provide a powerful model to address cell autonomous and non-autonomous processes outside their endogenous environment. We developed a cell culture system in Drosophila using wildtype and genetically manipulated primary neural tissue for long-term observations. We assessed the molecular identity of distinct neural cell types by immunolabeling and genetically expressed fluorescent cell markers. We monitored mitotic activity of cell cultures derived from wildtype and tumorous larval brains. Our system provides a powerful approach to unveil developmental processes in the nervous system and to complement studies in vivo. PMID:22554060

  4. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Anna B.; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly’s visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly’s visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly’s diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels. PMID:26308084

  5. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Causes Synapse Dysfunction in the Drosophila Visual System.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Ménagé, Cindy; Grégoire, Stéphane; Garcia, Thibault; Ferveur, Jean-François; Bretillon, Lionel; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for animals and necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system. A lack of PUFAs can result from the consumption of a deficient diet or genetic factors, which impact PUFA uptake and metabolism. Both can cause synaptic dysfunction, which is associated with numerous disorders. However, there is a knowledge gap linking these neuronal dysfunctions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Because of its genetic manipulability and its easy, fast, and cheap breeding, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism for genetic screens, helping to identify the genetic bases of such events. As a first step towards the understanding of PUFA implications in Drosophila synaptic physiology we designed a breeding medium containing only very low amounts of PUFAs. We then used the fly's visual system, a well-established model for studying signal transmission and neurological disorders, to measure the effects of a PUFA deficiency on synaptic function. Using both visual performance and eye electrophysiology, we found that PUFA deficiency strongly affected synaptic transmission in the fly's visual system. These defects were rescued by diets containing omega-3 or omega-6 PUFAs alone or in combination. In summary, manipulating PUFA contents in the fly's diet was powerful to investigate the role of these nutrients on the fly´s visual synaptic function. This study aims at showing how the first visual synapse of Drosophila can serve as a simple model to study the effects of PUFAs on synapse function. A similar approach could be further used to screen for genetic factors underlying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunctions associated with altered PUFA levels. PMID:26308084

  6. Nerve-racking - apoptotic and non-apoptotic roles of caspases in the nervous system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Juliane; Broemer, Meike

    2016-07-01

    Studies using Drosophila as a model system have contributed enormously to our knowledge of caspase function and regulation. Caspases are best known as central executioners of apoptosis but also control essential physiological processes in a non-apoptotic manner. The Drosophila genome codes for seven caspases and in this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about caspase function in the nervous system. Caspases regulate neuronal death at all developmental stages and in various neuronal populations. In contrast, non-apoptotic roles are less well understood. The development of new genetically encoded sensors for caspase activity provides unprecedented opportunities to study caspase function in the nervous system in more detail. In light of these new tools we discuss the potential of Drosophila as a model to discover new apoptotic and non-apoptotic neuronal roles of caspases. PMID:26900934

  7. Heterogeneity of the Peripheral Circadian Systems in Drosophila melanogaster: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Chihiro; Tomioka, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in organisms are involved in many aspects of metabolism, physiology, and behavior. In many animals, these rhythms are produced by the circadian system consisting of a central clock located in the brain and peripheral clocks in various peripheral tissues. The oscillatory machinery and entrainment mechanism of peripheral clocks vary between different tissues and organs. The relationship between the central and peripheral clocks is also tissue-dependent. Here we review the heterogeneous nature of peripheral circadian clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and their dependence on the central clock, and discuss their significance in the temporal organization of physiology in peripheral tissues/organs. PMID:26858652

  8. Heterogeneity of the Peripheral Circadian Systems in Drosophila melanogaster: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ito, Chihiro; Tomioka, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in organisms are involved in many aspects of metabolism, physiology, and behavior. In many animals, these rhythms are produced by the circadian system consisting of a central clock located in the brain and peripheral clocks in various peripheral tissues. The oscillatory machinery and entrainment mechanism of peripheral clocks vary between different tissues and organs. The relationship between the central and peripheral clocks is also tissue-dependent. Here we review the heterogeneous nature of peripheral circadian clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and their dependence on the central clock, and discuss their significance in the temporal organization of physiology in peripheral tissues/organs. PMID:26858652

  9. An integrated optical coherence microscopy imaging and optical stimulation system for optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is the clinical standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling cardiac rhythm, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its applications. Optogenetic pacing of the heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids the shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Drosophila melanogaster, which is a powerful model organism with orthologs of nearly 75% of human disease genes, has not been studied for optogenetic pacing in the heart. Here, we developed a non-invasive integrated optical pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system to control the heart rhythm of Drosophila at different developmental stages using light. The OCM system is capable of providing high imaging speed (130 frames/s) and ultrahigh imaging resolutions (1.5 μm and 3.9 μm for axial and transverse resolutions, respectively). A light-sensitive pacemaker was developed in Drosophila by specifically expressing the light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in transgenic Drosophila heart. We achieved non-invasive and specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm throughout the fly's life cycle (larva, pupa, and adult) by stimulating the heart with 475 nm pulsed laser light. Heart response to stimulation pulses was monitored non-invasively with OCM. This integrated non-invasive optogenetic control and in vivo imaging technique provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology.

  10. Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARCINOGEN ASSAY SYSTEM UTILIZING ESTUARINE FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was the development of systems to assay the effects of chemical carcinogens on marine teleosts. It was determined that the LC-50 for benzidine with respect to Cyprinodon variegatus was ca. 64 ppm. Weekly contaminations of 1 ppm benzidine caused some ...

  12. Results of field tests of a transportable calorimeter assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Rakel, D.A.; Lemming, J.F.; Rodenburg, W.W.; Duff, M.F.; Jarvis, J.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A transportable calorimetric assay system, developed for use by US Department of Energy inspectors, is described. The results of field tests at three DOE sites are presented. The samples measured in these tests represent a variety of forms (ash, oxide, metal buttons), isotopic composition, and total plutonium content.

  13. Drosophila myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary K

    2016-09-12

    The skeletal muscle system is the largest organ in motile animals, constituting between 35 and 55% of the human body mass, and up to 75% of the body mass in flying organisms like Drosophila. The flight muscles alone in flying insects comprise up to 65% of total body mass. Not only is the musculature the largest organ system, it is also exquisitely complex, with single muscles existing in different shapes and sizes. These different morphologies allow for such different functions as the high-frequency beating of a wing in a hummingbird, the dilation of the pupil in a human eye, or the maintenance of posture in a giraffe's neck. PMID:27623256

  14. Probing the Fractal Pattern of Heartbeats in Drosophila Pupae by Visible Optical Recording System.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Chang, Yi-Chung; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Lai, Po-Jung; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Hu, Kun; Wu, June-Tai; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiang; Lo, Men-Tzung; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2016-01-01

    Judiciously tuning heart rates is critical for regular cardiovascular function. The fractal pattern of heartbeats - a multiscale regulation in instantaneous fluctuations - is well known for vertebrates. The most primitive heart system of the Drosophila provides a useful model to understand the evolutional origin of such a fractal pattern as well as the alterations of fractal pattern during diseased statuses. We developed a non-invasive visible optical heart rate recording system especially suitable for long-term recording by using principal component analysis (PCA) instead of fluorescence recording system to avoid the confounding effect from intense light irradiation. To deplete intracellular Ca(2+) levels, the expression of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) was tissue-specifically knocked down. The SERCA group shows longer heart beat intervals (Mean ± SD: 1009.7 ± 151.6 ms) as compared to the control group (545.5 ± 45.4 ms, p < 0.001). The multiscale correlation of SERCA group (scaling exponent: 0.77 ± 0.07), on the other hand, is weaker than that of the control Drosophila (scaling exponent: 0.85 ± 0.03) (p = 0.016). PMID:27535299

  15. Probing the Fractal Pattern of Heartbeats in Drosophila Pupae by Visible Optical Recording System

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Chang, Yi-Chung; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Lai, Po-Jung; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Hu, Kun; Wu, June-Tai; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiang; Lo, Men-Tzung; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2016-01-01

    Judiciously tuning heart rates is critical for regular cardiovascular function. The fractal pattern of heartbeats — a multiscale regulation in instantaneous fluctuations — is well known for vertebrates. The most primitive heart system of the Drosophila provides a useful model to understand the evolutional origin of such a fractal pattern as well as the alterations of fractal pattern during diseased statuses. We developed a non-invasive visible optical heart rate recording system especially suitable for long-term recording by using principal component analysis (PCA) instead of fluorescence recording system to avoid the confounding effect from intense light irradiation. To deplete intracellular Ca2+ levels, the expression of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) was tissue-specifically knocked down. The SERCA group shows longer heart beat intervals (Mean ± SD: 1009.7 ± 151.6 ms) as compared to the control group (545.5 ± 45.4 ms, p < 0.001). The multiscale correlation of SERCA group (scaling exponent: 0.77 ± 0.07), on the other hand, is weaker than that of the control Drosophila (scaling exponent: 0.85 ± 0.03) (p = 0.016). PMID:27535299

  16. Hybrid Lethal Systems in the Drosophila Melanogaster Species Complex. I. the Maternal Hybrid Rescue (Mhr) Gene of Drosophila Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Sawamura, K.; Taira, T.; Watanabe, T. K.

    1993-01-01

    Hybrid females from Drosophila simulans females X Drosophila melanogaster males die as embryos while hybrid males from the reciprocal cross die as late larvae. The other two classes are sterile adults. Letting C, X, and Y designate egg cytoplasm, X, and Y chromosomes, respectively, and subscripts m and s stand for melanogaster and simulans, C(m)X(m)Y(s) males are lethal in the larval stage and are rescued by the previously reported genes, Lhr (Lethal hybrid rescue) in simulans or Hmr (Hybrid male rescue) in melanogaster. We report here another rescue gene located on the second chromosome of simulans, mhr (maternal hybrid rescue) that, when present in the mother, rescues C(s)X(m)X(s) females from embryonic lethality. It has been postulated that the hybrids not carrying the X(s) like C(m)X(m)Y(s) males are larval lethal and that the hybrids carrying both the C(s) and the X(m) like C(s)X(m)X(s) females are embryonic lethal. According to these postulates C(s)X(m)Y(s) males (obtained by mating attached-X simulans females to melanogaster males) should be doubly lethal, at both embryo and larval stages. When both rescuing genes are present, Hmr in the father and mhr in the mother, males of this genotype are fully viable, as predicted. PMID:8436276

  17. The Serotonergic Central Nervous System of the Drosophila Larva: Anatomy and Behavioral Function

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E.; Maiolo, Elena M.; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G.; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F.; Thum, Andreas S.

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed. PMID:23082175

  18. GAL4/UAS-WGA system as a powerful tool for tracing Drosophila transsynaptic neural pathways.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, K; Sawamoto, K; Suzuki, E; Ozaki, K; Sone, M; Hama, C; Tanifuji-Morimoto, T; Yuasa, Y; Yoshihara, Y; Nose, A; Okano, H

    2000-01-01

    Visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways is an indispensable technique for understanding the relationship between structure and function in the nervous system. Here, we demonstrate the application of the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) transgene technique for tracing transsynaptic neural pathways in Drosophila. The intracellular localization of WGA was examined by immunoelectron microscopy. WGA signals were detected in granule-like structures in both the outer photoreceptor cells expressing WGA and the second-order laminar neurons. Misexpression of tetanus toxin (TNT), which inactivates N-synaptobrevin, in the outer photoreceptor cells resulted in the elimination of on/off transients in electroretinogram (ERG) recordings and in a great reduction in WGA transfer into laminar neurons, suggesting that anterograde WGA transsynaptic transfer is dependent mainly on synaptic transmission. Retrograde WGA transfer was also detected upon its forced expression in muscle cells. WGA primarily expressed in muscle cells was taken up by motoneuron axons and transported to their cell bodies in the ventral nerve cord, suggesting that WGA can trace motoneuronal pathways in combination with the muscle-specific GAL4 driver. Thus, the GAL4/UAS-WGA system should facilitate the dissection of the Drosophila neural circuit formation and/or synaptic activity in various regions and at various developmental stages. PMID:10658189

  19. Regulated protein depletion by the auxin-inducible degradation system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Trost, Martina; Blattner, Ariane C; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of consequences resulting after experimental elimination of gene function has been and will continue to be an extremely successful strategy in biological research. Mutational elimination of gene function has been widely used in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference is used extensively as well. In the fly, exceptionally precise temporal and spatial control over elimination of gene function can be achieved in combination with sophisticated transgenic approaches and clonal analyses. However, the methods that act at the gene and transcript level cannot eliminate protein products which are already present at the time when mutant cells are generated or RNA interference is started. Targeted inducible protein degradation is therefore of considerable interest for controlled rapid elimination of gene function. To this end, a degradation system was developed in yeast exploiting TIR1, a plant F box protein, which can recruit proteins with an auxin-inducible degron to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, but only in the presence of the phytohormone auxin. Here we demonstrate that the auxin-inducible degradation system functions efficiently also in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither auxin nor TIR1 expression have obvious toxic effects in this organism, and in combination they result in rapid degradation of a target protein fused to the auxin-inducible degron. PMID:27010248

  20. Differentiated muscles are mandatory for gas-filling of the Drosophila airway system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Cruz, Tina; Irion, Uwe; Moussian, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT At the end of development, organs acquire functionality, thereby ensuring autonomy of an organism when it separates from its mother or a protective egg. In insects, respiratory competence starts when the tracheal system fills with gas just before hatching of the juvenile animal. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Analyses of the phenotype of Drosophila embryos with malformed muscles revealed that they fail to gas-fill their tracheal system. Indeed, we show that major regulators of muscle formation like Lame duck and Blown fuse are important, while factors involved in the development of subsets of muscles including cardiac and visceral muscles are dispensable for this process, suggesting that somatic muscles (or parts of them) are essential to enable tracheal terminal differentiation. Based on our phenotypic data, we assume that somatic muscle defect severity correlates with the penetrance of the gas-filling phenotype. This argues that a limiting molecular or mechanical muscle-borne signal tunes tracheal differentiation. We think that in analogy to the function of smooth muscles in vertebrate lungs, a balance of physical forces between muscles and the elasticity of tracheal walls may be decisive for tracheal terminal differentiation in Drosophila. PMID:26621831

  1. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Gomez, Cipriano; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-07-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le} 100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  2. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila. PMID:26987017

  3. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13715.001 PMID:26987017

  4. Transgenic expression and purification of myosin isoforms using the Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle system

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, James T.; Melkani, Girish C.; Huxford, Tom; Bernstein, Sanford I.

    2011-01-01

    Biophysical and structural studies on muscle myosin rely upon milligram quantities of extremely pure material. However, many biologically interesting myosin isoforms are expressed at levels that are too low for direct purification from primary tissues. Efforts aimed at recombinant expression of functional striated muscle myosin isoforms in bacterial or insect cell culture have largely met with failure, although high level expression in muscle cell culture has recently been achieved at significant expense. We report a novel method for the use of strains of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster genetically engineered to produce histidine-tagged recombinant muscle myosin isoforms. This method takes advantage of the single muscle myosin heavy chain gene within the Drosophila genome, the high level of expression of accessible myosin in the thoracic indirect flight muscles, the ability to knock out endogenous expression of myosin in this tissue and the relatively low cost of fruit fly colony production and maintenance. We illustrate this method by expressing and purifying a recombinant histidine-tagged variant of embryonic body wall skeletal muscle myosin II from an engineered fly strain. The recombinant protein shows the expected ATPase activity and is of sufficient purity and homogeneity for crystallization. This system may prove useful for the expression and isolation of mutant myosins associated with skeletal muscle diseases and cardiomyopathies for their biochemical and structural characterization. PMID:22178692

  5. Drosophila RhoGEF4 encodes a novel RhoA-specific guanine exchange factor that is highly expressed in the embryonic central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Minyeop; Lee, Mihye; Baek, Seung-Hak; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hong-Hee; Lee, Zang Hee; Lee, Seungbok

    2006-12-15

    Rho family small GTPases act as molecular switches that regulate neuronal morphogenesis, including axon growth and guidance, dendritic spine formation, and synapse formation. These proteins are positively regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the Dbl family. This study describes the identification and characterization of Drosophila RhoGEF4 (DRhoGEF4), a novel Dbl family protein that is specifically expressed in the central nervous system during Drosophila embryogenesis. The predicted amino acid sequence of DRhoGEF4 contains a Dbl homology (DH) domain and an adjacent C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which are most closely related to those of mammalian frabins. In this study, the DH-PH motif is shown to enhance the dissociation of GDP from either RhoA or Rac1 but not from Cdc42 in vitro. In addition, p21-binding domain pull-down assays demonstrate that DRhoGEF4 activates RhoA, but neither Rac1 nor Cdc42 in HEK293 cells. Finally, overexpression of DRhoGEF4 is able to induce assembly of stress fibers in cultured NIH3T3 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that DRhoGEF4 may participate in cytoskeleton-related cellular events by specifically activating RhoA in neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:17011730

  6. Field Deployable Tritium Assay System Host Graphical User Interface Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-12

    The FDTASHOST software is a Graphical User Interface for the Field Deployable Tritium Assay System (FDTAS - Invention Disclosure SRS-96-09-091 has been submitted). The program runs on the Host computer which is located in the Laboratory and connected to the FDTAS remote field system via a modem over a phone line. The operator receives status information and messages from the Remote system. The operator can enter in commands to be executed by the remote systemmore » using the mouse and a pull down menu.« less

  7. Extensive local adaptation within the chemosensory system following Drosophila melanogaster's global expansion

    PubMed Central

    Arguello, J. Roman; Cardoso-Moreira, Margarida; Grenier, Jennifer K.; Gottipati, Srikanth; Clark, Andrew G.; Benton, Richard

    2016-01-01

    How organisms adapt to new environments is of fundamental biological interest, but poorly understood at the genetic level. Chemosensory systems provide attractive models to address this problem, because they lie between external environmental signals and internal physiological responses. To investigate how selection has shaped the well-characterized chemosensory system of Drosophila melanogaster, we have analysed genome-wide data from five diverse populations. By couching population genomic analyses of chemosensory protein families within parallel analyses of other large families, we demonstrate that chemosensory proteins are not outliers for adaptive divergence between species. However, chemosensory families often display the strongest genome-wide signals of recent selection within D. melanogaster. We show that recent adaptation has operated almost exclusively on standing variation, and that patterns of adaptive mutations predict diverse effects on protein function. Finally, we provide evidence that chemosensory proteins have experienced relaxed constraint, and argue that this has been important for their rapid adaptation over short timescales. PMID:27292132

  8. A Cell Marker System and Mosaic Patterns during Early Embryonic Development in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, Susan B.; Wieschaus, Eric

    1987-01-01

    An embryonic cell marker system has been developed in Drosophila melanogaster that has enabled us to identify the genotype of cells as early as the cellular blastoderm stage of development. This system allows unambiguous detection of embryos homozygous for most X-linked lethal mutations at stages prior to when their first defects become obvious. By examining gynandromorphs at this stage, we have observed that the number of nuclei per unit area in male regions is about half that in female regions. An examination of early cleavage stage embryos whose DNA has been stained with Hoechst 33258 and whose actin has been stained with phalloidin suggests that this difference is due to a cell cycle delay in cells losing the ring-X. These experiments also demonstrate the existence of a mechanism which controls the timing of nuclear divisions in cycle 10–14 embryos. PMID:3108074

  9. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  10. Can Drosophila melanogaster represent a model system for the detection of reproductive adverse drug reactions?

    PubMed

    Avanesian, Agnesa; Semnani, Sahar; Jafari, Mahtab

    2009-08-01

    Once a molecule is identified as a potential drug, the detection of adverse drug reactions is one of the key components of its development and the FDA approval process. We propose using Drosophila melanogaster to screen for reproductive adverse drug reactions in the early stages of drug development. Compared with other non-mammalian models, D. melanogaster has many similarities to the mammalian reproductive system, including putative sex hormones and conserved proteins involved in genitourinary development. Furthermore, the D. melanogaster model would present significant advantages in time efficiency and cost-effectiveness compared with mammalian models. We present data on methotrexate (MTX) reproductive adverse events in multiple animal models, including fruit flies, as proof-of-concept for the use of the D. melanogaster model. PMID:19482095

  11. A Systems-Level Interrogation Identifies Regulators of Drosophila Blood Cell Number and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Makhijani, Kalpana; Alexander, Brandy; Perrimon, Norbert; Brückner, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, cell number is typically determined by a balance of intracellular signals that positively and negatively regulate cell survival and proliferation. Dissecting these signaling networks facilitates the understanding of normal development and tumorigenesis. Here, we study signaling by the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF Receptor (Pvr) in embryonic blood cells (hemocytes) and in the related cell line Kc as a model for the requirement of PDGF/VEGF receptors in vertebrate cell survival and proliferation. The system allows the investigation of downstream and parallel signaling networks, based on the ability of Pvr to activate Ras/Erk, Akt/TOR, and yet-uncharacterized signaling pathway/s, which redundantly mediate cell survival and contribute to proliferation. Using Kc cells, we performed a genome wide RNAi screen for regulators of cell number in a sensitized, Pvr deficient background. We identified the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Insulin-like receptor (InR) as a major Pvr Enhancer, and the nuclear hormone receptors Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (usp), corresponding to mammalian Retinoid X Receptor (RXR), as Pvr Suppressors. In vivo analysis in the Drosophila embryo revealed a previously unrecognized role for EcR to promote apoptotic death of embryonic blood cells, which is balanced with pro-survival signaling by Pvr and InR. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrates distinct modes of cell number regulation by EcR and RTK signaling. We define common phosphorylation targets of Pvr and InR that include regulators of cell survival, and unique targets responsible for specialized receptor functions. Interestingly, our analysis reveals that the selection of phosphorylation targets by signaling receptors shows qualitative changes depending on the signaling status of the cell, which may have wide-reaching implications for other cell regulatory systems. PMID:25749252

  12. Assessing the role of cell-surface molecules in central synaptogenesis in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Berger-Müller, Sandra; Sugie, Atsushi; Takahashi, Fumio; Tavosanis, Gaia; Hakeda-Suzuki, Satoko; Suzuki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of the central nervous system is its spatial and functional organization in synaptic layers. During neuronal development, axons form transient contacts with potential post-synaptic elements and establish synapses with appropriate partners at specific layers. These processes are regulated by synaptic cell-adhesion molecules. In the Drosophila visual system, R7 and R8 photoreceptor subtypes target distinct layers and form en passant pre-synaptic terminals at stereotypic loci of the axonal shaft. A leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein, Capricious (Caps), is known to be selectively expressed in R8 axons and their recipient layer, which led to the attractive hypothesis that Caps mediates R8 synaptic specificity by homophilic adhesion. Contradicting this assumption, our results indicate that Caps does not have a prominent role in synaptic-layer targeting and synapse formation in Drosophila photoreceptors, and that the specific recognition of the R8 target layer does not involve Caps homophilic axon-target interactions. We generated flies that express a tagged synaptic marker to evaluate the presence and localization of synapses in R7 and R8 photoreceptors. These genetic tools were used to assess how the synaptic profile is affected when axons are forced to target abnormal layers by expressing axon guidance molecules. When R7 axons were mistargeted to the R8-recipient layer, R7s either maintained an R7-like synaptic profile or acquired a similar profile to r8s depending on the overexpressed protein. When R7 axons were redirected to a more superficial medulla layer, the number of presynaptic terminals was reduced. These results indicate that cell-surface molecules are able to dictate synapse loci by changing the axon terminal identity in a partially cell-autonomous manner, but that presynapse formation at specific sites also requires complex interactions between pre- and post-synaptic elements. PMID:24386266

  13. Local and systemic effects of targeted zinc redistribution in Drosophila neuronal and gastrointestinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher D; Burke, Richard

    2015-12-01

    While the effects of systemic zinc ion deficiency and toxicity on animal health are well documented, the impacts of localized, tissue-specific disturbances in zinc homeostasis are less well understood. Previously we have identified zinc dyshomeostasis scenarios caused by the targeted manipulation of zinc transport genes in the Drosophila eye. Over expression of the uptake transporter dZIP42C.1 (dZIP1) combined with knockdown of the efflux transporter dZNT63C (dZNT1) causes a zinc toxicity phenotype, as does over expression of dZIP71B or dZNT86D. However, all three genotypes result in different morphologies, responses to dietary zinc, and genetic interactions with the remaining zinc transport genes, indicating that each causes a different redistribution of zinc within affected cells. dZNT86D (eGFP) over expression generates a completely different phenotype, interpreted as a Golgi zinc deficiency. Here we assess the effect of each of these transgenes when targeted to a range of Drosophila tissues. We find that dZIP71B is a particularly potent zinc uptake gene, causing early developmental lethality when targeted to multiple different tissue types. dZNT86D over expression (Golgi-only zinc toxicity) is less deleterious, but causes highly penetrant adult cuticle, sensory bristle and wing expansion defects. The dZIP42C.1 over expression, dZNT63C knockdown combination causes only moderate adult cuticle defects and sensitivity to dietary zinc when expressed in the midgut. The Golgi-only zinc deficiency caused by dZNT86D (eGFP) expression results in mild cuticle defects, highly penetrant wing expansion defects and developmental lethality when targeted to the central nervous system and, uniquely, the fat bodies. PMID:26411574

  14. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, L.; Gillespie, B.; Seaman, G.

    1997-11-01

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Devices, systems, and methods for conducting sandwich assays using sedimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaff, Ulrich Y; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Hatch, Anson V

    2015-02-03

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting sandwich assays using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes on a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a capture agent, a target analyte, and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  16. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I.; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-01-01

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R2 = 98.78%). PMID:27367694

  17. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-01-01

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R² = 98.78%). PMID:27367694

  18. Navigation-specific neural coding in the visual system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Alex D M; Wystrach, Antoine; Graham, Paul; Philippides, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila melanogaster are a good system in which to understand the minimal requirements for widespread visually guided behaviours such as navigation, due to their small brains (adults possess only 100,000 neurons) and the availability of neurogenetic techniques which allow the identification of task-specific cell types. Recently published data describe the receptive fields for two classes of visually responsive neurons (R2 and R3/R4d ring neurons in the central complex) that are essential for visual tasks such as orientation memory for salient objects and simple pattern discriminations. What is interesting is that these cells have very large receptive fields and are very small in number, suggesting that each sub-population of cells might be a bottleneck in the processing of visual information for a specific behaviour, as each subset of cells effectively condenses information from approximately 3000 visual receptors in the eye, to fewer than 50 neurons in total. It has recently been shown how R1 ring neurons, which receive input from the same areas as the R2 and R3/R4d cells, are necessary for place learning in Drosophila. However, how R1 neurons enable place learning is unknown. By examining the information provided by different populations of hypothetical visual neurons in simulations of experimental arenas, we show that neurons with ring neuron-like receptive fields are sufficient for defining a location visually. In this way we provide a link between the type of information conveyed by ring neurons and the behaviour they support. PMID:26310914

  19. Drosophila Melanogaster as a Model System for Studies of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Sebastian Wolfgang; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Westermark, Gunilla Torstensdotter

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent research supports that aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) leads to cell death and this makes islet amyloid a plausible cause for the reduction of beta cell mass, demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes. IAPP is produced by the beta cells as a prohormone, and proIAPP is processed into IAPP by the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 in the secretory granules. Little is known about the pathogenesis for islet amyloid and which intracellular mechanisms are involved in amyloidogenesis and induction of cell death. Methodology/Principal Findings We have established expression of human proIAPP (hproIAPP), human IAPP (hIAPP) and the non-amyloidogenic mouse IAPP (mIAPP) in Drosophila melanogaster, and compared survival of flies with the expression driven to different cell populations. Only flies expressing hproIAPP in neurons driven by the Gal4 driver elavC155,Gal4 showed a reduction in lifespan whereas neither expression of hIAPP or mIAPP influenced survival. Both hIAPP and hproIAPP expression caused formation of aggregates in CNS and fat body region, and these aggregates were both stained by the dyes Congo red and pFTAA, both known to detect amyloid. Also, the morphology of the highly organized protein granules that developed in the fat body of the head in hIAPP and hproIAPP expressing flies was characterized, and determined to consist of 15.8 nm thick pentagonal rod-like structures. Conclusions/Significance These findings point to a potential for Drosophila melanogaster to serve as a model system for studies of hproIAPP and hIAPP expression with subsequent aggregation and developed pathology. PMID:21695120

  20. Field Deployable Tritium Assay System Remote Control Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-12

    The FDTASREM software is a command control based application for the Field Deployable Tritium Assay System (FDTAS-Invention Disclosure SRS-96-091 has been submitted). The program runs on the Remote computer which is located at the field site with the FDTAS sampling and analysis components. The application executes commands received over the connected phone line from the operator via the FDTAS Host GUI running in the laboratory some distance away. The FDTASREM controls interface with the FDTASmore » auto sampler and the analysis systems. It tells the sampler to take a sample from a specified location and send it to the analyzer. Once the sample is sent to the analyzer, FDTASREM sequences the internal valves and pumps to deliver the sample and cocktail to the counting chamber. Once the analysis is complete, the program can execute the clean command and prepare the system for the next sample.« less

  1. Generation of a sensitive TNFR2-specific murine assays system.

    PubMed

    Ando, D; Kamada, H; Inoue, M; Taki, S; Furuya, T; Abe, Y; Nagano, K; Tsutsumi, Y; Tsunoda, S

    2016-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/TNF receptors (TNFR1/TNFR2) are considered to be potential drug targets to treat refractory diseases, including autoimmune diseases and malignant tumors. However, their specific functions, especially in the case of TNFR2, are poorly understood. In this study, we constructed a mouse TNFR2 (mTNFR2)-mediated biological assay system that shows no effects of mouse TNFR1 (mTNFR1) in order to screen mTNFR2-selective stimulating agents. Mouse TNFR1(-/-)R2(-/-) preadipocytes were transfected with the gene encoding the mTNFR2/mouse Fas (mFas) chimeric receptor in which the extracellular and transmembrane domains of mTNFR2 were fused to the intracellular domain of mFas. Our results demonstrated that this cell line exhibits highly sensitive mTNFR2-mediated cytotoxic effects. We propose that this mTNFR2-mediated biological assay system would be a useful tool to screen for mTNFR2-selective stimulating agents. PMID:27348964

  2. Embryonic Origins of a Motor System:Motor Dendrites Form a Myotopic Mapin Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The organisational principles of locomotor networks are less well understood than those of many sensory systems, where in-growing axon terminals form a central map of peripheral characteristics. Using the neuromuscular system of the Drosophila embryo as a model and retrograde tracing and genetic methods, we have uncovered principles underlying the organisation of the motor system. We find that dendritic arbors of motor neurons, rather than their cell bodies, are partitioned into domains to form a myotopic map, which represents centrally the distribution of body wall muscles peripherally. While muscles are segmental, the myotopic map is parasegmental in organisation. It forms by an active process of dendritic growth independent of the presence of target muscles, proper differentiation of glial cells, or (in its initial partitioning) competitive interactions between adjacent dendritic domains. The arrangement of motor neuron dendrites into a myotopic map represents a first layer of organisation in the motor system. This is likely to be mirrored, at least in part, by endings of higher-order neurons from central pattern-generating circuits, which converge onto the motor neuron dendrites. These findings will greatly simplify the task of understanding how a locomotor system is assembled. Our results suggest that the cues that organise the myotopic map may be laid down early in development as the embryo subdivides into parasegmental units. PMID:14624243

  3. Structure of the voltage-dependent potassium channel is highly conserved from Drosophila to vertebrate central nervous systems.

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, A; Grupe, A; Ackermann, A; Pongs, O

    1988-01-01

    Voltage-sensitive potassium channels are found in vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems. We have isolated a rat brain cDNA by cross-hybridization with a probe of the Drosophila Shaker gene complex. Structural conservation of domains of the deduced protein indicate that the rat brain cDNA encodes a voltage-sensitive potassium channel. Of the deduced amino acid sequence, 82% is homologous to the Drosophila Shaker protein indicating that voltage-sensitive potassium channels have been highly conserved during evolution. Selective pressure was highest on sequences facing the intracellular side and on proposed transmembrane segments S4-S6, suggesting that these domains are crucial for voltage-dependent potassium channel function. The corresponding rat mRNA apparently belongs to a family of mRNA molecules which are preferentially expressed in the central nervous system. Images PMID:3191911

  4. SWEPP Assay System Version 2.0 software design description

    SciTech Connect

    East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. This program has been in operation since 1985 at the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) isotopes present. A Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is used to perform these measurements. A computer program named NEUT2 was originally used to perform the data acquisition and reduction functions for the neutron measurements. This program was originally developed at Los Alamos and extensively modified by a commercial vendor of PAN systems and by personnel at the INEL. NEUT2 uses the analysis methodology outlined, but no formal documentation exists on the program itself. The SWEPP Assay System (SAS) computer program replaced the NEUT2 program in early 1994. The SAS software was developed using an `object model` approach and is documented in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. The new program incorporates the basic analysis algorithms found in NEUT2. Additional functionality and improvements include a graphical user interface, the ability to change analysis parameters without program code modification, an `object model` design approach and other features for improved flexibility and maintainability.

  5. Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles. PMID:20525744

  6. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-07-18

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  7. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Marlow, Johnna B; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; Iwamoto, Tomonori; Tamura, Takayuki; Aiuchi, Syun

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  8. Lineage mapping identifies molecular and architectural similarities between the larval and adult Drosophila central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lacin, Haluk; Truman, James W

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis in Drosophila occurs in two phases, embryonic and post-embryonic, in which the same set of neuroblasts give rise to the distinct larval and adult nervous systems, respectively. Here, we identified the embryonic neuroblast origin of the adult neuronal lineages in the ventral nervous system via lineage-specific GAL4 lines and molecular markers. Our lineage mapping revealed that neurons born late in the embryonic phase show axonal morphology and transcription factor profiles that are similar to the neurons born post-embryonically from the same neuroblast. Moreover, we identified three thorax-specific neuroblasts not previously characterized and show that HOX genes confine them to the thoracic segments. Two of these, NB2-3 and NB3-4, generate leg motor neurons. The other neuroblast is novel and appears to have arisen recently during insect evolution. Our findings provide a comprehensive view of neurogenesis and show how proliferation of individual neuroblasts is dictated by temporal and spatial cues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13399.001 PMID:26975248

  9. Genetic and molecular studies of apterous: a gene implicated in the juvenile hormone system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Shtorch, A; Werczberger, R; Segal, D

    1995-01-01

    The apterous (ap) gene in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a homeodomain transcription factor. It is required for the development of the wings and of a subset of embryonic muscles. The gene has been implicated in the juvenile hormone (JH) system because mutations in ap lead to JH deficiency, and are associated with defective histolysis of the larval fat body, arrested vitellogenesis, sterility, and aberrant sexual behavior, all of which are dependent on JH. We describe here the use of hemizygotes and germ-line clones, of X-ray- and hybrid dysgenesis-induced lethal ap alleles to determine the primary role of the gene during development. We find that ap lethality is polyphasic, but occurs primarily at the larval and pupal stages. The lethal phenotype is not associated with any overt morphological abnormality, suggesting that death occurs from a systemic malfunction. Strong interallelic complementation for the wing phenotype was found between some ap mutations induced by X-rays or by hybrid-dysgenesis. By Northern blot analysis, we demonstrate an increase in ap expression in pupae and adults as compared to embryos and larvae, suggesting that it is developmentally regulated. Finally, primer extension is used to determine the transcription start site of the gene. PMID:7579572

  10. Asymmetric Rab 11 endosomes regulate delta recycling and specify cell fate in the Drosophila nervous system.

    PubMed

    Emery, Gregory; Hutterer, Andrea; Berdnik, Daniela; Mayer, Bernd; Wirtz-Peitz, Frederik; Gaitan, Marcos Gonzalez; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2005-09-01

    Drosophila sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells are a well-studied model system for asymmetric cell division. During SOP division, the determinants Numb and Neuralized segregate into the pIIb daughter cell and establish a distinct cell fate by regulating Notch/Delta signaling. Here, we describe a Numb- and Neuralized-independent mechanism that acts redundantly in cell-fate specification. We show that trafficking of the Notch ligand Delta is different in the two daughter cells. In pIIb, Delta passes through the recycling endosome which is marked by Rab 11. In pIIa, however, the recycling endosome does not form because the centrosome fails to recruit Nuclear fallout, a Rab 11 binding partner that is essential for recycling endosome formation. Using a mammalian cell culture system, we demonstrate that recycling endosomes are essential for Delta activity. Our results suggest that cells can regulate signaling pathways and influence their developmental fate by inhibiting the formation of individual endocytic compartments. PMID:16137758

  11. CoinFLP: a system for efficient mosaic screening and for visualizing clonal boundaries in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Justin A; Tran, Ngoc Han; Hariharan, Iswar K

    2015-02-01

    Screens in mosaic Drosophila tissues that use chemical mutagenesis have identified many regulators of growth and patterning. Many of the mutant phenotypes observed were contingent upon the presence of both wild-type and mutant cells in the same tissue. More recently, large collections of RNAi lines or cDNAs expressed under Gal4/UAS control have been used to alter gene expression uniformly in specific tissues. However, these newer approaches are not easily combined with the efficient generation of genetic mosaics. The CoinFLP system described here enables mosaic screens in the context of gene knockdown or overexpression by automatically generating a reliable ratio of mutant to wild-type tissue in a developmentally controlled manner. CoinFLP-Gal4 generates mosaic tissues composed of clones of which only a subset expresses Gal4. CoinFLP-LexGAD/Gal4 generates tissues composed of clones that express either Gal4 or LexGAD, thus allowing the study of interactions between different types of genetically manipulated cells. By combining CoinFLP-LexGAD/Gal4 with the split-GFP system GRASP, boundaries between genetically distinct cell populations can be visualized at high resolution. PMID:25605786

  12. Mating system variation drives rapid evolution of the female transcriptome in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Elina; Snook, Rhonda R; Ritchie, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between the sexes are believed to be a potent source of selection on sex-specific evolution. The way in which sexual interactions influence male investment is much studied, but effects on females are more poorly understood. To address this deficiency, we examined gene expression in virgin female Drosophila pseudoobscura following 100 generations of mating system manipulations in which we either elevated polyandry or enforced monandry. Gene expression evolution following mating system manipulation resulted in 14% of the transcriptome of virgin females being altered. Polyandrous females elevated expression of a greater number of genes normally enriched in ovaries and associated with mitosis and meiosis, which might reflect female investment into reproductive functions. Monandrous females showed a greater number of genes normally enriched for expression in somatic tissues, including the head and gut and associated with visual perception and metabolism, respectively. By comparing our data with a previous study of sex differences in gene expression in this species, we found that the majority of the genes that are differentially expressed between females of the selection treatments show female-biased expression in the wild-type population. A striking exception is genes associated with male-specific reproductive tissues (in D. melanogaster), which are upregulated in polyandrous females. Our results provide experimental evidence for a role of sex-specific selection arising from differing sexual interactions with males in promoting rapid evolution of the female transcriptome. PMID:25360260

  13. Mental Retardation Genes in Drosophila: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Developmental Brain Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restifo, Linda L.

    2005-01-01

    "Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…

  14. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

  15. Bacterial Communities of Diverse Drosophila Species: Ecological Context of a Host–Microbe Model System

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Srijak; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Kopp, Artyom

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as an important model of non-pathogenic host–microbe interactions. The genetic and experimental tractability of Drosophila has led to significant gains in our understanding of animal–microbial symbiosis. However, the full implications of these results cannot be appreciated without the knowledge of the microbial communities associated with natural Drosophila populations. In particular, it is not clear whether laboratory cultures can serve as an accurate model of host–microbe interactions that occur in the wild, or those that have occurred over evolutionary time. To fill this gap, we characterized natural bacterial communities associated with 14 species of Drosophila and related genera collected from distant geographic locations. To represent the ecological diversity of Drosophilids, examined species included fruit-, flower-, mushroom-, and cactus-feeders. In parallel, wild host populations were compared to laboratory strains, and controlled experiments were performed to assess the importance of host species and diet in shaping bacterial microbiome composition. We find that Drosophilid flies have taxonomically restricted bacterial communities, with 85% of the natural bacterial microbiome composed of only four bacterial families. The dominant bacterial taxa are widespread and found in many different host species despite the taxonomic, ecological, and geographic diversity of their hosts. Both natural surveys and laboratory experiments indicate that host diet plays a major role in shaping the Drosophila bacterial microbiome. Despite this, the internal bacterial microbiome represents only a highly reduced subset of the external bacterial communities, suggesting that the host exercises some level of control over the bacteria that inhabit its digestive tract. Finally, we show that laboratory strains provide only a limited model of natural host–microbe interactions. Bacterial taxa used in experimental studies are rare or absent in

  16. Mating-Induced Increase in Germline Stem Cells via the Neuroendocrine System in Female Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ameku, Tomotsune

    2016-01-01

    Mating and gametogenesis are two essential components of animal reproduction. Gametogenesis must be modulated by the need for gametes, yet little is known of how mating, a process that utilizes gametes, may modulate the process of gametogenesis. Here, we report that mating stimulates female germline stem cell (GSC) proliferation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mating-induced increase in GSC number is not simply owing to the indirect effect of emission of stored eggs, but rather is stimulated by a male-derived Sex Peptide (SP) and its receptor SPR, the components of a canonical neuronal pathway that induces a post-mating behavioral switch in females. We show that ecdysteroid, the major insect steroid hormone, regulates mating-induced GSC proliferation independently of insulin signaling. Ovarian ecdysteroid level increases after mating and transmits its signal directly through the ecdysone receptor expressed in the ovarian niche to increase the number of GSCs. Impairment of ovarian ecdysteroid biosynthesis disrupts mating-induced increase in GSCs as well as egg production. Importantly, feeding of ecdysteroid rescues the decrease in GSC number caused by impairment of neuronal SP signaling. Our study illustrates how female GSC activity is coordinately regulated by the neuroendocrine system to sustain reproductive success in response to mating. PMID:27310920

  17. Mating-Induced Increase in Germline Stem Cells via the Neuroendocrine System in Female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ameku, Tomotsune; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Mating and gametogenesis are two essential components of animal reproduction. Gametogenesis must be modulated by the need for gametes, yet little is known of how mating, a process that utilizes gametes, may modulate the process of gametogenesis. Here, we report that mating stimulates female germline stem cell (GSC) proliferation in Drosophila melanogaster. Mating-induced increase in GSC number is not simply owing to the indirect effect of emission of stored eggs, but rather is stimulated by a male-derived Sex Peptide (SP) and its receptor SPR, the components of a canonical neuronal pathway that induces a post-mating behavioral switch in females. We show that ecdysteroid, the major insect steroid hormone, regulates mating-induced GSC proliferation independently of insulin signaling. Ovarian ecdysteroid level increases after mating and transmits its signal directly through the ecdysone receptor expressed in the ovarian niche to increase the number of GSCs. Impairment of ovarian ecdysteroid biosynthesis disrupts mating-induced increase in GSCs as well as egg production. Importantly, feeding of ecdysteroid rescues the decrease in GSC number caused by impairment of neuronal SP signaling. Our study illustrates how female GSC activity is coordinately regulated by the neuroendocrine system to sustain reproductive success in response to mating. PMID:27310920

  18. Drosophila calmodulin mutants with specific defects in the musculature or in the nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Sullivan, Kathleen M C; Beckingham, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    We have studied lethal mutations in the single calmodulin gene (Cam) of Drosophila to gain insight into the in vivo functions of this important calcium sensor. As a result of maternal calmodulin (CaM) in the mature egg, lethality is delayed until the postembryonic stages. Prior to death in the first larval instar, Cam nulls show a striking behavioral abnormality (spontaneous backward movement) whereas a mutation, Cam7, that results in a single amino acid change (V91G) produces a very different phenotype: short indented pupal cases and pupal death with head eversion defects. We show here that the null behavioral phenotype originates in the nervous system and involves a CaM function that requires calcium binding to all four sites of the protein. Further, backward movement can be induced in hypomorphic mutants by exposure to high light levels. In contrast, the V91G mutation specifically affects the musculature and causes abnormal calcium release in response to depolarization of the muscles. Genetic interaction studies suggest that failed regulation of the muscle calcium release channel, the ryanodine receptor, is the major defect underlying the Cam7 phenotype. PMID:14668380

  19. Developmental origin of wiring specificity in the olfactory system of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jefferis, Gregory S X E; Vyas, Raj M; Berdnik, Daniela; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F; Tanaka, Nobuaki K; Ito, Kei; Luo, Liqun

    2004-01-01

    In both insects and mammals, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing specific olfactory receptors converge their axons onto specific glomeruli, creating a spatial map in the brain. We have previously shown that second order projection neurons (PNs) in Drosophila are prespecified by lineage and birth order to send their dendrites to one of approximately 50 glomeruli in the antennal lobe. How can a given class of ORN axons match up with a given class of PN dendrites? Here, we examine the cellular and developmental events that lead to this wiring specificity. We find that, before ORN axon arrival, PN dendrites have already created a prototypic map that resembles the adult glomerular map, by virtue of their selective dendritic localization. Positional cues that create this prototypic dendritic map do not appear to be either from the residual larval olfactory system or from glial processes within the antennal lobe. We propose instead that this prototypic map might originate from both patterning information external to the developing antennal lobe and interactions among PN dendrites. PMID:14645123

  20. Controlled expression of Drosophila homeobox loci using the Hostile takeover system

    PubMed Central

    Javeed, Naureen; Tardi, Nicholas J.; Maher, Maggie; Singari, Swetha; Edwards, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hostile takeover (Hto) is a Drosophila protein trapping system that allows the investigator to both induce a gene and tag its product. The Hto transposon carries a GAL4-regulated promoter expressing an exon encoding a FLAG-mCherry tag. Upon expression, the Hto exon can splice to a downstream genomic exon, generating a fusion transcript and tagged protein. Results Using rough-eye phenotypic screens, Hto inserts were recovered at eight homeobox or Pax loci: cut, Drgx/CG34340, Pox neuro, araucan, shaven/D-Pax2, Zn finger homeodomain 2, Sex combs reduced (Scr), and the abdominal-A region. The collection yields diverse misexpression phenotypes. Ectopic Drgx was found to alter the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion in ovary follicle cells. Hto expression of cut, araucan or shaven gives phenotypes similar to those of the corresponding UAS-cDNA constructs. The cut and Pox neuro phenotypes are suppressed by the corresponding RNAi constructs. The Scr and abdominal-A inserts do not make fusion proteins, but may act by chromatin- or RNA-based mechanisms. Conclusions Hto can effectively express tagged homeodomain proteins from their endogenous loci; the Minos vector allows inserts to be obtained even in transposon cold-spots. Hto screens may recover homeobox genes at high rates because they are particularly sensitive to misexpression. PMID:25820349

  1. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Zana R.; Abdeljaber, Esraa; Soveland, Robin; Cornwell, Kristin; Bankemper, Aubrey; Koch, Felicitas; Cooper, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT receptor subtypes were manipulated using RNA interference mediated knockdown and 5-HT receptor insertional mutations. Moreover, synaptic transmission at 5-HT neurons was blocked or enhanced in both larvae and adult flies. The results demonstrate that disruption of components within the 5-HT system significantly impairs locomotion and feeding behaviors in larvae. Acute activation of 5-HT neurons disrupts normal locomotion activity in adult flies. To determine which 5-HT receptor subtype modulates the evoked sensory-motor activity, pharmacological agents were used. In addition, the activity of 5-HT neurons was enhanced by expressing and activating TrpA1 channels or channelrhodopsin-2 while recording the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in muscle fibers. 5-HT2 receptor activation mediates a modulatory role in a sensory-motor circuit, and the activation of 5-HT neurons can suppress the neural circuit activity, while fluoxetine can significantly decrease the sensory-motor activity. PMID:26989517

  2. Genetic Tools for the Analysis of Drosophila Stomatogastric Nervous System Development

    PubMed Central

    Bowser, Micah; Kidd, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila stomatogastric nervous system (SNS) is a compact collection of neurons that arises from the migration of neural precursors. Here we describe genetic tools allowing functional analysis of the SNS during the migratory phase of development. We constructed GAL4 lines driven by fragments of the Ret promoter, which yielded expression in a subset of migrating neural SNS precursors and also included a distinct set of midgut associated cells. Screening of additional GAL4 lines driven by fragments of the Gfrl/Munin, forkhead, twist and goosecoid (Gsc) promoters identified a Gsc fragment with expression from initial selection of SNS precursors until the end of embryogenesis. Inhibition of EGFR signaling using three identified lines disrupted the correct patterning of the frontal and recurrent nerves. To manipulate the environment traveled by SNS precursors, a FasII-GAL4 line with strong expression throughout the entire intestinal tract was identified. The transgenic lines described offer the ability to specifically manipulate the migration of SNS precursors and will allow the modeling and in-depth analysis of neuronal migration in ENS disorders such as Hirschsprung’s disease. PMID:26053861

  3. Inducible DamID systems for genomic mapping of chromatin proteins in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pindyurin, Alexey V; Pagie, Ludo; Kozhevnikova, Elena N; van Arensbergen, Joris; van Steensel, Bas

    2016-07-01

    Dam identification (DamID) is a powerful technique to generate genome-wide maps of chromatin protein binding. Due to its high sensitivity, it is particularly suited to study the genome interactions of chromatin proteins in small tissue samples in model organisms such as Drosophila Here, we report an intein-based approach to tune the expression level of Dam and Dam-fusion proteins in Drosophila by addition of a ligand to fly food. This helps to suppress possible toxic effects of Dam. In addition, we describe a strategy for genetically controlled expression of Dam in a specific cell type in complex tissues. We demonstrate the utility of the latter by generating a glia-specific map of Polycomb in small samples of brain tissue. These new DamID tools will be valuable for the mapping of binding patterns of chromatin proteins in Drosophila tissues and especially in cell lineages. PMID:27001518

  4. Inducible DamID systems for genomic mapping of chromatin proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pindyurin, Alexey V.; Pagie, Ludo; Kozhevnikova, Elena N.; van Arensbergen, Joris; van Steensel, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Dam identification (DamID) is a powerful technique to generate genome-wide maps of chromatin protein binding. Due to its high sensitivity, it is particularly suited to study the genome interactions of chromatin proteins in small tissue samples in model organisms such as Drosophila. Here, we report an intein-based approach to tune the expression level of Dam and Dam-fusion proteins in Drosophila by addition of a ligand to fly food. This helps to suppress possible toxic effects of Dam. In addition, we describe a strategy for genetically controlled expression of Dam in a specific cell type in complex tissues. We demonstrate the utility of the latter by generating a glia-specific map of Polycomb in small samples of brain tissue. These new DamID tools will be valuable for the mapping of binding patterns of chromatin proteins in Drosophila tissues and especially in cell lineages. PMID:27001518

  5. Genetics on the Fly: A Primer on the Drosophila Model System.

    PubMed

    Hales, Karen G; Korey, Christopher A; Larracuente, Amanda M; Roberts, David M

    2015-11-01

    Fruit flies of the genus Drosophila have been an attractive and effective genetic model organism since Thomas Hunt Morgan and colleagues made seminal discoveries with them a century ago. Work with Drosophila has enabled dramatic advances in cell and developmental biology, neurobiology and behavior, molecular biology, evolutionary and population genetics, and other fields. With more tissue types and observable behaviors than in other short-generation model organisms, and with vast genome data available for many species within the genus, the fly's tractable complexity will continue to enable exciting opportunities to explore mechanisms of complex developmental programs, behaviors, and broader evolutionary questions. This primer describes the organism's natural history, the features of sequenced genomes within the genus, the wide range of available genetic tools and online resources, the types of biological questions Drosophila can help address, and historical milestones. PMID:26564900

  6. Bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) system for nucleic acid quantification assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassibi, Arjang; Lee, Thomas H.; Davis, Ronald W.; Pourmand, Nader

    2003-07-01

    A new label-free methodology for nucleic acid quantification has been developed where the number of pyrophosphate molecules (PPi) released during polymerization of the target nucleic acid is counted and correlated to DNA copy number. The technique uses the enzymatic complex of ATP-sulfurylase and firefly luciferase to generate photons from PPi. An enzymatic unity gain positive feedback is also implemented to regenerate the photon generation process and compensate any decay in light intensity by self regulation. Due to this positive feedback, the total number of photons generated by the bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) can potentially be orders of magnitude higher than typical chemiluminescent processes. A system level kinetic model that incorporates the effects of contaminations and detector noise was used to show that the photon generation process is in fact steady and also proportional to the nucleic acid quantity. Here we show that BRC is capable of detecting quantities of DNA as low as 1 amol (10-18 mole) in 40μlit aqueous solutions, and this enzymatic assay has a controllable dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of this technology, due to the excess number of photons generated by the regenerative cycle, is not constrained by detector performance, but rather by possible PPi or ATP (adenosine triphosphate) contamination, or background bioluminescence of the enzymatic complex.

  7. Drosophila DEG/ENaC pickpocket genes are expressed in the tracheal system, where they may be involved in liquid clearance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Johnson, Wayne A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila tracheal system and mammalian airways are branching networks of tubular epithelia that deliver oxygen to the organism. In mammals, the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) helps clear liquid from airways at the time of birth and removes liquid from the airspaces in adults. We tested the hypothesis that related Drosophila degenerin (DEG)/ENaC family members might play a similar role in the fly. Among 16 Drosophila DEG/ENaC genes, called pickpocket (PPK) genes, we found 9 expressed in the tracheal system. By in situ hybridization, expression appeared in late-stage embryos after tracheal tube formation, with individual PPK genes showing distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns as development progressed. Promoters for several PPK genes drove reporter gene expression in the larval and adult tracheal systems. Adding the DEG/ENaC channel blocker amiloride to the medium inhibited liquid clearance from the trachea of first instar larvae. Moreover, when RNA interference was used to silence PPK4 and PPK11, larvae failed to clear tracheal liquid. These data suggest substantial molecular diversity of DEG/ENaC channel expression in the Drosophila tracheal system where the PPK proteins likely play a role in Na+ absorption. Extensive similarities between Drosophila and mammalian airways offer opportunities for genetic studies that may decipher further the structure and function of DEG/ENaC proteins and development of the airways. PMID:12571352

  8. Tetrahydropterin as a possible natural cofactor in the drosophila phenylalanine hydroxylation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bel, Y.; Jacobson, K.B.; Ferre, J. . Dept. of Genetics; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Valencia Univ. . Dept. of Genetics)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PH) activity of Drosophila melanogaster wild type with different cofactors: the two natural occurring tetrahydropteridines (BH{sub 4} and PH{sub 4}) and the synthetic 6,7-dimethyltetrahydropterin (DMPH{sub 4}), as well as the determination of this activity at different developmental stages. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Predetermined embryonic glial cells form the distinct glial sheaths of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    von Hilchen, Christian M.; Bustos, Álvaro E.; Giangrande, Angela; Technau, Gerhard M.; Altenhein, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    One of the numerous functions of glial cells in Drosophila is the ensheathment of neurons to isolate them from the potassium-rich haemolymph, thereby establishing the blood-brain barrier. Peripheral nerves of flies are surrounded by three distinct glial cell types. Although all embryonic peripheral glia (ePG) have been identified on a single-cell level, their contribution to the three glial sheaths is not known. We used the Flybow system to label and identify each individual ePG in the living embryo and followed them into third instar larva. We demonstrate that all ePG persist until the end of larval development and some even to adulthood. We uncover the origin of all three glial sheaths and describe the larval differentiation of each peripheral glial cell in detail. Interestingly, just one ePG (ePG2) exhibits mitotic activity during larval stages, giving rise to up to 30 glial cells along a single peripheral nerve tract forming the outermost perineurial layer. The unique mitotic ability of ePG2 and the layer affiliation of additional cells were confirmed by in vivo ablation experiments and layer-specific block of cell cycle progression. The number of cells generated by this glial progenitor and hence the control of perineurial hyperplasia correlate with the length of the abdominal nerves. By contrast, the wrapping and subperineurial glia layers show enormous hypertrophy in response to larval growth. This characterisation of the embryonic origin and development of each glial sheath will facilitate functional studies, as they can now be addressed distinctively and genetically manipulated in the embryo. PMID:23903191

  10. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Godino, Laura Lucia Prieto; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O. Venkateswara; VijayRaghavan, K.; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  11. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Raghavan, K Vijay; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-15

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  12. Automated Triplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT Assay Systems for Blood Screening in India.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Manoj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review is confined to triplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays to be used on fully automated platform. Around the world, these assays are being used at various transfusion medicine centres or blood banks to screen blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV. These assay systems can screen up to 1000 blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV simultaneously in a day. This area has been dominated by mainly two manufacturers: M/s Gen-Probe-Novartis and M/s Roche Molecular Systems. The triplex NAT assay systems of both manufacturers are licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. There is not much awareness about the technology and procedures used in these assays. The main objective of this review is to create awareness about the technology and procedure of these assays. PMID:27042485

  13. Automated Triplex (HBV, HCV and HIV) NAT Assay Systems for Blood Screening in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This review is confined to triplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays to be used on fully automated platform. Around the world, these assays are being used at various transfusion medicine centres or blood banks to screen blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV. These assay systems can screen up to 1000 blood units for HBV, HCV and HIV simultaneously in a day. This area has been dominated by mainly two manufacturers: M/s Gen-Probe-Novartis and M/s Roche Molecular Systems. The triplex NAT assay systems of both manufacturers are licensed by United States Food and Drug Administration. There is not much awareness about the technology and procedures used in these assays. The main objective of this review is to create awareness about the technology and procedure of these assays. PMID:27042485

  14. Why Drosophila to Study Phototransduction?

    PubMed Central

    Pak, William L.

    2010-01-01

    This review recounts the early history of Drosophila phototransduction genetics, covering the period between approximately 1966 to 1979. Early in this period, the author felt that there was an urgent need for a new approach in phototransduction research. Through inputs from a number of colleagues, he was led to consider isolating Drosophila mutants that are defective in the electroretinogram. Thanks to the efforts of dedicated associates and technical staff, by the end of this period, he was able to accumulate a large number of such mutants. Particularly important in this effort was the use of the mutant assay protocol based on the “prolonged depolarizing afterpotential.” This collection of mutants formed the basis of the subsequent intensive investigations of the Drosophila phototransduction cascade by many investigators. PMID:20536286

  15. SoxNeuro orchestrates central nervous system specification and differentiation in Drosophila and is only partially redundant with Dichaete

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sox proteins encompass an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors with critical roles in animal development and stem cell biology. In common with vertebrates, the Drosophila group B proteins SoxNeuro and Dichaete are involved in central nervous system development, where they play both similar and unique roles in gene regulation. Sox genes show extensive functional redundancy across metazoans, but the molecular basis underpinning functional compensation mechanisms at the genomic level are currently unknown. Results Using a combination of genome-wide binding analysis and gene expression profiling, we show that SoxNeuro directs embryonic neural development from the early specification of neuroblasts through to the terminal differentiation of neurons and glia. To address the issue of functional redundancy and compensation at a genomic level, we compare SoxNeuro and Dichaete binding, identifying common and independent binding events in wild-type conditions, as well as instances of compensation and loss of binding in mutant backgrounds. Conclusions We find that early aspects of group B Sox functions in the central nervous system, such as stem cell maintenance and dorsoventral patterning, are highly conserved. However, in contrast to vertebrates, we find that Drosophila group B1 proteins also play prominent roles during later aspects of neural morphogenesis. Our analysis of the functional relationship between SoxNeuro and Dichaete uncovers evidence for redundant and independent functions for each protein, along with unexpected examples of compensation and interdependency, thus providing new insights into the general issue of transcription factor functional redundancy. PMID:24886562

  16. The gene search system. A method for efficient detection and rapid molecular identification of genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Toba, G; Ohsako, T; Miyata, N; Ohtsuka, T; Seong, K H; Aigaki, T

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed a P-element-based gene search vector for efficient detection of genes in Drosophila melanogaster. The vector contains two copies of the upstream activating sequence (UAS) enhancer adjacent to a core promoter, one copy near the terminal inverted repeats at each end of the vector, and oriented to direct transcription outward. Genes were detected on the basis of phenotypic changes caused by GAL4-dependent forced expression of vector-flanking DNA, and the transcripts were identified with reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) using the vector-specific primer and followed by direct sequencing. The system had a greater sensitivity than those already in use for gain-of-function screening: 64% of the vector insertion lines (394/613) showed phenotypes with forced expression of vector-flanking DNA, such as lethality or defects in adult structure. Molecular analysis of 170 randomly selected insertions with forced expression phenotypes revealed that 21% matched the sequences of cloned genes, and 18% matched reported expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of the insertions in cloned genes, 83% were upstream of the protein-coding region. We discovered two new genes that showed sequence similarity to human genes, Ras-related protein 2 and microsomal glutathione S-transferase. The system can be useful as a tool for the functional mapping of the Drosophila genome. PMID:9927464

  17. The Drosophila F-box protein Archipelago controls levels of the Trachealess transcription factor in the embryonic tracheal system

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Nathan T.; Moberg, Kenneth H.

    2007-01-01

    The archipelago gene (ago) encodes the F-box specificity subunit of an SCF(skp-cullin-f box) ubiquitin ligase that inhibits cell proliferation in Drosophila melanogaster and suppresses tumorigenesis in mammals. ago limits mitotic activity by targeting cell cycle and cell growth proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, but the diverse developmental roles of other F-box proteins suggests that it is likely to have additional protein targets. Here we show that ago is required for the post-mitotic shaping of the Drosophila embryonic tracheal system, and that it acts in this tissue by targeting the Trachealess (Trh) protein, a conserved bHLH-PAS transcription factor. ago restricts Trh levels in vivo and antagonizes transcription of the breathless FGF receptor, a known target of Trh in the tracheal system. At a molecular level, the Ago protein binds Trh and is required for proteasome-dependent elimination of Trh in response to expression of the Dysfusion protein. ago mutations that elevate Trh levels in vivo are defective in binding forms of Trh found in Dysfusion-positive cells. These data identify a novel function for the ago ubiquitin-ligase in tracheal morphogenesis via Trh and its target breathless, and suggest that ago has distinct functions in mitotic and post-mitotic cells that influence its role in development and disease. PMID:17976568

  18. A Bioluminescence Assay System for Imaging Metal Cationic Activities in Urban Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Murata, Shingo; Nakayama, Takayoshi; Miller, Simon; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assay system was fabricated for an efficient determination of the activities of air pollutants. The following four components were integrated into this assay system: (1) an 8-channel assay platform uniquely designed for simultaneously sensing multiple optical samples, (2) single-chain probes illuminating toxic chemicals or heavy metal cations from air pollutants, (3) a microfluidic system for circulating medium mimicking the human body, and (4) the software manimulating the above system. In the protocol, we briefly introduce how to integrate the components into the system and the application to the illumination of the metal cationic activities in air pollutants. PMID:27424913

  19. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfein, M.; Bonner, C.; Maez, R.

    1997-11-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems` performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims of guaranteeing any system`s performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems` performance be evaluated. 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Homeostatic epithelial renewal in the gut is required for dampening a fatal systemic wound response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Asuka; Kuranaga, Erina; Tonoki, Ayako; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Miura, Masayuki

    2013-03-28

    Effective defense responses involve the entire organism. To maintain body homeostasis after tissue damage, a systemic wound response is induced in which the response of each tissue is tightly orchestrated to avoid incomplete recovery or an excessive, damaging response. Here, we provide evidence that in the systemic response to wounding, an apoptotic caspase pathway is activated downstream of reactive oxygen species in the midgut enterocytes (ECs), cells distant from the wound site, in Drosophila. We show that a caspase-pathway mutant has defects in homeostatic gut cell renewal and that inhibiting caspase activity in fly ECs results in the production of systemic lethal factors after wounding. Our results indicate that wounding remotely controls caspase activity in ECs, which activates the tissue stem cell regeneration pathway in the gut to dampen the dangerous systemic wound reaction. PMID:23523355

  1. The Physcomitrella patens System for Transient Gene Expression Assays.

    PubMed

    Thévenin, Johanne; Xu, Wenjia; Vaisman, Louise; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression assays are valuable techniques to study in vivo the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. These methods allow to assess the transcriptional properties of a given transcription factor (TF) or a complex of regulatory proteins against specific DNA motifs, called cis-regulatory elements. Here, we describe a fast, efficient, and reliable method based on the use of Physcomitrella patens protoplasts that allows the study of gene expression in a qualitative and quantitative manner by combining the advantage of GFP (green fluorescent protein) as a marker of promoter activity with flow cytometry for accurate measurement of fluorescence in individual cells. PMID:27557766

  2. Drosophila, a genetic model system to study cocaine-related behaviors: A review with focus on LIM-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heberlein, Ulrike; Tsai, Linus T.–Y.; Kapfhamer, David; Lasek, Amy W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the last decade, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, highly accessible to genetic, behavioral and molecular analyses, has been introduced as a novel model organism to help decipher the complex genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical underpinnings of behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Here we review these data, focusing specifically on cocaine-related behaviors. Several of cocaine's most characteristic properties have been recapitulated in Drosophila. First, cocaine induces motor behaviors in flies that are remarkably similar to those observed in mammals. Second, repeated cocaine administration induces behavioral sensitization a form of behavioral plasticity believed to underlie certain aspects of addiction. Third, a key role for dopaminergic systems in mediating cocaine's effects has been demonstrated through both pharmacological and genetic methods. Finally, and most importantly, unbiased genetic screens, feasible because of the simplicity and scale with which flies can be manipulated in the laboratory, have identified several novel genes and pathways whose role in cocaine behaviors had not been anticipated. Many of these genes and pathways have been validated in mammalian models of drug addiction. We focus in this review on the role of LIM-only proteins in cocaine-induced behaviors. PMID:18694769

  3. Gustatory processing and taste memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2016-06-01

    Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference. These studies have revealed a role for dopamine-mediated plasticity of the mushroom bodies that modulate the threshold of response to appetitive tastants. The identification of neural circuitry regulating taste memory provides a system to study the genetic and physiological processes that govern plasticity within a defined memory circuit. PMID:27328844

  4. An Entry/Gateway® cloning system for general expression of genes with molecular tags in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Omar S; Oliver, Daniel; Eyer, Katie; Pai, Chi-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background Tagged fusion proteins are priceless tools for monitoring the activities of biomolecules in living cells. However, over-expression of fusion proteins sometimes leads to the unwanted lethality or developmental defects. Therefore, vectors that can express tagged proteins at physiological levels are desirable tools for studying dosage-sensitive proteins. We developed a set of Entry/Gateway® vectors for expressing fluorescent fusion proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. The vectors were used to generate fluorescent CP190 which is a component of the gypsy chromatin insulator. We used the fluorescent CP190 to study the dynamic movement of related chromatin insulators in living cells. Results The Entry/Gateway® system is a timesaving technique for quickly generating expression constructs of tagged fusion proteins. We described in this study an Entry/Gateway® based system, which includes six P-element destination vectors (P-DEST) for expressing tagged proteins (eGFP, mRFP, or myc) in Drosophila melanogaster and a TA-based cloning vector for generating entry clones from unstable DNA sequences. We used the P-DEST vectors to express fluorecent CP190 at tolerable levels. Expression of CP190 using the UAS/Gal4 system, instead, led to either lethality or underdeveloped tissues. The expressed eGFP- or mRFP-tagged CP190 proteins are fully functional and rescued the lethality of the homozygous CP190 mutation. We visualized a wide range of CP190 distribution patterns in living cell nuclei, from thousands of tiny particles to less than ten giant ones, which likely reflects diverse organization of higher-order chromatin structures. We also visualized the fusion of multiple smaller insulator bodies into larger aggregates in living cells, which is likely reflective of the dynamic activities of reorganization of chromatin in living nuclei. Conclusion We have developed an efficient cloning system for expressing dosage-sensitive proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. This system

  5. Turbidimetric assay for tetracyclines in feeds using a microtiter plate system.

    PubMed

    Brady, M S; Katz, S E

    1991-01-01

    The microtiter plate system for turbidimetric assay of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) levels in feeds uses a 96 well microtiter plate, a multichannel pipette, and an ELISA reader to measure turbidity. Feeds are extracted for both tetracyclines using AOAC extraction systems. For CTC, the range of the standard curve is 0.001-0.005 microgram CTC/mL; for OTC, the range is 0.004-0.016 microgram OTC/mL. Repeatability of CTC assays, as shown by the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 0.54 to 5.65% for same-day assays and from 2.01 to 9.39% for assays on different days. For OTC, CVs ranged from 2.69 to 10.01% for same-day assays and 3.24 to 9.08% for different-day assays. Average recoveries for CTC were 108.7% for same-day assays and 106.8% for different-day assays; for OTC, average recoveries were 112.4% and 106.5% for same-day and different-day assays, respectively. PMID:1874689

  6. Fruit flies on the front line: the translational impact of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Perrimon, Norbert; Bonini, Nancy M.; Dhillon, Paraminder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila melanogaster has been adopted as one of the most-used model systems since it was first introduced by Thomas Morgan for the study of heredity in the early 20th century. Its experimental tractability and similarity of its biological pathways to those of humans have placed the model at the forefront of research into human development and disease. With the ongoing accumulation of genetic tools and assays, the fly community has at its fingertips the resources to generate diverse Drosophila disease models for the study of genes and pathways involved in a wide range of disorders. In recent years, the fly has also been used successfully for drug screening. In this Editorial, we introduce a Special Collection of reviews, interviews and original research articles that highlight some of the many ways that Drosophila has made, and continues to make, an impact on basic biological insights and translational science. PMID:26935101

  7. Drosophila spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Brill, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes as they differentiate from small round cells approximately 12 μm in diameter into highly polarized, 1.8 mm long, motile sperm capable of participating in fertilization. During spermiogenesis, syncytial cysts of 64 haploid spermatids undergo synchronous differentiation. Numerous changes occur at a subcellular level, including remodeling of existing organelles (mitochondria, nuclei), formation of new organelles (flagellar axonemes, acrosomes), polarization of elongating cysts and plasma membrane addition. At the end of spermatid morphogenesis, organelles, mitochondrial DNA and cytoplasmic components not needed in mature sperm are stripped away in a caspase-dependent process called individualization that results in formation of individual sperm. Here, we review the stages of Drosophila spermiogenesis and examine our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in shaping male germ cell-specific organelles and forming mature, fertile sperm. PMID:23087837

  8. Absence of transitive and systemic pathways allows cell-specific and isoform-specific RNAi in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    ROIGNANT, JEAN-YVES; CARRÉ, CLÉMENT; MUGAT, BRUNO; SZYMCZAK, DIMITRI; LEPESANT, JEAN-ANTOINE; ANTONIEWSKI, CHRISTOPHE

    2003-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) designates the multistep process by which double-stranded RNA induces the silencing of homologous endogenous genes. Some aspects of RNAi appear to be conserved throughout evolution, including the processing of trigger dsRNAs into small 21–23-bp siRNAs and their use to guide the degradation of complementary mRNAs. Two remarkable features of RNAi were uncovered in plants and Caenorhabditid elegans. First, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activities allow the synthesis of siRNA complementary to sequences upstream of or downstream from the initial trigger region in the target mRNA, leading to a transitive RNAi with sequences that had not been initially targeted. Secondly, systemic RNAi may cause the targeting of gene silencing in one tissue to spread to other tissues. Using transgenes expressing dsRNA, we investigated whether transitive and systemic RNAi occur in Drosophila. DsRNA-producing transgenes targeted RNAi to specific regions of alternative mRNA species of one gene without transitive effect directed to sequences downstream from or upstream of the initial trigger region. Moreover, specific expression of a dsRNA, using either cell-specific GAL4 drivers or random clonal activation of a GAL4 driver, mediated a cell-autonomous RNAi. Together, our results provide evidence that transitive and systemic aspects of RNAi are not conserved in Drosophila and demonstrate that dsRNA-producing transgenes allow powerful reverse genetic approaches to be conducted in this model organism, by knocking down gene functions at the resolution of a single-cell type and of a single isoform. PMID:12592004

  9. Microfluidic System for Automated Cell-based Assays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Philip J; Ghorashian, Navid; Gaige, Terry A; Hung, Paul J

    2007-12-01

    Microfluidic cell culture is a promising technology for applications in the drug screening industry. Key benefits include improved biological function, higher quality cell-based data, reduced reagent consumption, and lower cost. In this work, we demonstrate how a microfluidic cell culture design was adapted to be compatible with the standard 96-well plate format. Key design features include the elimination of tubing and connectors, the ability to maintain long term continuous perfusion cell culture using a passive gravity driven pump, and direct analysis on the outlet wells of the microfluidic plate. A single microfluidic culture plate contained 8 independent flow units, each with 10(4) cells at a flow rate of 50 μl/day (6 minute residence time). The cytotoxicity of the anti-cancer drug etoposide was measured on HeLa cells cultured in this format, using a commercial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plate reader assay. The integration of microfluidic cell culture methods with commercial automation capabilities offers an exciting opportunity for improved cell-based screening. PMID:18172509

  10. Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

    2008-02-01

    Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.

  11. Isolation and characterization of an insulin-degrading enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.V.; Fenton, B.W.; Rosner, M.R.

    1988-06-14

    An insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) from the cytoplasm of Drosophila Kc cells has been purified and characterized. The purified enzyme is a monomer with an s value of 7.2 S, an apparent K/sub m/ for porcine insulin of 3 ..mu..M, and a specific activity of 3.3 nmol of porcine insulin degraded/(min x mg). N-Terminal sequence analysis of the gel-purified enzyme gave a single, serine-rich sequence. The Drosophila IDE shares a number of properties in common with its mammalian counterpart. The enzyme could be specifically affinity-labeled with (/sup 125/I)insulin, has a molecular weight of 110K, and has a pI of 5.3. Although Drosophila Kc cells grow at room temperature, the optimal enzyme activity assay conditions parallel those of the mammalian IDE: 37/sup 0/C and a pH range of 7-8. The Drosophila IDE activity, like the mammalian enzymes, is inhibited by bacitracin and sulfhydryl-specific reagents. Similarly, the Drosophila IDE activity is insensitive to glutathione as well as protease inhibitors such as aprotinin and leupeptin. Insulin-like growth factor II, equine insulin, and porcine insulin compete for degradation of (/sup 125/I)insulin at comparable concentrations (approximately 10/sup -6/ M), whereas insulin-like growth factor I and the individual A and B chains of insulin are less effective. The high degree of evolutionary conservation between the Drosophila and mammalian IDE suggest an important role for this enzyme in the metabolism of insulin and also provides further evidence for the existence of a complete insulin-like system in invertebrate organisms such as Drosophila.

  12. Medically relevant assays with a simple smartphone and tablet based fluorescence detection system.

    PubMed

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis. PMID:26007723

  13. Medically Relevant Assays with a Simple Smartphone and Tablet Based Fluorescence Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Wargocki, Piotr; Deng, Wei; Anwer, Ayad G.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones and smart phones can be reconfigured as biomedical sensor devices but this requires specialized add-ons. In this paper we present a simple cell phone-based portable bioassay platform, which can be used with fluorescent assays in solution. The system consists of a tablet, a polarizer, a smart phone (camera) and a box that provides dark readout conditions. The assay in a well plate is placed on the tablet screen acting as an excitation source. A polarizer on top of the well plate separates excitation light from assay fluorescence emission enabling assay readout with a smartphone camera. The assay result is obtained by analysing the intensity of image pixels in an appropriate colour channel. With this device we carried out two assays, for collagenase and trypsin using fluorescein as the detected fluorophore. The results of collagenase assay with the lowest measured concentration of 3.75 µg/mL and 0.938 µg in total in the sample were comparable to those obtained by a microplate reader. The lowest measured amount of trypsin was 930 pg, which is comparable to the low detection limit of 400 pg for this assay obtained in a microplate reader. The device is sensitive enough to be used in point-of-care medical diagnostics of clinically relevant conditions, including arthritis, cystic fibrosis and acute pancreatitis. PMID:26007723

  14. Genetic-molecular basis for a simple Drosophila melanogaster somatic system that detects environmental mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.M.; Todo, T.; Ryo, H.; Fujikawa, K.

    1986-09-01

    We have developed a simple, objectively scorable test for the mutagenicity of chemical compounds which can be fed Drosophila melanogaster. The test depends upon the somatic reversion of the X chromosome, recessive eye color mutation, white-ivory (wi) to wild type (w+). Reversions are scored as clones of w+ facets in the wi eyes of eclosing adults. To increase the sensitivity, a tandem quadruplication containing four wi mutations was synthesized. Thus, in homozygous females eight wi mutations are potentially revertible. Six mutagenic compounds, all alkylating agents, all gave positive results at several concentrations tested. Molecular analysis demonstrates that the induced reversions, germinal and somatic, are associated with the loss of 2.9-kilobase DNA duplicated in the wi mutation.

  15. Sexual conflict is not counterbalanced by good genes in the laboratory Drosophila melanogaster model system.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A D; Hannes, A M; Mirzatuny, A; Rice, W R

    2008-11-01

    Sexual conflict theory is based on the observation that females of many species are harmed through their interactions with males. Direct harm to females, however, can potentially be counterbalanced by indirect genetic benefits, where females make up for a reduction in offspring quantity by an increase in offspring quality through a generic increase in offspring fitness (good genes) and/or one restricted to the context of sexual selection (sexy sons). Here, we quantify the magnitude of the good genes mechanism of indirect benefits in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that despite high-standing genetic variance for fitness, females gain at most only a modest benefit through the good genes form of indirect benefits--far too little to counterbalance the direct cost of male-induced harm. PMID:18681915

  16. Compact upconverting phosphor detection system for wick assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, Haris; Van der Laan, Jan E.; Cooper, David E.; Nashold, Karen M.; Carlisle, Clinton B.; Schneider, Luke V.

    1997-05-01

    We describe an integrated detection system based on upconverting phosphor particles bound to capture sites on the inside surfaces of rectangular wick capillaries. This deice can be used with either antibody or nucleic acid to detect specific micro-organisms. The system uses a high- power, 980 nm, semiconductor diode laser to illuminate 200 X 300 X 20 micrometers capture surfaces. The rectangular capillary wicks are held in a tray that is inserted into the detection system, positioning the capture surface at the object plane of the optical system. Phosphorescent light emitted from the capture surface is collected by a high numerical aperture microscope objective and directed through a series of filters onto either a CCD camera or a photomultiplier. A combination of band-reject filters attenuates the 980 nm laser excitation light and its harmonic at 490 nm, and a tunable liquid crystal filter provides for rapid scanning from 400 to 750 nm. The data acquisition and control is controlled by a laptop PC with a custom GUI interface developed using LabWindows/CVI. The system can detect a single phosphor particle bound to a capture surface.

  17. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed.

  18. The expression of CG9940 affects the adaptation of cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wen, Deng-Tai; Zheng, Lan; Ni, Liu; Wang, Hui; Feng, Yue; Zhang, Min

    2016-10-01

    The CG9940 gene, which encodes the NAD(+) synthase protein in Drosophila, is conserved in human, zebra fish, and mosquito. NAD(+) synthase is a homodimer, which catalyzes the final step in de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, an amide transfer from either ammonia or glutamine to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Both the CG9940 and exercise are closely relative to NAD(+) level, and NAD(+) plays important roles not only in energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions but also in aging. In our study, the expression of CG9940 was changed by UAS/GAL4 system in Drosophila. Flies were trained by a training device. Cardiac function was analyzed by M-mode traces, climbing index was measured through negative geotaxis assay, and lifespan was measured via lifespan assays. The important new findings from our present study included the following: (1) the expression of the CG9940 could affect cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan in Drosophila. Over-expression of the CG9940 gene had positive effects on Drosophila, such as enhanced aging cardiac output, reduced heart failure, delayed age-related mobility decline, and prolonged lifespan, but lower-expression of the CG9940 had negative effects on them. (2) Different expressions of the CG9940 resulted in different influences on the adaptation of cardiac function, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila. Both normal-expression and over-expression of the CG9940 resulted in positive influences on the adaptation of cardiac functions, mobility, and lifespan to exercise in aging Drosophila such as exercise slowed age-related decline of cardiac function, mobility and extent of lifespan in these flies, while lower-expression of the CG9940 led to negative impacts on the adaptation of mobility and lifespan to exercise in Drosophila. PMID:27448710

  19. INEL test plan for evaluating waste assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mandler, J.W.; Becker, G.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Menkhaus, D.E.; Clements, T.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    A test bed is being established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These tests are currently focused on mobile or portable radioassay systems. Prior to disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), radioassay measurements must meet the quality assurance objectives of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. This test plan provides technology holders with the opportunity to assess radioassay system performance through a three-tiered test program that consists of: (a) evaluations using non-interfering matrices, (b) surrogate drums with contents that resemble the attributes of INEL-specific waste forms, and (c) real waste tests. Qualified sources containing a known mixture and range of radionuclides will be used for the non-interfering and surrogate waste tests. The results of these tests will provide technology holders with information concerning radioassay system performance and provide the INEL with data useful for making decisions concerning alternative or improved radioassay systems that could support disposal of waste at WIPP.

  20. GENETOX MANAGER SYSTEM - BACTERIAL MUTAGENESIS ASSAYS: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This user's guide is the reference manual describing use of the EPA Genetox Manager System. eneTox Manager is a data capture, data management, and statistical analysis program used for microbial mutagenicity data. ts main purpose is to provide a homogeneous environment for the co...

  1. Performance evaluation of the PROCLEIX West Nile virus assay on semi-automated and automated systems.

    PubMed

    Linnen, Jeffrey M; Deras, Michael L; Cline, Janice; Wu, Wen; Broulik, Amy S; Cory, Robin E; Knight, James L; Cass, Michelle M J; Collins, Cynthia S; Giachetti, Cristina

    2007-09-01

    The PROCLEIX West Nile virus assay (WNV assay) is a qualitative nucleic acid test based on transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). The assay was used under an investigational protocol in the United States to screen blood donations for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA starting in the summer of 2003, and was licensed by the FDA in December 2005 for use on the PROCLEIX System, also known as the enhanced semi-automated system (eSAS). Performance characteristics for the assay were determined on both eSAS and the fully automated PROCLEIX TIGRIS (TIGRIS) System. Detection of both lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV was demonstrated on both systems. For lineage 1, the 95% detection limit was 8.2 copies/ml for eSAS and 9.8 copies/ml for the TIGRIS system. For lineage 2, > or =95% detection was seen at > or =30 copies/ml on both systems. The overall specificity of the assay was >99.9% in fresh and frozen plasma specimens. Reproducibility studies on the TIGRIS system yielded > or =99.1% agreement with expected results for the 3-member panel tested (0, 30, and 100 copies/ml). The WNV assay exhibited robust performance in cadaveric specimens and specimens representing various donor and donation conditions, including specimens from different plasma collection tubes that were subjected to multiple freeze/thaw cycles; specimens with elevated levels of endogenous substances; specimens containing other viruses and microorganisms; and specimens from patients with autoimmune and other diseases. Overall, these studies demonstrate high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the WNV assay on both the semi-automated and automated systems. PMID:17607786

  2. A baculoviral display system to assay viral entry.

    PubMed

    Iida, Manami; Yoshida, Takeshi; Watari, Akihiro; Yagi, Kiyohito; Hamakubo, Takao; Kondoh, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a baculoviral display system for analysis of viral entry by using a recombinant adenovirus (Ad) carrying a luciferase gene and budded baculovirus (BV) that displays the adenoviral receptor, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). CAR-expressing B16 cells (B16-CAR cells) were infected with luciferase-expressing Ad vector in the presence of BV that expressed or lacked CAR (CAR-BV and mock-BV, respectively). Treatment with mock-BV even at doses as high as 5 µg/mL failed to attenuate the luciferase activity of B16-CAR cells. In contrast, treatment with CAR-BV with doses as low as 0.5 µg/mL significantly decreased the luciferase activity of infected cells, which reached 65% reduction at 5 µg/mL. These findings suggest that a receptor-displaying BV system could be used to evaluate viral infection. PMID:24189431

  3. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-10-22

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  4. Cadmium zinc telluride detector system for nuclear material assay

    SciTech Connect

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Paulus, T.J.

    1997-07-15

    Three tools were developed towards design of an ambient temperature radiometric instrument, namely the CZT Probe--a cadmium zinc telluride based gamma and x ray detector probe, the MicroNOMAD--a low power, portable multichannel analyzed, and CZTU--spectral analysis software that provides uranium enrichment analysis. The combination of these three tools with an optimal sodium iodide (NaI) detector provides the ability to search for and then analyze uranium as well as other radionuclides in the field. Several national and international organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Communities Safeguards Directorate, US Customs, and US DOE have expressed interest and are currently evaluating these systems.

  5. Development of a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a fluorescence assay for the discovery of kynurenine aminotransferase II inhibitors to treat central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Kopcho, Lisa; Ghosh, Kaushik; Witmer, Mark; Parker, Michael; Gupta, Sumit; Paul, Marilyn; Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Laksmaiah, Basanth; Xie, Dianlin; Tredup, Jeffrey; Zhang, Litao; Abell, Lynn M

    2016-05-15

    Kynurenine aminotransferases convert kynurenine to kynurenic acid and play an important role in the tryptophan degradation pathway. Kynurenic acid levels in brain have been hypothesized to be linked to a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Kynurenine aminotransferase II (KATII) has proven to be a key modulator of kynurenic acid levels in brain and, thus, is an attractive target to treat CNS diseases. A sensitive, high-throughput, label-free RapidFire mass spectrometry assay has been developed for human KATII. Unlike other assays, this method is directly applicable to KATII enzymes from different animal species, which allows us to select proper animal model(s) to evaluate human KATII inhibitors. We also established a coupled fluorescence assay for human KATII. The short assay time and kinetic capability of the fluorescence assay provide a useful tool for orthogonal inhibitor validation and mechanistic studies. PMID:26874021

  6. Clenbuterol Assay by Spectral Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichuan; Yao, Manwen; Fang, Xiangyi; Yang, Yucong; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2015-11-01

    To prevent illegal use of clenbuterol and for quality control in the food industry, more efficient and reliable methods for clenbuterol detection are needed. In this study, clenbuterol was detected using a spectral imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor system via two inhibition methods: (1) the target site compensation method, in which anti-clenbuterol antibody was immobilized on the sensor chip as a bioprobe and (2) the solution competition method in which a clenbuterol-BSA conjugate was immobilized on the sensor chip as the bioprobe. The detectable clenbuterol concentration ranged between 6.25 and 100 μg/mL for both methods. The clenbuterol limit of detection for the target site compensation method and solution competition method are estimated to be 6.7 and 4.5 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the detection of clenbuterol molecules and were found to have high specificity and high-throughput and were label free and operationally convenient. PMID:26319570

  7. First-year evaluation of a nondestructive assay system for the examination of ORNL TRU waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Haff, K.W.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Caldwell, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Pratt, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been selected as the demonstration site for a new transuranic neutron assay system (NAS) developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In addition, in order to meet specific ORNL program objectives, an upgraded segmented gamma-ray drum scanner has been integrated into the nondestructive assay (NDA) system to serve as a radioisotope identifier and as a quantitative assay backup to the NAS. A verification study, wherein selected waste drums will be emptied into glove boxes and their contents sampled and subsequently gamma-ray assayed, will take place in FY 1984. Results will be compared to those obtained from the NDA techniques. The NAS uses pulsed-neutron interrogation (differential- dieaway technique) and passive neutron measurements to determine fissile component and an upper-limit estimate of the total TRU activity contained in each waste drum. Of the 171 waste drums assayed to date, nine drums were determined to contain less than 10 nCi/g TRU isotopes. An additional number of drums (approximately 20%) are expected to be categorized as non-TRU, which is presently defined as less than 100 nCi/g TRU concentration. This requires a detailed analysis of the data which includes waste matrix compensation, systematic qualitative and quantitative gamma-ray analyses, and interpretation of neutron multiplicity data. Reproducibility of the active assay measurements on a single waste drum indicate agreement to +-3% relative error. 14 references, 24 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Dissection of the peripheral motion channel in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rister, Jens; Pauls, Dennis; Schnell, Bettina; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Chi-Hon; Sinakevitch, Irina; Morante, Javier; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Ito, Kei; Heisenberg, Martin

    2007-10-01

    In the eye, visual information is segregated into modalities such as color and motion, these being transferred to the central brain through separate channels. Here, we genetically dissect the achromatic motion channel in the fly Drosophila melanogaster at the level of the first relay station in the brain, the lamina, where it is split into four parallel pathways (L1-L3, amc/T1). The functional relevance of this divergence is little understood. We now show that the two most prominent pathways, L1 and L2, together are necessary and largely sufficient for motion-dependent behavior. At high pattern contrast, the two pathways are redundant. At intermediate contrast, they mediate motion stimuli of opposite polarity, L2 front-to-back, L1 back-to-front motion. At low contrast, L1 and L2 depend upon each other for motion processing. Of the two minor pathways, amc/T1 specifically enhances the L1 pathway at intermediate contrast. L3 appears not to contribute to motion but to orientation behavior. PMID:17920022

  9. Neuron hemilineages provide the functional ground plan for the Drosophila ventral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Robin M; Pfeiffer, Barret D; Rubin, Gerald M; Truman, James W

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila central neurons arise from neuroblasts that generate neurons in a pair-wise fashion, with the two daughters providing the basis for distinct A and B hemilineage groups. 33 postembryonically-born hemilineages contribute over 90% of the neurons in each thoracic hemisegment. We devised genetic approaches to define the anatomy of most of these hemilineages and to assessed their functional roles using the heat-sensitive channel dTRPA1. The simplest hemilineages contained local interneurons and their activation caused tonic or phasic leg movements lacking interlimb coordination. The next level was hemilineages of similar projection cells that drove intersegmentally coordinated behaviors such as walking. The highest level involved hemilineages whose activation elicited complex behaviors such as takeoff. These activation phenotypes indicate that the hemilineages vary in their behavioral roles with some contributing to local networks for sensorimotor processing and others having higher order functions of coordinating these local networks into complex behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04493.001 PMID:26193122

  10. Drosophila melanogaster brain invasion: pathogenic Wolbachia in central nervous system of the fly.

    PubMed

    Strunov, Anton; Kiseleva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenic Wolbachia strain wMelPop rapidly over-replicates in the brain, muscles, and retina of Drosophila melanogaster, causing severe tissue degeneration and premature death of the host. The unique features of this endosymbiont make it an excellent tool to be used for biological control of insects, pests, and vectors of human diseases. To follow the dynamics of bacterial morphology and titer in the nerve cells we used transmission electron microscopy of 3-d-old female brains. The neurons and glial cells from central brain of the fly had different Wolbachia titers ranging from single bacteria to large accumulations, tearing cell apart and invading extracellular space. The neuropile regions of the brain were free of wMelPop. Wolbachia tightly interacted with host cell organelles and underwent several morphological changes in nerve cells. Based on different morphological types of bacteria described we propose for the first time a scheme of wMelPop dynamics within the somatic tissue of the host. PMID:25394184

  11. Genetic dissection of the photoreceptor system in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Stark, William S.; Walker, John A.; Harris, William A.

    1976-01-01

    1. Three mutations which eliminate specific types of photoreceptors in Drosophila were characterized. 2. Of the eight photoreceptors in each facet, two mutations delete the outer six (R 1-6). The third eliminates R 7, one of the two central photoreceptors. Double mutants can be constructed in which only photoreceptor R 8 is present. 3. The spectral sensitivities, photopigments, and behavioural properties of these mutants were investigated. 4. R 1-6 have two sensitivity peaks, near 350 and 470 nm. These receptors contain a rhodopsin with these absorption peaks. It interconverts with a metarhodopsin that absorbs around 570 nm. 5. R 7 is a U.V.-receptor, containing rhodopsin that absorbs around 370 nm and interconverts with a metarhodopsin which absorbs around 470 nm. 6. R 8 is a non-adapting blue-receptor with a third type of rhodopsin. 7. The properties of these photopigments explain the different sensitivities and spectral adaptation phenomena of the various photoreceptors. 8. All the photoreceptors have input into phototaxis. Spectral analysis of this behaviour provides evidence for integration of the input from the different photoreceptors. ImagesPlate 6Plate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 5 PMID:16992509

  12. Genotoxicity testing with the somatic white-ivory system in the eye of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Würgler, F E; Kägi, A

    1991-05-01

    The white-ivory test in Drosophila melanogaster is designed to detect chemically induced reversions of the sex-linked, recessive unstable eye-color mutation white-ivory to the wild-type form. After exposure of larvae reversions are detectable as clones of red facets in the eye of newly enclosed adult flies. Tester strains containing a quadruplication of the white-ivory gene on the X-chromosome(s) were used. In a strain with males carrying 4 copies of the gene and females carrying 8 copies of the gene, spontaneous reversions occurred proportional to the gene copy number. In contrast to this, chemically induced reversions occurred only 1.36 times more frequently in females (carrying 8 copies of the gene) than in males (carrying 4 copies). Since chemicals inducing different lesions in DNA (bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, daunomycin, diethyl sulfate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) did induce statistically significant frequencies of reversions the test appears to be capable of detecting a wide variety of genotoxic chemicals with different modes of action. The recombinogen strychnine did not induce reversions. PMID:1903508

  13. A region-specific neurogenesis mode requires migratory progenitors in the Drosophila visual system

    PubMed Central

    Apitz, Holger; Salecker, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Brain areas each generate specific neuron subtypes during development. However, underlying regional variations in neurogenesis strategies and regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In Drosophila, neurons in four optic lobe ganglia originate from two neuroepithelia, the outer (Opc) and inner (Ipc) proliferation centers. Using genetic manipulations, we demonstrate that one Ipc neuroepithelial domain progressively transforms into migratory progenitors that mature into neural stem cells/neuroblasts within a second domain. Progenitors emerge by an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like mechanism, requiring the Snail-family member Escargot and, in subdomains, Decapentaplegic signaling. The proneural factors Lethal of scute and Asense differentially control progenitor supply and maturation into neuroblasts. These switch expression from Asense to a third proneural protein, Atonal. Dichaete and Tailless mediate this transition essential for generating two neuron populations at defined positions. We propose that this neurogenesis mode is central for setting-up a new proliferative zone to facilitate spatio-temporal matching of neurogenesis and connectivity across ganglia. PMID:25501037

  14. Conserved genetic pathways controlling the development of the diffuse endocrine system in vertebrates and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L

    2010-05-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. PMID:20005229

  15. A novel tissue in an established model system: the Drosophila pupal midgut.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shigeo; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Ortiz, Paola A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2011-06-01

    The Drosophila larval and adult midguts are derived from two populations of endodermal progenitors that separate from each other in the early embryo. As larval midgut cells differentiate into an epithelial layer, adult midgut progenitors (AMPs) remain as small clusters of proliferating, undifferentiated cells attached to the basal surface of the larval gut epithelium. During the first few hours of metamorphosis, AMPs merge into a continuous epithelial tube that overgrows the larval layer and differentiates into the adult midgut; at the same time, the larval midgut degenerates. As shown in this paper, there is a second, transient pupal midgut that develops from the AMPs at the beginning of metamorphosis and that intercalates between the adult and larval midgut epithelia. Cells of the transient pupal midgut form a multilayered tube that exhibits signs of differentiation, in the form of septate junctions and rudimentary apical microvilli. Some cells of the pupal midgut develop as endocrine cells. The pupal midgut remains closely attached to the degenerating larval midgut cells. Along with these cells, pupal midgut cells are sequestered into the lumen where they form the compact "yellow body." The formation of a pupal midgut has been reported from several other species and may represent a general feature of intestinal metamorphosis in insects. PMID:21556856

  16. A novel tissue in an established model system: the Drosophila pupal midgut

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Ortiz, Paola A.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila larval and adult midgut are derived from two populations of endodermal progenitors that separate from each other in the early embryo. As larval midgut cells differentiate into an epithelial layer, adult midgut progenitors (AMPs) remain as small clusters of proliferating, undifferentiated cells attached to the basal surface of the larval gut epithelium. During the first few hours of metamorphosis, AMPs merge into a continuous epithelial tube that overgrows the larval layer and differentiates into the adult midgut; at the same time, the larval midgut degenerates. As shown in this paper, there is a second, transient pupal midgut that develops from the AMPs at the beginning of metamorphosis, and that intercalates between the adult and larval midgut epithelia. Cells of the transient pupal midgut form a multilayered tube that exhibits signs of differentiation, in the form of septate junctions and rudimentary apical microvilli. Some cells of the pupal midgut develop as endocrine cells. The pupal midgut remains closely attached to the degenerating larval midgut cells. Along with these cells, pupal midgut cells are sequestered into the lumen where they form the compact “yellow body”. The formation of a pupal midgut has been reported from several other species, and may represent a general feature of intestinal metamorphosis in insects. PMID:21556856

  17. Conserved Genetic Pathways Controlling the Development of the Diffuse Endocrine System in Vertebrates and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. PMID:20005229

  18. A region-specific neurogenesis mode requires migratory progenitors in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Apitz, Holger; Salecker, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Brain areas each generate specific neuron subtypes during development. However, underlying regional variations in neurogenesis strategies and regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In Drosophila, neurons in four optic lobe ganglia originate from two neuroepithelia, the outer (OPC) and inner (IPC) proliferation centers. Using genetic manipulations, we found that one IPC neuroepithelial domain progressively transformed into migratory progenitors that matured into neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in a second domain. Progenitors emerged by an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like mechanism that required the Snail-family member Escargot and, in subdomains, Decapentaplegic signaling. The proneural factors Lethal of scute and Asense differentially controlled progenitor supply and maturation into neuroblasts. These switched expression from Asense to a third proneural protein, Atonal. Dichaete and Tailless mediated this transition, which was essential for generating two neuron populations at defined positions. We propose that this neurogenesis mode is central for setting up a new proliferative zone to facilitate spatio-temporal matching of neurogenesis and connectivity across ganglia. PMID:25501037

  19. Wnt-mediated repression via bipartite DNA recognition by TCF in the Drosophila hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen U; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Burby, Peter E; Cadigan, Ken M

    2014-08-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA. PMID:25144371

  20. Wnt-Mediated Repression via Bipartite DNA Recognition by TCF in the Drosophila Hematopoietic System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen U.; Blauwkamp, Timothy A.; Burby, Peter E.; Cadigan, Ken M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA. PMID:25144371

  1. Comparison of various assay systems for prostate-specific antigen standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, M; Akimoto, S; Akaza, H; Arai, Y; Usami, M; Imai, K; Tanaka, Y; Yamazaki, H; Kawada, Y; Koiso, K

    1992-12-01

    To avoid confusion between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values among various assay systems, clinical studies on the possibility of conversion among detection values were performed. The assay kits used for the PSA comparisons were MARKIT-F PA, MARKIT-M PA, EIKEN PA, PA test WAKO, Ball ELSA PSA, E-Test Tosoh II PA, PROS-CHECK PSA, DELFIA PSA and TANDEM-R PSA. Using each kit, the standards attached to each assay system were detected, and 142 sera samples from benign hypertrophies or prostate cancers were assayed for serum PSA values. By detecting the standards for each kit, slopes were obtained which were almost identical to those obtained from original assay system. The coefficients of correlation among the PSA detection systems, using patients' sera, were very high, and linear regression lines were also obtained. The results suggest that almost identical serum PSA values may be detected either by multiplying by a coefficient to bring it to the standard or using the conversion formula. PMID:1283993

  2. Insulin- and warts-dependent regulation of tracheal plasticity modulates systemic larval growth during hypoxia in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel M; Shen, Zhouyang; Owyang, Kristin E; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to dynamic environmental cues during organismal development requires coordination of tissue growth with available resources. More specifically, the effects of oxygen availability on body size have been well-documented, but the mechanisms through which hypoxia restricts systemic growth have not been fully elucidated. Here, we characterize the larval growth and metabolic defects in Drosophila that result from hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions reduced fat body opacity and increased lipid droplet accumulation in this tissue, without eliciting lipid aggregation in hepatocyte-like cells called oenocytes. Additionally, hypoxia increased the retention of Dilp2 in the insulin-producing cells of the larval brain, associated with a reduction of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Overexpression of the wildtype form of the insulin receptor ubiquitously and in the larval trachea rendered larvae resistant to hypoxia-induced growth restriction. Furthermore, Warts downregulation in the trachea was similar to increased insulin receptor signaling during oxygen deprivation, which both rescued hypoxia-induced growth restriction, inhibition of tracheal molting, and developmental delay. Insulin signaling and loss of Warts function increased tracheal growth and augmented tracheal plasticity under hypoxic conditions, enhancing oxygen delivery during periods of oxygen deprivation. Our findings demonstrate a mechanism that coordinates oxygen availability with systemic growth in which hypoxia-induced reduction of insulin receptor signaling decreases plasticity of the larval trachea that is required for the maintenance of systemic growth during times of limiting oxygen availability. PMID:25541690

  3. Insulin- and Warts-Dependent Regulation of Tracheal Plasticity Modulates Systemic Larval Growth during Hypoxia in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Daniel M.; Shen, Zhouyang; Owyang, Kristin E.; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to dynamic environmental cues during organismal development requires coordination of tissue growth with available resources. More specifically, the effects of oxygen availability on body size have been well-documented, but the mechanisms through which hypoxia restricts systemic growth have not been fully elucidated. Here, we characterize the larval growth and metabolic defects in Drosophila that result from hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions reduced fat body opacity and increased lipid droplet accumulation in this tissue, without eliciting lipid aggregation in hepatocyte-like cells called oenocytes. Additionally, hypoxia increased the retention of Dilp2 in the insulin-producing cells of the larval brain, associated with a reduction of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Overexpression of the wildtype form of the insulin receptor ubiquitously and in the larval trachea rendered larvae resistant to hypoxia-induced growth restriction. Furthermore, Warts downregulation in the trachea was similar to increased insulin receptor signaling during oxygen deprivation, which both rescued hypoxia-induced growth restriction, inhibition of tracheal molting, and developmental delay. Insulin signaling and loss of Warts function increased tracheal growth and augmented tracheal plasticity under hypoxic conditions, enhancing oxygen delivery during periods of oxygen deprivation. Our findings demonstrate a mechanism that coordinates oxygen availability with systemic growth in which hypoxia-induced reduction of insulin receptor signaling decreases plasticity of the larval trachea that is required for the maintenance of systemic growth during times of limiting oxygen availability. PMID:25541690

  4. A novel reporter system for neutralizing and enhancing antibody assay against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) still poses a global public health threat, and no vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. Antibody plays distinct roles in controlling DENV infections. Neutralizing antibody is protective against DENV infection, whereas sub-neutralizing concentration of antibody can increase DENV infection, termed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Plaque-based assay represents the most widely accepted method measuring neutralizing or enhancing antibodies. Results In this study, a novel reporter virus-based system was developed for measuring neutralization and ADE activity. A stable Renilla luciferase reporter DENV (Luc-DENV) that can produce robust luciferase signals in BHK-21 and K562 cells were used to establish the assay and validated against traditional plaque-based assay. Luciferase value analysis using various known DENV-specific monoclonal antibodies showed good repeatability and a well linear correlation with conventional plaque-based assays. The newly developed assay was finally validated with clinical samples from infected animals and individuals. Conclusions This reporter virus-based assay for neutralizing and enhancing antibody evaluation is rapid, lower cost, and high throughput, and will be helpful for laboratory detection and epidemiological investigation for DENV antibodies. PMID:24548533

  5. Switch and template pattern formation in a discrete reaction-diffusion system inspired by the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Matthew W.; Lubensky, David K.

    2011-01-01

    We examine a spatially discrete reaction diffusion model based on the interactions that create a periodic pattern in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. This model is known to be capable of generating a regular hexagonal pattern of gene expression behind a moving front, as observed in the fly system. In order to better understand the novel “switch and template” mechanism behind this pattern formation, we present here a detailed study of the model's behavior in one dimension, using a combination of analytic methods and numerical searches of parameter space. We find that patterns are created robustly provided that there is an appropriate separation of timescales and that self-activation is sufficiently strong, and we derive expressions in this limit for the front speed and the pattern wavelength. Moving fronts in pattern-forming systems near an initial linear instability generically select a unique pattern, but our model operates in a strongly nonlinear regime where the final pattern depends on the initial conditions as well as on parameter values. Our work highlights the important role that cellularization and cell-autonomous feedback can play in biological pattern formation. PMID:20862598

  6. The FlyCatwalk: A High-Throughput Feature-Based Sorting System for Artificial Selection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Vasco; Vonesch, Sibylle Chantal; Fry, Steven N.; Hafen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evolution is a powerful tool for investigating complex traits. Artificial selection can be applied for a specific trait and the resulting phenotypically divergent populations pool-sequenced to identify alleles that occur at substantially different frequencies in the extreme populations. To maximize the proportion of loci that are causal to the phenotype among all enriched loci, population size and number of replicates need to be high. These requirements have, in fact, limited evolution studies in higher organisms, where the time investment required for phenotyping is often prohibitive for large-scale studies. Animal size is a highly multigenic trait that remains poorly understood, and an experimental evolution approach may thus aid in gaining new insights into the genetic basis of this trait. To this end, we developed the FlyCatwalk, a fully automated, high-throughput system to sort live fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) based on morphometric traits. With the FlyCatwalk, we can detect gender and quantify body and wing morphology parameters at a four-old higher throughput compared with manual processing. The phenotyping results acquired using the FlyCatwalk correlate well with those obtained using the standard manual procedure. We demonstrate that an automated, high-throughput, feature-based sorting system is able to avoid previous limitations in population size and replicate numbers. Our approach can likewise be applied for a variety of traits and experimental settings that require high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25556112

  7. Detection of Cell Death in Drosophila Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Deepika; Ryoo, Hyung Don

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila has served as a particularly attractive model to study cell death due to the vast array of tools for genetic manipulation under defined spatial and temporal conditions in vivo as well as in cultured cells. These genetic methods have been well supplemented by enzymatic assays and a panel of antibodies recognizing cell death markers. This chapter discusses reporters, mutants and assays used by various laboratories to study cell death in the context of development and in response to external insults. PMID:27108437

  8. Evaluation of Traditional Medicines for Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Drosophila Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojin; Bang, Se Min; Lee, Joon Woo; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila is one of the oldest and most powerful genetic models and has led to novel insights into a variety of biological processes. Recently, Drosophila has emerged as a model system to study human diseases, including several important neurodegenerative diseases. Because of the genomic similarity between Drosophila and humans, Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models exhibit a variety of human-disease-like phenotypes, facilitating fast and cost-effective in vivo genetic modifier screening and drug evaluation. Using these models, many disease-associated genetic factors have been identified, leading to the identification of compelling drug candidates. Recently, the safety and efficacy of traditional medicines for human diseases have been evaluated in various animal disease models. Despite the advantages of the Drosophila model, its usage in the evaluation of traditional medicines is only nascent. Here, we introduce the Drosophila model for neurodegenerative diseases and some examples demonstrating the successful application of Drosophila models in the evaluation of traditional medicines. PMID:24790636

  9. Functional analysis and tissue-specific expression of Drosophila Na+,K+-ATPase subunits.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Wang, W; Salvaterra, P M

    1998-07-01

    We have previously purified and characterized a nervous system-specific glycoprotein antigen from adult Drosophila heads, designated Nervana [nerve antigen (NRV)] and identified two separate genes coding for three different proteins. All three proteins share homology with the beta subunits of Na+,K+-ATPase from various other species. In this study we have isolated a new Drosophila Na+,K+-ATPase alpha subunit cDNA clone (PSalpha; GenBank accession no. AF044974) and demonstrate expression of functional Na+,K+-ATPase activity when PSalpha mRNA is coinjected into Xenopus oocytes along with any of the three different Nrv mRNAs. Western blotting, RNase protection assays, and immunocytochemical staining of adult fly sections indicate that NRV2 is expressed primarily in the nervous system. Staining is most intense in the brain and thoracic ganglia and is most likely associated with neuronal elements. NRV1 is more broadly expressed in muscle and excretory tissue and also shows diffuse distribution in the nervous system. Similar to other species, Drosophila expresses multiple isoforms of Na+,K+-ATPase subunits in a tissue- and cell type-specific pattern. It will now be possible to use the advantages of Drosophila molecular and classical genetics to investigate the phenotypic consequences of altering Na+,K+-ATPase expression in various cell and tissue types. PMID:9648860

  10. A common evolutionary origin for the ON- and OFF-edge motion detection pathways of the Drosophila visual system

    PubMed Central

    Shinomiya, Kazunori; Takemura, Shin-ya; Rivlin, Patricia K.; Plaza, Stephen M.; Scheffer, Louis K.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic circuits for identified behaviors in the Drosophila brain have typically been considered from either a developmental or functional perspective without reference to how the circuits might have been inherited from ancestral forms. For example, two candidate pathways for ON- and OFF-edge motion detection in the visual system act via circuits that use respectively either T4 or T5, two cell types of the fourth neuropil, or lobula plate (LOP), that exhibit narrow-field direction-selective responses and provide input to wide-field tangential neurons. T4 or T5 both have four subtypes that terminate one each in the four strata of the LOP. Representatives are reported in a wide range of Diptera, and both cell types exhibit various similarities in: (1) the morphology of their dendritic arbors; (2) their four morphological and functional subtypes; (3) their cholinergic profile in Drosophila; (4) their input from the pathways of L3 cells in the first neuropil, or lamina (LA), and by one of a pair of LA cells, L1 (to the T4 pathway) and L2 (to the T5 pathway); and (5) their innervation by a single, wide-field contralateral tangential neuron from the central brain. Progenitors of both also express the gene atonal early in their proliferation from the inner anlage of the developing optic lobe, being alone among many other cell type progeny to do so. Yet T4 receives input in the second neuropil, or medulla (ME), and T5 in the third neuropil or lobula (LO). Here we suggest that these two cell types were originally one, that their ancestral cell population duplicated and split to innervate separate ME and LO neuropils, and that a fiber crossing—the internal chiasma—arose between the two neuropils. The split most plausibly occurred, we suggest, with the formation of the LO as a new neuropil that formed when it separated from its ancestral neuropil to leave the ME, suggesting additionally that ME input neurons to T4 and T5 may also have had a common origin. PMID:26217193