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Sample records for drosophila sex-lethal protein

  1. Both Loss-of-Function and Gain-of-Function Mutations in Snf Define a Role for Snrnp Proteins in Regulating Sex-Lethal Pre-mRNA Splicing in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Salz, H. K.; Flickinger, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The Drosophila snf gene encodes a protein with functional homology to the mammalian U1A and U2B" snRNP proteins. Studies, based on the analysis of three viable alleles, have suggested a role for snf in establishing the female-specific splicing pattern of the sex determination switch gene, Sex-lethal. Here, we show that the non-sex-specific lethal null allele is required for female sex determination, arguing against the formal possibility that the viable alleles disrupt a function unrelated to snf's wild-type function. Moreover, we find snf is required for normal cell growth and/or survival, as expected for a protein involved in a cell-vital process such as RNA splicing. We also show that of the three viable alleles only one, snf(JA2), is a partial loss-of-function mutation. The other two viable alleles, snf(1621) and snf(e8H), encode antimorphic proteins. We find the antimorphic proteins are mislocalized and correlate their mislocalization with their molecular lesions and mutant phenotypes. Finally, we provide genetic evidence that the antimorphic alleles interfere with the autoregulatory splicing function of the Sex-lethal protein. Based on these studies we suggest a model in which the snRNP protein, Snf, functions with Sex-lethal to block recognition of the regulated male-specific exon. PMID:8878676

  2. Regulation of the Gene Sex-Lethal: A Comparative Analysis of Drosophila Melanogaster and Drosophila Subobscura

    PubMed Central

    Penalva, LOF.; Sakamoto, H.; Navarro-Sabate, A.; Sakashita, E.; Granadino, B.; Segarra, C.; Sanchez, L.

    1996-01-01

    The Drosophila gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls the processes of sex determination and dosage compensation. A Drosophila subobscura genomic fragment containing all the exons and the late and early promotors in the Sxl gene of D. melanogaster was isolated. Early Sxl expression in D. subobscura seems to be controlled at the transcriptional level, possibly by the X:A signal. In the region upstream of the early Sxl transcription initiation site are two conserved regions suggested to be involved in the early activation of Sxl. Late Sxl expression in D. subobscura produces four transcripts in adult females and males. In males, the transcripts have an additional exon which contains three translational stop codons so that a truncated, presumably nonfunctional Sxl protein is produced. The Sxl pre-mRNA of D. subobscura lacks the poly-U sequence presented at the polypirimidine tract of the 3' splice site of the male-specific exon present in D. melanogaster. Introns 2 and 3 contain the Sxl-binding poly-U stretches, whose localization in intron 2 varies but in intron 3 is conserved. The Sxl protein is fully conserved at the amino acid level in both species. PMID:8978052

  3. Structure and novel functional mechanism of Drosophila SNF in sex-lethal splicing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Cui, Gaofeng; Li, Congmin; Liu, Cong; Shang, Erchang; Lai, Luhua; Jin, Changwen; Wang, Jiwu; Xia, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Sans-fille (SNF) is the Drosophila homologue of mammalian general splicing factors U1A and U2B'', and it is essential in Drosophila sex determination. We found that, besides its ability to bind U1 snRNA, SNF can also bind polyuridine RNA tracts flanking the male-specific exon of the master switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) pre-mRNA specifically, similar to Sex-lethal protein (SXL). The polyuridine RNA binding enables SNF directly inhibit Sxl exon 3 splicing, as the dominant negative mutant SNF(1621) binds U1 snRNA but not polyuridine RNA. Unlike U1A, both RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SNF can recognize polyuridine RNA tracts independently, even though SNF and U1A share very high sequence identity and overall structure similarity. As SNF RRM1 tends to self-associate on the opposite side of the RNA binding surface, it is possible for SNF to bridge the formation of super-complexes between two introns flanking Sxl exon 3 or between a intron and U1 snRNP, which serves the molecular basis for SNF to directly regulate Sxl splicing. Taken together, a new functional model for SNF in Drosophila sex determination is proposed. The key of the new model is that SXL and SNF function similarly in promoting Sxl male-specific exon skipping with SNF being an auxiliary or backup to SXL, and it is the combined dose of SXL and SNF governs Drosophila sex determination. PMID:19727396

  4. Sex-lethal, master and slave: a hierarchy of germ-line sex determination in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Oliver, B; Kim, Y J; Baker, B S

    1993-11-01

    Female sex determination in the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by genes functioning in the soma as well as genes that function within the germ line. Genes known or suspected to be involved in germ-line sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster have been examined to determine if they are required upstream or downstream of Sex-lethal+, a known germ-line sex determination gene. Seven genes required for female-specific splicing of germ-line Sex-lethal+ pre-mRNA are identified. These results together with information about the tissues in which these genes function and whether they control sex determination and viability or just sex determination in the germ line have been used to deduce the genetic hierarchy regulating female germ-line sex determination. This hierarchy includes the somatic sex determination genes transformer+, transformer-2+ and doublesex+ (and by inference Sex-lethal+), which control a somatic signal required for female germ-line sex determination, and the germ-line ovarian tumor genes fused+, ovarian tumor+, ovo+, sans fille+, and Sex-lethal+, which are involved in either the reception or interpretation of this somatic sex determination signal. The fused+, ovarian tumor+, ovo+ and sans fille+ genes function upstream of Sex-lethal+ in the germ line. PMID:8187645

  5. Activities of the Sex-lethal protein in RNA binding and protein:protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, M; Deshpande, G; Schedl, P

    1998-01-01

    The Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls its own expression, and the expression of downstream target genes such as transformer , by regulating pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. Sxl codes an RNA-binding protein that consists of an N-terminus of approximately 100 amino acids, two 90 amino acid RRM domains, R1 and R2, and an 80 amino acid C-terminus. In the studies reported here we have examined the functional properties of the different Sxl protein domains in RNA binding and in protein:protein interactions. The two RRM domains are responsible for RNA binding. Specificity in the recognition of target RNAs requires both RRM domains, and proteins which consist of the single domains or duplicated domains have anomalous RNA recognition properties. Moreover, the length of the linker between domains can affect RNA recognition properties. Our results indicate that the two RRM domains mediate Sxl:Sxl protein interactions, and that these interactions probably occur both in cis and trans. We speculate that cis interactions between R1 and R2 play a role in RNA recognition by the Sxl protein, while trans interactions stabilize complex formation on target RNAs that contain two or more closely spaced binding sites. Finally, we show that the interaction of Sxl with the snRNP protein Snf is mediated by the R1 RRM domain. PMID:9592147

  6. The Drosophila splicing regulator sex-lethal directly inhibits translation of male-specific-lethal 2 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, F; Merendino, L; Hentze, M W; Valcárcel, J

    1998-01-01

    Male-specific expression of the protein male-specific-lethal 2 (MSL-2) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila. msl-2 gene expression is inhibited in females by Sex-lethal (SXL), an RNA binding protein known to regulate pre-mRNA splicing. An intron present at the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of msl-2 mRNA contains putative SXL binding sites and is retained in female flies. Here we show that SXL plays a dual role in the inhibition of msl-2 expression. Cotransfection of Drosophila Schneider cells with an SXL expression vector and a reporter containing the 5' UTR of msl-2 mRNA resulted in retention of the 5' UTR intron and efficient accumulation of the unspliced mRNA in the cytoplasm, where its translation was blocked by SXL, but not by the intron per se. Both splicing and translation inhibition by SXL were recapitulated in vitro and found to be dependent upon SXL binding to high-affinity sites within the intron, showing that SXL directly regulates these events. Our data reveal a coordinated mechanism for the regulation of msl-2 expression by the same regulatory factor: SXL enforces intron retention in the nucleus and subsequent translation inhibition in the cytoplasm. PMID:9570314

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the white and Sex lethal loci in the invasive pest, Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Scott, Maxwell J

    2016-01-22

    Drosophila suzukii (commonly called spotted wing Drosophila) is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit (e.g. blueberries, strawberries). A high quality reference genome sequence is available but functional genomic tools, such as used in Drosophila melanogaster, remain to be developed. In this study we have used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce site-specific mutations in the D. suzukii white (w) and Sex lethal (Sxl) genes. Hemizygous males with w mutations develop white eyes and the mutant genes are transmissible to the next generation. Somatic mosaic females that carry mutations in the Sxl gene develop abnormal genitalia and reproductive tissue. The D. suzukii Sxl gene could be an excellent target for a Cas9-mediated gene drive to suppress populations of this highly destructive pest. PMID:26721433

  8. Transposon insertions causing constitutive sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Berstein, M.; Cline, T.W. |; Lersch, R.A.; Subrahmanyan, L.

    1995-02-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle {open_quotes}on{close_quotes} vs. {open_quotes}off{close_quotes} reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. {open_quotes}Male-lethal{close_quotes} (Sxl{sup M}) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl{sup M} haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl{sup m} chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable Sxl{sup M} derivatives in which the Sxl{sup M} insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these Sxl{sup M} alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allow some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of Sxl{sup M} alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles` responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. 47 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Histone acetylation and gene expression analysis of sex lethal mutants in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Bhadra, U; Pal-Bhadra, M; Birchler, J A

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of sex determination mechanisms is often accompanied by reduction in dosage of genes on a whole chromosome. Under these circumstances, negatively acting regulatory genes would tend to double the expression of the genome, which produces compensation of the single-sex chromosome and increases autosomal gene expression. Previous work has suggested that to reduce the autosomal expression to the female level, these dosage effects are modified by a chromatin complex specific to males, which sequesters a histone acetylase to the X. The reduced autosomal histone 4 lysine 16 (H4Lys16) acetylation results in lowered autosomal expression, while the higher acetylation on the X is mitigated by the male-specific lethal complex, preventing overexpression. In this report, we examine how mutations in the principal sex determination gene, Sex lethal (Sxl), impact the H4 acetylation and gene expression on both the X and autosomes. When Sxl expression is missing in females, we find that the sequestration occurs concordantly with reductions in autosomal H4Lys16 acetylation and gene expression on the whole. When Sxl is ectopically expressed in Sxl(M) mutant males, the sequestration is disrupted, leading to an increase in autosomal H4Lys16 acetylation and overall gene expression. In both cases we find relatively little effect upon X chromosomal gene expression. PMID:10835396

  10. Transposon Insertions Causing Constitutive Sex-Lethal Activity in Drosophila Melanogaster Affect Sxl Sex-Specific Transcript Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M.; Lersch, R. A.; Subrahmanyan, L.; Cline, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle ``on'' vs. ``off'' reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. ``Male-lethal'' (Sxl(M)) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl(M) haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl(M) chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Five independent spontaneous Sxl(M) alleles were shown previously to be transposon insertions into what was subsequently found to be the region of regulated sex-specific Sxl RNA splicing. We show that these five alleles represent three different mutant types: Sxl(M1), Sxl(M3), and Sxl(M4). Sxl(M1) is an insertion of a roo element 674 bp downstream of the translation-terminating male-specific exon. Sxl(M3) is an insertion of a hobo transposon (not 297 as previously reported) into the 3' splice site of the male exon, and Sxl(M4) is an insertion of a novel transposon into the male-specific exon itself. We show that these three gain-of-function mutants differ considerably in their ability to bypass the sex determination signal, with Sxl(M4) being the strongest and Sxl(M1) the weakest. This difference is also reflected in effects of these mutations on sex-specific RNA splicing and on the rate of

  11. Transposon insertions causing constitutive Sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, M; Lersch, R A; Subrahmanyan, L; Cline, T W

    1995-02-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle "on" vs. "off" reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. "Male-lethal" (SxlM) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, SxlM haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and SxlM chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Five independent spontaneous SxlM alleles were shown previously to be transposon insertions into what was subsequently found to be the region of regulated sex-specific Sxl RNA splicing. We show that these five alleles represent three different mutant types: SxlM1, SxlM3, and SxlM4. SxlM1 is an insertion of a roo element 674 bp downstream of the translation-terminating male-specific exon. SxlM3 is an insertion of a hobo transposon (not 297 as previously reported) into the 3' splice site of the male exon, and SxlM4 is an insertion of a novel transposon into the male-specific exon itself. We show that these three gain-of-function mutants differ considerably in their ability to bypass the sex determination signal, with SxlM4 being the strongest and SxlM1 the weakest. This difference is also reflected in effects of these mutations on sex-specific RNA splicing and on the rate of appearance of SXL protein in

  12. A theoretical model for the regulation of Sex-lethal, a gene that controls sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Matthieu; Holm, Liisa; Sánchez, Lucas; Kaufman, Marcelle

    2003-01-01

    Cell fate commitment relies upon making a choice between different developmental pathways and subsequently remembering that choice. Experimental studies have thoroughly investigated this central theme in biology for sex determination. In the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, Sex-lethal (Sxl) is the master regulatory gene that specifies sexual identity. We have developed a theoretical model for the initial sex-specific regulation of Sxl expression. The model is based on the well-documented molecular details of the system and uses a stochastic formulation of transcription. Numerical simulations allow quantitative assessment of the role of different regulatory mechanisms in achieving a robust switch. We establish on a formal basis that the autoregulatory loop involved in the alternative splicing of Sxl primary transcripts generates an all-or-none bistable behavior and constitutes an efficient stabilization and memorization device. The model indicates that production of a small amount of early Sxl proteins leaves the autoregulatory loop in its off state. Numerical simulations of mutant genotypes enable us to reproduce and explain the phenotypic effects of perturbations induced in the dosage of genes whose products participate in the early Sxl promoter activation. PMID:14668388

  13. Vital Genes That Flank Sex-Lethal, an X-Linked Sex-Determining Gene of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Janice A.; Cline, Thomas W.

    1983-01-01

    The X-chromosome:autosome balance in D. melanogaster appears to control both sex determination and dosage compensation through effects on a maternally influenced sex-linked gene called Sex-lethal (Sxl; 1-19.2). To facilitate molecular and genetic analysis of Sxl, we attempted to determine the locations of all ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutable genes vital to both sexes in the region between 6E1 and 7B1. This area includes approximately 1 cM of the genetic map on each side of Sxl and was reported by C. B. Bridges to contain 26 salivary gland polytene chromosome bands. The region appears rather sparsely populated with genes vital to both sexes, since the 122 recessive lethal mutations we recovered fell into only nine complementation groups. From one to 38 alleles of each gene were recovered. There was a preponderance of embryonic lethals in this area, although the lethal periods of loss-of-function mutations included larval, pupal and adult stages as well. Since the screen required that mutations be recessive and lethal to males, our failure to recover new Sxl alleles was the result expected for a gene with a female-specific function. An attempt was made to identify recessive male-specific lethals in this region, but none were found. Precise map positions were determined for eight of the nine vital genes. An interesting feature of the map is the location of Sxl in the middle of a 0.6- to 0.7-cM interval that appears to be devoid of genes vital to both sexes. The genetic location was determined of breakpoints near Sxl for all available chromosome rearrangements. Sxl is most likely located just to the left of band 7A1. We determined the relationship of our EMS-induced mutations in these nine genes to alleles induced by others. From this we conclude that the various genes appear to differ significantly from each other in their relative sensitivity to mutation by EMS vs. X rays. PMID:17246118

  14. Sex-lethal interacts with splicing factors in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, G; Samuels, M E; Schedl, P D

    1996-01-01

    The Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal controls its own expression and the expression of downstream target genes such as transformer by regulating RNA splicing. Genetic and molecular studies have established that Sxl requires the product of another gene, snf, to autoregulate the splicing of its own transcripts. snf has recently been shown to encode a Drosophila U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle protein. In the work reported here, we demonstrate that the Sxl and Snf proteins can interact directly in vitro and that these two proteins are part of an RNase-sensitive complex in vivo which can be immunoprecipitated with the Sxl antibody. Unlike bulk Snf protein, which sediments slowly in sucrose gradients, the Snf protein associated with Sxl is in a large, rapidly sedimenting complex. Detailed characterization of the Sxl-Snf complexes from cross-linked extracts indicates that these complexes contain additional small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle proteins and the U1 and U2 small nuclear RNAs. Finally, consistent with the RNase sensitivity of the Sxl-Snf complexes, Sxl transcripts can also be immunoprecipitated by Sxl antibodies. On the basis of the physical interactions between Sxl and Snf, we present a model for Sxl splicing regulation. This model helps explain how the Sxl protein is able to promote the sex-specific splicing of Sxl transcripts, utilizing target sequences that are distant from the regulated splice sites. PMID:8756662

  15. 31 Flavors of Drosophila Rab proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Schulze, Karen L.; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Suyama, Kaye; Wang, Stream; Fish, Matthew; Acar, Melih; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, HugoJ.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2007-04-03

    Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles intransport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor andother proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles atdefined locations. In vertebrates, more than 75 Rab genes have beenidentified, some of which have been intensively studied for their rolesin endosome and synaptic vesicle trafficking. Recent studies of thefunctions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles inmediating developmental signal transduction. We have begun a systematicgenetic study of the 33 Rab genes in Drosophila. Most of the fly proteinsare clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. We report here thecreation of a set of transgenic fly lines that allow spatially andtemporally regulated expression of Drosophila Rab proteins. We generatedfluorescent protein-tagged wild-type, dominant-negative, andconstitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describeDrosophila Rab expression patterns during embryogenesis, the subcellularlocalization of some Rab proteins, and comparisons of the localization ofwild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of selectedRab proteins. The high evolutionary conservation and low redundancy ofDrosophila Rab proteins make these transgenic lines a useful toolkit forinvestigating Rab functions in vivo.

  16. Cooperative and Antagonistic Contributions of Two Heterochromatin Proteins to Transcriptional Regulation of the Drosophila Sex Determination Decision

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rodriguez, Janel; Yoo, Youngdong; Shareef, Momin Mohammed; Badugu, RamaKrishna

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic nuclei contain regions of differentially staining chromatin (heterochromatin), which remain condensed throughout the cell cycle and are largely transcriptionally silent. RNAi knockdown of the highly conserved heterochromatin protein HP1 in Drosophila was previously shown to preferentially reduce male viability. Here we report a similar phenotype for the telomeric partner of HP1, HOAP, and roles for both proteins in regulating the Drosophila sex determination pathway. Specifically, these proteins regulate the critical decision in this pathway, firing of the establishment promoter of the masterswitch gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl). Female-specific activation of this promoter, SxlPe, is essential to females, as it provides SXL protein to initiate the productive female-specific splicing of later Sxl transcripts, which are transcribed from the maintenance promoter (SxlPm) in both sexes. HOAP mutants show inappropriate SxlPe firing in males and the concomitant inappropriate splicing of SxlPm-derived transcripts, while females show premature firing of SxlPe. HP1 mutants, by contrast, display SxlPm splicing defects in both sexes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show both proteins are associated with SxlPe sequences. In embryos from HP1 mutant mothers and Sxl mutant fathers, female viability and RNA polymerase II recruitment to SxlPe are severely compromised. Our genetic and biochemical assays indicate a repressing activity for HOAP and both activating and repressing roles for HP1 at SxlPe. PMID:21695246

  17. Protein interaction mapping: A Drosophila case study

    PubMed Central

    Formstecher, Etienne; Aresta, Sandra; Collura, Vincent; Hamburger, Alexandre; Meil, Alain; Trehin, Alexandra; Reverdy, Céline; Betin, Virginie; Maire, Sophie; Brun, Christine; Jacq, Bernard; Arpin, Monique; Bellaiche, Yohanns; Bellusci, Saverio; Benaroch, Philippe; Bornens, Michel; Chanet, Roland; Chavrier, Philippe; Delattre, Olivier; Doye, Valérie; Fehon, Richard; Faye, Gérard; Galli, Thierry; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Goud, Bruno; de Gunzburg, Jean; Johannes, Ludger; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Mirouse, Vincent; Mukherjee, Ashim; Papadopoulo, Dora; Perez, Franck; Plessis, Anne; Rossé, Carine; Saule, Simon; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Vincent, Alain; White, Michael; Legrain, Pierre; Wojcik, Jérôme; Camonis, Jacques; Daviet, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The Drosophila (fruit fly) model system has been instrumental in our current understanding of human biology, development, and diseases. Here, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H)-based technology to screen 102 bait proteins from Drosophila melanogaster, most of them orthologous to human cancer-related and/or signaling proteins, against high-complexity fly cDNA libraries. More than 2300 protein-protein interactions (PPI) were identified, of which 710 are of high confidence. The computation of a reliability score for each protein-protein interaction and the systematic identification of the interacting domain combined with a prediction of structural/functional motifs allow the elaboration of known complexes and the identification of new ones. The full data set can be visualized using a graphical Web interface, the PIMRider (http://pim.hybrigenics.com), and is also accessible in the PSI standard Molecular Interaction data format. Our fly Protein Interaction Map (PIM) is surprisingly different from the one recently proposed by Giot et al. with little overlap between the two data sets. Analysis of the differences in data sets and methods suggests alternative strategies to enhance the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the post-genomic generation of broad-scale protein interaction maps. PMID:15710747

  18. A Protein Interaction Map of Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giot, L.; Bader, J. S.; Brouwer, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Kuang, B.; Li, Y.; Hao, Y. L.; Ooi, C. E.; Godwin, B.; Vitols, E.; Vijayadamodar, G.; Pochart, P.; Machineni, H.; Welsh, M.; Kong, Y.; Zerhusen, B.; Malcolm, R.; Varrone, Z.; Collis, A.; Minto, M.; Burgess, S.; McDaniel, L.; Stimpson, E.; Spriggs, F.; Williams, J.; Neurath, K.; Ioime, N.; Agee, M.; Voss, E.; Furtak, K.; Renzulli, R.; Aanensen, N.; Carrolla, S.; Bickelhaupt, E.; Lazovatsky, Y.; DaSilva, A.; Zhong, J.; Stanyon, C. A.; Finley, R. L.; White, K. P.; Braverman, M.; Jarvie, T.; Gold, S.; Leach, M.; Knight, J.; Shimkets, R. A.; McKenna, M. P.; Chant, J.; Rothberg, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a proven model system for many aspects of human biology. Here we present a two-hybrid-based protein-interaction map of the fly proteome. A total of 10,623 predicted transcripts were isolated and screened against standard and normalized complementary DNA libraries to produce a draft map of 7048 proteins and 20,405 interactions. A computational method of rating two-hybrid interaction confidence was developed to refine this draft map to a higher confidence map of 4679 proteins and 4780 interactions. Statistical modeling of the network showed two levels of organization: a short-range organization, presumably corresponding to multiprotein complexes, and a more global organization, presumably corresponding to intercomplex connections. The network recapitulated known pathways, extended pathways, and uncovered previously unknown pathway components. This map serves as a starting point for a systems biology modeling of multicellular organisms, including humans.

  19. An inventory of peroxisomal proteins and pathways in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Joseph E.; Verma, Avani; Peng, Chengwei; McNew, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles housing a variety of essential biochemical pathways. Peroxisome dysfunction causes a spectrum of human diseases known as peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD). While much is known regarding the mechanism of peroxisome biogenesis, it is still unclear how peroxisome dysfunction leads to the disease state. Several recent studies have shown that mutations in Drosophila peroxin genes cause phenotypes similar to those seen in humans with PBDs suggesting that Drosophila might be a useful system to model PBDs. We have analyzed the proteome of Drosophila to identify the proteins involved in peroxisomal biogenesis and homeostasis as well as metabolic enzymes that function within the organelle. The subcellular localization of five of these predicted peroxisomal proteins was confirmed. Similar to C. elegans, Drosophila appears to only utilize the peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) type 1 system for matrix protein import. This work will further our understanding of peroxisomes in Drosophila and add to the usefulness of this emerging model system. PMID:22758915

  20. Cubilin and Amnionless Mediate Protein Reabsorption in Drosophila Nephrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fujian; Zhao, Ying; Chao, Yufang; Muir, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The insect nephrocyte and the mammalian glomerular podocyte are similar with regard to filtration, but it remains unclear whether there is an organ or cell type in flies that reabsorbs proteins. Here, we show that the Drosophila nephrocyte has molecular, structural, and functional similarities to the renal proximal tubule cell. We screened for genes required for nephrocyte function and identified two Drosophila genes encoding orthologs of mammalian cubilin and amnionless (AMN), two major receptors for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. In Drosophila, expression of dCubilin and dAMN is specific to nephrocytes, where they function as co-receptors for protein uptake. Targeted expression of human AMN in Drosophila nephrocytes was sufficient to rescue defective protein uptake induced by dAMN knockdown, suggesting evolutionary conservation of Cubilin/AMN co-receptors function from flies to humans. Furthermore, we found that Cubilin/AMN-mediated protein reabsorption is required for the maintenance of nephrocyte ultrastructure and fly survival under conditions of toxic stress. In conclusion, the insect nephrocyte combines filtration with protein reabsorption, using evolutionarily conserved genes and subcellular structures, suggesting that it can serve as a simplified model for both podocytes and the renal proximal tubule. PMID:23264686

  1. Drosophila as a model for unfolded protein response research

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Hyung Don

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is an organelle where most secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized, folded, and undergo further maturation. As numerous conditions can perturb such ER function, eukaryotic cells are equipped with responsive signaling pathways, widely referred to as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Chronic conditions of ER stress that cannot be fully resolved by UPR, or conditions that impair UPR signaling itself, are associated with many metabolic and degenerative diseases. In recent years, Drosophila has been actively employed to study such connections between UPR and disease. Notably, the UPR pathways are largely conserved between Drosophila and humans, and the mediating genes are essential for development in both organisms, indicating their requirement to resolve inherent stress. By now, many Drosophila mutations are known to impose stress in the ER, and a number of these appear similar to those that underlie human diseases. In addition, studies have employed the strategy of overexpressing human mutations in Drosophila tissues to perform genetic modifier screens. The fact that the basic UPR pathways are conserved, together with the availability of many human disease models in this organism, makes Drosophila a powerful tool for studying human disease mechanisms. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(8): 445-453] PMID:25999177

  2. Interspecific Comparison of the Transformer Gene of Drosophila Reveals an Unusually High Degree of Evolutionary Divergence

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, M. T.; Belote, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene of Drosophila melanogaster occupies an intermediate position in the regulatory pathway controlling all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation. The female-specific expression of this gene's function is regulated by the Sex lethal (Sxl) gene, through a mechanism involving sex-specific alternative splicing of tra pre-mRNA. The tra gene encodes a protein that is thought to act in conjunction with the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene product to control the sex-specific processing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. The bifunctional dsx gene carries out opposite functions in the two sexes, repressing female differentiation in males and repressing male differentiation in females. Here we report the results from an evolutionary approach to investigate tra regulation and function, by isolating the tra-homologous genes from selected Drosophila species, and then using the interpecific DNA sequence comparisons to help identify regions of functional significance. The tra-homologous genes from two Sophophoran subgenus species, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila erecta, and two Drosophila subgenus species, Drosophila hydei and Drosophila virilis, were cloned, sequenced and compared to the D. melanogaster tra gene. This comparison reveals an unusually high degree of evolutionary divergence among the tra coding sequences. These studies also highlight a highly conserved sequence within intron one that probably defines a cis-acting regulator of the sex-specific alternative splicing event. PMID:1592233

  3. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  4. Intrinsic membrane association of Drosophila cysteine string proteins.

    PubMed

    Mastrogiacomo, A; Kohan, S A; Whitelegge, J P; Gundersen, C B

    1998-09-25

    Cysteine string proteins (csps) are highly conserved constituents of vertebrate and invertebrate secretory organelles. Biochemical and immunoprecipitation experiments implied that vertebrate csps were integral membrane proteins that were tethered to the outer leaflet of secretory vesicles via the fatty acyl residues of their extensively acylated cysteine string. Independently, work of others suggested that Drosophila csps were peripheral membrane proteins that were anchored to membranes by a mechanism that was independent of the cysteine string and its fatty acyl residues. We extended these investigation and found first that sodium carbonate treatment partially stripped both csps and the integral membrane protein, synaptotagmin, from Drosophila membranes. Concomitantly, carbonate released fatty acids into the medium, arguing that it has a mild, solubilizing effect on these membranes. Second, we observed that Drosophila csps behaved like integral membrane proteins in Triton X-114 partitioning experiments. Third, we found that when membrane-bound csps were deacylated, they remained membrane bound. Moreover, it appeared that hydrophobic interactions were necessary for this persistent membrane association of csps. Thus, neither reducing conditions, urea, nor chaotropic agents displaced deacylated csps from membranes. Only detergents were effective in solubilizing deacylated csps. Finally, by virtue of the inaccessibility of deacylated csps to thiol alkylation by the membrane-impermeant alkylating reagent, iodoacetic acid, we inferred that it was the cysteine string domain that mediated the membrane association of deacylated csps. Thus, we conclude that under physiological conditions csps are integral membrane proteins of secretory organelles, and that the cysteine string domain plays a vital role in the membrane association of these proteins. PMID:9771899

  5. Neurally expressed Drosophila genes encoding homologs of the NSF and SNAP secretory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, R W; Pallanck, L; Ganetzky, B

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have now converged to indicate that the neurotransmitter release apparatus is formed by assembly of cytosolic proteins with proteins of the synaptic vesicle and presynaptic terminal membranes. We are undertaking a genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of two types of cytosolic proteins thought to function in this complex: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs). We have identified Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate and yeast NSF and SNAP genes. Both Drosophila genes encode polypeptides that closely resemble their vertebrate counterparts and are expressed in the nervous system; neither appears to be in a family of closely related Drosophila genes. These results indicate that the Drosophila NSF and SNAP genes are excellent candidates for mutational analysis of neurotransmitter release. Images PMID:8202553

  6. The insulator protein CTCF regulates Drosophila steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fresán, Ujué; Cuartero, Sergi; O'Connor, Michael B.; Espinàs, M. Lluisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The steroid hormone ecdysone is a central regulator of insect development. In this report we show that CTCF expression in the prothoracic gland is required for full transcriptional activation of the Halloween genes spookier, shadow and noppera-bo, which encode ecdysone biosynthetic enzymes, and for proper timing of ecdysone-responsive gene expression. Loss of CTCF results in delayed and less synchronized larval development that can only be rescued by feeding larvae with both, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and cholesterol. Moreover, CTCF-knockdown in prothoracic gland cells leads to increased lipid accumulation. In conclusion, the insulator protein CTCF is required for Halloween gene expression and cholesterol homeostasis in ecdysone-producing cells controlling steroidogenesis. PMID:25979705

  7. Selection on the Drosophila seminal fluid protein Acp62F

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alex; Rundle, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Sperm competition and sexual conflict are thought to underlie the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in many taxa. While comparative data are generally consistent with these hypotheses, few manipulative tests have been conducted and those that have provided contradictory results in some cases. Here, we use both comparative and experimental techniques to investigate the evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protein Acp62F, a protease inhibitor for which extensive functional tests have yielded ambiguous results. Using between-species sequence comparisons, we show that Acp62F has been subject to recurrent positive selection. In addition, we experimentally evolved populations polymorphic for an Acp62F null allele over eight generations, manipulating the opportunities for natural and sexual selection. We found that the Acp62F null allele increased in frequency in the presence of natural selection, with no effect of sexual selection. PMID:23919141

  8. Protein landscape at Drosophila melanogaster telomere-associated sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Antão, José M; Mason, James M; Déjardin, Jérôme; Kingston, Robert E

    2012-06-01

    The specific set of proteins bound at each genomic locus contributes decisively to regulatory processes and to the identity of a cell. Understanding of the function of a particular locus requires the knowledge of what factors interact with that locus and how the protein composition changes in different cell types or during the response to internal and external signals. Proteomic analysis of isolated chromatin segments (PICh) was developed as a tool to target, purify, and identify proteins associated with a defined locus and was shown to allow the purification of human telomeric chromatin. Here we have developed this method to identify proteins that interact with the Drosophila telomere-associated sequence (TAS) repeats. Several of the purified factors were validated as novel TAS-bound proteins by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and the Brahma complex was confirmed as a dominant modifier of telomeric position effect through the use of a genetic test. These results offer information on the efficacy of applying the PICh protocol to loci with sequence more complex than that found at human telomeres and identify proteins that bind to the TAS repeats, which might contribute to TAS biology and chromatin silencing. PMID:22493064

  9. Deletion of endogenous Tau proteins is not detrimental in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Burnouf, Sylvie; Grönke, Sebastian; Augustin, Hrvoje; Dols, Jacqueline; Gorsky, Marianna Karina; Werner, Jennifer; Kerr, Fiona; Alic, Nazif; Martinez, Pedro; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Human Tau (hTau) is a highly soluble and natively unfolded protein that binds to microtubules within neurons. Its dysfunction and aggregation into insoluble paired helical filaments is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), constituting, together with accumulated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, a hallmark of the disease. Deciphering both the loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function of hTau proteins is crucial to further understand the mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in AD. As the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster expresses Tau proteins (dTau) that are homologous to hTau, we aimed to better comprehend dTau functions by generating a specific tau knock-out (KO) fly line using homologous recombination. We observed that the specific removal of endogenous dTau proteins did not lead to overt, macroscopic phenotypes in flies. Indeed, survival, climbing ability and neuronal function were unchanged in tau KO flies. In addition, we did not find any overt positive or negative effect of dTau removal on human Aβ-induced toxicity. Altogether, our results indicate that the absence of dTau proteins has no major functional impact on flies, and suggests that our tau KO strain is a relevant model to further investigate the role of dTau proteins in vivo, thereby giving additional insights into hTau functions. PMID:26976084

  10. Deletion of endogenous Tau proteins is not detrimental in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Sylvie; Grönke, Sebastian; Augustin, Hrvoje; Dols, Jacqueline; Gorsky, Marianna Karina; Werner, Jennifer; Kerr, Fiona; Alic, Nazif; Martinez, Pedro; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Human Tau (hTau) is a highly soluble and natively unfolded protein that binds to microtubules within neurons. Its dysfunction and aggregation into insoluble paired helical filaments is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), constituting, together with accumulated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, a hallmark of the disease. Deciphering both the loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function of hTau proteins is crucial to further understand the mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in AD. As the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster expresses Tau proteins (dTau) that are homologous to hTau, we aimed to better comprehend dTau functions by generating a specific tau knock-out (KO) fly line using homologous recombination. We observed that the specific removal of endogenous dTau proteins did not lead to overt, macroscopic phenotypes in flies. Indeed, survival, climbing ability and neuronal function were unchanged in tau KO flies. In addition, we did not find any overt positive or negative effect of dTau removal on human Aβ-induced toxicity. Altogether, our results indicate that the absence of dTau proteins has no major functional impact on flies, and suggests that our tau KO strain is a relevant model to further investigate the role of dTau proteins in vivo, thereby giving additional insights into hTau functions. PMID:26976084

  11. Light-regulated translocation of signaling proteins in Drosophila photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Frechter, Shahar; Minke, Baruch

    2007-01-01

    Illumination of Drosophila photoreceptor cells induces multi-facet responses, which include generation of the photoreceptor potential, screening pigment migration and translocation of signaling proteins which is the focus of recent extensive research. Translocation of three signaling molecules is covered in this review: (1) Light-dependent translocation of arrestin from the cytosol to the signaling membrane, the rhabdomere, determines the lifetime of activated rhodopsin. Arrestin translocates in PIP3 and NINAC myosin III dependent manner, and specific mutations which disrupt the interaction between arrestin and PIP3 or NINAC also impair the light-dependant translocation of arrestin and the termination of the response to light. (2) Activation of Drosophila visual G protein, DGq, causes a massive and reversible, translocation of the α subunit from the signaling membrane to the cytosol, accompanied by activity-dependent architectural changes. Analysis of the translocation and the recovery kinetics of DGqα in wild-type flies and specific visual mutants indicated that DGqα is necessary but not sufficient for the architectural changes. (3) The TRP-like (TRPL) but not TRP channels translocate in a light-dependent manner between the rhabdomere and the cell body. As a physiological consequence of this light-dependent modulation of the TRP/TRPL ratio, the photoreceptors of dark-adapted flies operate at a wider dynamic range, which allows the photoreceptors enriched with TRPL to function better in darkness and dim background illumination. Altogether, signal-dependent movement of signaling proteins plays a major role in the maintenance and function of photoreceptor cells. PMID:16458490

  12. Analysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Cassar, Marlène; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment. Although these fragments have received much less attention than Aβ, a picture about their function is finally emerging. In contrast to mammals, which express three APP family members, Drosophila expresses only one APP protein called APP-like or APPL. Therefore APPL functions can be studied in flies without the complication that other APP family members may have redundant functions. Flies lacking APPL are viable but show defects in neuronal outgrowth in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in addition to synaptic changes. Furthermore, APPL has been connected with axonal transport functions. In the adult nervous system, APPL, and more specifically its secreted fragments, can protect neurons from degeneration. APPL cleavage also prevents glial death. Lastly, APPL was found to be involved in behavioral deficits and in regulating sleep/activity patterns. This review, will describe the role of APPL in neuronal development and maintenance and briefly touch on its emerging function in circadian rhythms while an accompanying review will focus on its role in learning and memory formation. PMID:27507933

  13. Analysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein Function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Cassar, Marlène; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment. Although these fragments have received much less attention than Aβ, a picture about their function is finally emerging. In contrast to mammals, which express three APP family members, Drosophila expresses only one APP protein called APP-like or APPL. Therefore APPL functions can be studied in flies without the complication that other APP family members may have redundant functions. Flies lacking APPL are viable but show defects in neuronal outgrowth in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in addition to synaptic changes. Furthermore, APPL has been connected with axonal transport functions. In the adult nervous system, APPL, and more specifically its secreted fragments, can protect neurons from degeneration. APPL cleavage also prevents glial death. Lastly, APPL was found to be involved in behavioral deficits and in regulating sleep/activity patterns. This review, will describe the role of APPL in neuronal development and maintenance and briefly touch on its emerging function in circadian rhythms while an accompanying review will focus on its role in learning and memory formation. PMID:27507933

  14. Minor proteins and enzymes of the Drosophila eggshell matrix.

    PubMed

    Fakhouri, Mazen; Elalayli, Maggie; Sherling, Daniel; Hall, Jacklyn D; Miller, Eric; Sun, Xutong; Wells, Lance; LeMosy, Ellen K

    2006-05-01

    The Drosophila eggshell provides an in vivo model system for extracellular matrix assembly, in which programmed gene expression, cell migrations, extracellular protein trafficking, proteolytic processing, and cross-linking are all required to generate a multi-layered and regionally complex architecture. While abundant structural components of the eggshell are known and are being characterized, less is known about non-abundant structural, regulatory, and enzymatic components that are likely to play critical roles in eggshell assembly. We have used sensitive mass spectrometry-based analyses of fractionated eggshell matrices to validate six previously predicted eggshell proteins and to identify eleven novel components, and have characterized the expression patterns of many of their mRNAs. Among these are several putative structural or regulatory (non-enzymatic) proteins, most larger in mass than the major eggshell proteins and often showing preferential expression in follicle cells overlying specific structural features of the eggshell. Of particular note are the putative enzymes, some likely to be involved in matrix cross-linking (two yellow family members previously implicated in eggshell integrity, a heme peroxidase, and a small-molecule oxidoreductase) and others possibly involved in matrix proteolysis or adhesion (proteins related to cathepsins B and D). This work provides a framework for future molecular studies of eggshell assembly. PMID:16515779

  15. A Systematic Cell-Based Analysis of Localization of Predicted Drosophila Peroxisomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Baron, Matthew N; Klinger, Christen M; Rachubinski, Richard A; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells. They perform specialized biochemical functions that vary with organism, tissue or cell type. Mutations in human genes required for the assembly of peroxisomes result in a spectrum of diseases called the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. A previous sequence-based comparison of the predicted proteome of Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) to human proteins identified 82 potential homologues of proteins involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, homeostasis or metabolism. However, the subcellular localization of these proteins relative to the peroxisome was not determined. Accordingly, we tested systematically the localization and selected functions of epitope-tagged proteins in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells to determine the subcellular localization of 82 potential Drosophila peroxisomal protein homologues. Excluding the Pex proteins, 34 proteins localized primarily to the peroxisome, 8 showed dual localization to the peroxisome and other structures, and 26 localized exclusively to organelles other than the peroxisome. Drosophila is a well-developed laboratory animal often used for discovery of gene pathways, including those linked to human disease. Our work establishes a basic understanding of peroxisome protein localization in Drosophila. This will facilitate use of Drosophila as a genetically tractable, multicellular model system for studying key aspects of human peroxisome disease. PMID:26865094

  16. Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Differential recognition of the polypyrimidine-tract by the general splicing factor U2AF65 and the splicing repressor sex-lethal.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R; Banerjee, H; Green, M R

    2000-01-01

    The polypyrimidine-tract (Py-tract) adjacent to 3' splice sites is an essential splicing signal and is recognized by several proteins, including the general splicing factor U2AF65 and the highly specific splicing repressor Sex-lethal (SXL). They both contain ribonucleoprotein-consensus RNA-binding motifs. However, U2AF65 recognizes a wide variety of Py-tracts, whereas SXL recognizes specific Py-tracts such as the nonsex-specific Py-tract of the transformer pre-mRNA. It is not understood how these seemingly similar proteins differentially recognize the Py-tract. To define these interactions, we used chemical interference and protection assays, saturation mutagenesis, and RNAs containing modified nucleotides. We find that these proteins recognize distinct features of the RNA. First, although uracils within the Py-tract are protected from chemical modification by both of these proteins, modification of any one of seven uracils by hydrazine, or any of eight phosphates by ethylnitrosourea strongly interfered with the binding of SXL only. Second, the 2' hydroxyl groups or backbone conformation appeared important for the binding of SXL, but not U2AF65. Third, although any of the bases (cytosine >> adenine > guanine) could substitute for uracils for U2AF65 binding, only guanine partially substituted for certain uracils for SXL binding. The different dependence on individual contacts and nucleotide preference may provide a basis for the different RNA-binding specificities and thus functions of U2AF65 and SXL in 3' splice site choice. PMID:10864047

  18. Dual fluorescence detection of protein and RNA in Drosophila tissues

    PubMed Central

    Toledano, Hila; D’Alterio, Cecilia; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Jones, D Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Detection of RNAs by in situ hybridization (ISH) is a well-established technique that permits the study of specific RNA expression patterns in tissues; however, not all tissues are equally amenable to staining using the same procedure. Here we describe a protocol that combines whole-mount immunofluorescence (IF) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the simultaneous detection of specific RNA transcripts and proteins, greatly enhancing the spatial resolution of RNA expression in complex, intact fly tissues. To date, we have successfully used this protocol in adult testis, larval male gonads, adult intestine and Malpighian tubules. IF is conducted in RNase-free solutions, prior to the harsh conditions of FISH, in order to preserve protein antigenicity within dissected tissues. Separate protocols are described for mRNA and miRNA detection, which are based on robust digoxigenin (DIG) RNA and locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, respectively. The combined IF-FISH procedure can be completed in 2 d for miRNA detection and 4 d for mRNA detection. Although optimized for Drosophila, this IF-FISH protocol should be adaptable to a wide variety of organisms, tissues, antibodies and probes, thus providing a reliable and simple means to compare RNA and protein abundance and localization. PMID:22976352

  19. Quantitative analysis of flagellar proteins in Drosophila sperm tails.

    PubMed

    Mendes Maia, Teresa; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Basto, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The cilium has a well-defined structure, which can still accommodate some morphological and molecular composition diversity to suit the functional requirements of different cell types. The sperm flagellum of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster appears as a good model to study the genetic regulation of axoneme assembly and motility, due to the wealth of genetic tools publically available for this organism. In addition, the fruit fly's sperm flagellum displays quite a long axoneme (∼1.8mm), which may facilitate both histological and biochemical analyses. Here, we present a protocol for imaging and quantitatively analyze proteins, which associate with the fly differentiating, and mature sperm flagella. We will use as an example the quantification of tubulin polyglycylation in wild-type testes and in Bug22 mutant testes, which present defects in the deposition of this posttranslational modification. During sperm biogenesis, flagella appear tightly bundled, which makes it more challenging to get accurate measurements of protein levels from immunostained specimens. The method we present is based on the use of a novel semiautomated, macro installed in the image processing software ImageJ. It allows to measure fluorescence levels in closely associated sperm tails, through an exact distinction between positive and background signals, and provides background-corrected pixel intensity values that can directly be used for data analysis. PMID:25837396

  20. Unfolded protein response in Gaucher disease: from human to Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Gaucher disease (GD), resulting from mutations in the GBA gene, mutant β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) molecules are recognized as misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They are retrotranslocated to the cytoplasm, where they are ubiquitinated and undergo proteasomal degradation in a process known as the ER Associated Degradation (ERAD). We have shown in the past that the degree of ERAD of mutant GCase correlates with GD severity. Persistent presence of mutant, misfolded protein molecules in the ER leads to ER stress and evokes the unfolded protein response (UPR). Methods We investigated the presence of UPR in several GD models, using molecular and behavioral assays. Results Our results show the existence of UPR in skin fibroblasts from GD patients and carriers of GD mutations. We could recapitulate UPR in two different Drosophila models for carriers of GD mutations: flies heterozygous for the endogenous mutant GBA orthologs and flies expressing the human N370S or L444P mutant GCase variants. We encountered early death in both fly models, indicating the deleterious effect of mutant GCase during development. The double heterozygous flies, and the transgenic flies, expressing mutant GCase in dopaminergic/serotonergic cells developed locomotion deficit. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that mutant GCase induces the UPR in GD patients as well as in carriers of GD mutations and leads to development of locomotion deficit in flies heterozygous for GD mutations. PMID:24020503

  1. Organization and maintenance of Drosophila telomeres: the roles of terminin and non-terminin proteins.

    PubMed

    Raffa, G D; Cenci, G; Ciapponi, L; Gatti, M

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila telomeres are elongated by occasional transposition of specialized retroelements rather than telomerase activity, and are assembled independently of the sequence of the DNA termini. Drosophila telomeres are capped by terminin, a complex formed by the HOAP, Moi, Ver and HipHop proteins that localize exclusively at telomeres and protect them from fusion events. Other proteins required to prevent end-to-end fusion include HP 1 Eff/UbcD 1, ATM, the components of the Mrel 1-Rad50-Nbs (MRN) complex, and the Woc transcription factor. The terminin proteins are encoded by fast-evolving genes and are not evolutionarily conserved outside the Drosophila species. In contrast, the non-terminin telomere capping proteins are not fast-evolving, do not localize only at telomeres and are conserved from yeasts to mammals. We propose that following telomerase loss, Drosophila rapidly evolved terminin to bind chromosome ends in a sequence-independent manner, and that non-terminin proteins did not evolve as rapidly as terminin because of the functional constraints imposed by their involvement in diverse cellular processes. This hypothesis suggests that the Drosophila non-terminin proteins might correspond to ancestral telomere-associated proteins with homologues in other organisms including humans. PMID:23795467

  2. Network of protein interactions within the Drosophila inner kinetochore

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Magdalena M.; Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Zdziarska, Anna; Czarnocki-Cieciura, Mariusz; Dadlez, Michal; Glover, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The kinetochore provides a physical connection between microtubules and the centromeric regions of chromosomes that is critical for their equitable segregation. The trimeric Mis12 sub-complex of the Drosophila kinetochore binds to the mitotic centromere using CENP-C as a platform. However, knowledge of the precise connections between Mis12 complex components and CENP-C has remained elusive despite the fundamental importance of this part of the cell division machinery. Here, we employ hydrogen–deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry to reveal that Mis12 and Nnf1 form a dimer maintained by interacting coiled-coil (CC) domains within the carboxy-terminal parts of both proteins. Adjacent to these interacting CCs is a carboxy-terminal domain that also interacts with Nsl1. The amino-terminal parts of Mis12 and Nnf1 form a CENP-C-binding surface, which docks the complex and thus the entire kinetochore to mitotic centromeres. Mutational analysis confirms these precise interactions are critical for both structure and function of the complex. Thus, we conclude the organization of the Mis12–Nnf1 dimer confers upon the Mis12 complex a bipolar, elongated structure that is critical for kinetochore function. PMID:26911623

  3. Intron retention in the Drosophila melanogaster Rieske iron sulphur protein gene generated a new protein

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Alisson M.; Miguela, Veronica; Whiting, Michael F.; Woodruff, R.C.; Dominguez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Genomes can encode a variety of proteins with unrelated architectures and activities. It is known that protein-coding genes of de novo origin have significantly contributed to this diversity. However, the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary processes behind these originations are still poorly understood. Here we show that the last 102 codons of a novel gene, Noble, assembled directly from non-coding DNA following an intronic deletion that induced alternative intron retention at the Drosophila melanogaster Rieske Iron Sulphur Protein (RFeSP) locus. A systematic analysis of the evolutionary processes behind the origin of Noble showed that its emergence was strongly biased by natural selection on and around the RFeSP locus. Noble mRNA is shown to encode a bona fide protein that lacks an iron sulphur domain and localizes to mitochondria. Together, these results demonstrate the generation of a novel protein at a naturally selected site. PMID:21610726

  4. Effects of cadmium on Drosophila: toxicity, proteins, and transfer RNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Opresko, L.; Owenby, R.K.; Christie, N.T.

    1981-01-01

    An animal model with well-defined genetic and biochemical characteristics is needed for a detailed understanding of the mechanism of toxicity by metal ions. Drosophila melanogaster was used in the present study to demonstrate a number of responses to Cd/sup 2 +/, including lethality, age-related changes in resistance, alterations of the normal developmental changes in proteins, and alterations in specific transfer RNAs. Genotype-specific differences in resistance to Cd/sup 2 +/ were found: the v; bw strain was 5-10 times more resistant than su(s)/sup 2/v; bw for developmental exposure; upon treatment of the young adults the differences were in the same direction, but the sensitivities differed by only two- to three-fold. The adult fly became more sensitive to Cd/sup 2 +/ as it aged through 2 weeks, but changed little thereafter.The electrophoretic patterns of proteins of adult flies underwent changes during aging from 1 to 8 days; these changes were markedly altered by 0.55 mM CdCl/sub 2/ but not by 0.74 mM ZnCl/sub 2/ in the medium on which the flies were maintained. The appearance of queuosine-containing tRNA was stimulated by CdCl/sub 2/ (0.05-0.8 mM) in the growth medium, but not by ZnCl/sub 2/ (0.07-1.1 mM).Further studies involving D. melanogaster should be useful in defining specific interactions of toxic metal ions with macromolecules to enhance the understanding of the toxic effects of these and similar pollutants.

  5. The ribosomal protein genes and Minute loci of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Marygold, Steven J; Roote, John; Reuter, Gunter; Lambertsson, Andrew; Ashburner, Michael; Millburn, Gillian H; Harrison, Paul M; Yu, Zhan; Kenmochi, Naoya; Kaufman, Thomas C; Leevers, Sally J; Cook, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to cause an array of cellular and developmental defects in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, disruption of RP genes can result in the 'Minute' syndrome of dominant, haploinsufficient phenotypes, which include prolonged development, short and thin bristles, and poor fertility and viability. While more than 50 Minute loci have been defined genetically, only 15 have so far been characterized molecularly and shown to correspond to RP genes. Results We combined bioinformatic and genetic approaches to conduct a systematic analysis of the relationship between RP genes and Minute loci. First, we identified 88 genes encoding 79 different cytoplasmic RPs (CRPs) and 75 genes encoding distinct mitochondrial RPs (MRPs). Interestingly, nine CRP genes are present as duplicates and, while all appear to be functional, one member of each gene pair has relatively limited expression. Next, we defined 65 discrete Minute loci by genetic criteria. Of these, 64 correspond to, or very likely correspond to, CRP genes; the single non-CRP-encoding Minute gene encodes a translation initiation factor subunit. Significantly, MRP genes and more than 20 CRP genes do not correspond to Minute loci. Conclusion This work answers a longstanding question about the molecular nature of Minute loci and suggests that Minute phenotypes arise from suboptimal protein synthesis resulting from reduced levels of cytoribosomes. Furthermore, by identifying the majority of haplolethal and haplosterile loci at the molecular level, our data will directly benefit efforts to attain complete deletion coverage of the D. melanogaster genome. PMID:17927810

  6. Drosophila transcriptional repressor protein that binds specifically to negative control elements in fat body enhancers.

    PubMed Central

    Falb, D; Maniatis, T

    1992-01-01

    Expression of the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene in adults requires a fat body-specific enhancer called the Adh adult enhancer (AAE). We have identified a protein in Drosophila nuclear extracts that binds specifically to a site within the AAE (adult enhancer factor 1 [AEF-1]). In addition, we have shown that AEF-1 binds specifically to two other Drosophila fat body enhancers. Base substitutions in the AEF-1 binding site that disrupt AEF-1 binding in vitro result in a significant increase in the level of Adh expression in vivo. Thus, the AEF-1 binding site is a negative regulatory element within the AAE. A cDNA encoding the AEF-1 protein was isolated and shown to act as a repressor of the AAE in cotransfection studies. The AEF-1 protein contains four zinc fingers and an alanine-rich sequence. The latter motif is found in other eukaryotic proteins known to be transcriptional repressors. Images PMID:1508206

  7. Inducible DamID systems for genomic mapping of chromatin proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pindyurin, Alexey V.; Pagie, Ludo; Kozhevnikova, Elena N.; van Arensbergen, Joris; van Steensel, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Dam identification (DamID) is a powerful technique to generate genome-wide maps of chromatin protein binding. Due to its high sensitivity, it is particularly suited to study the genome interactions of chromatin proteins in small tissue samples in model organisms such as Drosophila. Here, we report an intein-based approach to tune the expression level of Dam and Dam-fusion proteins in Drosophila by addition of a ligand to fly food. This helps to suppress possible toxic effects of Dam. In addition, we describe a strategy for genetically controlled expression of Dam in a specific cell type in complex tissues. We demonstrate the utility of the latter by generating a glia-specific map of Polycomb in small samples of brain tissue. These new DamID tools will be valuable for the mapping of binding patterns of chromatin proteins in Drosophila tissues and especially in cell lineages. PMID:27001518

  8. Inducible DamID systems for genomic mapping of chromatin proteins in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pindyurin, Alexey V; Pagie, Ludo; Kozhevnikova, Elena N; van Arensbergen, Joris; van Steensel, Bas

    2016-07-01

    Dam identification (DamID) is a powerful technique to generate genome-wide maps of chromatin protein binding. Due to its high sensitivity, it is particularly suited to study the genome interactions of chromatin proteins in small tissue samples in model organisms such as Drosophila Here, we report an intein-based approach to tune the expression level of Dam and Dam-fusion proteins in Drosophila by addition of a ligand to fly food. This helps to suppress possible toxic effects of Dam. In addition, we describe a strategy for genetically controlled expression of Dam in a specific cell type in complex tissues. We demonstrate the utility of the latter by generating a glia-specific map of Polycomb in small samples of brain tissue. These new DamID tools will be valuable for the mapping of binding patterns of chromatin proteins in Drosophila tissues and especially in cell lineages. PMID:27001518

  9. A ribosome-inactivating protein in a Drosophila defensive symbiont.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Phineas T; Peng, Fangni; Boulanger, Martin J; Perlman, Steve J

    2016-01-12

    Vertically transmitted symbionts that protect their hosts against parasites and pathogens are well known from insects, yet the underlying mechanisms of symbiont-mediated defense are largely unclear. A striking example of an ecologically important defensive symbiosis involves the woodland fly Drosophila neotestacea, which is protected by the bacterial endosymbiont Spiroplasma when parasitized by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. The benefit of this defense strategy has led to the rapid spread of Spiroplasma throughout the range of D. neotestacea, although the molecular basis for this protection has been unresolved. Here, we show that Spiroplasma encodes a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) related to Shiga-like toxins from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and that Howardula ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is depurinated during Spiroplasma-mediated protection of D. neotestacea. First, we show that recombinant Spiroplasma RIP catalyzes depurination of 28S rRNAs in a cell-free assay, as well as Howardula rRNA in vitro at the canonical RIP target site within the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of 28S rRNA. We then show that Howardula parasites in Spiroplasma-infected flies show a strong signal of rRNA depurination consistent with RIP-dependent modification and large decreases in the proportion of 28S rRNA intact at the α-sarcin/ricin loop. Notably, host 28S rRNA is largely unaffected, suggesting targeted specificity. Collectively, our study identifies a novel RIP in an insect defensive symbiont and suggests an underlying RIP-dependent mechanism in Spiroplasma-mediated defense. PMID:26712000

  10. A ribosome-inactivating protein in a Drosophila defensive symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Phineas T.; Peng, Fangni; Boulanger, Martin J.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts that protect their hosts against parasites and pathogens are well known from insects, yet the underlying mechanisms of symbiont-mediated defense are largely unclear. A striking example of an ecologically important defensive symbiosis involves the woodland fly Drosophila neotestacea, which is protected by the bacterial endosymbiont Spiroplasma when parasitized by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. The benefit of this defense strategy has led to the rapid spread of Spiroplasma throughout the range of D. neotestacea, although the molecular basis for this protection has been unresolved. Here, we show that Spiroplasma encodes a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) related to Shiga-like toxins from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and that Howardula ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is depurinated during Spiroplasma-mediated protection of D. neotestacea. First, we show that recombinant Spiroplasma RIP catalyzes depurination of 28S rRNAs in a cell-free assay, as well as Howardula rRNA in vitro at the canonical RIP target site within the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of 28S rRNA. We then show that Howardula parasites in Spiroplasma-infected flies show a strong signal of rRNA depurination consistent with RIP-dependent modification and large decreases in the proportion of 28S rRNA intact at the α-sarcin/ricin loop. Notably, host 28S rRNA is largely unaffected, suggesting targeted specificity. Collectively, our study identifies a novel RIP in an insect defensive symbiont and suggests an underlying RIP-dependent mechanism in Spiroplasma-mediated defense. PMID:26712000

  11. Cross-Species Interaction between Rapidly Evolving Telomere-Specific Drosophila Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vedelek, Balázs; Blastyák, András; Boros, Imre M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere integrity in Drosophila melanogaster is maintained by a putative multisubunit complex called terminin that is believed to act in analogy to the mammalian shelterin complex in protecting chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. The five proteins supposed to form the terminin complex are HP1-ORC associated protein, HP1-HOAP interacting protein, Verrocchio, Drosophila Telomere Loss/Modigliani and Heterochromatic Protein 1. Four of these proteins evolve rapidly within the Drosophila genus. The accelerated evolution of terminin components may indicate the involvement of these proteins in the process by which new species arise, as the resulting divergence of terminin proteins might prevent hybrid formation, thus driving speciation. However, terminin is not an experimentally proven entity, and no biochemical studies have been performed to investigate its assembly and action in detail. Motivated by these facts in order to initiate biochemical studies on terminin function, we attempted to reconstitute terminin by co-expressing its subunits in bacteria and investigated the possible role of the fast-evolving parts of terminin components in complex assembly. Our results suggest formation of stable subcomplexes of terminin, but not of the whole complex in vitro. We found that the accelerated evolution is restricted to definable regions of terminin components, and that the divergence of D. melanogaster Drosophila Telomere Loss and D. yakuba Verrocchio proteins does not preclude their stable interaction. PMID:26566042

  12. Concentration and Localization of Coexpressed ELAV/Hu Proteins Control Specificity of mRNA Processing.

    PubMed

    Zaharieva, Emanuela; Haussmann, Irmgard U; Bräuer, Ulrike; Soller, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Neuronally coexpressed ELAV/Hu proteins comprise a family of highly related RNA binding proteins which bind to very similar cognate sequences. How this redundancy is linked to in vivo function and how gene-specific regulation is achieved have not been clear. Analysis of mutants in Drosophila ELAV/Hu family proteins ELAV, FNE, and RBP9 and of genetic interactions among them indicates that they have mostly independent roles in neuronal development and function but have converging roles in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Conversely, ELAV, FNE, RBP9, and human HuR bind ELAV target RNA in vitro with similar affinities. Likewise, all can regulate alternative splicing of ELAV target genes in nonneuronal wing disc cells and substitute for ELAV in eye development upon artificially increased expression; they can also substantially restore ELAV's biological functions when expressed under the control of the elav gene. Furthermore, ELAV-related Sex-lethal can regulate ELAV targets, and ELAV/Hu proteins can interfere with sexual differentiation. An ancient relationship to Sex-lethal is revealed by gonadal expression of RBP9, providing a maternal fail-safe for dosage compensation. Our results indicate that highly related ELAV/Hu RNA binding proteins select targets for mRNA processing through alteration of their expression levels and subcellular localization but only minimally by altered RNA binding specificity. PMID:26124284

  13. Concentration and Localization of Coexpressed ELAV/Hu Proteins Control Specificity of mRNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zaharieva, Emanuela; Haussmann, Irmgard U.; Bräuer, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Neuronally coexpressed ELAV/Hu proteins comprise a family of highly related RNA binding proteins which bind to very similar cognate sequences. How this redundancy is linked to in vivo function and how gene-specific regulation is achieved have not been clear. Analysis of mutants in Drosophila ELAV/Hu family proteins ELAV, FNE, and RBP9 and of genetic interactions among them indicates that they have mostly independent roles in neuronal development and function but have converging roles in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Conversely, ELAV, FNE, RBP9, and human HuR bind ELAV target RNA in vitro with similar affinities. Likewise, all can regulate alternative splicing of ELAV target genes in nonneuronal wing disc cells and substitute for ELAV in eye development upon artificially increased expression; they can also substantially restore ELAV's biological functions when expressed under the control of the elav gene. Furthermore, ELAV-related Sex-lethal can regulate ELAV targets, and ELAV/Hu proteins can interfere with sexual differentiation. An ancient relationship to Sex-lethal is revealed by gonadal expression of RBP9, providing a maternal fail-safe for dosage compensation. Our results indicate that highly related ELAV/Hu RNA binding proteins select targets for mRNA processing through alteration of their expression levels and subcellular localization but only minimally by altered RNA binding specificity. PMID:26124284

  14. Organizational analysis of elav gene and functional analysis of ELAV protein of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Kwokming; White, K. )

    1991-06-01

    Drosophila virilis genomic DNA corresponding analysis of a 3.8-kb genomic piece allowed identification of (1) an open reading frame (ORF) with striking homology to the previously identified D. melanogaster ORF and (2) conserved sequence elements of possible regulatory relevance within and flanking the second intron. Conceptual translation of the D. virilis ORF predicts a 519-amino-acid-long ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence-type protein. Similar to D. melanogaster ELAV protein, it contains three tandem RNA-binding domains and an alanine/glutamine-rich amino-terminal region. The sequence throughout the RNA-binding domains, comprising the carboxy-terminal 346 amino acids, shows an extraordinary 100% identify at the amino acid level, indicating a strong structural constraint for this functional domain. Thus, the divergence of the amino-terminal region of the ELAV protein reflects lowered functional constraint rather than species-specific functional specification.

  15. Statin Treatment Increases Lifespan and Improves Cardiac Health in Drosophila by Decreasing Specific Protein Prenylation

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Dhahbi, Joseph M.; Yamakawa, Amy; Mote, Patricia; Bodmer, Rolf; Ocorr, Karen; Williams, Renee T.; Wang, Yinsheng; Ablao, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Statins such as simvastatin are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and standard therapy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in mammals. Here we show that simvastatin significantly increased the mean and maximum lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila) and enhanced cardiac function in aging flies by significantly reducing heart arrhythmias and increasing the contraction proportion of the contraction/relaxation cycle. These results appeared independent of internal changes in ubiquinone or juvenile hormone levels. Rather, they appeared to involve decreased protein prenylation. Simvastatin decreased the membrane association (prenylation) of specific small Ras GTPases in mice. Both farnesyl (L744832) and type 1 geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI-298) inhibitors increased Drosophila lifespan. These data are the most direct evidence to date that decreased protein prenylation can increase cardiac health and lifespan in any metazoan species, and may explain the pleiotropic (non-cholesterol related) health effects of statins. PMID:22737247

  16. Changes in Drosophila melanogaster midgut proteins in response to dietary Bowman-Birk inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Li, H-M; Margam, V; Muir, W M; Murdock, L L; Pittendrigh, B R

    2007-10-01

    The midgut proteome of Drosophila melanogaster was compared in larvae fed dietary Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) vs. larvae fed a control diet. By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, nine differentially expressed proteins were observed, which were associated with enzymes or transport functions such as sterol carrier protein X (SCPX), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, endopeptidase, receptor signalling protein kinase, ATP-dependent RNA helicase and alpha-tocopherol transport. Quantitative real-time PCR verified differential expression of transcripts coding for six of the proteins observed from the proteomic analysis. BBI evidently affects expression of proteins associated with protein degradation, transport and fatty acid catabolism. We then tested the hypothesis that SCPX was critical for the Drosophila third instars' response to BBI treatment. Inhibition of SCPX caused the third instars to become more susceptible to dietary BBI. PMID:17725801

  17. Gene regulation in Drosophila spermatogenesis: analysis of protein binding at the translational control element TCE.

    PubMed

    Kempe, E; Muhs, B; Schäfer, M

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified a 12 nucleotide long sequence element, the TCE, that was demonstrated to be necessary for translational control of expression in the male germ line of Drosophila melanogaster (Schäfer et al., 1990). It is conserved among all seven members of the Mst(3)CGP gene family, that encode structural proteins of the sperm tail. The TCE is invariably located in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) at position +28 relative to the transcription start site. In this paper we analyse the mode of action of this element. We show that protein binding occurs at the TCE after incubation with testis protein extracts from Drosophila melanogaster. While several proteins are associated with the translational control element in the RNA, only one of these proteins directly crosslinks to the sequence element. The binding activity is exclusively observed with testis protein extracts but can be demonstrated with testis extracts from other Drosophila species as well, indicating that regulatory proteins involved in translational regulation in the male germ line are conserved. Although binding to the TCE can occur independent of its position relative to the transcription start site of the in vitro transcripts, its function in vivo is not exerted when shifted further downstream within the 5' UTR of a fusion gene. In addition to being a translational control element the TCE also functions as a transcriptional regulator. Consequently, a DNA-protein complex is also formed at the TCE. In contrast to the RNA-protein complexes we find DNA-protein complexes with protein extracts of several tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:8111973

  18. Drosophila SMN complex proteins Gemin2, Gemin3, and Gemin5 are components of U bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Cauchi, Ruben J.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Liu, Ji-Long

    2010-08-15

    Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) play key roles in pre-mRNA processing in the nucleus. The assembly of most U snRNPs takes place in the cytoplasm and is facilitated by the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex. Discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules called U bodies have been proposed to be specific sites for snRNP assembly because they contain U snRNPs and SMN. U bodies invariably associate with P bodies, which are involved in mRNA decay and translational control. However, it remains unknown whether other SMN complex proteins also localise to U bodies. In Drosophila there are four SMN complex proteins, namely SMN, Gemin2/CG10419, Gemin3 and Gemin5/Rigor mortis. Drosophila Gemin3 was originally identified as the Drosophila orthologue of human and yeast Dhh1, a component of P bodies. Through an in silico analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicases we confirmed that Gemin3 is the bona fide Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate Gemin3 whereas the Drosophila orthologue of Dhh1 is Me31B. We then made use of the Drosophila egg chamber as a model system to study the subcellular distribution of the Gemin proteins as well as Me31B. Our cytological investigations show that Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 colocalise with SMN in U bodies. Although they are excluded from P bodies, as components of U bodies, Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 are consistently found associated with P bodies, wherein Me31B resides. In addition to a role in snRNP biogenesis, SMN complexes residing in U bodies may also be involved in mRNP assembly and/or transport.

  19. Terminin: a protein complex that mediates epigenetic maintenance of Drosophila telomeres.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Grazia D; Ciapponi, Laura; Cenci, Giovanni; Gatti, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    In most organisms, telomeres are extended by telomerase and contain GC-rich repeats. Drosophila telomeres are elongated by occasional transposition of specialized retroelements rather than telomerase activity, and are assembled independently of the sequence of the DNA termini. Recent work has shown that Drosophila telomeres are capped by a complex, we call terminin, which includes HOAP, HipHop, Moi and Ver; these are fast-evolving proteins that prevent telomere fusion, directly interact with each other, and appear to localize and function only at telomeres. With the possible exception of Ver that contains an OB fold domain structurally similar to the Stn1 OB fold, none of the terminin proteins is evolutionarily conserved outside the Drosophila species. Human telomeres are protected by the shelterin complex, which comprises six proteins that bind chromosome ends in a sequence-dependent manner. Shelterin subunits are not fast-evolving proteins and are not conserved in flies, but localize and function only at telomeres like the terminin components. Based on these findings, we propose that concomitant with telomerase loss Drosophila rapidly evolved terminin to bind chromosome ends in a sequence-independent fashion, and that terminin is functionally analogous to shelterin. PMID:21989238

  20. Supplementation with major royal jelly proteins increases lifespan, feeding and fecundity in Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major royal-jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of royal jelly (RJ) in honeybees. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A) or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet or MRJPs at 1.25% (C), 2.50% (D), or ...

  1. The Drosophila Tis11 Protein and Its Effects on mRNA Expression in Flies*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn-Jeong; Lai, Wi S.; Fedic, Robert; Stumpo, Deborah J.; Huang, Weichun; Li, Leping; Perera, Lalith; Brewer, Brandy Y.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Mason, James M.; Blackshear, Perry J.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the mammalian tristetraprolin family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins can bind to certain AU-rich elements (AREs) in mRNAs, leading to their deadenylation and destabilization. Mammals express three or four members of this family, but Drosophila melanogaster and other insects appear to contain a single gene, Tis11. We found that recombinant Drosophila Tis11 protein could bind to ARE-containing RNA oligonucleotides with low nanomolar affinity. Remarkably, co-expression in mammalian cells with “target” RNAs demonstrated that Tis11 could promote destabilization of ARE-containing mRNAs and that this was partially dependent on a conserved C-terminal sequence resembling the mammalian NOT1 binding domain. Drosophila Tis11 promoted both deadenylation and decay of a target transcript in this heterologous cell system. We used chromosome deletion/duplication and P element insertion to produce two types of Tis11 deficiency in adult flies, both of which were viable and fertile. To address the hypothesis that Tis11 deficiency would lead to the abnormal accumulation of potential target transcripts, we analyzed gene expression in adult flies by deep mRNA sequencing. We identified 69 transcripts from 56 genes that were significantly up-regulated more than 1.5-fold in both types of Tis11-deficient flies. Ten of the up-regulated transcripts encoded probable proteases, but many other functional classes of proteins were represented. Many of the up-regulated transcripts contained potential binding sites for tristetraprolin family member proteins that were conserved in other Drosophila species. Tis11 is thus an ARE-binding, mRNA-destabilizing protein that may play a role in post-transcriptional gene expression in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25342740

  2. Motor activity and mitotic spindle localization of the Drosophila kinesin-like protein KLP61F.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, N R; Pereira, A J; Goldstein, L S

    1995-01-01

    The KLP61F gene product is essential for Drosophila development. Mutations in KLP61F display a mitotic arrest phenotype caused by a failure in the proper separation of duplicated centrosomes (Heck et al., 1993). Sequence analysis of KLP61F identified it as a member of the bimC family of kinesin-like microtubule motor proteins. Here we report that KLP61F is distinct from KRP130, a kinesin-like protein recently purified from Drosophila embryos and suggested to be the product of the KLP61F gene (Cole et al., 1994). We also characterized recombinant KLP61F and found that it possesses microtubule-stimulated ATPase and microtubule translocation activities in vitro. In addition, we have used an affinity-purified, KLP61F-specific antiserum to localize native KLP61F and an epitope-tagged KLP61F fusion protein during various stages of mitosis in Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryos. From early prophase through anaphase, KLP61F is coincident with the distribution of tubulin. Together these results confirm the existence of multiple bimC-like kinesins in Drosophila and suggest that KLP61F function is intrinsic to the mitotic spindle. Images PMID:8589456

  3. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-52-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, H L; Barrio, R; Arribas, C

    1992-01-01

    Ubiquitin belongs to a multigene family. In Drosophila two members of this family have been previously described. We report here the organization and expression of a third member, the DUb52 gene, isolated by screening a Drosophila melanogaster genomic library. This gene encodes an ubiquitin monomer fused to a 52-amino acid extension protein. There are no introns interrupting the coding sequence. Recently, it has been described that this extension encodes a ribosomal protein in Saccharomyces, Dictyostelium, and Arabidopsis. The present results show that the 5' regulatory region of DUb52 shares common features with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse, including GC- and pyrimidine-rich regions. Moreover, sequences similar to the consensus Ribo-box in Neurospora crassa have been identified. Furthermore, a sequence has been found that is similar to the binding site for the TFIIIA distal element factor from Xenopus laevis. The DUb52 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA that is expressed constitutively throughout development and is particularly abundant in ovaries. In addition, the DUb52 gene has been found to be preferentially transcribed in exponentially growing Drosophila cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1381584

  4. Insulin-induced Drosophila S6 kinase activation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Jose M; Alrubaie, Saif; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Deak, Maria; Leevers, Sally J; Alessi, Dario R

    2003-01-01

    An important mechanism by which insulin regulates cell growth and protein synthesis is through activation of the p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K). In mammalian cells, insulin-induced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activation, generates the lipid second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3), which is thought to play a key role in triggering the activation of S6K. Although the major components of the insulin-signalling pathway are conserved in Drosophila, recent studies suggested that S6K activation does not require PI3K in this system. To investigate further the role of dPI3K (Drosophila PI3K) in dS6K (Drosophila S6K) activation, we examined the effect of two structurally distinct PI3K inhibitors on insulin-induced dS6K activation in Kc167 and S2 Drosophila cell lines. We found that both inhibitors prevented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and activation of dS6K. To investigate further the role of the dPI3K pathway in regulating dS6K activation, we also used dsRNAi (double-stranded RNA-mediated interference) to decrease expression of dPI3K and the PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) phosphatase dPTEN ( Drosophila phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) in Kc167 and S2 cells. Knock-down of dPI3K prevented dS6K activation, whereas knock-down of dPTEN, which would be expected to increase PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) levels, stimulated dS6K activity. Moreover, when the expression of the dPI3K target, dPKB (Drosophila protein kinase B), was decreased to undetectable levels, we found that insulin could no longer trigger dS6K activation. This observation provides the first direct demonstration that dPKB is required for insulin-stimulated dS6K activation. We also present evidence that the amino-acid-induced activation of dS6K in the absence of insulin, thought to be mediated by dTOR (Drosophila target of rapamycin), which is unaffected by the inhibition of dPI3K by wortmannin. The results of the present study support the view that, in Drosophila cells, dPI3K and dPKB, as well d

  5. Subcellular localisations of the CPTI collection of YFP-tagged proteins in Drosophila embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lye, Claire M.; Naylor, Huw W.; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in the post-genomic area is to identify the function of the genes discovered, with many still uncharacterised in all metazoans. A first step is transcription pattern characterisation, for which we now have near whole-genome coverage in Drosophila. However, we have much more limited information about the expression and subcellular localisation of the corresponding proteins. The Cambridge Protein Trap Consortium generated, via piggyBac transposition, over 600 novel YFP-trap proteins tagging just under 400 Drosophila loci. Here, we characterise the subcellular localisations and expression patterns of these insertions, called the CPTI lines, in Drosophila embryos. We have systematically analysed subcellular localisations at cellularisation (stage 5) and recorded expression patterns at stage 5, at mid-embryogenesis (stage 11) and at late embryogenesis (stages 15-17). At stage 5, 31% of the nuclear lines (41) and 26% of the cytoplasmic lines (67) show discrete localisations that provide clues on the function of the protein and markers for organelles or regions, including nucleoli, the nuclear envelope, nuclear speckles, centrosomes, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosomes and peroxisomes. We characterised the membranous/cortical lines (102) throughout stage 5 to 10 during epithelial morphogenesis, documenting their apico-basal position and identifying those secreted in the extracellular space. We identified the tricellular vertices as a specialized membrane domain marked by the integral membrane protein Sidekick. Finally, we categorised the localisation of the membranous/cortical proteins during cytokinesis. PMID:25294944

  6. Subcellular localisations of the CPTI collection of YFP-tagged proteins in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Lye, Claire M; Naylor, Huw W; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2014-10-01

    A key challenge in the post-genomic area is to identify the function of the genes discovered, with many still uncharacterised in all metazoans. A first step is transcription pattern characterisation, for which we now have near whole-genome coverage in Drosophila. However, we have much more limited information about the expression and subcellular localisation of the corresponding proteins. The Cambridge Protein Trap Consortium generated, via piggyBac transposition, over 600 novel YFP-trap proteins tagging just under 400 Drosophila loci. Here, we characterise the subcellular localisations and expression patterns of these insertions, called the CPTI lines, in Drosophila embryos. We have systematically analysed subcellular localisations at cellularisation (stage 5) and recorded expression patterns at stage 5, at mid-embryogenesis (stage 11) and at late embryogenesis (stages 15-17). At stage 5, 31% of the nuclear lines (41) and 26% of the cytoplasmic lines (67) show discrete localisations that provide clues on the function of the protein and markers for organelles or regions, including nucleoli, the nuclear envelope, nuclear speckles, centrosomes, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosomes and peroxisomes. We characterised the membranous/cortical lines (102) throughout stage 5 to 10 during epithelial morphogenesis, documenting their apico-basal position and identifying those secreted in the extracellular space. We identified the tricellular vertices as a specialized membrane domain marked by the integral membrane protein Sidekick. Finally, we categorised the localisation of the membranous/cortical proteins during cytokinesis. PMID:25294944

  7. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  8. Exploring the Conserved Role of MANF in the Unfolded Protein Response in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Riitta; Lindholm, Päivi; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Palgi, Mari; Saarma, Mart; Heino, Tapio I.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in the homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) referred to as ER stress is involved in a variety of human diseases. ER stress activates unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular mechanism the purpose of which is to restore ER homeostasis. Previous studies show that Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) is an important novel component in the regulation of UPR. In vertebrates, MANF is upregulated by ER stress and protects cells against ER stress-induced cell death. Biochemical studies have revealed an interaction between mammalian MANF and GRP78, the major ER chaperone promoting protein folding. In this study we discovered that the upregulation of MANF expression in response to drug-induced ER stress is conserved between Drosophila and mammals. Additionally, by using a genetic in vivo approach we found genetic interactions between Drosophila Manf and genes encoding for Drosophila homologues of GRP78, PERK and XBP1, the key components of UPR. Our data suggest a role for Manf in the regulation of Drosophila UPR. PMID:26975047

  9. Exploring the Conserved Role of MANF in the Unfolded Protein Response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Riitta; Lindholm, Päivi; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Palgi, Mari; Saarma, Mart; Heino, Tapio I

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in the homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) referred to as ER stress is involved in a variety of human diseases. ER stress activates unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular mechanism the purpose of which is to restore ER homeostasis. Previous studies show that Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) is an important novel component in the regulation of UPR. In vertebrates, MANF is upregulated by ER stress and protects cells against ER stress-induced cell death. Biochemical studies have revealed an interaction between mammalian MANF and GRP78, the major ER chaperone promoting protein folding. In this study we discovered that the upregulation of MANF expression in response to drug-induced ER stress is conserved between Drosophila and mammals. Additionally, by using a genetic in vivo approach we found genetic interactions between Drosophila Manf and genes encoding for Drosophila homologues of GRP78, PERK and XBP1, the key components of UPR. Our data suggest a role for Manf in the regulation of Drosophila UPR. PMID:26975047

  10. Assembly of Drosophila Centromeric Chromatin Proteins during Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Mellone, Barbara G.; Bowers, Sarion R.; Oderberg, Isaac; Karpen, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    Semi-conservative segregation of nucleosomes to sister chromatids during DNA replication creates gaps that must be filled by new nucleosome assembly. We analyzed the cell-cycle timing of centromeric chromatin assembly in Drosophila, which contains the H3 variant CID (CENP-A in humans), as well as CENP-C and CAL1, which are required for CID localization. Pulse-chase experiments show that CID and CENP-C levels decrease by 50% at each cell division, as predicted for semi-conservative segregation and inheritance, whereas CAL1 displays higher turnover. Quench-chase-pulse experiments demonstrate that there is a significant lag between replication and replenishment of centromeric chromatin. Surprisingly, new CID is recruited to centromeres in metaphase, by a mechanism that does not require an intact mitotic spindle, but does require proteasome activity. Interestingly, new CAL1 is recruited to centromeres before CID in prophase. Furthermore, CAL1, but not CENP-C, is found in complex with pre-nucleosomal CID. Finally, CENP-C displays yet a different pattern of incorporation, during both interphase and mitosis. The unusual timing of CID recruitment and unique dynamics of CAL1 identify a distinct centromere assembly pathway in Drosophila and suggest that CAL1 is a key regulator of centromere propagation. PMID:21589899

  11. Structural and dynamic characterization of eukaryotic gene regulatory protein domains in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A L

    1996-05-01

    Solution NMR was primarily used to characterize structure and dynamics in two different eukaryotic protein systems: the {delta}-Al-{var_epsilon} activation domain from c-jun and the Drosophila RNA-binding protein Sex-lethal. The second system is the Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein, an RNA-binding protein which is the ``master switch`` in sex determination. Sxl contains two adjacent RNA-binding domains (RBDs) of the RNP consensus-type. The NMR spectrum of the second RBD (Sxl-RBD2) was assigned using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR, and an intermediate-resolution family of structures was calculated from primarily NOE distance restraints. The overall fold was determined to be similar to other RBDs: a {beta}{alpha}{beta}-{beta}{alpha}{beta} pattern of secondary structure, with the two helices packed against a 4-stranded anti-parallel {beta}-sheet. In addition {sup 15}N T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, and {sup 15}N/{sup 1}H NOE relaxation measurements were carried out to characterize the backbone dynamics of Sxl-RBD2 in solution. RNA corresponding to the polypyrimidine tract of transformer pre-mRNA was generated and titrated into 3 different Sxl-RBD protein constructs. Combining Sxl-RBD1+2 (bht RBDs) with this RNA formed a specific, high affinity protein/RNA complex that is amenable to further NMR characterization. The backbone {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonances of Sxl-RBD1+2 were assigned using a triple-resonance approach, and {sup 15}N relaxation experiments were carried out to characterize the backbone dynamics of this complex. The changes in chemical shift in Sxl-RBD1+2 upon binding RNA are observed using Sxl-RBD2 as a substitute for unbound Sxl-RBD1+2. This allowed the binding interface to be qualitatively mapped for the second domain.

  12. La proteins from Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a yeast homolog of the La autoantigen is dispensable for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, C J; Wolin, S L

    1994-01-01

    The human autoantigen La is a 50-kDa protein which binds to the 3' termini of virtually all nascent polymerase III transcripts. Experiments with mammalian transcription extracts have led to the proposal that the La protein is required for multiple rounds of transcription by RNA polymerase III (E. Gottlieb and J. A. Steitz, EMBO J. 8:851-861, 1989; R. J. Maraia, D. J. Kenan, and J. D. Keene, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:2147-2158, 1994). Although La protein homologs have been identified in a variety of vertebrate species, the protein has not been identified in invertebrates. In order to begin a genetic analysis of La protein function, we have characterized homologs of the La protein in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that both the Drosophila and yeast La proteins are bound to precursors of polymerase III RNAs in vivo. The Drosophila and yeast proteins resemble the human La protein in their biochemical properties, as both proteins can be partially purified from cells by a procedure previously devised to purify the human protein. Similarly to vertebrate La proteins, the Drosophila and yeast homologs preferentially bind RNAs that terminate with a 3' hydroxyl. Despite the fact that the La protein is conserved between humans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast cells containing a null allele of the gene encoding the La protein are viable, suggesting that another protein(s) plays a functionally redundant role. Images PMID:8035818

  13. Expression of the vertebrate Gli proteins in Drosophila reveals a distribution of activator and repressor activities.

    PubMed

    Aza-Blanc, P; Lin, H Y; Ruiz i Altaba, A; Kornberg, T B

    2000-10-01

    The Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and Gli proteins are transcription factors that mediate responses to Hedgehog proteins (Hh) in flies and vertebrates, respectively. During development of the Drosophila wing, Ci transduces the Hh signal and regulates transcription of different target genes at different locations. In vertebrates, the three Gli proteins are expressed in overlapping domains and are partially redundant. To assess how the vertebrate Glis correlate with Drosophila Ci, we expressed each in Drosophila and monitored their behaviors and activities. We found that each Gli has distinct activities that are equivalent to portions of the regulatory arsenal of Ci. Gli2 and Gli1 have activator functions that depend on Hh. Gli2 and Gli3 are proteolyzed to produce a repressor form able to inhibit hh expression. However, while Gli3 repressor activity is regulated by Hh, Gli2 repressor activity is not. These observations suggest that the separate activator and repressor functions of Ci are unevenly partitioned among the three Glis, yielding proteins with related yet distinct properties. PMID:10976059

  14. Two evolutionarily conserved repression domains in the Drosophila Kruppel protein differ in activator specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Rose, W; Licht, J D; Hansen, U

    1997-01-01

    To identify biologically functional regions in the product of the Drosophila melanogaster gene Kruppel, we cloned the Kruppel homolog from Drosophila virilis. Both the previously identified amino (N)-terminal repression region and the DNA-binding region of the D. virilis Kruppel protein are greater than 96% identical to those of the D. melanogaster Kruppel protein, demonstrating a selective pressure to maintain the integrity of each region during 60 million to 80 million years of evolution. An additional region in the carboxyl (C) terminus of Kruppel that was most highly conserved was examined further. A 42-amino-acid stretch within the conserved C-terminal region also encoded a transferable repression domain. The short, C-terminal repression region is a composite of three subregions of distinct amino acid composition, each containing a high proportion of either basic, proline, or acidic residues. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated, unexpectedly, that the acidic residues contribute to repression function. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal repression regions were tested for the ability to affect transcription mediated by a variety of activator proteins. The N-terminal repression region was able to inhibit transcription in the presence of multiple activators. However, the C-terminal repression region inhibited transcription by only a subset of the activator proteins. The different activator specificities of the two regions suggest that they repress transcription by different mechanisms and may play distinct biological roles during Drosophila development. PMID:9234738

  15. Visualization of protein interactions in living Drosophila embryos by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein interactions control the regulatory networks underlying developmental processes. The understanding of developmental complexity will, therefore, require the characterization of protein interactions within their proper environment. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technology offers this possibility as it enables the direct visualization of protein interactions in living cells. However, its potential has rarely been applied in embryos of animal model organisms and was only performed under transient protein expression levels. Results Using a Hox protein partnership as a test case, we investigated the suitability of BiFC for the study of protein interactions in the living Drosophila embryo. Importantly, all BiFC parameters were established with constructs that were stably expressed under the control of endogenous promoters. Under these physiological conditions, we showed that BiFC is specific and sensitive enough to analyse dynamic protein interactions. We next used BiFC in a candidate interaction screen, which led to the identification of several Hox protein partners. Conclusion Our results establish the general suitability of BiFC for revealing and studying protein interactions in their physiological context during the rapid course of Drosophila embryonic development. PMID:21276241

  16. G-rich, a Drosophila selenoprotein, is a Golgi-resident type III membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chang Lan; Shim, Myoung Sup; Chung, Jiyeol; Yoo, Hyun-Seung; Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Jinmi; Zang, Shu Liang; Hou, Xiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae . E-mail: imbglmg@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2006-10-06

    G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of G-rich suggests that this protein is either type II or type III transmembrane protein. To determine the type of transmembrane protein experimentally, GFP-G-rich in which GFP was tagged at the N-terminus of G-rich, or G-rich-GFP in which GFP was tagged at the C-terminus of G-rich, were expressed in SL2 cells. The tagged proteins were then digested with trypsin, and analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the C-terminus of the G-rich protein was exposed to the cytoplasm indicating it is a type III microsomal membrane protein. G-rich is First selenoprotein identified in the Golgi apparatus.

  17. A genome-wide resource for the analysis of protein localisation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sarov, Mihail; Barz, Christiane; Jambor, Helena; Hein, Marco Y; Schmied, Christopher; Suchold, Dana; Stender, Bettina; Janosch, Stephan; K J, Vinay Vikas; Krishnan, R T; Krishnamoorthy, Aishwarya; Ferreira, Irene R S; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Finkl, Katja; Hasse, Susanne; Kämpfer, Philipp; Plewka, Nicole; Vinis, Elisabeth; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Knust, Elisabeth; Hartenstein, Volker; Mann, Matthias; Ramaswami, Mani; VijayRaghavan, K; Tomancak, Pavel; Schnorrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila genome contains >13000 protein-coding genes, the majority of which remain poorly investigated. Important reasons include the lack of antibodies or reporter constructs to visualise these proteins. Here, we present a genome-wide fosmid library of 10000 GFP-tagged clones, comprising tagged genes and most of their regulatory information. For 880 tagged proteins, we created transgenic lines, and for a total of 207 lines, we assessed protein expression and localisation in ovaries, embryos, pupae or adults by stainings and live imaging approaches. Importantly, we visualised many proteins at endogenous expression levels and found a large fraction of them localising to subcellular compartments. By applying genetic complementation tests, we estimate that about two-thirds of the tagged proteins are functional. Moreover, these tagged proteins enable interaction proteomics from developing pupae and adult flies. Taken together, this resource will boost systematic analysis of protein expression and localisation in various cellular and developmental contexts. PMID:26896675

  18. [Small heat shock proteins and adaptation to hypertermia in various Drosophila species].

    PubMed

    Shilova, V Iu; Garbuz, D G; Evgen'ev, M B; Zatsepina, O G

    2006-01-01

    Expression level and kinetics of accumulation of small heat shock proteins (21-27 kDa group) have been investigated in three Drosophila species differing significantly by temperature niche and thermosensitivity. It was shown that low-latitude thermotolerant species D. virilis exceeds the high-latitude thermosensitive closely-related species D. lummei as well as distant thermosensitive species D. melanogaster in terms of small heat shock proteins expression and accumulation after temperature elevation. The data obtained enable to postulate an important role of small heat shock proteins in organism basal thermotolerance and general adaptation to adverse conditions of environment. PMID:16637267

  19. Regulation of Heart Rate in Drosophila via Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Stefanie Mares; Joardar, Archi; Gregorio, Carol C.; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, however little is understood about their role in cardiac function. The Fragile X (FraX) family of RNA binding proteins is most commonly studied in the context of neurological disorders, as mutations in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) are the leading cause of inherited mental retardation. More recently, alterations in the levels of Fragile X Related 1 protein, FXR1, the predominant FraX member expressed in vertebrate striated muscle, have been linked to structural and functional defects in mice and zebrafish models. FraX proteins are established regulators of translation and are known to regulate specific targets in different tissues. To decipher the direct role of FraX proteins in the heart in vivo, we turned to Drosophila, which harbors a sole, functionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed FraX protein, dFmr1. Using classical loss of function alleles as well as muscle specific RNAi knockdown, we show that Drosophila FMRP, dFmr1, is required for proper heart rate during development. Functional analyses in the context of cardiac-specific dFmr1 knockdown by RNAi demonstrate that dFmr1 is required cell autonomously in cardiac cells for regulating heart rate. Interestingly, these functional defects are not accompanied by any obvious structural abnormalities, suggesting that dFmr1 may regulate a different repertoire of targets in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that dFmr1 protein is essential for proper cardiac function and establish the fly as a new model for studying the role(s) of FraX proteins in the heart. PMID:26571124

  20. The Drosophila melanogaster sir2+ gene is nonessential and has only minor effects on position-effect variegation.

    PubMed Central

    Aström, Stefan U; Cline, Thomas W; Rine, Jasper

    2003-01-01

    Five Drosophila melanogaster genes belong to the highly conserved sir2 family, which encodes NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. Of these five, dsir2(+) (CG5216) is most similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2 gene, which has profound effects on chromatin structure and life span. Four independent Drosophila strains were found with P-element insertions near the dsir2 transcriptional start site as well as extraneous linked recessive lethal mutations. Imprecise excision of one of these P elements (PlacW07223) from a chromosome freed of extraneous lethal mutations produced dsir2(17), a null intragenic deletion allele that generates no DSIR2 protein. Contrary to expectations from the report by Rosenberg and Parkhurst on their P-mobilization allele dSir2(ex10), homozygosity for dsir2(17) had no apparent deleterious effects on viability, developmental rate, or sex ratio, and it fully complemented sir2(ex10). Moreover, through a genetic test, we ruled out the reported effect of dSir2(ex10) on Sex-lethal expression. We did observe a modest, strictly recessive suppression of white(m4) position-effect variegation and a shortening of life span in dsir2 homozygous mutants, suggesting that dsir2 has some functions in common with yeast SIR2. PMID:12663533

  1. C9orf72 repeat expansions cause neurodegeneration in Drosophila through arginine-rich proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ridler, Charlotte E.; Clayton, Emma L.; Devoy, Anny; Moens, Thomas; Norona, Frances E.; Woollacott, Ione O.C.; Pietrzyk, Julian; Cleverley, Karen; Nicoll, Andrew J.; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Dols, Jacqueline; Cabecinha, Melissa; Hendrich, Oliver; Fratta, Pietro; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Partridge, Linda; Isaacs, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    An expanded GGGGCC repeat in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A fundamental question is whether toxicity is driven by the repeat RNA itself and/or by dipeptide repeat proteins generated by repeat-associated, non-ATG translation. To address this question we developed in vitro and in vivo models to dissect repeat RNA and dipeptide repeat protein toxicity. Expression of pure repeats in Drosophila caused adult-onset neurodegeneration attributable to poly-(glycine-arginine) proteins. Thus expanded repeats promoted neurodegeneration through neurotoxic proteins. Expression of individual dipeptide repeat proteins with a non-GGGGCC RNA sequence showed both poly-(glycine-arginine) and poly-(proline-arginine) proteins caused neurodegeneration. These findings are consistent with a dual toxicity mechanism, whereby both arginine-rich proteins and repeat RNA contribute to C9orf72-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:25103406

  2. Sm protein methylation is dispensable for snRNP assembly in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalvez, Graydon B.; Praveen, Kavita; Hicks, Amanda J.; Tian, Liping; Matera, A. Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Sm proteins form stable ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with small nuclear (sn)RNAs and are core components of the eukaryotic spliceosome. In vivo, the assembly of Sm proteins onto snRNAs requires the survival motor neurons (SMN) complex. Several reports have shown that SMN protein binds with high affinity to symmetric dimethylarginine (sDMA) residues present on the C-terminal tails of SmB, SmD1, and SmD3. This post-translational modification is thought to play a crucial role in snRNP assembly. In human cells, two distinct protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT5 and PRMT7) are required for snRNP biogenesis. However, in Drosophila, loss of Dart5 (the fruit fly PRMT5 ortholog) has little effect on snRNP assembly, and homozygous mutants are completely viable. To resolve these apparent differences, we examined this topic in detail and found that Drosophila Sm proteins are also methylated by two methyltransferases, Dart5/PRMT5 and Dart7/PRMT7. Unlike dart5, we found that dart7 is an essential gene. However, the lethality associated with loss of Dart7 protein is apparently unrelated to defects in snRNP assembly. To conclusively test the requirement for sDMA modification of Sm proteins in Drosophila snRNP assembly, we constructed a fly strain that exclusively expresses an isoform of SmD1 that cannot be sDMA modified. Interestingly, these flies were viable, and snRNP assays revealed no defects in comparison to wild type. In contrast, dart5 mutants displayed a strong synthetic lethal phenotype in the presence of a hypomorphic Smn mutation. We therefore conclude that dart5 is required for viability when SMN is limiting. PMID:18369183

  3. Functional dissection of the Hox protein Abdominal-B in Drosophila cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Yang, Xingke; Lohmann, Ingrid

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ct340 CRM was identified to be the posterior spiracle enhancer of gene cut. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ct340 is under the direct transcriptional control of Hox protein Abd-B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient cloning system was developed to assay protein-DNA interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New features of Abd-B dependent target gene regulation were detected. -- Abstract: Hox transcription factors regulate the morphogenesis along the anterior-posterior (A/P) body axis through the interaction with small cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) of their target gene, however so far very few Hox CRMs are known and have been analyzed in detail. In this study we have identified a new Hox CRM, ct340, which guides the expression of the cell type specification gene cut (ct) in the posterior spiracle under the direct control of the Hox protein Abdominal-B (Abd-B). Using the ct340 enhancer activity as readout, an efficient cloning system to generate VP16 activation domain fusion protein was developed to unambiguously test protein-DNA interaction in Drosophila cell culture. By functionally dissecting the Abd-B protein, new features of Abd-B dependent target gene regulation were detected. Due to its easy adaptability, this system can be generally used to map functional domains within sequence-specific transcriptional factors in Drosophila cell culture, and thus provide preliminary knowledge of the protein functional domain structure for further in vivo analysis.

  4. Drosophila Torsin Protein Regulates Motor Control and Stress Sensitivity and Forms a Complex with Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Min; Koh, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    We investigated unknown in vivo functions of Torsin by using Drosophila as a model. Downregulation of Drosophila Torsin (DTor) by DTor-specific inhibitory double-stranded RNA (RNAi) induced abnormal locomotor behavior and increased susceptibility to H2O2. In addition, altered expression of DTor significantly increased the numbers of synaptic boutons. One important biochemical consequence of DTor-RNAi expression in fly brains was upregulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Altered expression of ADH has also been reported in Drosophila Fragile-X mental retardation protein (DFMRP) mutant flies. Interestingly, expression of DFMRP was altered in DTor mutant flies, and DTor and DFMRP were present in the same protein complexes. In addition, DTor and DFMRP immunoreactivities were partially colocalized in several cellular organelles in larval muscles. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between synaptic morphologies of dfmrp null mutants and dfmrp mutants expressing DTor-RNAi. Taken together, our evidences suggested that DTor and DFMRP might be present in the same signaling pathway regulating synaptic plasticity. In addition, we also found that human Torsin1A and human FMRP were present in the same protein complexes, suggesting that this phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:27313903

  5. Temporally Variable Selection on Proteolysis-Related Reproductive Tract Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Alex; Turchin, Michael; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Aquadro, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the processes underlying rapid reproductive protein evolution, we have conducted a population genetic survey of 44 reproductive tract–expressed proteases, protease inhibitors, and targets of proteolysis in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Our findings suggest that positive selection on this group of genes is temporally heterogeneous, with different patterns of selection inferred using tests sensitive at different time scales. Such variation in the strength and targets of selection through time may be expected under models of sexual conflict and/or host–pathogen interaction. Moreover, available functional information concerning the genes that show evidence of selection suggests that both sexual selection and immune processes have been important in the evolutionary history of this group of molecules. PMID:21940639

  6. [COMPARATIVE STUDY OF Hrs AND OTHER ENDOSOMAL MARKERS CELLULAR LOCALIZATION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER SPERMATOGENESIS BY GFP-CHIMERICAL PROTEIN APPROACH].

    PubMed

    Marilovtseva, E V; Dubatolova, T D; Galimova, J A; Kopyl, S A; Omelyanchuk, L V

    2015-01-01

    Acrosome is a special organelle in spermatozoids necessary for fertilizing oocyte and originates, according to various theories, either from Golgi apparatus, or from endosomes and lysosomes. One of the proteins, found at mammalian acrosome, is Hgs, a homologue of Drosophila melanogaster Hrs (Hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), a known marker of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, although Drosophila acrosome was extensively studied, it is yet unknown whether Hrs localizes at acrosome similar to Hgs and, more generally, whether the spectrum of acrosomal proteins in Drosophila is the same as in mammals. Hrs (hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) is the multidomain vesicular protein participating in the endosome-lysosome protein sorting. We demonstrated that two protein variants of the Drosophila Hrs are expressed in testes: a longer isoform B, and a shorter isoform A, which lacks VHS and FYVE domains that are necessary for anchoring Hrs in endosomes. We found that Hrs isoform B is concentrated at fusoma of spermatocytes in contrast to mammalian Hrs. This localization requires the C-terminus of the protein, starting from the aminoacid residue 383. In situ hybridization of hrs RNA probe showed that the gene is expressed early in spermatogenesis consistently with Hrs localization in early fusoma. Additionally, we demonstrated that Hrs is dispensable for cytokinesis. Finally, it was found that although Drosophila Hrs does not localize at acrosome, the other endosomal markers--Rab4, Rab7, and Rab11--are detected at the organelle. PMID:26591063

  7. Duplication, Selection and Gene Conversion in a Drosophila mojavensis Female Reproductive Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Erin S.; Markow, Therese A.

    2009-01-01

    Protein components of the Drosophila male ejaculate, several of which evolve rapidly, are critical modulators of reproductive success. Recent studies of female reproductive tract proteins indicate they also are extremely divergent between species, suggesting that reproductive molecules may coevolve between the sexes. Our current understanding of intersexual coevolution, however, is severely limited by the paucity of genetic and evolutionary studies on the female molecules involved. Physiological evidence of ejaculate–female coadaptation, paired with a promiscuous mating system, makes Drosophila mojavensis an exciting model system in which to study the evolution of reproductive proteins. Here we explore the evolutionary dynamics of a five-paralog gene family of female reproductive proteases within populations of D. mojavensis and throughout the repleta species group. We show that the proteins have experienced ongoing gene duplication and adaptive evolution and further exhibit dynamic patterns of pseudogenation, copy number variation, gene conversion, and selection within geographically isolated populations of D. mojavensis. The integration of these patterns in a single gene family has never before been documented in a reproductive protein. PMID:19204376

  8. Regulated protein depletion by the auxin-inducible degradation system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Trost, Martina; Blattner, Ariane C; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of consequences resulting after experimental elimination of gene function has been and will continue to be an extremely successful strategy in biological research. Mutational elimination of gene function has been widely used in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference is used extensively as well. In the fly, exceptionally precise temporal and spatial control over elimination of gene function can be achieved in combination with sophisticated transgenic approaches and clonal analyses. However, the methods that act at the gene and transcript level cannot eliminate protein products which are already present at the time when mutant cells are generated or RNA interference is started. Targeted inducible protein degradation is therefore of considerable interest for controlled rapid elimination of gene function. To this end, a degradation system was developed in yeast exploiting TIR1, a plant F box protein, which can recruit proteins with an auxin-inducible degron to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, but only in the presence of the phytohormone auxin. Here we demonstrate that the auxin-inducible degradation system functions efficiently also in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither auxin nor TIR1 expression have obvious toxic effects in this organism, and in combination they result in rapid degradation of a target protein fused to the auxin-inducible degron. PMID:27010248

  9. Molecular population genetics of male accessory gland proteins in the Drosophila simulans complex.

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Andrew D; Jones, Corbin D; Begun, David J

    2004-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins are a major component of Drosophila seminal fluid. These proteins have a variety of functions and may be subject to sexual selection and/or antagonistic evolution between the sexes. Most population genetic data from these proteins are from D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Here, we extend the population genetic analysis of Acp genes to the other simulans complex species, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. We sequenced population samples of seven Acp's from D. mauritiana, D. sechellia, and D. simulans. We investigated the population genetics of these genes on individual simulans complex lineages and compared Acp polymorphism and divergence to polymorphism and divergence from a set of non-Acp loci in the same species. Polymorphism and divergence data from the simulans complex revealed little evidence for adaptive protein evolution at individual loci. However, we observed a dramatically inflated index of dispersion for amino acid substitutions in the simulans complex at Acp genes, but not at non-Acp genes. This pattern of episodic bursts of protein evolution in Acp's provides the strongest evidence to date that the population genetic mechanisms driving Acp divergence are different from the mechanisms driving evolution at most Drosophila genes. PMID:15238524

  10. The Stimulatory Gαs Protein Is Involved in Olfactory Signal Transduction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ying; Zhang, Weiyi; Farhat, Katja; Oberland, Sonja; Gisselmann, Günter; Neuhaus, Eva M.

    2011-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors typically mediate olfactory signal transduction by coupling to G-proteins. Although insect odorant receptors have seven transmembrane domains like G-protein coupled receptors, they have an inverted membrane topology, constituting a key difference between the olfactory systems of insects and other animals. While heteromeric insect ORs form ligand-activated non-selective cation channels in recombinant expression systems, the evidence for an involvement of cyclic nucleotides and G-proteins in odor reception is inconsistent. We addressed this question in vivo by analyzing the role of G-proteins in olfactory signaling using electrophysiological recordings. We found that Gαs plays a crucial role for odorant induced signal transduction in OR83b expressing olfactory sensory neurons, but not in neurons expressing CO2 responsive proteins GR21a/GR63a. Moreover, signaling of Drosophila ORs involved Gαs also in a heterologous expression system. In agreement with these observations was the finding that elevated levels of cAMP result in increased firing rates, demonstrating the existence of a cAMP dependent excitatory signaling pathway in the sensory neurons. Together, we provide evidence that Gαs plays a role in the OR mediated signaling cascade in Drosophila. PMID:21490930

  11. MitoDrome: a database of Drosophila melanogaster nuclear genes encoding proteins targeted to the mitochondrion

    PubMed Central

    Sardiello, Marco; Licciulli, Flavio; Catalano, Domenico; Attimonelli, Marcella; Caggese, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles present in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells; although they have their own DNA, the majority of the proteins necessary for a functional mitochondrion are coded by the nuclear DNA and only after transcription and translation they are imported in the mitochondrion as proteins. The primary role of the mitochondrion is electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Although it has been studied for a long time, the interest of researchers in mitochondria is still alive thanks to the discovery of mitochondrial role in apoptosis, aging and cancer. Aim of the MitoDrome database is to annotate the Drosophila melanogaster nuclear genes coding for mitochondrial proteins in order to contribute to the functional characterization of nuclear genes coding for mitochondrial proteins and to knowledge of gene diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunctions. Indeed D. melanogaster is one of the most studied organisms and a model for the Human genome. Data are derived from the comparison of Human mitochondrial proteins versus the Drosophila genome, ESTs and cDNA sequence data available in the FlyBase database. Links from the MitoDrome entries to the related homologous entries available in MitoNuC will be soon imple-mented. The MitoDrome database is available at http://bighost.area.ba.cnr.it/BIG/MitoDrome. Data are organised in a flat-file format and can be retrieved using the SRS system. PMID:12520013

  12. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected themore » splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.« less

  13. Functional studies of the BTB domain in the Drosophila GAGA and Mod(mdg4) proteins.

    PubMed

    Read, D; Butte, M J; Dernburg, A F; Frasch, M; Kornberg, T B

    2000-10-15

    The BTB/POZ (BTB) domain is an approximately 120 residue sequence that is conserved at the N-terminus of many proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates. We found that the protein encoded by a lethal allele of the Drosophila modifier of mdg4 [mod(mdg4)] gene has two mutated residues in its BTB domain. The identities of the residues at the positions of these mutations are highly conserved in the BTB domain family of proteins, and when the corresponding mutations were engineered into the BTB domain-containing GAGA protein, the activity of GAGA as a transcription activator in a transient transfection assay was severely reduced. The functional equivalence of the BTB domains was established by showing that the BTB domain of the mod(mdg4) protein can effectively substitute for that of GAGA. PMID:11024164

  14. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. This large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs. PMID:26294686

  15. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.

  16. Mutation of TweedleD, a member of an unconventional cuticle protein family, alters body shape in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiao; Middlebrooks, Brooke W.; Alexander, Sherry; Wasserman, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Body shape determination represents a critical aspect of morphogenesis. In the course of investigating body shape regulation in Drosophila, we have identified a dominant mutation, TweedleD1 (TwdlD1), that alters overall dimensions at the larval and pupal stages. Characterization of the affected locus led to the discovery of a gene family that has 27 members in Drosophila and is found only among insects. Analysis of gene expression at the RNA and protein levels revealed gene-specific temporal and spatial patterns in ectodermally derived tissues. In addition, light microscopic studies of fluorescently tagged proteins demonstrated that Tweedle proteins are incorporated into larval cuticular structures. This demonstration that a mutation in a Drosophila cuticular protein gene alters overall morphology confirms a role for the fly exoskeleton in determining body shape. Furthermore, parallels between these findings and studies of cuticle collagen genes in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that the exoskeleton influences body shape in diverse organisms. PMID:17075064

  17. Supplementation with Major Royal-Jelly Proteins Increases Lifespan, Feeding, and Fecundity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Yong; Chen, Di; Xiao, Fa; Parnell, Laurence D; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Liang; Ordovas, Jose M; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Li-Rong

    2016-07-27

    The major royal-jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of royal jelly (RJ) in honeybees. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A) or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet or MRJPs at 1.25% (C), 2.50% (D), or 5.00% (E). Diets B, C, D, and E increased mean lifespan by 4.3%, 9.0%, 12.4%, and 13.9% in males and by 5.8%, 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.8% in females in comparison to results from diet A, respectively. The diet supplemented with 2.50% MRJPs seems to have the optimal dose to improve both physiological and biochemical measures related to aging in both sexes. Interestingly, lifespan extension by MRJPs in Drosophila was positively associated with feeding and fecundity and up-regulation of copper and zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and the Egfr-mediated signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence that MRJPs are important components of RJ for prolonging lifespan in Drosophila. PMID:27388939

  18. Protein Expression in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Zhiyin; Sowell, Renã A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Clemmer, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid chromatographies coupled to mass spectrometry and database analysis techniques are used to carry out a large-scale proteome characterization for a Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease. Semi-quantitative analysis is performed on A30P α-synuclein expressing transgenic Drosophila and a control lacking the gene at pre-symptomatic, early and advanced disease stages. Changes in gene expression at the level of the proteome are compared with changes reported from published transcriptome measurements. A summary of the comparison indicates that ~44% of transcripts that show changes can also be observed as proteins. However, the patterns of change in protein expression vary substantially compared with the patterns of change observed for corresponding transcripts. In addition, the expression changes of many genes are observed for only transcripts or proteins. Proteome measurements provide evidence for dysregulation of a group of proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrion at pre-symptomatic and early disease stages that may presage the development of later symptoms. Overall, the proteome measurements provide a view of gene expression that is highly complementary to the insights obtained from the transcriptome. PMID:17203978

  19. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-80-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, R; del Arco, A; Cabrera, H L; Arribas, C

    1994-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila, as in all eukaryotes examined so far, some ubiquitin-coding sequences appear fused to unrelated open reading frames. Two of these fusion genes have been previously described (the homologues of UBI1-UBI2 and UBI4 in yeast), and we report here the organization and expression of a third one, the DUb80 gene (the homologue of UBI3 in yeast). This gene encodes a ubiquitin monomer fused to an 80-amino-acid extension which is homologous with the ribosomal protein encoded by the UB13 gene. The 5' regulatory region of DUb80 shares common features with another ubiquitin fusion gene, DUb52, and with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse. We also find helix-loop-helix protein-binding sequences (E-boxes). The DUb80 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA which is particularly abundant under conditions of high protein synthesis, such as in ovaries and exponentially growing cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8068011

  20. The Drosophila suppressor of underreplication protein binds to late-replicating regions of polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Makunin, I V; Volkova, E I; Belyaeva, E S; Nabirochkina, E N; Pirrotta, V; Zhimulev, I F

    2002-01-01

    In many late-replicating euchromatic regions of salivary gland polytene chromosomes, DNA is underrepresented. A mutation in the SuUR gene suppresses underreplication and leads to normal levels of DNA polytenization in these regions. We identified the SuUR gene and determined its structure. In the SuUR mutant stock a 6-kb insertion was found in the fourth exon of the gene. A single SuUR transcript is present at all stages of Drosophila development and is most abundant in adult females and embryos. The SuUR gene encodes a protein of 962 amino acids whose putative sequence is similar to the N-terminal part of SNF2/SWI2 proteins. Staining of salivary gland polytene chromosomes with antibodies directed against the SuUR protein shows that the protein is localized mainly in late-replicating regions and in regions of intercalary and pericentric heterochromatin. PMID:11901119

  1. Suppression of a temperature-sensitive cdc33 mutation of yeast by a multicopy plasmid expressing a Drosophila ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, C; Tam, R; Clark, M; Lee, H; Sonenberg, N; Lasko, P

    1994-05-20

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc33ts4-2 mutant produces a temperature-sensitive allele of the cap-binding subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F (also termed eIF-4E). From a Drosophila cDNA library constructed in a multicopy yeast shuttle vector, a clone was isolated which restored the ability to grow at elevated temperature to cdc33ts4-2 cells. The rescuing Drosophila clone encodes a small ribosomal subunit protein, which we name S15a based on its molecular weight and similarity with the Brassica napus S15a ribosomal protein. Transcription of the Drosophila gene, RpS15a, occurs at all developmental stages and is enhanced during oogenesis. The ribosomal protein gene is capable of suppressing other alleles of cdc33 but not an inactivation mutation, suggesting that suppression is dependent upon the presence of the temperature-sensitive eIF-4E protein. Supporting this, Western blot analysis shows that far more eIF-4E protein is present in cdc33 yeast cells expressing the RpS15a gene than lacking it. Levels of other unrelated proteins are unaffected. We propose therefore that the expression of high levels of the Drosophila S15a ribosomal protein in the cdc33 yeast cells leads to a selective stabilization of the temperature-sensitive eIF-4E protein, which accounts for the suppression phenomenon. PMID:8182070

  2. Stochastic Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Model for Gene/Protein Interaction Network in Early Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible mechanisms for eve stripe formation of Drosophila embryo, a spatio-temporal gene/protein interaction network model is proposed to mimic dynamic behaviors of protein synthesis, protein decay, mRNA decay, protein diffusion, transcription regulations and autoregulation to analyze the interplay of genes and proteins at different compartments in early embryogenesis. In this study, we use the maximum likelihood (ML) method to identify the stochastic 3-D Embryo Space-Time (3-DEST) dynamic model for gene/protein interaction network via 3-D mRNA and protein expression data and then use the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to prune the gene/protein interaction network. The identified gene/protein interaction network allows us not only to analyze the dynamic interplay of genes and proteins on the border of eve stripes but also to infer that eve stripes are established and maintained by network motifs built by the cooperation between transcription regulations and diffusion mechanisms in early embryogenesis. Literature reference with the wet experiments of gene mutations provides a clue for validating the identified network. The proposed spatio-temporal dynamic model can be extended to gene/protein network construction of different biological phenotypes, which depend on compartments, e.g. postnatal stem/progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:20054403

  3. Enigma, a mitochondrial protein affecting lifespan and oxidative stress response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mourikis, Philippos; Hurlbut, Gregory D.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

    2006-01-01

    Deregulation of energy metabolism by external interventions or mutations in metabolic genes can extend lifespan in a wide range of species. We describe mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that confer resistance to oxidative stress and display a longevity phenotype. These phenotypes are associated with molecular lesions in a hitherto uncharacterized gene we named Enigma. We show that Enigma encodes a mitochondrial protein with homology to enzymes of the β-oxidation of fatty acids and that mutations in this locus affect lipid homeostasis. Our analysis provides further support to the notion that lipid metabolism may play a central role in metazoan lifespan regulation. PMID:16434470

  4. Gudu, an Armadillo repeat-containing protein, is required for spermatogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila annotated gene CG5155 encodes a protein that contains 10 Armadillo-repeats and has an unknown function. To fill this gap, we performed loss-of-function studies using RNAi. By analysis of four independent Drosophila RNAi lines targeting two non-overlapping regions of the CG5155 transcript, we demonstrate that this gene is required for male fertility. Therefore, we have named this gene Gudu. The transcript of Gudu is highly enriched in adult testes. Knockdown of Gudu by a ubiquitous driver leads to defects in the formation of the individualization complex that is required for spermatid maturation, thereby impairing spermatogenesis. Furthermore, testis-specific knockdown of Gudu by crossing the RNAi lines with the bam-Gal4 driver is sufficient to cause the infertility and defective spermatogenesis. Since Gudu is highly homologous to vertebrate ARMC4, also an Armadillo-repeat-containing protein enriched in testes, our results suggest that Gudu and ARMC4 is a subfamily of Armadillo-repeat containing proteins that may have an evolutionarily conserved function in spermatogenesis. PMID:24055424

  5. LUSH odorant-binding protein mediates chemosensory responses to alcohols in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M S; Repp, A; Smith, D P

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating chemosensory discrimination in insects are unknown. Using the enhancer trapping approach, we identified a new Drosophila mutant, lush, with odorant-specific defects in olfactory behavior. lush mutant flies are abnormally attracted to high concentrations of ethanol, propanol, and butanol but have normal chemosensory responses to other odorants. We show that wild-type flies have an active olfactory avoidance mechanism to prevent attraction to concentrated alcohol, and this response is defective in lush mutants. This suggests that the defective olfactory behavior associated with the lush mutation may result from a specific defect in chemoavoidance. lush mutants have a 3-kb deletion that produces a null allele of a new member of the invertebrate odorant-binding protein family, LUSH. LUSH is normally expressed exclusively in a subset of trichoid chemosensory sensilla located on the ventral-lateral surface of the third antennal segment. LUSH is secreted from nonneuronal support cells into the sensillum lymph that bathes the olfactory neurons within these sensilla. Reintroduction of a cloned wild-type copy of lush into the mutant background completely restores wild-type olfactory behavior, demonstrating that this odorant-binding protein is required in a subset of sensilla for normal chemosensory behavior to a subset of odorants. These findings provide direct evidence that odorant-binding proteins are required for normal chemosensory behavior in Drosophila and may partially determine the chemical specificity of olfactory neurons in vivo. PMID:9755202

  6. Drosophila Hook-Related Protein (Girdin) Is Essential for Sensory Dendrite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Andrew; Polyanovsky, Andrey; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2015-01-01

    The dendrite of the sensory neuron is surrounded by support cells and is composed of two specialized compartments: the inner segment and the sensory cilium. How the sensory dendrite is formed and maintained is not well understood. Hook-related proteins (HkRP) like Girdin, DAPLE, and Gipie are actin-binding proteins, implicated in actin organization and in cell motility. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster single member of the Hook-related protein family, Girdin, is essential for sensory dendrite formation and function. Mutations in girdin were identified during a screen for fly mutants with no mechanosensory function. Physiological, morphological, and ultrastructural studies of girdin mutant flies indicate that the mechanosensory neurons innervating external sensory organs (bristles) initially form a ciliated dendrite that degenerates shortly after, followed by the clustering of their cell bodies. Importantly, we observed that Girdin is expressed transiently during dendrite morphogenesis in three previously unidentified actin-based structures surrounding the inner segment tip and the sensory cilium. These actin structures are largely missing in girdin mutant. Defects in cilia are observed in other sensory organs such as those mediating olfaction and taste, suggesting that Girdin has a general role in forming sensory dendrites in Drosophila. These suggest that Girdin functions temporarily within the sensory organ and that this function is essential for the formation of the sensory dendrites via actin structures. PMID:26058848

  7. Roles of the Drosophila NudE protein in kinetochore function and centrosome migration

    PubMed Central

    Wainman, Alan; Creque, Jacklyn; Williams, Byron; Williams, Erika V.; Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Gatti, Maurizio; Goldberg, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We examined the distribution of the dynein-associated protein NudE in Drosophila larval brain neuroblasts and spermatocytes, and analyzed the phenotypic consequences of a nudE null mutation. NudE can associate with kinetochores, spindles and the nuclear envelope. In nudE mutant brain mitotic cells, centrosomes are often detached from the poles. Moreover, the centrosomes of mutant primary spermatocytes do not migrate from the cell cortex to the nuclear envelope, establishing a new role for NudE. In mutant neuroblasts, chromosomes fail to congress to a tight metaphase plate, and cell division arrests because of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. The targeting of NudE to mitotic kinetochores requires the dynein-interacting protein Lis1, and surprisingly Cenp-meta, a Drosophila CENP-E homolog. NudE is non-essential for the targeting of all mitotic kinetochore components tested. However, in the absence of NudE, the `shedding' of proteins off the kinetochore is abrogated and the SAC cannot be turned off, implying that NudE regulates dynein function at the kinetochore. PMID:19417004

  8. Genes for Drosophila small heat shock proteins are regulated differently by ecdysterone

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, J.; Voellmy, R. ); Mestril, R. )

    1991-12-01

    Genes for small heat shock proteins (hsp27 to hsp22) are activated in late third-instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster in the absence of heat stress. This regulation has been stimulated in cultured Drosophila cells in which the genes are activated by the addition of ecdysterone. Sequence elements (HERE) involved in ecdysterone regulation of the hsp27 and hsp23 genes have been defined by transfection studies and have recently been identified as binding sites for ecdysterone receptor. The authors report here that the shp27 and hsp23 genes are regulated differently by ecdysterone. The hsp27 gene is activated rapidly by ecdysterone, even in the absence of protein synthesis. In contrast, high-level expression of the hsp23 gene begins only after a lag of about 6 h, is dependent on the continuous presence of ecdysterone, and is sensitive to low concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors. Transfection experiments with reported constructs show that this difference in regulation is at the transcriptional level. Synthetic hsp27 or hsp23 HERE sequences confer hsp27- or hsp23-type ecdysterone regulation on a basal promoter. These findings indicate that the hsp27 gene is primary, and the hsp23 gene is mainly a secondary, hormone-responsive gene. Ecdysterone receptor is implied to play a role in the regulation of both genes.

  9. Codon usage affects the structure and function of the Drosophila circadian clock protein PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingjing; Murphy, Katherine A; Zhou, Mian; Li, Ying H; Lam, Vu H; Tabuloc, Christine A; Chiu, Joanna C; Liu, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Codon usage bias is a universal feature of all genomes, but its in vivo biological functions in animal systems are not clear. To investigate the in vivo role of codon usage in animals, we took advantage of the sensitivity and robustness of the Drosophila circadian system. By codon-optimizing parts of Drosophila period (dper), a core clock gene that encodes a critical component of the circadian oscillator, we showed that dper codon usage is important for circadian clock function. Codon optimization of dper resulted in conformational changes of the dPER protein, altered dPER phosphorylation profile and stability, and impaired dPER function in the circadian negative feedback loop, which manifests into changes in molecular rhythmicity and abnormal circadian behavioral output. This study provides an in vivo example that demonstrates the role of codon usage in determining protein structure and function in an animal system. These results suggest a universal mechanism in eukaryotes that uses a codon usage "code" within genetic codons to regulate cotranslational protein folding. PMID:27542830

  10. spn-F encodes a novel protein that affects oocyte patterning and bristle morphology in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Abdu, Uri; Bar, Dikla; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2006-04-01

    The anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the Drosophila embryo are established during oogenesis through the activities of Gurken (Grk), a Tgfalpha-like protein, and the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr). spn-F mutant females produce ventralized eggs similar to the phenotype produced by mutations in the grk-Egfr pathway. We found that the ventralization of the eggshell in spn-F mutants is due to defects in the localization and translation of grk mRNA during mid-oogenesis. Analysis of the microtubule network revealed defects in the organization of the microtubules around the oocyte nucleus. In addition, spn-F mutants have defective bristles. We cloned spn-F and found that it encodes a novel coiled-coil protein that localizes to the minus end of microtubules in the oocyte, and this localization requires the microtubule network and a Dynein heavy chain gene. We also show that Spn-F interacts directly with the Dynein light chain Ddlc-1. Our results show that we have identified a novel protein that affects oocyte axis determination and the organization of microtubules during Drosophila oogenesis. PMID:16540510

  11. Biological characterization of Drosophila Rapgap1, a GTPase activating protein for Rap1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangli; Barkett, Margaret; Ram, Kavitha T.; Quintanilla, Adrian; Hariharan, Iswar K.

    1997-01-01

    The activity of Ras family proteins is modulated in vivo by the function of GTPase activating proteins, which increase their intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis. We have isolated cDNAs encoding a GAP for the Drosophila Rap1 GTPase. Drosophila Rapgap1 encodes an 850-amino acid protein with a central region that displays substantial sequence similarity to human RapGAP. This domain, when expressed in Escherichia coli, potently stimulates Rap1 GTPase activity in vitro. Unlike Rap1, which is ubiquitously expressed, Rapgap1 expression is highly restricted. Rapgap1 is expressed at high levels in the developing photoreceptor cells and in the optic lobe. Rapgap1 mRNA is also localized in the pole plasm in an oskar-dependent manner. Although mutations that completely abolish Rapgap1 function display no obvious phenotypic abnormalities, overexpression of Rapgap1 induces a rough eye phenotype that is exacerbated by reducing Rap1 gene dosage. Thus, Rapgap1 can function as a negative regulator of Rap1-mediated signaling in vivo. PMID:9356476

  12. The Arf family G protein Arl1 is required for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Isabel L.; Rosa-Ferreira, Cláudia; Munro, Sean

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The small G protein Arf like 1 (Arl1) is found at the Golgi complex, and its GTP-bound form recruits several effectors to the Golgi including GRIP-domain-containing coiled-coil proteins, and the Arf1 exchange factors Big1 and Big2. To investigate the role of Arl1, we have characterised a loss-of-function mutant of the Drosophila Arl1 orthologue. The gene is essential, and examination of clones of cells lacking Arl1 shows that it is required for recruitment of three of the four GRIP domain golgins to the Golgi, with Drosophila GCC185 being less dependent on Arl1. At a functional level, Arl1 is essential for formation of secretory granules in the larval salivary gland. When Arl1 is missing, Golgi are still present but there is a dispersal of adaptor protein 1 (AP-1), a clathrin adaptor that requires Arf1 for its membrane recruitment and which is known to be required for secretory granule biogenesis. Arl1 does not appear to be required for AP-1 recruitment in all tissues, suggesting that it is crucially required to enhance Arf1 activation at the trans-Golgi in particular tissues. PMID:24610947

  13. Characterization of the Drosophila BEAF-32A and BEAF-32B Insulator Proteins.

    PubMed

    Avva, S V Satya Prakash; Hart, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Data implicate the Drosophila 32 kDa Boundary Element-Associated Factors BEAF-32A and BEAF-32B in both chromatin domain insulator element function and promoter function. They might also function as an epigenetic memory by remaining bound to mitotic chromosomes. Both proteins are made from the same gene. They differ in their N-terminal 80 amino acids, which contain single DNA-binding BED fingers. The remaining 200 amino acids are identical in the two proteins. The structure and function of the middle region of 120 amino acids is unknown, while the C-terminal region of 80 amino acids has a putative leucine zipper and a BESS domain and mediates BEAF-BEAF interactions. Here we report a further characterization of BEAF. We show that the BESS domain alone is sufficient to mediate BEAF-BEAF interactions, although the presence of the putative leucine zipper on at least one protein strengthens the interactions. BEAF-32B is sufficient to rescue a null BEAF mutation in flies. Using mutant BEAF-32B rescue transgenes, we show that the middle region and the BESS domain are essential. In contrast, the last 40 amino acids of the middle region, which is poorly conserved among Drosophila species, is dispensable. Deleting the putative leucine zipper results in a hypomorphic mutant BEAF-32B protein. Finally, we document the dynamics of BEAF-32A-EGFP and BEAF-32B-mRFP during mitosis in embryos. A subpopulation of both proteins appears to remain on mitotic chromosomes and also on the mitotic spindle, while much of the fluorescence is dispersed during mitosis. Differences in the dynamics of the two proteins are observed in syncytial embryos, and both proteins show differences between syncytial and later embryos. This characterization of BEAF lays a foundation for future studies into molecular mechanisms of BEAF function. PMID:27622635

  14. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins Physically Interact with and Block Apoptosis Induced by Drosophila Proteins HID and GRIM

    PubMed Central

    Vucic, Domagoj; Kaiser, William J.; Miller, Lois K.

    1998-01-01

    Reaper (RPR), HID, and GRIM activate apoptosis in cells programmed to die during Drosophila development. We have previously shown that transient overexpression of RPR in the lepidopteran SF-21 cell line induces apoptosis and that members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of antiapoptotic proteins can inhibit RPR-induced apoptosis and physically interact with RPR through their BIR motifs (D. Vucic, W. J. Kaiser, A. J. Harvey, and L. K. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:10183–10188, 1997). In this study, we found that transient overexpression of HID and GRIM also induced apoptosis in the SF-21 cell line. Baculovirus and Drosophila IAPs blocked HID- and GRIM-induced apoptosis and also physically interacted with them through the BIR motifs of the IAPs. The region of sequence similarity shared by RPR, HID, and GRIM, the N-terminal 14 amino acids of each protein, was required for the induction of apoptosis by HID and its binding to IAPs. When stably overexpressed by fusion to an unrelated, nonapoptotic polypeptide, the N-terminal 37 amino acids of HID and GRIM were sufficient to induce apoptosis and confer IAP binding activity. However, GRIM was more complex than HID since the C-terminal 124 amino acids of GRIM retained apoptosis-inducing and IAP binding activity, suggesting the presence of two independent apoptotic motifs within GRIM. Coexpression of IAPs with HID stabilized HID levels and resulted in the accumulation of HID in punctate perinuclear locations which coincided with IAP localization. The physical interaction of IAPs with RPR, HID, and GRIM provides a common molecular mechanism for IAP inhibition of these Drosophila proapoptotic proteins. PMID:9584170

  15. γCOP Is Required for Apical Protein Secretion and Epithelial Morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Grieder, Nicole C.; Caussinus, Emmanuel; Parker, David S.; Cadigan, Kenneth; Affolter, Markus; Luschnig, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that tissue-specific modifications of basic cellular functions play an important role in development and disease. To identify the functions of COPI coatomer-mediated membrane trafficking in Drosophila development, we were aiming to create loss-of-function mutations in the γCOP gene, which encodes a subunit of the COPI coatomer complex. Principal Findings We found that γCOP is essential for the viability of the Drosophila embryo. In the absence of zygotic γCOP activity, embryos die late in embryogenesis and display pronounced defects in morphogenesis of the embryonic epidermis and of tracheal tubes. The coordinated cell rearrangements and cell shape changes during tracheal tube morphogenesis critically depend on apical secretion of certain proteins. Investigation of tracheal morphogenesis in γCOP loss-of-function mutants revealed that several key proteins required for tracheal morphogenesis are not properly secreted into the apical lumen. As a consequence, γCOP mutants show defects in cell rearrangements during branch elongation, in tube dilation, as well as in tube fusion. We present genetic evidence that a specific subset of the tracheal defects in γCOP mutants is due to the reduced secretion of the Zona Pellucida protein Piopio. Thus, we identified a critical target protein of COPI-dependent secretion in epithelial tube morphogenesis. Conclusions/Significance These studies highlight the role of COPI coatomer-mediated vesicle trafficking in both general and tissue-specific secretion in a multicellular organism. Although COPI coatomer is generally required for protein secretion, we show that the phenotypic effect of γCOP mutations is surprisingly specific. Importantly, we attribute a distinct aspect of the γCOP phenotype to the effect on a specific key target protein. PMID:18802472

  16. Drosophila SNAP-29 is an essential SNARE that binds multiple proteins involved in membrane traffic.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Mohtashami, Mahmood; Stewart, Bryan; Boulianne, Gabrielle; Trimble, William S

    2014-01-01

    Each membrane fusion event along the secretory and endocytic pathways requires a specific set of SNAREs to assemble into a 4-helical coiled-coil, the so-called trans-SNARE complex. Although most SNAREs contribute one helix to the trans-SNARE complex, members of the SNAP-25 family contribute two helixes. We report the characterization of the Drosophila homologue of SNAP-29 (dSNAP-29), which is expressed throughout development. Unlike the other SNAP-25 like proteins in fruit fly (i.e., dSNAP-25 and dSNAP-24), which form SDS-resistant SNARE complexes with their cognate SNAREs, dSNAP-29 does not participate in any SDS-resistant complexes, despite its interaction with dsyntaxin1 and dsyntaxin16 in vitro. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that dSNAP-29 is distributed in various tissues, locating in small intracellular puncta and on the plasma membrane, where it associates with EH domain-containing proteins implicated in the endocytic pathway. Overexpression and RNAi studies suggested that dSNAP-29 mediates an essential process in Drosophila development. PMID:24626111

  17. Activity, expression and function of a second Drosophila protein kinase a catalytic subunit gene

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, A.; Li, W.; Kalderon, D.

    1995-12-01

    The DC2 was isolated previously on the basis of sequence similarity to DC0, the major Drosophila protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit gene. We show here that the 67-kD Drosophila DC2 protein behaves as a PKA catalytic subunit in vitro. DC2 is transcribed in mesodermal anlagen of early embryos. This expression depends on dorsal but on neither twist nor snail activity. DC2 transcriptional fusions mimic this embryonic expression and are also expressed in subsets of cells in the optic lamina, wing disc and leg discs of third instar larvae. A saturation screen of a small deficiency interval containing DC2 for recessive lethal mutations yielded no DC2 alleles. We therefore isolated new deficiencies to generate deficiency trans-heterozygotes that lacked DC2 activity. These animals were viable and fertile. The absence of DC2 promoter did not efficiently rescue a variety of DC0 mutant phenotypes. These observations indicate that DC2 is not an essential gene and is unlikely to be functionally redundant with DC0, which has multiple unique functions during development. 62 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Drosophila SNAP-29 Is an Essential SNARE That Binds Multiple Proteins Involved in Membrane Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Mohtashami, Mahmood; Stewart, Bryan; Boulianne, Gabrielle; Trimble, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Each membrane fusion event along the secretory and endocytic pathways requires a specific set of SNAREs to assemble into a 4-helical coiled-coil, the so-called trans-SNARE complex. Although most SNAREs contribute one helix to the trans-SNARE complex, members of the SNAP-25 family contribute two helixes. We report the characterization of the Drosophila homologue of SNAP-29 (dSNAP-29), which is expressed throughout development. Unlike the other SNAP-25 like proteins in fruit fly (i.e., dSNAP-25 and dSNAP-24), which form SDS-resistant SNARE complexes with their cognate SNAREs, dSNAP-29 does not participate in any SDS-resistant complexes, despite its interaction with dsyntaxin1 and dsyntaxin16 in vitro. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that dSNAP-29 is distributed in various tissues, locating in small intracellular puncta and on the plasma membrane, where it associates with EH domain-containing proteins implicated in the endocytic pathway. Overexpression and RNAi studies suggested that dSNAP-29 mediates an essential process in Drosophila development. PMID:24626111

  19. Effects of sister chromatid cohesion proteins on cut gene expression during wing development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, Dale; Eissenberg, Joel C.; Misulovin, Ziva; Martens, Andrew; Redding, Bethany; McKim, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Summary The cohesin protein complex is a conserved structural component of chromosomes. Cohesin binds numerous sites along interphase chromosomes and is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and DNA repair. Here, we test the idea that cohesin also regulates gene expression. This idea arose from the finding that the Drosophila Nipped-B protein, a functional homolog of the yeast Scc2 factor that loads cohesin onto chromosomes, facilitates the transcriptional activation of certain genes by enhancers located many kilobases away from their promoters. We find that cohesin binds between a remote wing margin enhancer and the promoter at the cut locus in cultured cells, and that reducing the dosage of the Smc1 cohesin subunit increases cut expression in the developing wing margin. We also find that cut expression is increased by a unique pds5 gene mutation that reduces the binding of cohesin to chromosomes. On the basis of these results, we posit that cohesin inhibits long-range activation of the Drosophila cut gene, and that Nipped-B facilitates activation by regulating cohesin-chromosome binding. Such effects of cohesin on gene expression could be responsible for many of the developmental deficits that occur in Cornelia de Lange syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the human homolog of Nipped-B. PMID:16207752

  20. Mechanistic Relationships between Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor A Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Luyuan; Woodruff, Elvin; Liang, Ping; Broadie, Kendal

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome is caused by loss of the FMRP translational regulator. A current hypothesis proposes that FMRP functions downstream of mGluR signaling to regulate synaptic connections. Using the Drosophila disease model, we test relationships between dFMRP and the sole Drosophila mGluR (DmGluRA) by assaying protein expression, behavior and neuron structure in brain and NMJ; in single mutants, double mutants and with an mGluR antagonist. At the protein level, dFMRP is upregulated in dmGluRA mutants, and DmGluRA is upregulated in dfmr1 mutants, demonstrating mutual negative feedback. Null dmGluRA mutants display defects in coordinated movement behavior, which are rescued by removing dFMRP expression. Null dfmr1 mutants display increased NMJ presynaptic structural complexity and elevated presynaptic vesicle pools, which are rescued by blocking mGluR signaling. Null dfmr1 brain neurons similarly display increased presynaptic architectural complexity, which is rescued by blocking mGluR signaling. These data show that DmGluRA and dFMRP convergently regulate presynaptic properties. PMID:18280750

  1. The centriolar protein Bld10/Cep135 is required to establish centrosome asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Ramdas Nair, Anjana; Cabernard, Clemens

    2014-07-01

    Centrosome asymmetry has been implicated in stem cell fate maintenance in both flies and vertebrates [1, 2]. Drosophila neuroblasts, the neural precursors of the fly's central nervous system [3], contain molecularly and physically asymmetric centrosomes, established through differences in pericentriolar matrix (PCM) retention [4-7]. For instance, the daughter centriole maintains PCM and thus microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) activity through Polo-mediated phosphorylation of Centrobin (Cnb) [7, 8]. The mother centriole, however, quickly downregulates PCM and moves away from the apical cortex, randomly migrating through the cytoplasm until maturation sets in at prophase [4-6, 8]. How PCM downregulation is molecularly controlled is currently unknown, but it involves Pericentrin (PCNT)-like protein (PLP) to prevent premature Polo localization and thus MTOC activity [9]. Here, we report that the centriolar protein Bld10, the fly ortholog of Cep135, is required to establish centrosome asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts through shedding of Polo from the mother centrosome. bld10 mutants fail to downregulate Polo and PCM, generating two active, improperly positioned MTOCs. Failure to shed Polo and PCM causes spindle alignment and centrosome segregation defects, resulting in neuroblasts incorrectly retaining the older mother centrosome. Since Cep135 is implicated in primary microcephaly, we speculate that perturbed centrosome asymmetry could contribute to this rare neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:24954048

  2. Activity, Expression and Function of a Second Drosophila Protein Kinase a Catalytic Subunit Gene

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, A.; Li, W.; Kalderon, D.

    1995-01-01

    The DC2 gene was isolated previously on the basis of sequence similarity to DCO, the major Drosophila protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit gene. We show here that the 67-kD Drosophila DC2 protein behaves as a PKA catalytic subunit in vitro. DC2 is transcribed in mesodermal anlagen of early embryos. This expression depends on dorsal but on neither twist nor snail activity. DC2 transcriptional fusions mimic this embryonic expression and are also expressed in subsets of cells in the optic lamina, wing disc and leg discs of third instar larvae. A saturation screen of a small deficiency interval containing DC2 for recessive lethal mutations yielded no DC2 alleles. We therefore isolated new deficiencies to generate deficiency trans-heterozygotes that lacked DC2 activity. These animals were viable and fertile. The absence of DC2 did not affect the viability or phenotype of imaginal disc cells lacking DC0 activity or embryonic hatching of animals with reduced DC0 activity. Furthermore, transgenes expressing DC2 from a DC0 promoter did not efficiently rescue a variety of DC0 mutant phenotypes. These observations indicate that DC2 is not an essential gene and is unlikely to be functionally redundant with DC0, which has multiple unique functions during development. PMID:8601490

  3. A genome-wide resource for the analysis of protein localisation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sarov, Mihail; Barz, Christiane; Jambor, Helena; Hein, Marco Y; Schmied, Christopher; Suchold, Dana; Stender, Bettina; Janosch, Stephan; KJ, Vinay Vikas; Krishnan, RT; Krishnamoorthy, Aishwarya; Ferreira, Irene RS; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Finkl, Katja; Hasse, Susanne; Kämpfer, Philipp; Plewka, Nicole; Vinis, Elisabeth; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Knust, Elisabeth; Hartenstein, Volker; Mann, Matthias; Ramaswami, Mani; VijayRaghavan, K; Tomancak, Pavel; Schnorrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila genome contains >13000 protein-coding genes, the majority of which remain poorly investigated. Important reasons include the lack of antibodies or reporter constructs to visualise these proteins. Here, we present a genome-wide fosmid library of 10000 GFP-tagged clones, comprising tagged genes and most of their regulatory information. For 880 tagged proteins, we created transgenic lines, and for a total of 207 lines, we assessed protein expression and localisation in ovaries, embryos, pupae or adults by stainings and live imaging approaches. Importantly, we visualised many proteins at endogenous expression levels and found a large fraction of them localising to subcellular compartments. By applying genetic complementation tests, we estimate that about two-thirds of the tagged proteins are functional. Moreover, these tagged proteins enable interaction proteomics from developing pupae and adult flies. Taken together, this resource will boost systematic analysis of protein expression and localisation in various cellular and developmental contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12068.001 PMID:26896675

  4. Identification of a nonhistone chromosomal protein associated with heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster and its gene.

    PubMed Central

    James, T C; Elgin, S C

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a fraction of nuclear proteins of Drosophila melanogaster identified as tightly binding to DNA. Four of these antibodies were directed against a 19-kilodalton nuclear protein; immunofluorescence staining of the polytene chromosomes localized the antigen to the alpha, beta, and intercalary heterochromatic regions. Screening of a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library with one of the monoclonal antibodies identified a recombinant DNA phage clone that produced a fusion protein immunologically similar to the heterochromatin-associated protein. Polyclonal sera directed against the bacterial lacZ fusion protein recognized the same nuclear protein on Western blots. A full-length cDNA clone was isolated from a lambda gt10 library, and its DNA sequence was obtained. Analysis of the open reading frame revealed an 18,101-dalton protein encoded by this cDNA. Two overlapping genomic DNA clones were isolated from a Charon 4 library of D. melanogaster with the cDNA clone, and a restriction map was obtained. In situ hybridization with these probes indicated that the gene maps to a single chromosome location at 29A on the 2L chromosome. This general strategy should be effective for cloning the genes and identifying the genetic loci of chromosomal proteins which cannot be readily assayed by other means. Images PMID:3099166

  5. Drosophila quail, a villin-related protein, bundles actin filaments in apoptotic nurse cells.

    PubMed

    Matova, N; Mahajan-Miklos, S; Mooseker, M S; Cooley, L

    1999-12-01

    Drosophila Quail protein is required for the completion of fast cytoplasm transport from nurse cells to the oocyte, an event critical for the production of viable oocytes. The abundant network of cytoplasmic filamentous actin, established at the onset of fast transport, is absent in quail mutant egg chambers. Previously, we showed that Quail is a germline-specific protein with sequence homology to villin, a vertebrate actin-regulating protein. In this study, we combined biochemical experiments with observations in egg chambers to define more precisely the function of this protein in the regulation of actin-bundle assembly in nurse cells. We report that recombinant Quail can bind and bundle filamentous actin in vitro in a manner similar to villin at a physiological calcium concentration. In contrast to villin, Quail is unable to sever or cap filamentous actin, or to promote nucleation of new actin filaments at a high calcium concentration. Instead, Quail bundles the filaments regardless of the calcium concentration. In vivo, the assembly of nurse-cell actin bundles is accompanied by extensive perforation of the nurse-cell nuclear envelopes, and both of these phenomena are manifestations of nurse-cell apoptosis. To investigate whether free calcium levels are affected during apoptosis, we loaded egg chambers with the calcium indicator Indo-1. Our observations indicate a rise in free calcium in the nurse-cell cytoplasm coincident with the permeabilization of the nuclear envelopes. We also show that human villin expressed in the Drosophila germline could sense elevated cytoplasmic calcium; in nurse cells with reduced levels of Quail protein, villin interfered with actin-bundle stability. We conclude that Quail efficiently assembles actin filaments into bundles in nurse cells and maintains their stability under fluctuating free calcium levels. We also propose a developmental model for the fast phase of cytoplasm transport incorporating findings presented in this study

  6. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  7. Genome-wide identification of direct targets of the Drosophila retinal determination protein Eyeless.

    PubMed

    Ostrin, Edwin J; Li, Yumei; Hoffman, Kristi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Keqing; Zhang, Li; Mardon, Graeme; Chen, Rui

    2006-04-01

    The discovery of direct downstream targets of transcription factors (TFs) is necessary for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying complex, highly regulated processes such as development. In this report, we have used a combinatorial strategy to conduct a genome-wide search for novel direct targets of Eyeless (Ey), a key transcription factor controlling early eye development in Drosophila. To overcome the lack of high-quality consensus binding site sequences, phylogenetic shadowing of known Ey binding sites in sine oculis (so) was used to construct a position weight matrix (PWM) of the Ey protein. This PWM was then used for in silico prediction of potential binding sites in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. To reduce the false positive rate, conservation of these potential binding sites was assessed by comparing the genomic sequences from seven Drosophila species. In parallel, microarray analysis of wild-type versus ectopic ey-expressing tissue, followed by microarray-based epistasis experiments in an atonal (ato) mutant background, identified 188 genes induced by ey. Intersection of in silico predicted conserved Ey binding sites with the candidate gene list produced through expression profiling yields a list of 20 putative ey-induced, eye-enriched, ato-independent, direct targets of Ey. The accuracy of this list of genes was confirmed using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Initial analysis reveals three genes, eyes absent, shifted, and Optix, as novel direct targets of Ey. These results suggest that the integrated strategy of computational biology, genomics, and genetics is a powerful approach to identify direct downstream targets for any transcription factor genome-wide. PMID:16533912

  8. Eyg and Ey Pax proteins act by distinct transcriptional mechanisms in Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jih-Guang; Sun, Y Henry

    2005-01-01

    Drosophila has two pairs of Pax genes, ey/toy and eyg/toe, that play different functions during eye development. ey specifies eye fate, while eyg promotes cell proliferation. We have determined the molecular basis for the functional diversity of Eyg and Ey. Eyg and Ey act by distinct transcriptional mechanisms. They use different DNA-binding domains for target recognition. Most interestingly, Eyg acts exclusively as a repressor, whereas Ey is an activator. Several vertebrate Pax proteins are known to switch between activator and repressor activities, but none as repressors only. Eyg may be the first Pax protein as a dedicated repressor. Vertebrates produce a Pax6 isoform, Pax6-5a, differing from Pax6 in DNA-binding properties and functions and structurally similar to Eyg/Toe. We found that Pax6-5a acts as an activator like Ey, but has DNA-binding specificity like Eyg. PMID:15973436

  9. Interaction between Ataxin-2 Binding Protein 1 and Cubitus-interruptus during wing development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Usha, N; Shashidhara, L S

    2010-05-15

    Animal growth and development is dependent on reiterative use of key signaling pathways such as Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. It is widely believed that Cubitus-interruptus (Ci) mediates all functions of Hh pathway. Here we report that CG32062, the Drosophila homologue of Ataxin-2 Binding Protein 1 (dA2BP1), functions as a cofactor of Ci to specify intervein region between L3 and L4 veins of the adult wing. Specifically, Ci-mediated transactivation of knot/collier (kn) in this region of the developing wing imaginal disc is dependent on dA2BP1 function. Protein interaction studies and chromatin-immunoprecipiation experiments suggest that Ci helps dA2BP1 to bind kn promoter, which in turn may help Ci to activate kn expression. These results suggest a mechanism by which Ci may activate targets such as kn, which do not have classical Ci/Gli-binding sites. PMID:20226779

  10. Male seminal fluid proteins are essential for sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Tram, U; Wolfner, M F

    1999-01-01

    The seminal fluid that is transferred along with sperm during mating acts in many ways to maximize a male's reproductive success. Here, we use transgenic Drosophila melanogaster males deficient in the seminal fluid proteins derived from the accessory gland (Acps) to investigate the role of these proteins in the fate of sperm transferred to females during mating. Competitive PCR assays were used to show that while Acps contribute to the efficiency of sperm transfer, they are not essential for the transfer of sperm to the female. In contrast, we found that Acps are essential for storage of sperm by females. Direct counts of stored sperm showed that 10% of normal levels are stored by females whose mates transfer little or no Acps along with sperm. PMID:10511561

  11. Identification of regions interacting with ovo{sup D} mutations: Potential new genes involved in germline sex determination or differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, D.; Oliver, B.; Mahowald, A.P.

    1995-02-01

    Only a few Drosophila melanogaster germline sex determination genes are known, and there have been no systematic screens to identify new genes involved in this important biological process. The ovarian phenotypes produced by females mutant for dominant alleles of the ovo gene are modified in flies with altered doses of other loci involved in germline sex determination in Drosophila (Sex-lethal{sup +}, snas fille{sup +} and ovarian tumor{sup +}). This observation constitutes the basis for a screen to identify additional genes required for proper establishment of germline sexual identity. We tested 300 deletions, which together cover {approximately}58% of the euchromatic portion of the genome, for genetic interactions with ovo{sup D}. Hemizygosity for more than a dozen small regions show interactions that either partially suppress or enhance the ovarian phenotypes of females mutant for one or more of the three dominant ovo mutations. These regions probably contain genes whose products act in developmental heirarchies that include ovo{sup +} protein. 40 refs, 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. The Drosophila Wilms׳ Tumor 1-Associating Protein (WTAP) homolog is required for eye development.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Abigail M; Weasner, Brandon P; Weasner, Bonnie M; Kumar, Justin P

    2014-06-15

    Sine Oculis (So), the founding member of the SIX family of homeobox transcription factors, binds to sequence specific DNA elements and regulates transcription of downstream target genes. It does so, in part, through the formation of distinct biochemical complexes with Eyes Absent (Eya) and Groucho (Gro). While these complexes play significant roles during development, they do not account for all So-dependent activities in Drosophila. It is thought that additional So-containing complexes make important contributions as well. This contention is supported by the identification of nearly two-dozen additional proteins that complex with So. However, very little is known about the roles that these additional complexes play in development. In this report we have used yeast two-hybrid screens and co-immunoprecipitation assays from Kc167 cells to identify a biochemical complex consisting of So and Fl(2)d, the Drosophila homolog of human Wilms׳ Tumor 1-Associating Protein (WTAP). We show that Fl(2)d protein is distributed throughout the entire eye-antennal imaginal disc and that loss-of-function mutations lead to perturbations in retinal development. The eye defects are manifested behind the morphogenetic furrow and result in part from increased levels of the pan-neuronal RNA binding protein Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (Elav) and the RUNX class transcription factor Lozenge (Lz). We also provide evidence that So and Fl(2)d interact genetically in the developing eye. Wilms׳ tumor-1 (WT1), a binding partner of WTAP, is required for normal eye formation in mammals and loss-of-function mutations are associated with some versions of retinoblastoma. In contrast, WTAP and its homologs have not been implicated in eye development. To our knowledge, the results presented in this report are the first description of a role for WTAP in the retina of any seeing animal. PMID:24690230

  13. The Novel Smad Protein Expansion Regulates Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Pathway to Control Drosophila Tracheal Tube Size

    PubMed Central

    Iordanou, Ekaterini; Chandran, Rachana R.; Yang, Yonghua; Essak, Mina; Blackstone, Nicholas; Jiang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Tubes with distinct shapes and sizes are critical for the proper function of many tubular organs. Here we describe a unique phenotype caused by the loss of a novel, evolutionarily-conserved, Drosophila Smad-like protein, Expansion. In expansion mutants, unicellular and intracellular tracheal branches develop bubble-like cysts with enlarged apical membranes. Cysts in unicellular tubes are enlargements of the apical lumen, whereas cysts in intracellular tubes are cytoplasmic vacuole-like compartments. The cyst phenotype in expansion mutants is similar to, but weaker than, that observed in double mutants of Drosophila type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. Ptp4E and Ptp10D negatively regulate the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, especially epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor/breathless (FGFR, Btl) signaling to maintain the proper size of unicellular and intracellular tubes. We show Exp genetically interacts with RTK signaling, the downstream targets of RPTPs. Cyst size and number in expansion mutants is enhanced by increased RTK signaling and suppressed by reduced RTK signaling. Genetic interaction studies strongly suggest that Exp negatively regulates RTK (EGFR, Btl) signaling to ensure proper tube sizes. Smad proteins generally function as intermediate components of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, DPP) signaling pathway. However, no obvious genetic interaction between expansion and TGF-β (DPP) signaling was observed. Therefore, Expansion does not function as a typical Smad protein. The expansion phenotype demonstrates a novel role for Smad-like proteins in epithelial tube formation. PMID:24973580

  14. A Drosophila protein family implicated in pheromone perception is related to Tay-Sachs GM2-activator protein.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Elena; Xu, Aiguo; Lin, Heping; Pikielny, Claudio W

    2009-01-01

    Low volatility, lipid-like cuticular hydrocarbon pheromones produced by Drosophila melanogaster females play an essential role in triggering and modulating mating behavior, but the chemosensory mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Recently, we showed that the CheB42a protein, which is expressed in only 10 pheromone-sensing taste hairs on the front legs of males, modulates progression to late stages of male courtship behavior in response to female-specific cuticular hydrocarbons. Here we report that expression of all 12 genes in the CheB gene family is predominantly or exclusively gustatory-specific, and occurs in many different, often non-overlapping patterns. Only the Gr family of gustatory receptor genes displays a comparable variety of gustatory-specific expression patterns. Unlike Grs, however, expression of all but one CheB gene is sexually dimorphic. Like CheB42a, other CheBs may therefore function specifically in gustatory perception of pheromones. We also show that CheBs belong to the ML superfamily of lipid-binding proteins, and are most similar to human GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP). In particular, GM2-AP residues involved in ligand binding are conserved in CheBs but not in other ML proteins. Finally, CheB42a is specifically secreted into the inner lumen of pheromone-sensing taste hairs, where pheromones interact with membrane-bound receptors. We propose that CheB proteins interact directly with lipid-like Drosophila pheromones and modulate their detection by the gustatory signal transduction machinery. Furthermore, as loss of GM2-AP in Tay-Sachs disease prevents degradation of GM2 gangliosides and results in neurodegeneration, the function of CheBs in pheromone response may involve biochemical mechanisms critical for lipid metabolism in human neurons. PMID:18952610

  15. Overexpression of Drosophila juvenile hormone esterase binding protein results in anti-JH effects and reduced pheromone abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The titer of juvenile hormone (JH), which has wide ranging physiological effects in insects, is regulated in part by JH esterase (JHE). We show that overexpression in Drosophila melanogaster of the JHE binding protein, DmP29 results in a series of apparent anti-JH effects. We hypothesize that DmP29 ...

  16. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation in "Drosophila melanogaster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Erber, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has many cellular functions in vertebrates and insects that affect complex behaviors such as locomotion and foraging. The "foraging" ("for") gene encodes a PKG in "Drosophila melanogaster." Here, we demonstrate a function for the "for" gene in sensory responsiveness and nonassociative learning. Larvae of the…

  17. Kebab: Kinetochore and EB1 Associated Basic Protein That Dynamically Changes Its Localisation during Drosophila Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Ana M.; Dzhindzhev, Nikola S.; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Microtubule plus ends are dynamic ends that interact with other cellular structures. Microtubule plus end tracking proteins are considered to play important roles in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. Recent studies revealed that EB1 is the central regulator for microtubule plus end tracking proteins by recruiting them to microtubule plus ends through direct interaction. Here we report the identification of a novel Drosophila protein, which we call Kebab (kinetochore and EB1 associated basic protein), through in vitro expression screening for EB1-interacting proteins. Kebab fused to GFP shows a novel pattern of dynamic localisation in mitosis. It localises to kinetochores weakly in metaphase and accumulates progressively during anaphase. In telophase, it associates with microtubules in central-spindle and centrosomal regions. The localisation to kinetochores depends on microtubules. The protein has a domain most similar to the atypical CH domain of Ndc80, and a coiled-coil domain. The interaction with EB1 is mediated by two SxIP motifs but is not required for the localisation. Depletion of Kebab in cultured cells by RNA interference did not show obvious defects in mitotic progression or microtubule organisation. Generation of mutants lacking the kebab gene indicated that Kebab is dispensable for viability and fertility. PMID:21912673

  18. Affinity chromatography of Drosophila melanogaster ribosomal proteins to 5S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Stark, B C; Chooi, W Y

    1985-02-20

    The binding of Drosophila melanogaster ribosomal proteins to D. melanogaster 5S rRNA was studied using affinity chromatography of total ribosomal proteins (TP80) on 5S rRNA linked via adipic acid dihydrazide to Sepharose 4B. Ribosomal proteins which bound 5S rRNA at 0.3 M potassium chloride and were eluted at 1 M potassium chloride were identified as proteins 1, L4, 2/3, L14/L16, and S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using poly A-Sepharose 4B columns as a model of non-specific binding, we found that a subset of TP80 proteins is also bound. This subset, while containing some of the proteins bound by 5S rRNA columns, was distinctly different from the latter subset, indicating that the binding to 5S rRNA was specific for that RNA species. PMID:3923010

  19. The Cre-Binding Protein Dcreb-a Is Required for Drosophila Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Rose, R. E.; Gallaher, N. M.; Andrew, D. J.; Goodman, R. H.; Smolik, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously described the cloning of a cyclic AMP response-element (CRE)-binding protein, dCREB-A, in Drosophila melanogaster that is similar to the mammalian CRE-binding protein CREB. dCREB-A is a member of the bZIP family of transcription factors, shows specific binding to the (CRE), and can activate transcription in cell culture. In this report, we describe the gene structure for dCREB-A, protein expression patterns throughout development and the necessary role for this gene in embryogenesis. The 4.5-kb transcript is encoded in six exons that are distributed over 21 kb of DNA. There are seven start sites and no TATA consensus sequences upstream. The dCREB-A protein is expressed in the nuclei of the embryonic salivary gland, proventriculus and stomadeum. Late in embryogenesis, tracheal cell nuclei and specific nuclei within the segments show staining with anti-dCREB-A antibodies. In adult female ovaries, dCREB-A is expressed in the stage 9 through stage 11 follicle cell nuclei. Null mutations of the dCREB-A gene give rise to animals that no longer express dCREB-A protein and die late in embryogenesis before or at hatching. The absolute requirement of dCREB-A for embryogenesis demonstrates a nonredundant function for a CRE-binding protein that will be useful in studying the role of specific signal transduction cascades in development. PMID:9178009

  20. Analysis of the expression patterns, subcellular localisations and interaction partners of Drosophila proteins using a pigP protein trap library

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Nick; Rees, Johanna S.; Roote, John; Ryder, Ed; Armean, Irina M.; Johnson, Glynnis; Drummond, Emma; Spriggs, Helen; Drummond, Jenny; Magbanua, Jose P.; Naylor, Huw; Sanson, Bénédicte; Bastock, Rebecca; Huelsmann, Sven; Trovisco, Vitor; Landgraf, Matthias; Knowles-Barley, Seymour; Armstrong, J. Douglas; White-Cooper, Helen; Hansen, Celia; Phillips, Roger G.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Russell, Steven; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Although we now have a wealth of information on the transcription patterns of all the genes in the Drosophila genome, much less is known about the properties of the encoded proteins. To provide information on the expression patterns and subcellular localisations of many proteins in parallel, we have performed a large-scale protein trap screen using a hybrid piggyBac vector carrying an artificial exon encoding yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and protein affinity tags. From screening 41 million embryos, we recovered 616 verified independent YFP-positive lines representing protein traps in 374 genes, two-thirds of which had not been tagged in previous P element protein trap screens. Over 20 different research groups then characterized the expression patterns of the tagged proteins in a variety of tissues and at several developmental stages. In parallel, we purified many of the tagged proteins from embryos using the affinity tags and identified co-purifying proteins by mass spectrometry. The fly stocks are publicly available through the Kyoto Drosophila Genetics Resource Center. All our data are available via an open access database (Flannotator), which provides comprehensive information on the expression patterns, subcellular localisations and in vivo interaction partners of the trapped proteins. Our resource substantially increases the number of available protein traps in Drosophila and identifies new markers for cellular organelles and structures. PMID:25294943

  1. Analysis of the expression patterns, subcellular localisations and interaction partners of Drosophila proteins using a pigP protein trap library.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Nick; Rees, Johanna S; Roote, John; Ryder, Ed; Armean, Irina M; Johnson, Glynnis; Drummond, Emma; Spriggs, Helen; Drummond, Jenny; Magbanua, Jose P; Naylor, Huw; Sanson, Bénédicte; Bastock, Rebecca; Huelsmann, Sven; Trovisco, Vitor; Landgraf, Matthias; Knowles-Barley, Seymour; Armstrong, J Douglas; White-Cooper, Helen; Hansen, Celia; Phillips, Roger G; Lilley, Kathryn S; Russell, Steven; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Although we now have a wealth of information on the transcription patterns of all the genes in the Drosophila genome, much less is known about the properties of the encoded proteins. To provide information on the expression patterns and subcellular localisations of many proteins in parallel, we have performed a large-scale protein trap screen using a hybrid piggyBac vector carrying an artificial exon encoding yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and protein affinity tags. From screening 41 million embryos, we recovered 616 verified independent YFP-positive lines representing protein traps in 374 genes, two-thirds of which had not been tagged in previous P element protein trap screens. Over 20 different research groups then characterized the expression patterns of the tagged proteins in a variety of tissues and at several developmental stages. In parallel, we purified many of the tagged proteins from embryos using the affinity tags and identified co-purifying proteins by mass spectrometry. The fly stocks are publicly available through the Kyoto Drosophila Genetics Resource Center. All our data are available via an open access database (Flannotator), which provides comprehensive information on the expression patterns, subcellular localisations and in vivo interaction partners of the trapped proteins. Our resource substantially increases the number of available protein traps in Drosophila and identifies new markers for cellular organelles and structures. PMID:25294943

  2. Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila dpp protein, a member of the transforming growth factor beta family of growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Panganiban, G E; Rashka, K E; Neitzel, M D; Hoffmann, F M

    1990-01-01

    The decapentaplegic (dpp) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for pattern formation in the embryo and for viability of the epithelial cells in the imaginal disks. The dpp protein product predicted from the DNA sequence is similar to members of a family of growth factors that includes transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). We have produced polyclonal antibodies to a recombinant dpp protein made in bacteria and used a metallothionein promoter to express a dpp cDNA in Drosophila S2 cells. Similar to other proteins in the TGF-beta family, the dpp protein produced by the Drosophila cells was proteolytically cleaved, and both portions of the protein were secreted from the cells. The amino-terminal 47-kilodalton (kDa) peptide was found in the medium and in the proteins adhering to the plastic petri dish. The carboxy-terminal peptide, the region with sequence similarity to the active ligand portion of TGF-beta, was found extracellularly as a 30-kDa homodimer. Most of the 30-kDa homodimer was in the S2 cell protein adsorbed onto the surface of the plastic dish. The dpp protein could be released into solution by increased salt concentration and nonionic detergent. Under these conditions, the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal portions of dpp were not associated in a stable complex. Images PMID:1692958

  3. Repression of hsp70 heat shock gene transcription by the suppressor of hairy-wing protein of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, C.; Dorsett, D. )

    1991-04-01

    The suppressor of hairy-wing [su(Hw)] locus of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a zinc finger protein that binds a repeated motif in the gypsy retroposon. Mutations of su(Hw) suppress the phenotypes associated with mutations caused by gypsy insertions. To examine the mechanisms by which su(Hw) alters gene expression, a fragment of gypsy containing multiple su(Hw) protein-binding sites was inserted into various locations in the well-characterized Drosophila hsp70 heat shock gene promoter. The authors found no evidence for activation of basal hsp70 transcription by su(Hw) protein in cultured Drosophila cells but observed that it can repress heat shock-induced transcription. Repression occurred only when su(Hw) protein-binding sites were positioned between binding sites for proteins required for heat shock transcription. They propose that su(Hw) protein interferes nonspecifically with protein-protein interactions required for heat shock transcription, perhaps sterically, or by altering the ability of DNA to bend or twist.

  4. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  5. Repression of the Drosophila proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene promoter by zerknuellt protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Hirose, Fumiko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Matsukage, Akio )

    1991-10-01

    A 631-bp fragment containing the 5{prime}-flanking region of the Drosophila melanogaster proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of a CAT vector. A transient expression assay of CAT activity in Drosophila Kc cells transfected with this plasmid and a set of 5{prime}-deletion derivatives revealed that the promoter function resided within a 192-bp region. Cotransfection with a zerknuellt (zen)-expressing plasmid specifically repressed CAT expression. However, cotransfection with expression plasmids for a nonfunctional zen mutation, even skipped, or bicoid showed no significant effect on CAT expression. RNase protection analysis revealed that the repression by zen was at the transcription step. The target sequence of zen was mapped within the 34-bp region of the PCNA gene promoter, even though it lacked zen protein-binding sites. Transgenic flies carrying the PCNA gene regulatory region fused with lacZ were established. These results indicate that zen indirectly represses PCNA gene expression, probably by regulating the expression of some transcription factor(s) that binds to the PCNA gene promoter.

  6. Piwi maintains germline stem cells and oogenesis in Drosophila through negative regulation of Polycomb group proteins.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jamy C; Valouev, Anton; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2016-03-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Piwi protein regulates both niche and intrinsic mechanisms to maintain germline stem cells, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that Piwi interacts with Polycomb group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 in niche and germline cells to regulate ovarian germline stem cells and oogenesis. Piwi physically interacts with the PRC2 subunits Su(z)12 and Esc in the ovary and in vitro. Chromatin coimmunoprecipitation of Piwi, the PRC2 enzymatic subunit E(z), histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and RNA polymerase II in wild-type and piwi mutant ovaries demonstrates that Piwi binds a conserved DNA motif at ∼ 72 genomic sites and inhibits PRC2 binding to many non-Piwi-binding genomic targets and H3K27 trimethylation. Moreover, Piwi influences RNA polymerase II activities in Drosophila ovaries, likely via inhibiting PRC2. We hypothesize that Piwi negatively regulates PRC2 binding by sequestering PRC2 in the nucleoplasm, thus reducing PRC2 binding to many targets and influencing transcription during oogenesis. PMID:26780607

  7. Essential, Overlapping and Redundant Roles of the Drosophila Protein Phosphatase 1α and 1β Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Jasmin; Gross, Sascha; Bennett, Daimark; Alphey, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Protein serine/threonine phosphatase type 1 (PP1) has been found in all eukaryotes examined to date and is involved in the regulation of many cellular functions, including glycogen metabolism, muscle contraction, and mitosis. In Drosophila, four genes code for the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1c), three of which belong to the PP1α subtype. PP1β9C (flapwing) encodes the fourth PP1c gene and has a specific and nonredundant function as a nonmuscle myosin phosphatase. PP1α87B is the major form and contributes ∼80% of the total PP1 activity. We describe the first mutant alleles of PP1α96A and show that PP1α96A is not an essential gene, but seems to have a function in the regulation of nonmuscle myosin. We show that overexpression of the PP1α isozymes does not rescue semilethal PP1β9C mutants, whereas overexpression of either PP1α96A or PP1β9C does rescue a lethal PP1α87B mutant combination, showing that the lethality is due to a quantitative reduction in the level of PP1c. Overexpression of PP1β9C does not rescue a PP1α87B, PP1α96A double mutant, suggesting an essential PP1α-specific function in Drosophila. PMID:17513890

  8. Protein Phosphatase 1ß Limits Ring Canal Constriction during Drosophila Germline Cyst Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Bayat, Vafa; Bellen, Hugo J.; Tan, Change

    2013-01-01

    Germline cyst formation is essential for the propagation of many organisms including humans and flies. The cytoplasm of germline cyst cells communicate with each other directly via large intercellular bridges called ring canals. Ring canals are often derived from arrested contractile rings during incomplete cytokinesis. However how ring canal formation, maintenance and growth are regulated remains unclear. To better understand this process, we carried out an unbiased genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster germ cells and identified multiple alleles of flapwing (flw), a conserved serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase. Flw had previously been reported to be unnecessary for early D. melanogaster oogenesis using a hypomorphic allele. We found that loss of Flw leads to over-constricted nascent ring canals and subsequently tiny mature ring canals, through which cytoplasmic transfer from nurse cells to the oocyte is impaired, resulting in small, non-functional eggs. Flw is expressed in germ cells undergoing incomplete cytokinesis, completely colocalized with the Drosophila myosin binding subunit of myosin phosphatase (DMYPT). This colocalization, together with genetic interaction studies, suggests that Flw functions together with DMYPT to negatively regulate myosin activity during ring canal formation. The identification of two subunits of the tripartite myosin phosphatase as the first two main players required for ring canal constriction indicates that tight regulation of myosin activity is essential for germline cyst formation and reproduction in D. melanogaster and probably other species as well. PMID:23936219

  9. Drosophila DOCK family protein sponge regulates the JNK pathway during thorax development.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Kazushige; Ozasa, Fumito; Eguchi, Koichi; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Yoshida, Hideki; Hiai, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins that are conserved in a wide variety of species are known as DOCK1-DOCK11 in mammals. The Sponge (Spg) is a Drosophila counterpart to the mammalian DOCK3. Specific knockdown of spg by pannir-GAL4 or apterous-GAL4 driver in wing discs induced split thorax phenotype in adults. Reduction of the Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), basket (bsk) gene dose enhanced the spg knockdown-induced phenotype. Conversely, overexpression of bsk suppressed the split thorax phenotype. Monitoring JNK activity in the wing imaginal discs by immunostaining with anti-phosphorylated JNK (anti-pJNK) antibody together with examination of lacZ expression in a puckered-lacZ enhancer trap line revealed the strong reduction of the JNK activity in the spg knockdown clones. This was further confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis of extracts from wing discs of spg knockdown fly with anti-pJNK antibody. Furthermore, the Duolink in situ Proximity Ligation Assay method detected interaction signals between Spg and Rac1 in the wing discs. Taken together, these results indicate Spg positively regulates JNK pathway that is required for thorax development and the regulation is mediated by interaction with Rac1. PMID:25311449

  10. Piwi maintains germline stem cells and oogenesis in Drosophila through negative regulation of Polycomb Group proteins

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jamy C.; Valouev, Anton; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila Piwi protein regulates both niche and intrinsic mechanisms to maintain germline stem cells, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that Piwi cooperates with Polycomb Group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 in niche and germline cells to regulate ovarian germline stem cells and oogenesis. Piwi physically interacts with PRC2 subunits Su(z)12 and Esc in the ovary and in vitro. Chromatin co-immunoprecipitation of Piwi, the PRC2 enzymatic subunit E(z), lysine-27-tri-methylated histone 3 (H3K27m3), and RNA polymerase II in wild-type and piwi mutant ovaries reveals that Piwi binds a conserved DNA motif at ~72 genomic sites, and inhibits PRC2 binding to many non-Piwi-binding genomic targets and H3K27 tri-methylation. Moreover, Piwi influences RNA Polymerase II activities in Drosophila ovaries likely via inhibiting PRC2. We hypothesize that Piwi negatively regulates PRC2 binding by sequestering PRC2 in the nucleoplasm, thus reducing PRC2 binding to many targets and influences transcription during oogenesis. PMID:26780607

  11. A Broadly Conserved G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Phosphorylation Mechanism Controls Drosophila Smoothened Activity

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Dominic; Cheng, Shuofei; Faubert, Denis; Hipfner, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential for normal growth, patterning, and homeostasis of many tissues in diverse organisms, and is misregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer. Cytoplasmic Hedgehog signaling is activated by multisite phosphorylation of the seven-pass transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in its cytoplasmic C-terminus. Aside from a short membrane-proximal stretch, the sequence of the C-terminus is highly divergent in different phyla, and the evidence suggests that the precise mechanism of Smo activation and transduction of the signal to downstream effectors also differs. To clarify the conserved role of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in Smo regulation, we mapped four clusters of phosphorylation sites in the membrane-proximal C-terminus of Drosophila Smo that are phosphorylated by Gprk2, one of the two fly GRKs. Phosphorylation at these sites enhances Smo dimerization and increases but is not essential for Smo activity. Three of these clusters overlap with regulatory phosphorylation sites in mouse Smo and are highly conserved throughout the bilaterian lineages, suggesting that they serve a common function. Consistent with this, we find that a C-terminally truncated form of Drosophila Smo consisting of just the highly conserved core, including Gprk2 regulatory sites, can recruit the downstream effector Costal-2 and activate target gene expression, in a Gprk2-dependent manner. These results indicate that GRK phosphorylation in the membrane proximal C-terminus is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of Smo regulation, and point to a higher degree of similarity in the regulation and signaling mechanisms of bilaterian Smo proteins than has previously been recognized. PMID:25009998

  12. Manipulations of amyloid precursor protein cleavage disrupt the circadian clock in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Blake, Matthew R; Holbrook, Scott D; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Chow, Eileen S; Kretzschmar, Doris; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe cognitive deterioration. While causes of AD pathology are debated, a large body of evidence suggests that increased cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) producing the neurotoxic Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. One of the detrimental behavioral symptoms commonly associated with AD is the fragmentation of sleep-activity cycles with increased nighttime activity and daytime naps in humans. Sleep-activity cycles, as well as physiological and cellular rhythms, which may be important for neuronal homeostasis, are generated by a molecular system known as the circadian clock. Links between AD and the circadian system are increasingly evident but not well understood. Here we examined whether genetic manipulations of APP-like (APPL) protein cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster affect rest-activity rhythms and core circadian clock function in this model organism. We show that the increased β-cleavage of endogenous APPL by the β-secretase (dBACE) severely disrupts circadian behavior and leads to reduced expression of clock protein PER in central clock neurons of aging flies. Our data suggest that behavioral rhythm disruption is not a product of APPL-derived Aβ production but rather may be caused by a mechanism common to both α and β-cleavage pathways. Specifically, we show that increased production of the endogenous Drosophila Amyloid Intracellular Domain (dAICD) caused disruption of circadian rest-activity rhythms, while flies overexpressing endogenous APPL maintained stronger circadian rhythms during aging. In summary, our study offers a novel entry point toward understanding the mechanism of circadian rhythm disruption in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25766673

  13. The drosophila Bcl-2 family protein Debcl is targeted to the proteasome by the β-TrCP homologue slimb.

    PubMed

    Colin, Jessie; Garibal, Julie; Clavier, Amandine; Rincheval-Arnold, Aurore; Gaumer, Sébastien; Mignotte, Bernard; Guénal, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is one of the main proteolytic pathways. It inhibits apoptosis by degrading pro-apoptotic regulators, such as caspases or the tumor suppressor p53. However, it also stimulates cell death by degrading pro-survival regulators, including IAPs. In Drosophila, the control of apoptosis by Bcl-2 family members is poorly documented. Using a genetic modifier screen designed to identify regulators of mammalian bax-induced apoptosis in Drosophila, we identified the ubiquitin activating enzyme Uba1 as a suppressor of bax-induced cell death. We then demonstrated that Uba1 also regulates apoptosis induced by Debcl, the only counterpart of Bax in Drosophila. Furthermore, we show that these apoptotic processes involve the same multimeric E3 ligase-an SCF complex consisting of three common subunits and a substrate-recognition variable subunit identified in these processes as the Slimb F-box protein. Thus, Drosophila Slimb, the homologue of β-TrCP targets Bax and Debcl to the proteasome. These new results shed light on a new aspect of the regulation of apoptosis in fruitfly that identifies the first regulation of a Drosophila member of the Bcl-2 family. PMID:25208640

  14. Protein synthesis and degradation are essential to regulate germline stem cell homeostasis in Drosophila testes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Lan, Xiang; Chen, Xia; Yu, Chao; Xu, Yiwen; Liu, Yujuan; Xu, Lingna; Fan, Heng-Yu; Tong, Chao

    2016-08-15

    The homeostasis of self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells is controlled by intrinsic signals and their niche. We conducted a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila testes and identified 221 genes required for germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation. Knockdown of these genes in transit-amplifying spermatogonia and cyst cells further revealed various phenotypes. Complex analysis uncovered that many of the identified genes are involved in key steps of protein synthesis and degradation. A group of genes that are required for mRNA splicing and protein translation contributes to both GSC self-renewal and early germ cell differentiation. Loss of genes in the protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumors consisting of overproliferated germ cells. Importantly, in the Cullin 4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) complex, we identified multiple proteins that are crucial to GSC self-renewal: pic/DDB1, a CRL4 linker protein, is not only required for GSC self-renewal in flies but also for maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in mice. PMID:27471256

  15. Drosophila melanogaster Hsp22: a mitochondrial small heat shock protein influencing the aging process

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Geneviève; Tanguay, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in many key cellular processes and therefore need to rely on good protein quality control (PQC). Three types of mechanisms are in place to insure mitochondrial protein integrity: reactive oxygen species scavenging by anti-oxidant enzymes, protein folding/degradation by molecular chaperones and proteases and clearance of defective mitochondria by mitophagy. Drosophila melanogaster Hsp22 is part of the molecular chaperone axis of the PQC and is characterized by its intra-mitochondrial localization and preferential expression during aging. As a stress biomarker, the level of its expression during aging has been shown to partially predict the remaining lifespan of flies. Since over-expression of this small heat shock protein increases lifespan and resistance to stress, Hsp22 most likely has a positive effect on mitochondrial integrity. Accordingly, Hsp22 has recently been implicated in the mitochondrial unfolding protein response of flies. This review will summarize the key findings on D. melanogaster Hsp22 and emphasis on its links with the aging process. PMID:25852752

  16. 14-3-3 proteins regulate Tctp-Rheb interaction for organ growth in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao Phuong; Vuong, Linh Thuong; Kim, Ah-Ram; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 family proteins regulate multiple signalling pathways. Understanding biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins has been limited by the functional redundancy of conserved isotypes. Here we provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins regulate two interacting components of Tor signalling in Drosophila, translationally controlled tumour protein (Tctp) and Rheb GTPase. Single knockdown of 14-3-3ɛ or 14-3-3ζ isoform does not show obvious defects in organ development but causes synergistic genetic interaction with Tctp and Rheb to impair tissue growth. 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with Tctp and Rheb. Knockdown of both 14-3-3 isoforms abolishes the binding between Tctp and Rheb, disrupting organ development. Depletion of 14-3-3s also reduces the level of phosphorylated S6 kinase, phosphorylated Thor/4E-BP and cyclin E (CycE). Growth defects from knockdown of 14-3-3 and Tctp are suppressed by CycE overexpression. This study suggests a novel mechanism of Tor regulation mediated by 14-3-3 interaction with Tctp and Rheb. PMID:27151460

  17. Contextual interactions determine whether the Drosophila homeodomain protein, Vnd, acts as a repressor or activator

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhongxin; Syu, Li-Jyun; Mellerick, Dervla M.

    2005-01-01

    At the molecular level, members of the NKx2.2 family of transcription factors establish neural compartment boundaries by repressing the expression of homeobox genes specific for adjacent domains [Muhr et al. (2001) Cell, 104, 861–873; Weiss et al. (1998) Genes Dev., 12, 3591–3602]. The Drosophila homologue, vnd, interacts genetically with the high-mobility group protein, Dichaete, in a manner suggesting co-operative activation [Zhao and Skeath (2002) Development, 129, 1165–1174]. However, evidence for direct interactions and transcriptional activation is lacking. Here, we present molecular evidence for the interaction of Vnd and Dichaete that leads to the activation of target gene expression. Two-hybrid interaction assays indicate that Dichaete binds the Vnd homeodomain, and additional Vnd sequences stabilize this interaction. In addition, Vnd has two activation domains that are typically masked in the intact protein. Whether vnd can activate or repress transcription is context-dependent. Full-length Vnd, when expressed as a Gal4 fusion protein, acts as a repressor containing multiple repression domains. A divergent domain in the N-terminus, not found in vertebrate Vnd-like proteins, causes the strongest repression. The co-repressor, Groucho, enhances Vnd repression, and these two proteins physically interact. The data presented indicate that the activation and repression domains of Vnd are complex, and whether Vnd functions as a transcriptional repressor or activator depends on both intra- and inter-molecular interactions. PMID:15640442

  18. Identification of Drosophila indirect flight muscle myofibrillar proteins by means of two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mogami, K; Fujita, S C; Hotta, Y

    1982-02-01

    When proteins of whole Drosophila thorax were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 186 spots were detected by protein staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250. Two methods were developed to identify proteins which exist in indirect flight muscle (IFM) and its myofibrils. 1) A whole fly was freeze-dried in a dry ice-acetone mixture, and indirect flight muscle fibers were cleanly dissected out from the thorax. The muscle cells and the rest of the thorax were analyzed separately. The muscle contained 146 polypeptides, of which 12 were not detected elsewhere. 2) Flies were frozen in liquid nitrogen and shaken vigorously so that their thoraces broke off from heads and abdomens. The thoraces were separated from the rest by sieving and centrifugation. After homogenization of the thorax, myofibrils were prepared by centrifugation in a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. The myofibril fraction contained at least 20 proteins. There were two types of actin (II and III), myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin and paramyosin. Nine of the other myofibrillar proteins were specific to this muscle. PMID:6802813

  19. Drosophila IAP1-Mediated Ubiquitylation Controls Activation of the Initiator Caspase DRONC Independent of Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiuan; Srivastava, Mayank; Broemer, Meike; Meier, Pascal; Bergmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitylation targets proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation and plays important roles in many biological processes including apoptosis. However, non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitylation are also known. In Drosophila, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1) is known to ubiquitylate the initiator caspase DRONC in vitro. Because DRONC protein accumulates in diap1 mutant cells that are kept alive by caspase inhibition (“undead” cells), it is thought that DIAP1-mediated ubiquitylation causes proteasomal degradation of DRONC, protecting cells from apoptosis. However, contrary to this model, we show here that DIAP1-mediated ubiquitylation does not trigger proteasomal degradation of full-length DRONC, but serves a non-proteolytic function. Our data suggest that DIAP1-mediated ubiquitylation blocks processing and activation of DRONC. Interestingly, while full-length DRONC is not subject to DIAP1-induced degradation, once it is processed and activated it has reduced protein stability. Finally, we show that DRONC protein accumulates in “undead” cells due to increased transcription of dronc in these cells. These data refine current models of caspase regulation by IAPs. PMID:21909282

  20. 14-3-3 proteins regulate Tctp–Rheb interaction for organ growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thao Phuong; Vuong, Linh Thuong; Kim, Ah-Ram; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 family proteins regulate multiple signalling pathways. Understanding biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins has been limited by the functional redundancy of conserved isotypes. Here we provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins regulate two interacting components of Tor signalling in Drosophila, translationally controlled tumour protein (Tctp) and Rheb GTPase. Single knockdown of 14-3-3ɛ or 14-3-3ζ isoform does not show obvious defects in organ development but causes synergistic genetic interaction with Tctp and Rheb to impair tissue growth. 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with Tctp and Rheb. Knockdown of both 14-3-3 isoforms abolishes the binding between Tctp and Rheb, disrupting organ development. Depletion of 14-3-3s also reduces the level of phosphorylated S6 kinase, phosphorylated Thor/4E-BP and cyclin E (CycE). Growth defects from knockdown of 14-3-3 and Tctp are suppressed by CycE overexpression. This study suggests a novel mechanism of Tor regulation mediated by 14-3-3 interaction with Tctp and Rheb. PMID:27151460

  1. The novel plant homeodomain protein rhinoceros antagonizes Ras signaling in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Matthew G; Rebay, Ilaria

    2003-01-01

    The sequential specification of cell fates in the Drosophila eye requires repeated activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Ras/MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway. Equally important are the multiple layers of inhibitory regulation that prevent excessive or inappropriate signaling. Here we describe the molecular and genetic analysis of a previously uncharacterized gene, rhinoceros (rno), that we propose functions to restrict EGFR signaling in the eye. Loss of rno results in the overproduction of photoreceptors, cone cells, and pigment cells and a corresponding reduction in programmed cell death, all phenotypes characteristic of hyperactivated EGFR signaling. Genetic interactions between rno and multiple EGFR pathway components support this hypothesis. rno encodes a novel but evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein with a PHD zinc-finger domain, a motif commonly found in chromatin-remodeling factors. Future analyses of rno will help to elucidate the regulatory strategies that modulate EGFR signaling in the fly eye. PMID:14704181

  2. The Drosophila melanogaster developmental gene g1 encodes a variant zinc-finger-motif protein.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, M L; Côté, S

    1993-03-30

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the mechanisms involved in the pattern formation of complex internal organs are still largely unknown. However, the identity of the molecular determinants that control the development of these specific tissues is emerging from the combined use of genetic and molecular approaches. We have cloned a gene that is expressed in the mesoderm, one of the fundamental embryonic germ layers which gives rise to internal structures, such as the musculature. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of this gene, designated as g1. The nucleotide (nt) sequence of its cDNA shows an open reading frame of 852 nt, which encodes a 32-kDa protein with two putative zinc fingers, and a serine/glutamine/proline-rich region. These features indicate a functional role for g1, which remains to be elucidated, in regulating gene expression during mesoderm formation. PMID:8462875

  3. mus304 encodes a novel DNA damage checkpoint protein required during Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Michael H.; Sekelsky, Jeff J.; Tsang, Garson; Hawley, R. Scott; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2000-01-01

    Checkpoints block cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells exposed to DNA damaging agents. We show that several Drosophila homologs of checkpoint genes, mei-41, grapes, and 14-3-3ε, regulate a DNA damage checkpoint in the developing eye. We have used this assay to show that the mutagen-sensitive gene mus304 is also required for this checkpoint. mus304 encodes a novel coiled-coil domain protein, which is targeted to the cytoplasm. Similar to mei-41, mus304 is required for chromosome break repair and for genomic stability. mus304 animals also exhibit three developmental defects, abnormal bristle morphology, decreased meiotic recombination, and arrested embryonic development. We suggest that these phenotypes reflect distinct developmental consequences of a single underlying checkpoint defect. Similar mechanisms may account for the puzzling array of symptoms observed in humans with mutations in the ATM tumor suppressor gene. PMID:10733527

  4. Family of receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases in humans and Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Streuli, M.; Krueger, N.X.; Saito, H. ); Tsai, A.Y.M. )

    1989-11-01

    To understand the regulation of cell proliferation by tyrosine phosphorylation, characterization of protein tyrosine phosphatases is essential. The human genes LCA (leukocyte common antigen) and LAR encode putative receptor-linked PTPases. By using consensus sequence probes, two additional receptor-linked PTPase genes, DLAR and DPTP, were isolated from Drosophila melanogaster. The extra-cellular segments of both DLAR and DPTP are composed of multiple immunoglobulin-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. The cytoplasmic region of DLAR and DPTP, as well as human LCA and LAR, are composed of two tandemly repeated PTPase domains. PTPase activities of immunoprecipitated LCA and LAR were demonstrated by measuring the release of phosphate from a {sup 32}P-labeled (Tyr(P))peptide. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domains of LCA, LAR, DLAR, and DPTP, expressed in Escherichia coli, have PTPase activity. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that a conserved cysteine residue is essential for PTPase activity.

  5. The Intrinsically Disordered Regions of the Drosophila melanogaster Hox Protein Ultrabithorax Select Interacting Proteins Based on Partner Topology

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Gonzalez, Kim L.; Catanese, Daniel J.; Jordy, Kristopher E.; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Bondos, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between structured proteins require a complementary topology and surface chemistry to form sufficient contacts for stable binding. However, approximately one third of protein interactions are estimated to involve intrinsically disordered regions of proteins. The dynamic nature of disordered regions before and, in some cases, after binding calls into question the role of partner topology in forming protein interactions. To understand how intrinsically disordered proteins identify the correct interacting partner proteins, we evaluated interactions formed by the Drosophila melanogaster Hox transcription factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx), which contains both structured and disordered regions. Ubx binding proteins are enriched in specific folds: 23 of its 39 partners include one of 7 folds, out of the 1195 folds recognized by SCOP. For the proteins harboring the two most populated folds, DNA-RNA binding 3-helical bundles and α-α superhelices, the regions of the partner proteins that exhibit these preferred folds are sufficient for Ubx binding. Three disorder-containing regions in Ubx are required to bind these partners. These regions are either alternatively spliced or multiply phosphorylated, providing a mechanism for cellular processes to regulate Ubx-partner interactions. Indeed, partner topology correlates with the ability of individual partner proteins to bind Ubx spliceoforms. Partners bind different disordered regions within Ubx to varying extents, creating the potential for competition between partners and cooperative binding by partners. The ability of partners to bind regions of Ubx that activate transcription and regulate DNA binding provides a mechanism for partners to modulate transcription regulation by Ubx, and suggests that one role of disorder in Ubx is to coordinate multiple molecular functions in response to tissue-specific cues. PMID:25286318

  6. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Aditya; Kalvakuri, Sreehari; Bodmer, Rolf; Cox, Rachel T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin (Park), either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu), a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control. PMID:26035866

  7. Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates trans-synaptic signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel H.; Dani, Neil; Rushton, Emma; Broadie, Kendal

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited determinant of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene product (FMRP), an mRNA-binding translational repressor. A number of conserved FMRP targets have been identified in the well-characterized Drosophila FXS disease model, but FMRP is highly pleiotropic in function and the full spectrum of FMRP targets has yet to be revealed. In this study, screens for upregulated neural proteins in Drosophila fmr1 (dfmr1) null mutants reveal strong elevation of two synaptic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs): GPI-anchored glypican Dally-like protein (Dlp) and transmembrane Syndecan (Sdc). Our recent work has shown that Dlp and Sdc act as co-receptors regulating extracellular ligands upstream of intracellular signal transduction in multiple trans-synaptic pathways that drive synaptogenesis. Consistently, dfmr1 null synapses exhibit altered WNT signaling, with changes in both Wingless (Wg) ligand abundance and downstream Frizzled-2 (Fz2) receptor C-terminal nuclear import. Similarly, a parallel anterograde signaling ligand, Jelly belly (Jeb), and downstream ERK phosphorylation (dpERK) are depressed at dfmr1 null synapses. In contrast, the retrograde BMP ligand Glass bottom boat (Gbb) and downstream signaling via phosphorylation of the transcription factor MAD (pMAD) seem not to be affected. To determine whether HSPG upregulation is causative for synaptogenic defects, HSPGs were genetically reduced to control levels in the dfmr1 null background. HSPG correction restored both (1) Wg and Jeb trans-synaptic signaling, and (2) synaptic architecture and transmission strength back to wild-type levels. Taken together, these data suggest that FMRP negatively regulates HSPG co-receptors controlling trans-synaptic signaling during synaptogenesis, and that loss of this regulation causes synaptic structure and function defects characterizing the FXS

  8. Drosophila Uri, a PP1α binding protein, is essential for viability, maintenance of DNA integrity and normal transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Jasmin; Vissi, Emese; Gross, Sascha; Szoor, Balazs; Rudenko, Andrey; Alphey, Luke; White-Cooper, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is involved in diverse cellular processes, and is targeted to substrates via interaction with many different protein binding partners. PP1 catalytic subunits (PP1c) fall into PP1α and PP1β subfamilies based on sequence analysis, however very few PP1c binding proteins have been demonstrated to discriminate between PP1α and PP1β. Results URI (unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor) is a conserved molecular chaperone implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including the transcriptional response to nutrient signalling and maintenance of DNA integrity. We show that Drosophila Uri binds PP1α with much higher affinity than PP1β, and that this ability to discriminate between PP1c forms is conserved to humans. Most Uri is cytoplasmic, however we found some protein associated with active RNAPII on chromatin. We generated a uri loss of function allele, and show that uri is essential for viability in Drosophila. uri mutants have transcriptional defects, reduced cell viability and differentiation in the germline, and accumulate DNA damage in their nuclei. Conclusion Uri is the first PP1α specific binding protein to be described in Drosophila. Uri protein plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Activity of uri is required to maintain DNA integrity and cell survival in normal development. PMID:18412953

  9. Drosophila UbcD1 encodes a highly conserved ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in selective protein degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Treier, M; Seufert, W; Jentsch, S

    1992-01-01

    Ubiquitin-dependent selective protein degradation serves to eliminate abnormal proteins and provides controlled short half-lives to certain cellular proteins, including proteins of regulatory function such as phytochrome, yeast MAT alpha 2 repressor, p53 and cyclin. Moreover, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is thought to play an essential role during development and in programmed cell death. We have cloned a gene from Drosophila melanogaster, UbcD1, coding for a protein with striking sequence similarity to the yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UBC4 and UBC5. These closely related yeast enzymes are known to be central components of a major proteolytic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By doing a precise open reading frame replacement in the yeast genome we could show that the Drosophila UbcD1 enzyme can functionally substitute for yeast UBC4. UbcD1 driven by the UBC4 promoter rescues growth defects and temperature sensitivity of yeast ubc4 ubc5 double mutant cells. Moreover, expression of UbcD1 restores proteolysis proficiency in the ubc4 ubc5 double mutant, indicating that the Drosophila enzyme also mediates protein degradation. This structural and functional conservation suggests that the UbcD1-UBC4-UBC5 class of enzymes defines a major proteolytic pathway in probably all eukaryotes. Images PMID:1310935

  10. Characterisation of Drosophila UbxCPTI000601 and hthCPTI000378 Protein Trap Lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, protein trap strategies provide powerful approaches for the generation of tagged proteins expressed under endogenous control. Here, we describe expression and functional analysis to evaluate new Ubx and hth protein trap lines generated by the Cambridge Protein Trap project. Both protein traps exhibit spatial and temporal expression patterns consistent with the reported endogenous pattern in the embryo. In imaginal discs, Ubx-YFP is expressed throughout the haltere and 3rd leg imaginal discs, while Hth-YFP is expressed in the proximal regions of haltere and wing discs but not in the pouch region. The UbxCPTI000601 line is semilethal as a homozygote. No T3/A1 to T2 transformations were observed in the embryonic cuticle or the developing midgut. The homozygous survivors, however, exhibit a weak haltere phenotype with a few wing-like marginal bristles on the haltere capitellum. Although hthCPTI000378 is completely lethal as a homozygote, the hthCPTI000378/hthC1 genotype is viable. Using a hth deletion (Df(3R)BSC479) we show that hthCPTI000378/Df(3R)BSC479 adults are phenotypically normal. No transformations were observed in hthCPTI000378, hthCPTI000378/hthC1, or hthCPTI000378/Df(3R)BSC479 embryonic cuticles. We have successfully characterised the Ubx-YFP and Hth-YFP protein trap lines demonstrating that the tagged proteins show appropriate expression patterns and produce at least partially functional proteins. PMID:25389534

  11. Select Neuropeptides and their G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Caenorhabditis Elegans and Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Bendena, William G.; Campbell, Jason; Zara, Lian; Tobe, Stephen S.; Chin-Sang, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family is comprised of seven transmembrane domain proteins and play important roles in nerve transmission, locomotion, proliferation and development, sensory perception, metabolism, and neuromodulation. GPCR research has been targeted by drug developers as a consequence of the wide variety of critical physiological functions regulated by this protein family. Neuropeptide GPCRs are the least characterized of the GPCR family as genetic systems to characterize their functions have lagged behind GPCR gene discovery. Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans are genetic model organisms that have proved useful in characterizing neuropeptide GPCRs. The strength of a genetic approach leads to an appreciation of the behavioral plasticity that can result from subtle alterations in GPCRs or regulatory proteins in the pathways that GPCRs control. Many of these invertebrate neuropeptides, GPCRs, and signaling pathway components serve as models for mammalian counterparts as they have conserved sequences and function. This review provides an overview of the methods to match neuropeptides to their cognate receptor and a state of the art account of neuropeptide GPCRs that have been characterized in D. melanogaster and C. elegans and the behaviors that have been uncovered through genetic manipulation. PMID:22908006

  12. Snail-type zinc finger proteins prevent neurogenesis in Scutoid and transgenic animals of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fuse, N; Matakatsu, H; Taniguchi, M; Hayashi, S

    1999-10-01

    Scutoid is a classical dominant gain-of-function mutation of Drosophila, causing a loss of bristles and roughening of the compound eye. Previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that Scutoid is associated with a chromosomal transposition resulting in a fusion of no-oceli and snail genes. How this gene fusion event leads to the defects in neurogenesis was not known until now. Here have found that snail is ectopically expressed in the eye-antennal and wing imaginal discs in Scutoid larvae, and that this expression is reduced in Scutoid revertants. We have also shown that the expressivity of Scutoid is enhanced by zeste mutations. snail and escargot encode evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger proteins involved in the development of mesoderm and limbs. Snail and Escargot proteins share a common target DNA sequence with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type proneural gene products. When expressed in the developing external sense organ precursors of the thorax and the eye, these proteins cause a loss of mechanosensory bristles in the thorax and perturbed the development of the compound eye. Such phenotypes resemble those associated with Scutoid. Furthermore, the effect of ectopic Escargot on bristle development is antagonized by coexpression of the bHLH gene asense. Thus, our results suggest that the Scutoid phenotype is due to an ectopic snail expression under the control of no-oceli enhancer, antagonizing neurogenesis through its inhibitory interaction with bHLH proteins. PMID:10552298

  13. Aging results in an unusual expression of Drosophila heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.E.; Walton, J.K.; Dubitsky, R.; Bensch, K.G. )

    1988-06-01

    The authors used high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to evaluate the effect of aging on the heat shock response in Drosophila melanogaster. Although the aging process is not well understood at the molecular level, recent observations suggest that quantitative changes in gene expression occur as these fruit flies approach senescence. Such genetic alterations are in accord with our present data, which clearly show marked differences in the synthesis of heat shock proteins between young and old fruit flies. In 10-day-old flies, a heat shock of 20 min results in the expression of 14 new proteins as detectable by two-dimensional electrophoresis of ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled polypeptides, whereas identical treatment of 45-day-old flies leads to the expression of at least 50 new or highly up-regulated proteins. In addition, there is also a concomitant increase in the rate of synthesis of a number of the normal proteins in the older animals. Microdensitometric determinations of the low molecular weight heat shock polypeptides on autoradiographs of five age groups revealed that their maximum expression occurs at 47 days for a population of flies with a mean life span of 33.7 days. Moreover, a heat shock effect similar to that observed in senescent flies occurs in young flies fed canavanine, an arginine analogue, before heat shock.

  14. CentrosomeDB: a new generation of the centrosomal proteins database for Human and Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Cruzeiro, Joao Miguel da Conceiçao; Nogales-Cadenas, Rubén; Pascual-Montano, Alberto Domingo

    2014-01-01

    We present the second generation of centrosomeDB, available online at http://centrosome.cnb.csic.es, with a significant expansion of 1357 human and drosophila centrosomal genes and their corresponding information. The centrosome of animal cells takes part in important biological processes such as the organization of the interphase microtubule cytoskeleton and the assembly of the mitotic spindle. The active research done during the past decades has produced lots of data related to centrosomal proteins. Unfortunately, the accumulated data are dispersed among diverse and heterogeneous sources of information. We believe that the availability of a repository collecting curated evidences of centrosomal proteins would constitute a key resource for the scientific community. This was our first motivation to introduce CentrosomeDB in NAR database issue in 2009, collecting a set of human centrosomal proteins that were reported in the literature and other sources. The intensive use of this resource during these years has encouraged us to present this new expanded version. Using our database, the researcher is offered the possibility to study the evolution, function and structure of the centrosome. We have compiled information from many sources, including Gene Ontology, disease-association, single nucleotide polymorphisms and associated gene expression experiments. Special interest has been paid to protein–protein interaction. PMID:24270791

  15. The Drosophila STUbL protein Degringolade limits HES functions during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Barry, Kevin C; Abed, Mona; Kenyagin, Dorit; Werwie, Timothy R; Boico, Olga; Orian, Amir; Parkhurst, Susan M

    2011-05-01

    Degringolade (Dgrn) encodes a Drosophila SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) protein similar to that of mammalian RNF4. Dgrn facilitates the ubiquitylation of the HES protein Hairy, which disrupts the repressive activity of Hairy by inhibiting the recruitment of its cofactor Groucho. We show that Hey and all HES family members, except Her, interact with Dgrn and are substrates for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Dgrn displays dynamic subcellular localization, accumulates in the nucleus at times when HES family members are active and limits Hey and HES family activity during sex determination, segmentation and neurogenesis. We show that Dgrn interacts with the Notch signaling pathway by it antagonizing the activity of E(spl)-C proteins. dgrn null mutants are female sterile, producing embryos that arrest development after two or three nuclear divisions. These mutant embryos exhibit fragmented or decondensed nuclei and accumulate higher levels of SUMO-conjugated proteins, suggesting a role for Dgrn in genome stability. PMID:21486924

  16. Sxl-Dependent, tra/tra2-Independent Alternative Splicing of the Drosophila melanogaster X-Linked Gene found in neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Yang, Haiwang; Sturgill, David; Oliver, Brian; Rabinow, Leonard; Samson, Marie-Laure

    2015-12-01

    Somatic sexual determination and behavior in Drosophila melanogaster are under the control of a genetic cascade initiated by Sex lethal (Sxl). In the female soma, SXL RNA-binding protein regulates the splicing of transformer (tra) transcripts into a female-specific form. The RNA-binding protein TRA and its cofactor TRA2 function in concert in females, whereas SXL, TRA, and TRA2 are thought to not function in males. To better understand sex-specific regulation of gene expression, we analyzed male and female head transcriptome datasets for expression levels and splicing, quantifying sex-biased gene expression via RNA-Seq and qPCR. Our data uncouple the effects of Sxl and tra/tra2 in females in the-sex-biased alternative splicing of head transcripts from the X-linked locus found in neurons (fne), encoding a pan-neuronal RNA-binding protein of the ELAV family. We show that FNE protein levels are downregulated by Sxl in female heads, also independently of tra/tra2. We argue that this regulation may have important sexually dimorphic consequences for the regulation of nervous system development or function. PMID:26511498

  17. Sxl-Dependent, tra/tra2-Independent Alternative Splicing of the Drosophila melanogaster X-Linked Gene found in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xia; Yang, Haiwang; Sturgill, David; Oliver, Brian; Rabinow, Leonard; Samson, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Somatic sexual determination and behavior in Drosophila melanogaster are under the control of a genetic cascade initiated by Sex lethal (Sxl). In the female soma, SXL RNA-binding protein regulates the splicing of transformer (tra) transcripts into a female-specific form. The RNA-binding protein TRA and its cofactor TRA2 function in concert in females, whereas SXL, TRA, and TRA2 are thought to not function in males. To better understand sex-specific regulation of gene expression, we analyzed male and female head transcriptome datasets for expression levels and splicing, quantifying sex-biased gene expression via RNA-Seq and qPCR. Our data uncouple the effects of Sxl and tra/tra2 in females in the-sex-biased alternative splicing of head transcripts from the X-linked locus found in neurons (fne), encoding a pan-neuronal RNA-binding protein of the ELAV family. We show that FNE protein levels are downregulated by Sxl in female heads, also independently of tra/tra2. We argue that this regulation may have important sexually dimorphic consequences for the regulation of nervous system development or function. PMID:26511498

  18. Inducible Protein Traps with Dominant Phenotypes for Functional Analysis of the Drosophila Genome

    PubMed Central

    Singari, Swetha; Javeed, Naureen; Tardi, Nicholas J.; Marada, Suresh; Carlson, Jeff C.; Kirk, Steven; Thorn, Judith M.; Edwards, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster genome has been extensively characterized, but there remains a pressing need to associate gene products with phenotypes, subcellular localizations, and interaction partners. A multifunctional, Minos transposon-based protein trapping system called Hostile takeover (Hto) was developed to facilitate in vivo analyses of endogenous genes, including live imaging, purification of protein complexes, and mutagenesis. The Hto transposon features a UAS enhancer with a basal promoter, followed by an artificial exon 1 and a standard 5′ splice site. Upon GAL4 induction, exon 1 can splice to the next exon downstream in the flanking genomic DNA, belonging to a random target gene. Exon 1 encodes a dual tag (FLAG epitope and mCherry red fluorescent protein), which becomes fused to the target protein. Hto was mobilized throughout the genome and then activated by eye-specific GAL4; an F1 screen for abnormal eye phenotypes was used to identify inserts that express disruptive fusion proteins. Approximately 1.7% of new inserts cause eye phenotypes. Of the first 23 verified target genes, 21 can be described as regulators of cell biology and development. Most are transcription factor genes, including AP-2, CG17181, cut, klu, mamo, Sox102F, and sv. Other target genes [l(1)G0232, nuf, pum, and Syt4] make cytoplasmic proteins, and these lines produce diverse fluorescence localization patterns. Hto permits the expression of stable carboxy-terminal subfragments of proteins, which are rarely tested in conventional genetic screens. Some of these may disrupt specific cell pathways, as exemplified by truncated forms of Mastermind and Nuf. PMID:24172131

  19. Mapping of the Sequences Directing Localization of the Drosophila Germ Cell-Expressed Protein (GCE)

    PubMed Central

    Greb-Markiewicz, Beata; Sadowska, Daria; Surgut, Natalia; Godlewski, Jakub; Zarębski, Mirosław; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster germ cell-expressed protein (GCE) belongs to the family of bHLH-PAS transcription factors that are the regulators of gene expression networks that determine many physiological and developmental processes. GCE is a homolog of D. melanogaster methoprene tolerant protein (MET), a key mediator of anti-metamorphic signaling in insects and the putative juvenile hormone receptor. Recently, it has been shown that the functions of MET and GCE are only partially redundant and tissue specific. The ability of bHLH-PAS proteins to fulfill their function depends on proper intracellular trafficking, determined by specific sequences, i.e. the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the nuclear export signal (NES). Nevertheless, until now no data has been published on the GCE intracellular shuttling and localization signals. We performed confocal microscopy analysis of the subcellular distribution of GCE fused with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and YFP-GCE derivatives which allowed us to characterize the details of the subcellular traffic of this protein. We demonstrate that GCE possess specific pattern of localization signals, only partially consistent with presented previously for MET. The presence of a strong NLS in the C-terminal part of GCE, seems to be unique and important feature of this protein. The intracellular localization of GCE appears to be determined by the NLSs localized in PAS-B domain and C-terminal fragment of GCE, and NESs localized in PAS-A, PAS-B domains and C-terminal fragment of GCE. NLSs activity can be modified by juvenile hormone (JH) and other partners, likely 14-3-3 proteins. PMID:26186223

  20. Drosophila male and female germline stem cell niches require the nuclear lamina protein Otefin.

    PubMed

    Barton, Lacy J; Lovander, Kaylee E; Pinto, Belinda S; Geyer, Pamela K

    2016-07-01

    The nuclear lamina is an extensive protein network that underlies the inner nuclear envelope. This network includes the LAP2-emerin-MAN1-domain (LEM-D) protein family, proteins that share an association with the chromatin binding protein Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF). Loss of individual LEM-D proteins causes progressive, tissue-restricted diseases, known as laminopathies. Mechanisms associated with laminopathies are not yet understood. Here we present our studies of one of the Drosophila nuclear lamina LEM-D proteins, Otefin (Ote), a homologue of emerin. Previous studies have shown that Ote is autonomously required for the survival of female germline stem cells (GSCs). We demonstrate that Ote is also required for survival of somatic cells in the ovarian niche, with loss of Ote causing a decrease in cap cell number and altered signal transduction. We show germ cell-restricted expression of Ote rescues these defects, revealing a non-autonomous function for Ote in niche maintenance and emphasizing that GSCs contribute to the maintenance of their own niches. Further, we investigate the requirement of Ote in the male fertility. We show that ote mutant males become prematurely sterile as they age. Parallel to observations in females, this sterility is associated with GSC loss and changes in somatic cells of the niche, phenotypes that are largely rescued by germ cell-restricted Ote expression. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that Ote is required autonomously for survival of two stem cell populations, as well as non-autonomously for maintenance of two somatic niches. Finally, our data add to growing evidence that LEM-D proteins have critical roles in stem cell survival and tissue homeostasis. PMID:27174470

  1. Inverse regulation of two classic Hippo pathway target genes in Drosophila by the dimerization hub protein Ctp

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Daniel A.; Moberg, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The LC8 family of small ~8 kD proteins are highly conserved and interact with multiple protein partners in eukaryotic cells. LC8-binding modulates target protein activity, often through induced dimerization via LC8:LC8 homodimers. Although many LC8-interactors have roles in signaling cascades, LC8’s role in developing epithelia is poorly understood. Using the Drosophila wing as a developmental model, we find that the LC8 family member Cut up (Ctp) is primarily required to promote epithelial growth, which correlates with effects on the pro-growth factor dMyc and two genes, diap1 and bantam, that are classic targets of the Hippo pathway coactivator Yorkie. Genetic tests confirm that Ctp supports Yorkie-driven tissue overgrowth and indicate that Ctp acts through Yorkie to control bantam (ban) and diap1 transcription. Quite unexpectedly however, Ctp loss has inverse effects on ban and diap1: it elevates ban expression but reduces diap1 expression. In both cases these transcriptional changes map to small segments of these promoters that recruit Yorkie. Although LC8 complexes with Yap1, a Yorkie homolog, in human cells, an orthologous interaction was not detected in Drosophila cells. Collectively these findings reveal that that Drosophila Ctp is a required regulator of Yorkie-target genes in vivo and suggest that Ctp may interact with a Hippo pathway protein(s) to exert inverse transcriptional effects on Yorkie-target genes. PMID:26972460

  2. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulations of the protein are neurotoxic in Drosophila models of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Laetitia; Frébourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Lecourtois, Magalie

    2011-02-01

    Recently, the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major constituent of nuclear and/or cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions in patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Pathological proteins are abnormally hyperphosphorylated and partially cleaved to generate C-terminal fragments. In this issue, we addressed the mechanism underlying TDP-43 toxicity in vivo, using Drosophila as an experimental model. We developed new Drosophila transgenic models expressing different variants of full-length human TDP-43 proteins presenting different subcellular localizations: a wild-type form of hTDP-43 and two mutants forms of the protein, hTDP-43mutNLS and hTDP43mutNES, which lack nuclear localization signals (NLS) and nuclear export signals (NES), respectively. Using an inducible GAL4 system, we found that both nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulations of TDP-43 in adult neurons lead to reduction of lifespan in Drosophila, the gradient of toxicity being hTDP-43>hTDP-43mutNLS>hTDP43mutNES. This toxicity occurs regardless of inclusions formation. In the other hand, in retina, muscle and glial cells, only the accumulation of cytoplasmic species of TDP-43 was toxic. Biochemical data showed that human TDP-43 proteins expressed in adult fly neurons are abnormally phosphorylated on the disease-specific Ser409/Ser410 site and processed. In conclusion, our data show that TDP-43 expression in flies recapitulates several biochemical key features of human TDP-43 proteinopathies, including abnormal phosphorylation on a disease-specific site and processing of the protein. Moreover, our TDP-43 Drosophila models indicate that distinct pathways of TDP-43 toxicity might operate depending on the cell type. PMID:20951205

  3. A dual role for the adaptor protein DRK in Drosophila olfactory learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Moressis, Anastasios; Friedrich, Anke R.; Pavlopoulos, Elias; Davis, Ronald L.; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Participation of RAS, RAF and MAPK in learning and memory has been demonstrated in a number of studies, but the molecular events requisite for cascade activation and regulation have not been explored. We demonstrate that the adapter protein DRK which is essential for signaling to RAS in developmental contexts, is preferentially distributed in the adult mushroom bodies, centers for olfactory learning and memory. We demonstrate that drk mutant heterozygotes exhibit deficits in olfactory learning and memory, apparent under limited training conditions, but are not impaired in sensory responses requisite for the association of the stimuli, or brain neuroanatomy. Furthermore we demonstrate that the protein is required acutely within mushroom body neurons to mediate efficient learning, a process that requires RAF activation. Importantly, 90-minute memory remained impaired, even after differential training yielding equivalent learning in animals with compromised DRK levels and controls, and did not require RAF. Sustained MAPK activation is compromised in drk mutants and surprisingly is negatively regulated by constitutive RAF activity. The data establish a role for DRK in Drosophila behavioral neuroplasticity and suggest a dual role for the protein, first in RAF activation-dependent learning and additionally in RAF-inhibition dependent sustained MAPK activation essential for memory formation or stability. PMID:19244537

  4. Changes in Chromosomal Localization of Heterochromatin-binding Proteins during the Cell Cycle in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Suso Platero, J.; Csink, Amy K.; Quintanilla, Adrian; Henikoff, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We examined the heterochromatic binding of GAGA factor and proliferation disrupter (Prod) proteins during the cell cycle in Drosophila melanogaster and sibling species. GAGA factor binding to the brownDominant AG-rich satellite sequence insertion was seen at metaphase, however, no binding of GAGA factor to AG-rich sequences was observed at interphase in polytene or diploid nuclei. Comparable mitosis-specific binding was found for Prod protein to its target satellite in pericentric heterochromatin. At interphase, these proteins bind numerous dispersed sites in euchromatin, indicating that they move from euchromatin to heterochromatin and back every cell cycle. The presence of Prod in heterochromatin for a longer portion of the cell cycle than GAGA factor suggests that they cycle between euchromatin and heterochromatin independently. We propose that movement of GAGA factor and Prod from high affinity sites in euchromatin occurs upon condensation of metaphase chromosomes. Upon decondensation, GAGA factor and Prod shift from low affinity sites within satellite DNA back to euchromatic sites as a self-assembly process. PMID:9508764

  5. Septate Junction Proteins Play Essential Roles in Morphogenesis Throughout Embryonic Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sonia; Ward, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The septate junction (SJ) is the occluding junction found in the ectodermal epithelia of invertebrate organisms, and is essential to maintain chemically distinct compartments in epithelial organs, to provide the blood–brain barrier in the nervous system, and to provide an important line of defense against invading pathogens. More than 20 genes have been identified to function in the establishment or maintenance of SJs in Drosophila melanogaster. Numerous studies have demonstrated the cell biological function of these proteins in establishing the occluding junction, whereas very few studies have examined further developmental roles for them. Here we examined embryos with mutations in nine different core SJ genes and found that all nine result in defects in embryonic development as early as germ band retraction, with the most penetrant defect observed in head involution. SJ genes are also required for cell shape changes and cell rearrangements that drive the elongation of the salivary gland during midembryogenesis. Interestingly, these developmental events occur at a time prior to the formation of the occluding junction, when SJ proteins localize along the lateral membrane and have not yet coalesced into the region of the SJ. Together, these observations reveal an underappreciated role for a large group of SJ genes in essential developmental events during embryogenesis, and suggest that the function of these proteins in facilitating cell shape changes and rearrangements is independent of their role in the occluding junction. PMID:27261004

  6. Septate Junction Proteins Play Essential Roles in Morphogenesis Throughout Embryonic Development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sonia; Ward, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    The septate junction (SJ) is the occluding junction found in the ectodermal epithelia of invertebrate organisms, and is essential to maintain chemically distinct compartments in epithelial organs, to provide the blood-brain barrier in the nervous system, and to provide an important line of defense against invading pathogens. More than 20 genes have been identified to function in the establishment or maintenance of SJs in Drosophila melanogaster Numerous studies have demonstrated the cell biological function of these proteins in establishing the occluding junction, whereas very few studies have examined further developmental roles for them. Here we examined embryos with mutations in nine different core SJ genes and found that all nine result in defects in embryonic development as early as germ band retraction, with the most penetrant defect observed in head involution. SJ genes are also required for cell shape changes and cell rearrangements that drive the elongation of the salivary gland during midembryogenesis. Interestingly, these developmental events occur at a time prior to the formation of the occluding junction, when SJ proteins localize along the lateral membrane and have not yet coalesced into the region of the SJ. Together, these observations reveal an underappreciated role for a large group of SJ genes in essential developmental events during embryogenesis, and suggest that the function of these proteins in facilitating cell shape changes and rearrangements is independent of their role in the occluding junction. PMID:27261004

  7. Cyclin E-dependent protein kinase activity regulates niche retention of Drosophila ovarian follicle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu A.; Kalderon, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Whether stem cells have unique cell cycle machineries and how they integrate with niche interactions remains largely unknown. We identified a hypomorphic cyclin E allele WX that strongly impairs the maintenance of follicle stem cells (FSCs) in the Drosophila ovary but does not reduce follicle cell proliferation or germline stem cell maintenance. CycEWX protein can still bind to the cyclin-dependent kinase catalytic subunit Cdk2, but forms complexes with reduced protein kinase activity measured in vitro. By creating additional CycE variants with different degrees of kinase dysfunction and expressing these and CycEWX at different levels, we found that higher CycE-Cdk2 kinase activity is required for FSC maintenance than to support follicle cell proliferation. Surprisingly, cycEWX FSCs were lost from their niches rather than arresting proliferation. Furthermore, FSC function was substantially restored by expressing either excess DE-cadherin or excess E2F1/DP, the transcription factor normally activated by CycE-Cdk2 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma proteins. These results suggest that FSC maintenance through niche adhesion is regulated by inputs that normally control S phase entry, possibly as a quality control mechanism to ensure adequate stem cell proliferation. We speculate that a positive connection between central regulators of the cell cycle and niche retention may be a common feature of highly proliferative stem cells. PMID:19966222

  8. Wolbachia Endosymbionts Modify Drosophila Ovary Protein Levels in a Context-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Steen; Pérez Dulzaides, Ricardo; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Momtaz, A. J. M. Zehadee; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Paul, Lake N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endosymbiosis is a unique form of interaction between organisms, with one organism dwelling inside the other. One of the most widespread endosymbionts is Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally transmitted bacterium carried by insects, crustaceans, mites, and filarial nematodes. Although candidate proteins that contribute to maternal transmission have been identified, the molecular basis for maternal Wolbachia transmission remains largely unknown. To investigate transmission-related processes in response to Wolbachia infection, ovarian proteomes were analyzed from Wolbachia-infected Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Endogenous and variant host-strain combinations were investigated. Significant and differentially abundant ovarian proteins were detected, indicating substantial regulatory changes in response to Wolbachia. Variant Wolbachia strains were associated with a broader impact on the ovary proteome than endogenous Wolbachia strains. The D. melanogaster ovarian environment also exhibited a higher level of diversity of proteomic responses to Wolbachia than D. simulans. Overall, many Wolbachia-responsive ovarian proteins detected in this study were consistent with expectations from the experimental literature. This suggests that context-specific changes in protein abundance contribute to Wolbachia manipulation of transmission-related mechanisms in oogenesis. IMPORTANCE Millions of insect species naturally carry bacterial endosymbionts called Wolbachia. Wolbachia bacteria are transmitted by females to their offspring through a robust egg-loading mechanism. The molecular basis for Wolbachia transmission remains poorly understood at this time, however. This proteomic study identified specific fruit fly ovarian proteins as being upregulated or downregulated in response to Wolbachia infection. The majority of these protein responses correlated specifically with the type of host and Wolbachia strain involved. This work corroborates previously identified

  9. Genes encoding novel secreted and transmembrane proteins are temporally and spatially regulated during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, Alejandro; Hödar, Christian; Hanna, Patricia; Ibáñez, Freddy; Moreno, Pablo; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Pastenes, Luis; González, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    Background Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization procedure to identify a group of developmentally regulated genes during early stages of D. melanogaster embryogenesis. We studied the spatiotemporal activity of these genes in five different intervals covering 12 stages of embryogenesis. Results Microarrays were constructed to confirm induction of expression and to determine the temporal profile of isolated subtracted cDNAs during embryo development. We identified a set of 118 genes whose expression levels increased significantly in at least one developmental interval compared with a reference interval. Of these genes, 53% had a phenotype and/or molecular function reported in the literature, whereas 47% were essentially uncharacterized. Clustering analysis revealed demarcated transcript groups with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental intervals. In situ hybridization assays were carried out on 23 uncharacterized genes, 15 of which proved to have spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns. Among these 15 uncharacterized genes, 13 were found to encode putative secreted and transmembrane proteins. For three of them we validated our protein sequence predictions by expressing their cDNAs in Drosophila S2R+ cells and analyzed the subcellular distribution of recombinant proteins. We then focused on the functional characterization of the gene CG6234. Inhibition of CG6234 by RNA interference resulted in morphological defects in embryos, suggesting the involvement of this gene in germ band retraction. Conclusion Our data have yielded a list of developmentally regulated D. melanogaster genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis and provide new information on the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several uncharacterized genes. In particular, we recovered a substantial number of

  10. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells

    PubMed Central

    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

  11. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Turkel, Nezaket; Portela, Marta; Poon, Carole; Li, Jason; Brumby, Anthony M.; Richardson, Helena E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib) and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab). Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems. PMID:26187947

  12. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Drosophila Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1)/Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) Protein Is Associated with HP1 and ORC and Functions in Heterochromatin-induced Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Shareef, Mohammed Momin; King, Chadwick; Damaj, Mona; Badagu, RamaKrishna; Huang, Da Wei; Kellum, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a conserved component of the highly compact chromatin of higher eukaryotic centromeres and telomeres. Cytogenetic experiments in Drosophila have shown that HP1 localization into this chromatin is perturbed in mutants for the origin recognition complex (ORC) 2 subunit. ORC has a multisubunit DNA-binding activity that binds origins of DNA replication where it is required for origin firing. The DNA-binding activity of ORC is also used in the recruitment of the Sir1 protein to silence nucleation sites flanking silent copies of the mating-type genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A fraction of HP1 in the maternally loaded cytoplasm of the early Drosophila embryo is associated with a multiprotein complex containing Drosophila melanogaster ORC subunits. This complex appears to be poised to function in heterochromatin assembly later in embryonic development. Here we report the identification of a novel component of this complex, the HP1/ORC-associated protein. This protein contains similarity to DNA sequence-specific HMG proteins and is shown to bind specific satellite sequences and the telomere-associated sequence in vitro. The protein is shown to have heterochromatic localization in both diploid interphase and mitotic chromosomes and polytene chromosomes. Moreover, the gene encoding HP1/ORC-associated protein was found to display reciprocal dose-dependent variegation modifier phenotypes, similar to those for mutants in HP1 and the ORC 2 subunit. PMID:11408576

  14. The Drosophila BTB Domain Protein Jim Lovell Has Roles in Multiple Larval and Adult Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bjorum, Sonia M.; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Alanis, Raul; Wang, Jennifer E.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Trejo, Michael H.; Hanson, Keith A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Innate behaviors have their origins in the specification of neural fates during development. Within Drosophila, BTB (Bric-a-brac,Tramtrack, Broad) domain proteins such as Fruitless are known to play key roles in the neural differentiation underlying such responses. We previously identified a gene, which we have termed jim lovell (lov), encoding a BTB protein with a role in gravity responses. To understand more fully the behavioral roles of this gene we have investigated its function through several approaches. Transcript and protein expression patterns have been examined and behavioral phenotypes of new lov mutations have been characterized. Lov is a nuclear protein, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator, as for other BTB proteins. In late embryogenesis, Lov is expressed in many CNS and PNS neurons. An examination of the PNS expression indicates that lov functions in the late specification of several classes of sensory neurons. In particular, only two of the five abdominal lateral chordotonal neurons express Lov, predicting functional variation within this highly similar group. Surprisingly, Lov is also expressed very early in embryogenesis in ways that suggests roles in morphogenetic movements, amnioserosa function and head neurogenesis. The phenotypes of two new lov mutations that delete adjacent non-coding DNA regions are strikingly different suggesting removal of different regulatory elements. In lov47, Lov expression is lost in many embryonic neurons including the two lateral chordotonal neurons. lov47 mutant larvae show feeding and locomotor defects including spontaneous backward movement. Adult lov47 males perform aberrant courtship behavior distinguished by courtship displays that are not directed at the female. lov47 adults also show more defective negative gravitaxis than the previously isolated lov91Y mutant. In contrast, lov66 produces largely normal behavior but severe female sterility associated with ectopic lov expression in the ovary. We

  15. Monoclonal antibodies against a specific nonhistone chromosomal protein of Drosophila associated with active genes.

    PubMed

    Howard, G C; Abmayr, S M; Shinefeld, L A; Sato, V L; Elgin, S C

    1981-01-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies have been produced by fusion of NS-1 mouse myeloma cells with the spleen cells of mice inoculated with a 60-65,000-mol wt fraction of proteins released from Drosophila embryo nuclei treated with DNase I. The antibodies secreted by the hybridomas were examined with polytene chromosomes of formaldehyde-fixed salivary gland squashes by an immunofluorescence assay. Most of the clonal antibodies obtained resulted in specific staining of the chromosomes relative to the cytoplasmic debris. In the case of clone 28, the antibodies showed a preferential association with sites of gene activity, both puffs and loci identified as puffing at some time during the third instar and prepupal period. In larvae that were heat shocked (exposed to 35 degrees C for 15 min before removal and fixation of the glands), the antibodies of clone 28 stained preferentially the induced heat-shock loci while continuing to stain most of the normal set of loci. The antigen for clone 28 was identified as a single protein of approximately 62,000 mol wt by using the antibodies followed by 125I-rabbit anti-mouse Ig to stain nitrocellulose replicas of SDS polyacrylamide gels of total chromosomal proteins. This study demonstrates that monoclonal antibodies can be used successfully in immunofluorescence staining of formaldehyde-fixed polytene chromosomes. The results verify the hypothesis that a specific nonhistone chromosomal protein is preferentially associated with the set of loci that includes both active sites and those scheduled to be active at some time in this developmental program. Such proteins may play a general role in the mechanisms of cell determination and gene activation. PMID:6782108

  16. The BET protein FSH functionally interacts with ASH1 to orchestrate global gene activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The question of how cells re-establish gene expression states after cell division is still poorly understood. Genetic and molecular analyses have indicated that Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are critical for the long-term maintenance of active gene expression states in many organisms. A generally accepted model suggests that TrxG proteins contribute to maintenance of transcription by protecting genes from inappropriate Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated silencing, instead of directly promoting transcription. Results and discussion Here we report a physical and functional interaction in Drosophila between two members of the TrxG, the histone methyltransferase ASH1 and the bromodomain and extraterminal family protein FSH. We investigated this interface at the genome level, uncovering a widespread co-localization of both proteins at promoters and PcG-bound intergenic elements. Our integrative analysis of chromatin maps and gene expression profiles revealed that the observed ASH1-FSH binding pattern at promoters is a hallmark of active genes. Inhibition of FSH-binding to chromatin resulted in global down-regulation of transcription. In addition, we found that genes displaying marks of robust PcG-mediated repression also have ASH1 and FSH bound to their promoters. Conclusions Our data strongly favor a global coactivator function of ASH1 and FSH during transcription, as opposed to the notion that TrxG proteins impede inappropriate PcG-mediated silencing, but are dispensable elsewhere. Instead, our results suggest that PcG repression needs to overcome the transcription-promoting function of ASH1 and FSH in order to silence genes. PMID:23442797

  17. Genetic Evidence That the Ovo Locus Is Involved in Drosophila Germ Line Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, B.; Pauli, D.; Mahowald, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    Zygotically contributed ovo gene product is required for the survival of female germ cells in Drosophila melanogaster. Trans-allelic combinations of weak and dominant ovo mutations (ovo(D)) result in viable germ cells that appear to be partially transformed from female to male sexual identity. The ovo(D2) mutation is partially suppressed by many Sex-lethal alleles that affect the soma, while those that affect only the germ line fail to interact with ovo(D2). One of two loss-of-function ovo alleles is suppressed by a loss-of-function Sex-lethal allele. Because ovo mutations are germ line dependent, it is likely that ovo is suppressed by way of communication between the somatic and germ lines. A loss-of-function allele of ovo is epistatic to germ line dependent mutations in Sex-lethal. The germ line dependent sex determination mutation, sans fille, and ovo(D) mutations show a dominant synergistic interaction resulting in partial transformation of germ line sexual identity. The ovo locus appears to be involved in germ line sex determination and is linked in some manner to sex determination in the soma. PMID:2116356

  18. Dbp73D, a Drosophila gene expressed in ovary, encodes a novel D-E-A-D box protein.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, L F; Harvey, M; Lasko, P F

    1992-01-01

    Proteins of the D-E-A-D family of putative ATP-dependent RNA helicases have been implicated in translation initiation and RNA splicing in a variety of organisms from E. coli to man. The Drosophila vasa protein, a member of this family, is required in the female germ line for fertility and for specification of germ line and posterior positional information in progeny embryos. We report the isolation of another D-E-A-D gene from Drosophila, which, like vasa, is expressed in germ line tissue. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, Dbp73D, contains all of the highly conserved helicase motifs, but is otherwise the farthest-diverged member of the family so far identified. Images PMID:1620603

  19. A new player in X identification: the CLAMP protein is a key factor in Drosophila dosage compensation

    PubMed Central

    Soruco, Marcela M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation adjusts the expression levels of genes on one or both targeted sex chromosomes in heterogametic species. This process results in the normalized transcriptional output of important and essential gene families encoded on multiple chromosomes. The mechanisms of dosage compensation have been studied in many model organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster (fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (worm), and Mus musculus (mouse). Although the mechanisms of dosage compensations differ among these species, all of these processes rely on the initial discrimination of the X chromosome from autosomes. Recently, a new paradigm for how the X chromosome is targeted for regulation was identified in Drosophila. This mechanism involves a newly identified zinc finger protein, CLAMP. Here, we review important factors involved in dosage compensation across species with special focus on the fly. Understanding how the newly identified CLAMP protein is involved in X targeting in the fly could provide key insights into how the X chromosome is initially identified across species. PMID:25102930

  20. Drosophila dec-1 eggshell proteins are differentially distributed via a multistep extracellular processing and localization pathway.

    PubMed

    Noguerón, M I; Mauzy-Melitz, D; Waring, G L

    2000-09-15

    In Drosophila the multilayered eggshell forms during late oogenesis between the oocyte and the overlaying follicle cells. Proper eggshell assembly requires wild-type dec-1 gene function. Alternatively spliced dec-1 transcripts encode three proproteins that are cleaved extracellularly in a stage-specific manner to at least five distinct derivatives. Using polyclonal antibodies raised against fusion proteins containing different regions of the dec-1 proteins, we have localized several dec-1 derivatives in the assembling and completed eggshell. Although all of the dec-1 derivatives are generated in the oocyte proximal vitelline membrane layer, they are differentially distributed in the mature egg. Some derivatives are gradually released from the vitelline membrane and become localized within distinct regions of the chorion, while others are taken up by the oocyte or become concentrated in the endochorionic spaces or cavities. The diverse distributions of the dec-1 derivatives suggest that each derivative plays a distinct role in eggshell assembly. These results also suggest that the vitelline membrane layer, by acting as a transient storage site, may control the availability of molecules active in eggshell assembly and by extension perhaps other follicle cell products important in early embryonic pattern formation. PMID:10985863

  1. Australin: a chromosomal passenger protein required specifically for Drosophila melanogaster male meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Giansanti, Maria Grazia; Buttrick, Graham J.; Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Auton, Adam; Gatti, Maurizio; Wakefield, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which is composed of conserved proteins aurora B, inner centromere protein (INCENP), survivin, and Borealin/DASRA, localizes to chromatin, kinetochores, microtubules, and the cell cortex in a cell cycle–dependent manner. The CPC is required for multiple aspects of cell division. Here we find that Drosophila melanogaster encodes two Borealin paralogues, Borealin-related (Borr) and Australin (Aust). Although Borr is a passenger in all mitotic tissues studied, it is specifically replaced by Aust for the two male meiotic divisions. We analyzed aust mutant spermatocytes to assess the effects of fully inactivating the Aust-dependent functions of the CPC. Our results indicate that Aust is required for sister chromatid cohesion, recruitment of the CPC to kinetochores, and chromosome alignment and segregation but not for meiotic histone phosphorylation or spindle formation. Furthermore, we show that the CPC is required earlier in cytokinesis than previously thought; cells lacking Aust do not initiate central spindle formation, accumulate anillin or actin at the cell equator, or undergo equatorial constriction. PMID:18268101

  2. uninflatable encodes a novel ectodermal apical surface protein required for tracheal inflation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ward, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The tracheal system of Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be an excellent model system for studying the development of branched tubular organs. Mechanisms regulating the patterning and initial maturation of the tracheal system have been largely worked out, yet important questions remain regarding how the mature tubes inflate with air at the end of embryogenesis, and how the tracheal system grows in response to the oxygen needs of a developing larva that increases nearly 1000-fold in volume over a four day period. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of uninflatable (uif), a gene that encodes a large transmembrane protein containing carbohydrate binding and cell signaling motifs in its extracellular domain. Uif is highly conserved in insect species, but does not appear to have a true ortholog in vertebrate species. uif is expressed zygotically beginning in stage 5 embryos, and Uif protein localizes to the apical plasma membrane in all ectodermally derived epithelia, most notably in the tracheal system. uif mutant animals show defects in tracheal inflation at the end of embryogenesis, and die primarily as larvae. Tracheal tubes in mutant larvae are often crushed or twisted, although tracheal patterning and maturation appear normal during embryogenesis. uif mutants larvae also show defects in tracheal growth and molting of their tracheal cuticle. PMID:19818339

  3. Worniu, a Snail family zinc-finger protein, is required for brain development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Shovon I; Ganguly, Atish; Roote, John; Ip, Y Tony

    2004-10-01

    The Snail family of zinc-finger transcriptional repressors is essential for morphogenetic cell movements, mesoderm formation, and neurogenesis during embryonic development. These proteins also control cell cycle, cell death, and cancer progression. In Drosophila, three members of this protein family, Snail, Escargot, and Worniu, have essential but redundant functions in asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts. In addition, Snail is critical for early mesoderm formation and Escargot is required for maintaining diploidy in wing imaginal disc cells. In this report, we demonstrate that Worniu plays a role in brain development. We show that alleles of the l(2)35Da complementation group are mutants of worniu. The developing larvae of these mutant alleles fail to shorten their brainstems. The brain phenotype, as well as the lethality, of these mutants can be rescued by worniu transgenes. Moreover, RNAi experiments targeting the worniu transcript show the same nonshortening phenotype in larval brains. worniu is expressed in the neuroblasts of brain hemispheres and ventral ganglions. The results suggest that the loss of Worniu function within the neuroblasts ultimately causes the larval brainstem to fail to go through shortening during development. PMID:15366015

  4. Differential distributions of two adducin-like protein isoforms in the Drosophila ovary and early embryo.

    PubMed

    Zaccai, M; Lipshitz, H D

    1996-05-01

    Adducin is a cytoskeletal protein that can function in vitro to bundle F-actin and to control the assembly of the F-actin/spectrin cytoskeletal network. The Drosophila Adducin-like (Add) locus (also referred to as hu-li tai shao (hts)) encodes a family of proteins of which several are homologous to mammalian adducin (Ding et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 2512-16, 1993; Yue & Spradling, Genes Dev. 6, 2443-54, 1992). We report the identification of two novel adducin isoforms: a 95 x 10(3) Mr form (ADD-95) and an 87 x 10(3) Mr form (ADD-87). We present a detailed analysis of the distribution patterns of ADD-95 and ADD-87 during oogenesis and embryogenesis. The isoforms are co-expressed in several cell- and tissue-types; however, only ADD-87 is present in mid- to late-stage oocytes. ADD-87 is present throughout the oocyte cortex at stages 9 and 10 of oogenesis but is detectable only at the anterior pole from stage 11 onward, correlated with localisation of Add-hts mRNA first to the cortex and then to the anterior pole of the oocyte. ADD-87 co-localises with F-actin and spectrin in the cortex of the oocyte through stage 10 of oogenesis, consistent with a possible role in cytoskeletal assembly or function predicted by mammalian studies. PMID:8913030

  5. Tropomyosin is an interaction partner of the Drosophila coiled coil protein yuri gagarin.

    PubMed

    Texada, Michael J; Simonette, Rebecca A; Deery, William J; Beckingham, Kathleen M

    2011-02-15

    The Drosophila gene yuri gagarin is a complex locus encoding three protein isoform classes that are ubiquitously expressed in the organism. Mutations to the gene affect processes as diverse as gravitactic behavior and spermatogenesis. The larger Yuri isoforms contain extensive coiled-coil regions. Our previous studies indicate that one of the large isoform classes (Yuri-65) is required for formation of specialized F-actin-containing structures generated during spermatogenesis, including the so-called actin "cones" that mediate spermatid individualization. We used the tandem affinity purification of a tagged version of Yuri-65 (the TAP-tagging technique) to identify proteins associated with Yuri-65 in the intact organism. Tropomyosin, primarily as the 284-residue isoform derived from the ubiquitously expressed Tropomyosin 1 gene was thus identified as a major Yuri interaction partner. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed this interaction. We have established that the stable F-actin cones of spermatogenesis contain Tropomyosin 1 (Tm1) and that in mutant yuri(F64), failure of F-actin cone formation is associated with failure of Tm1 to accumulate at the cone initiation sites. In investigating possible interactions of Tm1 and Yuri in other tissues, we discovered that Tm1 and Yuri frequently colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum. Tropomyosin has been implicated in actin-mediated membrane trafficking activity in other systems. Our findings suggest that Yuri-Tm1 complexes participate in related functions. PMID:21126519

  6. TROPOMYOSIN IS AN INTERACTION PARTNER OF THE DROSOPHILA COILED COIL PROTEIN YURI GAGARIN

    PubMed Central

    Texada, Michael J.; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Deery, William J.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila gene yuri gagarin is a complex locus encoding three protein isoform classes that are ubiquitously expressed in the organism. Mutations to the gene affect processes as diverse as gravitactic behavior and spermatogenesis. The larger Yuri isoforms contain extensive coiled-coil regions. Our previous studies indicate that one of the large isoform classes (Yuri-65) is required for formation of specialized F-actin-containing structures generated during spermatogenesis, including the so-called actin “cones” that mediate spermatid individualization. We used tandem affinity purification of a tagged version of Yuri-65 (the TAP-tagging technique) to identify proteins associated with Yuri-65 in the intact organism. Tropomyosin, primarily as the 284-residue isoform derived from the ubiquitously expressed Tropomyosin 1 gene was thus identified as a major Yuri interaction partner. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed this interaction. We have established that the stable F-actin cones of spermatogenesis contain Tropomyosin 1 (Tm1) and that in mutant yuriF64, failure of F-actin cone formation is associated with failure of Tm1 to accumulate at the cone initiation sites. In investigating possible interactions of Tm1 and Yuri in other tissues, we discovered that Tm1 and Yuri frequently colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum. Tropomyosin has been implicated in actin-mediated membrane trafficking activity in other systems. Our findings suggest that Yuri-Tm1 complexes participate in related functions. PMID:21126519

  7. Diagnostic Potential of Puumala Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Expressed in Drosophila melanogaster Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brus Sjölander, Katarina; Golovljova, Irina; Plyusnin, Alexander; Lundkvist, Åke

    2000-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUU) nucleocapsid protein (N) was expressed in insect cells by using the Drosophila Expression System (DES; Invitrogen BV, Groningen, The Netherlands). Stable transfectants were established by hygromycin B selection and showed continuous expression of the recombinant protein (DES-PUU-N) for at least 5 months. The antigenic property of DES-PUU-N was shown to be identical to that of native PUU N when examined with a panel of hantavirus-specific monoclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection of human immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were established by using DES-PUU-N as antigen and were compared to assays based on native N. The ELISAs were evaluated for patient diagnosis and seroepidemiological purposes with panels of sera collected from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and from healthy blood donors. Equally high sensitivities and specificities for detection of PUU-specific IgM in acute-phase HFRS patient sera were obtained by the ELISA based on DES-PUU-N and the assay based on the native antigen. For detection of PUU-specific IgG, the ELISA based on monoclonal antibody-captured DES-PUU-N antigen showed optimal sensitivity and specificity. PMID:10834996

  8. Characterization of Drosophila OVO protein DNA binding specificity using random DNA oligomer selection suggests zinc finger degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Garfinkel, M D

    2000-02-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovo locus codes for several tissue- and stage-specific proteins that all possess a common C-terminal array of four C(2)H(2)zinc fingers. Three fingers conform to the motif framework and are evolutionarily conserved; the fourth diverges considerably. The ovo genetic function affects germ cell viability, sex identity and oogenesis, while the overlapping svb function is a key selector for epidermal structures under the control of wnt and EGF receptor signaling. We isolated synthetic DNA oligomers bound by the OVO zinc finger array from a high complexity starting population and derived a statistically significant 9 bp long DNA consensus sequence, which is nearly identical to a consensus derived from several Drosophila genes known or suspected of being regulated by the ovo function in vivo. The DNA consensus recognized by Drosophila OVO protein is atypical for zinc finger proteins in that it does not conform to many of the 'rules' for the interaction of amino acid contact residues and DNA bases. Additionally, our results suggest that only three of the OVO zinc fingers contribute to DNA-binding specificity. PMID:10637336

  9. Control of airway tube diameter and integrity by secreted chitin-binding proteins in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tiklová, Katarína; Tsarouhas, Vasilios; Samakovlis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The transporting function of many branched tubular networks like our lungs and circulatory system depend on the sizes and shapes of their branches. Understanding the mechanisms of tube size control during organ development may offer new insights into a variety of human pathologies associated with stenoses or cystic dilations in tubular organs. Here, we present the first secreted luminal proteins involved in tube diametric expansion in the Drosophila airways. obst-A and gasp are conserved among insect species and encode secreted proteins with chitin binding domains. We show that the widely used tracheal marker 2A12, recognizes the Gasp protein. Analysis of obst-A and gasp single mutants and obst-A; gasp double mutant shows that both genes are primarily required for airway tube dilation. Similarly, Obst-A and Gasp control epidermal cuticle integrity and larval growth. The assembly of the apical chitinous matrix of the airway tubes is defective in gasp and obst-A mutants. The defects become exaggerated in double mutants indicating that the genes have partially redundant functions in chitin structure modification. The phenotypes in luminal chitin assembly in the airway tubes are accompanied by a corresponding reduction in tube diameter in the mutants. Conversely, overexpression of Obst-A and Gasp causes irregular tube expansion and interferes with tube maturation. Our results suggest that the luminal levels of matrix binding proteins determine the extent of diametric growth. We propose that Obst-A and Gasp organize luminal matrix assembly, which in turn controls the apical shapes of adjacent cells during tube diameter expansion. PMID:23826295

  10. Glucocerebrosidase Deficiency in Drosophila Results in α-Synuclein-Independent Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ruth E.; Yu, Selina; Germanos, Alexandre A.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Sardi, Sergio Pablo; Montine, Thomas J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the glucosidase, beta, acid (GBA1) gene cause Gaucher’s disease, and are the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) excluding variants of low penetrance. Because α-synuclein-containing neuronal aggregates are a defining feature of PD and DLB, it is widely believed that mutations in GBA1 act by enhancing α-synuclein toxicity. To explore this hypothesis, we deleted the Drosophila GBA1 homolog, dGBA1b, and compared the phenotypes of dGBA1b mutants in the presence and absence of α-synuclein expression. Homozygous dGBA1b mutants exhibit shortened lifespan, locomotor and memory deficits, neurodegeneration, and dramatically increased accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates that are normally degraded through an autophagic mechanism. Ectopic expression of human α-synuclein in dGBA1b mutants resulted in a mild enhancement of dopaminergic neuron loss and increased α-synuclein aggregation relative to controls. However, α-synuclein expression did not substantially enhance other dGBA1b mutant phenotypes. Our findings indicate that dGBA1b plays an important role in the metabolism of protein aggregates, but that the deleterious consequences of mutations in dGBA1b are largely independent of α-synuclein. Future work with dGBA1b mutants should reveal the mechanism by which mutations in dGBA1b lead to accumulation of protein aggregates, and the potential influence of this protein aggregation on neuronal integrity. PMID:27019408

  11. The ALS-associated proteins FUS and TDP-43 function together to affect Drosophila locomotion and life span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Wu; Brent, Jonathan R; Tomlinson, Andrew; Shneider, Neil A; McCabe, Brian D

    2011-10-01

    The fatal adult motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) shares some clinical and pathological overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder. The RNA/DNA-binding proteins fused in sarcoma (FUS; also known as TLS) and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) have recently been shown to be genetically and pathologically associated with familial forms of ALS and FTD. It is currently unknown whether perturbation of these proteins results in disease through mechanisms that are independent of normal protein function or via the pathophysiological disruption of molecular processes in which they are both critical. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants in which the homolog of FUS is disrupted exhibit decreased adult viability, diminished locomotor speed, and reduced life span compared with controls. These phenotypes were fully rescued by wild-type human FUS, but not ALS-associated mutant FUS proteins. A mutant of the Drosophila homolog of TDP-43 had similar, but more severe, deficits. Through cross-rescue analysis, we demonstrated that FUS acted together with and downstream of TDP-43 in a common genetic pathway in neurons. Furthermore, we found that these proteins associated with each other in an RNA-dependent complex. Our results establish that FUS and TDP-43 function together in vivo and suggest that molecular pathways requiring the combined activities of both of these proteins may be disrupted in ALS and FTD. PMID:21881207

  12. Localization and posttranslational modifications of otefin, a protein required for vesicle attachment to chromatin, during Drosophila melanogaster development.

    PubMed Central

    Ashery-Padan, R; Ulitzur, N; Arbel, A; Goldberg, M; Weiss, A M; Maus, N; Fisher, P A; Gruenbaum, Y

    1997-01-01

    Otefin is a peripheral protein of the inner nuclear membrane in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we show that during nuclear assembly in vitro, it is required for the attachment of membrane vesicles to chromatin. With the exception of sperm cells, otefin colocalizes with lamin Dm0 derivatives in situ and presumably in vivo and is present in all somatic cells examined during the different stages of Drosophila development. In the egg chamber, otefin accumulates in the cytoplasm, in the nuclear periphery, and within the nucleoplasm of the oocyte, in a pattern similar to that of lamin Dm0 derivatives. There is a relatively large nonnuclear pool of otefin present from stages 6 to 7 of egg chamber maturation through 6 to 8 h of embryonic development at 25 degrees C. In this pool, otefin is peripherally associated with a fraction containing the membrane vesicles. This association is biochemically different from the association of otefin with the nuclear envelope. Otefin is a phosphoprotein in vivo and is a substrate for in vitro phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. A major site for cdc2 kinase phosphorylation in vitro was mapped to serine 36 of otefin. Together, our data suggest an essential role for otefin in the assembly of the Drosophila nuclear envelope. PMID:9199347

  13. Molecular Population Genetics of Accessory Gland Protein Genes and Testis-Expressed Genes in Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Bradley J.; Begun, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular population genetic investigation of Drosophila male reproductive genes has focused primarily on melanogaster subgroup accessory gland protein genes (Acp's). Consistent with observations from male reproductive genes of numerous taxa, Acp's evolve more rapidly than nonreproductive genes. However, within the Drosophila genus, large data sets from additional types of male reproductive genes and from different species groups are lacking. Here we report findings from a molecular population genetics analysis of male reproductive genes of the repleta group species, Drosophila arizonae and D. mojavensis. We find that Acp's have dramatically higher average pairwise Ka/Ks (0.93) than testis-enriched genes (0.19) and previously reported melanogaster subgroup Acp's (0.42). Overall, 10 of 19 Acp's have Ka/Ks > 1 either in nonpolarized analyses or in at least one lineage of polarized analyses. Of the nine Acp's for which outgroup data were available, average Ka/Ks was considerably higher in D. mojavensis (2.08) than in D. arizonae (0.87). Contrasts of polymorphism and divergence suggest that adaptive protein evolution at Acp's is more common in D. mojavensis than in D. arizonae. PMID:16085702

  14. Drosophila UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase: sequence and characterization of an enzyme that distinguishes between denatured and native proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C G; Fessler, L I; Nelson, R E; Fessler, J H

    1995-01-01

    A Drosophila UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase was isolated, cloned and characterized. Its 1548 amino acid sequence begins with a signal peptide, lacks any putative transmembrane domains and terminates in a potential endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal, HGEL. The soluble, 170 kDa glycoprotein occurs throughout Drosophila embryos, in microsomes of highly secretory Drosophila Kc cells and in small amounts in cell culture media. The isolated enzyme transfers [14C]glucose from UDP-[14C]Glc to several purified extracellular matrix glycoproteins (laminin, peroxidasin and glutactin) made by these cells, and to bovine thyroglobulin. These proteins must be denatured to accept glucose, which is bound at endoglycosidase H-sensitive sites. The unusual ability to discriminate between malfolded and native glycoproteins is shared by the rat liver homologue, previously described by A.J.Parodi and coworkers. The amino acid sequence presented differs from most glycosyltransferases. There is weak, though significant, similarity with a few bacterial lipopolysaccharide glycotransferases and a yeast protein Kre5p. In contrast, the 56-68% amino acid identities with partial sequences from genome projects of Caenorhabditis elegans, rice and Arabidopsis suggest widespread homologues of the enzyme. This glucosyltransferase fits previously proposed hypotheses for an endoplasmic reticular sensor of the state of folding of newly made glycoproteins. Images PMID:7729408

  15. A Cluster of Cuticle Protein Genes of Drosophila Melanogaster at 65a: Sequence, Structure and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Charles, J. P.; Chihara, C.; Nejad, S.; Riddiford, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    A 36-kb genomic DNA segment of the Drosophila melanogaster genome containing 12 clustered cuticle genes has been mapped and partially sequenced. The cluster maps at 65A 5-6 on the left arm of the third chromosome, in agreement with the previously determined location of a putative cluster encompassing the genes for the third instar larval cuticle proteins LCP5, LCP6 and LCP8. This cluster is the largest cuticle gene cluster discovered to date and shows a number of surprising features that explain in part the genetic complexity of the LCP5, LCP6 and LCP8 loci. The genes encoding LCP5 and LCP8 are multiple copy genes and the presence of extensive similarity in their coding regions gives the first evidence for gene conversion in cuticle genes. In addition, five genes in the cluster are intronless. Four of these five have arisen by retroposition. The other genes in the cluster have a single intron located at an unusual location for insect cuticle genes. PMID:9383064

  16. The Ets protein Pointed prevents both premature differentiation and dedifferentiation of Drosophila intermediate neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yonggang; Li, Xiaosu; Deng, Xiaobing; Hou, Yanjun; O'Hara, Krysten; Urso, Andreacarola; Peng, Ying; Chen, Li; Zhu, Sijun

    2016-09-01

    Intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) need to avoid both dedifferentiation and differentiation during neurogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In Drosophila, the Ets protein Pointed P1 (PntP1) is required to generate INPs from type II neuroblasts. Here, we investigated how PntP1 promotes INP generation. By generating pntP1-specific mutants and using RNAi knockdown, we show that the loss of PntP1 leads to both an increase in type II neuroblast number and the elimination of INPs. The elimination of INPs results from the premature differentiation of INPs due to ectopic Prospero expression in newly generated immature INPs (imINPs), whereas the increase in type II neuroblasts results from the dedifferentiation of imINPs due to loss of Earmuff at later stages of imINP development. Furthermore, reducing Buttonhead enhances the loss of INPs in pntP1 mutants, suggesting that PntP1 and Buttonhead act cooperatively to prevent premature INP differentiation. Our results demonstrate that PntP1 prevents both the premature differentiation and the dedifferentiation of INPs by regulating the expression of distinct target genes at different stages of imINP development. PMID:27510969

  17. The two Drosophila cytochrome C proteins can function in both respiration and caspase activation

    PubMed Central

    Arama, Eli; Bader, Maya; Srivastava, Mayank; Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    Cytochrome C has two apparently separable cellular functions: respiration and caspase activation during apoptosis. While a role of the mitochondria and cytochrome C in the assembly of the apoptosome and caspase activation has been established for mammalian cells, the existence of a comparable function for cytochrome C in invertebrates remains controversial. Drosophila possesses two cytochrome c genes, cyt-c-d and cyt-c-p. We show that only cyt-c-d is required for caspase activation in an apoptosis-like process during spermatid differentiation, whereas cyt-c-p is required for respiration in the soma. However, both cytochrome C proteins can function interchangeably in respiration and caspase activation, and the difference in their genetic requirements can be attributed to differential expression in the soma and testes. Furthermore, orthologues of the apoptosome components, Ark (Apaf-1) and Dronc (caspase-9), are also required for the proper removal of bulk cytoplasm during spermatogenesis. Finally, several mutants that block caspase activation during spermatogenesis were isolated in a genetic screen, including mutants with defects in spermatid mitochondrial organization. These observations establish a role for the mitochondria in caspase activation during spermatogenesis. PMID:16362035

  18. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-06-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets.

  19. Modulation of Feeding Behavior by Odorant-Binding Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Shilpa; Morozova, Tatiana V.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient intake and avoidance of toxins are essential for survival and controlled by attractive and aversive feeding responses. Drosophila melanogaster presents one of the best characterized systems for studies on chemosensation, which is mediated by multigene families of chemoreceptors, including olfactory receptors, gustatory receptors, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). Although the response profiles of gustatory receptors have been well studied, the contribution of OBPs to food intake is largely unknown. As most aversive (“bitter”) tastants are hydrophobic, we hypothesized that OBPs may fulfill an essential function in transporting bitter tastants to gustatory receptors to modulate feeding behavior. Here, we used 16 RNAi lines that inhibit expression of individual target Obp genes and show that OBPs modulate sucrose intake in response to a panel of nine bitter compounds. Similar to their function in olfaction, OBPs appear to interact with bitter compounds in a combinatorial and sex-dependent manner. RNAi-mediated reduction in expression of individual Obp genes resulted either in enhanced or reduced intake of sucrose in the presence of bitter compounds, consistent with roles for OBPs in transporting tastants to bitter taste receptors, sequestering them to limit their access to these receptors, or interacting directly with gustatory neurons that respond to sucrose. PMID:24302688

  20. Dynamic regulation of basement membrane protein levels promotes egg chamber elongation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Isabella, Adam J; Horne-Badovinac, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Basement membranes (BMs) are sheet-like extracellular matrices that provide essential support to epithelial tissues. Recent evidence suggests that regulated changes in BM architecture can direct tissue morphogenesis, but the mechanisms by which cells remodel BMs are largely unknown. The Drosophila egg chamber is an organ-like structure that transforms from a spherical to an ellipsoidal shape as it matures. This elongation coincides with a stage-specific increase in Type IV Collagen (Col IV) levels in the BM surrounding the egg chamber; however, the mechanisms and morphogenetic relevance of this remodeling event have not been established. Here, we identify the Collagen-binding protein SPARC as a negative regulator of egg chamber elongation, and show that SPARC down-regulation is necessary for the increase in Col IV levels to occur. We find that SPARC interacts with Col IV prior to secretion and propose that, through this interaction, SPARC blocks the incorporation of newly synthesized Col IV into the BM. We additionally observe a decrease in Perlecan levels during elongation, and show that Perlecan is a negative regulator of this process. These data provide mechanistic insight into SPARC's conserved role in matrix dynamics and demonstrate that regulated changes in BM composition influence organ morphogenesis. PMID:26348027

  1. TSPO, a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein, Controls Ethanol-Related Behaviors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ran; Rittenhouse, Danielle; Sweeney, Katelyn; Potluri, Prasanth; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol use disorders (AUDs) which impact patients, their families, and societies. Yet the genetic and physiological factors that predispose humans to AUDs remain unclear. One hypothesis is that alterations in mitochondrial function modulate neuronal sensitivity to ethanol exposure. Using Drosophila genetics we report that inactivation of the mitochondrial outer membrane translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, affects ethanol sedation and tolerance in male flies. Knockdown of dTSPO in adult male neurons results in increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation, and this effect requires the dTSPO depletion-mediated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of caspase activity in fly heads. Systemic loss of dTSPO in male flies blocks the development of tolerance to repeated ethanol exposures, an effect that is not seen when dTSPO is only inactivated in neurons. Female flies are naturally more sensitive to ethanol than males, and female fly heads have strikingly lower levels of dTSPO mRNA than males. Hence, mitochondrial TSPO function plays an important role in ethanol sensitivity and tolerance. Since a large array of benzodiazepine analogues have been developed that interact with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, the mitochondrial TSPO might provide an important new target for treating AUDs. PMID:26241038

  2. Tre1, a G Protein-Coupled Receptor, Directs Transepithelial Migration of Drosophila Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    In most organisms, germ cells are formed distant from the somatic part of the gonad and thus have to migrate along and through a variety of tissues to reach the gonad. Transepithelial migration through the posterior midgut (PMG) is the first active step during Drosophila germ cell migration. Here we report the identification of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Tre1, that is essential for this migration step. Maternal tre1 RNA is localized to germ cells, and tre1 is required cell autonomously in germ cells. In tre1 mutant embryos, most germ cells do not exit the PMG. The few germ cells that do leave the midgut early migrate normally to the gonad, suggesting that this gene is specifically required for transepithelial migration and that mutant germ cells are still able to recognize other guidance cues. Additionally, inhibiting small Rho GTPases in germ cells affects transepithelial migration, suggesting that Tre1 signals through Rho1. We propose that Tre1 acts in a manner similar to chemokine receptors required during transepithelial migration of leukocytes, implying an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transepithelial migration. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was shown to direct migration in vertebrate germ cells. Thus, germ cells may more generally use GPCR signaling to navigate the embryo toward their target. PMID:14691551

  3. Antioxidant proteins TSA and PAG interact synergistically with Presenilin to modulate Notch signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wangler, Michael F; Reiter, Lawrence T; Zimm, Georgianna; Trimble-Morgan, Jennifer; Wu, Jane; Bier, Ethan

    2011-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is characterized by senile plaques in the brain and evidence of oxidative damage. Oxidative stress may precede plaque formation in AD; however, the link between oxidative damage and plaque formation remains unknown. Presenilins are transmembrane proteins in which mutations lead to accelerated plaque formation and early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Presenilins physically interact with two antioxidant enzymes thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA) and proliferation-associated gene (PAG) of the peroxiredoxin family. The functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. In the current study we expressed a presenilin transgene in Drosophila wing and sensory organ precursors of the fly. This caused phenotypes typical of Notch signaling loss-of-function mutations. We found that while expression of TSA or PAG alone produced no phenotype, co-expression of TSA and PAG with presenilin led to an enhanced Notch loss-of-function phenotype. This phenotype was more severe and more penetrant than that caused by the expression of Psn alone. In order to determine whether these phenotypes were indeed affecting Notch signaling, this experiment was performed in a genetic background carrying an activated Notch (Abruptex) allele. The phenotypes were almost completely rescued by this activated Notch allele. These results link peroxiredoxins with the in vivo function of Presenilin, which ultimately connects two key pathogenetic mechanisms in AD, namely, antioxidant activity and plaque formation, and raises the possibility of a role for peroxiredoxin family members in Alzheimer's pathogenesis. PMID:21822800

  4. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets. PMID:23822503

  5. The Drosophila fork head domain protein crocodile is required for the establishment of head structures.

    PubMed Central

    Häcker, U; Kaufmann, E; Hartmann, C; Jürgens, G; Knöchel, W; Jäckle, H

    1995-01-01

    The fork head (fkh) domain defines the DNA-binding region of a family of transcription factors which has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions across species lines. We have cloned and molecularly characterized the crocodile (croc) gene which encodes a new family member from Drosophila. croc is expressed in the head anlagen of the blastoderm embryo under the control of the anterior, the dorsoventral and the terminal maternal organizer systems. The croc mutant phenotype indicates that the croc wild-type gene is required to function as an early patterning gene in the anterior-most blastoderm head segment anlage and for the establishment of a specific head skeletal structure that derives from the non-adjacent intercalary segment at a later stage of embryogenesis. As an early patterning gene, croc exerts unusual properties which do not allow it to be grouped among the established segmentation genes. A single-site mutation within the croc fkh domain, which causes a replacement of the first out of four conserved amino acid residues thought to be involved in the coordinate binding of Mg2+, abolishes the DNA binding of the protein in vitro. In view of the resulting lack-of-function mutant phenotype, it appears likely that metal binding by the affected region of the fkh domain is crucial for proper folding of the DNA-binding structure. Images PMID:7489720

  6. Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in drosophila and mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, Akira; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Gesellchen, Viola; El Chamy, Laure; Kuttenkeuler, David; Takeuchi, Osamu; Hoffmann, Jules A; Akira, Shizuo; Boutros, Michael; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    During a genome-wide screen with RNA-mediated interference, we isolated CG8580 as a gene involved in the innate immune response of Drosophila melanogaster. CG8580, which we called Akirin, encoded a protein that acted in parallel with the NF-kappaB transcription factor downstream of the Imd pathway and was required for defense against Gram-negative bacteria. Akirin is highly conserved, and the human genome contains two homologs, one of which was able to rescue the loss-of-function phenotype in drosophila cells. Akirins were strictly localized to the nucleus. Knockout of both Akirin homologs in mice showed that one had an essential function downstream of the Toll-like receptor, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-1beta signaling pathways leading to the production of IL-6. Thus, Akirin is a conserved nuclear factor required for innate immune responses. PMID:18066067

  7. The Drosophila F-box protein Archipelago controls levels of the Trachealess transcription factor in the embryonic tracheal system

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Nathan T.; Moberg, Kenneth H.

    2007-01-01

    The archipelago gene (ago) encodes the F-box specificity subunit of an SCF(skp-cullin-f box) ubiquitin ligase that inhibits cell proliferation in Drosophila melanogaster and suppresses tumorigenesis in mammals. ago limits mitotic activity by targeting cell cycle and cell growth proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, but the diverse developmental roles of other F-box proteins suggests that it is likely to have additional protein targets. Here we show that ago is required for the post-mitotic shaping of the Drosophila embryonic tracheal system, and that it acts in this tissue by targeting the Trachealess (Trh) protein, a conserved bHLH-PAS transcription factor. ago restricts Trh levels in vivo and antagonizes transcription of the breathless FGF receptor, a known target of Trh in the tracheal system. At a molecular level, the Ago protein binds Trh and is required for proteasome-dependent elimination of Trh in response to expression of the Dysfusion protein. ago mutations that elevate Trh levels in vivo are defective in binding forms of Trh found in Dysfusion-positive cells. These data identify a novel function for the ago ubiquitin-ligase in tracheal morphogenesis via Trh and its target breathless, and suggest that ago has distinct functions in mitotic and post-mitotic cells that influence its role in development and disease. PMID:17976568

  8. Hearing in Drosophila Requires TilB, a Conserved Protein Associated With Ciliary Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kavlie, Ryan G.; Kernan, Maurice J.; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Cilia were present in the earliest eukaryotic ancestor and underlie many biological processes ranging from cell motility and propulsion of extracellular fluids to sensory physiology. We investigated the contribution of the touch insensitive larva B (tilB) gene to cilia function in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutants of tilB exhibit dysfunction in sperm flagella and ciliated dendrites of chordotonal organs that mediate hearing and larval touch sensitivity. Mutant sperm axonemes as well as sensory neuron dendrites of Johnston's organ, the fly's auditory organ, lack dynein arms. Through deficiency mapping and sequencing candidate genes, we identified tilB mutations in the annotated gene CG14620. A genomic CG14620 transgene rescued deafness and male sterility of tilB mutants. TilB is a 395-amino-acid protein with a conserved N-terminal leucine-rich repeat region at residues 16–164 and a coiled-coil domain at residues 171–191. A tilB-Gal4 transgene driving fluorescently tagged TilB proteins elicits cytoplasmic expression in embryonic chordotonal organs, in Johnston's organ, and in sperm flagella. TilB does not appear to affect tubulin polyglutamylation or polyglycylation. The phenotypes and expression of tilB indicate function in cilia construction or maintenance, but not in intraflagellar transport. This is also consistent with phylogenetic association of tilB homologs with presence of genes encoding axonemal dynein arm components. Further elucidation of tilB functional mechanisms will provide greater understanding of cilia function and will facilitate understanding ciliary diseases. PMID:20215474

  9. The protein O-glucosyltransferase Rumi modifies eyes shut to promote rhabdomere separation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Haltom, Amanda R; Lee, Tom V; Harvey, Beth M; Leonardi, Jessica; Chen, Yi-Jiun; Hong, Yang; Haltiwanger, Robert S; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed

    2014-11-01

    The protein O-glucosyltransferase Rumi/POGLUT1 regulates Drosophila Notch signaling by adding O-glucose residues to the Notch extracellular domain. Rumi has other predicted targets including Crumbs (Crb) and Eyes shut (Eys), both of which are involved in photoreceptor development. However, whether Rumi is required for the function of Crb and Eys remains unknown. Here we report that in the absence of Rumi or its enzymatic activity, several rhabdomeres in each ommatidium fail to separate from one another in a Notch-independent manner. Mass spectral analysis indicates the presence of O-glucose on Crb and Eys. However, mutating all O-glucosylation sites in a crb knock-in allele does not cause rhabdomere attachment, ruling out Crb as a biologically-relevant Rumi target in this process. In contrast, eys and rumi exhibit a dosage-sensitive genetic interaction. In addition, although in wild-type ommatidia most of the Eys protein is found in the inter-rhabdomeral space (IRS), in rumi mutants a significant fraction of Eys remains in the photoreceptor cells. The intracellular accumulation of Eys and the IRS defect worsen in rumi mutants raised at a higher temperature, and are accompanied by a ∼50% decrease in the total level of Eys. Moreover, removing one copy of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone enhances the rhabdomere attachment in rumi mutant animals. Altogether, our data suggest that O-glucosylation of Eys by Rumi ensures rhabdomere separation by promoting proper Eys folding and stability in a critical time window during the mid-pupal stage. Human EYS, which is mutated in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, also harbors multiple Rumi target sites. Therefore, the role of O-glucose in regulating Eys may be conserved. PMID:25412384

  10. Silver nanoparticles induced heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Posgai, Ryan; Gorey, Timothy J.; Nielsen, Mark; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.

    2010-02-01

    Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), risk assessment of this nanoparticle is of great importance. Our previous in vitro study demonstrated that Ag NPs caused DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. However, toxicity of Ag NPs in vivo is largely lacking. This study was undertaken to examine the toxic effects of well-characterized polysaccharide coated 10 nm Ag NPs on heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster were fed a diet of standard cornmeal media mixed with Ag NPs at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mug/ml for 24 and 48 h. Ag NPs up-regulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 and induced oxidative stress in D. melanogaster. Malondialdehyde level, an end product of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher while antioxidant glutathione content was significantly lower in Ag NPs exposed organisms. Activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and catalase were also significantly higher in the organisms exposed to Ag NPs. Furthermore, Ag NPs up-regulated the cell cycle checkpoint p53 and cell signaling protein p38 that are involved in the DNA damage repair pathway. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, markers of apoptosis were significantly higher in Ag NPs exposed organisms. The results indicate that Ag NPs in D. melanogaster induce heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. This study suggests that the organism is stressed and thus warrants more careful assessment of Ag NPs using in vivo models to determine if chronic exposure presents developmental and reproductive toxicity.

  11. G-protein coupled Receptor Kinase 2 is required for rhythmic olfactory responses in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tanoue, Shintaro; Krishnan, Parthasarathy; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Hardin, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The Drosophila circadian clock controls rhythms in the amplitude of odor-induced electrophysiological responses that peak during the middle of night. These rhythms are dependent on clocks in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which suggests that odorant receptors(ORs) or OR-dependent processes are under clock control. Since responses to odors are initiated by heteromeric OR complexes that form odor-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels, we tested whether regulators of ORs were under circadian clock control. Results The levels of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2) mRNA and protein cycle in a circadian clock-dependent manner with a peak around mid-night in antennae. Gprk2 overexpression in OSNs from wild-type or cyc01 flies elicits constant high amplitude electroantennogram (EAG) responses to ethyl acetate, whereas Gprk mutants produce constant low amplitude EAG responses. Odorant receptors (ORs) accumulate to high levels in the dendrites of OSNs around mid-night, and this dendritic localization of ORs is enhanced by Gprk2 at times when ORs are primarily localized in the cell body. Conclusion These results support a model in which circadian clock-dependent rhythms in Gprk2 abundance control the rhythmic accumulation of ORs in OSN dendrites, which in turn control rhythms in olfactory responses. The enhancement of OR function by GPRK2 contrasts with the traditional role of Gprks in desensitizing activated receptors, and suggests that GPRK2 functions through a fundamentally different mechanism to modulate OR activity. PMID:18499458

  12. The Protein O-glucosyltransferase Rumi Modifies Eyes Shut to Promote Rhabdomere Separation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Beth M.; Leonardi, Jessica; Chen, Yi-Jiun; Hong, Yang; Haltiwanger, Robert S.; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    The protein O-glucosyltransferase Rumi/POGLUT1 regulates Drosophila Notch signaling by adding O-glucose residues to the Notch extracellular domain. Rumi has other predicted targets including Crumbs (Crb) and Eyes shut (Eys), both of which are involved in photoreceptor development. However, whether Rumi is required for the function of Crb and Eys remains unknown. Here we report that in the absence of Rumi or its enzymatic activity, several rhabdomeres in each ommatidium fail to separate from one another in a Notch-independent manner. Mass spectral analysis indicates the presence of O-glucose on Crb and Eys. However, mutating all O-glucosylation sites in a crb knock-in allele does not cause rhabdomere attachment, ruling out Crb as a biologically-relevant Rumi target in this process. In contrast, eys and rumi exhibit a dosage-sensitive genetic interaction. In addition, although in wild-type ommatidia most of the Eys protein is found in the inter-rhabdomeral space (IRS), in rumi mutants a significant fraction of Eys remains in the photoreceptor cells. The intracellular accumulation of Eys and the IRS defect worsen in rumi mutants raised at a higher temperature, and are accompanied by a ∼50% decrease in the total level of Eys. Moreover, removing one copy of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone enhances the rhabdomere attachment in rumi mutant animals. Altogether, our data suggest that O-glucosylation of Eys by Rumi ensures rhabdomere separation by promoting proper Eys folding and stability in a critical time window during the mid-pupal stage. Human EYS, which is mutated in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, also harbors multiple Rumi target sites. Therefore, the role of O-glucose in regulating Eys may be conserved. PMID:25412384

  13. The centrosomin protein is required for centrosome assembly and function during cleavage in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Megraw, T L; Li, K; Kao, L R; Kaufman, T C

    1999-07-01

    Centrosomin is a 150 kDa centrosomal protein of Drosophila melanogaster. To study the function of Centrosomin in the centrosome, we have recovered mutations that are viable but male and female sterile (cnnmfs). We have shown that these alleles (1, 2, 3, 7, 8 and hk21) induce a maternal effect on early embryogenesis and result in the accumulation of low or undetectable levels of Centrosomin in the centrosomes of cleavage stage embryos. Hemizygous cnn females produce embryos that show dramatic defects in chromosome segregation and spindle organization during the syncytial cleavage divisions. In these embryos the syncytial divisions proceed as far as the twelfth cycle, and embryos fail to cellularize. Aberrant divisions and nuclear fusions occur in the early cycles of the nuclear divisions, and become more prominent at later stages. Giant nuclei are seen in late stage embryos. The spindles that form in mutant embryos exhibit multiple anomalies. There is a high occurrence of apparently linked spindles that share poles, indicating that Centrosomin is required for the proper spacing and separation of mitotic spindles within the syncytium. Spindle poles in the mutants contain little or no detectable amounts of the centrosomal proteins CP60, CP190 and (gamma)-tubulin and late stage embryos often do not have astral microtubules at their spindle poles. Spindle morphology and centrosomal composition suggest that the primary cause of these division defects in mutant embryos is centrosomal malfunction. These results suggest that Centrosomin is required for the assembly and function of centrosomes during the syncytial cleavage divisions. PMID:10357928

  14. A novel basic helix-loop-helix protein is expressed in muscle attachment sites of the Drosophila epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Armand, P; Knapp, A C; Hirsch, A J; Wieschaus, E F; Cole, M D

    1994-01-01

    We have found that a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein is expressed almost exclusively in the epidermal attachments sites for the somatic muscles of Drosophila melanogaster. A Drosophila cDNA library was screened with radioactively labeled E12 protein, which can dimerize with many HLH proteins. One clone that emerged from this screen encoded a previously unknown protein of 360 amino acids, named delilah, that contains both basic and HLH domains, similar to a group of cellular transcription factors implicated in cell type determination. Delilah protein formed heterodimers with E12 that bind to the muscle creatine kinase promoter. In situ hybridization with the delilah cDNA localized the expression of the gene to a subset of cells in the epidermis which form a distinct pattern involving both the segmental boundaries and intrasegmental clusters. This pattern was coincident with the known sites of attachment of the somatic muscles to tendon cells in the epidermis. delilah expression persists in snail mutant embryos which lack mesoderm, indicating that expression of the gene was not induced by attachment of the underlying muscles. The similarity of this gene to other bHLH genes suggests that it plays an important role in the differentiation of epidermal cells into muscle attachment sites. Images PMID:8196652

  15. The putative HORMA domain protein Atg101 dimerizes and is required for starvation-induced and selective autophagy in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Krisztina; Nagy, Péter; Gáspári, Zoltán; Juhász, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale turnover of intracellular material including organelles is achieved by autophagy-mediated degradation in lysosomes. Initiation of autophagy is controlled by a protein kinase complex consisting of an Atg1-family kinase, Atg13, FIP200/Atg17, and the metazoan-specific subunit Atg101. Here we show that loss of Atg101 impairs both starvation-induced and basal autophagy in Drosophila. This leads to accumulation of protein aggregates containing the selective autophagy cargo ref(2)P/p62. Mapping experiments suggest that Atg101 binds to the N-terminal HORMA domain of Atg13 and may also interact with two unstructured regions of Atg1. Another HORMA domain-containing protein, Mad2, forms a conformational homodimer. We show that Drosophila Atg101 also dimerizes, and it is predicted to fold into a HORMA domain. Atg101 interacts with ref(2)P as well, similar to Atg13, Atg8a, Atg16, Atg18, Keap1, and RagC, a known regulator of Tor kinase which coordinates cell growth and autophagy. These results raise the possibility that the interactions and dimerization of the putative HORMA domain protein Atg101 play critical roles in starvation-induced autophagy and proteostasis, by promoting the formation of protein aggregate-containing autophagosomes. PMID:24895579

  16. The Human dsRNA binding protein PACT is unable to functionally substitute for the Drosophila dsRNA binding protein R2D2

    PubMed Central

    Dickerman, Benjamin K; McDonald, Jocelyn A; Sen, Ganes C

    2014-01-01

    The dsRNA binding protein (dsRBP) PACT was first described as an activator of the dsRNA dependent protein kinase PKR in response to stress signals.  Additionally, it has been identified as a component of the small RNA processing pathway.  A role for PACT in this pathway represents an important interplay between two modes of post-transcriptional gene regulation.  The function of PACT in this context is poorly understood.  Thus, additional approaches are required to clarify the mechanism by which PACT functions.  In this study, the genetic utility of  Drosophila melanogaster was employed to identify dsRNA-binding proteins that are functionally orthologous to PACT.  Transgenic  Drosophila expressing human PACT were generated to determine whether PACT is capable of functionally substituting for the  Drosophila dsRBP R2D2, which has a well-defined role in small RNA biogenesis.  Results presented here indicate that PACT is unable to substitute for R2D2 at the whole organism level. PMID:24715958

  17. Drosophila Valosin-Containing Protein is required for dendrite pruning through a regulatory role in mRNA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rumpf, Sebastian; Bagley, Joshua A.; Thompson-Peer, Katherine L.; Zhu, Sijun; Gorczyca, David; Beckstead, Robert B.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    The dendritic arbors of the larval Drosophila peripheral class IV dendritic arborization neurons degenerate during metamorphosis in an ecdysone-dependent manner. This process—also known as dendrite pruning—depends on the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), but the specific processes regulated by the UPS during pruning have been largely elusive. Here, we show that mutation or inhibition of Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP), a ubiquitin-dependent ATPase whose human homolog is linked to neurodegenerative disease, leads to specific defects in mRNA metabolism and that this role of VCP is linked to dendrite pruning. Specifically, we find that VCP inhibition causes an altered splicing pattern of the large pruning gene molecule interacting with CasL and mislocalization of the Drosophila homolog of the human RNA-binding protein TAR–DNA-binding protein of 43 kilo-Dalton (TDP-43). Our data suggest that VCP inactivation might lead to specific gain-of-function of TDP-43 and other RNA-binding proteins. A similar combination of defects is also seen in a mutant in the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme ubcD1 and a mutant in the 19S regulatory particle of the proteasome, but not in a 20S proteasome mutant. Thus, our results highlight a proteolysis-independent function of the UPS during class IV dendritic arborization neuron dendrite pruning and link the UPS to the control of mRNA metabolism. PMID:24799714

  18. High Mobility Group Proteins HMGD and HMGZ Interact Genetically With the Brahma Chromatin Remodeling Complex in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Anan; Thompson, Elizabeth C.; Travers, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    Many pleiotropic roles have been ascribed to small abundant HMG–Box (HMGB) proteins in higher eukaryotes but their precise function has remained enigmatic. To investigate their function genetically we have generated a defined deficiency uncovering the functionally redundant genes encoding HMGD and HMGZ, the Drosophila counterparts of HMGB1–3 in mammals. The resulting mutant is a strong hypomorphic allele of HmgD/Z. Surprisingly this allele is viable and exhibits only minor morphological defects even when homozygous. However, this allele interacts strongly with mutants of the Brahma chromatin remodeling complex, while no interaction was observed with mutant alleles of other remodeling complexes. We also observe genetic interactions between the HmgD/Z deficiency and some, but not all, known Brahma targets. These include the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Antennapedia, as well as the gene encoding the cell-signaling protein Rhomboid. In contrast to more general structural roles previously suggested for these proteins, we infer that a major function of the abundant HMGB proteins in Drosophila is to participate in Brahma-dependent chromatin remodeling at a specific subset of Brahma-dependent promoters. PMID:16299391

  19. Drosophila KASH-domain protein Klarsicht regulates microtubule stability and integrin receptor localization during collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Myat, M M; Rashmi, R N; Manna, D; Xu, N; Patel, U; Galiano, M; Zielinski, K; Lam, A; Welte, M A

    2015-11-01

    During collective migration of the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland, cells rearrange to form a tube of a distinct shape and size. Here, we report a novel role for the Drosophila Klarsicht-Anc-Syne Homology (KASH) domain protein Klarsicht (Klar) in the regulation of microtubule (MT) stability and integrin receptor localization during salivary gland migration. In wild-type salivary glands, MTs became progressively stabilized as gland migration progressed. In embryos specifically lacking the KASH domain containing isoforms of Klar, salivary gland cells failed to rearrange and migrate, and these defects were accompanied by decreased MT stability and altered integrin receptor localization. In muscles and photoreceptors, KASH isoforms of Klar work together with Klaroid (Koi), a SUN domain protein, to position nuclei; however, loss of Koi had no effect on salivary gland migration, suggesting that Klar controls gland migration through novel interactors. The disrupted cell rearrangement and integrin localization observed in klar mutants could be mimicked by overexpressing Spastin (Spas), a MT severing protein, in otherwise wild-type salivary glands. In turn, promoting MT stability by reducing spas gene dosage in klar mutant embryos rescued the integrin localization, cell rearrangement and gland migration defects. Klar genetically interacts with the Rho1 small GTPase in salivary gland migration and is required for the subcellular localization of Rho1. We also show that Klar binds tubulin directly in vitro. Our studies provide the first evidence that a KASH-domain protein regulates the MT cytoskeleton and integrin localization during collective cell migration. PMID:26247519

  20. The Pentameric Nucleoplasmin Fold Is Present in Drosophila FKBP39 and a Large Number of Chromatin-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Edlich-Muth, Christian; Artero, Jean-Baptiste; Callow, Phil; Przewloka, Marcin R.; Watson, Aleksandra A.; Zhang, Wei; Glover, David M.; Debski, Janusz; Dadlez, Michal; Round, Adam R.; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Laue, Ernest D.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoplasmin is a histone chaperone that consists of a pentameric N-terminal domain and an unstructured C-terminal tail. The pentameric core domain, a doughnut-like structure with a central pore, is only found in the nucleoplasmin family. Here, we report the first structure of a nucleoplasmin-like domain (NPL) from the unrelated Drosophila protein, FKBP39, and we present evidence that this protein associates with chromatin. Furthermore, we show that two other chromatin proteins, Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylase type 2 (HD2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fpr4, share the NPL fold and form pentamers, or a dimer of pentamers in the case of HD2. Thus, we propose a new family of proteins that share the pentameric nucleoplasmin-like NPL domain and are found in protists, fungi, plants and animals. PMID:25813344

  1. The Drosophila SUN protein Spag4 cooperates with the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin to maintain association of the basal body and spermatid nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kracklauer, Martin P.; Wiora, Heather M.; Deery, William J.; Chen, Xin; Bolival, Benjamin; Romanowicz, Dwight; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Fuller, Margaret T.; Fischer, Janice A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the proximity of centrosomes to nuclei is important in several cellular contexts, and LINC complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are crucial in this process. Here, we characterize the presumed Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian SUN protein, sperm-associated antigen 4 (Spag4, previously named Giacomo), and demonstrate that Spag4 is required for centriole and nuclear attachment during spermatogenesis. Production of spag4 mRNA is limited to the testis, and Spag4 protein shows a dynamic pattern of association with the germline nuclei, including a concentration of protein at the site of attachment of the single spermatid centriole. In the absence of Spag4, nuclei and centrioles or basal bodies (BBs) dissociate from each other after meiosis. This role of Spag4 in centriolar attachment does not involve either of the two KASH proteins of the Drosophila genome (Klarsicht and MSP-300), but does require the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin. Yuri shows an identical pattern of localization at the nuclear surface to Spag4 during spermatogenesis, and epistasis studies show that the activities of Yuri and dynein-dynactin are downstream of spag4 in this centriole attachment pathway. The later defects in spermatogenesis seen for yuri and spag4 mutants are similar, suggesting they could be secondary to initial disruption of events at the nuclear surface. PMID:20647369

  2. The Drosophila SUN protein Spag4 cooperates with the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin to maintain association of the basal body and spermatid nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kracklauer, Martin P; Wiora, Heather M; Deery, William J; Chen, Xin; Bolival, Benjamin; Romanowicz, Dwight; Simonette, Rebecca A; Fuller, Margaret T; Fischer, Janice A; Beckingham, Kathleen M

    2010-08-15

    Maintaining the proximity of centrosomes to nuclei is important in several cellular contexts, and LINC complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are crucial in this process. Here, we characterize the presumed Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian SUN protein, sperm-associated antigen 4 (Spag4, previously named Giacomo), and demonstrate that Spag4 is required for centriole and nuclear attachment during spermatogenesis. Production of spag4 mRNA is limited to the testis, and Spag4 protein shows a dynamic pattern of association with the germline nuclei, including a concentration of protein at the site of attachment of the single spermatid centriole. In the absence of Spag4, nuclei and centrioles or basal bodies (BBs) dissociate from each other after meiosis. This role of Spag4 in centriolar attachment does not involve either of the two KASH proteins of the Drosophila genome (Klarsicht and MSP-300), but does require the coiled-coil protein Yuri Gagarin. Yuri shows an identical pattern of localization at the nuclear surface to Spag4 during spermatogenesis, and epistasis studies show that the activities of Yuri and dynein-dynactin are downstream of spag4 in this centriole attachment pathway. The later defects in spermatogenesis seen for yuri and spag4 mutants are similar, suggesting they could be secondary to initial disruption of events at the nuclear surface. PMID:20647369

  3. EAST Organizes Drosophila Insulator Proteins in the Interchromosomal Nuclear Compartment and Modulates CP190 Binding to Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Golovnin, Anton; Melnikova, Larisa; Shapovalov, Igor; Kostyuchenko, Margarita; Georgiev, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Recent data suggest that insulators organize chromatin architecture in the nucleus. The best studied Drosophila insulator proteins, dCTCF (a homolog of the vertebrate insulator protein CTCF) and Su(Hw), are DNA-binding zinc finger proteins. Different isoforms of the BTB-containing protein Mod(mdg4) interact with Su(Hw) and dCTCF. The CP190 protein is a cofactor for the dCTCF and Su(Hw) insulators. CP190 is required for the functional activity of insulator proteins and is involved in the aggregation of the insulator proteins into specific structures named nuclear speckles. Here, we have shown that the nuclear distribution of CP190 is dependent on the level of EAST protein, an essential component of the interchromatin compartment. EAST interacts with CP190 and Mod(mdg4)-67.2 proteins in vitro and in vivo. Over-expression of EAST in S2 cells leads to an extrusion of the CP190 from the insulator bodies containing Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4)-67.2, and dCTCF. In consistent with the role of the insulator bodies in assembly of protein complexes, EAST over-expression led to a striking decrease of the CP190 binding with the dCTCF and Su(Hw) dependent insulators and promoters. These results suggest that EAST is involved in the regulation of CP190 nuclear localization. PMID:26489095

  4. Drosophila ribosomal protein mutants control tissue growth non-autonomously via effects on the prothoracic gland and ecdysone.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jane I; Mitchell, Naomi C; Kalcina, Marina; Tchoubrieva, Elly; Stewart, Mary J; Marygold, Steven J; Walker, Cherryl D; Thomas, George; Leevers, Sally J; Pearson, Richard B; Quinn, Leonie M; Hannan, Ross D

    2011-12-01

    The ribosome is critical for all aspects of cell growth due to its essential role in protein synthesis. Paradoxically, many Ribosomal proteins (Rps) act as tumour suppressors in Drosophila and vertebrates. To examine how reductions in Rps could lead to tissue overgrowth, we took advantage of the observation that an RpS6 mutant dominantly suppresses the small rough eye phenotype in a cyclin E hypomorphic mutant (cycE(JP)). We demonstrated that the suppression of cycE(JP) by the RpS6 mutant is not a consequence of restoring CycE protein levels or activity in the eye imaginal tissue. Rather, the use of UAS-RpS6 RNAi transgenics revealed that the suppression of cycE(JP) is exerted via a mechanism extrinsic to the eye, whereby reduced Rp levels in the prothoracic gland decreases the activity of ecdysone, the steroid hormone, delaying developmental timing and hence allowing time for tissue and organ overgrowth. These data provide for the first time a rationale to explain the counter-intuitive organ overgrowth phenotypes observed for certain members of the Minute class of Drosophila Rp mutants. They also demonstrate how Rp mutants can affect growth and development cell non-autonomously. PMID:22194697

  5. Mutational Analysis of Rab3 Function for Controlling Active Zone Protein Composition at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Roche, John P.; Alsharif, Peter; Graf, Ethan R.

    2015-01-01

    At synapses, the release of neurotransmitter is regulated by molecular machinery that aggregates at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones. The complement of active zone proteins at each site is a determinant of release efficacy and can be remodeled to alter synapse function. The small GTPase Rab3 was previously identified as playing a novel role that controls the distribution of active zone proteins to individual release sites at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Rab3 has been extensively studied for its role in the synaptic vesicle cycle; however, the mechanism by which Rab3 controls active zone development remains unknown. To explore this mechanism, we conducted a mutational analysis to determine the molecular and structural requirements of Rab3 function at Drosophila synapses. We find that GTP-binding is required for Rab3 to traffick to synapses and distribute active zone components across release sites. Conversely, the hydrolytic activity of Rab3 is unnecessary for this function. Through a structure-function analysis we identify specific residues within the effector-binding switch regions that are required for Rab3 function and determine that membrane attachment is essential. Our findings suggest that Rab3 controls the distribution of active zone components via a vesicle docking mechanism that is consistent with standard Rab protein function. PMID:26317909

  6. Impaired protein translation in Drosophila models for Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy caused by mutant tRNA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Niehues, Sven; Bussmann, Julia; Steffes, Georg; Erdmann, Ines; Köhrer, Caroline; Sun, Litao; Wagner, Marina; Schäfer, Kerstin; Wang, Guangxia; Koerdt, Sophia N.; Stum, Morgane; RajBhandary, Uttam L.; Thomas, Ulrich; Aberle, Hermann; Burgess, Robert W.; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Dieterich, Daniela; Storkebaum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Dominant mutations in five tRNA synthetases cause Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) neuropathy, suggesting that altered aminoacylation function underlies the disease. However, previous studies showed that loss of aminoacylation activity is not required to cause CMT. Here we present a Drosophila model for CMT with mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS). Expression of three CMT-mutant GARS proteins induces defects in motor performance and motor and sensory neuron morphology, and shortens lifespan. Mutant GARS proteins display normal subcellular localization but markedly reduce global protein synthesis in motor and sensory neurons, or when ubiquitously expressed in adults, as revealed by FUNCAT and BONCAT. Translational slowdown is not attributable to altered tRNAGly aminoacylation, and cannot be rescued by Drosophila Gars overexpression, indicating a gain-of-toxic-function mechanism. Expression of CMT-mutant tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase also impairs translation, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism. Finally, genetic reduction of translation is sufficient to induce CMT-like phenotypes, indicating a causal contribution of translational slowdown to CMT. PMID:26138142

  7. The Drosophila Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 6 Family Member Has Two Isoforms and Is Potentially Involved in Embryonic Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Rodney; Oosthuysen, Brent; Cajee, Umar-Faruq; Mokgohloa, Lehlogonolo; Nweke, Ekene; Antunes, Ricardo Jorge; Coetzer, Theresa H. T.; Ntwasa, Monde

    2015-01-01

    The human retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) is implicated in esophageal, lung, hepatocellular and colon cancers. Furthermore, RBBP6 was identified as a strong marker for colon cancer prognosis and as a predisposing factor in familial myeloproliferative neoplasms. Functionally, the mammalian protein interacts with p53 and enhances the activity of Mdm2, the prototypical negative regulator of p53. However, since RBBP6 (known as PACT in mice) exists in multiple isoforms and pact−/− mice exhibit a more severe phenotype than mdm2−/− mutants, it must possess some Mdm2-independent functions. The function of the invertebrate homologue is poorly understood. This is complicated by the absence of the Mdm2 gene in both Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. We have experimentally identified the promoter region of Snama, the Drosophila homologue, analyzed potential transcription factor binding sites and confirmed the existence of an additional isoform. Using band shift and co-immunoprecipitation assays combined with mass spectrometry, we found evidence that this gene may be regulated by, amongst others, DREF, which regulates hundreds of genes related to cell proliferation. The potential transcription factors for Snama fall into distinct functional groups, including anteroposterior embryonic patterning and nucleic acid metabolism. Significantly, previous work in mice shows that pact−/− induces an anteroposterior phenotype in embryos when rescued by simultaneous deletion of p53. Taken together, these observations indicate the significance of RBBP6 proteins in carcinogenesis and in developmental defects. PMID:25955646

  8. The Drosophila Pericentrin-like-protein (PLP) cooperates with Cnn to maintain the integrity of the outer PCM

    PubMed Central

    Richens, Jennifer H.; Barros, Teresa P.; Lucas, Eliana P.; Peel, Nina; Pinto, David Miguel Susano; Wainman, Alan; Raff, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrosomes comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by a matrix of pericentriolar material (PCM). In vertebrate cells, Pericentrin plays an important part in mitotic PCM assembly, but the Drosophila Pericentrin-like protein (PLP) appears to have a more minor role in mitotic fly cells. Here we investigate the function of PLP during the rapid mitotic cycles of the early Drosophila embryo. Unexpectedly, we find that PLP is specifically enriched in the outer-most regions of the PCM, where it largely co-localizes with the PCM scaffold protein Cnn. In the absence of PLP the outer PCM appears to be structurally weakened, and it rapidly disperses along the centrosomal microtubules (MTs). As a result, centrosomal MTs are subtly disorganized in embryos lacking PLP, although mitosis is largely unperturbed and these embryos develop and hatch at near-normal rates. Y2H analysis reveals that PLP can potentially form multiple interactions with itself and with the PCM recruiting proteins Asl, Spd-2 and Cnn. A deletion analysis suggests that PLP participates in a complex network of interactions that ultimately help to strengthen the PCM. PMID:26157019

  9. The cricket paralysis virus suppressor inhibits microRNA silencing mediated by the Drosophila Argonaute-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Besnard-Guérin, Corinne; Jacquier, Caroline; Pidoux, Josette; Deddouche, Safia; Antoniewski, Christophe; Antoniewsk, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs are potent regulators of gene expression. They also act in defense pathways against invading nucleic acids such as transposable elements or viruses. To counteract these defenses, viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). Plant viruses encoded VSRs interfere with siRNAs or miRNAs by targeting common mediators of these two pathways. In contrast, VSRs identified in insect viruses to date only interfere with the siRNA pathway whose effector Argonaute protein is Argonaute-2 (Ago-2). Although a majority of Drosophila miRNAs exerts their silencing activity through their loading into the Argonaute-1 protein, recent studies highlighted that a fraction of miRNAs can be loaded into Ago-2, thus acting as siRNAs. In light of these recent findings, we re-examined the role of insect VSRs on Ago-2-mediated miRNA silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Using specific reporter systems in cultured Schneider-2 cells and transgenic flies, we showed here that the Cricket Paralysis virus VSR CrPV1-A but not the Flock House virus B2 VSR abolishes silencing by miRNAs loaded into the Ago-2 protein. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that insect VSR have the potential to directly interfere with the miRNA silencing pathway. PMID:25793377

  10. The Drosophila Pericentrin-like-protein (PLP) cooperates with Cnn to maintain the integrity of the outer PCM.

    PubMed

    Richens, Jennifer H; Barros, Teresa P; Lucas, Eliana P; Peel, Nina; Pinto, David Miguel Susano; Wainman, Alan; Raff, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by a matrix of pericentriolar material (PCM). In vertebrate cells, Pericentrin plays an important part in mitotic PCM assembly, but the Drosophila Pericentrin-like protein (PLP) appears to have a more minor role in mitotic fly cells. Here we investigate the function of PLP during the rapid mitotic cycles of the early Drosophila embryo. Unexpectedly, we find that PLP is specifically enriched in the outer-most regions of the PCM, where it largely co-localizes with the PCM scaffold protein Cnn. In the absence of PLP the outer PCM appears to be structurally weakened, and it rapidly disperses along the centrosomal microtubules (MTs). As a result, centrosomal MTs are subtly disorganized in embryos lacking PLP, although mitosis is largely unperturbed and these embryos develop and hatch at near-normal rates. Y2H analysis reveals that PLP can potentially form multiple interactions with itself and with the PCM recruiting proteins Asl, Spd-2 and Cnn. A deletion analysis suggests that PLP participates in a complex network of interactions that ultimately help to strengthen the PCM. PMID:26157019

  11. Low Levels of p53 Protein and Chromatin Silencing of p53 Target Genes Repress Apoptosis in Drosophila Endocycling Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingqing; Mehrotra, Sonam; Ng, Wei Lun; Calvi, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is an important response to genotoxic stress that prevents oncogenesis. It is known that tissues can differ in their apoptotic response, but molecular mechanisms are little understood. Here, we show that Drosophila polyploid endocycling cells (G/S cycle) repress the apoptotic response to DNA damage through at least two mechanisms. First, the expression of all the Drosophila p53 protein isoforms is strongly repressed at a post-transcriptional step. Second, p53-regulated pro-apoptotic genes are epigenetically silenced in endocycling cells, preventing activation of a paused RNA Pol II by p53-dependent or p53-independent pathways. Over-expression of the p53A isoform did not activate this paused RNA Pol II complex in endocycling cells, but over-expression of the p53B isoform with a longer transactivation domain did, suggesting that dampened p53B protein levels are crucial for apoptotic repression. We also find that the p53A protein isoform is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in endocycling cells. In mitotic cycling cells, p53A was the only isoform expressed to detectable levels, and its mRNA and protein levels increased after irradiation, but there was no evidence for an increase in protein stability. However, our data suggest that p53A protein stability is regulated in unirradiated cells, which likely ensures that apoptosis does not occur in the absence of stress. Without irradiation, both p53A protein and a paused RNA pol II were pre-bound to the promoters of pro-apoptotic genes, preparing mitotic cycling cells for a rapid apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. Together, our results define molecular mechanisms by which different cells in development modulate their apoptotic response, with broader significance for the survival of normal and cancer polyploid cells in mammals. PMID:25211335

  12. The Kl-3 Loop of the Y Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster Binds a Tektin-like Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, C.; Bonaccorsi, S.; Gatti, M.

    1993-01-01

    Primary spermatocyte nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit three giant lampbrush-like loops formed by the kl-5, kl-3 and ks-1 Y-chromosome fertility factors. These structures contain and abundantly transcribe highly repetitive, simple sequence DNAs and accumulate large amounts of non-Y-encoded proteins. By immunizing mice with the 53-kD fraction (enriched in β(2)-tubulin) excised from a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel loaded with Drosophila testis proteins we raised a polyclonal antibody, designated as T53-1, which decorates the kl-3 loop and the sperm flagellum. Two dimensional immunoblot analysis showed that the T53-1 antibody reacts with a single protein of about 53 kD, different from the tubulins and present both in X/Y and X/O males. Moreover, the antigen recognized by the T53-1 antibody proved to be testis-specific because it was detected in testes and seminal vesicles but not in other male tissues or in females. The characteristics of the protein recognized by the T53-1 antibody suggested that it might be a member of a class of axonemal proteins, the tektins, known to form Sarkosyl-urea insoluble filaments in the wall of flagellar microtubules. Purification of the Sarkosyl-urea insoluble fraction of D. melanogaster sperm revealed that it contains four polypeptides having molecular masses ranging from 51 to 57 kD. One of these polypeptides reacts strongly with the T53-1 antibody but none of them reacts with antitubulin antibodies. These results indicate that the kl-3 loop binds a non-Y encoded, testis-specific, tektin-like protein which is a constituent of the sperm flagellum. This finding supports the hypothesis that the Y loops fulfill a protein-binding function required for the proper assembly of the axoneme components. PMID:8454204

  13. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) chromodomain show developmental alterations: possible role of Pc chromodomain proteins in chromatin-mediated gene regulation in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R; Charrier, B; Scollan, C; Meyer, P

    1999-01-01

    The chromodomain of the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) protein has been introduced into tobacco nuclei to determine its location in the nucleus and its effect on plant development. Pc is a repressor of homeotic Drosophila genes that shares a well-conserved, although not identical, chromodomain with a structural heterochromatin component, Heterochromatin Protein 1. The chromodomains might therefore play a common role in chromatin repression. An analysis of transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain, which was linked to the green fluorescent protein, suggested that the Pc chromodomain has distinct target regions in the plant genome. Transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain had phenotypic abnormalities in their leaves and flowers, indicating a disruption in development. In axillary shoot buds of plants displaying altered leaf phenotypes, enhanced expression of a homeodomain gene, which is downregulated in wild-type leaves, was found. In Drosophila, Pc has been shown to possess distinct chromosome binding activity and to be involved in the regulation of development-specific genes. Our results support the assumptions that the heterologous chromodomain affects related functions in Drosophila and in plants, and that chromatin modification mechanisms are involved in the regulation of certain plant genes, in a manner similar to chromatin-mediated gene regulation in Drosophila. PMID:10368176

  14. Tafazzins from Drosophila and mammalian cells assemble in large protein complexes with a short half-life.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Malhotra, Ashim; Claypool, Steven M; Ren, Mindong; Schlame, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Tafazzin is a transacylase that affects cardiolipin fatty acid composition and mitochondrial function. Mutations in human tafazzin cause Barth syndrome yet the enzyme has mostly been characterized in yeast. To study tafazzin in higher organisms, we isolated mitochondria from Drosophila and mammalian cell cultures. Our data indicate that tafazzin binds to multiple protein complexes in these organisms, and that the interactions of tafazzin lack strong specificity. Very large tafazzin complexes could only be detected in the presence of cardiolipin, but smaller complexes remained intact even upon treatment with phospholipase A2. In mammalian cells, tafazzin had a half-life of only 3-6h, which was much shorter than the half-life of other mitochondrial proteins. The data suggest that tafazzin is a transient resident of multiple protein complexes. PMID:25598000

  15. The 4.1 Protein Coracle Mediates Subunit-Selective Anchoring of Drosophila Glutamate Receptors to the Postsynaptic Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kaiyun; Merino, Carlos; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Featherstone, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junctions contain two spatially, biophysically, and pharmacologically distinct subtypes of postsynaptic glutamate receptor (GluR). These receptor subtypes appear to be molecularly identical except that A receptors contain the subunit GluRIIA (but not GluRIIB), and B receptors contain the subunit GluRIIB (but not GluRIIA). A- and B-type receptors are coexpressed in the same cells, in which they form homotypic clusters. During development, A- and B-type receptors can be differentially regulated. The mechanisms that allow differential segregation and regulation of A- and B-type receptors are unknown. Presumably, A-and B-type receptors are differentially anchored to the membrane cytoskeleton, but essentially nothing is known about how Drosophila glutamate receptors are localized or anchored. We identified coracle, a homolog of mammalian brain 4.1 proteins, in yeast two-hybrid and genetic screens for proteins that interact with and localize Drosophila glutamate receptors. Coracle interacts with the C terminus of GluRIIA but not GluRIIB. To test whether coracle is required for glutamate receptor localization, we immunocytochemically and electrophysiologically examined receptors in coracle mutants. In coracle mutants, synaptic A-type receptors are lost, but there is no detectable change in B-type receptor function or localization. Pharmacological disruption of postsynaptic actin phenocopies the coracle mutants, suggesting that A-type receptors are anchored to the actin cytoskeleton via coracle, whereas B-type receptors are anchored at the synapse by another (yet unknown) mechanism. PMID:16014728

  16. The Drosophila P-element KP repressor protein dimerizes and interacts with multiple sites on P-element DNA.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Mul, Y M; Rio, D C

    1996-10-01

    Drosophila P elements are mobile DNA elements that encode an 87-kDa transposase enzyme and transpositional repressor proteins. One of these repressor proteins is the 207-amino-acid KP protein which is encoded by a naturally occurring P element with an internal deletion. To study the molecular mechanisms by which KP represses transposition, the protein was expressed, purified, and characterized. We show that the KP protein binds to multiple sites on the ends of P-element DNA, unlike the full-length transposase protein. These sites include the high-affinity transposase binding site, an 11-bp transpositional enhancer, and, at the highest concentrations tested, the terminal 31-hp inverted repeats. The DNA binding domain was localized to the N-terminal 98 amino acids and contains a CCHC sequence, a potential metal binding motif. We also demonstrate that the KP repressor protein can dimerize and contains two protein-protein interaction regions and that this dimerization is essential for high-affinity DNA binding. PMID:8816474

  17. The Drosophila P-element KP repressor protein dimerizes and interacts with multiple sites on P-element DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C C; Mul, Y M; Rio, D C

    1996-01-01

    Drosophila P elements are mobile DNA elements that encode an 87-kDa transposase enzyme and transpositional repressor proteins. One of these repressor proteins is the 207-amino-acid KP protein which is encoded by a naturally occurring P element with an internal deletion. To study the molecular mechanisms by which KP represses transposition, the protein was expressed, purified, and characterized. We show that the KP protein binds to multiple sites on the ends of P-element DNA, unlike the full-length transposase protein. These sites include the high-affinity transposase binding site, an 11-bp transpositional enhancer, and, at the highest concentrations tested, the terminal 31-hp inverted repeats. The DNA binding domain was localized to the N-terminal 98 amino acids and contains a CCHC sequence, a potential metal binding motif. We also demonstrate that the KP repressor protein can dimerize and contains two protein-protein interaction regions and that this dimerization is essential for high-affinity DNA binding. PMID:8816474

  18. The Drosophila suppressor of sable gene encodes a polypeptide with regions similar to those of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, R A; Gibson, W; Graves, J P; Sterling, J F; Eisenberg, M T

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster suppressor of sable [su(s)] gene has been determined. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences indicates that an approximately 7,860-nucleotide primary transcript is processed into an approximately 5-kb message, expressed during all stages of the life cycle, that contains an open reading frame capable of encoding a 1,322-amino-acid protein of approximately 150 kDa. The putative protein contains an RNA recognition motif-like region and a highly charged arginine-, lysine-, serine-, aspartic or glutamic acid-rich region that is similar to a region contained in several RNA-processing proteins. In vitro translation of in vitro-transcribed RNA from a complete cDNA yields a product whose size agrees with the size predicted by the open reading frame. Antisera against su(s) fusion proteins recognize the in vitro-translated protein and detect a protein of identical size in the nuclear fractions from tissue culture cells and embryos. The protein is also present in smaller amounts in cytoplasmic fractions of embryos. That the su(s) protein has regions similar in structure to RNA-processing protein is consistent with its known role in affecting the transcript levels of those alleles that it suppresses. Images PMID:1703632

  19. Multiple functions of the SNARE protein Snap29 in autophagy, endocytic, and exocytic trafficking during epithelial formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Elena; Ginefra, Pierpaolo; Mastrodonato, Valeria; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Rusten, Tor Erik; Bilder, David; Stenmark, Harald; Mironov, Alexandre A; Vaccari, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    How autophagic degradation is linked to endosomal trafficking routes is little known. Here we screened a collection of uncharacterized Drosophila mutants affecting membrane transport to identify new genes that also have a role in autophagy. We isolated a loss of function mutant in Snap29 (Synaptosomal-associated protein 29 kDa), the gene encoding the Drosophila homolog of the human protein SNAP29 and have characterized its function in vivo. Snap29 contains 2 soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) domains and a asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF motif) at its N terminus and rescue experiments indicate that both SNARE domains are required for function, whereas the NPF motif is in part dispensable. We find that Snap29 interacts with SNARE proteins, localizes to multiple trafficking organelles, and is required for protein trafficking and for proper Golgi apparatus morphology. Developing tissue lacking Snap29 displays distinctive epithelial architecture defects and accumulates large amounts of autophagosomes, highlighting a major role of Snap29 in autophagy and secretion. Mutants for autophagy genes do not display epithelial architecture or secretion defects, suggesting that the these alterations of the Snap29 mutant are unlikely to be caused by the impairment of autophagy. In contrast, we find evidence of elevated levels of hop-Stat92E (hopscotch-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein at 92E) ligand, receptor, and associated signaling, which might underlie the epithelial defects. In summary, our findings support a role of Snap29 at key steps of membrane trafficking, and predict that signaling defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma (CEDNIK), a human congenital syndrome due to loss of Snap29. PMID:25551675

  20. Drosophila casein kinase 2 (CK2) promotes warts protein to suppress Yorkie protein activity for growth control.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianxin; Huang, Hongling; Li, Jinhui; Yin, Meng-Xin; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Zeng, Rong; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-28

    Drosophila Hippo signaling regulates Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki in order to control tissue growth. CK2 is widely expressed and involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study we report that Drosophila CK2 promotes Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki activity, which is independent of Hpo-induced Wts promotion. In vivo, CK2 overexpression suppresses hpo mutant-induced expanded (Ex) up-regulation and overgrowth phenotype, whereas it cannot affect wts mutant. Consistent with this, knockdown of CK2 up-regulates Hpo pathway target expression. We also found that Drosophila CK2 is essential for tissue growth as a cell death inhibitor as knockdown of CK2 in the developing disc induces severe growth defects as well as caspase3 signals. Taken together, our results uncover a dual role of CK2; although its major role is promoting cell survive, it may potentially be a growth inhibitor as well. PMID:25320084

  1. Drosophila Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) Promotes Warts Protein to Suppress Yorkie Protein Activity for Growth Control*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lianxin; Huang, Hongling; Li, Jinhui; Yin, Meng-Xin; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Zeng, Rong; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Hippo signaling regulates Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki in order to control tissue growth. CK2 is widely expressed and involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study we report that Drosophila CK2 promotes Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki activity, which is independent of Hpo-induced Wts promotion. In vivo, CK2 overexpression suppresses hpo mutant-induced expanded (Ex) up-regulation and overgrowth phenotype, whereas it cannot affect wts mutant. Consistent with this, knockdown of CK2 up-regulates Hpo pathway target expression. We also found that Drosophila CK2 is essential for tissue growth as a cell death inhibitor as knockdown of CK2 in the developing disc induces severe growth defects as well as caspase3 signals. Taken together, our results uncover a dual role of CK2; although its major role is promoting cell survive, it may potentially be a growth inhibitor as well. PMID:25320084

  2. Identification of Drosophila of the invertebrate G-protein couples FMRFamide receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We here describe the cloning and characterization of the functionally active Drosophila melanogaster (Drm) FMRFamide receptor, which we designated as DrmFMRFa-R. The full-length ORF of a D. melanogaster orphan receptor CG 2114 (Berkeley Drsophila Genome Project), was cloned from genomic DNA. This ...

  3. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  4. Drosophila Condensin II subunit Chromosome-associated protein D3 regulates cell fate determination through non-cell-autonomous signaling.

    PubMed

    Klebanow, Lindsey R; Peshel, Emanuela C; Schuster, Andrew T; De, Kuntal; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Lemieux, Madeleine E; Lenoir, Jessica J; Moore, Adrian W; McDonald, Jocelyn A; Longworth, Michelle S

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of the Drosophila melanogaster adult wing is heavily influenced by the expression of proteins that dictate cell fate decisions between intervein and vein during development. dSRF (Blistered) expression in specific regions of the larval wing disc promotes intervein cell fate, whereas EGFR activity promotes vein cell fate. Here, we report that the chromatin-organizing protein CAP-D3 acts to dampen dSRF levels at the anterior/posterior boundary in the larval wing disc, promoting differentiation of cells into the anterior crossvein. CAP-D3 represses KNOT expression in cells immediately adjacent to the anterior/posterior boundary, thus blocking KNOT-mediated repression of EGFR activity and preventing cell death. Maintenance of EGFR activity in these cells depresses dSRF levels in the neighboring anterior crossvein progenitor cells, allowing them to differentiate into vein cells. These findings uncover a novel transcriptional regulatory network influencing Drosophila wing vein development, and are the first to identify a Condensin II subunit as an important regulator of EGFR activity and cell fate determination in vivo. PMID:27317808

  5. Drosophila Condensin II subunit Chromosome-associated protein D3 regulates cell fate determination through non-cell-autonomous signaling

    PubMed Central

    Klebanow, Lindsey R.; Peshel, Emanuela C.; Schuster, Andrew T.; De, Kuntal; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Lenoir, Jessica J.; Moore, Adrian W.; McDonald, Jocelyn A.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of the Drosophila melanogaster adult wing is heavily influenced by the expression of proteins that dictate cell fate decisions between intervein and vein during development. dSRF (Blistered) expression in specific regions of the larval wing disc promotes intervein cell fate, whereas EGFR activity promotes vein cell fate. Here, we report that the chromatin-organizing protein CAP-D3 acts to dampen dSRF levels at the anterior/posterior boundary in the larval wing disc, promoting differentiation of cells into the anterior crossvein. CAP-D3 represses KNOT expression in cells immediately adjacent to the anterior/posterior boundary, thus blocking KNOT-mediated repression of EGFR activity and preventing cell death. Maintenance of EGFR activity in these cells depresses dSRF levels in the neighboring anterior crossvein progenitor cells, allowing them to differentiate into vein cells. These findings uncover a novel transcriptional regulatory network influencing Drosophila wing vein development, and are the first to identify a Condensin II subunit as an important regulator of EGFR activity and cell fate determination in vivo. PMID:27317808

  6. The apoptotic engulfment protein Ced-6 participates in clathrin-mediated yolk uptake in Drosophila egg chambers.

    PubMed

    Jha, Anupma; Watkins, Simon C; Traub, Linton M

    2012-05-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis are both selective surface internalization processes but have little known mechanistic similarity or interdependence. Here we show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain protein Ced-6, a well-established phagocytosis component that operates as a transducer of so-called "eat-me" signals during engulfment of apoptotic cells and microorganisms, is expressed in the female Drosophila germline and that Ced-6 expression correlates with ovarian follicle development. Ced-6 exhibits all the known biochemical properties of a clathrin-associated sorting protein, yet ced-6-null flies are semifertile despite massive accumulation of soluble yolk precursors in the hemolymph. This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical dileucine signal binds to the endocytic AP-2 clathrin adaptor directly. Nonetheless, the Ced-6 PTB domain specifically recognizes the noncanonical Yolkless FXNPXA sorting sequence and in HeLa cells promotes the rapid, clathrin-dependent uptake of a Yolkless chimera lacking the distal dileucine signal. Ced-6 thus operates in vivo as a clathrin adaptor. Because the human Ced-6 orthologue GULP similarly binds to clathrin machinery, localizes to cell surface clathrin-coated structures, and is enriched in placental clathrin-coated vesicles, new possibilities for Ced-6/Gulp operation during phagocytosis must be considered. PMID:22398720

  7. Cytoplasmic localization of SBR (Dm NXF1) protein and its zonal distribution in the ganglia of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Yakimova, Anna O; Pugacheva, Olga M; Golubkova, Elena V; Mamon, Ludmila A

    2016-09-01

    The Drosophila gene Dm nxf1 (nuclear export factor 1) previously known as small bristles (sbr) controls nuclear export of various mRNA transcripts. We found that Dm NXF1 is present not only in nucleoplasm or at the nuclear rim but also in the cytoplasm. On the spatiotemporal level, anti-SBR antibodies labeled some neuroblasts and their lineages in the brains of Drosophila larvae. The number of Dm NXF1-rich lineages increased during larval development, but Dm NXF1 expression was not evident in all lineages. In all larval stages, Dm NXF1 concentrated in the midline cells of the ventral nerve cord, which reflects a specific status of those cells. In neurites, Dm NXF1 was present in the form of cytoplasmic granules, which is similar to the behavior of another RNA-binding protein, dFMR. Interestingly, though, the granule expression pattern of Dm NXF1 and dFMR did not always overlap, as some granules stained exclusively for one or the other protein. It suggests the existence of specific mRNA partners for Dm NXF1 in neurites. PMID:27389771

  8. The clot gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a conserved member of the thioredoxin-like protein superfamily.

    PubMed

    Giordano, E; Peluso, I; Rendina, R; Digilio, A; Furia, M

    2003-02-01

    The conversion of pyruvoyl-H(4)-pterin to pyrimidodiazepine (PDA), which is an essential step in the biosynthesis of the red components of Drosophila eye pigments known as drosopterins, requires the products of the genes sepia and clot. While the product of sepia has been shown to correspond to the enzyme PDA-synthase, the role of clot remains unknown, although the clot(1) allele was one of the first eye-color mutants to be isolated in Drosophila melanogaster,and much genetic and biochemical data has become available since. Here we report the cloning of the clot gene, describe its molecular organization and characterize the sequence alterations associated with the alleles cl(1) and cl(2). The coding properties of the gene show that it encodes a protein related to the Glutaredoxin class of the Thioredoxin-like enzyme superfamily, conserved members of which are found in human, mouse and plants. We suggest that the Clot protein is an essential component of a glutathione redox system required for the final step in the biosynthetic pathway for drosopterins. PMID:12589444

  9. Biochemical identification of new proteins involved in splicing repression at the Drosophila P-element exonic splicing silencer

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Lucas; Yasuhara, Jiro C.; Kohlstaedt, Lori A.; Rio, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Splicing of the Drosophila P-element third intron (IVS3) is repressed in somatic tissues due to the function of an exonic splicing silencer (ESS) complex present on the 5′ exon RNA. To comprehensively characterize the mechanisms of this alternative splicing regulation, we used biochemical fractionation and affinity purification to isolate the silencer complex assembled in vitro and identify the constituent proteins by mass spectrometry. Functional assays using splicing reporter minigenes identified the proteins hrp36 and hrp38 and the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein PABPC1 as novel functional components of the splicing silencer. hrp48, PSI, and PABPC1 have high-affinity RNA-binding sites on the P-element IVS3 5′ exon, whereas hrp36 and hrp38 proteins bind with low affinity to the P-element silencer RNA. RNA pull-down and immobilized protein assays showed that hrp48 protein binding to the silencer RNA can recruit hrp36 and hrp38. These studies identified additional components that function at the P-element ESS and indicated that proteins with low-affinity RNA-binding sites can be recruited in a functional manner through interactions with a protein bound to RNA at a high-affinity binding site. These studies have implications for the role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in the control of alternative splicing at cis-acting regulatory sites. PMID:26545814

  10. An Interactive network of long non-coding RNAs facilitates the Drosophila sex determination decision

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Brett B.; Olcese, Ursula; Cabrera, Janel R.; Horabin, Jamila I.

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis in several eukaryotes shows a surprising number of transcripts which do not encode conventional messenger RNAs. Once considered noise, these non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) appear capable of controlling gene expression by various means. We find Drosophila sex determination, specifically the master-switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl), is regulated by long ncRNAs (>200 nt). The lncRNAs influence the dose sensitive establishment promoter of Sxl, SxlPe, which must be activated to specify female sex. They are primarily from two regions, R1 and R2, upstream of SxlPeand show a dynamic developmental profile. Of the four lncRNA strands only one, R2 antisense, has its peak coincident with SxlPe transcription, suggesting it may promote activation. Indeed, its expression is regulated by the X chromosome counting genes, whose dose determines whether SxlPe is transcribed. Transgenic lines which ectopically express each of the lncRNAs show they can act in trans, impacting the process of sex determination but also altering the levels of the other lncRNAs. Generally, expression of R1 is negative whereas R2 is positive to females. This ectopic expression also results in a change in the local chromatin marks, affecting the timing and strength of SxlPe transcription. The chromatin marks are those deposited by the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of chromatin modifying proteins, which we find bind to the lncRNAs. We suggest the increasing numbers of non-coding transcripts being identified are a harbinger of interacting networks similar to the one we describe. PMID:24954180

  11. The endocytic protein alpha-Adaptin is required for numb-mediated asymmetric cell division in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Berdnik, Daniela; Török, Tibor; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2002-08-01

    During asymmetric cell division in Drosophila sensory organ precursor cells, the Numb protein localizes asymmetrically and segregates into one daughter cell, where it influences cell fate by repressing signal transduction via the Notch receptor. We show here that Numb acts by polarizing the distribution of alpha-Adaptin, a protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. alpha-Adaptin binds to Numb and localizes asymmetrically in a Numb-dependent fashion. Mutant forms of alpha-Adaptin that no longer bind to Numb fail to localize asymmetrically and cause numb-like defects in asymmetric cell division. Our results suggest a model in which Numb influences cell fate by downregulating Notch through polarized receptor-mediated endocytosis, since Numb also binds to the intracellular domain of Notch. PMID:12194853

  12. High-resolution two-dimensional gel analysis of proteins in wing imaginal discs: A data base of Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Santaren, J.F.; Garcia-Bellido, A. )

    1990-08-01

    An improved method of high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to study the patterns of protein synthesis in wing imaginal discs of late instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. A small number of discs were radiolabeled with a mixture of {sup 14}C-labeled amino acids or with ({sup 35}S)methionine and the pattern of labeled proteins was analyzed. One thousand and twenty-five polypeptides (787 acidic (IEF) and 238 basic (NEPHGE)) from wing discs of several wild-type strains have so far been separated and cataloged. All these polypeptides have been numbered and presented in a reference map for further studies. When comparing patterns of label we have found small quantitative differences in rate of synthesis between individuals of the same strain, not due to sexual differences, and very few quantitative and qualitative differences between groups of individuals of different strains.

  13. The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

    2015-02-01

    In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

  14. The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle

    PubMed Central

    Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

  15. The Insulator Protein Suppressor of Hairy Wing Is Required for Proper Ring Canal Development During Oogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shih-Jui; Plata, Maria P.; Ernest, Ben; Asgarifar, Saghi; Labrador, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin insulators orchestrate gene transcription during embryo development and cell differentiation by stabilizing interactions between distant genomic sites. Mutations in genes encoding insulator proteins are generally lethal, making in vivo functional analyses of insulator proteins difficult. In Drosophila, however, mutations in the gene encoding the Suppressor of Hairy wing insulator protein [Su(Hw)] are viable and female sterile, providing an opportunity to study insulator function during oocyte development. Whereas previous reports suggest that the function of Su(Hw) in oogenesis is independent of its insulator activity, many aspects of the role of Su(Hw) in Drosophila oogenesis remain unexplored. Here we show that mutations in su(Hw) result in smaller ring canal lumens and smaller outer ring diameters, which likely obstruct molecular and vesicle passage from nurse cells to the oocyte. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that lack of Su(Hw) leads to excess accumulation of Kelch (Kel) and Filament-actin (F-actin) proteins in the ring canal structures of developing egg chambers. Furthermore, we found that misexpression of the Src oncogene at 64B (Src64B) may cause ring canal development defects as microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR revealed there is a three fold decrease in Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant ovaries. Restoration of Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant female germ cells rescued the ring phenotype but did not restore fertility. We conclude that loss of su(Hw) affects expression of many oogenesis related genes and down-regulates Src64B, resulting in ring canal defects potentially contributing to obstruction of molecular flow and an eventual failure of egg chamber organization. PMID:25882370

  16. The insulator protein Suppressor of Hairy wing is required for proper ring canal development during oogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Jui; Plata, Maria P; Ernest, Ben; Asgarifar, Saghi; Labrador, Mariano

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin insulators orchestrate gene transcription during embryo development and cell differentiation by stabilizing interactions between distant genomic sites. Mutations in genes encoding insulator proteins are generally lethal, making in vivo functional analyses of insulator proteins difficult. In Drosophila, however, mutations in the gene encoding the Suppressor of Hairy wing insulator protein [Su(Hw)] are viable and female sterile, providing an opportunity to study insulator function during oocyte development. Whereas previous reports suggest that the function of Su(Hw) in oogenesis is independent of its insulator activity, many aspects of the role of Su(Hw) in Drosophila oogenesis remain unexplored. Here we show that mutations in su(Hw) result in smaller ring canal lumens and smaller outer ring diameters, which likely obstruct molecular and vesicle passage from nurse cells to the oocyte. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that lack of Su(Hw) leads to excess accumulation of Kelch (Kel) and Filament-actin (F-actin) proteins in the ring canal structures of developing egg chambers. Furthermore, we found that misexpression of the Src oncogene at 64B (Src64B) may cause ring canal development defects as microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR revealed there is a three fold decrease in Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant ovaries. Restoration of Src64B expression in su(Hw) mutant female germ cells rescued the ring phenotype but did not restore fertility. We conclude that loss of su(Hw) affects expression of many oogenesis related genes and down-regulates Src64B, resulting in ring canal defects potentially contributing to obstruction of molecular flow and an eventual failure of egg chamber organization. PMID:25882370

  17. RDGBα, a PtdIns-PtdOH transfer protein, regulates G-protein-coupled PtdIns(4,5)P2 signalling during Drosophila phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shweta; Garner, Kathryn; Georgiev, Plamen; Li, Michelle; Gomez-Espinosa, Evelyn; Panda, Aniruddha; Mathre, Swarna; Okkenhaug, Hanneke; Cockcroft, Shamshad; Raghu, Padinjat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many membrane receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC) during signalling, triggering changes in the levels of several plasma membrane lipids including phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. It is widely believed that exchange of lipids between the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required to restore lipid homeostasis during PLC signalling, yet the mechanism remains unresolved. RDGBα (hereafter RDGB) is a multi-domain protein with a PtdIns transfer protein (PITP) domain (RDGB-PITPd). We find that, in vitro, the RDGB-PITPd binds and transfers both PtdOH and PtdIns. In Drosophila photoreceptors, which experience high rates of PLC activity, RDGB function is essential for phototransduction. We show that binding of PtdIns to RDGB-PITPd is essential for normal phototransduction; however, this property is insufficient to explain the in vivo function because another Drosophila PITP (encoded by vib) that also binds PtdIns cannot rescue the phenotypes of RDGB deletion. In RDGB mutants, PtdIns(4,5)P2 resynthesis at the plasma membrane following PLC activation is delayed and PtdOH levels elevate. Thus RDGB couples the turnover of both PtdIns and PtdOH, key lipid intermediates during G-protein-coupled PtdIns(4,5)P2 turnover. PMID:26203165

  18. The Microtubule Regulatory Protein Stathmin Is Required to Maintain the Integrity of Axonal Microtubules in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jason E.; Lytle, Nikki K.; Zuniga, Alfredo; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Axonal transport, a form of long-distance, bi-directional intracellular transport that occurs between the cell body and synaptic terminal, is critical in maintaining the function and viability of neurons. We have identified a requirement for the stathmin (stai) gene in the maintenance of axonal microtubules and regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila. The stai gene encodes a cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics by partitioning tubulin dimers between pools of soluble tubulin and polymerized microtubules, and by directly binding to microtubules and promoting depolymerization. Analysis of stai function in Drosophila, which has a single stai gene, circumvents potential complications with studies performed in vertebrate systems in which mutant phenotypes may be compensated by genetic redundancy of other members of the stai gene family. This has allowed us to identify an essential function for stai in the maintenance of the integrity of axonal microtubules. In addition to the severe disruption in the abundance and architecture of microtubules in the axons of stai mutant Drosophila, we also observe additional neurological phenotypes associated with loss of stai function including a posterior paralysis and tail-flip phenotype in third instar larvae, aberrant accumulation of transported membranous organelles in stai deficient axons, a progressive bang-sensitive response to mechanical stimulation reminiscent of the class of Drosophila mutants used to model human epileptic seizures, and a reduced adult lifespan. Reductions in the levels of Kinesin-1, the primary anterograde motor in axonal transport, enhance these phenotypes. Collectively, our results indicate that stai has an important role in neuronal function, likely through the maintenance of microtubule integrity in the axons of nerves of the peripheral nervous system necessary to support and sustain long-distance axonal transport. PMID:23840848

  19. The Drosophila esc and E(z) Proteins Are Direct Partners in Polycomb Group-Mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clark A.; Ng, Joyce; Peterson, Aidan J.; Morgan, Kelly; Simon, Jeffrey; Jones, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    The extra sex combs (esc) and Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] proteins are members of the Drosophila Polycomb group (Pc-G) of transcriptional repressors. Here we present evidence for direct physical interaction between the esc and E(z) proteins using yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation from embryo extracts demonstrates association of esc and E(z) in vivo. We have delimited the esc-binding domain of E(z) to an N-terminal 33-amino-acid region. Furthermore, we demonstrate that site-directed mutations in the esc protein previously shown to impair esc function in vivo disrupt esc-E(z) interactions in vitro. We also show an in vitro interaction between the heed and EZH1 proteins, which are human homologs of esc and E(z), respectively. These results suggest that the esc-E(z) molecular partnership has been conserved in evolution. Previous studies suggested that esc is primarily involved in the early stages of Pc-G-mediated silencing during embryogenesis. However, E(z) is continuously required in order to maintain chromosome binding by other Pc-G proteins. In light of these earlier observations and the molecular data presented here, we discuss how esc-E(z) protein complexes may contribute to transcriptional silencing by the Pc-G. PMID:9566901

  20. Architectural proteins Pita, Zw5,and ZIPIC contain homodimerization domain and support specific long-range interactions in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zolotarev, Nikolay; Fedotova, Anna; Kyrchanova, Olga; Bonchuk, Artem; Penin, Aleksey A.; Lando, Andrey S.; Eliseeva, Irina A.; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Maksimenko, Oksana; Georgiev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    According to recent models, as yet poorly studied architectural proteins appear to be required for local regulation of enhancer–promoter interactions, as well as for global chromosome organization. Transcription factors ZIPIC, Pita and Zw5 belong to the class of chromatin insulator proteins and preferentially bind to promoters near the TSS and extensively colocalize with cohesin and condensin complexes. ZIPIC, Pita and Zw5 are structurally similar in containing the N-terminal zinc finger-associated domain (ZAD) and different numbers of C2H2-type zinc fingers at the C-terminus. Here we have shown that the ZAD domains of ZIPIC, Pita and Zw5 form homodimers. In Drosophila transgenic lines, these proteins are able to support long-distance interaction between GAL4 activator and the reporter gene promoter. However, no functional interaction between binding sites for different proteins has been revealed, suggesting that such interactions are highly specific. ZIPIC facilitates long-distance stimulation of the reporter gene by GAL4 activator in yeast model system. Many of the genomic binding sites of ZIPIC, Pita and Zw5 are located at the boundaries of topologically associated domains (TADs). Thus, ZAD-containing zinc-finger proteins can be attributed to the class of architectural proteins. PMID:27137890

  1. Inferring the Frequency Spectrum of Derived Variants to Quantify Adaptive Molecular Evolution in Protein-Coding Genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Keightley, Peter D; Campos, José L; Booker, Tom R; Charlesworth, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Many approaches for inferring adaptive molecular evolution analyze the unfolded site frequency spectrum (SFS), a vector of counts of sites with different numbers of copies of derived alleles in a sample of alleles from a population. Accurate inference of the high-copy-number elements of the SFS is difficult, however, because of misassignment of alleles as derived vs. ancestral. This is a known problem with parsimony using outgroup species. Here we show that the problem is particularly serious if there is variation in the substitution rate among sites brought about by variation in selective constraint levels. We present a new method for inferring the SFS using one or two outgroups that attempts to overcome the problem of misassignment. We show that two outgroups are required for accurate estimation of the SFS if there is substantial variation in selective constraints, which is expected to be the case for nonsynonymous sites in protein-coding genes. We apply the method to estimate unfolded SFSs for synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in a population of Drosophila melanogaster from phase 2 of the Drosophila Population Genomics Project. We use the unfolded spectra to estimate the frequency and strength of advantageous and deleterious mutations and estimate that ∼50% of amino acid substitutions are positively selected but that <0.5% of new amino acid mutations are beneficial, with a scaled selection strength of Nes ≈ 12. PMID:27098912

  2. Drosophila, a genetic model system to study cocaine-related behaviors: A review with focus on LIM-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heberlein, Ulrike; Tsai, Linus T.–Y.; Kapfhamer, David; Lasek, Amy W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the last decade, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, highly accessible to genetic, behavioral and molecular analyses, has been introduced as a novel model organism to help decipher the complex genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical underpinnings of behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Here we review these data, focusing specifically on cocaine-related behaviors. Several of cocaine's most characteristic properties have been recapitulated in Drosophila. First, cocaine induces motor behaviors in flies that are remarkably similar to those observed in mammals. Second, repeated cocaine administration induces behavioral sensitization a form of behavioral plasticity believed to underlie certain aspects of addiction. Third, a key role for dopaminergic systems in mediating cocaine's effects has been demonstrated through both pharmacological and genetic methods. Finally, and most importantly, unbiased genetic screens, feasible because of the simplicity and scale with which flies can be manipulated in the laboratory, have identified several novel genes and pathways whose role in cocaine behaviors had not been anticipated. Many of these genes and pathways have been validated in mammalian models of drug addiction. We focus in this review on the role of LIM-only proteins in cocaine-induced behaviors. PMID:18694769

  3. Genetic analysis of the bone morphogenetic protein-related gene, gbb, identifies multiple requirements during Drosophila development.

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, K A; Cook, J M; Torres-Schumann, S; de Castro, K; Borod, E; Phillips, D A

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster gene glass bottom boat (gbb), which encodes a TGF-beta signaling molecule (formerly referred to as 60A) with highest sequence similarity to members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup including vertebrate BMPs 5-8. Genetic analysis of both null and hypomorphic gbb alleles indicates that the gene is required in many developmental processes, including embryonic midgut morphogenesis, patterning of the larval cuticle, fat body morphology, and development and patterning of the imaginal discs. In the embryonic midgut, we show that gbb is required for the formation of the anterior constriction and for maintenance of the homeotic gene Antennapedia in the visceral mesoderm. In addition, we show a requirement for gbb in the anterior and posterior cells of the underlying endoderm and in the formation and extension of the gastric caecae. gbb is required in all the imaginal discs for proper disc growth and for specification of veins in the wing and of macrochaete in the notum. Significantly, some of these tissues have been shown to also require the Drosophila BMP2/4 homolog decapentaplegic (dpp), while others do not. These results indicate that signaling by both gbb and dpp may contribute to the development of some tissues, while in others, gbb may signal independently of dpp. PMID:10353905

  4. Deficient Notch signaling associated with neurogenic pecanex is compensated for by the unfolded protein response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Tomoko; Yamada, Kenta; Sasamura, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Kanai, Maiko; Suzuki, Emiko; Fortini, Mark E; Matsuno, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    The Notch (N) signaling machinery is evolutionarily conserved and regulates a broad spectrum of cell-specification events, through local cell-cell communication. pecanex (pcx) encodes a multi-pass transmembrane protein of unknown function, widely found from Drosophila to humans. The zygotic and maternal loss of pcx in Drosophila causes a neurogenic phenotype (hyperplasia of the embryonic nervous system), suggesting that pcx might be involved in N signaling. Here, we established that Pcx is a component of the N-signaling pathway. Pcx was required upstream of the membrane-tethered and the nuclear forms of activated N, probably in N signal-receiving cells, suggesting that pcx is required prior to or during the activation of N. pcx overexpression revealed that Pcx resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Disruption of pcx function resulted in enlargement of the ER that was not attributable to the reduced N signaling activity. In addition, hyper-induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) by the expression of activated Xbp1 or dominant-negative Heat shock protein cognate 3 suppressed the neurogenic phenotype and ER enlargement caused by the absence of pcx. A similar suppression of these phenotypes was induced by overexpression of O-fucosyltransferase 1, an N-specific chaperone. Taking these results together, we speculate that the reduction in N signaling in embryos lacking pcx function might be attributable to defective ER functions, which are compensated for by upregulation of the UPR and possibly by enhancement of N folding. Our results indicate that the ER plays a previously unrecognized role in N signaling and that this ER function depends on pcx activity. PMID:22190636

  5. Heterochromatin-Associated Proteins HP1a and Piwi Collaborate to Maintain the Association of Achiasmate Homologs in Drosophila Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Giauque, Christopher C; Bickel, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis depends on their ability to remain physically connected throughout prophase I. For homologs that achieve a crossover, sister chromatid cohesion distal to the chiasma keeps them attached until anaphase I. However, in Drosophila melanogaster wild-type oocytes, chromosome 4 never recombines, and the X chromosome fails to cross over in 6-10% of oocytes. Proper segregation of these achiasmate homologs relies on their pericentric heterochromatin-mediated association, but the mechanism(s) underlying this attachment remains poorly understood. Using an inducible RNA interference (RNAi) strategy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to monitor centromere proximal association of the achiasmate FM7a/X homolog pair, we asked whether specific heterochromatin-associated proteins are required for the association and proper segregation of achiasmate homologs in Drosophila oocytes. When we knock down HP1a, H3K9 methytransferases, or the HP1a binding partner Piwi during mid-prophase, we observe significant disruption of pericentric heterochromatin-mediated association of FM7a/X homologs. Furthermore, for both HP1a and Piwi knockdown oocytes, transgenic coexpression of the corresponding wild-type protein is able to rescue RNAi-induced defects, but expression of a mutant protein with a single amino acid change that disrupts the HP1a-Piwi interaction is unable to do so. We show that Piwi is stably bound to numerous sites along the meiotic chromosomes, including centromere proximal regions. In addition, reduction of HP1a or Piwi during meiotic prophase induces a significant increase in FM7a/X segregation errors. We present a speculative model outlining how HP1a and Piwi could collaborate to keep achiasmate chromosomes associated in a homology-dependent manner. PMID:26984058

  6. [Expression of cDNA of the Gene for the Capsid Protein VP2 of German Cockroach Densovirus in the Transgenic Strain of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, E N; Martynova, E U; Roshina, N V; Karakozova, M V; Mukha, D V

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster capable of expressing a cDNA fragment corresponding to open reading frame (ORF) of the gene for the German cockroach densonucleosis virus capsid protein VP2 (ORF VP2) in specific tissues and at a certain stage of development depending on the type of chosen driver strains (GAL-UAS system) were obtained. The ORF VP2 transcription was examined at the imago stage after crossing the obtained transgenic Drosophila with the driver line expressing the inducer protein (GAL4) under control of actin promoter (the ORF VP2 expression is induced in all tissues of the first-generation Drosophila). It was demonstrated that the greater part of transcribed foreign RNA was represented by three spliced variants in which RNA fragments either between nucleotides 137 and 353 or between nucleotides 609 and 1925 were excised; the third spliced variant was represented by RNA lacking both introns. Using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique, the proportion of unspliced form relative to spliced variants of the analyzed RNA was assessed. It was shown that the ratio of unspliced form to the identified spliced variants of the analyzed RNA was approximately 1:6. It is suggested that splicing of viral RNA foreign to Drosophila can be a sort of defense mechanism preventing the large-scale production of the capsid protein, potentially hazardous to the host organism. PMID:27529987

  7. Loss of the mitochondrial protein-only ribonuclease P complex causes aberrant tRNA processing and lethality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aditya; Karasik, Agnes; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Mirkovic, Elena; Koutmos, Markos; Cox, Rachel T

    2016-07-27

    Proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA are translated using mitochondrially encoded tRNAs and rRNAs. As with nuclear encoded tRNAs, mitochondrial tRNAs must be processed to become fully functional. The mitochondrial form of ribonuclease P (mt:RNase P) is responsible for 5'-end maturation and is comprised of three proteins; mitochondrial RNase P protein (MRPP) 1 and 2 together with proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP). However, its mechanism and impact on development is not yet known. Using homology searches, we have identified the three proteins composing Drosophila mt:RNase P: Mulder (PRORP), Scully (MRPP2) and Roswell (MRPP1). Here, we show that each protein is essential and localizes with mitochondria. Furthermore, reducing levels of each causes mitochondrial deficits, which appear to be due at least in part to defective mitochondrial tRNA processing. Overexpressing two members of the complex, Mulder and Roswell, is also lethal, and in the case of Mulder, causes abnormal mitochondrial morphology. These data are the first evidence that defective mt:RNase P causes mitochondrial dysfunction, lethality and aberrant mitochondrial tRNA processing in vivo, underscoring its physiological importance. This in vivo mt:RNase P model will advance our understanding of how loss of mitochondrial tRNA processing causes tissue failure, an important aspect of human mitochondrial disease. PMID:27131785

  8. Bruchpilot, a protein with homology to ELKS/CAST, is required for structural integrity and function of synaptic active zones in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Dhananjay A; Rasse, Tobias M; Asan, Esther; Hofbauer, Alois; Schwenkert, Isabell; Dürrbeck, Heike; Buchner, Sigrid; Dabauvalle, Marie-Christine; Schmidt, Manuela; Qin, Gang; Wichmann, Carolin; Kittel, Robert; Sigrist, Stephan J; Buchner, Erich

    2006-03-16

    Neurotransmitters are released at presynaptic active zones (AZs). In the fly Drosophila, monoclonal antibody (MAB) nc82 specifically labels AZs. We employ nc82 to identify Bruchpilot protein (BRP) as a previously unknown AZ component. BRP shows homology to human AZ protein ELKS/CAST/ERC, which binds RIM1 in a complex with Bassoon and Munc13-1. The C terminus of BRP displays structural similarities to multifunctional cytoskeletal proteins. During development, transcription of the bruchpilot locus (brp) coincides with neuronal differentiation. Panneural reduction of BRP expression by RNAi constructs permits a first functional characterization of this large AZ protein: larvae show reduced evoked but normal spontaneous transmission at neuromuscular junctions. In adults, we observe loss of T bars at active zones, absence of synaptic components in electroretinogram, locomotor inactivity, and unstable flight (hence "bruchpilot"-crash pilot). We propose that BRP is critical for intact AZ structure and normal-evoked neurotransmitter release at chemical synapses of Drosophila. PMID:16543132

  9. A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuo; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Tian, Qing-Bao; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Usuda, Nobuteru; Usada, Nobuteru; Kondo, Hisatake; Fujii, Toshihiro; Endo, Shogo

    2005-01-01

    We cloned from the rat brain a novel gene, tanc (GenBank Accession No. AB098072), which encoded a protein containing three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), ten ankyrin repeats and a coiled-coil region, and is possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols). The tanc gene was expressed widely in the adult rat brain. Subcellular distribution, immunohistochemical study of the brain and immunocytochemical studies of cultured neuronal cells indicated the postsynaptic localization of TANC protein of 200 kDa. Pull-down experiments showed that TANC protein bound PSD-95, SAP97, and Homer via its C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, -ESNV, and fodrin via both its ankyrin repeats and the TPRs together with the coiled-coil domain. TANC also bound the alpha subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. An immunoprecipitation study showed TANC association with various postsynaptic proteins, including guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP), alpha-internexin, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor 2B and AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR1) subunits. These results suggest that TANC protein may work as a postsynaptic scaffold component by forming a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins. PMID:15673434

  10. The eye-specification proteins So and Eya form a complex and regulate multiple steps in Drosophila eye development.

    PubMed

    Pignoni, F; Hu, B; Zavitz, K H; Xiao, J; Garrity, P A; Zipursky, S L

    1997-12-26

    Sine oculis (so) and eyes absent (eya) are required for Drosophila eye development and are founding members of the mammalian Six and Eya gene families. These genes have been proposed to act with eyeless (Pax6) to regulate eye development in vertebrates and invertebrates. so encodes a highly diverged homeobox transcription factor and eya encodes a novel nuclear protein. We demonstrate that So and Eya (1) regulate common steps in eye development including cell proliferation, patterning, and neuronal development; (2) synergize in inducing ectopic eyes; and (3) interact in yeast and in vitro through evolutionarily conserved domains. We propose that an So/Eya complex regulates multiple steps in eye development and functions within the context of a network of genes to specify eye tissue identity. PMID:9428512

  11. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Menger, Katja E; James, Andrew M; Cochemé, Helena M; Harbour, Michael E; Chouchani, Edward T; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P

    2015-06-30

    Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster. PMID:26095360

  12. The HLH protein Extramacrochaetae is required for R7 cell and cone cell fates in the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Notch signaling is one of the most important pathways in development and homeostasis, and is altered in multiple pathologies. Study of Drosophila eye development shows that Notch signaling depends on the HLH protein Extramacrochaetae. Null mutant clones show that extramacrochaetae is required for multiple aspects of eye development that depend on Notch signaling, including morphogenetic furrow progression, differentiation of R4, R7 and cone cell types, and rotation of ommatidial clusters. Detailed analysis of R7 and cone cell specification reveals that extramacrochaetae acts cell autonomously and epistatically to Notch, and is required for normal expression of bHLH genes encoded by the E(spl)-C which are effectors of most Notch signaling. A model is proposed in which Extramacrochaetae acts in parallel to or as a feed-forward regulator of the E(spl)-Complex to promote Notch signaling in particular cellular contexts. PMID:19118542

  13. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X

    2015-12-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division. PMID:26714316

  14. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X.

    2015-01-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division. PMID:26714316

  15. The Drosophila Hrb98DE locus encodes four protein isoforms homologous to the A1 protein of mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S R; Raychaudhuri, G; Beyer, A L

    1990-01-01

    The Drosophila Hrb98DE locus encodes proteins that are highly homologous to the mammalian A1 protein, a major component of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. The Hrb98DE locus is transcribed throughout development, with the highest transcript levels found in ovaries, early embryos, and pupae. Eight different transcripts are produced by the use of combinations of alternative promoters, exons, and splice acceptor sites; the various species are not all equally abundant. The 3'-most exon is unusual in that it is completely noncoding. These transcripts can potentially generate four protein isoforms that differ in their N-terminal 16 to 21 amino acids but are identical in the remainder of the protein, including the RNP consensus motif domain and the glycine-rich domain characteristic of the mammalian A1 protein. We suggest that these sequence differences could affect the affinities of the proteins for RNA or other protein components of heterogeneous nuclear RNP complexes, leading to differences in function. Images PMID:2104660

  16. The nuclear protein encoded by the Drosophila neurogenic gene mastermind is widely expressed and associates with specific chromosomal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Bettler, D.; Pearson, S.; Yedvobnick, B.

    1996-06-01

    The Drosophila neurogenic loci encode a diverse group of proteins that comprise an inhibitory signal transduction pathway. The pathway is used throughout development in numerous contexts. We have examined the distribution of the neurogenic locus mastermind protein (Mam). Mam is expressed through all germlayers during early embryogenesis, including ectodermal precursors to both neuroblasts and epidermoblasts. Mam is subsequently down-regulated within the nervous system and then reexpressed. It persists in the nervous system through late embryogenesis and postembryonically. Mam is ubiquitously expressed in wing and leg imaginal discs and is not down-regulated in sensory organ precursor cells of the wing margin or notum. In the eye disc, Mam shows most prominent expression posterior to the morphogenetic furrow. Expression of the protein during oogenesis appears limited to follicle cells. Immunohistochemical detection of Mam on polytene chromosomes revealed binding at >100 sites. Chromosome colocalization studies with RNA polymerase and the groucho corepressor protein implicate Mam in transcriptional regulation. 94 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Macroglobulin complement-related encodes a protein required for septate junction organization and paracellular barrier function in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sonia; Bone, Courtney; Oshima, Kenzi; Zhang, Liang; McGraw, Molly; Lucas, Bethany; Fehon, Richard G.; Ward, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized epithelia play crucial roles as barriers to the outside environment and enable the formation of specialized compartments for organs to carry out essential functions. Barrier functions are mediated by cellular junctions that line the lateral plasma membrane between cells, principally tight junctions in vertebrates and septate junctions (SJs) in invertebrates. Over the last two decades, more than 20 genes have been identified that function in SJ biogenesis in Drosophila, including those that encode core structural components of the junction such as Neurexin IV, Coracle and several claudins, as well as proteins that facilitate the trafficking of SJ proteins during their assembly. Here we demonstrate that Macroglobulin complement-related (Mcr), a gene previously implicated in innate immunity, plays an essential role during embryonic development in SJ organization and function. We show that Mcr colocalizes with other SJ proteins in mature ectodermally derived epithelial cells, that it shows interdependence with other SJ proteins for SJ localization, and that Mcr mutant epithelia fail to form an effective paracellular barrier. Tissue-specific RNA interference further demonstrates that Mcr is required cell-autonomously for SJ organization. Finally, we show a unique interdependence between Mcr and Nrg for SJ localization that provides new insights into the organization of the SJ. Together, these studies demonstrate that Mcr is a core component of epithelial SJs and also highlight an interesting relationship between innate immunity and epithelial barrier functions. PMID:24496625

  18. Functional Evolution of Duplicated Odorant-Binding Protein Genes, Obp57d and Obp57e, in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Eriko; Nakagawa, Jun; Asano, Tsunaki; Taoka, Masato; Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yoshihiro; Aigaki, Toshiro; Matsuo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are extracellular proteins found in insect chemosensilla, where they participate in the sensing of odors, tastes, and pheromones. Although a large number of OBP genes have been identified in insect genomes, their molecular functions and biological roles have been clarified in limited cases. Two OBP genes, Obp57d and Obp57e, were involved in the evolution of host-plant preference in Drosophila sechellia. Comparative analyses of the Obp57d/e genomic sequences from 27 closely related species suggested that the two genes arose by tandem gene duplication and functionally diverged from each other. In this study, the functional evolution of Obp57d and Obp57e was examined by in vitro binding assays using recombinant proteins synthesized in a bacterial system. Compared to the ancestral Dpse\\OBP57de, Dmel\\OBP57d was more specialized to tridecanoic acid while Dmel\\OBP57e was generalized regarding their binding affinity, suggesting that the two OBP genes underwent subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization. A behavioral analysis using knockout flies supported that the biological role is different between OBP57d and OBP57e in vivo. Site-directed mutagenesis of the evolutionarily conserved amino acids revealed that these residues play an important role in protein folding. These findings provide a clue to understanding how the repertoire of OBP genes is maintained in a genome under natural selection. PMID:22238638

  19. Protein Complex of Drosophila ATRX/XNP and HP1a Is Required for the Formation of Pericentric Beta-heterochromatin in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Emelyanov, Alexander V.; Konev, Alexander Y.; Vershilova, Elena; Fyodorov, Dmitry V.

    2010-01-01

    ATRX belongs to the family of SWI2/SNF2-like ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling molecular motor proteins. Mutations of the human ATRX gene result in a severe genetic disorder termed X-linked α-thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. Here we perform biochemical and genetic analyses of the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of ATRX. The loss of function allele of the Drosophila ATRX/XNP gene is semilethal. Drosophila ATRX is expressed throughout development in two isoforms, p185 and p125. ATRX185 and ATRX125 form distinct multisubunit complexes in fly embryo. The ATRX185 complex comprises p185 and heterochromatin protein HP1a. Consistently, ATRX185 but not ATRX125 is highly concentrated in pericentric beta-heterochromatin of the X chromosome in larval cells. HP1a strongly stimulates biochemical activities of ATRX185 in vitro. Conversely, ATRX185 is required for HP1a deposition in pericentric beta-heterochromatin of the X chromosome. The loss of function allele of the ATRX/XNP gene and mutant allele that does not express p185 are strong suppressors of position effect variegation. These results provide evidence for essential biological functions of Drosophila ATRX in vivo and establish ATRX as a major determinant of pericentric beta-heterochromatin identity. PMID:20154359

  20. The function of the M-line protein obscurin in controlling the symmetry of the sarcomere in the flight muscle of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Katzemich, Anja; Kreisköther, Nina; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Elliott, Christopher; Schöck, Frieder; Leonard, Kevin; Sparrow, John; Bullard, Belinda

    2012-01-01

    Summary Obscurin (also known as Unc-89 in Drosophila) is a large modular protein in the M-line of Drosophila muscles. Drosophila obscurin is similar to the nematode protein UNC-89. Four isoforms are found in the muscles of adult flies: two in the indirect flight muscle (IFM) and two in other muscles. A fifth isoform is found in the larva. The larger IFM isoform has all the domains that were predicted from the gene sequence. Obscurin is in the M-line throughout development of the embryo, larva and pupa. Using P-element mutant flies and RNAi knockdown flies, we have investigated the effect of decreased obscurin expression on the structure of the sarcomere. Embryos, larvae and pupae developed normally. In the pupa, however, the IFM was affected. Although the Z-disc was normal, the H-zone was misaligned. Adults were unable to fly and the structure of the IFM was irregular: M-lines were missing and H-zones misplaced or absent. Isolated thick filaments were asymmetrical, with bare zones that were shifted away from the middle of the filaments. In the sarcomere, the length and polarity of thin filaments depends on the symmetry of adjacent thick filaments; shifted bare zones resulted in abnormally long or short thin filaments. We conclude that obscurin in the IFM is necessary for the development of a symmetrical sarcomere in Drosophila IFM. PMID:22467859

  1. The chromatin-remodeling protein Osa interacts with CyclinE in Drosophila eye imaginal discs.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jawaid; Chanut, Francoise; Kornberg, Thomas B; Klebes, Ansgar

    2010-03-01

    Coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation is essential during organogenesis. In Drosophila, the photoreceptor, pigment, and support cells of the eye are specified in an orchestrated wave as the morphogenetic furrow passes across the eye imaginal disc. Cells anterior of the furrow are not yet differentiated and remain mitotically active, while most cells in the furrow arrest at G(1) and adopt specific ommatidial fates. We used microarray expression analysis to monitor changes in transcription at the furrow and identified genes whose expression correlates with either proliferation or fate specification. Some of these are members of the Polycomb and Trithorax families that encode epigenetic regulators. Osa is one; it associates with components of the Drosophila SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Our studies of this Trithorax factor in eye development implicate Osa as a regulator of the cell cycle: Osa overexpression caused a small-eye phenotype, a reduced number of M- and S-phase cells in eye imaginal discs, and a delay in morphogenetic furrow progression. In addition, we present evidence that Osa interacts genetically and biochemically with CyclinE. Our results suggest a dual mechanism of Osa function in transcriptional regulation and cell cycle control. PMID:20008573

  2. NF-κB/Rel Proteins and the Humoral Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Sandhya; Aggarwal, Kamna; Paquette, Nicholas; Silverman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)/Rel transcription factors form an integral part of innate immune defenses and are conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Studying the function, mechanism of activation and regulation of these factors is crucial for understanding host responses to microbial infections. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has proved to be a valuable model system to study these evolutionarily conserved NF-κB mediated immune responses. Drosophila combats pathogens through humoral and cellular immune responses. These humoral responses are well characterized and are marked by the robust production of a battery of anti-microbial peptides. Two NF-κB signaling pathways, the Toll and the IMD pathways, are responsible for the induction of these antimicrobial peptides. Signal transduction in these pathways is strikingly similar to that in mammalian TLR pathways. In this chapter, we discuss in detail the molecular mechanisms of microbial recognition, signal transduction and NF-κB regulation, in both the Toll and the IMD pathways. Similarities and differences relative to their mammalian counterparts are discussed, and recent advances in our understanding of the intricate regulatory networks in these NF-κB signaling pathways are also highlighted. PMID:20852987

  3. Drug Transporters and Na+/H+ Exchange Regulatory Factor PSD-95/Drosophila Discs Large/ZO-1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Dustin R.; Nolin, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Drug transporters govern the absorption, distribution, and elimination of pharmacologically active compounds. Members of the solute carrier and ATP binding-cassette drug transporter family mediate cellular drug uptake and efflux processes, thereby coordinating the vectorial movement of drugs across epithelial barriers. To exert their physiologic and pharmacological function in polarized epithelia, drug transporters must be targeted and stabilized to appropriate regions of the cell membrane (i.e., apical versus basolateral). Despite the critical importance of drug transporter membrane targeting, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are largely unknown. Several clinically significant drug transporters possess a recognition sequence that binds to PSD-95/Drosophila discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) proteins. PDZ proteins, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) family, act to stabilize and organize membrane targeting of multiple transmembrane proteins, including many clinically relevant drug transporters. These PDZ proteins are normally abundant at apical membranes, where they tether membrane-delimited transporters. NHERF expression is particularly high at the apical membrane in polarized tissue such as intestinal, hepatic, and renal epithelia, tissues important to drug disposition. Several recent studies have highlighted NHERF proteins as determinants of drug transporter function secondary to their role in controlling membrane abundance and localization. Mounting evidence strongly suggests that NHERF proteins may have clinically significant roles in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of several pharmacologically active compounds and may affect drug action in cancer and chronic kidney disease. For these reasons, NHERF proteins represent a novel class of post-translational mediators of drug transport and novel targets for new drug development. PMID:26092975

  4. A novel Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathies: N-terminal sequences combined with the Q/N domain induce protein functional loss and locomotion defects

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Feiguin, Fabian; Cragnaz, Lucia; Romano, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals) is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The number of studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration is constantly growing; however, the role played by TDP-43 in disease onset and progression is still unclear. A fundamental shortcoming that hampers progress is the lack of animal models showing aggregation of TDP-43 without overexpression. In this manuscript, we have extended our cellular model of aggregation to a transgenic Drosophila line. Our fly model is not based on the overexpression of a wild-type TDP-43 transgene. By contrast, we engineered a construct that includes only the specific TDP-43 amino acid sequences necessary to trigger aggregate formation and capable of trapping endogenous Drosophila TDP-43 into a non-functional insoluble form. Importantly, the resulting recombinant product lacks functional RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and, thus, does not have specific TDP-43-physiological functions (i.e. splicing regulation ability) that might affect the animal phenotype per se. This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX), decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. Our data lend further support to the role of TDP-43 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The novel transgenic Drosophila model presented in this study will help to gain further insight into the

  5. A novel Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathies: N-terminal sequences combined with the Q/N domain induce protein functional loss and locomotion defects.

    PubMed

    Langellotti, Simona; Romano, Valentina; Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Feiguin, Fabian; Cragnaz, Lucia; Romano, Maurizio; Baralle, Francisco E

    2016-06-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals) is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The number of studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration is constantly growing; however, the role played by TDP-43 in disease onset and progression is still unclear. A fundamental shortcoming that hampers progress is the lack of animal models showing aggregation of TDP-43 without overexpression. In this manuscript, we have extended our cellular model of aggregation to a transgenic Drosophila line. Our fly model is not based on the overexpression of a wild-type TDP-43 transgene. By contrast, we engineered a construct that includes only the specific TDP-43 amino acid sequences necessary to trigger aggregate formation and capable of trapping endogenous Drosophila TDP-43 into a non-functional insoluble form. Importantly, the resulting recombinant product lacks functional RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and, thus, does not have specific TDP-43-physiological functions (i.e. splicing regulation ability) that might affect the animal phenotype per se. This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX), decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. Our data lend further support to the role of TDP-43 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The novel transgenic Drosophila model presented in this study will help to gain further insight into the molecular

  6. Neuronal acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila: the ARD protein is a component of a high-affinity alpha-bungarotoxin binding complex.

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, P; Hermans-Borgmeyer, I; Betz, H; Gundelfinger, E D

    1988-01-01

    The ard gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a structural homologue of vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) and is expressed exclusively in nervous tissue. To study the nature of the ARD protein, antibodies were raised against fusion constructs containing two regions of this polypeptide. One segment is putatively extracellular (amino acids 65-212), the other domain is exposed to the cytoplasm (amino acids 305-444). The ARD antisera obtained served to investigate the physical relationship between the ARD protein and alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Btx) binding sites occurring in Drosophila. Two different high-affinity binding sites for [125I]alpha-Btx, a highly potent antagonist of vertebrate muscle AChR, were detected in fly head membranes. Equilibrium binding and kinetic studies revealed Kd values of approximately 0.1 nM (site 1) and approximately 4 nM (site 2). The estimated maximal binding (Bmax) was approximately 240 and 1080 fmol/mg protein respectively. Both sites exhibited a nicotinic-cholinergic pharmacology. Immunoprecipitation experiments with the ARD antisera indicated that the ARD protein is associated with the [125I]alpha-Btx binding site 1 only. These data support the previously postulated hypothesis that the ARD protein is part of an alpha-Btx binding neuronal AChR of Drosophila. Furthermore, they indicate heterogeneity in nicotinic-cholinergic binding sites in the insect nervous system. PMID:3141150

  7. Analysis of the doublesex female protein in Drosophila melanogaster: role on sexual differentiation and behavior and dependence on intersex.

    PubMed Central

    Waterbury, J A; Jackson, L L; Schedl, P

    1999-01-01

    doublesex (dsx) is unusual among the known sex-determination genes of Drosophila melanogaster in that functional homologs are found in distantly related species. In flies, dsx occupies a position near the bottom of the sex determination hierarchy. It is expressed in male- and female-specific forms and these proteins function as sex-specific transcription factors. In the studies reported here, we have ectopically expressed the female Dsx protein (Dsx(F)) from a constitutive promoter and examined its regulatory activities independent of other upstream factors involved in female sex determination. We show that it functions as a positive regulator of female differentiation and a negative regulator of male differentiation. As predicted by the DNA-binding properties of the Dsx protein, Dsx(F) and Dsx(M) compete with each other for the regulation of target genes. In addition to directing sex-specific differentiation, Dsx(F) plays an important role in sexual behavior. Wild-type males ectopically expressing Dsx(F) are actively courted by other males. This acquisition of feminine sex appeal is likely due to the induction of female pheromones by Dsx(F). More extreme behavioral abnormalities are observed when Dsx(F) is ectopically expressed in dsx(-) XY animals; these animals are not only courted by, but also copulate with, wild-type males. Finally, we provide evidence that intersex is required for the feminizing activities of Dsx(F) and that it is not regulated by the sex-specific splicing cascade. PMID:10430590

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Drep-3, a DFF-related protein from Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyun Ho; Tookes, Hansel Emory; Wu, Hao

    2006-06-01

    The D. melanogaster Drep-3 protein has been crystallized. Crystals were obtained at 293 K that diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. During apoptosis, DNA fragmentation is mainly mediated by the caspase-activated DFF40 nuclease. DFF40 exists as a heterodimeric complex with its inhibitor DFF45. Upon apoptosis induction, DFF45 is cleaved by caspases to allow DFF40 activation. Drep-3 is a recently identified regulator of the DFF40 system in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, Drep-3 was expressed with a C-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified to homogeneity. Multi-angle light-scattering analysis showed that Drep-3 is a homotetramer in solution. Native and selenomethionine-substituted Drep-3 proteins were crystallized at 293 K and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.9, b = 125.4, c = 168.7 Å. The asymmetric unit is estimated to contain one homotetramer.

  9. Optimized RNA ISH, RNA FISH and protein-RNA double labeling (IF/FISH) in Drosophila ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sandra G; Peters, Nathaniel C; Altaras, Ariel E; Berg, Celeste A

    2014-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique for detecting nucleic acids in cells and tissues. Here we describe three ISH procedures that are optimized for Drosophila ovaries: whole-mount, digoxigenin-labeled RNA ISH; RNA fluorescent ISH (FISH); and protein immunofluorescence (IF)–RNA FISH double labeling (IF/FISH). Each procedure balances conflicting requirements for permeabilization, fixation and preservation of antigenicity to detect RNA and protein expression with high resolution and sensitivity. The ISH protocol uses alkaline phosphatase–conjugated digoxigenin antibodies followed by a color reaction, whereas FISH detection involves tyramide signal amplification (TSA). To simultaneously preserve antigens for protein detection and enable RNA probe penetration for IF/FISH, we perform IF before FISH and use xylenes and detergents to permeabilize the tissue rather than proteinase K, which can damage the antigens. ISH and FISH take 3 d to perform, whereas IF/FISH takes 5 d. Probe generation takes 1 or 2 d to perform. PMID:24113787

  10. Indirect effects of ploidy suggest X chromosome dose, not the X:A ratio, signals sex in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Erickson, James W; Quintero, Jerome J

    2007-12-01

    In the textbook view, the ratio of X chromosomes to autosome sets, X:A, is the primary signal specifying sexual fate in Drosophila. An alternative idea is that X chromosome number signals sex through the direct actions of several X-encoded signal element (XSE) proteins. In this alternative, the influence of autosome dose on X chromosome counting is largely indirect. Haploids (1X;1A), which possess the male number of X chromosomes but the female X:A of 1.0, and triploid intersexes (XX;AAA), which possess a female dose of two X chromosomes and the ambiguous X:A ratio of 0.67, represent critical tests of these hypotheses. To directly address the effects of ploidy in primary sex determination, we compared the responses of the signal target, the female-specific SxlPe promoter of the switch gene Sex-lethal, in haploid, diploid, and triploid embryos. We found that haploids activate SxlPe because an extra precellular nuclear division elevates total X chromosome numbers and XSE levels beyond those in diploid males. Conversely, triploid embryos cellularize one cycle earlier than diploids, causing premature cessation of SxlPe expression. This prevents XX;AAA embryos from fully engaging the autoregulatory mechanism that maintains subsequent Sxl expression, causing them to develop as sexual mosaics. We conclude that the X:A ratio predicts sexual fate, but does not actively specify it. Instead, the instructive X chromosome signal is more appropriately seen as collective XSE dose in the early embryo. Our findings reiterate that correlations between X:A ratios and cell fates in other organisms need not implicate the value of the ratio as an active signal. PMID:18162044

  11. The Snail protein family regulates neuroblast expression of inscuteable and string, genes involved in asymmetry and cell division in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, S I; Ip, Y T

    2001-12-01

    Delaminated neuroblasts in Drosophila function as stem cells during embryonic central nervous system development. They go through repeated asymmetric divisions to generate multiple ganglion mother cells, which divide only once more to produce postmitotic neurons. Snail, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, is a pan-neural protein, based on its extensive expression in neuroblasts. Previous results have demonstrated that Snail and related proteins, Worniu and Escargot, have redundant and essential functions in the nervous system. We show that the Snail family of proteins control central nervous system development by regulating genes involved in asymmetry and cell division of neuroblasts. In mutant embryos that have the three genes deleted, the expression of inscuteable is significantly lowered, while the expression of other genes that participate in asymmetric division, including miranda, staufen and prospero, appears normal. The deletion mutants also have much reduced expression of string, suggesting that a key component that drives neuroblast cell division is abnormal. Consistent with the gene expression defects, the mutant embryos lose the asymmetric localization of prospero RNA in neuroblasts and lose the staining of Prospero protein that is normally present in ganglion mother cells. Simultaneous expression of inscuteable and string in the snail family deletion mutant efficiently restores Prospero expression in ganglion mother cells, demonstrating that the two genes are key targets of Snail in neuroblasts. Mutation of the dCtBP co-repressor interaction motifs in the Snail protein leads to reduction of the Snail function in central nervous system. These results suggest that the Snail family of proteins control both asymmetry and cell division of neuroblasts by activating, probably indirectly, the expression of inscuteable and string. PMID:11731456

  12. Three RNA Binding Proteins Form a Complex to Promote Differentiation of Germline Stem Cell Lineage in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shaowei; Geng, Qing; Gao, Yu; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    In regenerative tissues, one of the strategies to protect stem cells from genetic aberrations, potentially caused by frequent cell division, is to transiently expand the stem cell daughters before further differentiation. However, failure to exit the transit amplification may lead to overgrowth, and the molecular mechanism governing this regulation remains vague. In a Drosophila mutagenesis screen for factors involved in the regulation of germline stem cell (GSC) lineage, we isolated a mutation in the gene CG32364, which encodes a putative RNA-binding protein (RBP) and is designated as tumorous testis (tut). In tut mutant, spermatogonia fail to differentiate and over-amplify, a phenotype similar to that in mei-P26 mutant. Mei-P26 is a TRIM-NHL tumor suppressor homolog required for the differentiation of GSC lineage. We found that Tut binds preferentially a long isoform of mei-P26 3′UTR, and is essential for the translational repression of mei-P26 reporter. Bam and Bgcn are both RBPs that have also been shown to repress mei-P26 expression. Our genetic analyses indicate that tut, bam, or bgcn is required to repress mei-P26 and to promote the differentiation of GSCs. Biochemically, we demonstrate that Tut, Bam, and Bgcn can form a physical complex in which Bam holds Tut on its N-terminus and Bgcn on its C-terminus. Our in vivo and in vitro evidence illustrate that Tut acts with Bam, Bgcn to accurately coordinate proliferation and differentiation in Drosophila germline stem cell lineage. PMID:25412508

  13. Sumoylation Modulates the Activity of Spalt-like Proteins during Wing Development in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jonatan; Talamillo, Ana; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Pérez, Coralia; Hjerpe, Roland; Sutherland, James D.; Herboso, Leire; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Barrio, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The Spalt-like family of zinc finger transcription factors is conserved throughout evolution and is involved in fundamental processes during development and during embryonic stem cell maintenance. Although human SALL1 is modified by SUMO-1 in vitro, it is not known whether this post-translational modification plays a role in regulating the activity of this family of transcription factors. Here, we show that the Drosophila Spalt transcription factors are modified by sumoylation. This modification influences their nuclear localization and capacity to induce vein formation through the regulation of target genes during wing development. Furthermore, spalt genes interact genetically with the sumoylation machinery to repress vein formation in intervein regions and to attain the wing final size. Our results suggest a new level of regulation of Sall activity in vivo during animal development through post-translational modification by sumoylation. The evolutionary conservation of this family of transcription factors suggests a functional role for sumoylation in vertebrate Sall members. PMID:20562097

  14. Parallel faster-X evolution of gene expression and protein sequences in Drosophila: beyond differences in expression properties and protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Llopart, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Population genetics models predict that the X (or Z) chromosome will evolve at faster rates than the autosomes in XY (or ZW) systems. Studies of molecular evolution using large datasets in multiple species have provided evidence supporting this faster-X effect in protein-coding sequences and, more recently, in transcriptomes. However, X-linked and autosomal genes differ significantly in important properties besides hemizygosity in males, including gene expression levels, tissue specificity in gene expression, and the number of interactions in which they are involved (i.e., protein-protein or DNA-protein interactions). Most important, these properties are known to correlate with rates of evolution, which raises the question of whether differences between the X chromosome and autosomes in gene properties, rather than hemizygosity, are sufficient to explain faster-X evolution. Here I investigate this possibility using whole genome sequences and transcriptomes of Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea and show that this is not the case. Additional factors are needed to account for faster-X evolution of both gene expression and protein-coding sequences beyond differences in gene properties, likely a higher incidence of positive selection in combination with the accumulation of weakly deleterious mutations. PMID:25789611

  15. Structure, expression, and hormonal control of genes from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which encode proteins similar to the vitelline membrane proteins of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Hamblin, M T; Edwards, M J; Barillas-Mury, C; Kanost, M R; Knipple, D C; Wolfner, M F; Hagedorn, H H

    1993-02-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones of a gene expressed after a blood meal in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were identified as having significant similarity to the vitelline membrane protein genes of Drosophila melanogaster. The predicted protein had unusually high contents of alanine, histidine, and proline and contained a region of hydrophobic amino acids that was highly conserved in the predicted protein of the D. melanogaster vitelline membrane protein genes. The 15a gene was expressed from 5 to 40 hr after a blood meal. It was expressed only in the follicle cells of the ovary, particularly in the cells surrounding the oocyte. The 15a gene was expressed in ovaries of the blood-fed, decapitated female in response to an injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone, and in ovaries from non-blood-fed females incubated with the hormone, even in the presence of cycloheximide. A second gene, with weaker homology to 15a, is presumably another member of a family of related genes, as is the case with D. melanogaster vitelline membrane protein genes. This second gene contained a coding sequence similar to a decapeptide recently isolated from mosquito ovaries as an "oostatic factor" (Borovsky et al., FASEB J. 4, 3015-3020, 1990). PMID:8432405

  16. The Friend of GATA proteins U-shaped, FOG-1, and FOG-2 function as negative regulators of blood, heart, and eye development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fossett, Nancy; Tevosian, Sergei G.; Gajewski, Kathleen; Zhang, Qian; Orkin, Stuart H.; Schulz, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Friend of GATA (FOG) proteins regulate GATA factor-activated gene transcription. During vertebrate hematopoiesis, FOG and GATA proteins cooperate to promote erythrocyte and megakaryocyte differentiation. The Drosophila FOG homologue U-shaped (Ush) is expressed similarly in the blood cell anlage during embryogenesis. During hematopoiesis, the acute myeloid leukemia 1 homologue Lozenge and Glial cells missing are required for the production of crystal cells and plasmatocytes, respectively. However, additional factors have been predicted to control crystal cell proliferation. In this report, we show that Ush is expressed in hemocyte precursors and plasmatocytes throughout embryogenesis and larval development, and the GATA factor Serpent is essential for Ush embryonic expression. Furthermore, loss of ush function results in an overproduction of crystal cells, whereas forced expression of Ush reduces this cell population. Murine FOG-1 and FOG-2 also can repress crystal cell production, but a mutant version of FOG-2 lacking a conserved motif that binds the corepressor C-terminal binding protein fails to affect the cell lineage. The GATA factor Pannier (Pnr) is required for eye and heart development in Drosophila. When Ush, FOG-1, FOG-2, or mutant FOG-2 is coexpressed with Pnr during these developmental processes, severe eye and heart phenotypes result, consistent with a conserved negative regulation of Pnr function. These results indicate that the fly and mouse FOG proteins function similarly in three distinct cellular contexts in Drosophila, but may use different mechanisms to regulate genetic events in blood vs. cardial or eye cell lineages. PMID:11404479

  17. The full-length form of the Drosophila amyloid precursor protein is involved in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Bourdet, Isabelle; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2015-01-21

    The APP plays a central role in AD, a pathology that first manifests as a memory decline. Understanding the role of APP in normal cognition is fundamental in understanding the progression of AD, and mammalian studies have pointed to a role of secreted APPα in memory. In Drosophila, we recently showed that APPL, the fly APP ortholog, is required for associative memory. In the present study, we aimed to characterize which form of APPL is involved in this process. We show that expression of a secreted-APPL form in the mushroom bodies, the center for olfactory memory, is able to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL partial loss of function. We next assessed the impact on memory of the Drosophila α-secretase kuzbanian (KUZ), the enzyme initiating the nonamyloidogenic pathway that produces secreted APPLα. Strikingly, KUZ overexpression not only failed to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL loss of function, it exacerbated this deficit. We further show that in addition to an increase in secreted-APPL forms, KUZ overexpression caused a decrease of membrane-bound full-length species that could explain the memory deficit. Indeed, we observed that transient expression of a constitutive membrane-bound mutant APPL form is sufficient to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL reduction, revealing for the first time a role of full-length APPL in memory formation. Our data demonstrate that, in addition to secreted APPL, the noncleaved form is involved in memory, raising the possibility that secreted and full-length APPL act together in memory processes. PMID:25609621

  18. The Octopamine Receptor OAMB Mediates Ovulation via Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in the Drosophila Oviduct Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Rohila, Suman; Han, Kyung-An

    2009-01-01

    Ovulation is an essential physiological process in sexual reproduction; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously shown that OAMB, a Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor for octopamine (the insect counterpart of mammalian norepinephrine), is required for ovulation induced upon mating. OAMB is expressed in the nervous and reproductive systems and has two isoforms (OAMB-AS and OAMB-K3) with distinct capacities to increase intracellular Ca2+ or intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP in vitro. Here, we investigated tissue specificity and intracellular signals required for OAMB's function in ovulation. Restricted OAMB expression in the adult oviduct epithelium, but not the nervous system, reinstated ovulation in oamb mutant females, in which either OAMB isoform was sufficient for the rescue. Consistently, strong immunoreactivities for both isoforms were observed in the wild-type oviduct epithelium. To delineate the cellular mechanism by which OAMB regulates ovulation, we explored protein kinases functionally interacting with OAMB by employing a new GAL4 driver with restricted expression in the oviduct epithelium. Conditional inhibition of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), but not protein kinase A or C, in the oviduct epithelium inhibited ovulation. Moreover, constitutively active CaMKII, but not protein kinase A, expressed only in the adult oviduct epithelium fully rescued the oamb female's phenotype, demonstrating CaMKII as a major downstream molecule conveying the OAMB's ovulation signal. This is consistent with the ability of both OAMB isoforms, whose common intracellular signal in vitro is Ca2+, to reinstate ovulation in oamb females. These observations reveal the critical roles of the oviduct epithelium and its cellular components OAMB and CaMKII in ovulation. It is conceivable that the OAMB-mediated cellular activities stimulated upon mating are crucial for secretory activities suitable for egg transfer from

  19. In Vivo Colocalisation of oskar mRNA and Trans-Acting Proteins Revealed by Quantitative Imaging of the Drosophila Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Genovesio, Auguste; Rybarska, Agata; Chenouard, Nicolas; Nehrbass, Ulf; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Efficient mRNA transport in eukaryotes requires highly orchestrated relationships between nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. For oskar mRNA, the Drosophila posterior determinant, these spatio-temporal requirements remain opaque during its multi-step transport process. By in vivo covisualization of oskar mRNA with Staufen, its putative trafficking protein, we find oskar mRNA to be present in particles distinct from Staufen for part of its transport. oskar mRNA stably associated with Staufen near the posterior pole. We observe oskar mRNA to oligomerize as hundreds of copies forming large particles which are necessary for its long range transport and localization. We show the formation of these particles occurs in the nurse cell nucleus in an Hrp48-dependent manner. We present a more refined model of oskar mRNA transport in the Drosophila oocyte. PMID:19597554

  20. Accumulation of the Drosophila Torso-like protein at the blastoderm plasma membrane suggests that it translocates from the eggshell.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Alessandro; Furriols, Marc; Casanova, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    The eggshell serves as a depository for proteins that play an important role in early embryonic development. In particular, the Drosophila eggshell is responsible for transferring asymmetries from the egg chamber to specify the regions at both ends of the embryo through the uneven activation of the Torso (Tor) receptor in its membrane. This process relies on the restricted expression of the gene torso-like (tsl) in subpopulations of follicle cells during oogenesis and its protein accumulation at both poles of the eggshell, but it is not known how this signal is transmitted to the embryo. Here, we show that Tsl accumulates at the embryonic plasma membrane, even in the absence of the Tor receptor. However, during oogenesis, we detected Tsl accumulation only at the eggshell. These results suggest that there is a two-step mechanism to transfer the asymmetric positional cues from the egg chamber into the early embryo: initial anchoring of Tsl at the eggshell as it is secreted, followed by its later translocation to the egg plasma membrane, where it enables Tor receptor activation. Translocation of anchored determinants from the eggshell might then regulate the spatial and temporal control of early embryonic developmental processes. PMID:25758463

  1. Regulation of the Drosophila Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed Gene Complexes by Sister Chromatid Cohesion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Gurmukh; Siddiqui, Akbar M.; Schwartz, Yuri B.; Kahn, Tatyana G.; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Gause, Maria; Dorsett, Dale

    2009-01-01

    The cohesin protein complex was first recognized for holding sister chromatids together and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Cohesin also regulates gene expression, but the mechanisms are unknown. Cohesin associates preferentially with active genes, and is generally absent from regions in which histone H3 is methylated by the Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] Polycomb group silencing protein. Here we show that transcription is hypersensitive to cohesin levels in two exceptional cases where cohesin and the E(z)-mediated histone methylation simultaneously coat the entire Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes in cells derived from Drosophila central nervous system. These gene complexes are modestly transcribed, and produce seven of the twelve transcripts that increase the most with cohesin knockdown genome-wide. Cohesin mutations alter eye development in the same manner as increased Enhancer of split activity, suggesting that similar regulation occurs in vivo. We propose that cohesin helps restrain transcription of these gene complexes, and that deregulation of similarly cohesin-hypersensitive genes may underlie developmental deficits in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. PMID:19587787

  2. The Drosophila F-box protein Fbxl7 binds to the protocadherin Fat and regulates Dachs localization and Hippo signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Justin A; Sumabat, Taryn M; Hafezi, Yassi; Pellock, Brett J; Gandhi, Kevin D; Hariharan, Iswar K

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila protocadherin Fat (Ft) regulates growth, planar cell polarity (PCP) and proximodistal patterning. A key downstream component of Ft signaling is the atypical myosin Dachs (D). Multiple regions of the intracellular domain of Ft have been implicated in regulating growth and PCP but how Ft regulates D is not known. Mutations in Fbxl7, which encodes an F-box protein, result in tissue overgrowth and abnormalities in proximodistal patterning that phenocopy deleting a specific portion of the intracellular domain (ICD) of Ft that regulates both growth and PCP. Fbxl7 binds to this same portion of the Ft ICD, co-localizes with Ft to the proximal edge of cells and regulates the levels and asymmetry of D at the apical membrane. Fbxl7 can also regulate the trafficking of proteins between the apical membrane and intracellular vesicles. Thus Fbxl7 functions in a subset of pathways downstream of Ft and links Ft to D localization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03383.001 PMID:25107277

  3. A Mitochondrial ATP synthase Subunit Interacts with TOR Signaling to Modulate Protein Homeostasis and Lifespan in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; Wheeler, Charles T.; Yolitz, Jason; Laslo, Mara; Alberico, Thomas; Sun, Yaning; Song, Qisheng; Zou, Sige

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Diet composition is a critical determinant of lifespan and nutrient imbalance is detrimental health. However, how nutrients interact with genetic factors to modulate lifespan remains elusive. We investigated how diet composition influences mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit d (ATPsyn-d) in modulating lifespan in Drosophila. ATPsyn-d knockdown extended lifespan in females fed low carbohydrate-to-protein (C:P) diets, but not the high C:P ratio diet. This extension was associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress, transcriptional changes in metabolism, proteostasis and immune genes, reduced protein damage and aggregation, and reduced phosphorylation of S6K and ERK in TOR and MAPK signaling, respectively. ATPsyn-d knockdown did not extend lifespan in females with reduced TOR signaling induced genetically by Tsc2 overexpression or pharmacologically by rapamycin. Our data reveal a link among diet, mitochondria, MAPK and TOR signaling in aging and stresses the importance of considering genetic background and diet composition in implementing interventions for promoting healthy aging. PMID:25220459

  4. The high turnover Drosophila multidrug resistance-associated protein shares the biochemical features of its human orthologues.

    PubMed

    Szeri, Flóra; Iliás, Attila; Pomozi, Viola; Robinow, Steven; Bakos, Eva; Váradi, András

    2009-02-01

    DMRP, an ABC transporter encoded by the dMRP/CG6214 gene, is the Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of the "long" human multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1/ABCC1, MRP2/ABCC2, MRP3/ABCC3, MRP6/ABCC6, and MRP7/ABCC10). In order to provide a detailed biochemical characterisation we expressed DMRP in Sf9 insect cell membranes. We demonstrated DMRP as a functional orthologue of its human counterparts capable of transporting several human MRP substrates like beta-estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, leukotriene C4, calcein, fluo3 and carboxydichlorofluorescein. Unexpectedly, we found DMRP to exhibit an extremely high turnover rate for the substrate transport as compared to its human orthologues. Furthermore, DMRP showed remarkably high basal ATPase activity (68-75 nmol Pi/mg membrane protein/min), which could be further stimulated by probenecid and the glutathione conjugate of N-ethylmaleimide. Surprisingly, this high level basal ATPase activity was inhibited by the transported substrates. We discussed this phenomenon in the light of a potential endogenous substrate (or activator) present in the Sf9 membrane. PMID:19059376

  5. Effector caspase Dcp-1 and IAP protein Bruce regulate starvation-induced autophagy during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Barbosa, Sharon González; McCall, Kimberly; Gorski, Sharon M

    2008-09-22

    A complex relationship exists between autophagy and apoptosis, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying their interactions are largely unknown. We conducted a systematic study of Drosophila melanogaster cell death-related genes to determine their requirement in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy. We discovered that six cell death genes--death caspase-1 (Dcp-1), hid, Bruce, Buffy, debcl, and p53-as well as Ras-Raf-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway components had a role in autophagy regulation in D. melanogaster cultured cells. During D. melanogaster oogenesis, we found that autophagy is induced at two nutrient status checkpoints: germarium and mid-oogenesis. At these two stages, the effector caspase Dcp-1 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein Bruce function to regulate both autophagy and starvation-induced cell death. Mutations in Atg1 and Atg7 resulted in reduced DNA fragmentation in degenerating midstage egg chambers but did not appear to affect nuclear condensation, which indicates that autophagy contributes in part to cell death in the ovary. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that coordinately regulate autophagic and apoptotic events in vivo. PMID:18794330

  6. Effector caspase Dcp-1 and IAP protein Bruce regulate starvation-induced autophagy during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Barbosa, Sharon González; McCall, Kimberly; Gorski, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between autophagy and apoptosis, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying their interactions are largely unknown. We conducted a systematic study of Drosophila melanogaster cell death–related genes to determine their requirement in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy. We discovered that six cell death genes—death caspase-1 (Dcp-1), hid, Bruce, Buffy, debcl, and p53—as well as Ras–Raf–mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway components had a role in autophagy regulation in D. melanogaster cultured cells. During D. melanogaster oogenesis, we found that autophagy is induced at two nutrient status checkpoints: germarium and mid-oogenesis. At these two stages, the effector caspase Dcp-1 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein Bruce function to regulate both autophagy and starvation-induced cell death. Mutations in Atg1 and Atg7 resulted in reduced DNA fragmentation in degenerating midstage egg chambers but did not appear to affect nuclear condensation, which indicates that autophagy contributes in part to cell death in the ovary. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that coordinately regulate autophagic and apoptotic events in vivo. PMID:18794330

  7. Gene expression profiling identifies the zinc-finger protein Charlatan as a regulator of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Amcheslavsky, Alla; Nie, Yingchao; Li, Qi; He, Feng; Tsuda, Leo; Markstein, Michele; Ip, Y. Tony

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adult Drosophila midgut can respond to tissue damage and support repair. We used genetic manipulation to increase the number of ISC-like cells in the adult midgut and performed gene expression profiling to identify potential ISC regulators. A detailed analysis of one of these potential regulators, the zinc-finger protein Charlatan, was carried out. MARCM clonal analysis and RNAi in precursor cells showed that loss of Chn function caused severe ISC division defects, including loss of EdU incorporation, phosphorylated histone 3 staining and expression of the mitotic protein Cdc2. Loss of Charlatan also led to a much reduced histone acetylation staining in precursor cells. Both the histone acetylation and ISC division defects could be rescued by the simultaneous decrease of the Histone Deacetylase 2. The overexpression of Charlatan blocked differentiation reversibly, but loss of Charlatan did not lead to automatic differentiation. The results together suggest that Charlatan does not simply act as an anti-differentiation factor but instead functions to maintain a chromatin structure that is compatible with stem cell properties, including proliferation. PMID:24961799

  8. Drosophila melanogaster cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal protein essential for fly development.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski-Nimmerfall, Elisabeth; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Rendic, Dubravko; Krämer, Helmut; Mach, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. The genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative orthologue (dCREG), suggesting evolutionarily conserved physiological functions of this protein. In D. melanogaster S2 cells, dCREG was found to localize in lysosomes. Further studies revealed that intracellular dCREG is subject of proteolytic maturation. Processing and turnover could be substantially reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of cathepsin L. In contrast to mammalian cells, lysosomal delivery of dCREG does not depend on its carbohydrate moiety. Furthermore, depletion of the putative D. melanogaster lysosomal sorting receptor lysosomal enzyme receptor protein did not compromise cellular retention of dCREG. We also investigated the developmental consequences of dCREG ablation in whole D. melanogaster flies. Ubiquitous depletion of dCREG proved lethal at the late pupal stage once a knock-down efficiency of >95% was achieved. These results demonstrate that dCREG is essential for proper completion of fly development. PMID:25173815

  9. The Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin negatively regulates EGF receptor signaling in Drosophila development.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kathleen M C; Rubin, Gerald M

    2002-01-01

    Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated, Ser-Thr protein phosphatase that is essential for the translation of Ca(2+) signals into changes in cell function and development. We carried out a dominant modifier screen in the Drosophila eye using an activated form of the catalytic subunit to identify new targets, regulators, and functions of calcineurin. An examination of 70,000 mutagenized flies yielded nine specific complementation groups, four that enhanced and five that suppressed the activated calcineurin phenotype. The gene canB2, which encodes the essential regulatory subunit of calcineurin, was identified as a suppressor group, demonstrating that the screen was capable of identifying genes relevant to calcineurin function. We demonstrated that a second suppressor group was sprouty, a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Wing and eye phenotypes of ectopic activated calcineurin and genetic interactions with components of signaling pathways suggested a role for calcineurin in repressing Egf receptor/Ras signal transduction. On the basis of our results, we propose that calcineurin, upon activation by Ca(2+)-calmodulin, cooperates with other factors to negatively regulate Egf receptor signaling at the level of sprouty and the GTPase-activating protein Gap1. PMID:12019233

  10. Extensive amino acid polymorphism at the pgm locus is consistent with adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Verrelli, B C; Eanes, W F

    2000-01-01

    PGM plays a central role in the glycolytic pathway at the branch point leading to glycogen metabolism and is highly polymorphic in allozyme studies of many species. We have characterized the nucleotide diversity across the Pgm gene in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans to investigate the role that protein polymorphism plays at this crucial metabolic branch point shared with several other enzymes. Although D. melanogaster and D. simulans share common allozyme mobility alleles, we find these allozymes are the result of many different amino acid changes at the nucleotide level. In addition, specific allozyme classes within species contain several amino acid changes, which may explain the absence of latitudinal clines for PGM allozyme alleles, the lack of association of PGM allozymes with the cosmopolitan In(3L)P inversion, and the failure to detect differences between PGM allozymes in functional studies. We find a significant excess of amino acid polymorphisms within D. melanogaster when compared to the complete absence of fixed replacements with D. simulans. There is also strong linkage disequilibrium across the 2354 bp of the Pgm locus, which may be explained by a specific amino acid haplotype that is high in frequency yet contains an excess of singleton polymorphisms. Like G6pd, Pgm shows strong evidence for a branch point enzyme that exhibits adaptive protein evolution. PMID:11102370

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b interaction with delta class glutathione transferases from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wongtrakul, Jeerang; Sukittikul, Suchada; Saisawang, Chonticha; Ketterman, Albert J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional enzymes involved in xenobiotic biotransformation, drug metabolism, and protection against oxidative damage. The p38b mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in cellular stress response. This study screened interactions between Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Delta class glutathione transferases (DmGSTs) and the D. melanogaster p38b MAPK. Therefore, 12 DmGSTs and p38b kinase were obtained as recombinant proteins. The study showed that DmGSTD8 and DmGSTD11b significantly increased p38b activity toward ATF2 and jun, which are transcription factor substrates. DmGSTD3 and DmGSTD5 moderately increased p38b activity for jun. In addition, GST activity in the presence of p38b was also measured. It was found that p38b affected substrate specificity toward CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and DCNB (1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene) of several GST isoforms, i.e., DmGSTD2, DmGSTD5, DmGSTD8, and DmGSTD11b. The interaction of a GST and p38b can affect the substrate specificity of either enzyme, which suggests induced conformational changes affecting catalysis. Similar interactions do not occur for all the Delta enzymes and p38b, which suggests that these interactions could be specific. PMID:23438069

  12. Characterization of the Drosophila group ortholog to the amino-terminus of the alpha-thalassemia and mental retardation X-Linked (ATRX) vertebrate protein.

    PubMed

    López-Falcón, Brenda; Meyer-Nava, Silvia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Campos, Adam; Montero, Daniel; Rudiño, Enrique; Vázquez, Martha; Zurita, Mario; Valadez-Graham, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The human ATRX gene encodes hATRX, a chromatin-remodeling protein harboring an helicase/ATPase and ADD domains. The ADD domain has two zinc fingers that bind to histone tails and mediate hATRX binding to chromatin. dAtrx, the putative ATRX homolog in Drosophila melanogaster, has a conserved helicase/ATPase domain but lacks the ADD domain. A bioinformatic search of the Drosophila genome using the human ADD sequence allowed us to identify the CG8290 annotated gene, which encodes three ADD harboring- isoforms generated by alternative splicing. This Drosophila ADD domain is highly similar in structure and in the amino acids which mediate the histone tail contacts to the ADD domain of hATRX as shown by 3D modeling. Very recently the CG8290 annotated gene has been named dadd1. We show through pull-down and CoIP assays that the products of the dadd1 gene interact physically with dAtrxL and HP1a and all of them mainly co-localize in the chromocenter, although euchromatic localization can also be observed through the chromosome arms. We confirm through ChIP analyses that these proteins are present in vivo in the same heterochromatic regions. The three isoforms are expressed throughout development. Flies carrying transheterozygous combinations of the dadd1 and atrx alleles are semi-viable and have different phenotypes including the appearance of melanotic masses. Interestingly, the dAdd1-b and c isoforms have extra domains, such as MADF, which suggest newly acquired functions of these proteins. These results strongly support that, in Drosophila, the atrx gene diverged and that the dadd1-encoded proteins participate with dAtrx in some cellular functions such as heterochromatin maintenance. PMID:25437195

  13. Characterization of the Drosophila Group Ortholog to the Amino-Terminus of the Alpha-Thalassemia and Mental Retardation X-Linked (ATRX) Vertebrate Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Campos, Adam; Montero, Daniel; Rudiño, Enrique; Vázquez, Martha; Zurita, Mario; Valadez-Graham, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The human ATRX gene encodes hATRX, a chromatin-remodeling protein harboring an helicase/ATPase and ADD domains. The ADD domain has two zinc fingers that bind to histone tails and mediate hATRX binding to chromatin. dAtrx, the putative ATRX homolog in Drosophila melanogaster, has a conserved helicase/ATPase domain but lacks the ADD domain. A bioinformatic search of the Drosophila genome using the human ADD sequence allowed us to identify the CG8290 annotated gene, which encodes three ADD harboring- isoforms generated by alternative splicing. This Drosophila ADD domain is highly similar in structure and in the amino acids which mediate the histone tail contacts to the ADD domain of hATRX as shown by 3D modeling. Very recently the CG8290 annotated gene has been named dadd1. We show through pull-down and CoIP assays that the products of the dadd1 gene interact physically with dAtrxL and HP1a and all of them mainly co-localize in the chromocenter, although euchromatic localization can also be observed through the chromosome arms. We confirm through ChIP analyses that these proteins are present in vivo in the same heterochromatic regions. The three isoforms are expressed throughout development. Flies carrying transheterozygous combinations of the dadd1 and atrx alleles are semi-viable and have different phenotypes including the appearance of melanotic masses. Interestingly, the dAdd1-b and c isoforms have extra domains, such as MADF, which suggest newly acquired functions of these proteins. These results strongly support that, in Drosophila, the atrx gene diverged and that the dadd1-encoded proteins participate with dAtrx in some cellular functions such as heterochromatin maintenance. PMID:25437195

  14. Isolation and characterisation of dhel II, a DNA helicase from Drosophila melanogaster embryos stimulated by Escherichia coli-type single-stranded-DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thömmes, P; Marton, R F; Cotterill, S

    1996-01-15

    We have purified a DNA helicase from Drosophila embryos by following unwinding activity during the purification of the cellular single-stranded DNA-binding protein dRP-A. This DNA helicase unwinds DNA 5' to 3', has a salt-tolerant activity, and has a preference for purine triphosphates as cofactors for the unwinding reaction. The purified enzyme consists of a single polypeptide of 120 kDa, which cosediments with the helicase activity. Sedimentation analysis suggests that this polypeptide exists as a monomer under high and low salt conditions. Dhel II is able to unwind long stretches of DNA, but with decreased efficiency. Addition of Escherichia coli-like single-stranded DNA-binding proteins stimulates the unwinding activity at least 10-fold on substrates greater than 200 nucleotides. In particular, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein isolated from Drosophila embryos is able to stimulate unwinding by dhel II. These properties show that the helicase described is different from another Drosophila helicase dhel I; it has thus has been classified as dhel II. PMID:8631322

  15. A screen for new trithorax group genes identified little imaginal discs, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of human retinoblastoma binding protein 2.

    PubMed Central

    Gildea, J J; Lopez, R; Shearn, A

    2000-01-01

    The proteins encoded by two groups of conserved genes, the Polycomb and trithorax groups, have been proposed to maintain, at the level of chromatin structure, the expression pattern of homeotic genes during Drosophila development. To identify new members of the trithorax group, we screened a collection of deficiencies for intergenic noncomplementation with a mutation in ash1, a trithorax group gene. Five of the noncomplementing deletions uncover genes previously classified as members of the Polycomb group. This evidence suggests that there are actually three groups of genes that maintain the expression pattern of homeotic genes during Drosophila development. The products of the third group appear to be required to maintain chromatin in both transcriptionally inactive and active states. Six of the noncomplementing deficiencies uncover previously unidentified trithorax group genes. One of these deficiencies removes 25D2-3 to 26B2-5. Within this region, there are two, allelic, lethal P-insertion mutations that identify one of these new trithorax group genes. The gene has been called little imaginal discs based on the phenotype of mutant larvae. The protein encoded by the little imaginal discs gene is the Drosophila homologue of human retinoblastoma binding protein 2. PMID:11014813

  16. The GTP- and Phospholipid-Binding Protein TTD14 Regulates Trafficking of the TRPL Ion Channel in Drosophila Photoreceptor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Alexander C.; Altendorfer, André; Schopf, Krystina; Baltner, Karla; Maag, Nathalie; Sehn, Elisabeth; Wolfrum, Uwe; Huber, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of signaling proteins is a common phenomenon in diverse signaling pathways. In photoreceptors of Drosophila, light absorption by rhodopsin triggers a phospholipase Cβ-mediated opening of the ion channels transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) and generates the visual response. The signaling proteins are located in a plasma membrane compartment called rhabdomere. The major rhodopsin (Rh1) and TRP are predominantly localized in the rhabdomere in light and darkness. In contrast, TRPL translocates between the rhabdomeral plasma membrane in the dark and a storage compartment in the cell body in the light, from where it can be recycled to the plasma membrane upon subsequent dark adaptation. Here, we identified the gene mutated in trpl translocation defective 14 (ttd14), which is required for both TRPL internalization from the rhabdomere in the light and recycling of TRPL back to the rhabdomere in the dark. TTD14 is highly conserved in invertebrates and binds GTP in vitro. The ttd14 mutation alters a conserved proline residue (P75L) in the GTP-binding domain and abolishes binding to GTP. This indicates that GTP binding is essential for TTD14 function. TTD14 is a cytosolic protein and binds to PtdIns(3)P, a lipid enriched in early endosome membranes, and to phosphatidic acid. In contrast to TRPL, rhabdomeral localization of the membrane proteins Rh1 and TRP is not affected in the ttd14 P75L mutant. The ttd14 P75L mutation results in Rh1-independent photoreceptor degeneration and larval lethality suggesting that other processes are also affected by the ttd14 P75L mutation. In conclusion, TTD14 is a novel regulator of TRPL trafficking, involved in internalization and subsequent sorting of TRPL into the recycling pathway that enables this ion channel to return to the plasma membrane. PMID:26509977

  17. The GTP- and Phospholipid-Binding Protein TTD14 Regulates Trafficking of the TRPL Ion Channel in Drosophila Photoreceptor Cells.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Alexander C; Altendorfer, André; Schopf, Krystina; Baltner, Karla; Maag, Nathalie; Sehn, Elisabeth; Wolfrum, Uwe; Huber, Armin

    2015-10-01

    Recycling of signaling proteins is a common phenomenon in diverse signaling pathways. In photoreceptors of Drosophila, light absorption by rhodopsin triggers a phospholipase Cβ-mediated opening of the ion channels transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) and generates the visual response. The signaling proteins are located in a plasma membrane compartment called rhabdomere. The major rhodopsin (Rh1) and TRP are predominantly localized in the rhabdomere in light and darkness. In contrast, TRPL translocates between the rhabdomeral plasma membrane in the dark and a storage compartment in the cell body in the light, from where it can be recycled to the plasma membrane upon subsequent dark adaptation. Here, we identified the gene mutated in trpl translocation defective 14 (ttd14), which is required for both TRPL internalization from the rhabdomere in the light and recycling of TRPL back to the rhabdomere in the dark. TTD14 is highly conserved in invertebrates and binds GTP in vitro. The ttd14 mutation alters a conserved proline residue (P75L) in the GTP-binding domain and abolishes binding to GTP. This indicates that GTP binding is essential for TTD14 function. TTD14 is a cytosolic protein and binds to PtdIns(3)P, a lipid enriched in early endosome membranes, and to phosphatidic acid. In contrast to TRPL, rhabdomeral localization of the membrane proteins Rh1 and TRP is not affected in the ttd14P75L mutant. The ttd14P75L mutation results in Rh1-independent photoreceptor degeneration and larval lethality suggesting that other processes are also affected by the ttd14P75L mutation. In conclusion, TTD14 is a novel regulator of TRPL trafficking, involved in internalization and subsequent sorting of TRPL into the recycling pathway that enables this ion channel to return to the plasma membrane. PMID:26509977

  18. Modulation of Heterochromatin by Male Specific Lethal Proteins and roX RNA in Drosophila melanogaster Males

    PubMed Central

    Koya, S. Kiran; Meller, Victoria H.

    2015-01-01

    The ribonucleoprotein Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster males. Beginning at 3 h of development the MSL complex binds transcribed X-linked genes and modifies chromatin. A subset of MSL complex proteins, including MSL1 and MSL3, is also necessary for full expression of autosomal heterochromatic genes in males, but not females. Loss of the non-coding roX RNAs, essential components of the MSL complex, lowers the expression of heterochromatic genes and suppresses position effect variegation (PEV) only in males, revealing a sex-limited disruption of heterochromatin. To explore the molecular basis of this observation we examined additional proteins that participate in compensation and found that MLE, but not Jil-1 kinase, contributes to heterochromatic gene expression. To determine if identical regions of roX RNA are required for dosage compensation and heterochromatic silencing, we tested a panel of roX1 transgenes and deletions and find that the X chromosome and heterochromatin functions are separable by some mutations. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of staged embryos revealed widespread autosomal binding of MSL3 before and after localization of the MSL complex to the X chromosome at 3 h AEL. Autosomal MSL3 binding was dependent on MSL1, supporting the idea that a subset of MSL proteins associates with chromatin throughout the genome during early development. The broad localization of these proteins early in embryogenesis supports the idea of direct action at autosomal sites. We postulate that this may contribute to the sex-specific differences in heterochromatin that we, and others, have noted. PMID:26468879

  19. Drosophila Gyf/GRB10 interacting GYF protein is an autophagy regulator that controls neuron and muscle homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungjin; Semple, Ian; Kim, Boyoung; Kiers, Alexandra; Nam, Samuel; Park, Hwan-Woo; Park, Haeli; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Sig; Juhász, Gábor; Lee, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential process for eliminating ubiquitinated protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. Defective autophagy is associated with various degenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease. Through a genetic screening in Drosophila, we identified CG11148, whose product is orthologous to GIGYF1 (GRB10-interacting GYF protein 1) and GIGYF2 in mammals, as a new autophagy regulator; we hereafter refer to this gene as Gyf. Silencing of Gyf completely suppressed the effect of Atg1-Atg13 activation in stimulating autophagic flux and inducing autophagic eye degeneration. Although Gyf silencing did not affect Atg1-induced Atg13 phosphorylation or Atg6-Pi3K59F (class III PtdIns3K)-dependent Fyve puncta formation, it inhibited formation of Atg13 puncta, suggesting that Gyf controls autophagy through regulating subcellular localization of the Atg1-Atg13 complex. Gyf silencing also inhibited Atg1-Atg13-induced formation of Atg9 puncta, which is accumulated upon active membrane trafficking into autophagosomes. Gyf-null mutants also exhibited substantial defects in developmental or starvation-induced accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in the larval fat body. Furthermore, heads and thoraxes from Gyf-null adults exhibited strongly reduced expression of autophagosome-associated Atg8a-II compared to wild-type (WT) tissues. The decrease in Atg8a-II was directly correlated with an increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria in neuron and muscle, which together led to severe locomotor defects and early mortality. These results suggest that Gyf-mediated autophagy regulation is important for maintaining neuromuscular homeostasis and preventing degenerative pathologies of the tissues. Since human mutations in the GIGYF2 locus were reported to be associated with a type of familial Parkinson disease, the homeostatic role of Gyf-family proteins is likely to be evolutionarily conserved. PMID:26086452

  20. A homologue of AMP-activated protein kinase in Drosophila melanogaster is sensitive to AMP and is activated by ATP depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, David A; Hardie, D Grahame

    2002-01-01

    We have identified single genes encoding homologues of the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Kinase activity could be detected in extracts of a Drosophila cell line using the SAMS peptide, which is a relatively specific substrate for the AMPK/SNF1 kinases in mammals and yeast. Expression of double stranded (ds) RNAs targeted at any of the putative alpha, beta or gamma subunits ablated this activity, and abolished expression of the alpha subunit. The Drosophila kinase (DmAMPK) was activated by AMP in cell-free assays (albeit to a smaller extent than mammalian AMPK), and by stresses that deplete ATP (oligomycin and hypoxia), as well as by carbohydrate deprivation, in intact cells. Using a phosphospecific antibody, we showed that activation was associated with phosphorylation of a threonine residue (Thr-184) within the 'activation loop' of the alpha subunit. We also identified a homologue of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (DmACC) in Drosophila and, using a phosphospecific antibody, showed that the site corresponding to the regulatory AMPK site on the mammalian enzyme became phosphorylated in response to oligomycin or hypoxia. By immunofluorescence microscopy of oligomycin-treated Dmel2 cells using the phosphospecific antibody, the phosphorylated DmAMPK alpha subunit was mainly detected in the nucleus. Our results show that the AMPK system is highly conserved between insects and mammals. Drosophila cells now represent an attractive system to study this pathway, because of the small, well-defined genome and the ability to ablate expression of specific gene products using interfering dsRNAs. PMID:12093363

  1. Characterization of recombinant chitinase-like proteins of Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect chitinase (CHT) family proteins are encoded by as many as 16 genes depending upon species. We have classified these proteins in three species into five different groups based on amino acid sequence similarities (Zhu et al., 2007). The functions of most of the individual proteins of this fam...

  2. Characterization and purification of the Drosophila Kc cell JH binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiuhua.

    1989-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is one of the principal regulators of insect development. First, physical properties of the JH binding protein are characterized using a photoaffinity ligand ({sup 3}H)-EFDA. Second, ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is employed as labeled to examined the behavior of the JH binding protein in several protein separation procedures. The properties of heparin-agarose, hydroxylapatite, gel filtration, ion exchange, and chromatofocusing chromatography are examined for their ability to affect separation of the JH binding protein from other components of Kc cell cytosol. Third, several of the separation procedures are linked sequentially into a JH binding protein purification scheme and the procedure is shown to purify the JH binding protein to homogeneity. Fourth, competition study is carried out to demonstrate the protein purified using ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is JH competable. In addition, JH III, the naturally occurring hormone, is used as the radioligand in this purification procedure, the authenticity of the intracellar JH binding protein is reassured. Fifth, the amino acid composition of the JH binding protein is elucidated. Finally, nanomoles of the purified JH binding protein are collected for protein microsequencing. The sequencing data will be used to synthesize peptide which, in turn, will be used for JH binding protein antibody production.

  3. The Drosophila protein Mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the IMD pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Berkey, Cristin D.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a Drosophila melanogaster transposon insertion mutant with tolerance to V. cholerae infection and markedly decreased transcription of diptericin as well as other genes regulated by the IMD innate immunity signaling pathway. We present genetic evidence that this insertion affects a locus previously implicated in pupal eclosion. This genetic locus, which we have named mustard (mtd), contains a LysM domain, often involved in carbohydrate recognition, and a TLDc domain of unknown function. Over twenty Mtd isoforms containing one or both of these conserved domains are predicted. We establish that the mutant phenotype represents a gain of function and can be replicated by increased expression of a short, nuclearly localized Mtd isoform comprised almost entirely of the TLDc domain. We show that this Mtd isoform does not block Relish cleavage or translocation into the nucleus. Lastly, we present evidence suggesting that the eclosion defect previously attributed to the Mtd locus may be the result of the unopposed action of the NF-κB homolog, Relish. Mtd homologs have been implicated in resistance to oxidative stress. However, this is the first evidence that Mtd or its homologs alter the output of an innate immunity signaling cascade from within the nucleus. PMID:22427641

  4. Conserved DNA binding and self-association domains of the Drosophila zeste protein.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J D; Chan, C S; Pirrotta, V

    1992-01-01

    The zeste gene product is involved in two types of genetic effects dependent on chromosome pairing: transvection and the zeste-white interaction. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence with that of the Drosophila virilis gene shows that several blocks of amino acid sequence have been very highly conserved. One of these regions corresponds to the DNA binding domain. Site-directed mutations in this region indicate that a sequence resembling that of the homeodomain DNA recognition helix is essential for DNA binding activity. The integrity of an amphipathic helical region is also essential for binding activity and is likely to be responsible for dimerization of the DNA binding domain. Another very strongly conserved domain of zeste is the C-terminal region, predicted to form a long helical structure with two sets of heptad repeats that constitute two long hydrophobic ridges at opposite ends and on opposite faces of the helix. We show that this domain is responsible for the extensive aggregation properties of zeste that are required for its role in transvection phenomena. A model is proposed according to which the hydrophobic ridges induce the formation of open-ended coiled-coil structures holding together many hundreds of zeste molecules and possibly anchoring these complexes to other nuclear structures. Images PMID:1732733

  5. The gap protein knirps mediates both quenching and direct repression in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Arnosti, D N; Gray, S; Barolo, S; Zhou, J; Levine, M

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional repression is essential for establishing localized patterns of gene expression during Drosophila embryogenesis. Several mechanisms of repression have been proposed, including competition, quenching and direct repression of the transcription complex. Previous studies suggest that the knirps orphan receptor (kni) may repress transcription via competition, and exclude the binding of the bicoid (bcd) activator to an overlapping site in a target promoter. Here we present evidence that kni can quench, or locally inhibit, upstream activators within a heterologous enhancer in transgenic embryos. The range of kni repression is approximately 50-100 bp, so that neighboring enhancers in a modular promoter are free to interact with the transcription complex (enhancer autonomy). However, kni can also repress the transcription complex when bound in promoter-proximal regions. In this position, kni functions as a dominant repressor and blocks multiple enhancers in a modular promoter. Our studies suggest that short-range repression represents a flexible form of gene regulation, exhibiting enhancer- or promoter-specific effects depending on the location of repressor binding sites. Images PMID:8670869

  6. Yeast ortholog of the Drosophila crooked neck protein promotes spliceosome assembly through stable U4/U6.U5 snRNP addition.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S; McLean, M R; Rymond, B C

    1999-01-01

    Mutants in the Drosophila crooked neck (crn) gene show an embryonic lethal phenotype with severe developmental defects. The unusual crn protein consists of sixteen tandem repeats of the 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein recognition domain. Crn-like TPR elements are found in several RNA processing proteins, although it is unknown how the TPR repeats or the crn protein contribute to Drosophila development. We have isolated a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, CLF1, that encodes a crooked neck-like factor. CLF1 is an essential gene but the lethal phenotype of a clf1::HIS3 chromosomal null mutant can be rescued by plasmid-based expression of CLF1 or the Drosophila crn open reading frame. Clf1p is required in vivo and in vitro for pre-mRNA 5' splice site cleavage. Extracts depleted of Clf1p arrest spliceosome assembly after U2 snRNP addition but prior to productive U4/U6.U5 association. Yeast two-hybrid analyses and in vitro binding studies show that Clf1p interacts specifically and differentially with the U1 snRNP-Prp40p protein and the yeast U2AF65 homolog, Mud2p. Intriguingly, Prp40p and Mud2p also bind the phylogenetically conserved branchpoint binding protein (BBP/SF1). Our results indicate that Clf1p acts as a scaffolding protein in spliceosome assembly and suggest that Clf1p may support the cross-intron bridge during the prespliceosome-to-spliceosome transition. PMID:10445879

  7. Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3a Regulates Synaptic Growth and Endocytosis by Inhibiting BMP Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Zhu, Yong-chuan; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Qifu; Jin, Shan; Zhao, Guoli; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yong Q.

    2016-01-01

    Altered expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A, which is involved in protein degradation through the proteasome-mediated pathway, is associated with neurodevelopmental and behavioral defects observed in Angelman syndrome (AS) and autism. However, little is known about the neuronal function of UBE3A and the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. To understand the in vivo function of UBE3A in the nervous system, we generated multiple mutations of ube3a, the Drosophila ortholog of UBE3A. We found a significantly increased number of total boutons and satellite boutons in conjunction with compromised endocytosis in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of ube3a mutants compared to the wild type. Genetic and biochemical analysis showed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the nervous system of ube3a mutants. An immunochemical study revealed a specific increase in the protein level of Thickveins (Tkv), a type I BMP receptor, but not other BMP receptors Wishful thinking (Wit) and Saxophone (Sax), in ube3a mutants. Ube3a was associated with and specifically ubiquitinated lysine 227 within the cytoplasmic tail of Tkv, and promoted its proteasomal degradation in Schneider 2 cells. Negative regulation of Tkv by Ube3a was conserved in mammalian cells. These results reveal a critical role for Ube3a in regulating NMJ synapse development by repressing BMP signaling. This study sheds new light onto the neuronal functions of UBE3A and provides novel perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. PMID:27232889

  8. Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3a Regulates Synaptic Growth and Endocytosis by Inhibiting BMP Signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Yao, Aiyu; Zhi, Hui; Kaur, Kuldeep; Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Jia, Mingyue; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Qifu; Jin, Shan; Zhao, Guoli; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yong Q

    2016-05-01

    Altered expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A, which is involved in protein degradation through the proteasome-mediated pathway, is associated with neurodevelopmental and behavioral defects observed in Angelman syndrome (AS) and autism. However, little is known about the neuronal function of UBE3A and the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. To understand the in vivo function of UBE3A in the nervous system, we generated multiple mutations of ube3a, the Drosophila ortholog of UBE3A. We found a significantly increased number of total boutons and satellite boutons in conjunction with compromised endocytosis in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of ube3a mutants compared to the wild type. Genetic and biochemical analysis showed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the nervous system of ube3a mutants. An immunochemical study revealed a specific increase in the protein level of Thickveins (Tkv), a type I BMP receptor, but not other BMP receptors Wishful thinking (Wit) and Saxophone (Sax), in ube3a mutants. Ube3a was associated with and specifically ubiquitinated lysine 227 within the cytoplasmic tail of Tkv, and promoted its proteasomal degradation in Schneider 2 cells. Negative regulation of Tkv by Ube3a was conserved in mammalian cells. These results reveal a critical role for Ube3a in regulating NMJ synapse development by repressing BMP signaling. This study sheds new light onto the neuronal functions of UBE3A and provides novel perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. PMID:27232889

  9. Biophysical characterization of refolded Drosophila Spätzle, a cystine knot protein, reveals distinct properties of three isoforms.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Anita; Funkner, Andreas; Neumann, Piotr; Juhnke, Susanne; Walther, Matthias; Schierhorn, Angelika; Weininger, Ulrich; Balbach, Jochen; Reuter, Gunter; Stubbs, Milton T

    2008-11-21

    The Drosophila Spätzle protein, involved in the embryonic development of the dorsal-ventral axis and in the adult immune response, is expressed as a proprotein and is activated by the serine proteinases Easter or Spätzle-processing enzyme. Proteolytic cleavage generates a 106-amino acid COOH-terminal fragment, C106, homologous to the mature form of nerve growth factor NGF, a cystine knot protein. Through alternative splicing, the Spätzle gene encodes for several isoforms that (with one exception, the "propeptide isoform") share C106 but differ in the prosequence. Three isoforms have been expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli strains. The propeptide isoform could be expressed in soluble form and is unstructured according to CD and NMR measurements. Dimeric full-length Spätzle isoforms have been refolded from insoluble inclusion bodies and are able to rescue Spätzle-deficient embryos. Although the two full-length isoforms exhibit similar far-UV CD spectra, large differences in tryptophan fluorescence quenching by the respective pro-parts are observed. Both full-length isoforms exhibited highly cooperative folding transitions. Proteolytic digestion using trypsin resulted in C106, whose unfolding exhibits lower thermodynamic stability and cooperativity compared with the full-length proteins. The structure of C106 reveals a T-shaped dimer with significant differences to NGF and a deep internal cavity. Substantial beta-sheet formation is observed between the two monomers, whereas a long loop containing the single tryptophan residue is disordered in the crystals. Our results suggest that the propeptides stabilize the tertiary structure of the "mature" Spätzle cystine knot. PMID:18790733

  10. A Hypomorphic Mutation Reveals a Stringent Requirement for the ATM Checkpoint Protein in Telomere Protection During Early Cell Division in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Morciano, Patrizia; Zhang, Yi; Cenci, Giovanni; Rong, Yikang S.

    2013-01-01

    Using Drosophila as a model system, we identified a stringent requirement for the conserved function of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) in telomere protection during early embryonic development. Animals homozygous for a hypomorphic mutation in atm develop normally with minimal telomere dysfunction. However, mutant females produce inviable embryos that succumb to mitotic failure caused by covalent fusions of telomeric DNA. Interestingly, although the atm mutation encodes a premature stop codon, it must not have eliminated the production of the mutant protein, and the mutant protein retains kinase activity upon DNA damage. Moreover, although the embryonic phenotype of this mutation resembles that of hypomorphic mutations in the MRN complex, the function of MRN appears normal in the atm embryos. In contrast, there is a prominent reduction of the level of HipHop, an essential member of the Drosophila capping complex. How ATM functions in telomere protection remains poorly understood. The amenability of Drosophila embryos to molecular and biochemical investigations ensures that this newly identified mutation will facilitate future studies of ATM in telomere maintenance. PMID:23604076

  11. A hypomorphic mutation reveals a stringent requirement for the ATM checkpoint protein in telomere protection during early cell division in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Morciano, Patrizia; Zhang, Yi; Cenci, Giovanni; Rong, Yikang S

    2013-06-01

    Using Drosophila as a model system, we identified a stringent requirement for the conserved function of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) in telomere protection during early embryonic development. Animals homozygous for a hypomorphic mutation in atm develop normally with minimal telomere dysfunction. However, mutant females produce inviable embryos that succumb to mitotic failure caused by covalent fusions of telomeric DNA. Interestingly, although the atm mutation encodes a premature stop codon, it must not have eliminated the production of the mutant protein, and the mutant protein retains kinase activity upon DNA damage. Moreover, although the embryonic phenotype of this mutation resembles that of hypomorphic mutations in the MRN complex, the function of MRN appears normal in the atm embryos. In contrast, there is a prominent reduction of the level of HipHop, an essential member of the Drosophila capping complex. How ATM functions in telomere protection remains poorly understood. The amenability of Drosophila embryos to molecular and biochemical investigations ensures that this newly identified mutation will facilitate future studies of ATM in telomere maintenance. PMID:23604076

  12. Specific Localization of the Drosophila Telomere Transposon Proteins and RNAs, Give Insight in Their Behavior, Control and Telomere Biology in This Organism

    PubMed Central

    López-Panadès, Elisenda; Gavis, Elizabeth R.; Casacuberta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila telomeres constitute a remarkable exception to the telomerase mechanism. Although maintaining the same cytological and functional properties as telomerase maintain telomeres, Drosophila telomeres embed the telomere retrotransposons whose specific and highly regulated terminal transposition maintains the appropriate telomere length in this organism. Nevertheless, our current understanding of how the mechanism of the retrotransposon telomere works and which features are shared with the telomerase system is very limited. We report for the first time a detailed study of the localization of the main components that constitute the telomeres in Drosophila, HeT-A and TART RNAs and proteins. Our results in wild type and mutant strains reveal localizations of HeT-A Gag and TART Pol that give insight in the behavior of the telomere retrotransposons and their control. We find that TART Pol and HeT-A Gag only co-localize at the telomeres during the interphase of cells undergoing mitotic cycles. In addition, unexpected protein and RNA localizations with a well-defined pattern in cells such as the ovarian border cells and nurse cells, suggest possible strategies for the telomere transposons to reach the oocyte, and/or additional functions that might be important for the correct development of the organism. Finally, we have been able to visualize the telomere RNAs at different ovarian stages of development in wild type and mutant lines, demonstrating their presence in spite of being tightly regulated by the piRNA mechanism. PMID:26068215

  13. A microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity suitable for the analysis of large numbers of samples, and its application to the study of Drosophila learning mutants.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, J D; Dudai, Y

    1988-02-15

    We have developed a microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity which depends on the immobilization of substrate proteins to nitrocellulose. The technique makes use of a filtration manifold, allowing as much as a 10-fold increase in efficiency as compared to other protein kinase assays. We have used this assay to measure cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in Drosophila learning and memory mutants, with exogenous and endogenous substrates. An alteration was found in the affinity of PKA in the mutant turnip. The procedure should be useful for rapid screening of mutants and drugs and could be adapted to additional types of protein kinases as well as protein phosphatases. PMID:3369684

  14. Dilatory is a Drosophila protein related to AZI1 (CEP131) that is located at the ciliary base and required for cilium formation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Jarman, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of ciliary disease genes have been found to encode proteins that localise to the basal body. By contrast, a large number of basal-body-associated proteins remain to be characterised. Here, we report the identification of a new basal body protein that is required for ciliogenesis in Drosophila. Dilatory (DILA) is a predicted coiled-coil protein homologous to vertebrate AZI1 (also known as CEP131). Mutations in dila specifically exhibit defects in ciliated cells (sensory neurons and sperm). Several features of the neuronal phenotype suggest a defect in intraflagellar transport. In sensory neuron cilia, DILA protein localises to the ciliary base, including the basal body and putative transition zone, and it interacts genetically with the ciliary coiled-coil protein, Uncoordinated. These data implicate DILA in regulating intraflagellar transport at the base of sensory cilia. PMID:21750193

  15. The Y chromosomal fertility factor Threads in Drosophila hydei harbors a functional gene encoding an axonemal dynein beta heavy chain protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kurek, R; Reugels, A M; Glätzer, K H; Bünemann, H

    1998-01-01

    To understand the contradiction between megabase-sized lampbrush loops and putative protein encoding genes both associated with the loci of Y chromosomal fertility genes of Drosophila on the molecular level, we used PCR-mediated cloning to identify and isolate the cDNA sequence of the Y chromosomal Drosophila hydei gene DhDhc7(Y). Alignment of the sequences of the putative protein DhDhc7(Y) and the outer arm dynein beta heavy chain protein DYH2 of Tripneustes gratilla shows homology over the entire length of the protein chains. Therefore the proteins can be assumed to fulfill orthologous functions within the sperm tail axonemes of both species. Functional dynein beta heavy chain molecules, however, are necessary for the assembly and attachment of outer dynein arms within the sperm tail axoneme. Localization of DhDhc7(Y) to the fertility factor Threads, comprising at least 5.1 Mb of transcriptionally active repetitive DNA, results from an infertile Threads- mutant where large clusters of Threads specifically transcribed satellites and parts of DhDhc7(Y) encoding sequences are missing simultaneously. Consequently, the complete lack of the outer dynein arms in Threads- males most probably causes sperm immotility and hence infertility of the fly. Moreover, preliminary sequence analysis and several other features support the hypothesis that DhDhc7(Y) on the lampbrush loops Threads in D. hydei and Dhc-Yh3 on the lampbrush loops kl-5 in Drosophila melanogaster on the heterochromatic Y chromosome of both species might indeed code for orthologous dynein beta heavy chain proteins. PMID:9649526

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel family of Drosophila beta-adrenergic-like octopamine G-protein coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Maqueira, Braudel; Chatwin, Heather; Evans, Peter D

    2005-07-01

    Insect octopamine receptors carry out many functional roles traditionally associated with vertebrate adrenergic receptors. These include control of carbohydrate metabolism, modulation of muscular tension, modulation of sensory inputs and modulation of memory and learning. The activation of octopamine receptors mediating many of these actions leads to increases in the levels of cyclic AMP. However, to date none of the insect octopamine receptors that have been cloned have been convincingly shown to be capable of directly mediating selective and significant increases in cyclic AMP levels. Here we report on the identification and characterization of a novel, neuronally expressed family of three Drosophila G-protein coupled receptors that are selectively coupled to increases in intracellular cyclic AMP levels by octopamine. This group of receptors, DmOct beta1R (CG6919), DmOct beta2R (CG6989) and DmOct beta3R (CG7078) shows homology to vertebrate beta-adrenergic receptors. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells all three receptors show a strong preference for octopamine over tyramine for the accumulation of cyclic AMP but show unique pharmacological profiles when tested with a range of synthetic agonists and antagonists. Thus, the pharmacological profile of individual insect tissue responses to octopamine might vary with the combination and the degree of expression of the individual octopamine receptors present. PMID:15998303

  17. SEMINAL PROTEINS BUT NOT SPERM INDUCE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DURING SPERM STORAGE

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Erika M.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2007-01-01

    In most insects, sperm transferred by the male to the female during mating are stored within the female reproductive tract for subsequent use in fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, male accessory gland proteins (Acps) within the seminal fluid are required for efficient transfer and subsequent accumulation of sperm in the female's sperm storage organs. To determine the events within the female reproductive tract that occur during sperm storage, and the role that Acps and sperm play in these events, we identified morphological changes that take place during sperm storage in females mated to wild-type, Acp-deficient or sperm-deficient males. A reproducible set of morphological changes occurs in a wild-type mating. These were categorized into 10 stereotypic stages. Sperm are not needed for progression through these stages in females, but receipt of Acps is essential for progression beyond the first few stages of morphological changes. Furthermore, females that received small quantities of Acps reached slightly later stages than females that received no Acps. Our results suggest that timely morphological changes in the female reproductive tract, possibly muscular in nature, may be needed for successful sperm storage, and that Acps from the male are needed in order for these changes to occur. PMID:17276455

  18. MetaBlasts: tracing protein tyrosine phosphatase gene family roots from Man to Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes.

    PubMed

    Wälchli, S; Colinge, J; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, R

    2000-08-01

    At increasing speed, sequencing data are being made public from both complex and simple life forms. Although biomedical interests tend to focus on mammalian genes, only simple organisms allow rapid genetic manipulation and functional analysis. A prerequisite for the meaningful extrapolation of gene functional studies from invertebrates to man is that the orthologs under study are unambiguously linked. However, identifying orthologs is not trivial, especially where large gene families are involved. We present here an automated sequence analysis procedure that allows a rapid visualization of most likely ortholog pairs. We illustrate the utility of this approach for the human gene family of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) as compared with the full set of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster conceptual ORFs. The approach is based on a reciprocal series of BLAST searches, which are automatically stored and represented in an HTML-formatted table. We have used this 'MetaBlast' approach to compile lists of human PTPs and their worm and fly orthologs. Many of these PTP orthologs had not been previously identified as such. PMID:10940550

  19. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Katja E.; James, Andrew M.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Harbour, Michael E.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster. PMID:26095360

  20. Association of Polymorphisms in Odorant-Binding Protein Genes With Variation in Olfactory Response to Benzaldehyde in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Lyman, Richard F.; Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Anholt, Robert R. H.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive evolution of animals depends on behaviors that are essential for their survival and reproduction. The olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as one of the best characterized olfactory systems, which in addition to a family of odorant receptors, contains an approximately equal number of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), encoded by a multigene family of 51 genes. Despite their abundant expression, little is known about their role in chemosensation, largely due to the lack of available mutations in these genes. We capitalized on naturally occurring mutations (polymorphisms) to gain insights into their functions. We analyzed the sequences of 13 Obp genes in two chromosomal clusters in a population of wild-derived inbred lines, and asked whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with variation in olfactory responsiveness. Four polymorphisms in 3 Obp genes exceeded the statistical permutation threshold for association with responsiveness to benzaldehyde, suggesting redundancy and/or combinatorial recognition by these OBPs of this odorant. Model predictions of alternative pre-mRNA secondary structures associated with polymorphic sites suggest that alterations in Obp mRNA structure could contribute to phenotypic variation in olfactory behavior. PMID:17720903

  1. Nuclear Pore Proteins Nup153 and Megator Define Transcriptionally Active Regions in the Drosophila Genome

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kota; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Akhtar, Asifa

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important processes for modulating gene expression. Though much of this control is attributed to transcription factors, histones, and associated enzymes, it is increasingly apparent that the spatial organization of chromosomes within the nucleus has a profound effect on transcriptional activity. Studies in yeast indicate that the nuclear pore complex might promote transcription by recruiting chromatin to the nuclear periphery. In higher eukaryotes, however, it is not known whether such regulation has global significance. Here we establish nucleoporins as a major class of global regulators for gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Using chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with microarray hybridisation, we show that Nup153 and Megator (Mtor) bind to 25% of the genome in continuous domains extending 10 kb to 500 kb. These Nucleoporin-Associated Regions (NARs) are dominated by markers for active transcription, including high RNA polymerase II occupancy and histone H4K16 acetylation. RNAi–mediated knock-down of Nup153 alters the expression of ∼5,700 genes, with a pronounced down-regulatory effect within NARs. We find that nucleoporins play a central role in coordinating dosage compensation—an organism-wide process involving the doubling of expression of the male X chromosome. NARs are enriched on the male X chromosome and occupy 75% of this chromosome. Furthermore, Nup153-depletion abolishes the normal function of the male-specific dosage compensation complex. Finally, by extensive 3D imaging, we demonstrate that NARs contribute to gene expression control irrespective of their sub-nuclear localization. Therefore, we suggest that NAR–binding is used for chromosomal organization that enables gene expression control. PMID:20174442

  2. rugose (rg), a Drosophila A kinase anchor protein, is required for retinal pattern formation and interacts genetically with multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Shamloula, Hoda K; Mbogho, Mkajuma P; Pimentel, Angel C; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zosia M A; Hyatt, Vanneta; Okano, Hideyuki; Venkatesh, Tadmiri R

    2002-01-01

    In the developing Drosophila eye, cell fate determination and pattern formation are directed by cell-cell interactions mediated by signal transduction cascades. Mutations at the rugose locus (rg) result in a rough eye phenotype due to a disorganized retina and aberrant cone cell differentiation, which leads to reduction or complete loss of cone cells. The cone cell phenotype is sensitive to the level of rugose gene function. Molecular analyses show that rugose encodes a Drosophila A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550). Genetic interaction studies show that rugose interacts with the components of the EGFR- and Notch-mediated signaling pathways. Our results suggest that rg is required for correct retinal pattern formation and may function in cell fate determination through its interactions with the EGFR and Notch signaling pathways. PMID:12072466

  3. The dMRP/CG6214 gene of Drosophila is evolutionarily and functionally related to the human multidrug resistance-associated protein family.

    PubMed

    Tarnay, J N; Szeri, F; Iliás, A; Annilo, T; Sung, C; Le Saux, O; Váradi, A; Dean, M; Boyd, C D; Robinow, S

    2004-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in the transport of substrates across biological membranes and are essential for many cellular processes. Of the fifty-six Drosophila ABC transporter genes only white, brown, scarlet, E23 and Atet have been studied in detail. Phylogenetic analyses identify the Drosophila gene dMRP/CG6214 as an orthologue to the human multidrug-resistance associated proteins MRP1, MRP2, MRP3 and MRP6. To study evolutionarily conserved roles of MRPs we have initiated a characterization of dMRP. In situ hybridization and Northern analysis indicate that dMRP is expressed throughout development and appears to be head enriched in adults. Functional studies indicate that DMRP is capable of transporting a known MRP1 substrate and establishes DMRP as a high capacity ATP-dependent, vanadate-sensitive organic anion transporter. PMID:15373810

  4. Production of full-length soluble Plasmodium falciparum RH5 protein vaccine using a Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 stable cell line system.

    PubMed

    Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Jin, Jing; Wright, Katherine E; Brown, Rebecca E; Marshall, Jennifer M; Labbé, Geneviève M; Silk, Sarah E; Cherry, Catherine J; Clemmensen, Stine B; Jørgensen, Thomas; Illingworth, Joseph J; Alanine, Daniel G W; Milne, Kathryn H; Ashfield, Rebecca; de Jongh, Willem A; Douglas, Alexander D; Higgins, Matthew K; Draper, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) has recently emerged as a leading candidate antigen against the blood-stage human malaria parasite. However it has proved challenging to identify a heterologous expression platform that can produce a soluble protein-based vaccine in a manner compliant with current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). Here we report the production of full-length PfRH5 protein using a cGMP-compliant platform called ExpreS(2), based on a Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) stable cell line system. Five sequence variants of PfRH5 were expressed that differed in terms of mutagenesis strategies to remove potential N-linked glycans. All variants bound the PfRH5 receptor basigin and were recognized by a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Analysis following immunization of rabbits identified quantitative and qualitative differences in terms of the functional IgG antibody response against the P. falciparum parasite. The antibodies induced by one protein variant were shown to be qualitatively similar to responses induced by other vaccine platforms. This work identifies Drosophila S2 cells as a clinically-relevant platform suited for the production of 'difficult-to-make' proteins from Plasmodium parasites, and identifies a PfRH5 sequence variant that can be used for clinical production of a non-glycosylated, soluble full-length protein vaccine immunogen. PMID:27457156

  5. Production of full-length soluble Plasmodium falciparum RH5 protein vaccine using a Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 stable cell line system

    PubMed Central

    Hjerrild, Kathryn A.; Jin, Jing; Wright, Katherine E.; Brown, Rebecca E.; Marshall, Jennifer M.; Labbé, Geneviève M.; Silk, Sarah E.; Cherry, Catherine J.; Clemmensen, Stine B.; Jørgensen, Thomas; Illingworth, Joseph J.; Alanine, Daniel G. W.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Ashfield, Rebecca; de Jongh, Willem A.; Douglas, Alexander D.; Higgins, Matthew K.; Draper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) has recently emerged as a leading candidate antigen against the blood-stage human malaria parasite. However it has proved challenging to identify a heterologous expression platform that can produce a soluble protein-based vaccine in a manner compliant with current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). Here we report the production of full-length PfRH5 protein using a cGMP-compliant platform called ExpreS2, based on a Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) stable cell line system. Five sequence variants of PfRH5 were expressed that differed in terms of mutagenesis strategies to remove potential N-linked glycans. All variants bound the PfRH5 receptor basigin and were recognized by a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Analysis following immunization of rabbits identified quantitative and qualitative differences in terms of the functional IgG antibody response against the P. falciparum parasite. The antibodies induced by one protein variant were shown to be qualitatively similar to responses induced by other vaccine platforms. This work identifies Drosophila S2 cells as a clinically-relevant platform suited for the production of ‘difficult-to-make’ proteins from Plasmodium parasites, and identifies a PfRH5 sequence variant that can be used for clinical production of a non-glycosylated, soluble full-length protein vaccine immunogen. PMID:27457156

  6. p75, a polypeptide component of karyoskeletal protein-enriched fractions associated with transcriptionally active loci of Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Benton, B M; Berrios, S; Fisher, P A

    1988-01-01

    A 75-kilodalton polypeptide has been identified which copurifies with karyoskeletal protein-enriched fractions prepared from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Results of indirect immunofluorescence experiments suggest that this protein, here designated p75, is primarily associated with puffed regions of larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes. In nonpolytenized Schneider 2 tissue culture cells, p75 appeared to be localized throughout the nuclear interior during interphase. In mitotic cells, p75 was redistributed diffusely. A possible role for karyoskeletal elements in transcriptional regulation is discussed. Images PMID:3133549

  7. Down-Regulation of Decapping Protein 2 Mediates Chronic Nicotine Exposure-Induced Locomotor Hyperactivity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Jinghan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Tong; Ren, Qingzhong; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2012-01-01

    Long-term tobacco use causes nicotine dependence via the regulation of a wide range of genes and is accompanied by various health problems. Studies in mammalian systems have revealed some key factors involved in the effects of nicotine, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), dopamine and other neurotransmitters. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways that link nicotine-induced molecular and behavioral modifications remain elusive. Utilizing a chronic nicotine administration paradigm, we found that adult male fruit flies exhibited locomotor hyperactivity after three consecutive days of nicotine exposure, while nicotine-naive flies did not. Strikingly, this chronic nicotine-induced locomotor hyperactivity (cNILH) was abolished in Decapping Protein 2 or 1 (Dcp2 or Dcp1) -deficient flies, while only Dcp2-deficient flies exhibited higher basal levels of locomotor activity than controls. These results indicate that Dcp2 plays a critical role in the response to chronic nicotine exposure. Moreover, the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of Dcp2 in the fly head was suppressed by chronic nicotine treatment, and up-regulation of Dcp2 expression in the nervous system blocked cNILH. These results indicate that down-regulation of Dcp2 mediates chronic nicotine-exposure-induced locomotor hyperactivity in Drosophila. The decapping proteins play a major role in mRNA degradation; however, their function in the nervous system has rarely been investigated. Our findings reveal a significant role for the mRNA decapping pathway in developing locomotor hyperactivity in response to chronic nicotine exposure and identify Dcp2 as a potential candidate for future research on nicotine dependence. PMID:23300696

  8. The Suppressor of Hairy-Wing Protein Regulates the Tissue-Specific Expression of the Drosophila Gypsy Retrotransposon

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P. A.; Corces, V. G.

    1995-01-01

    The gypsy retrotransposon of Drosophila melanogaster causes mutations that show temporal and tissue-specific phenotypes. These mutant phenotypes can be reversed by mutations in su(Hw), a gene that also regulates the transcription of the gypsy element. Gypsy encodes a full-length 7.0-kb RNA that is expressed in the salivary gland precursors and fat body of the embryo, imaginal discs and fat body of larvae, and fat body and ovaries of adult females. The su(Hw)-binding region inserted upstream of the promoter of a lacZ reporter gene can induce β-galactosidase expression in a subset of the embryonic and larval tissues where gypsy is normally transcribed. This expression is dependent on the presence of a functional su(Hw) product, suggesting that this protein is a positive activator of gypsy transcription. Flies transformed with a construct in which the 5' LTR and leader sequences of gypsy are fused to lacZ show β-galactosidase expression in all tissues where gypsy is normally expressed, indicating that sequences other than the su(Hw)-binding site are required for proper spatial and temporal expression of gypsy. Mutations in the zinc fingers of su(Hw) affect its ability to bind DNA and to induce transcription of the lacZ reporter gene. Two other structural domains of su(Hw) also play an important role in transcriptional regulation of gypsy. Deletion of the amino-terminal acidic domain results in the loss of lacZ expression in larval fat body and adult ovaries, whereas mutations in the leucine zipper region result in an increase of lacZ expression in larval fat body and a decrease in adult ovaries. These effects might be the result of interactions of su(Hw) with activator and repressor proteins through the acidic and leucine zipper domains to produce the final pattern of tissue-specific expression of gypsy. PMID:7705625

  9. The HMG-box-containing proteins tHMG-1 and tHMG-2 interact during the histone-to-protamine transition in Drosophila spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefanie M K; Rothenbusch, Silke; Buxa, Melanie K; Theofel, Ina; Renkawitz, Rainer; Rathke, Christina; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is accompanied by a remarkable reorganization of the chromatin in post-meiotic stages, characterized by a near genome-wide displacement of histones by protamines and a transient expression of transition proteins. In Drosophila, the transition-protein-like protein Tpl94D contains an HMG-box domain and is expressed during chromatin reorganization. Here, we searched for additional HMG-box-containing proteins with a similar expression pattern. We identified two proteins specifically expressed in the testis, tHMG-1 and tHMG-2, whose expression levels were highest during the histone-to-protamine transition. Protein-protein interaction studies revealed that tHMG-1 and tHMG-2 form heterodimers in vivo. We demonstrated that Tpl94D, tHMG-1 and tHMG-2 localize to chromatin of the male germ line, with the most abundant levels observed during post-meiotic chromatin reorganization. Analysis of a tpl94D mutant showed that the C-terminal region of Tpl94D is dispensable for fertility. These data strongly suggested either that the truncated protein, which still contains the N-terminal HMG-box domain, is functional or that other proteins act in functional redundancy with Tpl94D during spermiogenesis. A thmg-1/thmg-2 null mutant also had no detectable specific phenotype, but hmgz, which encodes the major somatic HMG-box-containing protein HMGZ, was transcriptionally up-regulated. Our results showed that Drosophila spermatogenesis is characterized by continuous and overlapping expression of different HMG-box-containing proteins. We hypothesize that the mechanism of chromatin reorganization is a process highly secured by redundancies. PMID:25464903

  10. Loss of function of the Drosophila Ninein-related centrosomal protein Bsg25D causes mitotic defects and impairs embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kowanda, Michelle; Bergalet, Julie; Wieczorek, Michal; Brouhard, Gary; Lécuyer, Éric; Lasko, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The centrosome-associated proteins Ninein (Nin) and Ninein-like protein (Nlp) play significant roles in microtubule stability, nucleation and anchoring at the centrosome in mammalian cells. Here, we investigate Blastoderm specific gene 25D (Bsg25D), which encodes the only Drosophila protein that is closely related to Nin and Nlp. In early embryos, we find that Bsg25D mRNA and Bsg25D protein are closely associated with centrosomes and astral microtubules. We show that sequences within the coding region and 3'UTR of Bsg25D mRNAs are important for proper localization of this transcript in oogenesis and embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of eGFP-Bsg25D from an unlocalized mRNA disrupts microtubule polarity in mid-oogenesis and compromises the distribution of the axis polarity determinant Gurken. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that an N-terminal fragment of Bsg25D can bind microtubules in vitro and can move along them, predominantly toward minus-ends. While flies homozygous for a Bsg25D null mutation are viable and fertile, 70% of embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Bsg25D do not hatch and exhibit chromosome segregation defects, as well as detachment of centrosomes from mitotic spindles. We conclude that Bsg25D is a centrosomal protein that, while dispensable for viability, nevertheless helps ensure the integrity of mitotic divisions in Drosophila. PMID:27422905

  11. Loss of function of the Drosophila Ninein-related centrosomal protein Bsg25D causes mitotic defects and impairs embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Kowanda, Michelle; Bergalet, Julie; Wieczorek, Michal; Brouhard, Gary; Lécuyer, Éric

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The centrosome-associated proteins Ninein (Nin) and Ninein-like protein (Nlp) play significant roles in microtubule stability, nucleation and anchoring at the centrosome in mammalian cells. Here, we investigate Blastoderm specific gene 25D (Bsg25D), which encodes the only Drosophila protein that is closely related to Nin and Nlp. In early embryos, we find that Bsg25D mRNA and Bsg25D protein are closely associated with centrosomes and astral microtubules. We show that sequences within the coding region and 3′UTR of Bsg25D mRNAs are important for proper localization of this transcript in oogenesis and embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of eGFP-Bsg25D from an unlocalized mRNA disrupts microtubule polarity in mid-oogenesis and compromises the distribution of the axis polarity determinant Gurken. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that an N-terminal fragment of Bsg25D can bind microtubules in vitro and can move along them, predominantly toward minus-ends. While flies homozygous for a Bsg25D null mutation are viable and fertile, 70% of embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Bsg25D do not hatch and exhibit chromosome segregation defects, as well as detachment of centrosomes from mitotic spindles. We conclude that Bsg25D is a centrosomal protein that, while dispensable for viability, nevertheless helps ensure the integrity of mitotic divisions in Drosophila. PMID:27422905

  12. Isolation of a human gene with protein sequence similarity to human and murine int-1 and the Drosophila segment polarity mutant wingless.

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, B J; Scambler, P J; Stanier, P; Watson, E K; Bell, G; Wicking, C; Estivill, X; Courtney, M; Boue, A; Pedersen, P S

    1988-01-01

    An expressed gene sequence which was identified by the isolation of a methylation free CpG island from human chromosome 7 has been cloned from a human lung cDNA library. The deduced protein sequence contains 360 amino acids and has several features of a secreted protein; it is cysteine rich with a signal peptide sequence and two potential asn-linked glycosylation sites. The protein sequence shows marked similarity with human and murine int-1 and their Drosophila homolog wingless (Dint-1). This human int-1 related protein, int-1 and Dint-1 have diverse patterns of expression, but the inferred structural similarities suggest that some of the functional characteristics of these proteins may be shared. Images PMID:2971536

  13. Reexamination of alcohol dehydrogenase structural mutants in Drosophila using protein blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Hollocher, H.; Place, A.R.

    1987-06-01

    Using protein blotting and an immuno-overlay procedure, the authors have reexamined the cross-reacting material produced by ADH null-activity mutants generated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Of the 13 mutants, 11 have an immunodetectable polypeptide of wild-type size. The native and urea denatured isoelectric points (pI) establish that 7 of 13 of the mutations have no effect on protein charge. The electrophoretic mobilities of each variant on increasing percent acrylamide gels (Ferguson analysis), reveal that 9 of the 11 immunodetectable mutations have retained the ability form dimers under native conditions. None of the inactive mutant proteins has the ability to form the adduct-bound isozyme. The authors have found no correlation between protein pI and i vivo stability. The observed frequencies of specific charge class alterations do not dispute the propensity of G:A transitions previously found for EMS mutagenesis.

  14. Peptidergic Cell-Specific Synaptotagmins in Drosophila: Localization to Dense-Core Granules and Regulation by the bHLH Protein DIMMED

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dongkook; Li, Peiyao; Dani, Adish

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are packaged in large dense-core secretory vesicles, which mediate regulated secretion by exocytosis. In a variety of tissues, the regulated release of neurotransmitters and hormones is dependent on calcium levels and controlled by vesicle-associated synaptotagmin (SYT) proteins. Drosophila express seven SYT isoforms, of which two (SYT-α and SYT-β) were previously found to be enriched in neuroendocrine cells. Here we show that SYT-α and SYT-β tissue expression patterns are similar, though not identical. Furthermore, both display significant overlap with the bHLH transcription factor DIMM, a known neuroendocrine (NE) regulator. RNAi-mediated knockdown indicates that both SYT-α and SYT-β functions are essential in identified NE cells as these manipulations phenocopy loss-of-function states for the indicated peptide hormones. In Drosophila cell culture, both SYT-α and neuropeptide cargo form DIMM-dependent fluorescent puncta that are coassociated by super-resolution microscopy. DIMM is required to maintain SYT-α and SYT-β protein levels in DIMM-expressing cells in vivo. In neurons normally lacking all three proteins (DIMM−/SYT-α−/SYT-β−), DIMM misexpression conferred accumulation of endogenous SYT-α and SYT-β proteins. Furthermore transgenic SYT-α does not appreciably accumulate in nonpeptidergic neurons in vivo but does so if DIMM is comisexpressed. Among Drosophila syt genes, only syt-α and syt-β RNA levels are upregulated by DIMM overexpression. Together, these data suggest that SYT-α and SYT-β are important for NE cell physiology, that one or both are integral membrane components of the large dense-core vesicles, and that they are closely regulated by DIMM at a post-transcriptional level. PMID:25253864

  15. Computational analysis of translational readthrough proteins in Drosophila and yeast reveals parallels to alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Macossay-Castillo, Mauricio; Kosol, Simone; Tompa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In translational readthrough (TR) the ribosome continues extending the nascent protein beyond the first in-frame termination codon. Due to the lack of dedicated analyses of eukaryotic TR cases, the associated functional-evolutionary advantages are still unclear. Here, based on a variety of computational methods, we describe the structural and functional properties of previously proposed D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae TR proteins and extensions. We found that in D. melanogaster TR affects long proteins in mainly regulatory roles. Their TR-extensions are structurally disordered and rich in binding motifs, which, together with their cell-type- and developmental stage-dependent inclusion, suggest that similarly to alternatively spliced exons they rewire cellular interaction networks in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. In contrast, yeast TR proteins are rather short and fulfil mainly housekeeping functions, like translation. Yeast extensions usually lack disorder and linear motifs, which precludes elucidating their functional relevance with sufficient confidence. Therefore we propose that by being much more restricted and by lacking clear functional hallmarks in yeast as opposed to fruit fly, TR shows remarkable parallels with alternative splicing. Additionally, the lack of conservation of TR extensions among orthologous TR proteins suggests that TR-mediated functions may be generally specific to lower taxonomic levels. PMID:27561673

  16. Computational analysis of translational readthrough proteins in Drosophila and yeast reveals parallels to alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Pancsa, Rita; Macossay-Castillo, Mauricio; Kosol, Simone; Tompa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In translational readthrough (TR) the ribosome continues extending the nascent protein beyond the first in-frame termination codon. Due to the lack of dedicated analyses of eukaryotic TR cases, the associated functional-evolutionary advantages are still unclear. Here, based on a variety of computational methods, we describe the structural and functional properties of previously proposed D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae TR proteins and extensions. We found that in D. melanogaster TR affects long proteins in mainly regulatory roles. Their TR-extensions are structurally disordered and rich in binding motifs, which, together with their cell-type- and developmental stage-dependent inclusion, suggest that similarly to alternatively spliced exons they rewire cellular interaction networks in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. In contrast, yeast TR proteins are rather short and fulfil mainly housekeeping functions, like translation. Yeast extensions usually lack disorder and linear motifs, which precludes elucidating their functional relevance with sufficient confidence. Therefore we propose that by being much more restricted and by lacking clear functional hallmarks in yeast as opposed to fruit fly, TR shows remarkable parallels with alternative splicing. Additionally, the lack of conservation of TR extensions among orthologous TR proteins suggests that TR-mediated functions may be generally specific to lower taxonomic levels. PMID:27561673

  17. Drosophila coracle, a Member of the Protein 4.1 Superfamily, Has Essential Structural Functions in the Septate Junctions and Developmental Functions in Embryonic and Adult Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Rebecca S.; Ward, Robert E.; Schweizer, Liang; Fehon, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Although extensively studied biochemically, members of the Protein 4.1 superfamily have not been as well characterized genetically. Studies of coracle, a Drosophila Protein 4.1 homologue, provide an opportunity to examine the genetic functions of this gene family. coracle was originally identified as a dominant suppressor of EgfrElp, a hypermorphic form of the Drosophila Epidermal growth factor receptor gene. In this article, we present a phenotypic analysis of coracle, one of the first for a member of the Protein 4.1 superfamily. Screens for new coracle alleles confirm the null coracle phenotype of embryonic lethality and failure in dorsal closure, and they identify additional defects in the embryonic epidermis and salivary glands. Hypomorphic coracle alleles reveal functions in many imaginal tissues. Analysis of coracle mutant cells indicates that Coracle is a necessary structural component of the septate junction required for the maintenance of the transepithelial barrier but is not necessary for apical–basal polarity, epithelial integrity, or cytoskeletal integrity. In addition, coracle phenotypes suggest a specific role in cell signaling events. Finally, complementation analysis provides information regarding the functional organization of Coracle and possibly other Protein 4.1 superfamily members. These studies provide insights into a range of in vivo functions for coracle in developing embryos and adults. PMID:9843584

  18. The Drosophila CPEB Protein Orb2 Has a Novel Expression Pattern and Is Important for Asymmetric Cell Division and Nervous System Function

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Xu, Shuwa; Bhat, Krishna Moorthi; Schedl, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) proteins bind mRNAs to regulate their localization and translation. While the first CPEBs discovered were germline specific, subsequent studies indicate that CPEBs also function in many somatic tissues including the nervous system. Drosophila has two CPEB family members. One of these, orb, plays a key role in the establishment of polarity axes in the developing egg and early embryo, but has no known somatic functions or expression outside of the germline. Here we characterize the other Drosophila CPEB, orb2. Unlike orb, orb2 mRNA and protein are found throughout development in many different somatic tissues. While orb2 mRNA and protein of maternal origin are distributed uniformly in early embryos, this pattern changes as development proceeds and by midembryogenesis the highest levels are found in the CNS and PNS. In the embryonic CNS, Orb2 appears to be concentrated in cell bodies and mostly absent from the longitudinal and commissural axon tracts. In contrast, in the adult brain, the protein is seen in axonal and dendritic terminals. Lethal effects are observed for both RNAi knockdowns and orb2 mutant alleles while surviving adults display locomotion and behavioral defects. We also show that orb2 funtions in asymmetric division of stem cells and precursor cells during the development of the embryonic nervous system and mesoderm. PMID:21900268

  19. The shut-down gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a novel FK506-binding protein essential for the formation of germline cysts during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Munn, K; Steward, R

    2000-09-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the process of oogenesis is initiated with the asymmetric division of a germline stem cell. This division results in the self-renewal of the stem cell and the generation of a daughter cell that undergoes four successive mitotic divisions to produce a germline cyst of 16 cells. Here, we show that shut-down is essential for the normal function of the germline stem cells. Analysis of weak loss-of-function alleles confirms that shut-down is also required at later stages of oogenesis. Clonal analysis indicates that shut-down functions autonomously in the germline. Using a positional cloning approach, we have isolated the shut-down gene. Consistent with its function, the RNA and protein are strongly expressed in the germline stem cells and in 16-cell cysts. The RNA is also present in the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. shut-down encodes a novel Drosophila protein similar to the heat-shock protein-binding immunophilins. Like immunophilins, Shut-down contains an FK506-binding protein domain and a tetratricopeptide repeat. In plants, high-molecular-weight immunophilins have been shown to regulate cell divisions in the root meristem in response to extracellular signals. Our results suggest that shut-down may regulate germ cell divisions in the germarium. PMID:10978289

  20. The black-pearl gene of Drosophila defines a novel conserved protein family and is required for larval growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Gehrsitz, A; Bork, P; Buchner, S; Buchner, E

    2001-01-10

    Using a transposon insertion line of the Drosophila Genome Project we have cloned the black-pearl gene (blp), analyzed cDNA clones, generated various mutants, and characterized their phenotypes. The blp gene codes for a protein of 15.7 kDa calculated molecular weight that has been conserved from yeast to plants and mammals with high homology. A domain of these new proteins shows distant similarity to DnaJ domains indicating a functionally relevant interaction with other proteins. The P element insertion in line P1539 lies within the 5' untranslated leader of the black-pearl gene. Flies homozygous for this insertion are semi-lethal, escapers produce very few offspring and show melanotic inclusions in the hemocoel ('black pearls') similar to various melanotic 'tumor' mutants. Two small deletions confined to the blp gene and two EMS-induced mutations are homozygous lethal. These null mutants appear normal up to a prolonged first instar larval stage but fail to grow and die. Thus in Drosophila the blp gene is specifically required for larval growth. The evolutionary conservation in both unicellular and multicellular organisms suggests for the new protein family described here a fundamental role in cell growth. PMID:11179663

  1. Mutation in P0, a dual function ribosomal protein/apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, modifies gene expression and position effect variegation in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Frolov, M V; Birchler, J A

    1998-01-01

    In a search for modifiers of gene expression with the white eye color gene as a target, a third chromosomal P-element insertion mutant l(3)01544 has been identified that exhibits a strong pigment increase in a white-apricot background. Molecular analysis shows that the P-element insertion is found in the first intron of the gene surrounding the insertion site. Sequencing both the cDNA and genomic fragments revealed that the identified gene is identical to one encoding ribosomal protein P0/apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease. The P-element-induced mutation, l(3)01544, affects the steady-state level of white transcripts and transcripts of some other genes. In addition, l(3)01544 suppresses the variegated phenotypes of In(1)wm4h and In(1)y3P, suggesting a potential involvement of the P0 protein in modifying position effect variegation. The revertant generated by the precise excision of the P element has lost all mutant phenotypes. Recent work revealed that Drosophila ribosomal protein P0 contains an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity. Our results suggest that this multifunctional protein is also involved in regulation of gene expression in Drosophila. PMID:9832526

  2. Lack of the Drosophila BEAF insulator proteins alters regulation of genes in the Antennapedia complex.

    PubMed

    Roy, Swarnava; Jiang, Nan; Hart, Craig M

    2011-02-01

    In a screen based on a rough eye phenotype caused by a dominant negative form of the BEAF-32A and BEAF-32B insulator proteins, we previously identified 17 proteins that genetically interact with BEAF. Eleven of these are developmental transcription factors, seven of which are encoded by the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C). While investigating potential reasons for the genetic interactions, we obtained evidence that BEAF plays a role in the regulation of genes in the ANT-C. BEAF does not localize near the transcription start sites of any genes in the ANT-C, indicating that BEAF does not locally affect regulation of these genes. Although BEAF affects chromatin structure or dynamics, we also found no evidence for a general change in binding to polytene chromosomes in the absence of BEAF. However, because we were unable to detect proteins encoded by ANT-C genes in salivary glands, the DREF and MLE proteins were used as proxies to examine binding. This does not rule out limited effects at particular binding sites or the possibility that BEAF might directly interact with certain transcription factors to affect their binding. In contrast, the embryonic expression levels and patterns of four examined ANT-C genes were altered (bcd, Dfd, ftz, pb). A control gene, Dref, was not affected. A full understanding of the regulation of ANT-C genes during development will have to take the role of BEAF into account. PMID:21132442

  3. Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile hormone-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shemshedini, L.; Wilson, T.G. )

    1990-03-01

    The Met mutant of Drosophila melanogaster is highly resistant to juvenile hormone III (JH III) or its chemical analog, methoprene, an insect growth regulator. Five major mechanisms of insecticide resistance were examined in Met and susceptible Met{sup +} flies. These two strains showed only minor differences when penetration, excretion, tissue sequestration, or metabolism of ({sup 3}H)JH III was measured. In contrast, when we examined JH III binding by a cytosolic binding protein from a JH target tissue, Met strains had a 10-fold lower binding affinity than did Met{sup +} strains. Studies using deficiency-bearing chromosomes provide strong evidence that the Met locus controls the binding protein characteristics and may encode the protein. These studies indicate that resistance in Met flies results from reduced binding affinity of a cytosolic binding protein for JH III.

  4. Phosphorylation of the Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channel Is Regulated by the Phototransduction Cascade and Involves Several Protein Kinases and Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Voolstra, Olaf; Bartels, Jonas-Peter; Oberegelsbacher, Claudia; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a cardinal role in regulating cellular processes in eukaryotes. Phosphorylation of proteins is controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases. We previously reported the light-dependent phosphorylation of the Drosophila transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel at multiple sites. TRP generates the receptor potential upon stimulation of the photoreceptor cell by light. An eye-enriched protein kinase C (eye-PKC) has been implicated in the phosphorylation of TRP by in vitro studies. Other kinases and phosphatases of TRP are elusive. Using phosphospecific antibodies and mass spectrometry, we here show that phosphorylation of most TRP sites depends on the phototransduction cascade and the activity of the TRP ion channel. A candidate screen to identify kinases and phosphatases provided in vivo evidence for an involvement of eye-PKC as well as other kinases and phosphatases in TRP phosphorylation. PMID:24040070

  5. Energy-Dependent Modulation of Glucagon-Like Signaling in Drosophila via the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Braco, Jason T.; Gillespie, Emily L.; Alberto, Gregory E.; Brenman, Jay E.; Johnson, Erik C.

    2012-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the equivalent of mammalian glucagon, as it is the primary insect hormone that causes energy mobilization. In Drosophila, current knowledge of the mechanisms regulating AKH signaling is limited. Here, we report that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is critical for normal AKH secretion during periods of metabolic challenges. Reduction of AMPK in AKH cells causes a suite of behavioral and physiological phenotypes resembling AKH cell ablations. Specifically, reduced AMPK function increases life span during starvation and delays starvation-induced hyperactivity. Neither AKH cell survival nor gene expression is significantly impacted by reduced AMPK function. AKH immunolabeling was significantly higher in animals with reduced AMPK function; this result is paralleled by genetic inhibition of synaptic release, suggesting that AMPK promotes AKH secretion. We observed reduced secretion in AKH cells bearing AMPK mutations employing a specific secretion reporter, confirming that AMPK functions in AKH secretion. Live-cell imaging of wild-type AKH neuroendocrine cells shows heightened excitability under reduced sugar levels, and this response was delayed and reduced in AMPK-deficient backgrounds. Furthermore, AMPK activation in AKH cells increases intracellular calcium levels in constant high sugar levels, suggesting that the underlying mechanism of AMPK action is modification of ionic currents. These results demonstrate that AMPK signaling is a critical feature that regulates AKH secretion, and, ultimately, metabolic homeostasis. The significance of these findings is that AMPK is important in the regulation of glucagon signaling, suggesting that the organization of metabolic networks is highly conserved and that AMPK plays a prominent role in these networks. PMID:22798489

  6. Mutations affecting the development of the peripheral nervous system in Drosophila: a molecular screen for novel proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Prokopenko, S N; He, Y; Lu, Y; Bellen, H J

    2000-01-01

    In our quest for novel genes required for the development of the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS), we have performed three genetic screens using MAb 22C10 as a marker of terminally differentiated neurons. A total of 66 essential genes required for normal PNS development were identified, including 49 novel genes. To obtain information about the molecular nature of these genes, we decided to complement our genetic screens with a molecular screen. From transposon-tagged mutations identified on the basis of their phenotype in the PNS we selected 31 P-element strains representing 26 complementation groups on the second and third chromosomes to clone and sequence the corresponding genes. We used plasmid rescue to isolate and sequence 51 genomic fragments flanking the sites of these P-element insertions. Database searches using sequences derived from the ends of plasmid rescues allowed us to assign genes to one of four classes: (1) previously characterized genes (11), (2) first mutations in cloned genes (1), (3) P-element insertions in genes that were identified, but not characterized molecularly (1), and (4) novel genes (13). Here, we report the cloning, sequence, Northern analysis, and the embryonic expression pattern of candidate cDNAs for 10 genes: astray, chrowded, dalmatian, gluon, hoi-polloi, melted, pebble, skittles, sticky ch1, and vegetable. This study allows us to draw conclusions about the identity of proteins required for the development of the nervous system in Drosophila and provides an example of a molecular approach to characterize en masse transposon-tagged mutations identified in genetic screens. PMID:11102367

  7. Energy-dependent modulation of glucagon-like signaling in Drosophila via the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Braco, Jason T; Gillespie, Emily L; Alberto, Gregory E; Brenman, Jay E; Johnson, Erik C

    2012-10-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the equivalent of mammalian glucagon, as it is the primary insect hormone that causes energy mobilization. In Drosophila, current knowledge of the mechanisms regulating AKH signaling is limited. Here, we report that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is critical for normal AKH secretion during periods of metabolic challenges. Reduction of AMPK in AKH cells causes a suite of behavioral and physiological phenotypes resembling AKH cell ablations. Specifically, reduced AMPK function increases life span during starvation and delays starvation-induced hyperactivity. Neither AKH cell survival nor gene expression is significantly impacted by reduced AMPK function. AKH immunolabeling was significantly higher in animals with reduced AMPK function; this result is paralleled by genetic inhibition of synaptic release, suggesting that AMPK promotes AKH secretion. We observed reduced secretion in AKH cells bearing AMPK mutations employing a specific secretion reporter, confirming that AMPK functions in AKH secretion. Live-cell imaging of wild-type AKH neuroendocrine cells shows heightened excitability under reduced sugar levels, and this response was delayed and reduced in AMPK-deficient backgrounds. Furthermore, AMPK activation in AKH cells increases intracellular calcium levels in constant high sugar levels, suggesting that the underlying mechanism of AMPK action is modification of ionic currents. These results demonstrate that AMPK signaling is a critical feature that regulates AKH secretion, and, ultimately, metabolic homeostasis. The significance of these findings is that AMPK is important in the regulation of glucagon signaling, suggesting that the organization of metabolic networks is highly conserved and that AMPK plays a prominent role in these networks. PMID:22798489

  8. Dual Role of Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activity in Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Mediated Drosophila Ventral Head Development.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yeon; Stultz, Brian G; Hursh, Deborah A

    2015-12-01

    The Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein encoded by decapentaplegic (dpp) controls ventral head morphogenesis by expression in the head primordia, eye-antennal imaginal discs. These are epithelial sacs made of two layers: columnar disc proper cells and squamous cells of the peripodial epithelium. dpp expression related to head formation occurs in the peripodial epithelium; cis-regulatory mutations disrupting this expression display defects in sensory vibrissae, rostral membrane, gena, and maxillary palps. Here we document that disruption of this dpp expression causes apoptosis in peripodial cells and underlying disc proper cells. We further show that peripodial Dpp acts directly on the disc proper, indicating that Dpp must cross the disc lumen to act. We demonstrate that palp defects are mechanistically separable from the other mutant phenotypes; both are affected by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway but in opposite ways. Slight reduction of both Jun N-terminal kinase and Dpp activity in peripodial cells causes stronger vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena defects than Dpp alone; additionally, strong reduction of Jun N-terminal kinase activity alone causes identical defects. A more severe reduction of dpp results in similar vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena defects, but also causes mutant maxillary palps. This latter defect is correlated with increased peripodial Jun N-terminal kinase activity and can be caused solely by ectopic activation of Jun N-terminal kinase. We conclude that formation of sensory vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena tissue in head morphogenesis requires the action of Jun N-terminal kinase in peripodial cells, while excessive Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in these same cells inhibits the formation of maxillary palps. PMID:26500262

  9. Identification of genomic regions that interact with a viable allele of the Drosophila protein tyrosine phosphatase corkscrew.

    PubMed Central

    Firth, L; Manchester, J; Lorenzen, J A; Baron, M; Perkins, L A

    2000-01-01

    Signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is critical for a multitude of developmental decisions and processes. Among the molecules known to transduce the RTK-generated signal is the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (Csw). Previously, Csw has been demonstrated to function throughout the Drosophila life cycle and, among the RTKs tested, Csw is essential in the Torso, Sevenless, EGF, and Breathless/FGF RTK pathways. While the biochemical function of Csw remains to be unambiguously elucidated, current evidence suggests that Csw plays more than one role during transduction of the RTK signal and, further, the molecular mechanism of Csw function differs depending upon the RTK in question. The isolation and characterization of a new, spontaneously arising, viable allele of csw, csw(lf), has allowed us to undertake a genetic approach to identify loci required for Csw function. The rough eye and wing vein gap phenotypes exhibited by adult flies homo- or hemizygous for csw(lf) has provided a sensitized background from which we have screened a collection of second and third chromosome deficiencies to identify 33 intervals that enhance and 21 intervals that suppress these phenotypes. We have identified intervals encoding known positive mediators of RTK signaling, e.g., drk, dos, Egfr, E(Egfr)B56, pnt, Ras1, rolled/MAPK, sina, spen, Src64B, Star, Su(Raf)3C, and vein, as well as known negative mediators of RTK signaling, e.g., aos, ed, net, Src42A, sty, and su(ve). Of particular interest are the 5 lethal enhancing intervals and 14 suppressing intervals for which no candidate genes have been identified. PMID:11014820

  10. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  11. The Drosophila pumilio gene encodes two functional protein isoforms that play multiple roles in germline development, gonadogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, M; Lin, H

    1999-01-01

    The pumilio (pum) gene plays an essential role in embryonic patterning and germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance during oogenesis in Drosophila. Here we report on a phenotypic analysis using pum(ovarette) mutations, which reveals multiple functions of pum in primordial germ cell proliferation, larval ovary formation, GSC division, and subsequent oogenic processes, as well as in oviposition. Specifically, by inducing pum(-) GSC clones at the onset of oogenesis, we show that pum is directly involved in GSC division, a function that is distinct from its requirement in primordial germ cells. Furthermore, we show that pum encodes 156- and 130-kD proteins, both of which are functional isoforms. Among pum(ovarette) mutations, pum(1688) specifically eliminates the 156-kD isoform but not the 130-kD isoform, while pum(2003) and pum(4277) specifically affect the 130-kD isoform but not the 156-kD isoform. Normal doses of both isoforms are required for the zygotic function of pum, yet either isoform alone at a normal dose is sufficient for the maternal effect function of pum. A pum cDNA transgene that contains the known open reading frame encodes only the 156-kD isoform and rescues the phenotype of both pum(1688) and pum(2003) mutants. These observations suggest that the 156- and 130-kD isoforms can compensate for each other's function in a dosage-dependent manner. Finally, we present molecular evidence suggesting that the two PUM isoforms share some of their primary structures. PMID:10471709

  12. Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    PubMed

    Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

  13. A single amino acid (Asp159) from the dog prion protein suppresses the toxicity of the mouse prion protein in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Garcia, J; Jensen, K; Zhang, Y; Rincon-Limas, D E; Fernandez-Funez, P

    2016-11-01

    Misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) is the key step in the transmission of spongiform pathologies in humans and several animals. Although PrP is highly conserved in mammals, a few changes in the sequence of endogenous PrP are proposed to confer protection to dogs, which were highly exposed to prion during the mad-cow epidemics. D159 is a unique amino acid found in PrP from dogs and other canines that was shown to alter surface charge, but its functional relevance has never been tested in vivo. Here, we show in transgenic Drosophila that introducing the N159D substitution on mouse PrP decreases its turnover. Additionally, mouse PrP-N159D demonstrates no toxicity and accumulates no pathogenic conformations, suggesting that a single D159 substitution is sufficient to prevent PrP conformational change and pathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms mediating the protective activity of D159 is likely to lessen the burden of prion diseases in humans and domestic animals. PMID:27477054

  14. Electrostatic Interactions between Elongated Monomers Drive Filamentation of Drosophila Shrub, a Metazoan ESCRT-III Protein.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Brian J; Tibbe, Christine; Jeon, Hyesung; Drabek, Andrew A; Klein, Thomas; Blacklow, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is a conserved protein complex that facilitates budding and fission of membranes. It executes a key step in many cellular events, including cytokinesis and multi-vesicular body formation. The ESCRT-III protein Shrub in flies, or its homologs in yeast (Snf7) or humans (CHMP4B), is a critical polymerizing component of ESCRT-III needed to effect membrane fission. We report the structural basis for polymerization of Shrub and define a minimal region required for filament formation. The X-ray structure of the Shrub core shows that individual monomers in the lattice interact in a staggered arrangement using complementary electrostatic surfaces. Mutations that disrupt interface salt bridges interfere with Shrub polymerization and function. Despite substantial sequence divergence and differences in packing interactions, the arrangement of Shrub subunits in the polymer resembles that of Snf7 and other family homologs, suggesting that this intermolecular packing mechanism is shared among ESCRT-III proteins. PMID:27452459

  15. The mesoderm determinant snail collaborates with related zinc-finger proteins to control Drosophila neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, S I; Hu, X; Roote, J; Ip, Y T

    1999-11-15

    The Snail protein functions as a transcriptional regulator to establish early mesodermal cell fate. Later, in germ band-extended embryos, Snail is also expressed in most neuroblasts. Here we present evidence that this expression of Snail is required for central nervous system (CNS) development. The neural function of snail is masked by two closely linked genes, escargot and worniu. Both Escargot and Worniu contain zinc-finger domains that are highly homologous to that of Snail. Although not affecting expression of early neuroblast markers, the deletion of the region containing all three genes correlates with loss of expression of CNS determinants including fushi tarazu, pdm-2 and even-skipped. Transgenic expression of each of the three Snail family proteins can rescue efficiently the fushi tarazu defects, and partially the pdm-2 and even-skipped CNS patterns. These results demonstrate that the Snail family proteins have essential functions during embryonic CNS development, around the time of ganglion mother cell formation. PMID:10562554

  16. Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Song, Kiwon; Wolfner, M.F.

    1995-12-01

    The fs(1)Ya protein (YA) is an essential, maternally encoded, nuclear lamina protein that is under both developmental and cell cycle control. A strong Ya mutation results in early arrest of embryos. To define the function of YA in the nuclear envelope during early embryonic development, we characterized the phenotypes of four Ya mutant alleles and determined their molecular lesions. Ya mutant embryos arrest with abnormal nuclear envelopes prior to the first mitotic division; a proportion of embryos from two leaky Ya mutants proceed beyond this but arrest after several abnormal divisions. Ya unfertilized eggs contain nuclei of different sizes and condensation states, apparently due to abnormal fusion of the meiotic products immediately after meiosis. Lamin is localized at the periphery of the uncondensed nuclei in these eggs. These results suggest that Ya function is required during and after egg maturation to facilitate proper chromatin condensation, rather than to allow a lamin-containing nuclear envelope to form. Two leaky Ya alleles that partially complement have lesions at opposite ends of the YA protein, suggesting that the N- and C-termini are important for YA function might interact with itself either directly or indirectly. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Drosophila Spag is the homolog of RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3) and recruits the heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) during the assembly of cellular machineries.

    PubMed

    Benbahouche, Nour El Houda; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Török, István; Marhold, Joachim; Henri, Julien; Kajava, Andrey V; Farkaš, Robert; Kempf, Tore; Schnölzer, Martina; Meyer, Philippe; Kiss, István; Bertrand, Edouard; Mechler, Bernard M; Pradet-Balade, Bérengère

    2014-02-28

    The R2TP is a recently identified Hsp90 co-chaperone, composed of four proteins as follows: Pih1D1, RPAP3, and the AAA(+)-ATPases RUVBL1 and RUVBL2. In mammals, the R2TP is involved in the biogenesis of cellular machineries such as RNA polymerases, small nucleolar ribonucleoparticles and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases. Here, we characterize the spaghetti (spag) gene of Drosophila, the homolog of human RPAP3. This gene plays an essential function during Drosophila development. We show that Spag protein binds Drosophila orthologs of R2TP components and Hsp90, like its yeast counterpart. Unexpectedly, Spag also interacts and stimulates the chaperone activity of Hsp70. Using null mutants and flies with inducible RNAi, we show that spaghetti is necessary for the stabilization of snoRNP core proteins and target of rapamycin activity and likely the assembly of RNA polymerase II. This work highlights the strong conservation of both the HSP90/R2TP system and its clients and further shows that Spag, unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tah1, performs essential functions in metazoans. Interaction of Spag with both Hsp70 and Hsp90 suggests a model whereby R2TP would accompany clients from Hsp70 to Hsp90 to facilitate their assembly into macromolecular complexes. PMID:24394412

  18. Drosophila Spag Is the Homolog of RNA Polymerase II-associated Protein 3 (RPAP3) and Recruits the Heat Shock Proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) during the Assembly of Cellular Machineries* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Benbahouche, Nour El Houda; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Török, István; Marhold, Joachim; Henri, Julien; Kajava, Andrey V.; Farkaš, Robert; Kempf, Tore; Schnölzer, Martina; Meyer, Philippe; Kiss, István; Bertrand, Edouard; Mechler, Bernard M.; Pradet-Balade, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    The R2TP is a recently identified Hsp90 co-chaperone, composed of four proteins as follows: Pih1D1, RPAP3, and the AAA+-ATPases RUVBL1 and RUVBL2. In mammals, the R2TP is involved in the biogenesis of cellular machineries such as RNA polymerases, small nucleolar ribonucleoparticles and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases. Here, we characterize the spaghetti (spag) gene of Drosophila, the homolog of human RPAP3. This gene plays an essential function during Drosophila development. We show that Spag protein binds Drosophila orthologs of R2TP components and Hsp90, like its yeast counterpart. Unexpectedly, Spag also interacts and stimulates the chaperone activity of Hsp70. Using null mutants and flies with inducible RNAi, we show that spaghetti is necessary for the stabilization of snoRNP core proteins and target of rapamycin activity and likely the assembly of RNA polymerase II. This work highlights the strong conservation of both the HSP90/R2TP system and its clients and further shows that Spag, unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tah1, performs essential functions in metazoans. Interaction of Spag with both Hsp70 and Hsp90 suggests a model whereby R2TP would accompany clients from Hsp70 to Hsp90 to facilitate their assembly into macromolecular complexes. PMID:24394412

  19. The Drosophila melanogaster sex determination gene sisA is required in yolk nuclei for midgut formation.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J J; Lee, K K; Desai, R N; Erickson, J W

    2000-01-01

    During sex determination, the sisterlessA (sisA) gene functions as one of four X:A numerator elements that set the alternative male or female regulatory states of the switch gene Sex-lethal. In somatic cells, sisA functions specifically in sex determination, but its expression pattern also hints at a role in the yolk cell, a syncytial structure believed to provide energy and nutrients to the developing embryo. Previous studies of sisA have been limited by the lack of a null allele, leaving open the possibility that sisA has additional functions. Here we report the isolation and molecular characterization of four new sisA alleles including two null mutations. Our findings highlight key aspects of sisA structure-function and reveal important qualitative differences between the effects of sisA and the other strong X:A numerator element, sisterlessB, on Sex-lethal expression. We use genetic, expression, clonal, and phenotypic analyses to demonstrate that sisA has an essential function in the yolk nuclei of both sexes. In the absence of sisA, endoderm migration and midgut formation are blocked, suggesting that the yolk cell may have a direct role in larval gut development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a requirement for the yolk nuclei in Drosophila development. PMID:10790394

  20. A new family of cyclophilins with an RNA recognition motif that interact with members of the trx/MLL protein family in Drosophila and human cells.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melanie; Fair, Keri; Amero, Sally; Nelson, Stephanie; Harte, Peter J; Diaz, Manuel O

    2002-04-01

    A new family of cyclophilins with an RNA recognition motif (RRM) has members in vertebrates, roundworms and flatworms. We have identified a Drosophilacyclophilin, Dcyp33, with a high degree of amino acid sequence identity and similarity with other members of the family. Dcyp33 interacts through its RRM domain with the third PHD finger of trithorax. This interaction is conserved in the human homologues of these proteins, Cyp33 and MLL. Over expression of Dcyp33 in DrosophilaSL1 cells results in down-regulation of AbdominalB Hoxgene expression, mirroring the effect of human Cyp33 on the expression of human HOXgenes. PMID:11976948

  1. [Recruiting of insulator protein ZIPIC of Drosophila melanogaster to minor binding sites in vivo depends on other DNA-binding transcription factors].

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, N A; Kyrchanova, O V; Maksimenko, O G; Georgiev, P G

    2015-01-01

    ZIPIC insulator protein of Drosophila has seven zinc finger domains at the C-terminus. Some of this zinc fingers are involved in binding of specific DNA sequence: CAGGGCTG. ZIPIC can interact only in vivo with minor form of this site (substitution of G to T at position 4). Possible explanation is interaction with additional transcription factors can help ZIPIC to bind minor form of consensus. On the other hand ZIPIC can efficiently bind in vitro other minor form of consensus (substitution of C to A at 6 position). PMID:26710784

  2. spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Kühnlein, R P; Frommer, G; Friedrich, M; Gonzalez-Gaitan, M; Weber, A; Wagner-Bernholz, J F; Gehring, W J; Jäckle, H; Schuh, R

    1994-01-01

    The region specific homeotic gene spalt (sal) of Drosophila melanogaster promotes the specification of terminal pattern elements as opposed to segments in the trunk. Our results show that the previously reported sal transcription unit was misidentified. Based on P-element mediated germ line transformation and DNA sequence analysis of sal mutant alleles, we identified the transcription unit that carries sal function. sal is located close to the misidentified transcription unit, and it is expressed in similar temporal and spatial patterns during embryogenesis. The sal gene encodes a zinc finger protein of novel structure composed of three widely spaced 'double zinc finger' motifs of internally conserved sequences and a single zinc finger motif of different sequence. Antibodies produced against the sal protein show that sal is first expressed at the blastoderm stage and later in restricted areas of the embryonic nervous system as well as in the developing trachea. The antibodies detect sal homologous proteins in corresponding spatial and temporal patterns in the embryos of related insect species. Sequence analysis of the sal gene of Drosophila virilis, a species which is phylogenetically separated by approximately 60 million years, suggests that the sal function is conserved during evolution, consistent with its proposed role in head formation during arthropod evolution. Images PMID:7905822

  3. Role of Go/i subgroup of G proteins in olfactory signaling of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ignatious Raja, Jennifer S; Katanayeva, Natalya; Katanaev, Vladimir L; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signaling in insect olfactory receptor neurons remains unclear, with both metabotropic and ionotropic components being discussed. Here, we investigated the role of heterotrimeric Go and Gi proteins using a combined behavioral, in vivo and in vitro approach. Specifically, we show that inhibiting Go in sensory neurons by pertussis toxin leads to behavioral deficits. We heterologously expressed the olfactory receptor dOr22a in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T). Stimulation with an odor led to calcium influx, which was amplified via calcium release from intracellular stores. Subsequent experiments indicated that the signaling was mediated by the Gβγ subunits of the heterotrimeric Go/i proteins. Finally, using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that Go and Gi contribute to odor responses both for the fast (phasic) as for the slow (tonic) response component. We propose a transduction cascade model involving several parallel processes, in which the metabotropic component is activated by Go and Gi, and uses Gβγ. PMID:24443946

  4. Use of a transfected and amplified Drosophila heat shock promoter construction for inducible production of toxic mouse c-myc proteins in CHO cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wurm, F.M.; Gwinn, K.A.; Papoulas, O.; Pallavicini, M.; Kingston, R.E.

    1987-07-24

    After transfection and selection with methotrexate, CHO cell lines were established which contained up to 2000 copies of an expression vector for c-myc protein. The vector contained the Drosophila heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) promoter fused with the coding region of the mouse c-myc gene. Incubation of cells for up to 3 hours at 43/sup 0/C resulted in at least a 100-fold induction of recombinant c-myc mRNA. When cells were shifted back to 37/sup 0/C, within 1 to 4 hours, this RNA was translated into protein to yield about 250 ..mu..g per 10/sup 9/ cells. Cells died a few hours later, suggesting that high concentrations of intracellular c-myc are cytotoxic. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Drosophila Fatty Acid Transport Protein Regulates Rhodopsin-1 Metabolism and Is Required for Photoreceptor Neuron Survival

    PubMed Central

    Dourlen, Pierre; Bertin, Benjamin; Chatelain, Gilles; Robin, Marion; Napoletano, Francesco; Roux, Michel J.; Mollereau, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of the visual response is essential for photoreceptor function and survival. Visual response dysregulation often leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration, but the causes of such cell death are not well understood. In this study, we investigated a fatty acid transport protein (fatp) null mutation that caused adult-onset and progressive photoreceptor cell death. Consistent with fatp having a role in the retina, we showed that fatp is expressed in adult photoreceptors and accessory cells and that its re-expression in photoreceptors rescued photoreceptor viability in fatp mutants. The visual response in young fatp-mutant flies was abnormal with elevated electroretinogram amplitudes associated with high levels of Rhodopsin-1 (Rh1). Reducing Rh1 levels in rh1 mutants or depriving flies of vitamin A rescued photoreceptor cell death in fatp mutant flies. Our results indicate that fatp promotes photoreceptor survival by regulating Rh1 abundance. PMID:22844251

  6. Factors Influencing the Production of MFSV Full-Length Clone: Maize Fine Streak Virus Proteins in Drosophila S2 Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is negative-sense RNA virus member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus. Our goal is to determine whether Drosophila S2 cells can support the production of a full-length clone of MFSV. We have previously demonstrated that the full-length MFSV nucleoprotein (N) and phosphopro...

  7. Abscission Is Regulated by the ESCRT-III Protein Shrub in Drosophila Germline Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Neuza Reis; Mathieu, Juliette; Huynh, Jean-René

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the final event of cytokinesis that leads to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Recent technical advances have allowed a better understanding of the cellular and molecular events leading to abscission in isolated yeast or mammalian cells. However, how abscission is regulated in different cell types or in a developing organism remains poorly understood. Here, we characterized the function of the ESCRT-III protein Shrub during cytokinesis in germ cells undergoing a series of complete and incomplete divisions. We found that Shrub is required for complete abscission, and that levels of Shrub are critical for proper timing of abscission. Loss or gain of Shrub delays abscission in germline stem cells (GSCs), and leads to the formation of stem-cysts, where daughter cells share the same cytoplasm as the mother stem cell and cannot differentiate. In addition, our results indicate a negative regulation of Shrub by the Aurora B kinase during GSC abscission. Finally, we found that Lethal giant discs (lgd), known to be required for Shrub function in the endosomal pathway, also regulates the duration of abscission in GSCs. PMID:25647097

  8. Combined Pharmacological Induction of Hsp70 Suppresses Prion Protein Neurotoxicity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Casas-Tinto, Sergio; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are rare and aggressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of misfolded, toxic conformations of the prion protein (PrP). Therapeutic strategies directed at reducing the levels of PrP offer the best chance of delaying or halting disease progression. The challenge, though, is to define pharmacologic targets that result in reduced PrP levels. We previously reported that expression of wild type hamster PrP in flies induces progressive locomotor dysfunction and accumulation of pathogenic PrP conformations, while co-expression of human Hsp70 delayed these changes. To validate the therapeutic potential of Hsp70, we treated flies with drugs known to induce Hsp70 expression, including the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Although the individual treatment with these compounds produced no significant benefits, their combination significantly increased the level of inducible Hsp70, decreased the level of total PrP, reduced the accumulation of pathogenic PrP conformers, and improved locomotor activity. Thus, the combined action of two pharmacological activators of Hsp70 with distinct targets results in sustained high levels of inducible Hsp70 with improved behavioral output. These findings can have important therapeutic applications for the devastating prion diseases and other related proteinopathies. PMID:24523910

  9. Drosophila protein kinase N (Pkn) is a negative regulator of actin-myosin activity during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tânia; Prudêncio, Pedro; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo

    2014-10-15

    Nurse cell dumping is an actin-myosin based process, where 15 nurse cells of a given egg chamber contract and transfer their cytoplasmic content through the ring canals into the growing oocyte. We isolated two mutant alleles of protein kinase N (pkn) and showed that Pkn negatively-regulates activation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton during the onset of dumping. Using live-cell imaging analysis we observed that nurse cell dumping rates sharply increase during the onset of fast dumping. Such rate increase was severely impaired in pkn mutant nurse cells due to excessive nurse cell actin-myosin activity and/or loss of tissue integrity. Our work demonstrates that the transition between slow and fast dumping is a discrete event, with at least a five to six-fold dumping rate increase. We show that Pkn negatively regulates nurse cell actin-myosin activity. This is likely to be important for directional cytoplasmic flow. We propose Pkn provides a negative feedback loop to help avoid excessive contractility after local activation of Rho GTPase. PMID:25131196

  10. kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of Drosophila Notch

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Toby; Kidd, Simon; Young, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    Loss of Kuzbanian, a member of the ADAM family of metalloproteases, produces neurogenic phenotypes in Drosophila. It has been suggested that this results from a requirement for kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of the Notch ligand Delta. Using transgenic Drosophila expressing transmembrane Notch proteins, we show that kuzbanian, independent of any role in Delta processing, is required for the cleavage of Notch. We show that Kuzbanian can physically associate with Notch and that removal of kuzbanian activity by RNA-mediated interference in Drosophila tissue culture cells eliminates processing of ligand-independent transmembrane Notch molecules. Our data suggest that in Drosophila, kuzbanian can mediate S2 cleavage of Notch. PMID:11799064

  11. Hipk is an essential protein that promotes Notch signal transduction in the Drosophila eye by inhibition of the global co-repressor Groucho.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wendy; Andrews, Bryan C; Faust, Michael; Walldorf, Uwe; Verheyen, Esther M

    2009-01-01

    Homeodomain interacting protein kinase (Hipk) is a member of a novel family of serine/threonine kinases. Extensive biochemical studies of vertebrate homologs, particularly Hipk2, have identified a growing list of interactors, including proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling and essential signaling pathways such as Wnt and TGFbeta. To gain insight into the in vivo functions of the single Drosophila Hipk we characterized loss of function alleles, which revealed an essential requirement for hipk. We find that in the developing eye, hipk promotes the Notch pathway. Notch signaling acts at multiple points in eye development to promote growth, proliferation and patterning. Hipk stimulates the early function of Notch in promotion of global growth of the eye disc. It has been shown in the Drosophila eye that Hipk interferes with the repressive activity of the global co-repressor, Groucho (Gro). Here, we propose that Hipk antagonizes Gro to promote the transmission of the Notch signal, indicating that Hipk plays numerous roles in regulating gene expression through interference with the formation of Gro-containing co-repressor complexes. PMID:19013449

  12. centrosomin's beautiful sister (cbs) encodes a GRIP-domain protein that marks Golgi inheritance and functions in the centrosome cycle in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Eisman, Robert C; Stewart, Natasha; Miller, David; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2006-08-15

    The mechanism of inheritance of the Golgi complex is an important problem in cell biology. In this study, we examine the localization and function of a Golgi protein encoded by centrosomin's beautiful sister (cbs) during cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster. Cbs contains a GRIP domain that is 57% identical to vertebrate Golgin-97. Cbs undergoes a dramatic relocalization during mitosis from the cytoplasm to an association with chromosomes from late prometaphase to early telophase, by a transport mechanism that requires the GRIP domain and Arl1, the product of the Arf72A locus. Additionally, Cbs remains independent of the endoplasmic reticulum throughout cleavage. The use of RNAi, Arf72A mutant analysis and ectopic expression of the GRIP domain, shows that cycling of Cbs during mitosis is required for the centrosome cycle. The effects on the centrosome cycle depend on Cbs concentration and Cbs transport from the cytoplasm to DNA. When Cbs levels are reduced centrosomes fail to mature, and when Cbs transport is impeded by ectopic expression of the GRIP domain, centrosomes undergo hypertrophy. We propose that, Cbs is a trans-Golgi protein that links Golgi inheritance to the cell cycle and the Drosophila Golgi is more vertebrate-like than previously recognized. PMID:16882688

  13. A cis-Regulatory Mutation in Troponin-I of Drosophila Reveals the Importance of Proper Stoichiometry of Structural Proteins During Muscle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Firdaus, Hena; Mohan, Jayaram; Naz, Sarwat; Arathi, Prabhashankar; Ramesh, Saraf R.; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and high wing-beat frequencies achieved during insect flight are powered by the indirect flight muscles, the largest group of muscles present in the thorax. Any anomaly during the assembly and/or structural impairment of the indirect flight muscles gives rise to a flightless phenotype. Multiple mutagenesis screens in Drosophila melanogaster for defective flight behavior have led to the isolation and characterization of mutations that have been instrumental in the identification of many proteins and residues that are important for muscle assembly, function, and disease. In this article, we present a molecular-genetic characterization of a flightless mutation, flightless-H (fliH), originally designated as heldup-a (hdp-a). We show that fliH is a cis-regulatory mutation of the wings up A (wupA) gene, which codes for the troponin-I protein, one of the troponin complex proteins, involved in regulation of muscle contraction. The mutation leads to reduced levels of troponin-I transcript and protein. In addition to this, there is also coordinated reduction in transcript and protein levels of other structural protein isoforms that are part of the troponin complex. The altered transcript and protein stoichiometry ultimately culminates in unregulated acto-myosin interactions and a hypercontraction muscle phenotype. Our results shed new insights into the importance of maintaining the stoichiometry of structural proteins during muscle assembly for proper function with implications for the identification of mutations and disease phenotypes in other species, including humans. PMID:25747460

  14. Characterization and distribution of NKD, a receptor for Drosophila tachykinin-related peptide 6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides related to vertebrate tachykinins have been identified in Drosophila and are referred to as drosotachykinins, or DTKs. Two Drosophila G protein-coupled receptors, designated NKD (neurokinin receptor from Drosophila; CG6515) and DTKR (Drosophila tachykinin receptor; CG7887), display seq...

  15. The cohesion protein SOLO associates with SMC1 and is required for synapsis, recombination, homolog bias and cohesion and pairing of centromeres in Drosophila Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rihui; McKee, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin and is essential for proper meiotic segregation of both sister chromatids and homologs. solo encodes a Drosophila meiosis-specific cohesion protein with no apparent sequence homology to cohesins that is required in male meiosis for centromere cohesion, proper orientation of sister centromeres and centromere enrichment of the cohesin subunit SMC1. In this study, we show that solo is involved in multiple aspects of meiosis in female Drosophila. Null mutations in solo caused the following phenotypes: 1) high frequencies of homolog and sister chromatid nondisjunction (NDJ) and sharply reduced frequencies of homolog exchange; 2) reduced transmission of a ring-X chromosome, an indicator of elevated frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE); 3) premature loss of centromere pairing and cohesion during prophase I, as indicated by elevated foci counts of the centromere protein CID; 4) instability of the lateral elements (LE)s and central regions of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), as indicated by fragmented and spotty staining of the chromosome core/LE component SMC1 and the transverse filament protein C(3)G, respectively, at all stages of pachytene. SOLO and SMC1 are both enriched on centromeres throughout prophase I, co-align along the lateral elements of SCs and reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate from ovarian protein extracts. Our studies demonstrate that SOLO is closely associated with meiotic cohesin and required both for enrichment of cohesin on centromeres and stable assembly of cohesin into chromosome cores. These events underlie and are required for stable cohesion of centromeres, synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and a recombination mechanism that suppresses SCE to preferentially generate homolog crossovers (homolog bias). We propose that SOLO is a subunit of a specialized meiotic cohesin complex that mediates both centromeric and axial arm cohesion and promotes homolog bias as a component of chromosome

  16. The Cohesion Protein SOLO Associates with SMC1 and Is Required for Synapsis, Recombination, Homolog Bias and Cohesion and Pairing of Centromeres in Drosophila Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rihui; McKee, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin and is essential for proper meiotic segregation of both sister chromatids and homologs. solo encodes a Drosophila meiosis-specific cohesion protein with no apparent sequence homology to cohesins that is required in male meiosis for centromere cohesion, proper orientation of sister centromeres and centromere enrichment of the cohesin subunit SMC1. In this study, we show that solo is involved in multiple aspects of meiosis in female Drosophila. Null mutations in solo caused the following phenotypes: 1) high frequencies of homolog and sister chromatid nondisjunction (NDJ) and sharply reduced frequencies of homolog exchange; 2) reduced transmission of a ring-X chromosome, an indicator of elevated frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE); 3) premature loss of centromere pairing and cohesion during prophase I, as indicated by elevated foci counts of the centromere protein CID; 4) instability of the lateral elements (LE)s and central regions of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), as indicated by fragmented and spotty staining of the chromosome core/LE component SMC1 and the transverse filament protein C(3)G, respectively, at all stages of pachytene. SOLO and SMC1 are both enriched on centromeres throughout prophase I, co-align along the lateral elements of SCs and reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate from ovarian protein extracts. Our studies demonstrate that SOLO is closely associated with meiotic cohesin and required both for enrichment of cohesin on centromeres and stable assembly of cohesin into chromosome cores. These events underlie and are required for stable cohesion of centromeres, synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and a recombination mechanism that suppresses SCE to preferentially generate homolog crossovers (homolog bias). We propose that SOLO is a subunit of a specialized meiotic cohesin complex that mediates both centromeric and axial arm cohesion and promotes homolog bias as a component of chromosome

  17. Interaction of Omega, Sigma, and Theta Glutathione Transferases with p38b Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase from the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wongtrakul, J.; Janphen, K.; Saisawang, C.; Ketterman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a diverse family of phase II detoxification enzymes found in almost all organisms. Besides playing a major role in the detoxification of xenobiotic and toxic compounds, GSTs are also involved in the regulation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction by interaction with proteins in the pathway. An in vitro study was performed for Theta, Omega, Sigma GSTs and their interaction with MAP kinase p38b protein from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The study included the effects of all five Omega class GSTs (DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, DmGSTO2b, DmGSTO3, DmGSTO4), all five Theta class GSTs (DmGSTT1, DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3a, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTT4), and one Sigma class glutathione transferase on the activity of Drosophila p38b, including the reciprocal effect of this kinase protein on glutathione transferase activity. It was found that DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTO1, and DmGSTO3 activated p38b significantly. Substrate specificities of GSTs were also altered after co-incubation with p38b. Although p38b activated DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, and DmGSTT2, it inhibited DmGSTT3b and DmGSTO3 activity toward xenobiotic and physiological substrates tested. These results suggest a novel link between Omega and Theta GSTs with the p38b MAP kinase pathway. PMID:25373207

  18. Akirins, highly conserved nuclear proteins, required for NF-κB dependent gene expression in Drosophila and mice

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Akira; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Gesellchen, Viola; Chamy, Laure El; Kuttenkeuler, David; Takeuchi, Osamu; Hoffmann, Jules A.; Akira, Shizuo; Boutros, Michael; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    During a genome-wide RNAi screen, we isolated CG8580 as a gene involved in the innate immune response of Drosophila. CG8580, which we named Akirin, acts in parallel with the NF-κB transcription factor downstream of the Imd pathway and was required for defense against Gram-negative bacteria. Akirin is highly conserved and the human genome contains two homologues, one of which was able to rescue the loss of function phenotype in Drosophila cells. Akirins had a strict nuclear localization. Knockout of both Akirin homologues in mice revealed that one had an essential function downstream of Toll-like receptor, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) signaling pathways leading to the production of IL-6. Thus, Akirin is a conserved nuclear factor required for innate immune responses. PMID:18066067

  19. DIP2 disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A (Drosophila) is a candidate receptor for follistatin-related protein/follistatin-like 1--analysis of their binding with TGF-β superfamily proteins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masao; Murakami, Kosaku; Ozaki, Shoichi; Imura, Yoshitaka; Tong, Xiao-Peng; Watanabe, Takuo; Sawaki, Toshioki; Kawanami, Takafumi; Kawabata, Daisuke; Fujii, Takao; Usui, Takashi; Masaki, Yasufumi; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Umehara, Hisanori; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2010-10-01

    Follistatin-related protein (FRP)/follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a member of the follistatin protein family, all of which share a characteristic structure unit found in follistatin, called the FS domain. Developmental studies have suggested that FRP regulates organ tissue formation in embryos. Immunological studies showed that FRP modifies joint inflammation in arthritic disease, and modulates allograft tolerance. However, the principle physiological function of FRP is currently unknown. To address this issue, we cloned four FRP-associated proteins using a two-hybrid cloning method: disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A from Drosophila (DIP2A), CD14, glypican 1 and titin. Only DIP2A was expected to be a membrane receptor protein with intracellular regions. Over-expression of FLAG epitope-tagged DIP2A augmented the suppressive effect of FRP on FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) expression, and the Fab fragment of IgG to FLAG blocked this effect. Knockdown of Dip2a leaded to Fos gene up-regulation, and this was not affected by exogenous FRP. These in vitro experiments confirmed that DIP2A could be a cell-surface receptor protein and mediate a FOS down-regulation signal of FRP. Moreover, molecular interaction analyses using Biacore demonstrated that FRP bound to DIP2A and CD14, and also with proteins of the TGF-β superfamily, i.e. activin, TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP-2/4), their receptors and follistatin. FRP binding to DIP2A was blocked by CD14, follistatin, activin and BMP-2. FRP blocked the ligand-receptor binding of activin and BMP-2, but integrated itself with that of BMP-4. This multi-specific binding may reflect the broad physiological activity of FRP. PMID:20860622

  20. The RNA interference proteins and vasa locus are involved in the silencing of retrotransposons in the female germline of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vagin, Vasily V; Klenov, Mikhail S; Kalmykova, Alla I; Stolyarenko, Anastasia D; Kotelnikov, Roman N; Gvozdev, Vladimir A

    2004-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is considered as a defense against expansion of transposable elements. The proteins related to RNA helicase and Argonaute families are involved in RNAi process in different organisms. It was shown that Argonaute AUBERGINE and putative RNA helicase SPINDLE-E proteins were essential for RNAi in Drosophila. Here, we describe the role of aubergine (aub) and spindle-E (spn-E) genes in the control of LTR retrotransposon copia and nonLTR telomeric Het-A and I retrotransposons in ovaries. spn-E mutation causes a drastically increased lacZ expression driven by copia LTR. For the first time we show the involvement of AUBERGINE protein and VASA RNA helicase, essential for oocyte patterning, in the retrotransposon silencing. spn-E, vasa and aub mutations cause similar accumulation of both I element and Het-A transcripts in the developing oocyte. VASA and AUBERGINE proteins are known as components of perinuclear ribonucleoprotein particles in germ cells, and spn-E mutation disturbs protein content of the particles. We suggest participation of these proteins in the same silencing pathway. PMID:17194939

  1. Interallelic Complementation at the Suppressor of Forked Locus of Drosophila Reveals Complementation between Suppressor of Forked Proteins Mutated in Different Regions

    PubMed Central

    Simonelig, M.; Elliott, K.; Mitchelson, A.; O'Hare, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Su(f) protein of Drosophila melanogaster shares extensive homologies with proteins from yeast (RNA14) and man (77 kD subunit of cleavage stimulation factor) that are required for 3' end processing of mRNA. These homologies suggest that su(f) is involved in mRNA 3' end formation and that some aspects of this process are conserved throughout eukaryotes. We have investigated the genetic and molecular complexity of the su(f) locus. The su(f) gene is transcribed to produce three RNAs and could encode two proteins. Using constructs that contain different parts of the locus, we show that only the larger predicted gene product of 84 kD is required for the wild-type function of su(f). Some lethal alleles of su(f) complement to produce viable combinations. The structures of complementing and noncomplementing su(f) alleles indicate that 84-kD Su(f) proteins mutated in different domains can act in combination for partial su(f) function. Our results suggest protein-protein interaction between or within wild-type Su(f) molecules. PMID:8846900

  2. Antibody to a human DNA repair protein allows for cloning of a Drosophila cDNA that encodes an apurinic endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.R. ); Venugopal, S.; Harless, J.; Deutsch, W.A. . Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1989-03-01

    The cDNA of a Drosophila DNA repair gene, AP3, was cloned by screening an embryonic lambda gt11 expression library with an antibody that was originally prepared against a purified human apurinicapyrimidine (AP) endonuclease. The 1.2-kilobase (kb) AP3 cDNA mapped to a region on the third chromosome where a number of mutagen-sensitive alleles were located. The cDNA clone yielded an in vitro translation product of 35,000 daltons, in agreement with the predicted size of the translation product of the only open reading frame of AP3, and identical to the molecular size of an AP endonuclease activity recovered following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrymalide gel electrophoresis of Drosophilia extracts. The C-terminal portion of the predicted protein contained regions of presumptive DNA-binding domains, while the DNA sequence at the amino end of AP3 showed similarity to the Escherichia coli recA gene. AP3 is expressed as an abundant 1.3-kb mRNA that is detected throughout the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. Another 3.5-klb mRNA also hybridized to the AP3 cDNA, but species was restricted to the early stages of development.

  3. The Seckel syndrome and centrosomal protein Ninein localizes asymmetrically to stem cell centrosomes but is not required for normal development, behavior, or DNA damage response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yiming; Mennella, Vito; Marks, Steven; Wildonger, Jill; Elnagdi, Esraa; Agard, David; Megraw, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Ninein (Nin) is a centrosomal protein whose gene is mutated in Seckel syndrome (SCKL, MIM 210600), an inherited recessive disease that results in primordial dwarfism, cognitive deficiencies, and increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress. Nin regulates neural stem cell self-renewal, interkinetic nuclear migration, and microtubule assembly in mammals. Nin is evolutionarily conserved, yet its role in cell division and development has not been investigated in a model organism. Here we characterize the single Nin orthologue in Drosophila. Drosophila Nin localizes to the periphery of the centrosome but not at centriolar structures as in mammals. However, Nin shares the property of its mammalian orthologue of promoting microtubule assembly. In neural and germline stem cells, Nin localizes asymmetrically to the younger (daughter) centrosome, yet it is not required for the asymmetric division of stem cells. In wing epithelia and muscle, Nin localizes to noncentrosomal microtubule-organizing centers. Surprisingly, loss of nin expression from a nin mutant does not significantly affect embryonic and brain development, fertility, or locomotor performance of mutant flies or their survival upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Although it is not essential, our data suggest that Nin plays a supportive role in centrosomal and extracentrosomal microtubule organization and asymmetric stem cell division. PMID:27053665

  4. The Seckel syndrome and centrosomal protein Ninein localizes asymmetrically to stem cell centrosomes but is not required for normal development, behavior, or DNA damage response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiming; Mennella, Vito; Marks, Steven; Wildonger, Jill; Elnagdi, Esraa; Agard, David; Megraw, Timothy L

    2016-06-01

    Ninein (Nin) is a centrosomal protein whose gene is mutated in Seckel syndrome (SCKL, MIM 210600), an inherited recessive disease that results in primordial dwarfism, cognitive deficiencies, and increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress. Nin regulates neural stem cell self-renewal, interkinetic nuclear migration, and microtubule assembly in mammals. Nin is evolutionarily conserved, yet its role in cell division and development has not been investigated in a model organism. Here we characterize the single Nin orthologue in Drosophila Drosophila Nin localizes to the periphery of the centrosome but not at centriolar structures as in mammals. However, Nin shares the property of its mammalian orthologue of promoting microtubule assembly. In neural and germline stem cells, Nin localizes asymmetrically to the younger (daughter) centrosome, yet it is not required for the asymmetric division of stem cells. In wing epithelia and muscle, Nin localizes to noncentrosomal microtubule-organizing centers. Surprisingly, loss of nin expression from a nin mutant does not significantly affect embryonic and brain development, fertility, or locomotor performance of mutant flies or their survival upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Although it is not essential, our data suggest that Nin plays a supportive role in centrosomal and extracentrosomal microtubule organization and asymmetric stem cell division. PMID:27053665

  5. A dPIP5K Dependent Pool of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate (PIP2) Is Required for G-Protein Coupled Signal Transduction in Drosophila Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shweta; Kumari, Kamalesh; Nair, Amit; Trivedi, Deepti; Raghu, Padinjat

    2015-01-01

    Multiple PIP2 dependent molecular processes including receptor activated phospholipase C activity occur at the neuronal plasma membranes, yet levels of this lipid at the plasma membrane are remarkably stable. Although the existence of unique pools of PIP2 supporting these events has been proposed, the mechanism by which they are generated is unclear. In Drosophila photoreceptors, the hydrolysis of PIP2 by G-protein coupled phospholipase C activity is essential for sensory transduction of photons. We identify dPIP5K as an enzyme essential for PIP2 re-synthesis in photoreceptors. Loss of dPIP5K causes profound defects in the electrical response to light and light-induced PIP2 dynamics at the photoreceptor membrane. Overexpression of dPIP5K was able to accelerate the rate of PIP2 synthesis following light induced PIP2 depletion. Other PIP2 dependent processes such as endocytosis and cytoskeletal function were unaffected in photoreceptors lacking dPIP5K function. These results provide evidence for the existence of a unique dPIP5K dependent pool of PIP2 required for normal Drosophila phototransduction. Our results define the existence of multiple pools of PIP2 in photoreceptors generated by distinct lipid kinases and supporting specific molecular processes at neuronal membranes. PMID:25633995

  6. Regulation of hedgehog Ligand Expression by the N-End Rule Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Hyperplastic Discs and the Drosophila GSK3β Homologue, Shaggy

    PubMed Central

    Moncrieff, Sophie; Moncan, Matthieu; Scialpi, Flavia; Ditzel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) morphogen signalling plays an essential role in tissue development and homeostasis. While much is known about the Hh signal transduction pathway, far less is known about the molecules that regulate the expression of the hedgehog (hh) ligand itself. Here we reveal that Shaggy (Sgg), the Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of GSK3β, and the N-end Rule Ubiquitin-protein ligase Hyperplastic Discs (Hyd) act together to co-ordinate Hedgehog signalling through regulating hh ligand expression and Cubitus interruptus (Ci) expression. Increased hh and Ci expression within hyd mutant clones was effectively suppressed by sgg RNAi, placing sgg downstream of hyd. Functionally, sgg RNAi also rescued the adult hyd mutant head phenotype. Consistent with the genetic interactions, we found Hyd to physically interact with Sgg and Ci. Taken together we propose that Hyd and Sgg function to co-ordinate hh ligand and Ci expression, which in turn influences important developmental signalling pathways during imaginal disc development. These findings are important as tight temporal/spatial regulation of hh ligand expression underlies its important roles in animal development and tissue homeostasis. When deregulated, hh ligand family misexpression underlies numerous human diseases (e.g., colorectal, lung, pancreatic and haematological cancers) and developmental defects (e.g., cyclopia and polydactyly). In summary, our Drosophila-based findings highlight an apical role for Hyd and Sgg in initiating Hedgehog signalling, which could also be evolutionarily conserved in mammals. PMID:26334301

  7. The Interaction between the Drosophila Secreted Protein Argos and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibits Dimerization of the Receptor and Binding of Secreted Spitz to the Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ming-hao; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Ito, Mikiko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila Argos (Aos), a secreted protein with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain, has been shown to inhibit the activation of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER). However, it has not been determined whether Aos binds directly to DER or whether regulation of the DER activation occurs through some other mechanism. Using DER-expressing cells (DER/S2) and a recombinant DER extracellular domain-Fc fusion protein (DER-Fc), we have shown that Aos binds directly to the extracellular domain of DER with its carboxyl-terminal region, including the EGF-like domain. Furthermore, Aos can block the binding of secreted Spitz (sSpi), a transforming growth factor α-like ligand of DER, to the extracellular domain of DER. We observed that sSpi stimulates the dimerization of both the soluble DER extracellular domain (sDER) and the intact DER in the DER/S2 cells and that Aos can block the sSpi-induced dimerization of both sDER and intact DER. Moreover, we have shown that, by directly interacting with DER, Aos and SpiAos (a chimeric protein that is composed of the N-terminal region of Spi and the C-terminal region of Aos) inhibit the dimerization and phosphorylation of DER that are induced by DER's overexpression in the absence of sSpi. These results indicate that Aos exerts its inhibitory function through dual molecular mechanisms: by blocking both the receptor dimerization and the binding of activating ligand to the receptor. This is the first description of this novel inhibitory mechanism for receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:10688656

  8. Enhancer of splitD, a dominant mutation of Drosophila, and its use in the study of functional domains of a helix-loop-helix protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, K; Oellers, N; Knust, E

    1992-01-01

    Helix-loop-helix proteins play important roles in developmental processes, such as myogenesis, neurogenesis, and sex determination. The gene Enhancer of split [E(spl)] of Drosophila, a member of a gene complex that is involved in early neurogenesis, encodes a protein with a basic domain and a helix-loop-helix motif. We took advantage of a dominant mutation of this gene, E(spl)D, to define in vivo structural features of this protein for proper function. The mutation renders the otherwise recessive eye phenotype of spl dominant. By germ-line transformation of different in vitro mutagenized versions of the E(spl) gene, we could demonstrate that the basic domain of this helix-loop-helix protein is functional and necessary for expression of the dominant phenotype. These results are supported by in vitro DNA-binding assays, which showed that the basic domain is in fact necessary for DNA binding, despite the presence of a proline residue. Furthermore, we could show that the dominant enhancement of spl is caused by truncation of the E(SPL)D protein in combination with deletion of a putative regulatory element. Images PMID:1631102

  9. The AT-hook protein D1 is essential for Drosophila melanogaster development and is implicated in position-effect variegation.

    PubMed

    Aulner, Nathalie; Monod, Caroline; Mandicourt, Guillaume; Jullien, Denis; Cuvier, Olivier; Sall, Alhousseynou; Janssen, Sam; Laemmli, Ulrich K; Käs, Emmanuel

    2002-02-01

    We have analyzed the expression pattern of the D1 gene and the localization of its product, the AT hook-bearing nonhistone chromosomal protein D1, during Drosophila melanogaster development. D1 mRNAs and protein are maternally contributed, and the protein localizes to discrete foci on the chromosomes of early embryos. These foci correspond to 1.672- and 1.688-g/cm(3) AT-rich satellite repeats found in the centromeric heterochromatin of the X and Y chromosomes and on chromosomes 3 and 4. D1 mRNA levels subsequently decrease throughout later development, followed by the accumulation of the D1 protein in adult gonads, where two distributions of D1 can be correlated to different states of gene activity. We show that the EP473 mutation, a P-element insertion upstream of D1 coding sequences, affects the expression of the D1 gene and results in an embryonic homozygous lethal phenotype correlated with the depletion of D1 protein during embryogenesis. Remarkably, decreased levels of D1 mRNA and protein in heterozygous flies lead to the suppression of position-effect variegation (PEV) of the white gene in the white-mottled (w(m4h)) X-chromosome inversion. Our results identify D1 as a DNA-binding protein of known sequence specificity implicated in PEV. D1 is the primary factor that binds the centromeric 1.688-g/cm(3) satellite repeats which are likely involved in white-mottled variegation. We propose that the AT-hook D1 protein nucleates heterochromatin assembly by recruiting specialized transcriptional repressors and/or proteins involved in chromosome condensation. PMID:11809812

  10. Drosophila Photoreceptors and Signaling Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ben; Minke, Baruch

    2009-01-01

    Fly eyes have been a useful biological system in which fundamental principles of sensory signaling have been elucidated. The physiological optics of the fly compound eye, which was discovered in the Musca, Calliphora and Drosophila flies, has been widely exploited in pioneering genetic and developmental studies. The detailed photochemical cycle of bistable photopigments has been elucidated in Drosophila using the genetic approach. Studies of Drosophila phototransduction using the genetic approach have led to the discovery of novel proteins crucial to many biological processes. A notable example is the discovery of the inactivation no afterpotential D scaffold protein, which binds the light-activated channel, its activator the phospholipase C and it regulator protein kinase C. An additional protein discovered in the Drosophila eye is the light-activated channel transient receptor potential (TRP), the founding member of the diverse and widely spread TRP channel superfamily. The fly eye has thus played a major role in the molecular identification of processes and proteins with prime importance. PMID:19623243

  11. Aspergillus nidulans Synthesize Insect Juvenile Hormones upon Expression of a Heterologous Regulatory Protein and in Response to Grazing by Drosophila melanogaster Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Marko; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2013-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are known to serve a wide range of specialized functions including communication, developmental control and defense. Genome sequencing of several fungal model species revealed that the majority of predicted secondary metabolite related genes are silent in laboratory strains, indicating that fungal secondary metabolites remain an underexplored resource of bioactive molecules. In this study, we combine heterologous expression of regulatory proteins in Aspergillus nidulans with systematic variation of growth conditions and observe induced synthesis of insect juvenile hormone-III and methyl farnesoate. Both compounds are sesquiterpenes belonging to the juvenile hormone class. Juvenile hormones regulate developmental and metabolic processes in insects and crustaceans, but have not previously been reported as fungal metabolites. We found that feeding by Drosophila melanogaster larvae induced synthesis of juvenile hormone in A. nidulans indicating a possible role of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in affecting fungal-insect antagonisms. PMID:23991191

  12. Drosophila spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Brill, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes as they differentiate from small round cells approximately 12 μm in diameter into highly polarized, 1.8 mm long, motile sperm capable of participating in fertilization. During spermiogenesis, syncytial cysts of 64 haploid spermatids undergo synchronous differentiation. Numerous changes occur at a subcellular level, including remodeling of existing organelles (mitochondria, nuclei), formation of new organelles (flagellar axonemes, acrosomes), polarization of elongating cysts and plasma membrane addition. At the end of spermatid morphogenesis, organelles, mitochondrial DNA and cytoplasmic components not needed in mature sperm are stripped away in a caspase-dependent process called individualization that results in formation of individual sperm. Here, we review the stages of Drosophila spermiogenesis and examine our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in shaping male germ cell-specific organelles and forming mature, fertile sperm. PMID:23087837

  13. Dietary alpha-ketoglutarate increases cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and enhances protein pool and antioxidant defense in sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lylyk, Maria P; Shmihel, Halyna V; Sorochynska, Oksana M; Manyukh, Oksana V; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in Krebs cycle which bridges the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates. Its effects as a dietary supplement on cold tolerance were studied in Drosophila melanogaster Canton S. Two-day-old adult flies fed at larval and adult stages with AKG at moderate concentrations (5-10mM) recovered faster from chill coma (0°C for 15min or 3h) than control ones. The beneficial effect of AKG on chill coma recovery was not found at its higher concentrations, which suggests hormetic like action of this keto acid. Time of 50% observed mortality after 2h recovery from continuous cold exposure (-1°C for 3-31h) (LTi50) was higher for flies reared on 10mM AKG compared with control ones, showing that the diet with AKG enhanced insect cold tolerance. In parallel with enhancement of cold tolerance, dietary AKG improved fly locomotor activity. Metabolic effects of AKG differed partly in males and females. In males fed on AKG, there were no differences in total protein and free amino acid levels, but the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity and low molecular mass thiol content were higher than in control animals. In females, dietary AKG promoted higher total antioxidant capacity and higher levels of proteins, total amino acids, proline and low molecular mass thiols. The levels of lipid peroxides were lower in both fly sexes reared on AKG as compared with control ones. We conclude that both enhancement of antioxidant system capacity and synthesis of amino acids can be important for AKG-promoted cold tolerance in D. melanogaster. The involvement of AKG in metabolic pathways of Drosophila males and females is discussed. PMID:27503710

  14. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle. PMID:3120191

  15. The Novel Zinc Finger Protein dASCIZ Regulates Mitosis in Drosophila via an Essential Role in Dynein Light-Chain Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zaytseva, Olga; Tenis, Nora; Mitchell, Naomi; Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Yasui, Akira; Heierhorst, Jörg; Quinn, Leonie M

    2014-01-01

    The essential zinc finger protein ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822) plays critical roles during lung organogenesis and B cell development in mice, where it regulates the expression of dynein light chain (DYNLL1/LC8), but its functions in other species including invertebrates are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of the Drosophila ortholog of ASCIZ (dASCIZ) and show that loss of dASCIZ function leads to pronounced mitotic delays with centrosome and spindle positioning defects during development, reminiscent of impaired dynein motor functions. Interestingly, similar mitotic and developmental defects were observed upon knockdown of the DYNLL/LC8-type dynein light chain Cutup (Ctp), and dASCIZ loss-of-function phenotypes could be suppressed by ectopic Ctp expression. Consistent with a genetic function of dASCIZ upstream of Ctp, we show that loss of dASCIZ led to reduced endogenous Ctp mRNA and protein levels and dramatically reduced Ctp–LacZ reporter gene activity in vivo, indicating that dASCIZ regulates development and mitosis as a Ctp transcription factor. We speculate that the more severe mitotic defects in the absence of ASCIZ in flies compared to mice may be due to redundancy with a second, ASCIZ-independent, Dynll2 gene in mammals in contrast to a single Ctp gene in Drosophila. Altogether, our data demonstrate that ASCIZ is an evolutionary highly conserved transcriptional regulator of dynein light-chain levels and a novel regulator of mitosis in flies. PMID:24336747

  16. The novel zinc finger protein dASCIZ regulates mitosis in Drosophila via an essential role in dynein light-chain expression.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Olga; Tenis, Nora; Mitchell, Naomi; Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Yasui, Akira; Heierhorst, Jörg; Quinn, Leonie M

    2014-02-01

    The essential zinc finger protein ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822) plays critical roles during lung organogenesis and B cell development in mice, where it regulates the expression of dynein light chain (DYNLL1/LC8), but its functions in other species including invertebrates are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of the Drosophila ortholog of ASCIZ (dASCIZ) and show that loss of dASCIZ function leads to pronounced mitotic delays with centrosome and spindle positioning defects during development, reminiscent of impaired dynein motor functions. Interestingly, similar mitotic and developmental defects were observed upon knockdown of the DYNLL/LC8-type dynein light chain Cutup (Ctp), and dASCIZ loss-of-function phenotypes could be suppressed by ectopic Ctp expression. Consistent with a genetic function of dASCIZ upstream of Ctp, we show that loss of dASCIZ led to reduced endogenous Ctp mRNA and protein levels and dramatically reduced Ctp-LacZ reporter gene activity in vivo, indicating that dASCIZ regulates development and mitosis as a Ctp transcription factor. We speculate that the more severe mitotic defects in the absence of ASCIZ in flies compared to mice may be due to redundancy with a second, ASCIZ-independent, Dynll2 gene in mammals in contrast to a single Ctp gene in Drosophila. Altogether, our data demonstrate that ASCIZ is an evolutionary highly conserved transcriptional regulator of dynein light-chain levels and a novel regulator of mitosis in flies. PMID:24336747

  17. Tid1, the Mammalian Homologue of Drosophila Tumor Suppressor Tid56, Mediates Macroautophagy by Interacting with Beclin1-containing Autophagy Protein Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ge; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Li; Belani, Chandra; Wang, Hong-Gang; Cheng, Hua

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental functions of molecular chaperone proteins is to selectively conjugate cellular proteins, targeting them directly to lysosome. Some of chaperones, such as the stress-induced Hsp70, also play important roles in autophagosome-forming macroautophagy under various stress conditions. However, the role of their co-chaperones in autophagy regulation has not been well defined. We here show that Tid1, a DnaJ co-chaperone for Hsp70 and the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56, is a key mediator of macroautophagy pathway. Ectopic expression of Tid1 induces autophagy by forming LC3+ autophagosome foci, whereas silencing Tid1 leads to drastic impairment of autophagy as induced by nutrient deprivation or rapamycin. In contrast, Hsp70 is dispensable for a role in nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy. The murine Tid1 can be replaced with human Tid1 in murine fibroblast cells for induction of autophagy. We further show that Tid1 increases autophagy flux by interacting with the Beclin1-PI3 kinase class III protein complex in response to autophagy inducing signal and that Tid1 is an essential mediator that connects IκB kinases to the Beclin1-containing autophagy protein complex. Together, these results reveal a crucial role of Tid1 as an evolutionarily conserved and essential mediator of canonical macroautophagy. PMID:26055714

  18. The E3 ligase Ubr3 regulates Usher syndrome and MYH9 disorder proteins in the auditory organs of Drosophila and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tongchao; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Eberl, Daniel F; Jaiswal, Sonal Nagarkar; Cai, Tiantian; Godt, Dorothea; Groves, Andrew K; Bellen, Hugo J

    2016-01-01

    Myosins play essential roles in the development and function of auditory organs and multiple myosin genes are associated with hereditary forms of deafness. Using a forward genetic screen in Drosophila, we identified an E3 ligase, Ubr3, as an essential gene for auditory organ development. Ubr3 negatively regulates the mono-ubiquitination of non-muscle Myosin II, a protein associated with hearing loss in humans. The mono-ubiquitination of Myosin II promotes its physical interaction with Myosin VIIa, a protein responsible for Usher syndrome type IB. We show that ubr3 mutants phenocopy pathogenic variants of Myosin II and that Ubr3 interacts genetically and physically with three Usher syndrome proteins. The interactions between Myosin VIIa and Myosin IIa are conserved in the mammalian cochlea and in human retinal pigment epithelium cells. Our work reveals a novel mechanism that regulates protein complexes affected in two forms of syndromic deafness and suggests a molecular function for Myosin IIa in auditory organs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15258.001 PMID:27331610

  19. Notch and Delta mRNAs in early-stage and mid-stage Drosophila embryos exhibit complementary patterns of protein producing potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wesley, Uma; Wesley, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Notch and Delta proteins generate Notch signaling that specifies cell fates during animal development. There is an intriguing phenomenon in Drosophila embryogenesis that has not received much attention and whose significance to embryogenesis is unknown. Notch and Delta mRNAs expressed in early-stage embryos are shorter than their counterparts in mid-stage embryos. We show here that the difference in sizes is due to mRNA 3′ processing at alternate polyadenylation sites. While the early-stage Notch mRNA has a lower protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Notch mRNA, the early-stage Delta mRNA has a higher protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Delta mRNA. Our data can explain the complementary patterns of Notch and Delta protein levels in early-stage and mid-stage embryos. Our data also raise the possibility that the manner and regulation of Notch signaling change in the course of embryogenesis and that this change is effected by 3′ UTR and mRNA 3′ processing factors. PMID:20201103

  20. Expression of human Cfdp1 gene in Drosophila reveals new insights into the function of the evolutionarily conserved BCNT protein family

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Giovanni; Atterrato, Maria Teresa; Fanti, Laura; Giordano, Ennio; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2016-01-01

    The Bucentaur (BCNT) protein family is widely distributed in eukaryotes and is characterized by a highly conserved C-terminal domain. This family was identified two decades ago in ruminants, but its role(s) remained largely unknown. Investigating cellular functions and mechanism of action of BCNT proteins is challenging, because they have been implicated in human craniofacial development. Recently, we found that YETI, the D. melanogaster BCNT, is a chromatin factor that participates to H2A.V deposition. Here we report the effects of in vivo expression of CFDP1, the human BCNT protein, in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that CFDP1, similarly to YETI, binds to chromatin and its expression results in a wide range of abnormalities highly reminiscent of those observed in Yeti null mutants. This indicates that CFDP1 expressed in flies behaves in a dominant negative fashion disrupting the YETI function. Moreover, GST pull-down provides evidence indicating that 1) both YETI and CFDP1 undergo homodimerization and 2) YETI and CFDP1 physically interact each other by forming inactive heterodimers that would trigger the observed dominant-negative effect. Overall, our findings highlight unanticipated evidences suggesting that homodimerization mediated by the BCNT domain is integral to the chromatin functions of BCNT proteins. PMID:27151176

  1. Expression of human Cfdp1 gene in Drosophila reveals new insights into the function of the evolutionarily conserved BCNT protein family.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giovanni; Atterrato, Maria Teresa; Fanti, Laura; Giordano, Ennio; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2016-01-01

    The Bucentaur (BCNT) protein family is widely distributed in eukaryotes and is characterized by a highly conserved C-terminal domain. This family was identified two decades ago in ruminants, but its role(s) remained largely unknown. Investigating cellular functions and mechanism of action of BCNT proteins is challenging, because they have been implicated in human craniofacial development. Recently, we found that YETI, the D. melanogaster BCNT, is a chromatin factor that participates to H2A.V deposition. Here we report the effects of in vivo expression of CFDP1, the human BCNT protein, in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that CFDP1, similarly to YETI, binds to chromatin and its expression results in a wide range of abnormalities highly reminiscent of those observed in Yeti null mutants. This indicates that CFDP1 expressed in flies behaves in a dominant negative fashion disrupting the YETI function. Moreover, GST pull-down provides evidence indicating that 1) both YETI and CFDP1 undergo homodimerization and 2) YETI and CFDP1 physically interact each other by forming inactive heterodimers that would trigger the observed dominant-negative effect. Overall, our findings highlight unanticipated evidences suggesting that homodimerization mediated by the BCNT domain is integral to the chromatin functions of BCNT proteins. PMID:27151176

  2. Assessing a peptidylic inhibitor-based therapeutic approach that simultaneously suppresses polyglutamine RNA- and protein-mediated toxicities in patient cells and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Tsoi, Ho; Peng, Shaohong; Li, Pan P.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Ngo, Jacky Chi-Ki; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases represent a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by abnormal expansion of CAG triplet nucleotides in disease genes. Recent evidence indicates that not only mutant polyQ proteins, but also their corresponding mutant RNAs, contribute to the pathogenesis of polyQ diseases. Here, we describe the identification of a 13-amino-acid peptide, P3, which binds directly and preferentially to long-CAG RNA within the pathogenic range. When administered to cell and Drosophila disease models, as well as to patient-derived fibroblasts, P3 inhibited expanded-CAG-RNA-induced nucleolar stress and suppressed neurotoxicity. We further examined the combined therapeutic effect of P3 and polyQ-binding peptide 1 (QBP1), a well-characterized polyQ protein toxicity inhibitor, on neurodegeneration. When P3 and QBP1 were co-administered to disease models, both RNA and protein toxicities were effectively mitigated, resulting in a notable improvement of neurotoxicity suppression compared with the P3 and QBP1 single-treatment controls. Our findings indicate that targeting toxic RNAs and/or simultaneous targeting of toxic RNAs and their corresponding proteins could open up a new therapeutic strategy for treating polyQ degeneration. PMID:26839389

  3. Assessing a peptidylic inhibitor-based therapeutic approach that simultaneously suppresses polyglutamine RNA- and protein-mediated toxicities in patient cells and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Tsoi, Ho; Peng, Shaohong; Li, Pan P; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Rudnicki, Dobrila D; Ngo, Jacky Chi-Ki; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin

    2016-03-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases represent a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by abnormal expansion of CAG triplet nucleotides in disease genes. Recent evidence indicates that not only mutant polyQ proteins, but also their corresponding mutant RNAs, contribute to the pathogenesis of polyQ diseases. Here, we describe the identification of a 13-amino-acid peptide, P3, which binds directly and preferentially to long-CAG RNA within the pathogenic range. When administered to cell and Drosophila disease models, as well as to patient-derived fibroblasts, P3 inhibited expanded-CAG-RNA-induced nucleolar stress and suppressed neurotoxicity. We further examined the combined therapeutic effect of P3 and polyQ-binding peptide 1 (QBP1), a well-characterized polyQ protein toxicity inhibitor, on neurodegeneration. When P3 and QBP1 were co-administered to disease models, both RNA and protein toxicities were effectively mitigated, resulting in a notable improvement of neurotoxicity suppression compared with the P3 and QBP1 single-treatment controls. Our findings indicate that targeting toxic RNAs and/or simultaneous targeting of toxic RNAs and their corresponding proteins could open up a new therapeutic strategy for treating polyQ degeneration. PMID:26839389

  4. Third Chromosome Balancer Inversions Disrupt Protein-Coding Genes and Influence Distal Recombination Events in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miller, Danny E; Cook, Kevin R; Arvanitakis, Alexandra V; Hawley, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    Balancer chromosomes are multiply inverted chromosomes that suppress meiotic crossing over and prevent the recovery of crossover products. Balancers are commonly used in Drosophila melanogaster to maintain deleterious alleles and in stock construction. They exist for all three major chromosomes, yet the molecular location of the breakpoints and the exact nature of many of the mutations carried by the second and third chromosome balancers has not been available. Here, we precisely locate eight of 10 of the breakpoints on the third chromosome balancer TM3, six of eight on TM6, and nine of 11 breakpoints on TM6B We find that one of the inversion breakpoints on TM3 bisects the highly conserved tumor suppressor gene p53-a finding that may have important consequences for a wide range of studies in Drosophila We also identify evidence of single and double crossovers between several TM3 and TM6B balancers and their normal-sequence homologs that have created genetic diversity among these chromosomes. Overall, this work demonstrates the practical importance of precisely identifying the position of inversion breakpoints of balancer chromosomes and characterizing the mutant alleles carried by them. PMID:27172211

  5. Third Chromosome Balancer Inversions Disrupt Protein-Coding Genes and Influence Distal Recombination Events in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Danny E.; Cook, Kevin R.; Arvanitakis, Alexandra V.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Balancer chromosomes are multiply inverted chromosomes that suppress meiotic crossing over and prevent the recovery of crossover products. Balancers are commonly used in Drosophila melanogaster to maintain deleterious alleles and in stock construction. They exist for all three major chromosomes, yet the molecular location of the breakpoints and the exact nature of many of the mutations carried by the second and third chromosome balancers has not been available. Here, we precisely locate eight of 10 of the breakpoints on the third chromosome balancer TM3, six of eight on TM6, and nine of 11 breakpoints on TM6B. We find that one of the inversion breakpoints on TM3 bisects the highly conserved tumor suppressor gene p53—a finding that may have important consequences for a wide range of studies in Drosophila. We also identify evidence of single and double crossovers between several TM3 and TM6B balancers and their normal-sequence homologs that have created genetic diversity among these chromosomes. Overall, this work demonstrates the practical importance of precisely identifying the position of inversion breakpoints of balancer chromosomes and characterizing the mutant alleles carried by them. PMID:27172211

  6. Identification of target genes regulated by homeotic proteins in Drosophila melanogaster through genetic selection of Ultrabithorax protein-binding sites in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Mastick, G.S.; McKay, R.; Oligino, T.

    1995-01-01

    A method based on the transcriptional activation of a selectable reporter in yeast cells was used to identify genes regulated by the Utrabithorax homeoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster. Fifty-three DNA fragments that can mediate activation by UBX isoform Ia in this test were recovered after screening 15% of the Drosophila genome. Half of these fragments represent single-copy sequences in the genome. Six single-copy fragments were investigated in detail, and each was found to reside near a transcription unit whose expression in the embryo is segmentally modulated as expected for targets of homeotic genes. Four of these putative target genes are expressed in patterns that suggest roles in the development of regional specializations within mesoderm derivatives; in three cases these expression patterns depend on Ultrabithorax function. Extrapolation from this pilot study indicates that 85-170 candidate target genes can be identified by screening the entire Drosophila genome with UBX isoform Ia. With appropriate modifications, this approach should be applicable to other transcriptional regulators in diverse organisms. 69 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Examination of Endogenous Rotund Expression and Function in Developing Drosophila Olfactory System Using CRISPR-Cas9–Mediated Protein Tagging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingyun; Barish, Scott; Okuwa, Sumie; Volkan, Pelin C.

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-finger protein Rotund (Rn) plays a critical role in controlling the development of the fly olfactory system. However, little is known about its molecular function in vivo. Here, we added protein tags to the rn locus using CRISPR-Cas9 technology in Drosophila to investigate its subcellular localization and the genes that it regulates . We previously used a reporter construct to show that rn is expressed in a subset of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) precursors and it is required for the diversification of ORN fates. Here, we show that tagged endogenous Rn protein is functional based on the analysis of ORN phenotypes. Using this method, we also mapped the expression pattern of the endogenous isoform-specific tags in vivo with increased precision. Comparison of the Rn expression pattern from this study with previously published results using GAL4 reporters showed that Rn is mainly present in early steps in antennal disc patterning, but not in pupal stages when ORNs are born. Finally, using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we showed a direct binding of Rotund to a previously identified regulatory element upstream of the bric-a-brac gene locus in the developing antennal disc. PMID:26497147

  8. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  9. The PTK7-Related Transmembrane Proteins Off-track and Off-track 2 Are Co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 Required for Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP) in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk) are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964), which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract. PMID:25010066

  10. Genetic Modifiers of the Drosophila Blue Cheese Gene Link Defects in Lysosomal Transport With Decreased Life Span and Altered Ubiquitinated-Protein Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Anne; Cumming, Robert C.; Lindmo, Karine; Galaviz, Vanessa; Cheng, Susan; Rusten, Tor Erik; Finley, Kim D.

    2007-01-01

    Defects in lysosomal trafficking pathways lead to decreased cell viability and are associated with progressive disorders in humans. Previously we have found that loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the Drosophila gene blue cheese (bchs) lead to reduced adult life span, increased neuronal death, and widespread CNS degeneration that is associated with the formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates. To identify potential genes that participate in the bchs functional pathway, we conducted a genetic modifier screen based on alterations of an eye phenotype that arises from high-level overexpression of Bchs. We found that mutations in select autophagic and endocytic trafficking genes, defects in cytoskeletal and motor proteins, as well as mutations in the SUMO and ubiquitin signaling pathways behave as modifiers of the Bchs gain-of-function (GOF) eye phenotype. Individual mutant alleles that produced viable adults were further examined for bchs-like phenotypes. Mutations in several lysosomal trafficking genes resulted in significantly decreased adult life spans and several mutants showed changes in ubiquitinated protein profiles as young adults. This work represents a novel approach to examine the role that lysosomal transport and function have on adult viability. The genes characterized in this study have direct human homologs, suggesting that similar defects in lysosomal transport may play a role in human health and age-related processes. PMID:17435236

  11. Identification of a second homolog of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein that is expressed in the nervous system and secretory tissues of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Boulianne, G L; Trimble, W S

    1995-01-01

    N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is an ATPase known to have an essential role in intracellular membrane transport events. Recently, cDNA clones encoding a Drosophila melanogaster homolog of this protein, named dNSF, were characterized and found to be expressed in the nervous system. We now report the identification of a second homolog of NSF, called dNSF-2 within this species and report evidence that this ubiquitous and widely utilized fusion protein belongs to a multigene family. The predicted amino acid sequence of dNSF-2 is 84.5% identical to dNSF (hereafter named dNSF-1), 59% identical to NSF from Chinese hamster, and 38.5% identical to the yeast homolog SEC18. The highest similarity was found in a region of dNSF-2 containing one of two ATP-binding sites; this region is most similar to members of a superfamily of ATPases. dNSF-2 is localized to a region between bands 87F12 and 88A3 on chromosome 3, and in situ hybridization techniques revealed expression in the nervous system during embryogenesis and in several imaginal discs and secretory structures in the larvae. Developmental modulation of dNSF-2 expression suggests that quantitative changes in the secretory apparatus are important in histogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624376

  12. The C-terminal Kinase and ERK-binding Domains of Drosophila S6KII (RSK) Are Required for Phosphorylation of the Protein and Modulation of Circadian Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Tangredi, Michelle M.; Ng, Fanny S.; Jackson, F. Rob

    2012-01-01

    A detailed structure/function analysis of Drosophila p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6KII) or its mammalian homolog RSK has not been performed in the context of neuronal plasticity or behavior. We previously reported that S6KII is required for normal circadian periodicity. Here we report a site-directed mutagenesis of S6KII and analysis of mutants, in vivo, that identifies functional domains and phosphorylation sites critical for the regulation of circadian period. We demonstrate, for the first time, a role for the S6KII C-terminal kinase that is independent of its known role in activation of the N-terminal kinase. Both S6KII C-terminal kinase activity and its ERK-binding domain are required for wild-type circadian period and normal phosphorylation status of the protein. In contrast, the N-terminal kinase of S6KII is dispensable for modulation of circadian period and normal phosphorylation of the protein. We also show that particular sites of S6KII phosphorylation, Ser-515 and Thr-732, are essential for normal circadian behavior. Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of S6KII residues, in vivo, does not follow a strict sequential pattern, as implied by certain cell-based studies of mammalian RSK protein. PMID:22447936

  13. The Drosophila Z-disc Protein Z(210) Is an Adult Muscle Isoform of Zasp52, Which Is Required for Normal Myofibril Organization in Indirect Flight Muscles*

    PubMed Central

    Chechenova, Maria B.; Bryantsev, Anton L.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    The Z-disc is a critical anchoring point for thin filaments as they slide during muscle contraction. Therefore, identifying components of the Z-disc is critical for fully comprehending how myofibrils assemble and function. In the adult Drosophila musculature, the fibrillar indirect flight muscles accumulate a >200 kDa Z-disc protein termed Z(210), the identity of which has to date been unknown. Here, we use mass spectrometry and gene specific knockdown studies, to identify Z(210) as an adult isoform of the Z-disc protein Zasp52. The Zasp52 primary transcript is extensively alternatively spliced, and we describe its splicing pattern in the flight muscles, identifying a new Zasp52 isoform, which is the one recognized by the Z(210) antibody. We also demonstrate that Zasp52 is required for the association of α-actinin with the flight muscle Z-disc, and for normal sarcomere structure. These studies expand our knowledge of Zasp isoforms and their functions in muscle. Given the role of Zasp proteins in mammalian muscle development and disease, our results have relevance to mammalian muscle biology. PMID:23271733

  14. RNA helicase Spn-E is required to maintain Aub and AGO3 protein levels for piRNA silencing in the germline of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ryazansky, Sergei S; Kotov, Alexei A; Kibanov, Mikhail V; Akulenko, Natalia V; Korbut, Alina P; Lavrov, Sergei A; Gvozdev, Vladimir A; Olenina, Ludmila V

    2016-09-01

    Germline-specific RNA helicase Spindle-E (Spn-E) is known to be essential for piRNA silencing in Drosophila that takes place mainly in the perinuclear nuage granules. Loss-of-function spn-E mutations lead to tandem Stellate genes derepression in the testes and retrotransposon mobilization in the ovaries. However, Spn-E functions in the piRNA pathway are still obscure. Analysis of total library of short RNAs from the testes of spn-E heterozygous flies revealed the presence of abundant piRNA ping-pong pairs originating from Su(Ste) transcripts. The abundance of these ping-pong pairs were sharply reduced in the library from the testes of spn-E mutants. Thus we found that ping-pong mechanism contributed to Su(Ste) piRNA generation in the testes. The lack of Spn-E caused a significant drop of protein levels of key ping-pong participants, Aubergine (Aub) and AGO3 proteins of PIWI subfamily, in the germline of both males and females, but did not disrupt of their assembly in nuage granules. We found that observed decline of the protein expression was not caused by suppression of aub and ago3 transcription as well as total transcription, indicating possible contribution of Spn-E to post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:27320195

  15. Signaling through the G-protein-coupled receptor Rickets is important for polarity, detachment, and migration of the border cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Anllo, Lauren; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2016-06-15

    Cell migration plays crucial roles during development. An excellent model to study coordinated cell movements is provided by the migration of border cell clusters within a developing Drosophila egg chamber. In a mutagenesis screen, we isolated two alleles of the gene rickets (rk) encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor. The rk alleles result in border cell migration defects in a significant fraction of egg chambers. In rk mutants, border cells are properly specified and express the marker Slbo. Yet, analysis of both fixed as well as live samples revealed that some single border cells lag behind the main border cell cluster during migration, or, in other cases, the entire border cell cluster can remain tethered to the anterior epithelium as it migrates. These defects are observed significantly more often in mosaic border cell clusters, than in full mutant clusters. Reduction of the Rk ligand, Bursicon, in the border cell cluster also resulted in migration defects, strongly suggesting that Rk signaling is utilized for communication within the border cell cluster itself. The mutant border cell clusters show defects in localization of the adhesion protein E-cadherin, and apical polarity proteins during migration. E-cadherin mislocalization occurs in mosaic clusters, but not in full mutant clusters, correlating well with the rk border cell migration phenotype. Our work has identified a receptor with a previously unknown role in border cell migration that appears to regulate detachment and polarity of the border cell cluster coordinating processes within the cells of the cluster themselves. PMID:27130192

  16. Cell-free translation of Drosophila C virus RNA: identification of a virus protease activity involved in capsid protein synthesis and further studies on in vitro processing of cricket paralysis virus specified proteins.

    PubMed

    Reavy, B; Moore, N F

    1983-01-01

    Drosophila C virus RNA acted as mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and directed the synthesis of at least one capsid protein and a number of higher molecular weight proteins. Kinetic analysis by pulse-chase experiments showed that a number of high molecular weight products acted as precursors to the capsid protein(s). Various dilution experiments were performed which showed that the virus specified a protease activity essential for the correct processing of precursors to give the capsid protein(s). A similar result was obtained with Cricket paralysis virus, and mixing experiments showed that the protease activity specified by one virus could perform some of the cleavages resulting in the production of the capsid proteins of the other virus. Some of the cleavages involving the highest molecular weight precursors could not be performed by the protease activity of the other virus. We could find no evidence for intramolecular cleavage of the capsid precursors of either of the viruses. PMID:6307220

  17. Gap Junction Proteins in the Blood-Brain Barrier Control Nutrient-Dependent Reactivation of Drosophila Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spéder, Pauline; Brand, Andrea H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neural stem cells in the adult brain exist primarily in a quiescent state but are reactivated in response to changing physiological conditions. How do stem cells sense and respond to metabolic changes? In the Drosophila CNS, quiescent neural stem cells are reactivated synchronously in response to a nutritional stimulus. Feeding triggers insulin production by blood-brain barrier glial cells, activating the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway in underlying neural stem cells and stimulating their growth and proliferation. Here we show that gap junctions in the blood-brain barrier glia mediate the influence of metabolic changes on stem cell behavior, enabling glia to respond to nutritional signals and reactivate quiescent stem cells. We propose that gap junctions in the blood-brain barrier are required to translate metabolic signals into synchronized calcium pulses and insulin secretion. PMID:25065772

  18. Impairment of Drosophila Orthologs of the Human Orphan Protein C19orf12 Induces Bang Sensitivity and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Iuso, Arcangela; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Gorza, Matteo; Heim, Katharina; Organisti, Cristina; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the orphan gene C19orf12 were identified as a genetic cause in a subgroup of patients with NBIA, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposits of iron in the basal ganglia. C19orf12 was shown to be localized in mitochondria, however, nothing is known about its activity and no functional link exists to the clinical phenotype of the patients. This situation led us to investigate the effects of C19orf12 down-regulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Two genes are present in D. melanogaster, which are orthologs of C19orf12, CG3740 and CG11671. Here we provide evidence that transgenic flies with impaired C19orf12 homologs reflect the neurodegenerative phenotype and represent a valid tool to further analyze the pathomechanism in C19orf12-associated NBIA. PMID:24586779

  19. [SWI/SNF Protein Complexes Participate in the Initiation and Elongation Stages of Drosophila hsp70 Gene Transcription].

    PubMed

    Mazina, M Yu; Nikolenko, Yu V; Krasnov, A N; Vorobyeva, N E

    2016-02-01

    The participation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in the stimulation of the RNA polymerase II binding to gene promotors was demonstrated in all model eukaryotic organisms. It was shown eight years ago that the SWI/SNF complex influence on transcription is not limited to its role in initiation but also includes participation in elongation and alternative splicing. In the current work, we describe the subunit composition of the SWI/SNF complexes participating in initiation, preparing for the elongation and elongation of hsp70 gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. The data reveal the high mobility of the SWI/SNF complex composition during the hsp 70 gene transcription process. We suggest a model describing the process of sequential SWI/SNF complex formation during heat-shock induced transcription of the hsp 70 gene. PMID:27215030

  20. Drosophila myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary K

    2016-09-12

    The skeletal muscle system is the largest organ in motile animals, constituting between 35 and 55% of the human body mass, and up to 75% of the body mass in flying organisms like Drosophila. The flight muscles alone in flying insects comprise up to 65% of total body mass. Not only is the musculature the largest organ system, it is also exquisitely complex, with single muscles existing in different shapes and sizes. These different morphologies allow for such different functions as the high-frequency beating of a wing in a hummingbird, the dilation of the pupil in a human eye, or the maintenance of posture in a giraffe's neck. PMID:27623256

  1. The Drosophila dysfusion basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS gene controls tracheal fusion and levels of the trachealess bHLH-PAS protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lan; Crews, Stephen T

    2003-08-01

    The development of the mature insect trachea requires a complex series of cellular events, including tracheal cell specification, cell migration, tubule branching, and tubule fusion. Here we describe the identification of the Drosophila melanogaster dysfusion gene, which encodes a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS protein conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans, insects, and humans, and controls tracheal fusion events. The Dysfusion protein functions as a heterodimer with the Tango bHLH-PAS protein in vivo to form a putative DNA-binding complex. The dysfusion gene is expressed in a variety of embryonic cell types, including tracheal-fusion, leading-edge, foregut atrium cells, nervous system, hindgut, and anal pad cells. RNAi experiments indicate that dysfusion is required for dorsal branch, lateral trunk, and ganglionic branch fusion but not for fusion of the dorsal trunk. The escargot gene, which is also expressed in fusion cells and is required for tracheal fusion, precedes dysfusion expression. Analysis of escargot mutants indicates a complex pattern of dysfusion regulation, such that dysfusion expression is dependent on escargot in the dorsal and ganglionic branches but not the dorsal trunk. Early in tracheal development, the Trachealess bHLH-PAS protein is present at uniformly high levels in all tracheal cells, but since the levels of Dysfusion rise in wild-type fusion cells, the levels of Trachealess in fusion cells decline. The downregulation of Trachealess is dependent on dysfusion function. These results suggest the possibility that competitive interactions between basic helix-loop-helix-PAS proteins (Dysfusion, Trachealess, and possibly Similar) may be important for the proper development of the trachea. PMID:12897136

  2. Identification and immuno-electron microscopy localization of p40, a protein component of immunosuppressive virus-like particles from Leptopilina heterotoma, a virulent parasitoid wasp of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiling; Morales, Jorge; Govind, Shubha

    2006-02-01

    Lamellocytes are specialized larval blood cells of Drosophila that carry out encapsulation of metazoan pathogens such as parasitoid wasps. Large virus-like particles (VLPs) from two closely related virulent parasitoid wasp species, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina victoriae, suppress the host encapsulation response by promoting lysis of lamellocytes. The molecular basis of VLP-lamellocyte interaction and lamellocyte lysis is not understood. Here, it was shown that mature VLPs are composed of at least four major proteins. Polyclonal antisera against the most abundant L. heterotoma VLP protein, p40, cross-reacted with the most abundant L. victoriae VLP protein, p47.5. Immuno-electron microscopy (EM) of the long gland-reservoir complex revealed that p40 was expressed early in VLP biogenesis and was detected along with VLP precursors within the long gland cells and lumen. In the reservoir, VLPs had an angular core, resembled mature particles and p40 was detected outside the VLP cores. Immuno-EM staining of mature VLPs from both species localized the p40 and p47.5 proteins largely to the periphery of the VLPs and along the VLP spike-like projections. p40 staining was observed in VLP-treated host haemocytes. In vitro, anti-p40 antibody almost completely blocked the ability of L. heterotoma VLPs to promote lamellocyte lysis. Anti-p40 antibody blocked lysis by L. victoriae VLPs by >50%. It is proposed that the VLP surface proteins p40 and p47.5 share antigenic determinants and significantly contribute to the strong virulence of their Hymenopteran hosts. PMID:16432035

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drosophila albomicans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiongbin; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Junqing; Bi, Guiqi

    2016-09-01

    Drosophila albomicans has been widely used as an important animal model for chromosome evolution. In this study, the mitochondrial genome sequence of this species is determined and described for the first time. The mitochondrial genome (15 849 bp) encompasses two rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 13 protein-coding genes. Genome content and structure are similar to those reported from other Drosophila mitochondrial genomes. Phylogeny analysis indicates that D. albomicans have a closer genetic relationship with Drosophil aincompta and Drosophil alittoralis. This mitochondrial genome is potentially important for studying molecular evolution and conservation genetics in Drosophila genus. PMID:26358579

  4. Cellular immune defenses of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Brendon; Foley, Edan

    2016-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for the characterization of blood cell development and function, with an array of protocols for the manipulation and visualization of fixed or live cells in vitro or in vivo. Researchers have deployed these techniques to reveal Drosophila hemocytes as a remarkably versatile cell type that engulfs apoptotic corpses; neutralizes invading parasites; seals epithelial wounds; and deposits extracellular matrix proteins. In this review, we will discuss the key features of Drosophila hemocyte development and function, and identify similarities with vertebrate counterparts. PMID:26748247

  5. Inhalational anesthetics disrupt postsynaptic density protein-95, Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor, and zonula occludens-1 domain protein interactions critical to action of several excitatory receptor channels related to anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Feng; Chen, Qiang; Sato, Yuko; Skinner, John; Tang, Pei; Johns, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have shown previously that inhaled anesthetics disrupt the interaction between the second postsynaptic density protein-95, Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor, and zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and the C-terminus of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B. Our data indicate that PDZ domains may serve as a molecular target for inhaled anesthetics. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be illustrated. Methods Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid analysis were used to assess PDZ domain-mediated protein-protein interactions in different conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate isoflurane-induced chemical shift changes in the PDZ1–3 domains of PSD-95. A surface plasmon resonance-based BIAcore assay was used to examine the ability of isoflurane to inhibit the PDZ domain-mediated protein-protein interactions in real time. Results Halothane and isoflurane dose dependently inhibited PDZ domain-mediated interactions between PSD-95 and Shaker-type potassium channel Kv1.4 and between α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit GluA2 and its interacting proteins— glutamate receptor interacting protein or protein interacting with c kinase 1. However, halothane and isoflurane had no effect on PDZ domain-mediated interactions between γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptor and its interacting proteins. The inhaled anesthetic isoflurane mostly affected the residues close to or in the peptide binding groove of PSD-95 PDZ1 and PDZ2 (especially PDZ2), while barely affecting the peptide binding groove of PSD-95 PDZ3. Conclusion These results suggest that inhaled anesthetics interfere with PDZ domain-mediated protein-protein interactions at several receptors important to neuronal excitation, anesthesia and pain processing. PMID:25654436

  6. The Drosophila erect wing gene, which is important for both neuronal and muscle development, encodes a protein which is similar to the sea urchin P3A2 DNA binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, S M; White, K

    1993-01-01

    The erect wing (ewg) locus of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a vital function important for the development of the nervous system and the indirect flight muscles. In order to understand the ewg function at a molecular level, cDNA clones were isolated. Sequence analysis of cDNAs revealed a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 733 residues. The translational start for this ORF is a CTG codon. A 225-amino-acid region of this protein is 71% identical to the DNA binding region of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus P3A2 DNA binding protein. Additionally, the ORF contains large acidic and basic domains characteristic of those in proteins involved in nuclear regulatory functions. Immunoblot analysis using polyclonal anti-EWG antisera generated against a bacterial fusion protein reveals a single, 116-kDa protein present throughout development, beginning at approximately stage 12 of embryogenesis, which is enriched in adult heads and absent from embryos carrying certain ewg alleles. Additionally, we show that EWG is localized specifically to the nuclei of virtually all embryonic neurons. Finally, a minigene consisting of an ewg cDNA under control of the hsp70 promoter can provide the ewg function in transgenic ewg mutant flies. Images PMID:8388540