New and emerging drug delivery systems for traditional drugs and the products of biotechnology are discussed, and the role of the pharmacist in ensuring the appropriate use of these systems is outlined. Advantages of advanced drug delivery systems over traditional systems are the ability to deliver a drug more selectively to a specific site; easier, more accurate, less frequent dosing; decreased variability in systemic drug concentrations; absorption that is more consistent with the site and mechanism of action; and reductions in toxic metabolites. Four basic strategies govern the mechanisms of advanced drug delivery: physical, chemical, biological, and mechanical. Oral drug delivery systems use natural and synthetic polymers to deliver the product to a specific region in the gastrointestinal tract in a timely manner that minimizes adverse effects and increases drug efficacy. Innovations in injectable and implantable delivery systems include emulsions, particulate delivery systems, micromolecular products and macromolecular drug adducts, and enzymatic-controlled delivery. Options for noninvasive drug delivery include the transdermal, respiratory, intranasal, ophthalmic, lymphatic, rectal, intravaginal, and intrauterine routes as well as topical application. Rapid growth is projected in the drug delivery systems market worldwide in the next five years. Genetic engineering has mandated the development of new strategies to deliver biotechnologically derived protein and peptide drugs and chemoimmunoconjugates. The role of the pharmacist in the era of advanced drug delivery systems will be broad based, including administering drugs, compounding, calculating dosages based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic monitoring, counseling, and research. The advent of advanced drug delivery systems offers pharmacists a new opportunity to assume an active role in patient care. PMID:1772110
Robinson, D H; Mauger, J W
Introduction Advances in molecular biology and in the basic understanding of the mechanisms associated with sensorineural hearing loss and other diseases of the inner ear, are paving the way towards new approaches for treatments for millions of patients. However, the cochlea is a particularly challenging target for drug therapy, and new technologies will be required to provide safe and efficacious delivery of these compounds. Emerging delivery systems based on microfluidic technologies are showing promise as a means for direct intracochlear delivery. Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended delivery of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients suffering from a host of auditory diseases. Areas covered in this review Recent progress in the development of drug delivery systems capable of direct intracochlear delivery is reviewed, including passive systems such as osmotic pumps, active microfluidic devices, and systems combined with currently available devices such as cochlear implants. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of intracochlear drug delivery systems currently under development, and ultimately capable of being combined with emerging therapeutic compounds for the treatment of inner ear diseases. Expert Opinion Safe and efficacious treatment of auditory diseases will require the development of microscale delivery devices, capable of extended operation and direct application to the inner ear. These advances will require miniaturization and integration of multiple functions, including drug storage, delivery, power management and sensing, ultimately enabling closed-loop control and timed-sequence delivery devices for treatment of these diseases.
Borenstein, Jeffrey T.
Colon targeted drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver drugs for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. In recent years, various pharmaceutical approaches have been developed for targeting the drugs to the colon include, formation of prodrugs, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon
Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery
Sarabjeet Singh Suri; Hicham Fenniri; Baljit Singh
Since the discovery of cisplatin, drugs based on platinum, have made a significant impact on the treatment of various cancers. The administration of platinum drugs is however accompanied by significant side effects. This chapter discusses the types of drug delivery systems that have been developed in order to enable the targeted delivery while maintaining controlled temporal supply of the drug. The sizes of carriers range from nanometer to micrometer sized particles. The most common types of drug carriers are micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, and dendrimers, but also a few microspheres have been developed. Most striking aspect of the delivery of platinum drugs is the possibility of physical encapsulation but also the binding of the drug to the polymer carrier coordinate covalent bond. Since platinum drugs have typically two permanent and two leaving ligands, the polymer can be part of either ligand. As the leaving ligand, the platinum drug is released often as cisplatin. If the polymer provides the functionality for the permanent ligand, a new macromolecular drug has been formed. In addition to the attachment of pt(II) drugs, recent offorts are devoted to the conjugation via the Pt((IV) prodrug.
Huynh, Vien T.; Scarano, Wei; Stenzel, Martina H.
For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases. PMID:24325540
Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz
A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.
Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA) [Pleasanton, CA; Wang, Amy W. (Oakland, CA) [Oakland, CA
In this paper, MEMS based polymeric drug delivery system for the treatment of cardiovascular disorder such as hypertension is presented. The major components of proposed system are drug delivery device, blood pressure sensor, flow sensor, electronic module, and power supply. Drug delivery device consists of piezoelectric actuator and reservoir integrated with side open polymeric microneedles. The in-depth theoretical and numerical
M. W. Ashraf; S. Tayyaba; N. Afzulpurkar
Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (?) and beta (?) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by ? irradiation.
Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery. PMID:23662604
Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K
Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time.
Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Sriwastawa, Birendra; Bhati, L; Pandey, S; Pandey, P; Bannerjee, Saurabh K
The brain is a delicate organ, and nature has very efficiently protected it. The brain is shielded against potentially toxic substances by the presence of two barrier systems: the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Unfortunately, the same mechanisms that protect it against intrusive chemicals can also frustrate therapeutic interventions. Despite aggressive research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as brain tumours, HIV encephalopathy, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders, far outnumber those dying of all types of systemic cancers or heart diseases. The abysmally low number of potential therapeutics reaching commercial success is primarily due to the complexity of the CNS drug development. The clinical failure of many probable candidates is often, ascribable to poor delivery methods which do not pervade the unyielding BBB. It restricts the passive diffusion of many drugs into the brain and constitutes a significant obstacle in the pharmacological treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. General methods that can enhance drug delivery to the brain are, therefore, of great pharmaceutical interest. Various strategies like non-invasive methods, including drug manipulation encompassing transformation into lipophilic analogues, prodrugs, chemical drug delivery, carrier-mediated drug delivery, receptor/vector mediated drug delivery and intranasal drug delivery, which exploits the olfactory and trigeminal neuronal pathways to deliver drugs to the brain, are widely used. On the other hand the invasive methods which primarily rely on disruption of the BBB integrity by osmotic or biochemical means, or direct intracranial drug delivery by intracerebroventricular, intracerebral or intrathecal administration after creating reversible openings in the head, are recognised. Extensive review pertaining specifically, to the patents relating to drug delivery across the CNS is currently available. However, many patents e.g. US63722506, US2002183683 etc., have been mentioned in a few articles. It is the objective of this article to expansively review drug delivery systems for CNS by discussing the recent patents available. PMID:19149731
Pathan, Shadab A; Iqbal, Zeenat; Zaidi, Syed M A; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Vohra, Divya; Jain, Gaurav K; Azeem, Adnan; Jain, Nitin; Lalani, Jigar R; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J
Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.
Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Fenniri, Hicham; Singh, Baljit
Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA) and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression. PMID:18053152
Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Fenniri, Hicham; Singh, Baljit
The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:22707817
Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi
Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) by pharmaceutical or surgical means has long been the standard treatment for glaucoma. A number of excellent drugs are available that are effective in reducing IOP. These drugs are typically applied as eye drops. However, patient adherence can be poor, thus reducing the clinical efficacy of the drugs. Several novel delivery systems designed to address the issue of adherence and to ensure consistent reduction of IOP are currently under development. These delivery systems include contact lenses-releasing glaucoma medications, injectables such as biodegradable micro- and nanoparticles, and surgically implanted systems. These new technologies are aimed at increasing clinical efficacy by offering multiple delivery options and are capable of managing IOP for several months. There is also a desire to have complementary neuroprotective approaches for those who continue to show progression, despite IOP reduction. Many potential neuroprotective agents are not suitable for traditional oral or drop formulations. Their potential is dependent on developing suitable delivery systems that can provide the drugs in a sustained, local manner to the retina and optic nerve. Drug delivery systems have the potential to improve patient adherence, reduce side effects, increase efficacy, and ultimately, preserve sight for glaucoma patients. In this review, we discuss benefits and limitations of the current systems of delivery and application, as well as those on the horizon. PMID:21475311
Lavik, E; Kuehn, M H; Kwon, Y H
\\u000a The limitations of existing medical therapies for ocular disorders include low drug bioavailability, nonspecificity, side\\u000a effects, and poor treatment adherence to therapy. These limitations may be overcome through the use of sustained-release intraocular\\u000a drug delivery systems. Critical to the development of such systems has been the introduction of biocompatible polymers (biodegradable\\u000a and nonbiodegradable) that allow for drug release kinetics to
Susan S. Lee; Patrick Hughes; Aron D. Ross; Michael R. Robinson
Self-propelled nano/micromotors and pumps are considered to be next generation drug delivery systems since the carriers can either propel themselves (``motor''-based drug delivery) or be delivered (``pump''-based drug delivery) to the target in response to specific biomarkers. Recently, there has been significant advancement towards developing nano/microtransporters into proof-of-concept tools for biomedical applications. This review encompasses the progress made to date on the design of synthetic nano/micromotors and pumps with respect to transportation and delivery of cargo at specific locations. Looking ahead, it is possible to imagine a day when intelligent machines navigate through the human body and perform challenging tasks.
Patra, Debabrata; Sengupta, Samudra; Duan, Wentao; Zhang, Hua; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman
Although novel controlled-release drug-delivery systems have been used in other areas of medicine, their application in the treatment of hypertension has been relatively recent. Biotechnical use of chemical-dispensing systems has been applied to propranolol, clonidine (the transdermal therapeutic system), nifedipine (the gastrointestinal therapeutic system), verapamil (the sodium alginate and spheroidal oral-delivery absorption system), felodipine (the hydrophilic gel principle), metoprolol succinate (the multiple-unit pellet system), and diltiazem (one system comprising sustained-release beads and the other utilizing the patented Geomatrix extended-release system). Oral drug-delivery systems allow antihypertensive agents that previously had to be administered two to four times daily to be administered once each day. Potential disadvantages of the oral controlled-release products include delayed attainment of pharmacodynamic effect, unpredictable or reduced bioavailability, enhanced first-pass hepatic metabolism, dose dumping, sustained toxicity, dosing inflexibility, and increased cost. Potential advantages include reduced dosing frequency, enhanced compliance and convenience, reduced toxicity, stable drug levels, uniform drug effect, and decreased total dose. Although skin reactions are common, the transdermal drug delivery of clonidine provides another innovative approach to supplying transcutaneous, controlled, continuous delivery of drug for 7 days. It is possible that future research will prove that the agents that provide complete 24-hour control may reduce the cardiovascular events associated with the early-morning blood pressure surge. This evolution in antihypertensive therapy to achieve once-daily dosing may prove to be of great value to both physicians and patients in the 1990s. PMID:1519636
Prisant, L M; Bottini, B; DiPiro, J T; Carr, A A
Pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) have attracted attraction because of their multiple benefits over conventional dosage forms. They deliver the drug at the right time, at the right site of action and in the right amount, which provides more benefit than conventional dosages and increased patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body, and the drug is released rapidly and completely as a pulse after a lag time. These products follow the sigmoid release profile characterized by a time period. These systems are beneficial for drugs with chronopharmacological behavior, where nocturnal dosing is required, and for drugs that show the first-pass effect. This review covers methods and marketed technologies that have been developed to achieve pulsatile delivery. Marketed technologies, such as PulsincapTM, Diffucaps®, CODAS®, OROS® and PULSYSTM, follow the above mechanism to render a sigmoidal drug release profile. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular ailments, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery systems have the potential to bring new developments in the therapy of many diseases.
Jain, Deepika; Raturi, Richa; Jain, Vikas; Bansal, Praveen; Singh, Ranjit
Es gibt eine grosse Anzahl von Arzneistoffen, die nicht mit der höchsten Effizienz eingesetzt werden können, weil das geeignete therapeutische System (drug delivery system) für die optimale Applikation fehlt. Viele Arzneistoffe setzen eine häufige Anwendung voraus und sind oft mit mehr oder weniger starken Nebenwirkungen oder aber mit Beeinträchtigungen von Arbeits- und Lebensrhythmus der Patienten verbunden. Der therapeutische Erfolg einer medikamentösen Behandlung setzt eine korrekte Diagnose, die Wahl der richtigen Wirksubstanz sowie ihr Vorliegen in geeigneter Darreichungsform voraus. Zudem muss ein genauer Verabreichungsplan erstellt werden, dessen Einhaltung seitens der Patienten eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die optimale Wirkung des Arzneistoffes ist. Das Mass, mit dem eine Wirksubstanz therapeutisch voll genutzt werden kann, korreliert direkt mit der Darreichungsform, in der sie angewandt wird. Da viele hochwirksame Arzneimittel bereits existieren, hat sich, neben Neuentwicklungen, das Interesse im vergangenen Jahrzehnt der Optimierung von Arzneimittelwirkungen durch neue Darreichungsformen zugewandt.
Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich
Thermosensitive hydrogels are very important biomaterials used in drug delivery systems (DDSs), which gained increasing attention of researchers. Thermosensitive hydrogels have great potential in various applications, such as drug delivery, cell encapsulation, tissue engineering, and etc. Especially, injectable thermosensitive hydrogels with lower sol-gel transition temperature around physiological temperature have been extensively studied. By in vivo injection, the hydrogels formed non-flowing gel at body temperature. Upon incorporation of pharmaceutical agents, the hydrogel systems could act as sustained drug release depot in situ. Injectable thermosensitive hydrogel systems have a number of advantages, including simplicity of drug formulation, protective environment for drugs, prolonged and localized drug delivery, and ease of application. The objective of this review is to summarize fundamentals, applications, and recent advances of injectable thermosensitive hydrogel as DDSs, including chitosan and related derivatives, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based (PNIPAAM) copolymers, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide) (PEO/PPO) copolymers and its derivatives, and poly(ethylene glycol)/ biodegradable polyester copolymers. PMID:23092130
Gong, C; Qi, T; Wei, X; Qu, Y; Wu, Q; Luo, F; Qian, Z
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) require increased duration of stay in GIT. Thus, mucoadhesive dosage forms are advantageous in increasing the drug plasma concentrations and also therapeutic activity. In this regard, this review covers the areas of mechanisms and theories of mucoadhesion, factors influencing the mucoadhesive devices and also various mucoadhesive dosage forms.
Boddupalli, Bindu M.; Mohammed, Zulkar N. K.; Nath, Ravinder A.; Banji, David
The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special\\u000a focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS including the\\u000a physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating\\u000a systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are
Shweta Arora; Javed Ali; Alka Ahuja; Roop K. Khar; Sanjula Baboota
A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative. PMID:22124008
Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna
Oral drug delivery systems will remain the largest method used for drug delivery. Orally disintegrating tablets and transmucosal drugs will generate strong growth opportunities in the delivery of pain control and other critical care medication. Ease of administration advantages will promote the widening use of chewable tablet dosages for nutritional, respiratory and central nervous system agents, especially pediatric preparations. Better
In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.
Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.
Background: Drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major limitation in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Several approaches are being investigated to improve drug delivery across the BBB. Objective\\/Methods: This review deals with the role of nanobiotechnology in CNS drug delivery. The small size of the nanoparticles enables them to penetrate the BBB and facilitate
K. K. Jain
The skin acts as a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical\\/transdermal (TT) drug delivery. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in barrier function for TT drug delivery. Despite major research and development efforts in TT systems and the advantages of these routes, low stratum corneum permeability limits the usefulness of topical drug delivery. To overcome
M. J. Choi; H. I. Maibach
This position paper discusses progress made and to be made with so-called advanced drug delivery systems, particularly but not exclusively those in the nanometre domain. The paper has resulted from discussions with a number of international experts in the field who shared their views on aspects of the subject, from the nomenclature used for such systems, the sometimes overwrought claims made in the era of nanotechnology, the complex nature of targeting delivery systems to specific destinations in vivo, the need for setting standards for the choice and characterisation of cell lines used in in vitro studies, to attention to the manufacturability, stability and analytical profiling of systems and more relevant studies on toxicology. The historical background to the development of many systems is emphasised. So too is the stochastic nature of many of the steps to successful access to and action in targets. A lacuna in the field is the lack of availability of data on a variety of carrier systems using the same models in vitro and in vivo using standard controls. The paper asserts that greater emphasis must also be paid to the effective levels of active attained in target organs, for without such crucial data it will be difficult for many experimental systems to enter the clinic. This means the use of diagnostic/imaging technologies to monitor targeted drug delivery and stratify patient groups, identifying patients with optimum chances for successful therapy. Last, but not least, the critical importance of the development of science bases for regulatory policies, scientific platforms overseeing the field and new paradigms of financing are discussed. PMID:23415662
Crommelin, Daan J A; Florence, Alexander T
Novel drug delivery systems are available in many areas of medicine. Their application in the treatment of hypertension continues to widen. Oral drug delivery systems permit antihypertensive agents that were previously administered two to four times daily to be administered once daily. Biotechnical use of chemical-dispensing systems has been applied to propranolol (polymer coated beads), clonidine (transdermal therapeutic system), nifedipine (osmotic pump and coat-core), isradipine (osmotic pump), verapamil (sodium alginate and spheroidal oral delivery absorption system), felodipine (coat-core), nisoldipine (coat-core) and diltiazem (polymer coated beads and Geomatrix. The initial goal was to lower blood pressure by a uniform amount throughout the entire day. Now, new drug delivery systems are being developed to target blood pressure in the early morning hours when most cardiovascular events occur. Two chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems are now available for verapamil (chronotherapeutic oral delivery absorption system and delayed coat osmotic pump). Disadvantages of sustained-release products include delayed achievement of pharmacodynamic effect, unpredictable bioavailability, enhanced first-pass hepatic metabolism, dose dumping, sustained toxicity, dosage inflexibility and increased cost. Potential advantages include reduced administration frequency, enhanced adherence and convenience, reduced toxicity, stable drug concentrations, uniform drug effect, decreased cost (occasionally) and decreased daily dosage. PMID:12908851
Prisant, L Michael; Elliott, William J
Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.
Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.
Microsponge is a microscopic sphere capable of absorbing skin secretions, therefore reducing the oiliness of the skin. Microsponge having particle size of 10-25 microns in diameter, have wide range of entrapment of various ingredients in a single microsponges system and release them at desired rates. Conventional topical preparations have various disadvantages due to irritancy, odour, greasiness and patient compliance. In many topical dosage forms fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. These problems overcome by the usage of formulation as microsponge in the areas of research. Drug release in microsponge is done by the external stimuli like pH, temperature and rubbing. It has several advantageous over the other topical preparations in being non-allergenic, non-toxic, non-irritant and non- mutagenic. These microsponges are used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over-the-counter skin care preparations, recently nanosponge were reported in literature used in delivery of drug by the use of cyclodextrins to enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs, which are meant for topical application. PMID:22974222
Gangadharappa, H V; Gupta, N Vishal; Prasad M, Sarat Chandra; Shivakumar, H G
The medication is one of the most general treatment methods, but drugs diffuse in the normal tissues other than the target part by the blood circulation. Therefore, side effect in the medication, particularly for a drug with strong effect such as anti-cancer drug, are a serious issue. Drug Delivery System (DDS) which accumulates the drug locally in the human body is one of the techniques to solve the side-effects. Magnetic Drug Delivery System (MDDS) is one of the active DDSs, which uses the magnetic force. The objective of this study is to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs noninvasively in the deep part of the body by using MDDS. It is necessary to generate high magnetic field and magnetic gradient at the target part to reduce the side-effects to the tissues with no diseases. The biomimetic model was composed, which consists of multiple model organs connected with diverged blood vessel model. The arrangement of magnetic field was examined to accumulate ferromagnetic drug particles in the target model organ by using a superconducting bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic fields. The arrangement of magnet was designed to generate high and stable magnetic field at the target model organ. The accumulation experiment of ferromagnetic particles has been conducted. In this study, rotating HTS bulk magnet around the axis of blood vessels by centering on the target part was suggested, and the model experiment for magnet rotation was conducted. As a result, the accumulation of the ferromagnetic particles to the target model organ in the deep part was confirmed.
Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.
The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.
Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind
Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments.
Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya
Transdermal route has been recognized as a promising drug delivery system for systemic delivery of drugs and provides the advantage of avoidance of first-pass effect, ease of use, better patient compliance, maintaining constant blood level for longer period of time and decrease side effects. The major pitfalls of this route lie with difficulty in permeation of drugs through the skin. Several literatures have been published for enhancing the permeation of drugs by chemical approaches. However the present review highlighted about the advanced physical techniques used for enhancing delivery of drugs such as structure-based, electrically based, velocity based and several other miscellaneous physical techniques for enhancing the permeation of drugs. In addition to these, the present review also gives an exhaustive account on clinical data about these techniques and regulatory considerations for new drugs as well as generic product approval in transdermal drug delivery. PMID:21453254
Swain, Suryakanta; Beg, Sarwar; Singh, Astha; Patro, Ch Niranjan; Rao, M E Bhanoji
Nano-sized drug delivery systems based on virus-derived platforms have promising delivery and targeting efficiencies. To date,\\u000a much of our understanding of these systems is obtained from studies of animal viruses. Application of plant viruses for drug\\u000a delivery is in the nascent stage, but it is becoming apparent that plant viral particles can be engineered to possess novel\\u000a properties to meet
Yupeng Ren; Sek Man Wong; Lee Yong Lim
Delivery of drugs to the eye, particularly for the treatment of posterior segment diseases, is a challenging task that requires\\u000a drug transport across barriers in the eye, which are present for the purpose of limiting the entry of drugs and xenobiotics.\\u000a The common methods of drug delivery to the eye—eyedrops, direct injection, and systemic administration—all have problems that\\u000a limit their
Heather Sheardown; W. Mark Saltzman
\\u000a Transmucosal delivery of therapeutic agents is a non-invasive approach that utilizes human entry paths such as the nasal,\\u000a buccal, rectal and vaginal routs. Mucoadhesive polymers have the ability to adhere to the mucus layer covering those surfaces\\u000a and by that promote drug release, targeting and absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers commonly interact with mucus through non-covalent\\u000a bonds such as hydrogen bonds, ionic
Maya Davidovich-Pinhas; Havazelet Bianco-Peled
This review covers reservoir-based drug delivery systems that incorporate microtechnology, with an emphasis on oral, dermal, and implantable systems. Key features of each technology are highlighted such as working principles, fabrication methods, dimensional constraints, and performance criteria. Reservoir-based systems include a subset of microfabricated drug delivery systems and provide unique advantages. Reservoirs, whether external to the body or implanted, provide a well-controlled environment for a drug formulation, allowing increased drug stability and prolonged delivery times. Reservoir systems have the flexibility to accommodate various delivery schemes, including zero order, pulsatile, and on demand dosing, as opposed to a standard sustained release profile. Furthermore, the development of reservoir-based systems for targeted delivery for difficult to treat applications (e.g., ocular) has resulted in potential platforms for patient therapy.
Stevenson, Cynthia L.; Santini, John T.; Langer, Robert
Microemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. These systems are currently of interest to the pharmaceutical scientist because of their considerable potential to act as drug delivery vehicles by incorporating a wide range of drug molecules. In order to appreciate the potential of microemulsions as delivery vehicles, this review gives an overview of the formation and phase behaviour and characterization of microemulsions. The use of microemulsions and closely related microemulsion-based systems as drug delivery vehicles is reviewed, with particular emphasis being placed on recent developments and future directions. PMID:11104900
Lawrence, M J; Rees, G D
The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery systems for mebendazole using guar gum as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by wet granulation technique using starch paste as a binder. The tablets were evaluated for drug content uniformity, and were subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The
Y. S. R Krishnaiah; P Veer Raju; B Dinesh Kumar; P Bhaskar; V Satyanarayana
Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery. PMID:23869879
Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections.
Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun
The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.
Dhote, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Punit; Mishra, Pradyumna K.; Mahajan, Suresh C.; Mishra, Dinesh K.
Purpose. Although oral delivery has become a widely accepted route of administration of therapeutic drugs, the gastrointestinal tract presents several formidable barriers to drug delivery. Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for the delivery of proteins
M. K. Chourasia; S. K. Jain
The study of radiation polymerization in a super-cooled state started in 1966 and has been applied to the immobilization of biofunctional materials since 1973. In the last twenty years, application has been concentrated to the immobilization of drugs and hormones for the purpose of drug delivery systems. Very recently, the author has proposed a concept of environmental signal responsive chemical delivery system, as a new generation of controlled release and delivery systems. The study and development of materials, devices and systems is described. The signal responsive delivery system consists of a sensor part and a controlled delivery part. Therefore, the use of immobilization techniques for the biochip sensor and the hydrogel actuator has been investigated. As a future goal, systems for the brain research are to be designed and studied.
In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system.
Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309
Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V P Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T
Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.
Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.
Microfluidic drug delivery systems consisting of a drug reservoir and microfluidic channels have shown the possibility of simple and robust modulation of drug release rate. However, the difficulty of loading a small quantity of drug into drug reservoirs at a micro-scale limited further development of such systems. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was employed to fill micro-reservoirs with controlled amount of drugs in the range of a few hundreds of picograms to tens of micrograms with spatial resolution of as small as 20 µm. Unlike most EHD systems, this system was configured in combination with an inverted microscope that allows in situ targeting of drug loading at micrometer scale accuracy. Methylene blue and rhodamine B were used as model drugs in distilled water, isopropanol and a polymer solution of a biodegradable polymer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also tetracycline-HCl/DI water was used as actual drug ink. The optimal parameters of EHD printing to load an extremely small quantity of drug into microscale drug reservoirs were investigated by changing pumping rates, the strength of an electric field and drug concentration. This targeted EHD technique was used to load drugs into the microreservoirs of PDMS microfluidic drug delivery devices and their drug release performance was demonstrated in vitro.
Hwang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jin Bum; Som Yang, Da; Park, Yong-il; Ryu, WonHyoung
The adriamycin and galactose was grafted to dextran. The novel nanopartcile drug delivery system (DDS) was prepared from the chemical modified polysaccharide by the dialysis. The content of the ADR moiety in the polymeric-drug conjugate was about 2 mol%. The size and morphology of prepared nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that
Yu Cao; Jing Liu; Hong Ma; Jing Bai; Chao Qi
Electrospinning and electrospraying are facile electrohydrodynamic fabrication methods that can generate drug delivery systems (DDS) through a one-step process. The nano-structured fiber and particle morphologies produced by these techniques offer tunable release kinetics applicable to diverse biomedical applications. Coaxial-electrospinning/electrospraying, a relatively new technique of fabricating core-shell fibers/particles have added to the versatility of these DDS by affording a near zero-order drug release kinetics, dampening of burst release, and applicability to a wider range of bioactive agents. Controllable electrospinning/spraying of fibers and particles and subsequent drug release from these chiefly polymeric vehicles depends on well-defined solution and process parameters. The additional drug delivery capability from electrospun fibers can further enhance the material’s functionality in tissue engineering applications. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of using electrohydrodynamic technique to generate nano-fiber/particles as drug delivery devices.
Chakraborty, Syandan; Liao, I-Chien; Adler, Andrew; Leong, Kam W.
A novel oral drug delivery system for the controlled release of liquid drugs, drug solutions, and semisolid drug preparations is presented that is utilizing the constant vapor pressure of liquefied gas. The system is equipped with a capillary as an element determining the drug delivery rate and contains a liquefied propellant with a suitable boiling point below human body temperature. In the dissolution studies, polyacrylate gels of different viscosities containing paracetamol as model drug were used. Zero-order release kinetics was obtained. The release rates were dependent on the gel viscosity. Besides, by gel viscosity, the drug release rates could also be modified by changing the propellant type and the capillary parameters such as length or diameter. Accordingly, the new system enables a wide range of drug delivery kinetics which can be modified in a case-by-case basis in order to match the desired drug delivery characteristics. PMID:21918919
Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Eisenächer, Friederike; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner
The introduction of new topical drugs based on new chemical entities has become a rare event. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have been focused on reformulating existing drugs resulting in an ever-growing number of topical drug products for every approved drug substance. In light of this trend, soon reformulations may not be as rewarding to their sponsors as they are today unless they offer a substantial improvement over other formulations of the same drug substance and the same indication, namely improved efficacy over existing drugs, reduced side effects, unique drug combinations, or applicability for new indications. This article reviews and compares topical drug delivery systems currently under active research that are designed to offer such advantages in the coming years. The reviewed delivery systems are: liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrin, and sol-gel microcapsules. Among all the topical drug delivery systems currently undergoing active research, only the sol-gel microencapsulation is at clinical stages. PMID:22353154
Fireman, Sharon; Toledano, Ofer; Neimann, Karine; Loboda, Natalia; Dayan, Nava
Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.
Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj
Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.
Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Bishop, David; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce
Over the past few decades, advances in "aerogel science" have provoked an increasing interest for these materials in pharmaceutical sciences for drug delivery applications. Because of their high surface areas, high porosities and open pore structures which can be tuned and controlled by manipulation of synthesis conditions, nanostructured aerogels represent a promising class of materials for delivery of various drugs as well as enzymes and proteins. Along with biocompatible inorganic aerogels and biodegradable organic aerogels, more complex systems such as surface functionalized aerogels, composite aerogels and layered aerogels have also been under development and possess huge potential. Emphasis is given to the details of the aerogel synthesis and drug loading methods as well as the influence of synthesis parameters and loading methods on the adsorption and release of the drugs. Owing to their ability to increase the bioavailability of low solubility drugs, to improve both their stability and their release kinetics, there are an increasing number of research articles concerning aerogels in different drug delivery applications. This review presents an up to date overview of the advances in all kinds of aerogel based drug delivery systems which are currently under investigation. PMID:24394377
Ulker, Zeynep; Erkey, Can
A new adaptive control algorithm, the Control Advance Moving Average Controller (CAMAC), was implemented in a drug delivery system to control mean arterial pressure by the infusion of sodium nitroprusside. The CAMAC, which is designed to control non-minimum-phase systems with unknown or varying dead times, is presented here. The control law minimizes a cost function at a time advance which
G. I. Voss; H. J. CHIZECK; P. G. KATONA
Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.
Lohani, Alka; Singh, Garima; Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Verma, Anurag
The global aim of this research project was to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for non-invasive delivery of protein drugs. The specific aim of this study was to develop SNEDDS formulations. An experimental design was adopted to develop SNEDDS. Fluorescent labeled beta-lactamase (FITC-BLM), a model protein, was loaded into SNEDDS through solid dispersion technique. The experimental design provided 720 compositions of different oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant at various ratios, of which 33 SNEDDS prototypes were obtained. Solid dispersion of FITC-BLM in SoyPC prepared was able to dissolve in 16 SNEDDS prototypes (approximately 2200 mU BLM in 1g SNEDDS). SNEDDS NE-12-7 (composition: Lauroglycol FCC, Cremophor EL and Transcutol; ratio: 5:4:3) formed O/W nanoemulsion with mean droplet size in the range of 22-50 nm when diluted with various pH media and different dilution factor with PBS (pH 7.4). The phase diagram of NE-12-7 indicated a broad region of nanoemulsion. BLM-loaded SNEDDS (NE-12-7) stored at 4 degrees C for 12 weeks indicated 10% loss of BLM activity. A SNEDDS was developed to load FITC-BLM into the oil phase which can spontaneously form O/W nanoemulsion upon the addition of water. PMID:18650038
Rao, Sripriya Venkata Ramana; Shao, Jun
Many promising therapeutic agents are limited by their inability to reach the systemic circulation, due to the excellent barrier properties of biological membranes, such as the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin or the sclera/cornea of the eye and others. The outermost layer of the skin, the SC, is the principal barrier to topically-applied medications. The intact SC thus provides the main barrier to exogenous substances, including drugs. Only drugs with very specific physicochemical properties (molecular weight < 500 Da, adequate lipophilicity, and low melting point) can be successfully administered transdermally. Transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecular agents of interest, including peptides, DNA, and small interfering RNA is problematic. Therefore, facilitation of drug penetration through the SC may involve by-pass or reversible disruption of SC molecular architecture. Microneedles (MNs), when used to puncture skin, will by-pass the SC and create transient aqueous transport pathways of micron dimensions and enhance the transdermal permeability. These micropores are orders of magnitude larger than molecular dimensions, and, therefore, should readily permit the transport of hydrophilic macromolecules. Various strategies have been employed by many research groups and pharmaceutical companies worldwide, for the fabrication of MNs. This review details various types of MNs, fabrication methods and, importantly, investigations of clinical safety of MN.
Donnelly, Ryan F.; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Woolfson, A. David
Oral drug delivery to the colon has attracted significant attention during the past 20 years. Colon targeting is recognised to have several therapeutic advantages, such as the oral delivery of drugs that are destroyed by the stomach acid and/or metabolised by pancreatic enzymes. Sustained colonic release of drugs can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma, angina and arthritis. Local treatment of colonic pathologies, such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer and Crohn's disease, is more effective with the delivery of drugs to the affected area. Likewise, colonic delivery of vermicides and colonic diagnostic agents requires smaller doses. This article aims to provide an insight into the design and manufacturing considerations, and an evaluation of colonic drug delivery systems in order to understand why there are still few delivery technologies that have reached the market, despite intensive research in this field. For this purpose, various approaches to colon-specific drug delivery are discussed. PMID:16370944
Van den Mooter, Guy
There has been great progress in the use of TAT-based drug delivery systems for the delivery of different macromolecules into cells in vitro and in vivo, thus circumventing the bioavailability barrier that is a problem for so many drugs. There are many advantages to using this system, such as the ability to deliver these cargoes into all types of cells in culture and into all organs in vivo. This system can even deliver cargoes into the brain across the blood-brain barrier. In addition, the ability to target specific intracellular sub-localizations such as the nuclei, the mitochondria and lysosomes further expands the possibilities of this drug delivery system to the development of sub-cellular organelle-targeted therapy. The therapeutic applications seem almost unlimited, and the use of the TAT-based delivery system has extended from proteins to a large variety of cargoes such as oligonucleotides, imaging agents, low molecular mass drugs, nanoparticles, micelles and liposomes. In this review the most recent advances in the use of the TAT-based drug delivery system will be described, mainly discussing TAT-mediated protein delivery and the use of the TAT system for enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:19413454
Rapoport, Matan; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya
Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system.
Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh
The application of the molecular imprinting technology in the design of new drug delivery systems (DDS) and devices useful in closely related fields, such as diagnostic sensors or biological traps, is receiving increasing attention. Molecular imprinting technology can provide polymeric materials with the ability to recognize specific bioactive molecules and with a sorption\\/release behaviour that can be made sensitive to
Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo; Angel Concheiro
A conceptually novel periodontal drug delivery system (DDS) is described that is intended for treatment of microbial infections associated with periodontitis. The DDS is a composite wafer with surface layers possessing adhesive properties, while the bulk layer consists of antimicrobial agents, biodegradable polymers, and matrix polymers. The wafers contain poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) as the main bioerodible component used in the bulk
Lev E Bromberg; Debra K Buxton; Phillip M Friden
Chronic rhinosinusitis, one of the most common chronic medical complaints in the United States, seems to be increasing in incidence and prevalence, and has a significant impact on quality of life. Topical forms of medical therapy represent an attractive alternative for drug delivery to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Topical drug delivery has the advantage of directly acting on the site of inflammation, producing a higher concentration at the target site while avoiding systemic side effects. Although considerable research has been undertaken into improving nasal formulations in order to enhance absorption, little attention has so far been directed to upgrading the delivery devices. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge on the novel drug-delivery devices in use in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis patients, and to present the current available knowledge on topical drug penetration into the sinuses using various delivery devices. Additionally, methods used to enhance fluid sinus deposition are presented and the published clinical studies on the results of nebulized antibiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis patients are discussed.
One of the biggest challenges confronting the contemporary drug delivery science today is to improve on the oral bioavailability of a vast number of drugs exhibiting poor and inconsistent gastrointestinal absorption. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been proved as highly useful technological innovations to surmount such bioavailability hiccups by virtue of their diminutive globule size, higher solubilization tendency for hydro-phobic drugs, robust formulation advantages, and easier scalability in the industrial milieu. Besides, these systems are also known to inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, reduce metabolism by gut Cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and circumnavigate the hepatic first-pass effect, facilitating absorption of drugs via intestinal lymphatic pathways. In the last two decades, the phenomenal success of SEDDS as a potential tool for oral delivery of drugs has extrapolated their applications to non-oral delivery also. Various innovative approaches and patented techniques have been reported on formulation of diverse oral and non-oral self-emulsifying (SE) systems not only of various synthetic and semisynthetic drugs, but also of several phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and biological macromolecules. Of late, an escalating number of reports have been pouring in on special types of SE systems, mostly nanosized, employing functional excipients such as polar lipids, phospholipids, cellulosic polymer, diblock polymers, etc. This review paper provides an updated bird's-eye view account on the publications and patents of such novel SE approaches for use in both oral and non-oral therapeutics. Providing a relatively pithy overview, this paper thus endeavors to act as a repertoire of knowledge and know-how to guide the product development scientist in formulating variegated SE systems. PMID:24940626
Singh, Bhupinder; Beg, Sarwar; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Sandhu, Premjeet Singh; Kaur, Ravinder; Katare, Om Parkash
The main objective of drug delivery systems is to deliver a drug effectively, specifically to the site of action and to achieve greater efficacy and minimise the toxic effects compared to conventional drugs. Amongst various carrier systems, liposomes have generated a great interest because of their versatility. Liposomes are vesicular concentric bilayered structures, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nonimmumnogenic. They can control the delivery of drugs by targeting the drug to the site of action or by site avoidance drug delivery or by prolonged circulation of drugs. Amphotericin B (Amp B) remains the drug of choice in most systemic mycoses and also as a second line treatment for Kala azar. However, its toxic effects often limit its use. Although the liposome delivery system has been tried for several drugs, only a few have been used in patients due to the slow development of necessary large-scale pharmaceutical procedures. This paper reviews the development of the technique for liposomal Amphotericin B (L-Amp-LRC-1, Fungisome) drug delivery system in our laboratory in collaboration with the department of Biochemistry, Delhi University in India and proving the safety and efficacy of this preparation in clinical practice. It also attempts to compare the efficacy and benefits of our product for Indian patients with those of similar products and it includes facts from the publications that flowed from our work. As compared to conventional Amp B, Fungisome is infused over a much shorter period requiring a smaller volume and no premedication. It was found to be safe in patients who had developed serious unacceptable toxicity with conventional Amp B. In renal transplant patients, Fungisome did not produce any nephrotoxicity. Fungisome is effective in fungal infections resistant to fluconazole, conventional Amp B and in virgin and resistant cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The cost of any drug is of great significance, especially in India. We have therefore devoted a section of our review to the relative costs of our product and those of other commercially available products. This patient-worthy formulation is safe, efficacious and cheaper than the commercially available formulation of liposomal amphotericin B. The product has been patented and technology transferred to a pharmaceutical company for marketing. Results of postmarketing study also document safety and efficacy as observed in premarketing studies. A brief review of this work is provided here. PMID:16519249
Kshirsagar, N A; Pandya, S K; Kirodian, G B; Sanath, S
This paper is a review of the latest developments in the field of topical drug delivery via which the drug is directly applied onto the skin with high selectivity and efficiency. Advances in microfiber-based medical textiles such as sutures and wound dressings, especially those containing a drug or an antimicrobial agent, have been covered briefly. A special focus is on recent developments in the area of nanofibrous drug delivery systems, which have several advantages due to their large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity and flexibility. The electrospinning technique to produce nanofibers has also been discussed with reference to latest advances such as multiple needles, needleless and coaxial forms of electrospinning. The applications of nanofibers in different areas such as wound dressing, periodontal and anticancer treatment have also been discussed. PMID:24730303
Joshi, Mangala; Butola, B S; Saha, Kasturi
Hydrogels are widely studied materials for the preparation of sustained release drug dosage forms. Their soft, tissue-like consistency and their high biocompatibility in a number of applications make them promising candidates for this purpose. The water and the polymer in the gel form intricate structures and much research has been devoted to the elucidation of these structures, and of the
W. E. Roorda; H. E. BoddÉ; A. G. de Boer; H. E. Junginger
Polymers that display a physicochemical response to stimuli are widely explored as potential drug-delivery systems. Stimuli studied to date include chemical substances and changes in temperature, pH and electric field. Homopolymers or copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (known as poloxamers) are typical examples of thermosensitive polymers, but their use in drug delivery is problematic because they are toxic and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable polymers used for drug delivery to date have mostly been in the form of injectable microspheres or implant systems, which require complicated fabrication processes using organic solvents. Such systems have the disadvantage that the use of organic solvents can cause denaturation when protein drugs are to be encapsulated. Furthermore, the solid form requires surgical insertion, which often results in tissue irritation and damage. Here we report the synthesis of a thermosensitive, biodegradable hydrogel consisting of blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solutions of these copolymers exhibit temperature-dependent reversible gel-sol transitions. The hydrogel can be loaded with bioactive molecules in an aqueous phase at an elevated temperature (around 45 °C), where they form a sol. In this form, the polymer is injectable. On subcutaneous injection and subsequent rapid cooling to body temperature, the loaded copolymer forms a gel that can act as a sustained-release matrix for drugs.
Jeong, Byeongmoon; Bae, You Han; Lee, Doo Sung; Kim, Sung Wan
Polymers that display a physicochemical response to stimuli are widely explored as potential drug-delivery systems. Stimuli studied to date include chemical substances and changes in temperature, pH and electric field. Homopolymers or copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (known as poloxamers) are typical examples of thermosensitive polymers, but their use in drug delivery is problematic because they are toxic and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable polymers used for drug delivery to date have mostly been in the form of injectable microspheres or implant systems, which require complicated fabrication processes using organic solvents. Such systems have the disadvantage that the use of organic solvents can cause denaturation when protein drugs are to be encapsulated. Furthermore, the solid form requires surgical insertion, which often results in tissue irritation and damage. Here we report the synthesis of a thermosensitive, biodegradable hydrogel consisting of blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solutions of these copolymers exhibit temperature-dependent reversible gel-sol transitions. The hydrogel can be loaded with bioactive molecules in an aqueous phase at an elevated temperature (around 45 degrees C), where they form a sol. In this form, the polymer is injectable. On subcutaneous injection and subsequent rapid cooling to body temperature, the loaded copolymer forms a gel that can act as a sustained-release matrix for drugs. PMID:9278046
Jeong, B; Bae, Y H; Lee, D S; Kim, S W
Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge-like spherical particles with a large porous surface. Moreover, they may enhance stability, reduce side effects and modify drug release favorably. Microsponge technology has many favorable characteristics, which make it a versatile drug delivery vehicle. Microsponge Systems are based on microscopic, polymer-based microspheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponges are porous, polymeric microspheres that are used mostly for topical use and have recently been used for oral administration. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to enhance stability, reduce side effects, and modify drug release. PMID:22247859
Kaity, Santanu; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Ghosh, Animesh; Banerjee, Subham
Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge-like spherical particles with a large porous surface. Moreover, they may enhance stability, reduce side effects and modify drug release favorably. Microsponge technology has many favorable characteristics, which make it a versatile drug delivery vehicle. Microsponge Systems are based on microscopic, polymer-based microspheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponges are porous, polymeric microspheres that are used mostly for topical use and have recently been used for oral administration. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to enhance stability, reduce side effects, and modify drug release.
Kaity, Santanu; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Ghosh, Animesh; Banerjee, Subham
Tumor hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a result of disordered vasculature that lead to distinctive hypoxic microenvironments not found in normal tissues. Many traditional anti-cancer agents are not able to penetrate into these hypoxic zones, whereas, conventional cancer therapies that work by blocking cell division are not effective to treat tumors within hypoxic zones. Under these circumstances the use of magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivering agent system under the influence of external magnetic field has received much attention, based on their simplicity, ease of preparation, and ability to tailor their properties for specific biological applications. Hence in this review article we have reviewed current magnetic drug delivery systems, along with their application and clinical status in the field of magnetic drug delivery.
Mody, Vicky V.; Cox, Arthur; Shah, Samit; Singh, Ajay; Bevins, Wesley; Parihar, Harish
... Drug Delivery System Shows Early Promise for Treating Lupus in Mice A drug delivery system using nanoparticle ... cells can potentially improve treatment approaches for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to research partially funded by ...
Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine.
Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert
Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimizing side effects. Well designed controlled drug delivery system can over come some of the problems of conventional therapy and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of a given drug. To obtain maximum therapeutic efficacy, it becomes necessary to deliver the agent to the target tissue in the optimal amount in the right period of time there by causing little toxicity and minimal side effects. There are various approaches in delivering a therapeutic substance to target site in a sustained controlled release fashion. One such approach is using multiparticulate as carriers for drugs. Such systems have more advantages over the single-unit dosage forms. The development of gastroretentive floating multiparticulate systems overcomes several physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence time, unpredictable gastric emptying time etc. This system can be retaining in the stomach for prolonged period of time in a predetermined manner. This technology is one of the promising approach for enhancing the bioavailability and controlled delivery of drugs that exhibit narrow absorption window. The development of floating multiparticulate involves different solvent evaporation techniques to create the hollow inner core. This review includes various advantages, limitation, biological aspects, development approaches, formulation aspects, factors, polymer used, characterization aspects, mechanism, and application of floating microspheres. PMID:22452407
Gurnany, Ekta; Manwani, Reshma; Singhai, Priyanka; Jain, Rahul; Jain, Abhishek; Jain, Aviral
Pharmaceutical science aims to localize the pharmacological activity of the drug at the site of action. Targeted drug delivery systems can directly deliver the payload to the desired site of action without undesired interaction with normal cells. This is especially important for anticancer drugs to avoid side effects and improve therapeutic response and patient compliance. Number of targeted drug delivery systems for anticancer drugs are in market and many more are in research phase. Most of the methods so far used suffer from poor drug loading, variation in composition, attachment of targeting ligands to carriers, and in vivo and in vitro cellular uptake in cancer cell. Recently microfluidic techniques are gaining attention from researchers and formulation scientists due to the ability of having a better control over the above said parameters not to mention saving cost, material, time and the possibility offered to synthesize different system morphologies from nano to microscale. This article reviews the recent advances in the design of various targeted systems obtained through microfluidics and to some extent addresses challenges and hurdles faced during cancer cell treatment. PMID:23933524
Khan, Ikram Ullah; Serra, Christophe A; Anton, Nicolas; Vandamme, Thierry
The oral mucosa's accessibility, excellent blood supply, by-pass of hepatic first-pass metabolism, rapid repair and permeability profile make it an attractive site for local and systemic drug delivery. Technological advances in mucoadhesives, sustained drug release, permeability enhancers and drug delivery vectors are increasing the efficient delivery of drugs to treat oral and systemic diseases. When treating oral diseases, these advances
Vanessa Hearnden; Vidya Sankar; Katrusha Hull; Danica Vidovi? Juras; Martin Greenberg; A. Ross Kerr; Peter B. Lockhart; Lauren L. Patton; Stephen Porter; Martin H. Thornhill
The prognosis and treatment outcome for primary brain tumors have remained unchanged despite advances in anticancer drug discovery and development. In clinical trials, the majority of promising experimental agents for brain tumors have had limited impact on survival or time to recurrence. These disappointing results are partially explained by the inadequacy of effective drug delivery to the CNS. The impediments posed by the various specialized physiological barriers and active efflux mechanisms lead to drug failure because of inability to reach the desired target at a sufficient concentration. This perspective reviews the leading strategies that aim to improve drug delivery to brain tumors and their likelihood to change clinical practice. The English literature was searched for defined search items. Strategies that use systemic delivery and those that use local delivery are critically reviewed. In addition, challenges posed for drug delivery by combined treatment with anti-angiogenic therapy are outlined. To impact clinical practice and to achieve more than just a limited local control, new drugs and delivery systems must adhere to basic clinical expectations. These include, in addition to an antitumor effect, a verified favorable adverse effects profile, easy introduction into clinical practice, feasibility of repeated or continuous administration, and compatibility of the drug or delivery system with any tumor size and brain location.
This review describes the most important new generations of pharmaceutical systems: medicines with extended release, controlled release pharmaceutical systems, pharmaceutical systems for the targeted delivery of drug substances. The latest advances and approaches for delivering small molecular weight drugs and other biologically active agents such as proteins and nucleic acids require novel delivery technologies, the success of a drug being many times dependent on the delivery method. All these dosage forms are qualitatively superior to medicines with immediate release, in that they ensure optimal drug concentrations depending on specific demands of different disease particularities of the body. Drug delivery of these pharmaceutical formulations has the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance. This paper describes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and technological principles in the design of drug delivery systems with modified release as well as the formulation criteria of prolonged and controlled release drug delivery systems. The paper presents pharmaceutical prolonged and controlled release dosage forms intended for different routes of administration: oral, ocular, transdermal, parenteral, pulmonary, mucoadhesive, but also orally fast dissolving tablets, gastroretentive drug delivery systems, colon-specific drug delivery systems, pulsatile drug delivery systems and carrier or ligand mediated transport for site specific or receptor drug targeting. Specific technologies are given on the dosage forms with modified release as well as examples of marketed products, and current research in these areas. PMID:22794159
Leucuta, Sorin E
The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics.
Kooijmans, Sander AA; Vader, Pieter; van Dommelen, Susan M; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M
Continuous, 'infusion-like' drug release profiles from biodegradable parenteral delivery systems are difficult to achieve for proteins and other hydrophilic macromolecular drugs with commonly used linear polyesters from lactic acid (PLA) and its random copolymers with glycolic acid (PLG). Drug release rates can be modified either by increasing the hydrophilicity of polyesters or by manipulating the polymer architecture to adjust polymer degradation rates and thus drug release. Therefore, we investigated different branching concepts for biodegradable polyesters of PLA and PLG. For one four- and eight-arm poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO) were grafted with shorter polyester chains leading to star-branched structures. Secondly we obtained comb-like polyesters using both charged and uncharged dextrans or poly(vinyl alcohol)s (PVA) as hydrophilic backbones. The star-shaped and brush-like grafted polymers were intensively characterized by methods, such as NMR, IR, SEC-SLS, DSC and viscosity measurements. Tailor-made properties make these novel biodegradable polyesters promising candidates for parenteral protein delivery systems. While the star-branched polyesters have shown some interesting properties with respect to their degradation behavior, retaining the PEO blocks longer than ABA triblock copolymers, their release properties need further optimization. Brush-like branched polyesters on the other hand seem to possess both degradation and release properties meriting further investigations for parenteral protein delivery systems. PMID:10640655
Breitenbach, A; Li, Y X; Kissel, T
The brain is a delicate organ, and nature has very efficiently protected it. The brain is shielded against potentially toxic substances by the presence of two barrier systems: the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Unfortunately, the same mechanisms that protect it against intrusive chemicals can also frustrate therapeutic interventions. Despite aggressive research, patients suffering
Shadab A. Pathan; Zeenat Iqbal; Syed M. A. Zaidi; Sushma Talegaonkar; Divya Vohra; Gaurav K. Jain; Adnan Azeem; Nitin Jain; Jigar R. Lalani; Roop K. Khar; Farhan J. Ahmad
Ocular drug delivery has been a major challenge to pharmacologists and drug delivery scientists due to its unique anatomy and physiology. Static barriers (different layers of cornea, sclera, and retina including blood aqueous and blood-retinal barriers), dynamic barriers (choroidal and conjunctival blood flow, lymphatic clearance, and tear dilution), and efflux pumps in conjunction pose a significant challenge for delivery of a drug alone or in a dosage form, especially to the posterior segment. Identification of influx transporters on various ocular tissues and designing a transporter-targeted delivery of a parent drug has gathered momentum in recent years. Parallelly, colloidal dosage forms such as nanoparticles, nanomicelles, liposomes, and microemulsions have been widely explored to overcome various static and dynamic barriers. Novel drug delivery strategies such as bioadhesive gels and fibrin sealant-based approaches were developed to sustain drug levels at the target site. Designing noninvasive sustained drug delivery systems and exploring the feasibility of topical application to deliver drugs to the posterior segment may drastically improve drug delivery in the years to come. Current developments in the field of ophthalmic drug delivery promise a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges posed by various anterior and posterior segment diseases. PMID:20437123
Gaudana, Ripal; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Parenky, Ashwin; Mitra, Ashim K
Nevirapine is a highly lipophilic and water insoluble non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Lymphoid tissue constitutes the major reservoir of HIV virus and infected cells in HIV-infected patients. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system, using long chain triglycerides, is a popular carrier of drugs due to their ability to transport lipophilic drugs into the lymphatic circulation. However, HIV/AIDS patients experience a variety of functional and anatomical abnormalities in gastrointestinal tract that result in diarrhoea and nutrient malabsorption. Medium chain triglycerides are readily absorbed from the small bowel under conditions in which the absorption of long chain triglycerides is impaired. Therefore, nevirapine self-emulsifying drug delivery system containing medium chain fatty acid, caprylic acid and a solubilizer, Soluphor® P (2-pyrrolidone) was developed and found to be superior to the marketed conventional suspension with respect to in vitro diffusion and ex vivo intestinal permeability. This self-emulsifying drug delivery system has now been further investigated for in vivo absorption in an animal model. The contribution of caprylic acid and Soluphor® P on in vivo absorption of nevirapine was also studied in the present study. The bioavailability of nevirapine from self-emulsifying drug delivery system, after oral administration, was 2.69 times higher than that of the marketed suspension. The improved bioavailability could be due to absorption of nevirapine via both portal and intestinal lymphatic routes. The study indicates that medium chain or structured triglycerides can be a better option to develop self-emulsifying drug delivery system for lipophilic and extensively metabolised drugs like nevirapine for patients with AIDS-associated malabsorption.
Chudasama, A. S.; Patel, V. V.; Nivsarkar, M.; Vasu, Kamala K.; Shishoo, C. J.
Technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controll ed oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). It is known that differences in gastric physiology, such as, gastric pH, and motility exhibit both intra-as well as inter-subject variability demonstrating significant impact on gastric
Contemporary treatment of malignant brain tumors has been hampered by problems with drug delivery to the tumor bed. Inherent\\u000a boundaries of the central nervous system, such as the blood-brain barrier or the bloodcerebrospinal fluid barrier, and a general\\u000a lack of response to many chemotherapeutic agents have led to alternative treatment modalities. In general, all these modalities\\u000a have sought to either
Maciej S. Lesniak; Robert Langer; Henry Brem
An erodible association polymer system based on blends of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and Pluronic F127, a block copolymer of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), has been investigated for its applicability to rate-programmed drug delivery. The compatibility and thermal properties were characterized by DSC and FTIR. Results from the thermal analysis indicate that the blends are compatible above 50% CAP,
Xin Xu; Ping I. Lee
This paper addresses the synthesis and characterization of a novel temperature- and pH-responsive nanogel system based on poly(vinylcaprolactam-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) [P(VCL-co-DMAEMA)] by using a surfactant-free emulsion polymerization procedure for the multiresponsive drug delivery of hydrophobic drugs. The effects of solvent, monomer, pH, and temperature were studied to tailor the average particle hydrodynamic diameters and the polydispersity index of the final particles. According to dynamic light-scattering measurements, the obtained nanogels show a narrow particle-size distribution and their hydrodynamic diameters can be varied from 81 to 368 nm. The nanogels display a re-entrant phase-transition state, and the equilibrium volume swelling ratio of the nanogels decreases drastically down to 47 °C and then increases up to 65 °C. In addition, the nanogels show pH-dependent behavior. They exhibit a maximum size at pH 5.0. Rhodamine B (RhB) was chosen as a model compound for drug loading and release studies from P(VCL-co-DMAEMA) on the basis of particles in different phosphate buffer solutions at different temperatures. The temperature/pH-dependent cumulative release and ultrasound-enhanced pulsatile release properties were investigated for RhB-loaded nanogels for long-term and one-shot delivery. The nanogels display efficient delivery for both long-term and one-shot delivery systems. We provide here a proof of concept for the novel use of multiresponsive nanogels having an overall size below 200 nm as a cargo system for hydrophobic drugs and for controlled release mediated by temperature/pH and ultrasound. PMID:23794381
Demirel, Gökçen Birlik; von Klitzing, Regine
Ampelopsin, one of the most common flavonoids, reported to possess numerous pharmacological activities and shows poor aqueous solubility. The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate and bioavailability of this drug by developing a novel delivery system that is microemulsion (ME) and to study the effect of microemulsion (ME) on the oral bioavailability of ampelopsin. Capmul MCM-based ME formulation with Cremophor EL as surfactant and Transcutol as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of ampelopsin. Optimised ME was evaluated for its transparency, viscosity, percentage assay and so forth. Solubilisation capacity of the ME system was also determined. The prepared ME was compared with the pure drug solution and commercially available tablet for in vitro drug release. The optimised ME formulation containing ampelopsin, Capmul MCM (5.5%), Cremophor EL (25%), Transcutol P (8.5%), and distilled water showed higher in vitro drug release, as compared to plain drug suspension and the suspension of commercially available tablet. These results demonstrate the potential use of ME for improving the bioavailability of poor water soluble compounds, such as ampelopsin. PMID:22830055
Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Sarkar, Brajesh; Dhanwani, Rakesh Kumar
Background: Azithromycin (AZT) is a macrolide antibiotic derived from and similar in structure to erythromycin. Oral administration of AZT is effective for the treatment of trachoma; however, topical formulations are difficult to develop because of the drug's hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to formulate a novel topical ophthalmic delivery system of AZT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ocular inserts of AZT are prepared using alginate, carbopol, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to solve the said formulation problem of drug and to facilitate ocular bioavailability. Ocular inserts were prepared by film casting method and the prepared films were subjected to investigations for their physical and mechanical properties, swelling behaviors, ex vivo bioadhesion, and in vitro drug release. Ocular irritation of the developed formulation was also checked by hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane test for ocular irritation potential. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of films were found to vary significantly depending on the type of polymers used and their combinations. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the carbopol films. HPMC addition to the films significantly affected the properties of ocular inserts. Carbopol:HPMC (30:70)-based ocular inserts sustained drug release for longest span of 6 h. The release profile of AZT showed that drug release was by both diffusion and swelling. The formulation was found to be practically nonirritant in ocular irritation studies. Conclusion: AZT can therefore be developed as an ocular insert delivery system for the treatment of ocular surface infections.
Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Nagpal, Kalpana; Mishra, Dina Nath
Ampelopsin, one of the most common flavonoids, reported to possess numerous pharmacological activities and shows poor aqueous solubility. The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate and bioavailability of this drug by developing a novel delivery system that is microemulsion (ME) and to study the effect of microemulsion (ME) on the oral bioavailability of ampelopsin. Capmul MCM-based ME formulation with Cremophor EL as surfactant and Transcutol as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of ampelopsin. Optimised ME was evaluated for its transparency, viscosity, percentage assay and so forth. Solubilisation capacity of the ME system was also determined. The prepared ME was compared with the pure drug solution and commercially available tablet for in vitro drug release. The optimised ME formulation containing ampelopsin, Capmul MCM (5.5%), Cremophor EL (25%), Transcutol P (8.5%), and distilled water showed higher in vitro drug release, as compared to plain drug suspension and the suspension of commercially available tablet. These results demonstrate the potential use of ME for improving the bioavailability of poor water soluble compounds, such as ampelopsin.
Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Sarkar, Brajesh; Dhanwani, Rakesh Kumar
Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, with 90% of the world population affected by either periodontitis or its preceding condition, gingivitis. These conditions are caused by bacterial biofilms on teeth, which stimulate a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The present research sought to demonstrate development of a multiple drug delivery system for stepwise treatment of different stages of periodontal disease. More specifically, multilayered films were fabricated from an association polymer comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127 to achieve sequential release of drugs. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. Different erosion times and adjustable sequential release profiles were achieved by modifying the number of layers or by inclusion of a slower-eroding polymer layer. Analysis of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity showed that drugs released from the devices retained 100% bioactivity. The multilayered CAPP delivery system offers a versatile approach for releasing different drugs based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis and other conditions. PMID:23948165
Sundararaj, Sharath C; Thomas, Mark V; Peyyala, Rebecca; Dziubla, Thomas D; Puleo, David A
In recent years, there has been an explosion of research in the 'bio-nano' field, with the discovery and introduction of ever more fascinating materials for applications as drug delivery systems, sensors, transducers, and so on. The author's group, for the first time in the literature, proposed boron nitride nanotubes as a valid alternative to carbon nanotubes and other kinds of inorganic materials, because of their improved chemical properties that theoretically guarantee better stability and compatibility in a biological context. In this paper, the bio-applications of boron nitride nanotubes that have emerged in the literature are summarized, with special attention given to their exploitation as safe drug delivery and targeting carriers. Finally, the possibility of combining their physical and chemical properties is approached, highlighting the features that render these innovative nanovectors unique and exceptional candidates for many bio-applications. PMID:20632897
Ultrasound has been in use for the last three decades as amodality for diagnostic imaging in medicine. Recently, there have beennumerous reports on the application of nonthermal ultrasound energyfor targeting or controlling drug release. This new concept oftherapeutic ultrasound combined with drugs has led to much excitementin various medical fields. Ultrasound energy can enhance the effectsof thrombolytic agents such as urokinase. Therapeutic ultrasoundcatheters are currently being developed for treatment ofcardiovascular diseases. Devices with ultrasound transducers implantedin transdermal drug patches are also being evaluated for possibledelivery of insulin through the skin. Chemical activation of drugs byultrasound energy for treatment of cancers is another new fieldrecently termed “Sonodynamic Therapy”. Various examples of ultrasoundapplication are under investigation which could lead to revolutionarydrug delivery systems in the future.
Tachibana, Katsuro; Tachibana, Shunro
Many biodegradable polymers were used for drug delivery and some are successful for human application. There remains fabrication problems, such as difficult processability and limited organic solvent and irreproducible drug release kinetics. New star-shaped block copolymers, of which the typical molecular architecture is presented, results from their distinct solution properties, thermal properties and morphology. Their unique physical properties are due to the three-dimensional, hyperbranched molecular architecture and influence microsphere fabrication, drug release and degradation profiles. We recently synthesized thermosensitive biodegradable hydrogel consisting of polyethylene oxide and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solution of these copolymers with proper combination of molecular weights exhibit temperature-dependent reversible sol-gel transition. Desired molecular arrangements provide unique behavior that sol (at low temperature) form gel (at body temperature). The use of these two biodegradable polymers have great advantages for sustained injectable drug delivery systems. The formulation is simple, which is totally free of organic solvent. In sol or aqueous solution state of this polymer solubilized hydrophobic drugs prior to form gel matrix. PMID:10518642
Jeong, B; Choi, Y K; Bae, Y H; Zentner, G; Kim, S W
The variety of wound types has resulted in a wide range of wound dressings with new products frequently introduced to target different aspects of the wound healing process. The ideal dressing should achieve rapid healing at reasonable cost with minimal inconvenience to the patient. This article offers a review of the common wound management dressings and emerging technologies for achieving improved wound healing. It also reviews many of the dressings and novel polymers used for the delivery of drugs to acute, chronic and other types of wound. These include hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels, polyurethane, collagen, chitosan, pectin and hyaluronic acid. There is also a brief section on the use of biological polymers as tissue engineered scaffolds and skin grafts. Pharmacological agents such as antibiotics, vitamins, minerals, growth factors and other wound healing accelerators that take active part in the healing process are discussed. Direct delivery of these agents to the wound site is desirable, particularly when systemic delivery could cause organ damage due to toxicological concerns associated with the preferred agents. This review concerns the requirement for formulations with improved properties for effective and accurate delivery of the required therapeutic agents. General formulation approaches towards achieving optimum physical properties and controlled delivery characteristics for an active wound healing dosage form are also considered briefly. PMID:17963217
Boateng, Joshua S; Matthews, Kerr H; Stevens, Howard N E; Eccleston, Gillian M
The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t(50%)) and 70% (t(70%)) drug dissolution were selected as dependent variables. All the designed nine batches of formulations were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, swelling index, in vitro buoyancy, and in vitro drug release profile. All formulations had floating lag time below 3 min and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 24 h. Validity of the developed polynomial equation was verified by designing two check point formulations (C1 and C2). The closeness of predicted and observed values for t(50%) and t(70%) indicates validity of derived equations for the dependent variables. These studies indicated that the proper balance between psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to the predicted dissolution profile. The optimized formulations followed Higuchi's kinetics while the drug release mechanism was found to be anomalous type, controlled by diffusion through the swollen matrix. PMID:21694992
Kharia, A A; Hiremath, S N; Singhai, A K; Omray, L K; Jain, S K
The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t50%) and 70% (t70%) drug dissolution were selected as dependent variables. All the designed nine batches of formulations were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, swelling index, in vitro buoyancy, and in vitro drug release profile. All formulations had floating lag time below 3 min and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 24 h. Validity of the developed polynomial equation was verified by designing two check point formulations (C1 and C2). The closeness of predicted and observed values for t50% and t70% indicates validity of derived equations for the dependent variables. These studies indicated that the proper balance between psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to the predicted dissolution profile. The optimized formulations followed Higuchi's kinetics while the drug release mechanism was found to be anomalous type, controlled by diffusion through the swollen matrix.
Kharia, A. A.; Hiremath, S. N.; Singhai, A. K.; Omray, L. K.; Jain, S. K.
Conventional administration of chemotherapeutic agents is compromised by their lack of selectivity which is the cause of a lethal effect accomplishment on healthy tissues. Since therapeutic and diagnostic agents could functionalize the structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the development of CNTs as drug containers would pave the way to their employment as nanovectors into the cells. Here a study on cisplatin (Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) - a platinum-based chemotherapy drug) embedding to single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs) is shown.Being sure that the anticancer drug discharge occurred, in vitro analysis have been performed. The inhibition of prostate cancer cells (PC3 and DU145) viability from tubes encapsulating cisplatin proved the efficiency of the produced delivery system.
Tripisciano, C.; Kraemer, K.; Taylor, A.; Borowiak-Palen, E.
Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the method which the magnetic seeded drug is injected into a blood vessel and then controlled and accumulated by a magnet located outside of the human body. A high accumulation efficiency of the drug to a local diseased part and reduction in side-effects to normal organs are expected by using MDDS. The most important element in MDDS is a magnetic field generator. The high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic field and magnetic field gradient extending to a point distant from the magnet in several ten millimeters is necessary to achieve the MDDS. In this study, the computer simulation and model experiment were conducted in order to confirm the applicability of MDDS to ovary of the cow body.
Terada, T.; Fukui, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.
A novel liquefied gas based drug delivery system for the oral delivery of liquid and semi-solid drug formulations is presented. The capsule-shaped system is equipped with a capillary as an element controlling the release rate. The delivery mechanism is based on a constant vapor pressure produced by isopentane as a low-boiling liquefied gas. The liquid drug valproic acid (VA) was used as a model compound. The viscosity was increased by the addition of povidone (PVP). The VA-PVP gel exhibited pseudoplastic rheological properties, the shear rate was above 0.1s(-1), similar to a Newtonian liquid. The gels tested in the gas based delivery system provided near-zero-order release kinetics. The longest delivery time was up to ca. 8h. The system is characterized by high flexibility of the delivery rate, which can be achieved by adjusting system parameters such as the diameter and length of the capillary, the vapor pressure of the propellant and the viscosity of the drug formulation. PMID:22426133
Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Eisenächer, Friederike; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) increase the solubility of lipophilic drugs. One barrier to their wide application is their liquid nature. We report on a new method to solidify SMEDDS-their incorporation in sponges made from a hydrophilic natural polymer. Using different freeze-drying schemes, sponges were prepared from alginate gels containing microemulsions. The sponges' structures were studied with scanning electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. The oil droplets survived the drying process, and SMEDDS were present as 9 nm-sized objects in the dried sponges. The sponges were rehydrated in water, and evidence of the presence of SMEDDS in the rehydrated sponges was found. A model hydrophobic molecule, Nile red, was soluble in all dry and rehydrated sponges. SMEDDS containing Nile red were gradually released from the sponges, at a rate that depended on the drying method. The equilibrium water uptake of the sponges was also found to be influenced by the drying scheme. The combination of SMEDDS and sponges may be a way to overcome the disadvantages of each component separately, provide a solid dosage form for SMEDDS that can sustain the release of drugs and also enable utilization of hydrophilic sponges for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:24096300
Josef, Elinor; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet
Although preformed polymers are commercially available for use in the design and development of drug delivery systems, in situ polymerization has also been employed. In situ polymerization affords the platform to tailor and optimize the drug delivery properties of polymers. This review brings to\\u000a light the benefits of in situ polymerization for oral drug delivery and the possibilities it provides
Ndidi Ngwuluka; Joseph Reo; Linda Felton; Stephen Howard
Purpose: Niosomes play an increasingly important role in drug delivery as they can reduce toxicity and modify pharmacokinetic and bio-availability. Topically applied niosomes can increase the residence time of drugs in the stratum corneum and epidermis, while reducing the systemic absorption of the drug. It can act as drug containing reservoirs and the modification of the vesicular compositions or surface properties can adjust the drug release rate and the affinity for the target site. Ketoconazole is a broad spectrum Imidazole derivative useful in the treatment of superficial and systemic fungal infections. Materials and Methods: In order to improve the low skin penetration and to minimize the side effects associated with topical conventional drug administration, Ketoconazole niosomes were prepared by a thin film hydration method using different ratios of non-ionic surfactants (Span 40, 60 and Tween 60) along with cholesterol (CHO). The formulations were evaluated for size, shape, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Results: Niosomes appeared spherical in shape and size range was found to be 4.86 ± 1.24-7.38 ± 3.64 ?m. The entrapment efficiency was found in the range of 55.14 ± 2.29-78.63 ± 0.91% and in vitro drug release in the range of 46.63 ± 0.95-72.37 ± 0.59% in 24 h. Ketoconazole niosomes formulated with Span 60 and CHO in the ratio of 1:0.2 were found to be promising and were incorporated into 1% Carbopol gel. The formulated gel was evaluated for various physicochemical parameters and antifungal activity. The in vitro drug release study was carried out using phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 and was found to be 36.18 ± 1.50% in 12 h. Conclusion: Gel formulation containing niosomes loaded with Ketoconazole showed prolonged action than formulations containing Ketoconazole in non-niosomal form and it can be developed successfully to improve the antifungal activity.
Shirsand, SB; Para, MS; Nagendrakumar, D; Kanani, KM; Keerthy, D
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ROS such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are overproduced by activated macrophages in RA. As scavengers of ROS, enzymatic proteins such as catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have a great therapeutic potential; however, in vivo application is limited especially when they are orally administered. Although, the oral route is the most convenient for drug administration, therapeutic proteins are easily degraded in vivo by the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we introduce a novel drug delivery system composed of zein, a plant storage protein derived from maize. We demonstrate that zein nanoparticles can protect therapeutic proteins, catalase and SOD, from the harsh conditions of GI tract. Folate-conjugated catalase or SOD in zein nanoparticles can target the activated macrophages and scavenge the ROS generated by macrophages in vitro. This novel drug delivery system will be applicable to other orally administered treatments based on the protective property in the harsh conditions of GI tract. PMID:23876501
Lee, Sungmun; Alwahab, Noaf Salah Ali; Moazzam, Zainab Muhammad
Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.
Chen, Yulin; Ma, Ping; Gui, Shuangying
Drug delivery technology is emerging as an interdisciplinary science aimed at improving human health. The controlled delivery of pharmacologically active agents to the specific site of action at the therapeutically optimal rate and dose regimen has been a major goal in designing drug delivery systems. Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in developing biodegradable drug carriers as effective drug delivery systems. Polymeric materials from natural sources play an important role in controlled release of drug at a particular site. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, due to their origin from natural sources, are given attention as candidates for drug delivery materials. Biodegradable and biocompatible polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters produced by microorganisms under unbalanced growth conditions, which have emerged as potential polymers for use as biomedical materials for drug delivery due to their unique physiochemical and mechanical properties. This review summarizes many of the key findings in the applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates and polyhydroxyalkanoate nanoparticles for drug delivery system.
Shrivastav, Anupama; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Young-Rok
Colon targeting drug delivery systems have attracted many researchers due to the distinct advantages they present such as near neutral pH, longer transit time and reduced enzymatic activity. Moreover, in recent studies, colon specific drug delivery systems are gaining importance for use in the treatment of local pathologies of the colon and also for the systemic delivery of protein and
I. Silva; M. Gurruchaga; I. Goñi
This paper describes how magnetic resonance can be successfully used as a tool to help customize and quantify nanosized magnetic particles while labeling cells and administered in animals for targeting different biological sites. Customization of magnetic nanoparticles is addressed here in terms of production of complex magnetic drug delivery systems whereas quantification of magnetic nanoparticle in different biological compartments emerges as a key experimental information to assess time-dependent magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution profiles. Examples of using magnetic resonance in unfolding information regarding the pharmacokinetics of intravenously-injected surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in animals are included in the paper.
Morais, P. C.
Drugs are introduced into the body by numerous routes such as enteral (oral, sublingual and rectum administration), parenteral (intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous and inhalation administration), or topical (skin and mucosal membranes). Each route has specific purposes, advantages and disadvantages. Today, the oral route remains the preferred one for different reasons such as ease and compliance by patients. Several nanoformulated drugs have been already approved by the FDA, such as Abelcet®, Doxil®, Abraxane® or Vivagel®(Starpharma) which is an anionic G4-poly(L-lysine)-type dendrimer showing potent topical vaginal microbicide activity. Numerous biochemical studies, as well as biological and pharmacological applications of both dendrimer based products (dendrimers as therapeutic compounds per se, like Vivagel®) and dendrimers as drug carriers (covalent conjugation or noncovalent encapsulation of drugs) were described. It is widely known that due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties, dendrimers afforded improvement of corresponding carried-drugs as dendrimer-drug complexes or conjugates (versus plain drug) such as biodistribution and pharmacokinetic behaviors. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the recent progresses of dendrimers as nanoscale drug delivery systems for the delivery of drugs using enteral, parenteral and topical routes. In particular, we focus our attention on the emerging and promising routes such as oral, transdermal, ocular and transmucosal routes using dendrimers as delivery systems. PMID:23415951
Mignani, Serge; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto; Majoral, Jean-Pierre
The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. This review, mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process.
Philip, Anil K.; Philip, Betty
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol\\/Plurol Isostearique\\/isostearylic isostearate\\/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T1 relaxation times were
Mads Kreilgaard; Erik J Pedersen; Jerzy W Jaroszewski
The adriamycin and galactose was grafted to dextran. The novel nanopartcile drug delivery system (DDS) was prepared from the chemical modified polysaccharide by the dialysis. The content of the ADR moiety in the polymeric-drug conjugate was about 2 mol%. The size and morphology of prepared nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the nanoparticles were spherical and their size was less than 200 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was tested by the MTT assay. The nano DDS has similar cytotoxicity as free adriamycin for incubation with HepG2 cells. In contrast, for the incubation with Hela cells of the DDS, there was no signicant cytotoxicity change.
Cao, Yu; Liu, Jing; Ma, Hong; Bai, Jing; Qi, Chao
Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most effective biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). It has been approved by the US FDA to use in drug delivery systems due to controlled and sustained- release properties, low toxicity, and biocompatibility with tissue and cells. In the present review, the structure and properties of PLGA copolymers synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of DL-lactide and glicolide were characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Methods of preparation and characterization, various surface modifications, encapsulation of diverse anticancer drugs, active or passive tumor targeting and different release mechanisms of PLGA nanoparticles are discussed. Increasing experience in the application of PLGA nanoparticles has provided a promising future for use of these nanoparticles in cancer treatment, with high efficacy and few side effects. PMID:24568455
Sadat Tabatabaei Mirakabad, Fatemeh; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Yamchi, Mohammad Rahmati; Milani, Mortaza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Zeighamian, Vahideh; Rahimzadeh, Amirbahman; Alimohammadi, Somayeh; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo
Conducting polymers are finding applications in medicine including drug delivery systems, biosensors and templates for the regeneration of nervous pathways. We aim to develop a novel system where the drug release rate can be controlled by electrical stimulation. Polypyrrole (PPY) is being used as a drug delivery system due to its inherent electrical conductivity, ease of preparation and apparent biocompatibility.
Darren Svirskis; Jadranka Travas-Sejdic; Anthony Rodgers; Sanjay Garg
The present work introduces new biohybrid materials involving layered double hydroxides (LDH) and biopolymers to produce bionanocomposites, able to act as effective drug delivery systems (DDS). Ibuprofen (IBU) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been chosen as model drugs, being intercalated in a Mg-Al LDH matrix. On the one side, the LDHIBU intercalation compound prepared by ion-exchange reaction was blended with the biopolymers zein, a highly hydrophobic protein, and alginate, a polysaccharide widely applied for encapsulating drugs. On the other side, the LDH- 5-ASA intercalation compound prepared by co-precipitation was assembled to the polysaccharides chitosan and pectin, which show mucoadhesive properties and resistance to acid pH values, respectively. Characterization of the intercalation compounds and the resulting bionanocomposites was carried out by means of different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, chemical and thermal analysis, as well as optical and scanning electron microscopies. Data on the swelling behavior and drug release under different pH conditions are also reported.
Aranda, Pilar; Alcântara, Ana C. S.; Ribeiro, Ligia N. M.; Darder, Margarita; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo
The use of gelatin for growth factor delivery was investigated. Protein-gelatin interactions were characterized using the Biomolecular Interaction Detection (BIND) system. Acidic gelatin sheets and basic gelatin microspheres were fabricated and optimized for delivering transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. The two delivery vehicles were then combined to produce two distinct release sequences and the effect of sequence on bone healing was determined. Using the BIND system, TGF-beta1 was found to interact more strongly with acidic gelatin than basic gelatin whereas BMP-2 only slightly favors basic gelatin over acidic gelatin. Acidic gelatin sheets were fabricated by a casting technique. These sheets successfully delivered TGF-beta1 to a rabbit ulna defect to encourage new bone formation. Basic gelatin microspheres were fabricated by the precision particle fabrication (PPF) method. Uniform drug distribution within the microspheres lead to controlled release of BMP-2 that induced bone formation within the thigh muscle of mice. The sheets and microspheres were combined to deliver both drugs either simultaneously or with a four-day delay to a rabbit calvarial defect. Both sequences encouraged more bone regeneration than empty defects by 8 weeks. Protein-gelatin interactions improved protein stability and lead to release through enzymatic degradation of the gelatin. Growth factors released either singly or in a dual system from gelatin successfully produced bone in vivo. However, single release systems require higher dosages to achieve similar healing results as observed in the dual release systems. No difference was observed between the dual release systems investigated.
Morgan, Abby W.
The overall purpose of this research is to develop a polymeric drug delivery system containing magnetic resonance contrast agents for the treatment of breast cancer. This drug-imaging agent delivery system will allow the follow up of the fate of the drug ...
B. Zarabi H. Ghandehari
Drug delivery systems incorporated onto the end of cardiac leads are used to reduce inflammation and fibrosis at the lead-tissue interface and enable optimal lead performance. In this research, confocal Raman microscopy was used to capture chemical images of the drug delivery system on pacemaker leads in different elution media in real-time. Raman images in ambient air showed that drug
Jinping Dong; J. Polkinghorne; R. Heil; R. Kemp
Background: The stability of protein drugs remains one of the key hurdles to their success in the market. The aim of the present study was to design a novel nanoemulsion drug-delivery system (NEDDS) that would encapsulate a standard-model protein drug – bovine serum albumin (BSA) – to improve drug stability. Methods: The BSA NEDDS was prepared using a phase-inversion method and pseudoternary phase diagrams. The following characteristics were studied: morphology, size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency. We also investigated the stability of the BSA NEDDS, bioactivity of BSA encapsulated within the NEDDS, the integrity of the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures, and specificity. Results: The BSA NEDDS consisted of Cremophor EL-35, propylene glycol, isopropyl myristate, and normal saline. The average particle diameter of the BSA NEDDS was about 21.8 nm, and the system showed a high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) and an adequate drug-loading capacity (45 mg/mL). The thermodynamic stability of the system was investigated at different temperatures and pH levels and in room-temperature conditions for 180 days. BSA NEDDS showed good structural integrity and specificity for the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures, and good bioactivity of the loaded BSA. Conclusions: BSA NEDDS showed the properties of a good nanoemulsion-delivery system. NEDDS can greatly enhance the stability of the protein drug BSA while maintaining high levels of drug bioactivity, good specificity, and integrity of the primary, secondary, and tertiary protein structures. These findings indicate that the nanoemulsion is a potential formulation for oral administration of protein drugs.
Sun, Hongwu; Liu, Kaiyun; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wenxiu; Guo, Chunliang; Tang, Bin; Gu, Jiang; Zhang, Jinyong; Li, Haibo; Mao, Xuhu; Zou, Quanming; Zeng, Hao
Acne is the most common cutaneous disorder of multifactorial origin with a prevalence of 70-85% in adolescents. The majority of the acne sufferers exhibit mild to moderate acne initially, which progresses to the severe form in certain cases. Topical therapy is employed as first-line treatment in mild acne, whereas for moderate and severe acne, systemic therapy is required in addition to topical therapy. Currently, several topical agents are available that affect at least one of the main pathogenetic factors responsible for the development of acne. Although topical therapy has an important position in acne treatment, side effects associated with various topical antiacne agents and the undesirable physicochemical characteristics of certain important agents like tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide affect their utility and patient compliance. Novel drug delivery strategies can play a pivotal role in improving the topical delivery of antiacne agents by enhancing their dermal localization with a concomitant reduction in their side effects. The current review emphasizes the potential of various novel drug delivery strategies like liposomes, niosomes, aspasomes, microsponges, microemulsions, hydrogels and solid lipid nanoparticles in optimizing and enhancing the topical delivery of antiacne agents. PMID:16247244
Date, A A; Naik, B; Nagarsenker, M S
Purpose: Polymeric nanoparticles are frequently employed for drug delivery systems to perform a sustained release behavior\\u000a of incorporated drug. These polymeric nanoparticles can be used for site specific targeting of encapsulated drug. The objective\\u000a of present study was to develop a poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles drug delivery system of anticancer drug\\u000a cisplatin with higher therapeutic efficacy, lesser side effects, and
V. Agrahari; V. Kabra; P. Trivedi
Since ancient times, chemopreventive agents have been used to treat/prevent several diseases including cancer. They are found to elicit a spectrum of potent responses including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, anticarcinogenic, and antiangiogenic activity in various cell cultures and some animal studies. Research over the past 4 decades has shown that chemopreventives affect a number of proteins involved in various molecular pathways that regulate inflammatory and carcinogenic responses in a cell. Various enzymes, transcription factors, receptors, and adhesion proteins are also affected by chemopreventives. Although, these natural compounds have shown significant efficacy in cell culture studies, they elicited limited efficacy in various clinical studies. Their introduction into the clinical setting is hindered largely by their poor solubility, rapid metabolism, or a combination of both, ultimately resulting in poor bioavailability upon oral administration. Therefore, to circumvent these limitations and to ease their transition to clinics, alternate strategies should be explored. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microemulsions, and polymeric implantable devices are emerging as one of the viable alternatives that have been shown to deliver therapeutic concentrations of various potent chemopreventives such as curcumin, ellagic acid, green tea polyphenols, and resveratrol into the systemic circulation. In this review article, we have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook for these delivery approaches, using curcumin as a model agent, and discussed future strategies to enable the introduction of these highly potent chemopreventives into a physician's armamentarium. PMID:21546540
Bansal, Shyam S; Goel, Mehak; Aqil, Farrukh; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Gupta, Ramesh C
From ancient times, chemopreventive agents have been used to treat/prevent several diseases, including cancer. They are found to elicit a spectrum of potent responses including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-angiogenic activity in various cell culture and some animal studies. Research over the past four decades has shown that chemopreventives affect a number of proteins involved in various molecular pathways that regulate inflammatory and carcinogenic responses in a cell. Various enzymes, transcription factors, receptors, and adhesion proteins are also affected by chemopreventives. Although, these natural compounds have shown significant efficacy in cell-culture studies, they elicited limited efficacy in various clinical studies. Their introduction into the clinical setting is hindered largely by their poor solubility, rapid metabolism, or a combination of both, ultimately resulting in poor bioavailability upon oral administration. Therefore, to circumvent these limitations and to ease their transition to clinics, alternate strategies should be explored. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microemulsions, and polymeric implantable devices are emerging as one of the viable alternatives that have been demonstrated to deliver therapeutic concentrations of various potent chemopreventives such as curcumin, ellagic acid, green tea polyphenols, and resveratrol into the systemic circulation. In this review article, we have attempted to provide a comprehensive outlook for these delivery approaches, using curcumin as a model agent, and discussed future strategies to enable the introduction of these highly potent chemopreventives into a physician’s armamentarium.
Bansal, Shyam S.; Goel, Mehak; Aqil, Farrukh; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Gupta, Ramesh C.
To develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for protein drugs, and particularly, to test the in vitro transport of beta-lactamase (BLM) by SNEDDS across the cell monolayer. Fluorescently labeled BLM (FITC-BLM), a model protein, formulated into 16 SNEDDS preparations through a solid dispersion technique were studied for transport across MDCK monolayer. All the SNEDDS nanoemulsions resulted in higher transport rate than the free solution. The transport rate by SNEDDS depends on the SNEDDS composition. SNEDDS NE-12-7 (oil: Lauroglycol FCC, surfactant: Cremophor EL and a cosurfactant: Transcutol HP) at the ratio of 5:4:3, rendered the highest transportation rate, 33% as compared to negligible transport by the free solution. FITC-BLM solution mixed with the surfactant and the cosurfactant of SNEDDS NE-12-7 or with blank SNEDDS NE-12-7 increased the transport only by 3.3 and 1.5 folds, respectively, compared to free solution alone. It was found that the monolayer integrity was not compromised in the presence of SNEDDS NE-12-7 or its surfactant/cosurfactant. The SNEDDS significantly increased the transport of FITC-BLM across MDCK monolayer in vitro. SNEDDS may be a potential effective delivery system for non-invasive protein drug delivery. PMID:18640797
Rao, Sripriya Venkata Ramana; Agarwal, Payal; Shao, Jun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of structure and composition of microemulsions (Labrasol/Plurol Isostearique/isostearylic isostearate/water) on their transdermal delivery potential of a lipophilic (lidocaine) and a hydrophilic model drug (prilocaine hydrochloride), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T(1) relaxation times were used to characterise the microemulsions. Transdermal flux of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochloride through rat skin was determined in vitro using Franz-type diffusion cells. The formulation constituents enabled a broad variety of microemulsion compositions, which ranged from water-continuous to oil-continuous aggregates over possible bicontinuous structures, with excellent solubility properties for both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. The microemulsions increased transdermal flux of lidocaine up to four times compared to a conventional oil-in-water emulsion, and that of prilocaine hydrochloride almost 10 times compared to a hydrogel. A correlation between self-diffusion of the drugs in the vehicles and transdermal flux was indicated. The increased transdermal drug delivery from microemulsion formulations was found to be due mainly to the increased solubility of drugs and appeared to be dependent on the drug mobility in the individual vehicle. The microemulsions did not perturb the skin barrier, indicating a low skin irritancy. PMID:11102682
Kreilgaard, M; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W
Transdermal delivery offers an attractive, noninvasive administration route but it is limited by the skin's barrier to penetration. Minimally invasive techniques, such as the use of microneedles (MNs), bypass the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to permit the drug's direct access to the viable epidermis. These novel micro devices have been developed to puncture the skin for the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including peptides, DNA and other molecules, that would otherwise have difficulty passing the outermost layer of the skin, the SC. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, MNs have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. MNs have been shown to be robust enough to penetrate the skin and dramatically increase the skin permeability of several drugs. Moreover, MNs have reduced needle insertion pain and tissue trauma and provided controlled delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the current state of the art in the transdermal delivery of drugs using various types of MNs and developments in the field of microscale devices, as well as examples of their uses and clinical safety. PMID:24144208
Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Rossetti, Fabia Cristina
The aim of the present study was to develop a delivery system wherein the retention of ofloxacin could be achieved for increased local action in gastric region against Helicobacter pylori infection. The formulation was optimized on the basis of in vitro buoyancy and in vitro release in citrate phosphate buffer (pH 3). The hydrodynamically balanced capsules were prepared by physical mixing of various grades of HPMC and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) alone as well as in combinations. Cellulose acetate pthalate, liquid paraffin, and ethyl cellulose were used as release modifiers so as to maintain release of drug over a period of 12 h. The capsules prepared with PEOWSR 60K and drug coated with 2.5% ethyl cellulose gave the best in vitro percentage release and were taken as the optimized formulations. Various grades of Eudragit and PEO were used in combination for formulating floating microspheres using solvent diffusion technique for preparation of multiple unit system. The use of two different solvents (dichloromethane and ethanol) that differed in the rate of diffusion led to formation of a hollow core in the microspheres, which was partially responsible for the flotation ability. The in vitro release of the floating capsules and microspheres was found to be 96.02% and 95.83% in 12 h, respectively. Both the dosage forms follow Higuchi model for release from formulations. By fitting the in vitro release data of single unit dosage form into zero-order, first-order, and Higuchi model, it could be concluded that the release followed Higuchi model, as the correlation coefficient (R2 value) was higher than those in the other two release models. In both cases of single and multiple unit dosage form, R2 values for Higuchi model were found to be good, showing that drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. PMID:17003848
Ali, J; Hasan, S; Ali, M
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a suitable platform for development of efficient delivery systems. AuNPs can be easily synthesized, functionalized, and are biocompatible. The tunability of the AuNP monolayer allows for complete control of surface properties for targeting and stability/release using these nanocarriers. This review will discuss several delivery strategies utilizing AuNPs.
Duncan, Bradley; Kim, Chaekyu; Rotello, Vincent M.
Permeation enhancers are defined as substances that are capable of promoting penetration of drugs into skin and transdermal therapeutic systems offers a more reliable mean of administering drug through the skin. Skin is a natural barrier so it is necessary to employ enhancement strategies to improve topical bioavailability. This review explores that natural products have got potential to enhance the permeation of the drug through skin by reversibly reducing the skin barrier resistance. The use of natural products is the most reliable means of permeation enhancement of transdermally administered drugs and permits the delivery of broader classes of drugs through the stratum corneum. They are safe, non-toxic, pharmacologically inert, non-irritating, and non-allergenic to use as permeation enhancers. The present review initially highlights the current status of natural products on the basis of SAR studies which have shown significant enhancer activities. PMID:24481830
Patil, Umesh K; Saraogi, Richa
Recent progress in the application of solid-state NMR (SS NMR) spectroscopy in structural studies of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) embedded in different drug carriers is detailed. This article is divided into sections. The first part reports short characterization of the nanoparticles and microparticles that can be used as drug delivery systems (DDSs). The second part shows the applicability of SS NMR to study non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In this section, problems related to API-DDS interactions, morphology, local molecular dynamics, nature of inter- or intramolecular connections, and pore filling are reviewed for different drug carriers (e.g. mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), cyclodextrins, polymeric matrices and others). The third and fourth sections detail the recent applications of SS NMR for searching for antibiotics and anticancer drugs confined in zeolites, MSNs, amorphous calcium phosphate and other carriers. PMID:24398051
Skorupska, Ewa; Jeziorna, Agata; Kazmierski, Slawomir; Potrzebowski, Marek J
Defined aggregates of polymers such as polymeric micelles are of great importance in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. The amount of drug that can be formulated by a drug delivery system is an important issue, and most drug delivery systems suffer from their relatively low drug-loading capacity. However, as the loading capacities increase, i.e., promoted by good drug-polymer interactions, the drug may affect the morphology and stability of the micellar system. We investigated this effect in a prominent system with very high capacity for hydrophobic drugs and found extraordinary stability as well as a profound morphology change upon incorporation of paclitaxel into micelles of amphiphilic ABA poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymers. The hydrophilic blocks A comprised poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline), while the middle blocks B were either just barely hydrophobic poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline) or highly hydrophobic poly(2-n-nonyl-2-oxazoline). The aggregation behavior of both polymers and their formulations with varying paclitaxel contents were investigated by means of dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, (cryogenic) transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering. While without drug, wormlike micelles were present, after incorporation of small amounts of drugs only spherical morphologies remained. Furthermore, the much more hydrophobic poly(2-n-nonyl-2-oxazoline)-containing triblock copolymer exhibited only half the capacity for paclitaxel than the poly(2-n-butyl-2-oxazoline)-containing copolymer along with a lower stability. In the latter, contents of paclitaxel of 8 wt % or higher resulted in a raspberry-like micellar core. PMID:24548260
Schulz, Anita; Jaksch, Sebastian; Schubel, Rene; Wegener, Erik; Di, Zhenyu; Han, Yingchao; Meister, Annette; Kressler, Jörg; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert; Papadakis, Christine M; Jordan, Rainer
Membrane permeation-controlled transdermal drug delivery systems were prepared using the natural polymer, chitosan. An adhesive sealing technique was used to construct the devices. Propranolol hydrochloride was selected as the model drug for the present study. Chitosan membranes with different permeability to propranolol hydrochloride obtained by controlled cross-linking with glutaraldehyde were used to regulate the drug release in the devices. Chitosan
D. Thacharodi; K. Panduranga Rao
A drug delivery system refers to a dosage form that is able to control or modify the availability of the active ingredient to the body due to its construction as well as temporal or spatial arrangement. An efficient drug delivery system should localize treatment to diseased cells or the site of injury. This can be achieved by increasing the adhesion
Current treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at addressing motor symptoms but there is no therapy focused on modifying the course of the disease. Successful treatment strategies have been so far limited and brain drug delivery remains a major challenge that restricts its treatment. This review provides an overview of the most promising emerging agents in the field of PD drug discovery, discussing improvements that have been made in brain drug delivery for PD. It will be shown that new approaches able to extend the length of the treatment, to release the drug in a continuous manner or to cross the blood-brain barrier and target a specific region are still needed. Overall, the results reviewed here show that there is an urgent need to develop both symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments, giving priority to neuroprotective treatments. Promising perspectives are being provided in this field by rasagiline and by neurotrophic factors like glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The identification of disease-relevant genes has also encouraged the search for disease-modifying therapies that function by identifying molecularly targeted drugs. The advent of new molecular and cellular targets like ?-synuclein, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 or parkin, among others, will require innovative delivery therapies. In this regard, drug delivery systems (DDS) have shown great potential for improving the efficacy of conventional and new PD therapy and reducing its side effects. The new DDS discussed here, which include microparticles, nanoparticles and hydrogels among others, will probably open up possibilities that extend beyond symptomatic relief. However, further work needs to be done before DDS become a therapeutic option for PD patients. PMID:23827471
Garbayo, E; Ansorena, E; Blanco-Prieto, M J
Diltiazem hydrochloride is an antihypertensive agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. Diltiazem mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using HPMC, chitosan, PVP, PVA and carbopol. The physicochemical interactions between diltiazem and the polymers were investigated by FTIR and DSC, results revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. The patches were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters, in vitro release studies and ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa. Residual solvent content in patches was determined by gas chromatography and are largely below the tolerated limits. The formulations showed an extended release of the drug upto a period of 12 hours during ex vivo permeation and showed non Fickian drug release. Stability of the optimized formulation was investigated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be stable with respect to drug content and ex vivo permeation. Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride buccal patches residual solvents mucoadhesion in vitro drug release ex vivo permeation. PMID:23578264
Penjuri, Subhash Chandra Bose; Damineni, Saritha; Ravouru, Nagaraju
Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of macromolecules. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. However, these experiments are time-consuming and their reliability is often poor. In this study, gels were prepared by step-growth polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and loaded with fluoresceine isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled
Ferdinand Brandl; Fritz Kastner; Ruth M. Gschwind; Torsten Blunk; Jörg Teßmar; Achim Göpferich
A mathematical simulation is presented which describes the in vitro drug delivery kinetics from hydrophilic adhesive water-soluble poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) –polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrices of transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) across skin-imitating hydrophobic Carbosil membranes. Propranolol is employed as the test drug. The contributions of the following physicochemical determinants to drug delivery rate control have been estimated: the drug diffusion coefficients both
Alexei L. Iordanskii; Mikhail M. Feldstein; Valery S. Markin; Jonathan Hadgraft; Nicolai A. Plate
To use self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) to deliver hydrophilic proteins orally. beta-Lactamase (BLM), a 29 kDa protein was used as a model protein, and formulated into the oil phase of a SNEDDS through solid dispersion technique. The oral absorption of BLM in rats when delivered by such a SNEDDS was investigated. Oral delivery of 4500 mU/kg of BLM in SNEDDS nanoemulsion resulted in the relative bioavailability of 6.34%, C(max) of 1.9 mU/ml and mean residence time of 12.12h which was 1.5-, 2.7- and 1.3-fold higher than that by free solution, respectively. Delivery of BLM in the aqueous phase of the nanoemulsion resulted in a PK profile similar to that by the free solution. BLM when loaded in oil phase of SNEDDS, can significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of BLM. SNEDDS has a great potential for oral protein delivery. PMID:18650037
Rao, Sripriya Venkata Ramana; Yajurvedi, Kavya; Shao, Jun
Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-oligo(l-aspartic acid)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) with four aspartic acid groups was synthesized with a molecular weight and M(w)/M(n) of 8930 and 1.22. Polymeric micelles were formed by dialysis and stabilized by electrostatic interactions between the carboxylic acid groups and calcium cations. The critical micelle concentration of mPEG-Asp-PCL was determined to be 0.078 mg/mL. At 0.02 mg/mL, the dissociation of micelles without ionic stabilization formed an opaque, phase-separated solution, while the stabilized micelles under the same conditions showed structural stability through ionic stabilization. The paclitaxel-loading and efficiency were 8.7% and 47.6%, respectively, and the drug loading increased the mean diameter from 73.0 nm to 87 nm, which was increased further to 96 nm after ionic fixation. Rapid releases of approximately 65% of the encapsulated paclitaxel from a non-stabilized micelle and 45% from a stabilized micelle were observed in the first 24h at pH 7.4 in a PBS solution containing 0.1 wt% Tween 80. The stabilized micelles then showed a sustained, slow release pattern over a couple of weeks, while the profile from the non-stabilized micelles reached a plateau at approximately 75% after 50h. The enhanced micelle stability independent of concentration through ionic stabilization opens a way for preparing long circulating delivery systems encapsulating water-insoluble drugs. PMID:19732830
Cha, Eui-Joon; Kim, Ju Eun; Ahn, Cheol-Hee
Sustained release asymmetric membrane capsular systems were developed for simultaneous oral delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid sodium in order to reduce the problems associated with the multi drug therapy of tuberculosis. Dense semipermeable membrane coating capsules were also prepared for the delivery of these drugs by adopting two different filling approaches. In vitro release studies were carried out for both
D. Prabakaran; Paramjit Singh; K. S. Jaganathan; Suresh P. Vyas
Systemic drug delivery is the most prevalent form of the drug administration; but it is not possible to extend this approach to all of diseases. In the traditional approaches of drug delivery, the drug spreads through whole of body and this could cause severe side effects in the healthy parts. In addition, in some parts of our body like the eye, ear and brain, there are biological barriers against drug penetration which made drug delivery to these organs as a challenging work. Micropumps are one of the MEMS based devices with great capabilities in controlled drug administration. The most prevalent application of micropumps in drug delivery is known as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for diabetic patients; but our study showed that there are some other ongoing investigations to extend application of micropumps in new treatment methods for some incurred diseases. PMID:24533725
Mahnama, Ali; Nourbakhsh, Ahmad; Ghorbaniasl, Ghader
In vitro drug release tests are a widely used tool to measure the variance between transdermal product performances and required by many authorities. However, the result cannot provide a good estimation of the in vivo drug release. In the present work, a new method for measuring drug release from patches has been explored and compared with the conventional USP apparatus 2 and 5 methods. Durogesic patches, here used as a model patch, were placed on synthetic skin simulator and three moisture levels (29, 57, 198??L cm?2) were evaluated. The synthetic skin simulators were collected after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours and extracted with pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution. The drug concentrations in the extractions were measured by isocratic reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The results showed that, with the increasing moisture level on the synthetic skin simulator, the drug release rate increased. In comparison with the conventional USP method, the drug release results performed by the new method were in more correlation to the release rate claimed in the product label. This new method could help to differentiate the drug release rates among assorted formulations of transdermal drug delivery systems in the early stage of development.
Cai, Bing; Soderkvist, Karin; Engqvist, Hakan; Bredenberg, Susanne
In recent era various technologies have been made in research and development of controlled release oral drug delivery system to overcome various physiological difficulties such as variation in gastric retention and emptying time. To overcome this drawback and to maximize the oral absorption of various drugs, novel drug delivery systems have been developed. Gastroretentive drug delivery system is facing many challenges which can be overcome by upcoming newly emerging approach i.e. raft forming system. The purpose of writing this review is to focus on recent development of stomach specific floating drug delivery system to circumvent the difficulties associated with formulation design. Various gastroretentive approaches that have been developed till now are also discussed. The present study provides valuable information & highlights advances in this raft forming system. This review attempts to discuss various factors like physiological factors, physicochemical factors and formulation factors to be considered in the development of the raft forming system. Different types of smart polymers used for their formulation have also been summarized. The review focuses on the mechanism, formulation and development of the raft forming system. This review also summarizes the studies to evaluate the performance and application of these systems. The study finally highlights advantages, disadvantages, and marketed preparation of the raft forming system. PMID:23500062
Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Khutliwala, Tohra A; Zala, Bhumi S
Membrane permeation-controlled transdermal drug delivery systems were prepared using the natural polymer, chitosan. An adhesive sealing technique was used to construct the devices. Propranolol hydrochloride was selected as the model drug for the present study. Chitosan membranes with different permeability to propranolol hydrochloride obtained by controlled cross-linking with glutaraldehyde were used to regulate the drug release in the devices. Chitosan gel was used as the drug reservoir. The ability of these devices to deliver the drug while supported on rabbit pinna skin was tested by conducting in vitro studies in modified Franz diffusion cells. The drug release profiles showed that the drug delivery is completely controlled by the devices. The rate of drug release was found to be dependent on the type of membrane used. PMID:7734649
Thacharodi, D; Rao, K P
The great challenge in using native degradable polysaccharides for the development of drug delivery systems is their high aqueous solubility, which may contribute to the undesirable premature and localized release of the drug. Multiparticulate systems showing simultaneously specific biodegradability and pH-dependent drug release were prepared based on chitosan (CS), amidated pectin (PC), and calcium ions, using triamcinolone (TC) as model
Giselle F. Oliveira; Priscileila C. Ferrari; Lívia Q. Carvalho; Raul C. Evangelista
The diseases of the posterior segment of the eye are responsible for most cases of irreversible blindness worldwide. These conditions stimulate the development of new modalities of treatment for vitreoretinal diseases. The success in the treatment aims, mainly, the delivery of effective doses of pharmacological agents directly to the target sites. Because of the difficulties in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye, the development of intraocular delivery systems that allow the delivery of therapeutic concentrations of drugs for long periods are being studied. These systems offer many advantages, such as increase in drug bioavailability, obtaining constant and sustained drug release, to achievement of elevated local concentrations of drugs without systemic side effects, targeting one specific tissue or cell type, reducing the frequency of intraocular injections. These advantages can increase the comfort of the patient and reduce the complications observed with intraocular injections. Several drug delivery systems are being developed with the above described purposes. These systems may be prepared with biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymers or they may be lipid formulations. The drug delivery systems are represented, mainly, by micro- e nanoparticles and implants, composed of different polymers; by liposomes, which are made of lipids and surfactants; and by iontophoresis, that is based on the application of an electric current. In this review, the main characteristics of the different drug delivery systems will be shown, with their potentialities of clinical application. PMID:17505743
Fialho, Sílvia Ligório; Cunha Júnior, Armando da Silva
Recently, increasing attention has been paid to beads, an innovative self-assembled drug delivery system prepared from cyclodextrins and oils. Beads are new core-shell minispheres containing poorly water-soluble drugs or lipophilic drugs dissolved in the lipid core without the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Therefore, beads with high drug loading and improved oral bioavailability have great potential for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs and lipophilic drugs. The preparation mechanisms, formulations and methods, the in vitro and in vivo properties of beads were reviewed in order to provide the theoretical basis for further application of beads. PMID:23460961
Liu, Chuan; Yi, Tao
In this study, two cholesterol derivatives, (4-cholesterocarbonyl-4'-(N,N,N-triethylamine butyloxyl bromide) azobenzene (CAB) and 4-cholesterocarbonyl-4'-(N,N-diethylamine butyloxyl) azobenzene (ACB), one of which is positively charged while the other is neutral, were synthesized and incorporated with phospholipids and cholesterol to form doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded liposomes. PEGylation was achieved by including 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatiylethanol-amine-N-[methoxy-(polyethylene glycol)-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000). Our results showed that PEGylated liposomes displayed significantly improved stability and the drug leakage was decreased compared to the non-PEGylated ones in vitro. The in vivo study with rats also revealed that the pharmacokinetics and circulation half-life of DOX were significantly improved when liposomes were PEGylated (p < 0.05). In particular, the neutral cholesterol derivative ACB played some role in improving liposomes' stability in systemic circulation compared to the conventional PC liposome and the positively charged CAB liposome, with or without PEGylation. In addition, in the case of local drug delivery, the positively charged PEG-liposome not only delivered much more of the drug into the rats' retinas (p < 0.001), but also maintained much longer drug retention time compared to the neutral PEGylated liposomes. PMID:24960297
Geng, Shengyong; Yang, Bin; Wang, Guowu; Qin, Geng; Wada, Satoshi; Wang, Jin-Ye
Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery device testing. Although the current status of the technology presents some major challenges to pharmaceutical research using MRI, it has a lot of potential. In the past decade, MRI has been used to examine ocular drug delivery via the subconjunctival route, intravitreal injection, intrascleral injection to the suprachoroidal space, episcleral and intravitreal implants, periocular injections, and ocular iontophoresis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of MRI in the study of ocular drug delivery are discussed. Different MR contrast agents and MRI techniques for ocular drug-delivery research are compared. Ocular drug-delivery studies using MRI are reviewed.
Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee
INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs.
Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.
Drug delivery, i.e. the way a pharmacologically active substance is delivered to the body, has a significant impact on the\\u000a therapeutic value of medication. The paper gives an overview on different drug delivery schemes and describes the limitations\\u000a of the oral route, which is the current gold standard in the market. Following these limitations, plenty of alternative (parenteral)\\u000a drug delivery
S. Haeberle; D. Hradetzky; A. Schumacher; M. Vosseler; S. Messner; R. Zengerle
Nasal drug delivery is an attractive approach for the systemic delivery of high potency drugs with a low oral bioavailability due to extensive gastrointestinal breakdown and high hepatic first-pass effect. For lipophilic drugs nasal delivery is possible if they can be dissolved in the dosage form. Peptide and protein drugs often have a low nasal bioavailability because of their large size and hydrophilicity, resulting in poor transport properties across the nasal mucosa. Cyclodextrins are used to improve the nasal absorption of these drugs by increasing their aqueous solubility and/or by enhancing their nasal absorption. With several cyclodextrins very efficient nasal drug absorption has been reported, but also large interspecies differences have been found. Studies concerning the safety of cyclodextrins in nasal drug formulations demonstrate the non-toxicity of the cyclodextrins and also clinical data show no adverse effects. Therefore, some cyclodextrins can be expected to become effective and safe excipients in nasal drug delivery. PMID:10837708
Merkus; Verhoef; Marttin; Romeijn; van der Kuy PH; Hermens; Schipper
Narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone (NTX) have shown some efficiency in the treatment of both opiate addiction and alcohol dependence. A few review articles have focused on clinical findings and pharmacogenetics of NTX, advantages and limitations of sustained release systems as well as pharmacological studies of NTX depot formulations for the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependency. To date, three NTX implant systems have been developed and tested in humans. In this review, we summarize the latest clinical data on commercially available injectable and implantable NTX-sustained release systems and discuss their safety and tolerability aspects. Emphasis is also laid on recent developments in the area of nanodrug delivery such as NTX-loaded micelles and nanogels as well as related research avenues. Due to their ability to increase the therapeutic index and to improve the selectivity of drugs (targeted delivery), nanodrug delivery systems are considered as promising sustainable drug carriers for NTX in addressing opiate and alcohol dependence. PMID:24704710
Goonoo, Nowsheen; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Ujoodha, Reetesh; Jhugroo, Anil; Hulse, Gary K; Jhurry, Dhanjay
A magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) has been studied to navigate and\\/or accumulate the magnetic seeded drug at a local diseased part in the human body. The bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) are employed to control the drug because they would produce the required magnetic fields for MDDS. The trajectory of the ferromagnetic particles in the blood vessel was calculated
Shigehiro Nishijima; Shin-Ichi Takeda; Fumihito Mishima; Yasuhiko Tabata; Masaya Yamamoto; Jun-Ichiro Joh; Hiroshi Iseki; Yoshihiro Muragaki; Akira Sasaki; Kubota Jun; Norihide Saho
Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380
Chavda, Hitesh; Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan
Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery.
Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan
Poor efficacy and off-target systemic toxicity are major problems associated with current chemotherapeutic approaches to treat cancer. We developed a new form of polyvalent therapeutics that is composed of multiple aptamer units synthesized by rolling circle amplification and physically intercalated chemotherapy agents (termed as "Poly-Aptamer-Drug"). Using a leukemia cell-binding aptamer and doxorubicin as a model system, we have successfully constructed Poly-Aptamer-Drug systems and demonstrated that the Poly-Aptamer-Drug is significantly more effective than its monovalent counterpart in targeting and killing leukemia cells due to enhanced binding affinity (? 40 fold greater) and cell internalization via multivalent effects. We anticipate that our Poly-Aptamer-Drug approach will yield new classes of tunable therapeutics that can be utilized to effectively target and treat cancers while minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy. PMID:24044994
Zhang, Zhiqing; Ali, M Monsur; Eckert, Mark A; Kang, Dong-Ku; Chen, Yih Yang; Sender, Leonard S; Fruman, David A; Zhao, Weian
Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions. PMID:23323784
Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P
Drug delivery systems incorporated onto the end of cardiac leads are used to reduce inflammation and fibrosis at the lead-tissue interface and enable optimal lead performance. In this research, confocal Raman microscopy was used to capture chemical images of the drug delivery system on pacemaker leads in different elution media in real-time. Raman images in ambient air showed that drug was dispersed in the polymer matrix as discrete particles with size ranging from 1 to 3 microm. Upon immersion into an aggressive elution medium, drug near the surface dissolved immediately and solvent started to penetrate into the polymer matrix through channels from which drug was eluted. The drug depletion depth was a function of time, which was consistent with the drug release profiles obtained by HPLC. Comparing the drug elution in aggressive solvent and biorelevant solvent, a mechanism of drug release is proposed. PMID:19963921
Dong, Jinping; Polkinghorne, Jeannette; Heil, Ronald; Kemp, Ruth
Hydrophobicity has been an obstacle that hinders the use of many anticancer drugs. A critical challenge for cancer therapy concerns the limited availability of effective biocompatible delivery systems for most hydrophobic therapeutic anticancer drugs. In this study, we have developed a targeted near-infrared (NIR)-regulated hydrophobic drug-delivery platform based on gold nanorods incorporated within a mesoporous silica framework (AuMPs). Upon application of NIR light, the photothermal effect of the gold nanorods leads to a rapid rise in the local temperature, thus resulting in the release of the entrapped drug molecules. By integrating chemotherapy and photothermotherapy into one system, we have studied the therapeutic effects of camptothecin-loaded AuMP-polyethylene glycol-folic acid nanocarrier. Results revealed a synergistic effect in vitro and in vivo, which would make it possible to enhance the therapeutic effect of hydrophobic drugs and decrease drug side effects. Studies have shown the feasibility of using this nanocarrier as a targeted and noninvasive remote-controlled hydrophobic drug-delivery system with high spatial/temperal resolution. Owing to these advantages, we envision that this NIR-controlled, targeted drug-delivery method would promote the development of high-performance hydrophobic anticancer drug-delivery system in future clinical applications. PMID:23765904
Yang, Xinjian; Liu, Zhen; Li, Zhenhua; Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
With the extensive progress in nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, pharmacokinetic evaluations have gained much attention from researchers as a central part of the study of these systems. Because the fulfillment of any therapeutic goal(s) by a novel drug delivery system requires that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) be considered from the early stages of the system design to the final clinical evaluations, extensive knowledge of the pharmacokinetic aspects related to ADME is a crucial part of research in this field. The main objectives of the nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems from a pharmacokinetic viewpoint are (1) an improved drug-release profile in vivo, (2) enhanced drug absorption, (3) site-directed drug distribution, (4) a modified drug metabolism pattern, (5) prolonged drug residence time in body (e.g., in blood circulation), and (6) delayed and/or decreased renal excretion of the drug. Accordingly, the purpose of the current review is to present an insightful summary of pharmacokinetic analyses of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems along with a critical review of recent findings. PMID:24099328
Hamidi, Mehrdad; Azadi, Amir; Rafiei, Pedram; Ashrafi, Hajar
Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of macromolecules. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. However, these experiments are time-consuming and their reliability is often poor. In this study, gels were prepared by step-growth polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and loaded with fluoresceine isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled dextrans. Mechanical testing and swelling studies allowed prediction of the expected FITC-dextran diffusivity. The translational diffusion coefficients (D) of the incorporated FITC-dextrans were measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy. Because the determined values of D agreed well with those obtained from release studies, mechanical testing, FRAP, and pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy are proposed as alternatives to release experiments. The applied methods complemented each other and represented the relative differences between the tested samples correctly. Measuring D can therefore be used to rapidly evaluate the potential of newly developed drug delivery systems. PMID:19887092
Brandl, Ferdinand; Kastner, Fritz; Gschwind, Ruth M; Blunk, Torsten; Tessmar, Jörg; Göpferich, Achim
The field of DNA nanotechnology has progressed rapidly in recent years and hence a large variety of 1D-, 2D- and 3D DNA nanostructures with various sizes, geometries and shapes is readily accessible. DNA-based nanoobjects are fabricated by straight forward design and self-assembly processes allowing the exact positioning of functional moieties and the integration of other materials. At the same time some of these nanosystems are characterized by a low toxicity profile. As a consequence, the use of these architectures in a biomedical context has been explored. In this review the progress and possibilities of pristine nucleic acid nanostructures and DNA hybrid materials for drug delivery will be discussed. For the latter class of structures, a distinction is made between carriers with an inorganic core composed of gold or silica and amphiphilic DNA block copolymers that exhibit a soft hydrophobic interior. PMID:23742878
de Vries, Jan Willem; Zhang, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas
Photomechanical waves (PW) are generated by Q-switched or mode-locked lasers. Ablation is a reliable method for generating PWs with consistent characteristics. Depending on the laser wavelength and target material, PWs with different parameters can be generated which allows the investigation of PWs with cells and tissue. PWs have been shown to permeabilize the stratum corneum (SC) in vivo and facilitate the transport of drugs into the skin. Once a drug has diffused into the dermis it can enter the vasculature, thus producing a systemic effect. Fluorescence microscopy of biopsies show that 40-kDa molecules can be delivered to a depth of > 300 micrometers into the viable skin of rats. Many important drugs such as insulin, and erythropoietin are smaller or comparable in size, making the PWs attractive for transdermal drug delivery. There are three possible pathways through the SC: Transappendageal via hair follicles or other appendages, transcellular through the corneocytes, and intercellular via the extracellular matrix. The intracellular route appears to be the most likely pathway of drug delivery through the SC.
Doukas, Apostolos G.; Lee, Shun
Advances in biopharmaceutical technology have spawned new drug delivery devices and mechanisms. Noninvasive methods, including\\u000a iontophoresis and transmucosal drug delivery, have improved treatment of certain patient population. Their use is discussed\\u000a in the following paper.
Ruth Zimmer; Michael A. Ashburn
Conventional forms of drug administration generally rely on pills, eye drops, ointments, and intravenous solutions. Recently, a number of novel drug delivery approaches have been developed. These approaches include drug modification by chemical means, drug entrapment in small vesicles that are injected into the bloodstream, and drug entrapment within pumps or polymeric materials that are placed in desired bodily compartments (for example, the eye or beneath the skin). These techniques have already led to delivery systems that improve human health, and continued research may revolutionize the way many drugs are delivered.
Liposomes had been widely used for drug delivery in the past. In this study, five different liposomes were used as a follicular delivery system in pig ear skin. The liposomes mainly differed in their sphere diameter, lipid composition, and surface charge. A novel class of liposomes being amphoteric in their charge behavior are compared to established anionic and cationic liposomes.
Sascha Jung; Nina Otberg; Gisela Thiede; Heike Richter; Wolfram Sterry; Steffen Panzner; Jürgen Lademann
A mathematical simulation is presented which describes the in vitro drug delivery kinetics from hydrophilic adhesive water-soluble poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrices of transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) across skin-imitating hydrophobic Carbosil membranes. Propranolol is employed as the test drug. The contributions of the following physicochemical determinants to drug delivery rate control have been estimated: the drug diffusion coefficients both in the matrix and the membrane; the membrane-matrix drug partition coefficient: the drug concentration in the matrix and the membrane thickness. Drug transfer from the hydrophilic matrix across the membrane is shown to be controlled by the drug partitioning from the matrix into the membrane. The best correlation between simulation data and experimental results is obtained when the effect of membrane hydration is taken into consideration during in vitro drug release. PMID:10799821
Iordanskii, A L; Feldstein, M M; Markin, V S; Hadgraft, J; Plate, N A
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.
Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed. PMID:22247889
Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas
The highly organized structure of the stratum corneum provides an effective barrier to the drug delivery into or across the skin. To overcome this barrier function, penetration enhancers are always used in the transdermal and dermal drug delivery systems. However, the conventional chemical enhancers are often limited by their inability to delivery large and hydrophilic molecules, and few to date have been routinely incorporated into the transdermal formulations due to their incompatibility and local irritation issues. Therefore, there has been a search for the compounds that exhibit broad enhancing activity for more drugs without producing much irritation. More recently, the use of biomaterials has emerged as a novel method to increase the skin permeability. In this paper, we present an overview of the investigations on the feasibility and application of biomaterials as penetration enhancers for transdermal or dermal drug delivery systems. PMID:23763451
Chen, Yang; Wang, Manli; Fang, Liang
Bone formation and regeneration is a prolonged process that requires a slow drug release system to assist in the long-term recovery. A drug-delivery system is developed that allows for the controlled release of simvastin, without exhibiting the side effects associated with high concentrations of simvastatin, and is still capable of inducing constant bone formation. PMID:23184712
Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce
The drug delivery system (DDS) is attractive as a therapeutic method. Liposomes are of particular interest as a DDS because they can reduce drug toxicity, and offer promise as gene carriers. An evolution has occurred in the construction of liposomes in the effort to develop efficient vectors for in vivo use. To avoid uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES); Lipid
The purpose of this research work was to explore an application of uncoated porous drug carrier prepared by single-step drug\\u000a adsorption for a delivery system based on integration of floating and pulsatile principles intended for chronotherapy. This\\u000a objective was achieved by utilizing 32 factorial design, solvent volume (X\\u000a 1) and drug amount (X\\u000a 2) as selected variables, for drug adsorption
Praveen Sher; Ganesh Ingavle; Surendra Ponrathnam; Pankaj Poddar; Atmaram P. Pawar
This work presents manufacturing and testing of a closed-loop drug delivery system where drug release is achieved by an electrochemical actuation of an array of polymeric valves on a set of drug reservoirs. The valves are based on bi-layer structures made of polypyrrole\\/gold in the shape of a flap that is hinged on one side of a valve seat. Drugs
Han Xu; Chunlei Wang; Lawrence Kulinsky; Jim Zoval; Marc Madou
Current controlled release formulations has many drawbacks such as excess of initial burst release, low drug efficiency, non-degradability of the system and low reproducibility. The present project aims to offer an alternative by developing a technique to prepare uniform, biodegradable particles ( ˜19 mum ) that can sustainably release a drug for a specific period of time. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has many characteristics to be used for biomedical applications. In the last two decades, there have been a considerable number of studies affirming that chitosan could be used for pharmaceutical applications. However, chitosan suffers from inherent weaknesses such as low mechanical stability and dissolution of the system in acidic media. In the present study, chitosan microparticles were prepared by emulsification process. The model drug chosen was acetylsalicylic acid as it is a small and challenging molecule. The maximum loading capacity obtained for the microparticles was approximately 96%. The parameters for the preparation of uniform particles with a narrow size distribution were identified in a triangular phase diagram. Moreover, chitosan particles were successfully coated with thin layers of poly lactic-coglycolic acid (PLGA) and poly lactic acid (PLA). The performance of different layerswas tested for in vitro drug release and degradation studies. Additionally, the degradability of the system was evaluated by measuring the weight loss of the system when exposed to enzyme and without enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to characterize the controlled release system. Additionally, the in vitro drug release was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from this project showed that it is possible to prepare biodegradable microparticles with a uniform size distribution and high drug loading efficiency. However, this could only be achieved with a hybrid system consisting of chitosan matrix interior and then exterior coating of PLGA or PLA. A two layer coating of PLGA 50:50 was shown to be optimal with sustainable controlled drug release for almost 5 days and with 91% of degradation (weight loss) in 8 weeks.
Rodriguez, Lidia Betsabe
Osteoarthritis (OA), a common musculoskeletal disorder, is projected to affect about 60 million people of total world population by 2020. The associated pain and disability impair the quality of life and also pose economic burden to the patient. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely prescribed in OA, while diclofenac is the most prescribed one. Oral NSAIDs are not very patient friendly, as they cause various gastrointestinal adverse effects like bleeding, ulceration, and perforation. To enhance the tolerability of diclofenac and decrease the common side effects, aceclofenac (ACE) was developed by its chemical modification. As expected, ACE is more well-tolerated than diclofenac and possesses superior efficacy but is not completely devoid of the NSAID-tagged side effects. A series of chemical modifications of already planned drug is unjustified as it consumes quanta of time, efforts, and money, and this approach will also pose stringent regulatory challenges. Therefore, it is justified to deliver ACE employing tools of drug delivery and nanotechnology to refine its safety profile. The present review highlights the constraints related to the topical delivery of ACE and the various attempts made so far for the safe and effective topical delivery employing the novel materials and methods.
Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Pramod; Malik, Ruchi; Sharma, Gajanand; Kaur, Manmeet; Katare, O. P.
The use of the nasal route for the delivery of challenging drugs has created much interest in recent years in the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, drug delivery companies are actively pursuing the development of novel nasal drug-delivery systems and the exploitation of these for administration of conventional generic drugs and peptides, both in-house and with partners in the pharmaceutical industry. This
Lab-on-a-chip technology is an emerging field evolving from the recent advances of micro- and nanotechnologies. The technology allows the integration of various components into a single microdevice. Microfluidics, the science and engineering of fluid flow in microscale, is the enabling underlying concept for lab-on-a-chip technology. The present paper reviews the design, fabrication and characterization of drug delivery systems based on this amazing technology. The systems are categorized and discussed according to the scales at which the drug is administered. Starting with the fundamentals on scaling laws of mass transfer and basic fabrication techniques, the paper reviews and discusses drug delivery devices for cellular, tissue and organism levels. At the cellular level, a concentration gradient generator integrated with a cell culture platform is the main drug delivery scheme of interest. At the tissue level, the synthesis of smart particles as drug carriers using lab-on-a-chip technology is the main focus of recent developments. At the organism level, microneedles and implantable devices with fluid-handling components are the main drug delivery systems. For drug delivery to a small organism that can fit into a microchip, devices similar to those of cellular level can be used. PMID:23726943
Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Kashaninejad, Navid; Phan, Dinh-Tuan
Background: Raloxifene, a second-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is administered orally in the form of a tablet. The absolute bioavailability of the drug is only 2% because of extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Lipid-based formulations are reported to reduce the first-pass metabolism by promoting its lymphatic uptake. Materials and Methods: In the present investigation, microemulsion and Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) formulations of Raloxifene were prepared. The prepared formulations were characterized for drug loading, size, transparency, zeta potential, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and in vitro intestinal permeability. Results: The results indicated that high drug loading, optimum size and desired zeta potential and transparency could be achieved with both SMEDDS and microemulsion. The TEM studies indicated the absence of aggregation with both the systems. The in vitro intestinal permeability results showed that the permeation of the drug from the microemulsion and SMEDDs was significantly higher than that obtained from the drug dispersion and marketed formulation. Conclusion: Lipid based formulations such as microemulsion and Self Microemulsifying drug delivery systems are expected to increase the oral bioavailability as evidenced by the increased intestinal permeation.
Thakkar, Hetal; Nangesh, Jitesh; Parmar, Mayur; Patel, Divyakant
The magnetic force control of the drug motion in the body has been studied in the current work. The calculation was made to study the possibility of the magnetic force control of the drag motion from outside of the body. The condition which enables the magnetic force control was clarified. The magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) was demonstrated to be
Shigehiro Nishijima; Fumihito Mishima; Yasuhiko Tabata; Hiroshi Iseki; Yoshihiro Muragaki; Akira Sasaki; Norihide Saho
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a pulsatile drug delivery system based on drug-containing hard gelatin capsules, which were coated with a swelling layer and an outer insoluble, water-permeable polymeric coating. An inner pressure developed by the swelling layer resulted in the rupture of the outer coating. Preliminary studies with a simulated rupture test demonstrated the
T. Bussemer; A. Dashevsky; R. Bodmeier
Development and optimization of novel production techniques for drug delivery systems are fundamental steps in the “from the bench to the bedside” process which is the base of translational medicine. In particular, in the current scenery where the need for reducing energy consumption, emissions, wastes and risks drives the development of sustainable processes, new pharmaceutical manufacturing does not constitute an exception. In this paper, concepts of process intensification are presented and their transposition in drug delivery systems production is discussed. Moreover, some examples on intensified techniques, for drug microencapsulation and granules drying, are reported.
Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo
Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of these drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive pre-systemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Over the last few decades pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal routes as an alternative to injections. Historically, oral transmucosal drug delivery has received intensive interest since ancient times for the most widely utilized route of administration for the systemic delivery of drugs. In more recent years, better systemic bioavailability of many drugs has been achieved by oromucosal route. Among the various transmucosal sites available, soft-palatal mucosa was also found to be the most convenient and easily accessible novel site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has abundant vascularization and rapid cellular recovery time after exposure to stress. Smooth surface of the soft palate and its good flexibility are prerequisites to prevent mechanical irritation and local discomfort. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the most promising advances in novel non-invasive soft-palatal route and the conceptual and technical approaches to the design and formulation of soft-palatal drug delivery systems. In this area, the development of mucoadhesive delivery systems appears to be the most promising strategy. PMID:21059376
Shakya, Pragati; Madhav, N V Satheesh; Shakya, Ashok K; Singh, Kuldeep
The development of the vectorized delivery systems combining advantages of the colloidal carriers, with active targeting to the receptors sites suggests that nanoparticles have a considerable potential for treatment after biophase internalization and pharmacokinetics, as for example gene therapy. Two major mechanisms can be distinguished for addressing the desired sites for drug release: (i) passive and (ii) active targeting. Examples of passive targeting were presented: organ targeting by the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect; targeting the mononuclear phagocitic system; organ targeting by chemoembolization or local (organ) administration;sterical stabilization of nanoparticles (PEGylation). A strategy that could allow active targeting involves the surface functionalization of drug carriers with ligands that are selectively recognized by receptors on the surface of the cells of interest. The source for biophase bioavailability can be the systemic bioavailability following common routes of administration (generally for systemic delivery of medicines), or directly the site specific biophase bioavailability for the formulations capable of cellular or nuclear drug internalization where the drug release only will take place (for nanoparticulate drug delivery systems, DDS). Once the pharmaceutical nanosystem was internalized, begins the release of the active moiety by different mechanisms, as for example the escape from endosome, or biodegradation of the polymer carrier or liberation of the active peptide or gene from a biological construct in the nucleus, etc. The presentation will discusses the pharmacokinetics of drugs after systemic administration but especially the biophase bioavailability and pharmacokinetics after the administration of biotechnology origin of therapeutic proteins like monoclonal antibodies, gene transfer products, plasmid DNAs, nucleotides, antisense oligonucleotides (AODNs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNA). PMID:23116084
Leucuta, Sorin Emilian
Background Local drug delivery has substantial potential to prevent infections compared with systemic delivery. Although calcium sulfate\\u000a (CaSO4) has been studied for local drug delivery and two types are commercially available, it is unknown whether they differentially\\u000a release antibiotics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes We determined the differences between two sources of CaSO4 and the K2SO4 catalyst’s presence on the degradation, daptomycin elution, and activity against
Ashley C. Parker; J. Keaton Smith; Harry S. Courtney; Warren O. Haggard
Oral administration is the most commonly used and readily accepted form of drug delivery; however, it is find that many drugs are difficult to attain enough bioavailability when administered via this route. Polymeric micelles (PMs) can overcome some limitations of the oral delivery acting as carriers able to enhance drug absorption, by providing (1) protection of the loaded drug from the harsh environment of the GI tract, (2) release of the drug in a controlled manner at target sites, (3) prolongation of the residence time in the gut by mucoadhesion, and (4) inhibition of efflux pumps to improve the drug accumulation. To explain the mechanisms for enhancement of oral bioavailability, we discussed the special stability of PMs, the controlled release properties of pH-sensitive PMs, the prolongation of residence time with mucoadhesive PMs, and the P-gp inhibitors commonly used in PMs, respectively. The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential of PMs for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs with bioavailability being well maintained.
Ling, Peixue; Zhang, Tianmin
When micro-reservoir-type drug delivery systems are fabricated, loading solid drugs in drug reservoirs at microscale is often a non-trivial task. This paper presents a simple and effective solution to load a small amount of drug solution at microscale using 'wet' microcontact printing (µCP). In this wet µCP, a liquid solution containing drug molecules (methylene blue and tetracycline HCl) dissolved in a carrier solvent was transferred to a target surface (drug reservoir) by contact printing process. In particular, we have investigated the dependence of the quantity and morphology of transferred drug molecules on the stamp size, concentration, printing times, solvent types and surfactant concentration. It was also found that the repetition of printing using a non-volatile solvent such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a drug carrier material actually increased the transferred amount of drug molecules in proportion to the printing times based on asymmetric liquid bridge formation. Utilizing this wet µCP, drug delivery devices containing different quantity of drugs in micro-reservoirs were fabricated and their performance as controlled drug delivery devices was demonstrated. PMID:23624468
Lee, Hong-Pyo; Ryu, WonHyoung
The delivery of drugs and bioactive compounds via the lymphatic system is complex and dependent on the physiological uniqueness of the system. The lymphatic route plays an important role in transporting extracellular fluid to maintain homeostasis and in transferring immune cells to injury sites, and is able to avoid first-pass metabolism, thus acting as a bypass route for compounds with lower bioavailability, ie, those undergoing more hepatic metabolism. The lymphatic route also provides an option for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, such as drugs to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus, which can travel through the lymphatic system. Lymphatic imaging is useful in evaluating disease states and treatment plans for progressive diseases of the lymph system. Novel lipid-based nanoformulations, such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have unique characteristics that make them promising candidates for lymphatic delivery. These formulations are superior to colloidal carrier systems because they have controlled release properties and provide better chemical stability for drug molecules. However, multiple factors regulate the lymphatic delivery of drugs. Prior to lymphatic uptake, lipid-based nanoformulations are required to undergo interstitial hindrance that modulates drug delivery. Therefore, uptake and distribution of lipid-based nanoformulations by the lymphatic system depends on factors such as particle size, surface charge, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity. Types of lipid and concentration of the emulsifier are also important factors affecting drug delivery via the lymphatic system. All of these factors can cause changes in intermolecular interactions between the lipid nanoparticle matrix and the incorporated drug, which in turn affects uptake of drug into the lymphatic system. Two lipid-based nanoformulations, ie, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have been administered via multiple routes (subcutaneous, pulmonary, and intestinal) for targeting of the lymphatic system. This paper provides a detailed review of novel lipid-based nanoformulations and their lymphatic delivery via different routes, as well as the in vivo and in vitro models used to study drug transport in the lymphatic system. Physicochemical properties that influence lymphatic delivery as well as the advantages of lipid-based nanoformulations for lymphatic delivery are also discussed.
Khan, Arshad Ali; Mudassir, Jahanzeb; Mohtar, Noratiqah; Darwis, Yusrida
Effective dermatologic therapy depends on both the active drug and the properties of the delivery system. A topical delivery system, or vehicle, is defined as the substance that carries a specific drug into contact with and through the skin. The challenge to topical drug delivery is the transport across the skin barrier. Depending on the delivery system, penetration of the active drug can be quite variable and this is largely due to the physiochemical properties of the constituent components of that vehicle. Selection of the appropriate drug delivery system will depend on the active, anatomic site of disease and patient preferences. PMID:22353153
Weiss, Stefan C
Propranolol, a beta-adrenoceptor blocker, suffers from a high degree of first-pass metabolism resulting in very low bioavailability (< 10%) following administration with conventional oral formulations. To circumvent this significant therapeutic hurdle, we formulated a carboxymethylcellulose-sodium (CMC-Na) based transdermal system for propranolol and evaluated the patch for its in-vitro and in-vivo performance. In-vitro permeation studies using the excised hair-free rat skin model resulted in 66.54% permeation at the end of 24 h in a modified Franz diffusion cell. This zero-order permeation profile was characterized by a drug permeation rate of 52.87 +/- 11.63 micrograms cm-2 h-1. Skin irritation studies in rats (n = 5), evaluated for flare-and-wheal with respect to a formalin control, indicated that the drug-containing patch evoked only a mild response over a 7-day period. Preliminary in-vivo studies in male albino rabbits (n = 3), indicated that plasma drug levels averaged 11.75 +/- 3.40 ng mL-1 in a 24-h study period before patch removal. PMID:8794984
Krishna, R; Pandit, J K
A wireless power transfer and communication system based on near-field inductive coupling has been designed and implemented. The feasibility of using such a system to remotely control drug release from an implantable drug delivery system is addressed. The architecture of the wireless system is described and the signal attenuation over distance in both water and phosphate buffered saline is studied. Additionally, the health risk due to exposure to radio frequency (RF) radiation is examined using a biological model. The experimental results demonstrate that the system can trigger the release of drug within 5 s, and that such short exposure to RF radiation does not produce any significant (
Tang, T B; Smith, S; Flynn, B W; Stevenson, J T M; Gundlach, A M; Reekie, H M; Murray, A F; Renshaw, D; Dhillon, B; Ohtori, A; Inoue, Y; Terry, J G; Walton, A J
Novel methods for drug delivery may be based on nanotechnology using non-invasive magnetic guidance of drug loaded magnetic carriers to the targeted site and thereafter released by external ultrasound energy. The key building block of this system is to successfully synthesize biodegradable, magnetic drug carriers. Magnetic carriers using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) as matrix materials were loaded
Y. Xie; M. D. Kaminski; C. J. Mertz; M. R. Finck; S. G. Guy; H. Chen; A. J. Rosengart
The present work was aimed at designing microsponge based colon specific drug delivery system containing paracetamol. Eudragit\\u000a S-100 based microsponges containing drug in varying amounts were prepared using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. The\\u000a microsponges were prepared by optimizing various process parameters. DSC and FTIR studies indicated compatibility of the drug\\u000a in various formulations. Shape and surface morphology of the microsponges
Vikas Jain; Ranjit Singh
Three types of surfactant-templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Surf@MSNs) of 150–660nm in diameter were developed as anticancer drug delivery systems. The Surf@MSNs exhibit the high drug (surfactant) loading capacities, the sustained drug (surfactant) release profiles and the high and long-term anticancer efficacy. The effects of the Surf@MSNs concentration, the type of the contained surfactants and the incubation time on the cytotoxicity
Qianjun He; Jianlin Shi; Feng Chen; Min Zhu; Lingxia Zhang
This study aims to formulate and evaluate bioavailability of a self-nanoemulsified drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of a poorly\\u000a water-soluble herbal active component oleanolic acid (OA) for oral delivery. Solubility of OA under different systems was\\u000a determined for excipient selection purpose. Four formulations, where OA was fixed at the concentration of 20 mg\\/g, were prepared\\u000a utilizing Sefsol 218 as oil phase, Cremophor
Jia Xi; Qi Chang; Chak K. Chan; Zhao Yu Meng; Geng Nan Wang; Jia Bei Sun; Yi Tao Wang; Henry H. Y. Tong; Ying Zheng
Cellulose esters have played a vital role in the development of modern drug delivery technology. They possess properties that\\u000a are not only well-suited to the needs of pharmaceutical applications, but that enable construction of drug delivery systems\\u000a that address critical patient needs. These properties include very low toxicity, endogenous and\\/or dietary decomposition products,\\u000a stability, high water permeability, high T\\u000a g,
Kevin J. Edgar
This update review is on mucoadhesive polymers used in nasal dosage forms. The nasal mucosa provides a potentially good route for systemic drug delivery. One of the most important features of the nasal route is that it avoids first-pass hepatic metabolism, thereby reducing metabolism. The application of mucoadhesive polymers in nasal drug delivery systems has gained to promote dosage form residence time in the nasal cavity as well as improving intimacy of contact with absorptive membranes of the biological system. The various new technology uses in development of nasal drug delivery dosage forms are discussed. The various dosage forms are vesicular carriers (liposome, noisome), nanostructured particles, prodrugs, in situ gelling system with special attention to in vivo studies.
Chaturvedi, Mayank; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla
A diverse range of drug delivery vehicles have been developed to specifically target chemotherapeutics to solid tumours while avoiding systemic dose-limiting toxicity. Many of these active targeting strategies display limited efficacy because they rely on subtle differences in expression patterns between pathogenic tissue and healthy tissue. In contrast, drug delivery systems that exploit thermoresponsive behaviour allow a clinician to spatially and temporally control the accumulation and/or release of the toxic agents within tumour tissue by simply applying mild hyperthermia (defined as 39-43?°C) to the desired site. Although thermally sensitive materials comprise a significant portion of the literature on novel drug delivery systems, only a few systems have been methodically tuned to respond within this narrowly defined physiological temperature range in an in vivo environment. This review discusses the materials and strategies developed to control the primary tumour through the combined application of hyperthermia and chemotherapy. PMID:23924317
McDaniel, Jonathan R; Dewhirst, Mark W; Chilkoti, Ashutosh
The gastroretentive drug delivery system is site-specific and allows the drug to remain in the stomach for a prolonged period of time so that it can be released in a controlled manner in gastrointestinal tract. The present study was carried out to develop a gastroretentive drug delivery system using isabgol as an excipient to prolong the residence time of the model drug lisinopril in the stomach. The gastroretentive ability of isabgol was increased by addition of NaHCO3 as a gas-generating agent while its mucoadhesive property was enhanced by incorporation of HPMC-K4M. The drug, NaHCO3 and HPMC-K3M were imbibed on isabgol-husk as per entrapment efficiency of the isabgol-husk. After drying, the product was filled in a hard gelatin capsule and evaluated for its buoyancy, mucoadhesive properties, swelling index and in vitro drug release. The lisinopril released through isabgol was delayed by 12 hours when compared to a preparation available on the market which released the complete drug in 0.5 hours. The drug release study of lisinopril from the formulation follows first order kinetics using a diffusion controlled mechanism. The results from the present study revealed that isabgol can be used as a potential excipient for the formulation of gastroretentive drug delivery systems in the near future. PMID:24144200
Semwal, Ravindra; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar
We have newly synthesized osteotropic diclofenac with bisphosphonic moiety (DIC-BP) based on the concept of Osteotropic Drug Delivery System (ODDS) and investigated its potency of site-specific and controlled delivery of diclofenac to the bone in rats. After intravenous injection into rats, DIC-BP was predominantly distributed in the skeleton. DIC-BP once incorporated in the bone was gradually eliminated (t1\\/2=9.7 days), releasing
Hideki Hirabayashi; Toshiya Takahashi; Jiro Fujisaki; Taro Masunaga; Sachio Sato; Jun Hiroi; Yuji Tokunaga; Sumihisa Kimura; Takehisa Hata
The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a self--emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) formulation to improve solubility and dissolution and to enhance systemic exposure of a BCS class II anthelmetic drug, albendazole (ABZ). In the present study, solubility of ABZ was determined in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants to identify the microemulsion components. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the microemulsification existence area. SEDDS formulation of ABZ was prepared using oil (Labrafac Lipopfile WL1349) and a surfactant/co-surfactant (Tween 80/PEG 400) mixture and was characterized by appropriate studies, viz., microemulsifying properties, droplet size measurement, in vitro dissolution, etc. Finally, PK of the ABZ SEDDS formulation was performed on rats in parallel with suspension formulation. It was concluded that the SEDDS formulation approach can be used to improve the dissolution and systemic exposure of poorly water-soluble drugs such as ABZ. PMID:24000442
Meena, Ashok K; Sharma, Kuldeep; Kandaswamy, Murugesh; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh
In the present paper, the basic principles, the device and the analytical method of the hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) were summarized, which is most widely used in hydrokinetic chromatography. The application of the hydrodynamic chromatography in the determination of the particle size and size distribution of the particulate drug delivery system was also reviewed. The method can determine the particle size of nano- and micron-scale particulate drug delivery systems rapidly. And this method also has the advantages of economic, convenient and no damage to the samples. In summary, there will be a good prospect for the application of HDC in the determination of particle size distribution features of particulate drug delivery systems. PMID:21882521
Liu, Wei; Li, Hai-Yan; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Sun, Li-Xin
Drug delivery systems using a solid-in-oil (S/O) dispersion as a core technology have advanced significantly over the past ten years. A novel, effective and practical preparation method for a S/O dispersion was originally established in 1997 as a tool for enzymatic catalysis in organic media. This oil-based dispersion containing proteins in non-aqueous media had great potential for applications to other research with one of the most successful being its adaptation as a drug delivery system. The history and features of novel processes for preparing S/O dispersions are presented in this article. In addition, recent research into the use of S/O dispersions for innovative oral and skin drug delivery systems is discussed. PMID:22975308
Tahara, Yoshiro; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro
A nanohybrid, consisting of layered aluminosilicate as a host material and itraconazole as a guest molecule, was successfully synthesized through the interfacial intercalation reaction across the boundary between water and water-immiscible liquid at the various pH. According to the powder X-ray diffraction pattern, the basal spacing of the intraconazole-layered aluminosilicate nanohybrid increased from 14.7 to 22.7 A depending on the pH of the aqueous suspension. The total amounts of itraconazole in the hybrids were determined to be 2.3-25.4 wt% by HPLC analysis. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study was performed in rats in order to compare the absorptions of itraconazole for the itraconazole-layered aluminosilicate nanohybrid and a commercial product, Sporanox. The pharmacokinetic data for the nanohybrid and Sporanox showed that the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC, 2477 +/- 898 ng x hr/mL and 2630 +/- 953 ng x hr/mL, respectively) and maximum concentration (Cmax, 225.4 +/- 77.4 ng x hr/mL and 223.6 +/- 51.9 ng x hr/mL, respectively), were within the bioequivalence (BE) range. Therefore, we concluded that this drug-layered aluminosilicate nanohybrid system has a great potential for its application in formulation of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:24245252
Yang, Jae-Hun; Jung, Hyun; Kim, Su Yeon; Yo, Chul Hyun; Choy, Jin-Ho
Magnetic nanodevices based on poly[(methacrylic acid)-co-(N-isopropylacrylamide)] [P(MAA-co-NIPAAm)] are prepared and used as drug delivery systems employing daunorubicin (DNR) as a model drug. The magnetic nanocontainers exploit the pH, temperature, and magnetic response of the polymeric shell constituents and magnetic nanoparticles, respectively, for controlled pH, temperature and alternating magnetic field triggered drug release. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both DNR-loaded and empty nanocontainers is examined on MCF-7 breast cancer cells along with the intracellular distribution of DNR. The results show that the DNR-loaded nanocontainers have an anti-tumor effect comparable to the free drug. The current observations provide important information for potent drug delivery and release systems. PMID:24106236
Tziveleka, Leto-Aikaterini; Bilalis, Panayiotis; Chatzipavlidis, Alexandros; Boukos, Nikos; Kordas, George
We have already synthesized a boron-containing polymeric micellar drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesized diblock copolymer, boron-terminated copolymers (Bpin-PLA-PEOz), consisted of biodegradable poly(D,l-lactide) (PLA) block and water-soluble polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) block, and a cap of pinacol boronate ester (Bpin). In this study, we have demonstrated that synthesized Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle has great potential to be boron drug delivery system with preliminary evaluation of biocompatibility and boron content. PMID:24447933
Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsu, Ming-Hua
The mesophasic microreservoir comprises lyotrophic liquid crystals. The liquid crystals were prepared of Brij-35, cetosteryl alcohol and propranolol and evaluated for parameters viz. anisotropy, size and size distribution and drug entrapment efficiency. Subsequent to this liquid crystals based transdermal drug delivery system (TDS) was prepared by incorporating liquid crystals in previously prepared matrix based transdermal patch and evaluated for stability studies like temperature, humidity and aging. The system was also studied for tensile strength, moisture content, water vapor transmission, drug content, anisotropy and In vitro drug release studies. PMID:21394252
Omray, L K; Kohli, S; Khopade, A J; Patil, S; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Agrawal, G P
Objective: In this study efforts have been made to design a drug delivery system based on a superporous hydrogel composite, for floating and sustained delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization studies were performed by the measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy studies. The prepared formulation was evaluated for buoyant behavior, in vitro drug release, kinetics of drug release, and stability. The release profile of Ranitidine hydrochloride was investigated by changing the release retardant polymer in the formulation. To ascertain the kinetics of drug release, the drug release profiles were fitted to mathematical models that included zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models. Results: Scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicated the formation of interconnected pores and capillary channels, and cross-linked Chitosan molecules were observed around the peripheries of the pores. The prepared drug delivery system floated and delivered the Ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 hours. The in vitro drug release from the proposed system was best explained by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The values of the diffusion exponent in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model ranged between 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.02, which appeared to indicate a coupling of the diffusion and erosion mechanisms, anomalous non-Fickian transport. Conclusion: It was concluded that the proposed floating drug delivery system, based on the superporous hydrogel composite containing Chitosan as a composite material, is promising for stomach-specific delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride.
Chavda, Hitesh; Patel, Chhaganbhai
One of the big challenges of medicine today is to deliver drugs specifically to defected cells. Nanoparticulate drug carriers have the potential to answer to this call, as nanoparticles can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, and also be provided in a targetable form aimed at enhancing cell specificity of the carrier. Recent developments within material science and strong collaborative efforts crossing disciplinary borders have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for such targeted drug delivery. Here we outline recent advances which in this sense push MSNs to the forefront of drug delivery development. Relatively straightforward inside-out tuning of the vehicles, high flexibility, and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for targeted drug delivery such as `smart' cancer therapies. Moreover, due to the large surface area and the controllable surface functionality of MSNs, they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting, simultaneously carrying traceable (fluorescent or magnetically active) modalities, also making them highly interesting as theragnostic agents. However, the increased relative surface area and small size, and flexible surface functionalization which is beneficially exploited in nanomedicine, consequently also includes potential risks in their interactions with biological systems. Therefore, we also discuss some safety issues regarding MSNs and highlight how different features of the drug delivery platform influence their behaviour in a biological setting. Addressing these burning questions will facilitate the application of MSNs in nanomedicine.
Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Lindén, Mika
The main purpose of this study was to prepare lipid-based self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to improve peroral bioavailability of silymarin. SMEDDS was a system consisting of silymarin, Tween 80, ethyl alcohol, and ethyl linoleate. Particle size change of the microemulsion was evaluated upon dilution with aqueous media and loading with incremental amount of silymarin. In vitro release was investigated
Wei Wu; Yang Wang; Li Que
Particle Replication in Non-Wetting Templates (PRINT®) is a platform particle drug delivery technology that coopts the precision and nanoscale spatial resolution inherently afforded by lithographic techniques derived from the microelectronics industry to produce precisely engineered particles. We describe the utility of PRINT technology as a strategy for formulation and delivery of small molecule and biologic therapeutics, highlighting previous studies where particle size, shape, and chemistry have been used to enhance systemic particle distribution properties. In addition, we introduce the application of PRINT technology towards respiratory drug delivery, a particular interest due to the pharmaceutical need for increased control over dry powder characteristics to improve drug delivery and therapeutic indices. To this end, we have produced dry powder particles with micro- and nanoscale geometric features and composed of small molecule and protein therapeutics. Aerosols generated from these particles show attractive properties for efficient pulmonary delivery and differential respiratory deposition characteristics based on particle geometry. This work highlights the advantages of adopting proven microfabrication techniques in achieving unprecedented control over particle geometric design for drug delivery.
Garcia, Andres; Mack, Peter; Williams, Stuart; Fromen, Catherine; Shen, Tammy; Tully, Janet; Pillai, Jonathan; Kuehl, Philip; Napier, Mary; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Maynor, Benjamin W.
The present work aims at computational analysis of environmentally responsive hydrogels with enormous prospective in the formulation aspect of drug delivery systems. The drug delivery potential of hydrogels to the targets is owing to the specific stimuli responsive nature of the hydrogels. The environmental factors looked upon in the study are changes in pH, alteration of temperature and glucose concentration rise originated in the body as a result of various disease conditions. Polymers, synthetic polypeptides and dendrimers have been used in the present work to study the feasibility of drug delivery. The computational methods have been used to formulate polymer properties, pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies. Diverse interactions approximating electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions acquire place during incorporation of drugs within the polymer and dendrimers. The covalent and electrostatic interactions between a drug and the surface of polymer and dendrimer have been analyzed. The docking interaction studies have been performed and the best polymer and dendrimer complex have been selected based on the docking score, binding energy and interaction energy with the drugs. G5 generation of poly amidoamine dendrimers and poly N-Ndiethyl acrylamide (PDEAAM) have been identified as most suitable stimuli-responsive effective drug carriers for anti diabetic drugs and diuretics. Favorable results have been obtained while using poly acrylic acid (PAA) for corticosteroids and polylysine for diabetic drugs. ConA protein along with poly aspartic acid also showed good results. PMID:23106779
Namboori, P K Krishnan; Ranjini, U P; Manakadan, Asha A; Jose, Anila; Silvipriya, K S; Belzik, N; Deepak, O M
There is increasing demand for lipids owing to their use in formulating lipid based drug delivery systems of poorly soluble drugs. The present work discusses the synthesis, characterization of oleic acid based heterolipid and its use as oil in the development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for parenteral delivery. Synthesis was carried out by Michael addition of tert-butyl acrylate to 3-amino-1-propanol to obtain di-tert-butyl aminopropanol derivative. Reaction of this di-tert-butyl aminopropanol derivative with oleoyl chloride using p-dimethylaminopyridine as a coupling agent gave the desired heterolipid. It was characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS to confirm the structure. It did not exhibit any measurable cytotoxicity, even up to 80?g/ml concentration. Application in parenteral drug delivery was explored using furosemide (FUR), a BCS class IV drug, as a model. FUR showed three times greater solubility in the heterolipid as compared to oleic acid. SMEDDSs were developed using heterolipid as oily phase, Solutol HS 15(®) as surfactant and ethanol as a co-surfactant. Developed SMEDDS could form spontaneous microemulsion on addition to various aqueous phases with mean globule size <70nm without any phase separation or drug precipitation even after 24h, and exhibited negligible hemolytic potential. PMID:22266534
Kalhapure, Rahul S; Akamanchi, Krishnacharya G
Liposomal formulations of drugs have been shown to enhance drug efficacy by prolonging circulation time, increasing local concentration and reducing off-target effects. Controlled release from these formulations would increase their utility, and hyperthermia has been explored as a stimulus for targeted delivery of encapsulated drugs. Use of lasers as a thermal source could provide improved control over the release of the drug from the liposomes with minimal collateral tissue damage. Appropriate methods for assessing local release after systemic delivery would aid in testing and development of better formulations. We use in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of luciferin, used as a model small molecule, and demonstrate laser-induced release from liposomes in animal models after systemic delivery. These liposomes were tested for luciferin release between 37 and 45 °C in PBS and serum using bioluminescence measurements. In vivo studies were performed on transgenic reporter mice that express luciferase constitutively throughout the body, thus providing a noninvasive readout for controlled release following systemic delivery. An Nd:YLF laser was used (527 nm) to heat tissues and induce rupture of the intravenously delivered liposomes in target tissues. These data demonstrate laser-mediated control of small molecule delivery using thermally sensitive liposomal formulations.
Mackanos, Mark A.; Larabi, Malika; Shinde, Rajesh; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M.; Guccione, Samira; Contag, Christopher H.
We present the first implantable drug delivery system for controlled dosing, timing, and location in small animals. Current implantable drug delivery devices do not provide control over these factors or are not feasible for implantation in research animals as small as mice. Our system utilizes an integrated electrolysis micropump, is refillable, has an inert drug reservoir for broad drug compatibility, and is capable of adjustment to the delivery regimen while implanted. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used for characterization of electrodes on glass substrate and a flexible Parylene substrate. Benchtop testing of the electrolysis actuator resulted in flow rates from 1 to 34 ?L/min on glass substrate and up to 6.8 ?L/min on Parylene substrate. The fully integrated system generated a flow rate of 4.72 ± 0.35 ?L/min under applied constant current of 1.0 mA while maintaining a power consumption of only ~3 mW. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo application of the system for anti-cancer drug delivery in mice.
Gensler, Heidi; Sheybani, Roya; Li, Po-Ying; Lo, Ronalee; Meng, Ellis
This commentary enlarges on some of the topics addressed in the Position Paper "Towards more effective advanced drug delivery systems" by Crommelin and Florence (2013). Inter alia, the role of mathematical modeling and computer-assisted device design is briefly addressed in the Position Paper. This emerging and particularly promising field is considered in more depth in this commentary. In fact, in-silico simulations have become of fundamental importance in numerous scientific and related domains, allowing for a better understanding of various phenomena and for facilitated device design. The development of novel prototypes of space shuttles, nuclear power plants and automobiles are just a few examples. In-silico simulations are nowadays also well established in the field of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) and have become an integral part of the discovery and development process of novel drug products. Since Takeru Higuchi published his seminal equation in 1961 the use of mathematical models for the analysis and optimization of drug delivery systems in vitro has also become more and more popular. However, applying in-silico simulations for facilitated optimization of advanced drug delivery systems is not yet common practice. One of the reasons is the gap between in vitro and in vivo (PK/PD) simulations. In the future it can be expected that this gap will be closed and that computer assisted device design will play a central role in the research on, and development of advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:23867986
This research described a novel composite electrospun nanofibers, which were consisted of MPEG-b-PLA micelles, chitosan, and PEO, realizing controlled release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. 5-FU and Cefradine used as model drugs were successfully loaded in the nanofibers. The in vitro studies showed there was a low initial burst release of 5-FU from micelles-loaded nanofibers, and the final release proportion was about 91.4% after continually releasing for 109?h. In vitro cytotoxicity studies revealed that 5-FU-loaded nanofibers restrained HepG-2 cells efficiently, and the cell viability was 45.9% after three days of cultivation in solutions containing micelles-loaded nanofibers with 21.6 ?g 5-FU. All results suggested that micelles-loaded nanofibers with two kinds of drugs can be used as an effective controlled drug delivery vehicle and may have a bright future in cancer chemotherapy or clinical treatments. PMID:24160558
Hu, Jun; Zeng, Fangfa; Wei, Junchao; Chen, Yong; Chen, Yiwang
In the present study, novel environmentally responsive ophthalmic drug delivery system composed of two gelling polymers with different phase transition mechanisms was developed in order to obtain sustained drug release in ocular cavity. Combination of polyacrylic acid (carbopol 934P) and xanthan gum was investigated as ophthalmic vehicle and assessed for its in vitro and in vivo performance. Different ratios of these polymers were used to prepare environmentally responsive ophthalmic drug delivery system by simple mixing procedure. Developed formulation was assessed for physical tests such as appearance/clarity, pH, gelation; and performance characteristics such as drug content, rheological measurement, in vitro release, antimicrobial efficiency, in vivo studies for eye irritation, residence time estimation. Prepared formulation showed agreeable appearance/clarity, acceptable pH and good gelation property. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated adequate drug content, desired rheological behavior and reasonable in vitro and in vivo drug release property. In conclusion, the optimum concentration of polymers results in increased residence time and sustained drug release. On the basis of these findings, environmentally responsive system based on combination of carbopol and xanthan gum may be considered as a promising tool for ophthalmic delivery. PMID:22200332
Deshmukh, Prashant K; Gattani, Surendra G
pH-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) are currently under intense development as drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Among various pH-responsiveness, NPs that are designed to target slightly acidic extracellular pH environment (pHe) of solid tumors provide a new paradigm of tumor targeted drug delivery. Compared to conventional specific surface targeting approaches, the pHe-targeting strategy is considered to be more general due to the common occurrence of acidic microenvironment in solid tumors. This review mainly focuses on the design and applications of pHe-activated NPs, with special emphasis on pHe-activated surface charge reversal NPs, for drug and siRNA delivery to tumors. The novel development of NPs described here offers great potential for achieving better therapeutic effects in cancer treatment. PMID:23933109
Du, Jin-Zhi; Mao, Cheng-Qiong; Yuan, You-Yong; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Wang, Jun
Layered hydroxides (LHs) have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment of diseases. Layered hydroxides, as green nanoreservoirs with sustained drug release and cell targeting properties hold great promise of improving health and prolonging life.
Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain
Layered hydroxides (LHs) have recently fascinated researchers due to their wide application in various fields. These inorganic nanoparticles, with excellent features as nanocarriers in drug delivery systems, have the potential to play an important role in healthcare. Owing to their outstanding ion-exchange capacity, many organic pharmaceutical drugs have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of LHs and, consequently, novel nanodrugs or smart drugs may revolutionize in the treatment of diseases. Layered hydroxides, as green nanoreservoirs with sustained drug release and cell targeting properties hold great promise of improving health and prolonging life. PMID:24802876
Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain
A new oral drug delivery system was developed utilizing both the concepts of controlled release and mucoadhesiveness, in order to obtain a unique drug delivery system which could remain in stomach and control the drug release for longer period of time. Captopril microcapsules were prepared with a coat consisting of alginate and a mucoadhesive polymer such as hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, carbopol 934p, chitosan and cellulose acetate phthalate using emulsification ionic gelation process. The resulting microcapsules were discrete, large, spherical and free flowing. Microencapsulation efficiency was 41.7-89.7% and high percentage efficiency was observed with (9:1) alginate-chitosan microcapsules. All alginate-carbopol 934p microcapsules exhibited good mucoadhesive property in the in vitro wash off test. Drug release pattern for all formulation in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) was diffusion controlled, gradually over 8 h and followed zero order kinetics. PMID:21394268
Altaf, M A; Sreedharan; Charyulu, N
The interplay of phase inversion and membrane formation in the drug release characteristics of a cellulose acetate (CA) membrane-based delivery system has been examined. Drug encapsulated films were cast from solutions of naproxen (drug), CA (polymer), acetone (solvent), and water (nonsolvent). Membrane morphologies, drug release kinetics, and drug–polymer interactions were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), USP apparatus 5 dissolution
Decheng Ma; Anthony J. McHugh
The percutaneous permeation profiles of sulfadiazine sodium salt, propranolol hydrochloride and tyrosol from novel liquid crystal-niosomes formulations as multicomponent systems, were investigated. The new carriers were prepared from mixture of water/surfactant, AOT or Pluronic L64 as anionic and nonionic surfactants, respectively, in order to obtain lamellar LLC phases. The same surfactants were used to prepare also the vesicular systems (niosomes) that were added to the corresponding gel. The obtained multicomponent drug carrier was characterized by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in order to understand if the introduction of the drug or drug-loaded niosomal suspension, as third component in the formulations, could influence the microstructure of the system and then the drug delivery across the skin. Simple AOT and L64-based niosomal formulations and LLCs phases were then prepared and used as control. Different drugs percutaneous availability was achieved, and the results revealed that the obtained gel-niosomes carriers were affected by the chemical structure of the drugs and by their affinity for the components. As a consequence these systems could be proposed as novel transdermal drug delivery systems, since they were found able to control the percutaneous permeation of small drugs across the skin. PMID:23732806
Tavano, Lorena; Gentile, Luigi; Oliviero Rossi, Cesare; Muzzalupo, Rita
This research investigated the use of sodium alginate for the preparation of hydrophylic matrix tablets intended for prolonged\\u000a drug release using ketoprofen as a model drug. The matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression using sodium alginate,\\u000a calcium gluconate, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) in different combinations and ratios. In vitro release tests and\\u000a erosion studies of the matrix tablets were carried
Paolo Giunchedi; Elisabetta Gavini; Mario Domenico Luigi Moretti; Gerolamo Pirisino
\\u000a Treatment of vitreoretinal disorders often include repeated intraocular injections to achieve effective levels of the active\\u000a substance in the target site. Intraocular drug delivery systems (IDDS) are considered an alternative to multiple injections\\u000a as they release the encapsulated drug over long periods of time. Among them, biodegradable microparticles are very useful\\u000a for intraocular administration because they can be injected as
Gentamicin sulfate has been incorporated in composites prepared from a SiO2–CaO–P2O5 bioactive glass and polymethylmethacrylate. Data showed that these materials could be used as drug delivery system, keeping the bioactive behavior of the glass. The composites supply high doses of the antibiotic during the first hours when they are soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). Thereafter, a slower drug release
D. Arcos; C. V. Ragel; M. Vallet-Reg??
The purpose of this research was to prepare a gastroretentive drug delivery system of ranitidine hydrochloride. Guar gum,\\u000a xanthan gum, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were evaluated for gel-forming properties. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated\\u000a as a gas-generating agent. The effects of citric acid and stearic acid on drug release profile and floating properties were\\u000a investigated. The addition of stearic acid reduces the
Brijesh S. Dave; Avani F. Amin; Madhabhai M. Patel
The objective of this work was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for improving oral absorption\\u000a of poorly water-soluble drug, silymarin. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed using ethyl linoleate, Cremophor\\u000a EL, ethyl alcohol, and normal saline to identify the efficient self-microemulsification region. The particle size and its\\u000a distribution of the resultant microemulsions were determined using dynamic light
Xinru Li; Quan Yuan; Yanqing Huang; Yanxia Zhou; Yan Liu
The distinguishable films composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMCS) were prepared by blending\\/casting\\u000a method, and loaded with ornidazole (OD) as local drug delivery system. In vitro test, the blend films showed pH-responsive\\u000a swelling behavior and moderate drug release action, and also exhibited a little antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus strains. Those characteristics of CMCS\\/PVA blend
Ling-Chong Wang; Xi-Guang Chen; De-Yu Zhong; Quan-Chen Xu
Shuttle-drug: Self-assembled vesicles of a pharmaceutically active ionic liquid are shown to be an efficient drug delivery system, which realizes the controlled release of its pharmaceutically active component directly. PMID:24038920
Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Jing; Tian, Tingting; Gao, Ya; Ji, Xiaoqing; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia
Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based
Mehrdad Hamidi; Amir Azadi; Pedram Rafiei
In order to successfully apply drug delivery systems (DDS) to new chemical entities (NCEs), collaboration between medicinal chemists and formulation scientists is critical for efficient drug discovery. Formulation scientists have to use 'language' that medicinal chemists understand to help promote mutual understanding, and medicinal chemists and formulation scientists have to set up strategies to use suitable DDS technologies at the discovery phase of the programmes to ensure successful transfer into the development phase. In this review, strategies of solubilisation formulation for oral delivery, inhalation delivery, nasal delivery and bioconjugation are all discussed. For example, for oral drug delivery, multiple initiatives can be proposed to improve the process to select an optimal delivery option for an NCE. From a technical perspective, formulation scientists have to explain the scope and limitations of formulations as some DDS technologies might be applicable only to limited chemical spaces. Other limitations could be the administered dose and, cost, time and resources for formulation development and manufacturing. Since DDS selection is best placed as part of lead-optimisation, formulation scientists need to be involved in discovery projects at lead selection and optimisation stages. The key to success in their collaboration is to facilitate communication between these two areas of expertise at both a strategic and scientific level. Also, it would be beneficial for medicinal chemists and formulation scientists to set common goals to improve the process of collaboration and build long term partnerships to improve DDS. PMID:23292022
This paper reports on the experimental characterization of a robotic drug delivery system based on an endoscopic capsule propelled in water and silicone oil using electromagnetic actuation. Silicon oil is specifically chosen to mimic the viscous environment in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within the human body. A permanent magnet is embedded inside the capsule to make it responsive to the
Hao Zhou; Gursel Alici; Weihua Li; Shaya Ghanbar
Ligusticum chuanxiong oil is a kind of volatile oil from rhizome of ligusticum Chuanxiong (VOC). It is pharmacologically active in treating a variety of diseases. However, the instability and poor water solubility have limited its further clinical application. In the present study, a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed and SMEDDS based formulation – VOC-SMEDDS capsules were prepared to
Gang Yao; Yan Li
Ligusticum chuanxiong oil is a kind of volatile oil from rhizome of ligusticum Chuanxiong (VOC). It is pharmacologically active in treating a variety of diseases. However, the instability and poor water solubility have limited its further clinical application. In the present study, a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed and SMEDDS based formulation – VOC-SMEDDS capsules were prepared to
Gang Yao; Yan Li
This paper describes the fundamental investigations for developing new technology using shock waves and bubbles, such as drug delivery systems (DDS) and bioprocess for environmental protection. To understand the fundamental phenomena, the coupling oscillation problems between the deformations of the cell including a bubble and the flow when underwater shock waves propagating are analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and
Masaaki Tamagawa; Ichiro Yamanoi; Atsushi Matsumoto
The major problem in oral drug formulations is low and erratic bioavailability, which mainly results from poor aqueous solubility. This may lead to high inter- and intra subject variability, lack of dose proportionality and therapeutic failure. The improvement of bio-availability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations. Oral lipid based formulations are attracting considerable attention due to their capacity to increase the solubility, facilitating gastrointestinal absorption and reduce or eliminate the effect of food on the absorption of poorly water soluble, lipophilic drug and thus increasing the bioavailability. The present review outlines the recent findings on self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), self-micro/nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS/SNEDDS) and evaluation of these formulations published over the past decade. The application of lipid based formulations as a promising system for the oral delivery of many therapeutic agents including traditional medicine (TM) has also been examined in the current review. PMID:21453264
Rahman, Md Akhlaquer; Harwansh, Ranjit; Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Hussain, Sarfaraj; Hussain, Arshad
Without bioadhesive delivery devices, complex compounds are typically degraded or cleared from mucosal tissues by the mucus layer.1–3 While some chemically-modified, micro-structured surfaces have been studied in aqueous environments,4,5 adhesion due to geometry alone has not been investigated. Silicon nanowire-coated beads show significantly better adhesion than those with targeting agents under shear, and can increase the lift-off force 100-fold. We have shown that nanowire coatings, paired with epithelial physiology, significantly increase adhesion in mucosal conditions.
Fischer, Kathleen E.; Aleman, Benjamin J.; Tao, Sarah L.; Daniels, R. Hugh; Li, Esther M.; Bunger, Mark D.; Nagaraj, Ganesh; Singh, Parminder; Zettl, Alex; Desai, Tejal A.
Electroactive polymers (EAPs) are promising candidate materials for the design of drug delivery technologies, especially in conditions where an "on-off" drug release mechanism is required. To achieve this, EAPs such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, ethylene vinyl acetate, and polyethylene may be blended into responsive hydrogels in conjunction with the desired drug to obtain a patient-controlled drug release system. The "on-off" drug release mechanism can be achieved through the environmental-responsive nature of the interpenetrating hydrogel-EAP complex via (i) charged ions initiated diffusion of drug molecules; (ii) conformational changes that occur during redox switching of EAPs; or (iii) electroerosion. These release mechanisms are not exhaustive and new release mechanisms are still under investigation. Therefore, this review seeks to provide a concise incursion and critical overview of EAPs and responsive hydrogels as a strategy for advanced drug delivery, for example, controlled release of neurotransmitters, sulfosalicyclic acid from cross-linked hydrogel, and vaccine delivery. The review further discusses techniques such as linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and chronoamperometry for the determination of the redox capability of EAPs. The future implications of the hydrogel-EAP composites include, but not limited to, application toward biosensors, DNA hybridizations, microsurgical tools, and miniature bioreactors and may be utilized to their full potential in the form of injectable devices as nanorobots or nanobiosensors. PMID:23852673
Pillay, Viness; Tsai, Tong-Sheng; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Ndesendo, Valence M K
Due to the significant advances in information technology mathematical modeling of drug delivery is a field of steadily increasing academic and industrial importance with an enormous future potential. The in silico optimization of novel drug delivery systems can be expected to significantly increase in accuracy and easiness of application. Analogous to other scientific disciplines, computer simulations are likely to become an integral part of future research and development in pharmaceutical technology. Mathematical programs can be expected to be routinely used to help optimizing the design of novel dosage forms. Good estimates for the required composition, geometry, dimensions and preparation procedure of various types of delivery systems will be available, taking into account the desired administration route, drug dose and release profile. Thus, the number of required experimental studies during product development can be significantly reduced, saving time and reducing costs. In addition, the quantitative analysis of the physical, chemical and potentially biological phenomena, which are involved in the control of drug release, offers another fundamental advantage: The underlying drug release mechanisms can be elucidated, which is not only of academic interest, but a pre-requisite for an efficient improvement of the safety of the pharmaco-treatments and for effective trouble-shooting during production. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art of mathematical modeling of drug delivery, including empirical/semi-empirical and mechanistic realistic models. Analytical as well as numerical solutions are described and various practical examples are given. One of the major challenges to be addressed in the future is the combination of mechanistic theories describing drug release out of the delivery systems with mathematical models quantifying the subsequent drug transport within the human body in a realistic way. Ideally, the effects of the design parameters of the dosage form on the resulting drug concentration time profiles at the site of action and the pharmacodynamic effects will become predictable. PMID:18822362
Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F
The purpose of this review is to discuss and summarize some of the interesting findings and applications of modified chitosan (MCS) and their derivatives in different areas of drug delivery. This review highlights the important applications of MCS in the design of various novel delivery systems like liposomes, microspheres, microcapsules, and nanoparticles. In addition to their well-known effects on drug solubility and dissolution, bioavailability, safety, and stability, their uses as recipients in drug formulation are also discussed. This review also focuses on various factors influencing inclusion complex formation because an understanding of the same is necessary for proper handling of these versatile materials. Some important considerations in selecting MCS in drug formulation such as their commercial availability, regulatory status, and patent status are also summarized.
Saboktakin, Mohammad Reza
Niosomes have potential applications in topical drug delivery system. The objective of the study was to formulate and evaluate the niosome of Itraconazole. Surfactant?:?cholesterol ratio and quantity of ethanol used were studied by applying factorial design. Formulated niosomes were evaluated for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, drug release, skin permeation, and antimycotic activity. Vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, and drug release were markedly dependent on surfactant?:?cholesterol ratio and quantity of ethanol used. Permeation of the drug through the skin was affected by cholesterol content in formulation. Itraconazole niosome were having larger zone of inhibition than marketed formulation when activity was checked against C. albicans. Niosomes may be a promising carrier for topical delivery of Itraconazole especially due to their simple production.
Wagh, Vijay D.; Deshmukh, Onkar J.
Novel peroral peptide drug delivery systems based on superporous hydrogel (SPH) and SPH composite (SPHC) have recently been developed in our laboratory. In this report the following issues were studied: release of the peptide drugs buserelin, octreotide and insulin from SPH and SPHC polymers and the developed delivery systems, stability of these peptides during the release and the integrity of
Farid A. Dorkoosh; J. Coos Verhoef; Matheus H. C. Ambagts; Morteza Rafiee-Tehrani; Gerrit Borchard; Hans E. Junginger
Background: Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids on stimulation, such as pH, temperature and ionic change. Aim: To develop hydrogels that are sensitive to stimuli, i.e. pH, in the cul-de-sac of the eye for providing a prolonged effect and increased bioavailability with reduction in frequency of administration. Materials and Methods: Hydrogels were formulated by using timolol maleate as the model drug, polyacrylic acid as the gelling agents, hydroxyl ethyl cellulose as the viscolizer and sodium chloride as the isotonic agent. Stirring of ingredients in pH 4 phosphate buffer at high speed was carried out. The dynamic dialysis technique was used for drug release studies. In vivo study for reduction in intraocular pressure was carried out by using albino rabbits. Statistical Analysis: Drug release studies data were used for statistical analysis in first-order plots, Higuchi plots and Peppas exponential plots. Student t-test was performed for in vivo study. Results: Viscosity of the hydrogel increases from 3.84 cps to 9.54 cps due to change in pH 4 to pH 7.4. The slope value of the Peppas equation was found to be 0.3081, 0.3743 and 0.2964. Up to 80% of drug was released in an 8 h drug release study. Sterile hydrogels with no ocular irritation were obtained. Conclusions: Hydrogels show increase in viscosity due to change in pH. Hydrogels were therapeutically effacious, stable, non-irritant and showed Fickian diffusion. In vivo results clearly show a prolonged reduction in intraocular pressure, which was helpful for reduction in the frequency of administration.
Singh, Vinod; Bushetti, S S; Appala, Raju; Shareef, Adil; Imam, Syed S; Singh, Mamta
Recent advances in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics in the fields of recombinant biochemistry, solid phase peptide synthesis as well as in galenical research have resulted in highly specific and efficient components. Presently, millions of patients can profit from these new therapeutic modalities. The application of an effective anti-tumor dose of drugs can lead to marked toxicity in patients. Therefore, safe and efficient possibilities to transport these compounds to the target are of outmost importance. The importance of drug delivery is pivotal in the wide area of pharmacological research. However, until now, this issue is still to be solved. The main goal of every drug delivery system is the delivery of a precise amount of a drug at a pre-programmed rate to the desired location in order to achieve the necessary drug concentration in the targeted organ for effective treatment. The key problem still remains the achievement of curative doses in a pharmacologically active state in the desired target while avoiding side effects. Although respectable advances can be recognized in this field, the currently applied mechanisms for the transport of therapeutic molecules across biological membranes still remain far from being efficient. Helper molecules could improve delivery to desired target sites. Presently, a number of efforts are made and a huge spectrum of biochemical, biological, medical, pharmaceutical and physical possibilities are arising. However, the design and development of successful therapies based on this technology still remains a great challenge. PMID:16101505
Braun, K; Pipkorn, R; Waldeck, W
The specific objective of this investigation is to study the effect of tricalcium phosphate delivery system (TCPL) particle sizes on the final density as well as the delivery profiles of various organic compounds in three different buffer environments. Each TCPL matrices were fabricated using three different particle sizes ranges between 1-38, 45-63 and 63-75 microns. The sintered microcrystal material was impregnated with either progesterone (P, 100 mg each) or bovine serum albumin (BSA, 100 mg each). In phase I of the study, each device was suspended in a serum bottle containing 100 mls of ethanol solution (50% wt/vol.) for P release or 100 mls of PBS (pH 7.4) for BSA release. In phase II, similar capsules were suspended in human plasma instead of standard buffers. The vials were agitated at 100 cycle per minute in a water bath set at 37 degrees C. The amount of P or BSA released from the devices into the buffered medium was measured spectrophotometrically. The results of this investigation revealed that a significant difference in the densities of the devices made from the range of individual particle sizes. The rate of steroid hormone and protein released from the devices made from 1-38 micron particle sizes was slower (p < 0.05) than the rate of delivery of P and BSA released from devices fabricated from either 45-63 or 63-75 micron particles. Regardless of the particle sizes effect the results show that the delivery profiles of BSA was higher than the rate of P. This observation could be attributed to the molecular structure as well as the physiochemical characteristics of the drug. In conclusion the data obtained from this study suggest that: (1) Particle sizes variations influence the density of the TCPL delivery system, (2) the rate of release of organic compounds from the ceramic devices is considerably affected by the physiochemical characteristics of medium or buffer system, and (3) the delivery rate of drugs from TCPL devices is directly proportional to the size of the device initial particles and macropores, and inversely proportional to the number of micropores within each device. PMID:8672689
Apple, M J; Benghuzzi, H; Parsell, D; England, B
We report on a new method for enhancing the specificity of drug delivery for tumor cells, using thermosensitive immunoliposomes. The liposomes are conjugated to the antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin), which targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2), a cell membrane receptor overexpressed in many human cancers. Being thermosensitive, the liposomes only release their contents when heated slightly above body temperature, allowing for the possibility of tissue targeting through localized hyperthermia. Using self-quenching calcein, we demonstrate the release of liposome contents into cell endosomes after brief heating to 42 degrees C. To further increase targeting specificity, we incorporate the concept of a two-component delivery system that requires the interaction of two different liposomes within the same endosome for cytoplasmic delivery. Experimental evaluation of the technique using fluorescently labeled liposomes shows that a two-component delivery system, combined with intracellular disruption of liposomes by hyperthermia, significantly increases specificity for Her-2-overexpressing tumor cells. PMID:19089689
Kullberg, Max; Mann, Kristine; Owens, Jesse Lee
Due to its extreme lipophilicity, the oral delivery of cinnarizine (CN) encounters several problems such as poor aqueous solubility and pH-dependent dissolution, which result in low and erratic bioavailability. The current study aims to design self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of CN that circumvent such obstacles. Equilibrium solubility of CN was determined in a range of anhydrous and diluted lipid-based formulations. Dynamic dispersion tests were carried out to investigate the efficiency of drug release and magnitude of precipitation that could occur upon aqueous dilution. Droplet sizes of selected formulations, upon (1:1,000) aqueous dilution, were presented. The optimal formulations were enrolled in subsequent dissolution studies. The results showed that increasing lipid chain length and surfactant lipophilicity raised the formulation solvent capacity, while adding co-solvents provoked a negative influence. The inclusion of mixed glycerides and/or hydrophilic surfactants improved the drug release efficiency. Generally, no significant precipitation was observed upon aqueous dilution of the formulations. Five formulations were optimal in terms of their superior self-emulsifying efficiency, drug solubility, dispersion characteristics, and lower droplet size. Furthermore, the optimal formulations showed superior dissolution profile compared to the marketed (Stugeron®) tablet. Most importantly, they could resist the intensive precipitation observed with the marketed tablet upon shifting from acidic to alkaline media. However, SNEDDS containing medium-chain mixed glycerides showed the highest drug release rate and provide great potential to enhance the oral CN delivery. Accordingly, the lipid portion seems to be the most vital component in designing CN self-nanoemulsifying systems. PMID:22760454
Shahba, Ahmad Abdul-Wahhab; Mohsin, Kazi; Alanazi, Fars Kaed
We review newest developments in the design and fabrication of drug delivery devices based on micropatterned structures. Electronic devices have now reached a stage of dimensions comparable to those of biological macromolecules. This raises exciting possibilities for combining microelectronics and biotechnology to develop new technologies with unprecedented power and versatility. While molecular electronics use the unique self-assembly, switching and dynamic
J. Zachary Hilt; Nicholas A. Peppas
Deep magnetic capture and clinical application are the current trends for magnetic targeted drug delivery system. More promising and possible strategies are needed to overcome the current limitations and further improve the magnetic targeting technique. Recent advances in the development of targeting magnet system show promise in progressing this technology from the laboratory to the clinic. Starting from well-known basic concepts, current limitations of magnetic targeted drug delivery system are analyzed. Meanwhile, the design concepts and evaluations of some effective improvements in magnet system are discussed and reviewed with reference to (i) reasonable design of magnet system; (ii) control modes of magnet system used to generate dynamical magnetic fields; and (iii) magnetic field driving types.
Cao, Quanliang; Han, Xiaotao; Li, Liang
The nano-microcapsules drug delivery system is currently a promising method for the treatment of many types of diseases, particularly tumors. However, the drug delivery efficiency does not reach a satisfactory level to meet treatment demands. Therefore, the effectiveness of delivery needs to be improved. Based on the alterations in the structure and modification of nano-microcapsules, ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), a safe physical targeted method, may increase tissue penetration and cell membrane permeability, aiding the drug-loaded nano-microcapsules ingress the interior of targeted tissues and cells. The effectiveness and exact mechanism of action of the drug-loaded nano-microcapsules delivery system mediated by UTMD have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, the latest advancement in UTMD-mediated drug loaded nano-microcapsules system technology was reviewed and the hindrances of UTMD-mediated drug delivery were assessed, in combination with a prospective study. The findings suggested that the drug delivery efficiency of nano-microcapsules mediated by UTMD was distinctly improved. Thus, the UTMD-mediated drug-loaded nano-microcapsules delivery system may significantly improve the efficiency of drug delivery, which may be a promising new therapeutic method.
MA, JING; DU, LIAN FANG; CHEN, MING; WANG, HANG HUI; XING, LING XI; JING, LI FANG; LI, YUN HUA
Impediments to intestinal absorption, such as poor solubility and instability in the variable conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plague many of the current drugs restricting their oral bioavailability. Particulate drug delivery systems hold great promise in solving these problems, but their effectiveness might be limited by their often rapid transit through the GI tract. Here we describe a bioadhesive oral drug delivery system based on thermally-hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) functionalized with a self-assembled amphiphilic protein coating consisting of a class II hydrophobin (HFBII) from Trichoderma reesei. The HFBII-THCPSi nanoparticles were found to be non-cytotoxic and mucoadhesive in AGS cells, prompting their use in a biodistribution study in rats after oral administration. The passage of HFBII-THCPSi nanoparticles in the rat GI tract was significantly slower than that of uncoated THCPSi, and the nanoparticles were retained in stomach by gastric mucoadhesion up to 3 h after administration. Upon entry to the small intestine, the mucoadhesive properties were lost, resulting in the rapid transit of the nanoparticles through the remainder of the GI tract. The gastroretentive drug delivery system with a dual function presented here is a viable alternative for improving drug bioavailability in the oral route. PMID:22285465
Sarparanta, Mirkka P; Bimbo, Luis M; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Salonen, Jarno J; Laaksonen, Päivi H; Helariutta, A M Kerttuli; Linder, Markus B; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Laaksonen, Timo J; Santos, Hélder A; Airaksinen, Anu J
Transdermal drug delivery is a validated technology contributing significantly to global pharmaceutical care. Since 1980, impressive growth in this field has been observed with many commercial successes; importantly, a new chemical entity was recently developed and approved for transdermal administration without having first been given as an injectable or oral dosage form. The progress achieved has been based on the clearer understanding of skin barrier function, and of the physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and physiological factors which underpin the feasibility of transdermal administration. Novel, non-invasive approaches to enhance and control drug transport across the skin are under intensive investigation, and some technologies, e.g. iontophoresis, have reached true maturity. The "local", subcutaneous delivery of drugs (for example, to underlying muscle and other tissues) is gaining increasing acceptance, and new opportunities in this under-subscribed area may be envisaged. PMID:20217537
Guy, Richard H
In this article, a novel composite drug delivery system, honokiol nanoparticles in biodegradable hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) and beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP), was prepared. CS/beta-GP solution was liquid at room temperature and turned into gel as temperature increased. With increase in beta-GP concentration, the sol-gel transition temperature decreased accordingly. Honokiol nanoparticles with diameter of about 30 nm were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The sol-gel transition temperature of CS/beta-GP system decreased as F-127 presented in honokiol nanoparticles. In vitro release profiles were studied, the results showed that honokiol could be slowly released from CS/beta-GP gel over at least 2 weeks and the release rate was greatly influenced by initial drug loading. The described injectable hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) and beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP) might have potential application as local drug delivery for honokiol. PMID:19928122
Li, XingYi; Zheng, XiuLing; Wei, XiaWei; Guo, Gang; Gou, MaLing; Gong, ChangYang; Wang, XianHuo; Dai, Mei; Chen, LiJuan; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong
Drug delivery systems offer the advantage of sustained targeted release with minimal side effect. In the present study, the\\u000a therapeutic efficacy of a porous silica–calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC) as a new delivery system for 5-Fluorouracil\\u000a (5-FU) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies showed that two formulations; SCPC50\\/5-FU and SCPC75\\/5-FU hybrids\\u000a were very cytotoxic for 4T1 mammary
Ahmed El-Ghannam; Krista Ricci; Ahmed Malkawi; Kiarash Jahed; Kumar Vedantham; Heather Wyan; Lauren D. Allen; Didier Dréau
Multiscale computational modeling of drug delivery systems (DDS) is poised to provide predictive capabilities for the rational design of targeted drug delivery systems, including multi-functional nanoparticles. Realistic, mechanistic models can provide a framework for understanding the fundamental physico-chemical interactions between drug, delivery system, and patient. Multiscale computational modeling, however, is in its infancy even for conventional drug delivery. The wide range of emerging nanotechnology systems for targeted delivery further increases the need for reliable in silico predictions. This review will present existing computational approaches at different scales in the design of traditional oral drug delivery systems. Subsequently, a multiscale framework for integrating continuum, stochastic, and computational chemistry models will be proposed and a case study will be presented for conventional DDS. The extension of this framework to emerging nanotechnology delivery systems will be discussed along with future directions. While oral delivery is the focus of the review, the outlined computational approaches can be applied to other drug delivery systems as well.
Haddish-Berhane, Nahor; Rickus, Jenna L; Haghighi, Kamyar
The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA) is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs), can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W), cetostearyl isononanoate (oil—O) and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S) and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W), B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W) and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W), to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery.
Goncalez, M. L.; Correa, M. A.; Chorilli, M.
Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs)-based drug delivery systems have, for many years, shown great promises for the delivery of chemical therapeutics and bioactive molecules to mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. This system offers high efficiency and drug loading density, as well as excellent protection of loaded molecules from undesired degradation. Toxicological studies have also found LDHs to be biocompatible compared with other widely used nanoparticles, such as iron oxide, silica, and single-walled carbon nanotubes. A plethora of bio-molecules have been reported to either attach to the surface of or intercalate into LDH materials through co-precipitation or anion-exchange reaction, including amino acid and peptides, ATPs, vitamins, and even polysaccharides. Recently, LDHs have been used for gene delivery of small molecular nucleic acids, such as antisense, oligonucleotides, PCR fragments, siRNA molecules or sheared genomic DNA. These nano-medicines have been applied to target cells or organs in gene therapeutic approaches. This review summarizes current progress of the development of LDHs nanoparticle drug carriers for nucleotides, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer drugs and recent LDH application in medical research. Ground breaking studies will be highlighted and an outlook of the possible future progress proposed. It is hoped that the layered inorganic material will open up new frontier of research, leading to new nano-drugs in clinical applications. PMID:24786098
Zhang, Kai; Xu, Zhi Ping; Lu, Ji; Tang, Zhi Yong; Zhao, Hui Jun; Good, David A; Wei, Ming Qian
Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs)-based drug delivery systems have, for many years, shown great promises for the delivery of chemical therapeutics and bioactive molecules to mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. This system offers high efficiency and drug loading density, as well as excellent protection of loaded molecules from undesired degradation. Toxicological studies have also found LDHs to be biocompatible compared with other widely used nanoparticles, such as iron oxide, silica, and single-walled carbon nanotubes. A plethora of bio-molecules have been reported to either attach to the surface of or intercalate into LDH materials through co-precipitation or anion-exchange reaction, including amino acid and peptides, ATPs, vitamins, and even polysaccharides. Recently, LDHs have been used for gene delivery of small molecular nucleic acids, such as antisense, oligonucleotides, PCR fragments, siRNA molecules or sheared genomic DNA. These nano-medicines have been applied to target cells or organs in gene therapeutic approaches. This review summarizes current progress of the development of LDHs nanoparticle drug carriers for nucleotides, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer drugs and recent LDH application in medical research. Ground breaking studies will be highlighted and an outlook of the possible future progress proposed. It is hoped that the layered inorganic material will open up new frontier of research, leading to new nano-drugs in clinical applications.
Zhang, Kai; Xu, Zhi Ping; Lu, Ji; Tang, Zhi Yong; Zhao, Hui Jun; Good, David A.; Wei, Ming Qian
There is an increasing interest in the use of ultrasound to enhance drug delivery to the brain and central nervous system. Disorders of the brain and CNS historically have had poor response to drug therapy due to the presence of the Blood-Brain barrier (BBB). Techniques for circumventing the BBB are typically highly invasive or involve disrupting large portions of the BBB, exposing the brain to pathogens. Ultrasound can be non-invasively delivered to the brain through the intact skull. When combined with preformed microbubbles, ultrasound can safely induce transient, localized and reversible disruption of the BBB, allowing therapeutics to be delivered. Investigations to date have shown positive response to ultrasound BBB disruption combined with therapeutic agent delivery in rodent models of primary and metastatic brain cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work in non-human primates has demonstrated that the technique is feasible for use in humans. This review examines the current status of drug delivery to the brain and CNS both by disruption of the BBB, and by ultrasound enhancement of drug delivery through the already compromised BBB. Cellular and physical mechanisms of disruption are discussed, as well as treatment technique, safety and monitoring.
O'Reilly, Meaghan A.; Hynynen, Kullervo
Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans.
Kaur, Randeep; Badea, Ildiko
Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as delivery vehicles for small chemical drugs and macromolecular biotechnology products due to their primary particle size of 4 to 5 nm, stable inert core, reactive surface, and ability to form hydrogels. Nanoprobe technology capitalizes on the intrinsic fluorescence, high refractive index, and unique Raman signal of the NDs, rendering them attractive for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. This review provides a brief introduction of the various types of NDs and describes the development of procedures that have led to stable single-digit-sized ND dispersions, a crucial feature for drug delivery systems and nanoprobes. Various approaches used for functionalizing the surface of NDs are highlighted, along with a discussion of their biocompatibility status. The utilization of NDs to provide sustained release and improve the dispersion of hydrophobic molecules, of which chemotherapeutic drugs are the most investigated, is described. The prospects of improving the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids by using NDs as a platform are exemplified. The photoluminescent and optical scattering properties of NDs, together with their applications in cellular labeling, are also reviewed. Considering the progress that has been made in understanding the properties of NDs, they can be envisioned as highly efficient drug delivery and imaging biomaterials for use in animals and humans. PMID:23326195
Kaur, Randeep; Badea, Ildiko
Here, we review three 'D's--drugs, delivery systems and devices--that can selectively target not only brain regions but also abnormal cells in the epileptic nervous system. This review also offers insights into the novel molecular targets that enabled the development of new antiepileptic drugs with improved efficacy. Nanotechnology-based delivery systems and alert, diagnostic, surgical and brain stimulation devices designed for the control and management of epilepsy are also discussed. Although the application of the three 'D's continues to be valuable, this review also considers computer-aided software systems, with special emphasis on seizure detection and management. Finally, challenges that still loiter in the field and future prospects that, once accomplished, could lead to cures for epilepsy are addressed. PMID:20603226
Pathan, Shadab A; Jain, Gaurav K; Akhter, Sohail; Vohora, Divya; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khar, Roop K
Solid carriers had important effects on the properties of solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SMEDDS). In order to make the basis for further development of S-SMEDDS, the influences of silica on the absorption of S-SMEDDS were investigated. An in vitro lipolysis model was used to evaluate the influence of silica on self-microemulsifying drug delivery system digestion from intestinal tract. S-SMEDDS containing silica were prepared by extrusion/spheronization. The drug release and absorption were investigated. The results showed that lipolysis rate and drug concentration in aqueous phase after intestinal lipolysis both increased by adding silica, which was benefit to drug absorption. And silica was not benefit to absorption for slowing drug release. Consistently, there was no significant influence of silica on intestinal absorption. This study implied that the influences of silica on lipolysis rate and drug release were both amount dependent and it is suggested that silica could be used as the solid carrier but the proportion needs to be optimized. PMID:21751501
Huan, Di; Yi, Tao; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Lu; He, Ji-kui
Keeping in view the anticancer nature of psyllium and methotrexate, psyllium, if suitably tailored to prepare the hydrogels, can act as the potential candidate for the slow drug delivery systems for GI tract. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to modify the psyllium for developing the hydrogels meant for delivery of methotrexate in controlled and sustained manner. The present article discusses the synthesis and characterization of the psy-cl-poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels prepared by chemical crosslinking methods. These hydrogels have been characterized with SEMs, FTIR, TGA, XRD and swelling studies. The swelling and drug release behavior of hydrogels has been determined in solution of different pH. The results indicate that the drug release from the polymeric matrix follows Fickian diffusion mechanism in pH 7.4 buffer. PMID:24530332
Singh, Baljit; Bala, R
This report presents a transdermal drug delivery system based on LIGA fabricated microparts. It is a portable device combining a magnetically actuated micro gear pump with a microneedle array. The fluidic behaviour of the system is analyzed in order to predict its performance according to the dimension of the microparts and then compared to experimental data. The manufacturing process of both micropump and microneedle array are described.
Matteucci, Marco; Perennes, Frederic; Marmiroli, Benedetta; di Fabrizio, Enzo
A closed-loop drug delivery system is constructed in which external negative feed- back is used to regulate the dynamics of a time-delayed negative feedback mechanism which regulates hormone concentration. This results in a control system composed of two time-delayed negative feedback loops arranged in parallel. Stability regions in pa- rameter space and the location of steady states are determined for
John Milton; Sue Ann Campbell; Jacques Belair
In situ forming implants (ISFI) have shown promise in delivering adjuvant chemotherapy following minimally invasive cancer therapies such as thermal ablation of tumors. Although ISFI systems have been thoroughly investigated for delivery of high molecular weight (Mw) therapeutics, little research has been conducted to optimize their design for delivery of low Mw drugs. This study examined the effect of varying the formulation components on the low Mw drug release profile from a ISFI consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), fluorescein (model drug), and excipient dissolved in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). Effects of varying PLGA Mw, excipient concentration, and drug loading were studied. Additionally, solubility studies were conducted to determine the critical water concentration required for phase inversion. Results demonstrated that PLGA Mw was the most significant factor in modulating low Mw drug release from the ISFI systems. ISFI formulations comprised of a low Mw (16 kDa) PLGA showed a significantly (p < 0.05) lower burst release (after 24 h), 28.2 +/- 0.5%, compared with higher Mw PLGA (60 kDa), 55.1 +/- 3.1%. Critical water concentration studies also demonstrated that formulations with lower Mw PLGA had increased solubility in water and may thus require more time to phase invert and release the drug. PMID:20186771
Patel, Ravi B; Carlson, Angela N; Solorio, Luis; Exner, Agata A
Smart gel periodontal drug delivery systems (SGPDDS) containing gellan gum (0.1-0.8% w/v), lutrol F127 (14, 16, and 18% w/v), and ornidazole (1% w/v) were designed for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Each formulation was characterized in terms of in vitro gelling capacity, viscosity, rheology, content uniformity, in vitro drug release, and syringeability. In vitro gelation time and the nature of the gel formed in simulated saliva for prepared formulations showed polymeric concentration dependency. Drug release data from all formulations was fitted to different kinetic models and the Korsemeyer-Peppas model was the best fit model. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration of each polymer component was increased. Increasing the concentration of each polymeric component significantly increased viscosity, syringeability, and time for 50%, 70%, and 90% drug release. In conclusion, the formulations described offer a wide range of physical and drug release characteristics. The formulation containing 0.8% w/v of gellan gum and 16% w/v of lutrol F127 exhibited superior physical characteristics. PMID:20553104
Dabhi, Mahesh R; Nagori, Stavan A; Gohel, Mukesh C; Parikh, Rajesh K; Sheth, Navin R
Nanotechnology-based medical approaches have made tremendous potential for enhancing the treatment efficacy with minimal doses of chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer. In this study, using tamoxifen (Tam), biodegradable antibody conjugated polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) was developed to achieve targeted delivery as well as sustained release of the drug against breast cancer cells. Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs were stabilized by coating with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and copolymer polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) was used to conjugate herceptin (antibody) with PLGA NPs for promoting the site-specific intracellular delivery of Tam against HER2 receptor overexpressed breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The Tam-loaded PVP-PLGA NPs and herceptin-conjugated Tam-loaded PVP-PLGA NPs were characterized in terms of morphology, size, surface charge, and structural chemistry by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ? potential analysis, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. pH-based drug release property and the anticancer activity (in vitro and in vivo models) of the herceptin conjugated polymeric NPs were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal image analysis. Besides, the extent of cellular uptake of drug via HER2 receptor-mediated endocytosis by herceptin-conjugated Tam-loaded PVP-PLGA NPs was examined. Furthermore, the possible signaling pathway of apoptotic induction in MCF-7 cells was explored by Western blotting, and it was demonstrated that drug-loaded PLGA NPs were capable of inducing apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. Hence, this nanocarrier drug delivery system (DDS) not only actively targets a multidrug-resistance (MDR) associated phenotype (HER2 receptor overexpression) but also improves therapeutic efficiency by enhancing the cancer cell targeted delivery and sustained release of therapeutic agents. PMID:24780315
Vivek, Raju; Thangam, Ramar; NipunBabu, Varukattu; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Gunasekaran, Palani; Muthuchelian, Krishnasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian
Abstract In this study, unilamellar liposomal vesicles of diltiazem HCl (DH) were prepared using either reversed phase evaporation (REV) or proliposome methods. Soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was used for preparing the liposomes, and the vesicles were rigidified using cholesterol (Chol) or cetyl alcohol (CA) in different molarities. The major differences in both the entrapment efficiency percent (EE%) and drug release were evaluated as a function of the method of preparation, Chol or CA contents, and charging lipids. Moreover, the morphology of the vesicles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of Chol or CA incorporation into the liposomes were discussed based on thermal analysis. The in vivo evaluation of liposomal DH was assessed using intra-ocular pressure (IOP), reducing effects in rabbit eyes. Liposomes prepared via REV exhibited higher EE% and lower release rates when compared with those prepared from proliposomes. The incorporation of either Chol or CA in the liposomes enhanced the EE% and decreased the release rates; however, Chol yielded higher results than CA. In addition, both dicetyl phosphate (DCP; negative charge inducer) and stearyl amine (SA, positive charge inducer) decreased the EE% and increased the DH release rate. The in vivo antiglaucoma effects of the liposomes were calculated according to the area above the IOP/Time curve, the maximum response and the time for the maximum response and were compared with effects of the DH solution. The results were in the following order: DH solution?
Mokhtar Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Tawfique, Salma A H; Mahdy, Mahmoud M
Aspirin has become the gold standard to which newer antiplatelet drugs are compared for reducing risks of cardiovascular diseases, while keeping low cost. Oral aspirin has a repertoire of gastrointestinal side effects even at low doses and requires high frequent dosing because it undergoes extensive presystemic metabolism. Transdermal delivery offers an alternative route that bypasses the gut and may be more convenient and safer for aspirin delivery especially during long-term use. This study comprised formulation of aspirin in different topical bases. Release studies revealed that hydrocarbon gel allowed highest drug release. In vitro permeation studies revealed high drug permeation from hydrocarbon gel. Several chemical penetration enhancers were monitored for augmenting the permeation from this base. Combination of propylene glycol and alcohol showed maximum enhancing effect and, hence, was selected for biological investigation. The biological performance of the selected formulation was assessed by measuring the inhibition of platelet aggregation relevant to different dosage regimens aiming to minimize both drug dose and frequency of application. The results demonstrated the feasibility of successfully influencing platelet function and revealed that the drug therapeutic efficacy in transdermal delivery system is dose independent. Biological performance was re-assessed after storage and the results revealed stability and persistent therapeutic efficacy. PMID:16949225
Ammar, H O; Ghorab, M; El-Nahhas, S A; Kamel, R
In the present study, captopril-loaded ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica matrix were produced, functionalized, and characterized to obtain an efficient formulation of controlled drug delivery system. First, the starting SBA-15 materials are examined to verify that their synthesis has been successful considering the structural properties, using XRD, FTIR, and BET methods. Second, the influence of processing parameters of ordered mesoporous matrices for the loading and release of captopril was investigated. The release of captopril was controlled by tailoring the surface properties of the mesoporous silica via functionalization. The loading and release kinetics (in vitro in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids) showed that both of them were affected by the surface properties of the mesoporous silica materials. Such a formulation shows potential as an efficient controlled drug delivery system. PMID:20740675
Popovici, R F; Seftel, E M; Mihai, G D; Popovici, E; Voicu, V A
Many drugs and drug candidates are suboptimal because of short duration of action. For example, peptides and proteins often have serum half-lives of only minutes to hours. One solution to this problem involves conjugation to circulating carriers, such as PEG, that retard kidney filtration and hence increase plasma half-life of the attached drug. We recently reported an approach to half-life extension that uses sets of self-cleaving linkers to attach drugs to macromolecular carriers. The linkers undergo ?-eliminative cleavage to release the native drug with predictable half-lives ranging from a few hours to over 1 y; however, half-life extension becomes limited by the renal elimination rate of the circulating carrier. An approach to overcoming this constraint is to use noncirculating, biodegradable s.c. implants as drug carriers that are stable throughout the duration of drug release. Here, we use ?-eliminative linkers to both tether drugs to and cross-link PEG hydrogels, and demonstrate tunable drug release and hydrogel erosion rates over a very wide range. By using one ?-eliminative linker to tether a drug to the hydrogel, and another ?-eliminative linker with a longer half-life to control polymer degradation, the system can be coordinated to release the drug before the gel undergoes complete erosion. The practical utility is illustrated by a PEG hydrogel–exenatide conjugate that should allow once-a-month administration, and results indicate that the technology may serve as a generic platform for tunable ultralong half-life extension of potent therapeutics.
Ashley, Gary W.; Henise, Jeff; Reid, Ralph; Santi, Daniel V.
The biopharmaceutical properties of doxorubicin delivered via two drug-delivery systems (DDSs) for the palliative treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma were reviewed with relation to the associated liver and tumor (patho)physiology. These two DDSs, doxorubicin emulsified with Lipiodol(®) and doxorubicin loaded into DC Bead(®) are different regarding tumor delivery, release rate, local bioavailability, if and how they can be given repeatedly, biodegradability, length of embolization and safety profile. There have been few direct head-to-head comparisons of these DDSs, and in-depth investigations into their in vitro and in vivo performance is warranted. PMID:24856170
Dubbelboer, Ilse R; Lilienberg, Elsa; Ahnfelt, Emelie; Sjögren, Erik; Axén, Niklas; Lennernäs, Hans
In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of novel cisplatin-loaded collagen (COLL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite materials are presented. The composite materials were designed to obtain a COLL: HA weight ratio close to the bone composition. The content of embedded cisplatin was chosen to assure a concentration of cisplatin of 6 and 10 ?M, respectively, into the culture media used in cell culture experiments. These cisplatin delivery systems were characterized by determining the physico-chemical properties of the composite material, the drug release process as well as their biological activity. Based on the in vitro data that showed the cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activities of these multifunctional systems on G292 osteosarcoma cells in dependence on the cisplatin concentration released in culture medium, we conclude that the newly developed COLL/HA-cisplatin drug delivery system could be a feasible approach for locoregional chemotherapy of bone cancer. PMID:23547973
Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Mitran, Valentina; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Ion, Raluca; Cimpean, Anisoara
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems are a vital tool in solving low bioavailability issues of poorly soluble drugs. Hydrophobic drugs can be dissolved in these systems, enabling them to be administered as a unit dosage form for per-oral administration. When such a system is released in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, it disperses to form a fine emulsion (micro/nano) with the aid of GI fluid. This leads to in situ solubilization of drug that can subsequently be absorbed by lymphatic pathways, bypassing the hepatic first-pass effect. This article presents an exhaustive account of various literature reports on diverse types of self-emulsifying formulations with emphasis on their formulation, characterization and in vitro analysis, with examples of currently marketed preparations. PMID:20727418
Kohli, Kanchan; Chopra, Sunny; Dhar, Deepika; Arora, Saurabh; Khar, Roop K
The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:21969739
Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Bhandari, A
The colon targeted drug delivery has a number of important implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Oral colon targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Targeting of drugs to the colon via oral administration protect the drug from degradation or release in the stomach and small intestine. It also ensures abrupt or controlled release of the drug in the proximal colon. Various drug delivery systems have been designed that deliver the drug quantitatively to the colon and then trigger the release of drug. This review will cover different types of polymers which can be used in formulation of colon targeted drug delivery systems.
Rajpurohit, H.; Sharma, P.; Sharma, S.; Bhandari, A.
Liposomes are spherical-enclosed membrane vesicles mainly constructed with lipids. Lipid nanoparticles are loaded with therapeutics and may not contain an enclosed bilayer. The majority of those clinically approved have diameters of 50–300 nm. The growing interest in nanomedicine has fueled lipid–drug and lipid–protein studies, which provide a foundation for developing lipid particles that improve drug potency and reduce off-target effects. Integrating advances in lipid membrane research has enabled therapeutic development. At present, about 600 clinical trials involve lipid particle drug delivery systems. Greater understanding of pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and disposition of lipid–drug particles facilitated particle surface hydration technology (with polyethylene glycol) to reduce rapid clearance and provide sufficient blood circulation time for drug to reach target tissues and cells. Surface hydration enabled the liposome-encapsulated cancer drug doxorubicin (Doxil) to gain clinical approval in 1995. Fifteen lipidic therapeutics are now clinically approved. Although much research involves attaching lipid particles to ligands selective for occult cells and tissues, preparation procedures are often complex and pose scale-up challenges. With emerging knowledge in drug target and lipid–drug distribution in the body, a systems approach that integrates knowledge to design and scale lipid–drug particles may further advance translation of these systems to improve therapeutic safety and efficacy.
KRAFT, JOHN C.; FREELING, JENNIFER P.; WANG, ZIYAO; HO, RODNEY J. Y.
This paper investigates the use of adaptive neural network techniques for modeling and automatic control of mean arterial pressure through the intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside. An indirect model reference-based adaptive nonlinear control scheme with neural networks approximating the unknown nonlinearities, is developed. In this formulation nonlinear estimators are used to adaptively approximate the system uncertainty and augment the linear
Marios M. Polycarpou; John Y. Conway
The present work was aimed at designing microsponge based colon specific drug delivery system containing paracetamol. Eudragit S-100 based microsponges containing drug in varying amounts were prepared using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. The microsponges were prepared by optimizing various process parameters. DSC and FTIR studies indicated compatibility of the drug in various formulations. Shape and surface morphology of the microsponges were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The formulations were subjected to in vitro release studies and the results were evaluated kinetically and statistically. The in vitro release data showed a bi-phasic pattern with an initial burst effect. In the first hour drug release from microsponges was found to be between 18-30%. The cumulative percent release at the end of 12(th) hour was noted to be between 74-98%. The release kinetics showed that the data followed Higuchi model and the main mechanism of drug release was diffusion. The colon specific tablets were prepared by compressing the microsponges followed by coating with pectin: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) mixture. In vitro release studies exhibited that compression coated colon specific tablet formulations started releasing the drug at 6(th) hour corresponding to the arrival time at proximal colon. The study presents a new approach for colon specific drug delivery. PMID:21656358
Jain, Vikas; Singh, Ranjit
Intravenous administration of 5-fluorouracil for colon cancer therapy produces severe systemic side-effects due to its cytotoxic effect on normal cells. The broad objective of the present study was to develop novel tablet formulations for site-specific delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon without the drug being released in the stomach or small intestine using guar gum as a carrier. Fast-disintegrating 5-fluorouracil
Y. S. R Krishnaiah; V Satyanarayana; B Dinesh Kumar; R. S Karthikeyan
Abstract The objective of most modern drug delivery strategies is to maximize the effectiveness of drug molecules at diseased tissue and to minimize their effects in healthy ones. This is most often achieved using (bio-)synthetic carrier systems that release the drug at the target location. One emerging strategy to achieve this is to destabilize carriers and release therapeutics using natural redox gradients in the body or associated with disease. The body, however, is composed of numerous microenvironments whose redox homeostasis, as well as its dysregulation due to disease, is complex. The original article and authoritative reviews that constitute this Forum discuss some of the particular redox features associated with diseases and present an overview of how, chemically, redox-responsive drug delivery carriers can be designed to respond to these opportunities. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 705-706. PMID:24797814
Gauthier, Marc A
Pulmonary tuberculosis is associated with a year-long chemotherapy, poor alveolar drug levels, drug-related systemic toxicity, and patient noncompliance. In this study, exogenous pulmonary surfactant is proposed as a drug carrier for antitubercular drugs. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major lung-surfactant lipid, has been combined with antitubercular drugs isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RFM), and ethambutol (ETH) in 1:1 ratio by weight, in which drugs had a ratio of 1:2:3 by weight. At 37 degrees C, the formulation had better surfactant function with quicker reduction of surface tension on adsorption (32.71 +/- 0.65 mN/m) than DPPC liposomes (44.67 +/- 0.57 mN/m) and maintained 100% airway patency in a capillary surfactometer. Drug-loaded surfactant liposomes were about 2 microm and had entrapment efficiency of 30.04% +/- 2.05%, 18.85% +/- 2.92%, and 61.47% +/- 3.32% for INH, RFM, and ETH, respectively. Sustained release of the drugs from surfactants was observed over 24 h. In vitro alveolar deposition efficiency using the twin impinger showed 12.06% +/- 1.87% of INH, 43.30% +/- 0.87% of RFM, and 22.07% +/- 2.02% of ETH deposited in the alveolar chamber upon nebulization for a minute using a jet nebulizer. The formulation was biocompatible and stable with physicochemical properties being retained even after storage for a month at 4 degrees C. Antitubercular drug-loaded surfactants developed could serve dual purposes of alveolar stabilization due to surfactant action and better reach of these drugs to the alveoli due to antiatelectatic effect of the surfactant. PMID:18431766
Chimote, G; Banerjee, R
Luminescence functionalization of the ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica was realized by depositing a YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor layer on its surface via the Pechini sol-gel process, resulting in the formation of the YVO4:Eu3+@SBA-15 composite material. This material, which combines the mesoporous structure of SBA-15 and the strong red luminescence property of YVO4:Eu3+, can be used as a novel functional drug delivery system. The structure, morphology, porosity, and optical properties of the materials were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, and photoluminescence spectra. As expected, the pore volume, surface area, and pore size of SBA-15 decrease in sequence after deposition of the YVO4:Eu3+ layer and the adsorption of ibuprofen (IBU, drug). The IBU-loaded YVO4:Eu3+@SBA-15 system still shows the red emission of Eu3+ (617 nm, 5D0-7F2) under UV irradiation and the controlled drug release property. Additionally, the emission intensity of Eu3+ increases with an increase in the cumulative released amount of IBU in the system, making the extent of drug release easily identifiable, trackable, and monitorable by the change of luminescence. The system has great potential in the drug delivery and disease therapy fields. PMID:17371013
Yang, Piaoping; Huang, Shanshan; Kong, Deyan; Lin, Jun; Fu, Honggang
Background and the purpose of the study Many drugs which have narrow therapeutic window and are absorbed mainly in stomach have been developed as gastroretentive delivery system. Rosiglitazone maleate, an anti-diabetic, is highly unstable at basic pH and is extensively absorbed from the stomach. Hence there is a need to develop a gastroretentive system. In this study a superporous hydrogel was developed as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. Methods Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network type superporous hydrogels were prepared using a gas foaming method employing glyoxal as the crosslinking agent for Rosiglitazone maleate. Sodium bicarbonate was applied as a foaming agent to introduce the porous structure. Swelling behaviors of superporous hydrogel in acidic solution were studied to investigate their applications for gastric retention device. The optimum preparation condition of superporous hydrogels was obtained from the gelation kinetics. FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy, porosity and swelling ratio studies were used to characterize these polymers. In vitro drug release studies were also carried out. Results The introduction of a small amount of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) enhanced the mechanical strength but slightly reduced the swelling ratio. The prepared superporous hydrogels were highly sensitive to pH of swelling media, and showed reversible swelling and de-swelling behaviors maintaining their mechanical stability. The degradation kinetics in simulated gastric fluid showed that it had biodegradability. Swelling was dependent on the amount of chitosan and crosslinker. The drug release from superporous hydrogels was sustained for 6 hrs. Major Conclusion The studies showed that chitosan-based superporous hydrogels could be used as a gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate in view of their swelling and prolonged drug release characteristics in acidic pH.
Vishal Gupta, N.; Shivakumar, H.G.
Brain tumor, especially glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is one of the most malignant tumors, which not only demands perplexing treatment approaches but also requires potent and effective treatment modality to deal with recurrence of the tumor. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment which has been recommended as a third-level treatment. We are trying to investigate possibility of the PDT as an efficient adjuvant therapeutic modality for the treatment of brain tumor. Inhibition of tumor progression with photosensitizer was verified, in vitro. With micellar nanoscale drug delivery system, localization of the tumor was identified, in vivo, which is able to be referred as photodynamic diagnosis. With consequent results, we are suggesting photodynamic diagnosis and therapy is able to be performed simultaneously with our nanoscale drug delivery system.
Chong, Kyuha; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, EunSoo; Han, Eun Chun; Lee, Jungsul; Cha, Junghwa; Ku, Taeyun; Yoon, Jonghee; Park, Ji Ho; Choi, Chulhee
An essential basis for the understanding of the complex interplay between oral drug delivery systems and gastrointestinal physiology is the ability to relate deposition of the dosage form to the plasma concentration time profile. The pharmaceutical scientist requires an array of methods that provide information on formulation disposition without influencing the physiological process, commonly termed "non-invasive" imaging modalities. In this paper, a short historical view on the suitability of different imaging modalities for the investigation of the fate of drug delivery systems in the GI tract is given. The focus of the review is the presentation of currently mostly used methodologies scintigraphy, magnetic tracking techniques like magnetic marker monitoring (MMM), magnetic moment imaging (MMI), AC biosusceptometry (ACB) and magnetic resonance imaging and the discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:21820499
Weitschies, Werner; Wilson, Clive G
The development and optimization of many new drug therapies requires long-term local delivery with controlled, but variable\\u000a dosage. Current methods for chronic drug delivery have limited utility because they either cannot deliver drugs locally to\\u000a a specific organ or tissue, do not permit changes in delivery rate in situ, or cannot be used in clinical trials in an untethered, wearable
J. Fiering; M. J. Mescher; E. E. Leary Swan; M. E. Holmboe; B. A. Murphy; Z. Chen; M. Peppi; W. F. Sewell; M. J. McKenna; S. G. Kujawa; J. T. Borenstein
Konjac glucomannan (KGM), alone or in combination with xanthan gum (XG), was evaluated as main component of systems capable of controlling the diffusion of small molecules with a view of their use in drug delivery. To provide the study with enough general character, KGM batches were obtained from the three main areas of excipient harmonization (Europe, USA and Japan). The rheological evaluation at physiological temperature of KGM (0.5%, w/v) aqueous dispersions, with or without XG at different ratios, showed significant variability among the three KGMs owing to differences in the acetylation degree. The Japanese and European varieties of KGM synergically interact with XG giving rise to gel formation; the synergism being maximum at a 1:1 ratio. By contrast, the American KGM does not show such effect forming only viscous solutions. Drug diffusion coefficients of theophylline and diltiazem HCl, with different molecular size and net charge, were evaluated in systems containing KGM/XG ratio 1:1. KGM/XG systems were more efficient than the XG alone dispersion for controlling drug diffusion of small molecules because of the gel formation. These results point out the potential of mixtures of some KGM types with XG to develop delivery systems capable of maintaining physical integrity and drug release control for up to 8-h period. PMID:17804182
Alvarez-Manceñido, Felipe; Landin, Mariana; Lacik, Igor; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón
Ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41) particles with different morphologies were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process. Then these silica particles were functionalized with luminescent YVO4:Eu3+ layers via the Pechini sol–gel process. The obtained YVO4:Eu3+and MCM-41 composites, which maintained the mesoporous structure of MCM-41 and the red luminescence property of YVO4:Eu3+, were investigated as drug delivery systems using ibuprofen (IBU) as model
Piaoping Yang; Zewei Quan; Lanlan Lu; Shanshan Huang; Jun Lin
Limited aqueous solubility of exemestane leads to high variability in absorption after oral administration. To improve the\\u000a solubility and bioavailability of exemestane, the self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed. SMEDDS\\u000a comprises of isotropic mixture of natural or synthetic oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, which, upon dilution with aqueous\\u000a media, spontaneously form fine o\\/w microemulsion with less than 100 nm in droplet
Ajeet K. Singh; Akash Chaurasiya; Anshumali Awasthi; Gautam Mishra; Dinesh Asati; Roop K. Khar; Rama Mukherjee
The present work was aimed at formulating a SMEDDS (self-microemulsifying drug delivery system) of fenofibrate and evaluating\\u000a its in vitro and in vivo potential. The solubility of fenofibrate was determined in various vehicles. Pseudoternary phase\\u000a diagrams were used to evaluate the microemulsification existence area, and the release rate of fenofibrate was investigated\\u000a using an in vitro dissolution test. SMEDDS formulations
Ashok R. Patel; Pradeep R. Vavia
Dipyridamole shows poor and variable bioavailability after oral administration due to pHdependent solubility, low biomembrane\\u000a permeability as well as being a substrate of P-glycoprotein. In order to improve the oral absorption of dipyridamole, a self-microemulsifying\\u000a drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for dipyridamole was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The optimum formulation was 18% oleic acid, 12% Labrafac lipophile
Feng Guo; Haijun Zhong; Jing He; Baogang Xie; Fen Liu; Helin Xu; Minmin Liu; Chunlian Xu
Unsaturated monoglycerides such as monooleate or monolinoleate form a physically stable, highly viscous cubic phase in contact with excess aqueous medium. The swelling and release properties of drug-loaded monoglyceride matrices were evaluated with regard to the development of an oral sustained release delivery system. The swelling capacity of the amphiphilic monoglyceride matrix was higher in 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate
Chin-Ming Chang; Roland Bodmeier
Reciprocating microfluidic drug delivery, as compared to steady or pulsed infusion, has unique features which may be advantageous in many therapeutic applications. We have previously described a device, designed for wearable use in small animal models, that periodically infuses and then withdraws a sub-microliter volume of drug solution to and from the endogenous fluid of the inner ear. This delivery approach results in zero net volume of liquid transfer while enabling mass transport of compounds to the cochlea by means of diffusion and mixing. We report here on an advanced wearable delivery system aimed at further miniaturization and complex dosing protocols. Enhancements to the system include the incorporation of a planar micropump to generate reciprocating flow and a novel drug reservoir that maintains zero net volume delivery and permits programmable modulation of the drug concentration in the infused bolus. The reciprocating pump is fabricated from laminated polymer films and employs a miniature electromagnetic actuator to meet the size and weight requirements of a head-mounted in vivo guinea pig testing system. The reservoir comprises a long microchannel in series with a micropump, connected in parallel with the reciprocating flow network. We characterized in vitro the response and repeatability of the planar pump and compared the results with a lumped element simulation. We also characterized the performance of the reservoir, including repeatability of dosing and range of dose modulation. Acute in vivo experiments were performed in which the reciprocating pump was used to deliver a test compound to the cochlea of anesthetized guinea pigs to evaluate short-term safety and efficacy of the system. These advances are key steps toward realization of an implantable device for long-term therapeutic applications in humans. PMID:24302432
Kim, Ernest S; Gustenhoven, Erich; Mescher, Mark J; Pararas, Erin E Leary; Smith, Kim A; Spencer, Abigail J; Tandon, Vishal; Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Fiering, Jason
Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions are potential for enhancing oral bioavailability of drugs with high solubility and low permeability, but their industrial application is limited due to the instability. Herein, we developed a novel formulation, self-double-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SDEDDS) by formulating mixtures of hydrophilic surfactants and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions, which were easier to be stable through formulations optimization. SDEDDS can spontaneously emulsify to water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions in the mixed aqueous gastrointestinal environment, with drugs encapsulated in the internal water phase of the double emulsions. We employed SDEDDS to improve the oral absorption of pidotimod, a peptide-like drug with high solubility and low permeability. The optimized pidotimod-SDEDDS were found to be stable up to 6 months under 25°C. Plasma concentration-time profiles from pharmacokinetic studies in rats dosed with SDEDDS showed 2.56-fold (p<0.05) increased absorption of pidotimod, compared to the pidotimod solution. Histopathologic studies confirmed that SDEDDS exerted absorption promoting effect without serious local damages. These studies demonstrate that SDEDDS may be a promising strategy for peroral delivery of peptide and peptidomimetic drugs. PMID:21356300
Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Lishuang; Zhu, Jiabi; Hu, Zhenyi; Zhang, Jie
The number of ion exchange fibers in development has increased over the last several years. However, few studies have reported the use ion-exchange fibers in drug delivery system. In this study polystyrene nanofiber ion exchangers (PSNIE) were fabricated by electrospinning techniques, crosslinking and sulfonation. The degree of crosslinking and the ion exchange capacity (IEC) were determined. The morphology and diameter of the nanofiber mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Five cationic model drugs (dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, propranolol and salbutamol) were loaded into PSNIE. The loading capacity, release and release kinetics of the exchangers were investigated. PSNIE were successfully prepared by electrospinning and were allowed to crosslink for 10 min, resulting in a maximum IEC of 2.86±0.1 meq/g dry PSNIE. The diameter of the fibers after sulfonation was 464±35 nm. Dextromethorphan provided the highest loading in PSNIE while diphenhydramine gave the highest percentage release in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluid (SGF and SIF). The release kinetics of all drugs in SGF and SIF provided the best fit with the particle diffusion model. Our results showed that the development of a PSNIE-based drug delivery system was successful, and PSNIE were able to control drug release. PMID:23623792
Nitanan, Todsapon; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwannee; Opanasopit, Praneet
Low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention as colloidal drug carriers, but when applied to intravascular drug delivery, they are easy to be removed from circulation by the reticuloendothelial system, which limits their applications as long-circulating or target-specific carriers. Erythrocytes have a long circulation time in the blood, but they are sometimes not suitable for loading and releasing of drug directly. The combination of LMW chitosan nanoparticles and erythrocytes that complement each other is a desirable strategy to develop a multifunctional drug carrier. In this study, monodisperse, LMW chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation technique and these nanoparticles were investigated with regard to their erythrocyte compatibility. Then the interactions between erythrocytes and fluorescence-labeled LMW chitosan nanoparticles were studied by confocal microscopy. The results of this study indicate that LMW chitosan nanoparticles show good compatibility with erythrocytes and they can be easily attached to the surface of erythrocyte membrane, suggesting that erythrocytes load of LMW chitosan nanoparticles can be served as a potential vascular drug delivery system. PMID:22469561
Fan, Wen; Yan, Wei; Xu, Zushun; Ni, Hong
The drug release characteristics ofDa Chuanxiong Fang multiunit drug delivery system (DCXFMDDS) in vivo and in vitro were evaluated. Ferulic acid (FA) and senkyunolide I (SI) were used as marker components, which were two of the effective components of Da Chuanxiong Fang. And their contents were determined by HPLC. Drug release characteristics in vitro of DCXFMDDS and Da Chuanxiong pills and pharmacokinetics characteristics of DCXFMDDS and Da Chuanxiong Fang active fraction (DCXFAF) in rats were compared. It was obvious that FA released from the DCXFMDDS in a sustained fashion but SI in a fast fashion both in vitro and in vivo. The releasing process and the releasing mechanism of FA and SI from DCXFMDDS were different, but the AUC value indicated that compared with DCXFAF the extent of absorption of FA and SI from DCXFMDDS was increased. Though from the same multiunit drug delivery system, FA an SI had different drug release characteristics both in vitro and in vivo, and that may be one of the reason why DCXFMDDS has the good properties such as rapid and long-lasting effect and high efficiency. PMID:22121790
Wei, Yuan-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi
The purpose of this study was to design novel colon specific drug delivery system containing flurbiprofen (FLB) microsponges. Microsponges containing FLB and Eudragit RS 100 were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. Additionally, FLB was entrapped into a commercial Microsponge 5640 system using entrapment method. Afterwards, the effects of drug:polymer ratio, inner phase solvent amount, stirring time and speed and stirrer type on the physical characteristics of microsponges were investigated. The thermal behaviour, surface morphology, particle size and pore structure of microsponges were examined. The colon specific formulations were prepared by compression coating and also pore plugging of microsponges with pectin:hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) mixture followed by tabletting. In vitro dissolution studies were done on all formulations and the results were kinetically and statistically evaluated. The microsponges were spherical in shape, between 30.7 and 94.5microm in diameter and showed high porosity values (61-72%). The pore shapes of microsponges prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method and entrapment method were found as spherical and cylindrical holes, respectively. Mechanically strong tablets prepared for colon specific drug delivery were obtained owing to the plastic deformation of sponge-like structure of microsponges. In vitro studies exhibited that compression coated colon specific tablet formulations started to release the drug at the 8th hour corresponding to the proximal colon arrival time due to the addition of enzyme, following a modified release pattern while the drug release from the colon specific formulations prepared by pore plugging the microsponges showed an increase at the 8th hour which was the time point that the enzyme addition made. This study presents a new approach based on microsponges for colon specific drug delivery. PMID:16687222
Orlu, Mine; Cevher, Erdal; Araman, Ahmet
Sustained release asymmetric membrane capsular systems were developed for simultaneous oral delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid sodium in order to reduce the problems associated with the multi drug therapy of tuberculosis. Dense semipermeable membrane coating capsules were also prepared for the delivery of these drugs by adopting two different filling approaches. In vitro release studies were carried out for both types of systems and the results were compared. Asymmetric membrane capsules provided sustained release of rifampicin associated with initial burst release, where isoniazid release rates were comparatively high due to higher aqueous solubility. Dense semipermeable membrane systems provided controlled release of both drugs but were devoid of initial burst release of isoniazid. To overcome these drawbacks, a modified asymmetric system was developed by adding appropriate amount of hydrophilic polymer mixture with isoniazid. The system provided satisfactory sustained release of rifampicin and isoniazid with initial burst release may be sufficient to achieve minimum effective concentration in blood. In vitro dissolution kinetics of the systems followed first order kinetics and statistical analysis of release rate data proved that modified asymmetric system was better amongst the developed systems. PMID:14980772
Prabakaran, D; Singh, Paramjit; Jaganathan, K S; Vyas, Suresh P
In recent years the nasal route has received a great deal of attention as a convenient and reliable method for the systemic administration of drugs. Although this route is currently being marketed for the systemic administration of several drugs, it has only recently been studied. This chapter deals with animal techniques to study nasal absorption and the effect of physico-chemical
Anwar A Hussain
Xanthan gum is a high molecular weight natural polysaccharide produced by fermentation process. It consists of 1, 4-linked ?-D-glucose residues, having a trisaccharide side chain attached to alternate D-glucosyl residues. Although the gum has many properties desirable for drug delivery, its practical use is mainly confined to the unmodified forms due to slow dissolution and substantial swelling in biological fluids. Xanthan gum has been chemically modified by conventional chemical methods like carboxymethylation, and grafting such as free radical, microwave-assisted, chemoenzymatic and plasma assisted chemical grafting to alter physicochemical properties for a wide spectrum of biological applications. This article reviews various techniques utilized for modification of xanthan gum and its applications in a range of drug delivery systems. PMID:23607638
Badwaik, Hemant R; Giri, Tapan Kumar; Nakhate, Kartik T; Kashyap, Pranita; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna
Abstract Glioma is one of the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumours which need proper treatment strategy. The current therapies for treating glioma like surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have failed in achieving satisfactory results and this forms a rationale for the development of novel drug delivery systems. Among them, polymersomes are superior novel carriers with diverse functions like enhanced stability, low permeability, tunable membrane properties, surface functionality, and long blood circulation time which make them suitable for cancer therapy. These are bilayered vesicles capable of encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs used to target glioma effectively. In this review, we have discussed on general preparation, characterization, and targeting aspects of surface modified polymersomes for effective delivery of therapeutic agents to glioma. PMID:24830300
Krishnamoorthy, Balakumar; Karanam, Vamshikrishna; Chellan, Vijaya Raghavan; Siram, Karthik; Natarajan, Tamil Selvan; Gregory, Marslin
Star polymers have unique characteristics due to their well-defined size and tailor ability which makes these polymers attractive candidates as carriers in drug delivery system applications. This work focuses on attaching a drug to the star polymer (polyamidoamine). The conjugation of polyamidoamine (PAMAM, generation 4) with methotrexate (MTX) (model drug) was studied in which monomethyl polyethylene glycol (MPEG) was used as a linker to reduce the toxicity of dendrimer. Conjugation starts with attaching the drug to the linker and followed by further conjugation with the polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer. The conjugation of PAMAM-PEG-MTX was confirmed through UV-Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR and DSC. The loading capacities and release profile of this conjugate were determined using 1H NMR and UV spectrometer.
Mohd Sabri, Siti Noorzidah bt; Abu, Norhidayah; Mastor, Azreena; Hisham, Siti Farhana; Noorsal, Kartini
Drug delivery to the brain poses unique challenges. Specialized anatomic and physiological features of the cerebrovasculature and cerebral tissue fluids result in barriers which significantly restrict delivery of a wide range of possible therapeutic agents. In addition to these normal restrictions to brain drug delivery, pathophysiological features and sequelae of acute brain injury will also impact upon the efficiency of
Eng H. Lo; Aneesh B. Singhal; Vladimir P. Torchilin; N. Joan Abbott
This work presents manufacturing and testing of a closed-loop drug delivery system where drug release is achieved by an electrochemical actuation of an array of polymeric valves on a set of drug reservoirs. The valves are based on bi-layer structures made of polypyrrole/gold in the shape of a flap that is hinged on one side of a valve seat. Drugs stored in the underlying chambers are released by bending the bi-layer flaps back with a small applied bias. These polymeric valves simultaneously function as both drug release components and biological/chemical sensors responding to a specific biological or environmental stimulus. The sensors may send signals to the control module to realize closed-loop control of the drug release. In this study a glucose sensor has been integrated with the polymeric actuators through immobilization of glucose oxidase(GOx) within polypyrrole(PPy) valves. Sensitivities per unit area of the integrated glucose sensor have been measured and compared before and after the actuation of the sensor/actuator PPy/DBS/GOx film. Other sensing parameters such as linear range and response time were discussed as well. Using an array of these sensor/actuator cells, the amount of released drug, e.g. insulin, can be precisely controlled according to the surrounding glucose concentration detected by the glucose sensor. Activation of these reservoirs can be triggered either by the signal from the sensor, or by the signal from the operator. This approach also serves as the initial step to use the proposed system as an implantable drug delivery platform in the future.
Xu, Han; Wang, Chunlei; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Zoval, Jim; Madou, Marc
This study describes development of a novel controlled drug release system for multiple drugs, it consisted of Chitosan nanoparticles/PCL composite electrospun nanofibers with core-sheath structures. Two model agents' rhodamine B and naproxen were successfully loaded in the core and sheath region respectively. The behavior of these two agents demonstrated a good controlled release and temporality, providing a new way to obtain program or temporality release for multiple agents. Particularly, this is potential applications in the field of tissue engineering, sutures and wound dressings. PMID:20821381
Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu; Qiao, Weili; Yin, Tieying
Luminescence functionalization of ordered mesoporous MCM-41 silica was realized by depositing a YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor layer on its surface via the Pechini sol-gel process. This material, which combines the mesoporous structure of MCM-41 and the strong red luminescence property of YVO4:Eu3+, has been studied as a host carrier for drug delivery/release systems. The structure, morphology, texture and optical properties of the materials were well characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results indicated that the specific surface area and pore volume of MCM-41, which were directly correlated to the drug-loading amount and ibuprofen (IBU) release rate, decreased in sequence after deposition of YVO4:Eu3+ and loading of IBU as expected. The IBU-loaded YVO4:Eu3+@MCM-41 system still showed red luminescence under UV irradiation (365 nm) and a controlled release property for IBU. In addition, the emission intensity of Eu3+ increases with an increase in the cumulative released amount of IBU, making the extent of drug release easily identified, tracked and monitored by the change of luminescence, which demonstrates its potential application in drug delivery/release systems.
Yang, Piaoping; Quan, Zewei; Lu, Lanlan; Huang, Shanshan; Lin, Jun; Fu, Honggang
Feasibility studies have been carried out for development of a biocompatible coating of medical implant materials allowing the binding of biodegradable drug-delivery systems in a way that their reloading might be possible. These novel coatings, able to bind biodegradable nanoparticles, may serve in the long run as drug carriers to mediate local pharmacological activity. After biodegradation of the nanoparticles, the binding sites could be reloaded with fresh drug-delivering particles. As a suitable receptor system for the nanoparticles, antibodies are anchored. The design of the receptor is of great importance as any bio- or chemorecognitive interaction with other components circulating in the blood has to be avoided. Furthermore, the binding between receptor and the particles has to be strong enough to keep them tightly bound during their lifetime, but on the other hand allow reloading after final degradation of the particles. The nanoparticles suggested as a drug-delivery system for medical implants can be loaded with different pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, growth factors, or immunosuppressives. This concept may enable the changing of medication, even after implantation of the medical device, if afforded by patients’ needs.
Al-Dubai, Haifa; Pittner, Gisela; Pittner, Fritz; Gabor, Franz
Iontophoresis is a promising technique for enhancing transdermal administration of charged drugs. However, conventional iontophoresis is not sufficient for effective delivery of large, hydrophilic, or electrically neutral molecules. In this study, we utilized charged liposomes as carriers, focused on a transfollicular route for delivery of the liposomes, and optimized iontophoretic conditions and lipid composition for this method in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. As a result, we identified the optimum condition (lipid composition: DOTAP/EPC/Chol=2:2:1, current supply: 0.45mA/cm(2), duration: 1h) for effective iontophoretic delivery of aqueous solution, which cannot be transferred into the skin without charged liposomes. We also examined the pharmacological effects of iontophoresis of liposomes encapsulating insulin (INS-lipo) using a rat model of type I diabetes. Interestingly, iontophoresis of INS-lipo onto a diabetes rat skin resulted in a gradual decrease in blood glucose levels, with levels reaching 20% of initial values at 18h after administration. These lower blood glucose levels were maintained for up to 24h. Significant amount of insulin were also detected in plasma 18h after iontophoresis of INS-lipo. We succeeded in developing a non-invasive and persistent transfollicular drug delivery system that used a combination of liposomes and iontophoresis. PMID:20970487
Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Kigasawa, Kaoru; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro
Casein, the major milk protein, forms an integral part of the daily diet in many parts of the world. Casein possesses a number of interesting properties that make it a good candidate for conventional and novel drug delivery systems. This article reviews approaches aimed to associate bioactive molecules to casein and analyze the evidence of their efficacy in modifying the release and/or improving the bioavailability of the associated molecules. The ability of casein to modify drug dissolution from compacts was reported. The high tensile strength of casein films, favors its use as an acceptable film-coating for tablets. Naturally occurring genipin and a natural tissue enzyme, transglutaminase, were used as crosslinkers to prepare novel casein-based hydrogels for the controlled release of bioactives. Casein floating beads were developed to increase the residence time of drugs in the stomach based on its emulsifying and bubble-forming properties. Casein-based microparticles entrapping bioactive molecules were prepared via emulsification-chemical crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, enzymatic crosslinking by transglutaminase, simple coacervation and electrostatic complexation. Casein nano-formulations were also prepared to deliver nutraceuticals and synthetic drugs via enzymatic crosslinking, graft copolymerization, heat-gelation and polyelectrolyte ionic complexation. It can be concluded that casein-based formulations are promising materials for controlled drug delivery. PMID:21338636
Elzoghby, Ahmed O; El-Fotoh, Wael S Abo; Elgindy, Nazik A
Amongst the various routes of drug delivery, the field of ocular drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. Recent research has focused on the characteristic advantages and limitations of the various drug delivery systems, and further research will be required before the ideal system can be developed. Administration of drugs to the ocular region with conventional delivery systems leads to short contact time of the formulations on the epithelium and fast elimination of drugs. This transient residence time involves poor bioavailability of drugs which can be explained by the tear production, non-productive absorption and impermeability of corneal epithelium. Anatomy of the eye is shortly presented and is connected with ophthalmic delivery and bioavailability of drugs. In the present update on ocular dosage forms, chemical delivery systems such as prodrugs, the use of cyclodextrins to increase solubility of various drugs, the concept of penetration enhancers and other ocular drug delivery systems such as polymeric gels, bioadhesive hydrogels, in-situ forming gels with temperature-, pH-, or osmotically induced gelation, combination of polymers and colloidal systems such as liposomes, niosomes, cubosomes, microemulsions, nanoemulsions and nanoparticles are discussed. Novel ophthalmic delivery systems propose the use of many excipients to increase the viscosity or the bioadhesion of the product. New formulations like gels or colloidal systems have been tested with numerous active substances by in vitro and in vivo studies. Sustained drug release and increase in drug bioavailability have been obtained, offering the promise of innovation in drug delivery systems for ocular administration. Combining different properties of pharmaceutical formulations appears to offer a genuine synergy in bioavailability and sustained release. Promising results are obtained with colloidal systems which present very comfortable conditions of use and prolonged action. PMID:23153114
Achouri, Djamila; Alhanout, Kamel; Piccerelle, Philippe; Andrieu, Véronique
Anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and idarubicin) are very effective chemotherapeutic drugs to treat many cancers; however, the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR) is one of the major limitations for their clinical applications. Nano-delivery systems have emerged as the novel cancer therapeutics to overcome MDR. Up until now, many anthracycline nano-delivery systems have been developed and reported to effectively circumvent MDR both in-vitro and in-vivo, and some of these systems have even advanced to clinical trials, such as the HPMA-doxorubicin (HPMA-DOX) conjugate. Doxil, a DOX PEGylated liposome formulation, was developed and approved by FDA in 1995. Unfortunately, this formulation does not address the MDR problem. In this comprehensive review, more than ten types of developed anthracycline nano-delivery systems to overcome MDR and their proposed mechanisms are covered and discussed, including liposomes; polymeric micelles, conjugate and nanoparticles; peptide/protein conjugates; solid-lipid, magnetic, gold, silica, and cyclodextrin nanoparticles; and carbon nanotubes.
Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J.
A novel drug-delivery system was developed by loading the anticancer drug, mitomycin C (MC) into an oil/water system with the aim of investigation by electrochemical sensing the interaction between the drug and DNA in microemulsion phase. The physical and physicochemical properties (droplet size, pH, viscosity, conductivity and refractive index) of this microemulsion were examined. The electrochemical detection of the interaction between MC and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in microemulsion phase was performed by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in combination with a disposable sensor, pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The magnitude of guanine oxidation signal was monitored before and after interaction between MC and dsDNA. The effect of different experimental parameters, such as MC concentration, MC interaction time with dsDNA, and dsDNA concentration were also studied to find the optimum analytical performance based on electrochemical detection of this interaction in microemulsion phase. PMID:17590560
Karadeniz, Hakan; Alparslan, Levent; Erdem, Arzum; Karasulu, Ercument
A preliminary evaluation was carried out on metronidazole-loaded Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) using two vegetable oils-Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Palm Oil (PO). Purification of oils, drug solubility in the oils, pre/post formulation isotropicity tests, emulsification times and release studies of metronidazole from the SEDDS were carried out. Results indicated solubility values of 4.441 and 4.654%w/w, respectively for metronidazole in PKO and PO. Preformulation isotropicity test revealed that out of the 24 batches evaluated 10 of the SEDDS formulations containing different oil: surfactant ratios and PKO:PO admixtures were found to be isotropic after 5 h. However when the SEDDS were loaded with metronidazole there was a reduction in the number (to 7) of formulations that maintained isotropicity and stability after 72 h. All the batches had emulsification times of less than two minutes except batch 4D with oil:surfactant concentration of 50:50. The release profile showed that most of the formulations released 50% of drug in less than 8 min and 85% of drug in less than 30 min. We therefore conclude that SEDDS containing the two vegetable oils are potential alternatives when immediate release and delivery of metronidazole is the primary motivation.
Obitte, N. C.; Ezeiruaku, H.; Onyishi, V. I.
Drug delivery into immune cells has high potential for the treatment of all kinds of inflammation, allowing a target-oriented transport of active agents. The advantage of this local drug release is the prevention of negative effects of systemic applications and low-dose application. Thereby, the phagocytotic capability of mature phagocytes is essential. Microparticles can be loaded with immune regulatory substances to control and terminate inflammatory processes. In this study, silica microparticles were co-incubated with monocyte/macrophage-like cells in order to determine phagocytotic particle uptake. The phorbol ester-triggered differentiation was proven by the increased expression of surface markers as phosphatidylserine and CD14 and enhanced lysosomal activity. Particle/cell co-incubation results in cell surface attachment followed by phagocytosis. Phagolysosomal ingestion could be determined by co-localization using fluorescence staining techniques. In contrast, no particle interaction with undifferentiated cells could be found. Under phagolysosomal conditions, multilayer degradation within 22 h could be shown, indicating a valuable carrier basis design for the time-controlled delivery of active agents. Subsequently, it can be assumed that a higher differentiation degree allows phagocytosis of microparticles, providing drug delivery into immuno-active cells. PMID:20419390
Lessig, Jacqueline; Neu, Björn; Glander, Hans-Jürgen; Arnhold, Jürgen; Reibetanz, Uta
Notch signaling, a key regulator of stem cells, is frequently overactivated in cancer. It is often linked to aggressive forms of cancer, evading standard treatment highlighting Notch as an exciting therapeutic target. Notch is in principle “druggable” by ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), inhibitory peptides and antibodies, but clinical use of Notch inhibitors is restricted by severe side effects and there is a demand for alternative cancer-targeted therapy. Here, we present a novel approach, using imagable mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) as vehicles for targeted delivery of GSIs to block Notch signaling. Drug-loaded particles conjugated to targeting ligands induced cell-specific inhibition of Notch activity in vitro and exhibited enhanced tumor retainment with significantly improved Notch inhibition and therapeutic outcome in vivo. Oral administration of GSI-MSNPs controlled Notch activity in intestinal stem cells further supporting the in vivo applicability of MSNPs for GSI delivery. MSNPs showed tumor accumulation and targeting after systemic administration. MSNPs were biocompatible, and particles not retained within the tumors, were degraded and eliminated mainly by renal excretion. The data highlights MSNPs as an attractive platform for targeted drug delivery of anticancer drugs with otherwise restricted clinical application, and as interesting constituents in the quest for more refined Notch therapies.
Mamaeva, Veronika; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Bate-Eya, Laurel Tabe; Bergman, Lotta; Peuhu, Emilia; Duchanoy, Alain; Fortelius, Lina E; Landor, Sebastian; Toivola, Diana M; Linden, Mika; Sahlgren, Cecilia
The aim of the present work was to formulate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) containing orlistat. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were decided based on the solubility studies. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted, microemulsification area was determined and different formulations were prepared. Particle size, zeta potential, dispersibility test and thermodynamic stability studies were measured. In-vitro dissolution test of thermodynamically stable formulations OS-B and OS-C were carried and results were compared with those of plain drug and suspension formulation. Stability studies performed indicated that formulation OS-C remained stable over 12 months period. Thus this investigation concluded that hydrophobic drugs like orlistat can be delivered effectively through the formulation of SMEDDS.
Desai, Jagruti; Khatri, Nirav; Chauhan, Sachin; Seth, Avinash
The aim of the present work was to formulate a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) containing orlistat. The oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were decided based on the solubility studies. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted, microemulsification area was determined and different formulations were prepared. Particle size, zeta potential, dispersibility test and thermodynamic stability studies were measured. In-vitro dissolution test of thermodynamically stable formulations OS-B and OS-C were carried and results were compared with those of plain drug and suspension formulation. Stability studies performed indicated that formulation OS-C remained stable over 12 months period. Thus this investigation concluded that hydrophobic drugs like orlistat can be delivered effectively through the formulation of SMEDDS. PMID:23066191
Desai, Jagruti; Khatri, Nirav; Chauhan, Sachin; Seth, Avinash
The objective of this work was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for improving oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drug, silymarin. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed using ethyl linoleate, Cremophor EL, ethyl alcohol, and normal saline to identify the efficient self-microemulsification region. The particle size and its distribution of the resultant microemulsions were determined using dynamic light scattering. The optimal formulation with the best self-microemulsifying and solubilization ability consisted of 10% (w/w) of ethyl linoleate, 30% of Cremophor EL, and 60% of ethyl alcohol. The release of silymarin from SMEDDS was significantly faster than that from the commercial silymarin preparation hard capsule (Legalon®). The bioavailability results indicated that the oral absorption of silymarin SMEDDS was enhanced about 2.2-fold compared with the hard capsule in fasted dogs. It could be concluded that SMEDDS would be a promising drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs by the oral route.
Li, Xinru; Yuan, Quan; Huang, Yanqing; Zhou, Yanxia
A novel biocompatible shell-crosslinked nanocapsule system was developed based on nanoemulsion templates stabilized by a class of food proteins. The nanoemulsion templates were prepared using a combination of mechanical mixing and high-pressure homogenization, while the nanocapsule shell formed simultaneously through calcium ions-induced crosslinking of the food proteins. These core-shell structured nanocapsules with a particle size of about 200 nm showed high drug-loading capacity and well improved stability in comparison with their nanoemulsion counterpart. The nanocapsule suspension can be freeze-fried directly; and the solidified nanocapsules can be well reconstituted in water, retaining their original particle size. It is concluded that the nanoemulsion-templated core-shell structured nanocapsules can be used as novel drug delivery systems with high loading capacity for poorly water-soluble drugs as well as well improved long-term and storage stability. Furthermore, the presence of surface food proteins introduces carboxyl and amine moieties, which enables the nanocapsules to anchor ligands, suggesting its potential application in targeting drug delivery, bioimaging and therapeutics. PMID:23396257
He, Wei; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Chen, Lingyun; Hu, Fuqiang; Wu, Wei
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a developed drug delivery system containing OK-432 through in vitro and animal study. An OK-432-impregnated polycarbonate\\/polyurethane stent membrane was used to develop a drug delivery system (DDS) enabling the locoregional release of OK-432. Polyethyleneglycol was used as a detergent and porosity generator. The stability of OK-432 in
Don Haeng Lee; Sung-Gwon Kang; Seok Jeong; Chang Jin Yoon; Jung-Ah Choi; Ju Nam Byun; Jae Hyung Park; Kyu Back Lee
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a developed drug delivery system containing OK-432 through\\u000a in vitro and animal study. An OK-432-impregnated polycarbonate\\/polyurethane stent membrane was used to develop a drug delivery system\\u000a (DDS) enabling the locoregional release of OK-432. Polyethyleneglycol was used as a detergent and porosity generator. The\\u000a stability of OK-432 in
Don Haeng Lee; Sung-Gwon Kang; Seok Jeong; Chang Jin Yoon; Jung-Ah Choi; Ju Nam Byun; Jae Hyung Park; Kyu Back Lee
Introduction: Oral-controlled and modified-release drug delivery systems with zero-order sustained-release kinetics have been developed and proven suitable for meeting increasingly sophisticated therapeutic needs. Nevertheless, the impact of basic chronobiology concepts on the practice of medicine is still ongoing and to address chronotherapy needs, various types of pulsatile drug delivery systems have been innovated. The purpose of this review is to highlight these innovations in the field of chronotherapy. Areas covered: The present review discusses in depth on recent patents and developments related to pulsatile drug delivery systems with eroding, soluble or rupturable barrier coatings, and systems with capsular structures. Besides focusing on all recent innovations, the review addresses the novelty and feasibility of all upcoming technologies being exploited considering pulsatile drug delivery systems. Expert opinion: There has been a growing interest in pulsatile delivery, which generally refers to the liberation of drugs following a programmable and well-defined lag phase from the time of administration. From 1981 until the present date, patent publications related to pulsatile drug delivery have shown more promising systems with numerous developments in arena of drug delivery. Future development of chronotherapeutic medications requires proper assessment and integration with other emerging disciplines such as hydrogel and transdermal delivery systems. The selection of the appropriate chronopharmaceutical technology should take into considerations with the ease of manufacturing and the cost-effectiveness. PMID:24810112
Patil, Sumit S; Shahiwala, Aliasgar
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of tadalafil (TDL) in order to enhance its aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. TDL SNEDDS were developed by aqueous phase titration method via construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. The formulations which passed thermodynamic stability and self-nanoemulsification tests were further characterized in terms of droplet size, viscosity, % transmittance and drug content. Selected SNEDDS and drug suspension were subjected to in vitro drug release studies via dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). In vitro drug release studies showed 96.6% release of TDL from optimized SNEDDS F5 as compared to only 12.4% from drug suspension after 24 h of study. The results of solubility studies showed 1434 folds enhancement in TDL solubility from optimized SNEDDS F5 as compared to its aqueous solubility. Overall, these results indicated that developed SNEDDS could be successfully used to enhance solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs such as TDL. PMID:24770562
El-Badry, Mahmoud; Haq, Nazrul; Fetih, Gihan; Shakeel, Faiyaz
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) of lovastatin was aimed at overcoming the problems of poor solubility and bioavailability. The formulation strategy included selection of oil phase based on saturated solubility studies and surfactant and co-surfactant screening on the basis of their emulsification ability. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the self-emulsifying region. Capryol 90 (20%) as oil, Cremophore RH40 (40%) as surfactant and Transcutol P (40%) as co-surfactant were concluded to be optimized components. The prepared SMEDDS was characterized through its droplet size, zeta potential, emulsification time, rheological determination and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized formulation exhibited 94% in vitro drug release, which was significantly higher than that of the drug solution. In vivo studies using the Triton-induced hyperlipidemia model in Wistar rats revealed considerable reduction in lipid levels compared to pure lovastatin. The study confirmed the potential of lovastatin SMEDDS for oral administration. PMID:23470348
Goyal, Urvashi; Arora, Ritika; Aggarwal, Geeta
The objective of our investigation was to design a self-microemulsifying drug-delivery system (SMEDDS) to improve the bioavailability of probucol. SMEDDS was composed of probucol, olive oil, Lauroglycol FCC, Cremophor EL, Tween-80, and PEG-400. Droplet sizes were determined. In vitro release was investigated. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of probucol suspension, oil solution, and SMEDDS were evaluated and compared in rats. Plasma drug concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After administration of probucol suspension, plasma drug concentration was very low. Relative bioavailability of SMEDDS was dramatically enhanced in an average of 2.15- and 10.22-fold that of oil solution and suspension, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of probucol was enhanced greatly by SMEDDS. Improved solubility and lymphatic transport may contribute to the enhancement of bioavailability.
Sha, Xianyi; Wu, Juan; Chen, Yanzuo; Fang, Xiaoling
The objective of our investigation was to design a self-microemulsifying drug-delivery system (SMEDDS) to improve the bioavailability of probucol. SMEDDS was composed of probucol, olive oil, Lauroglycol FCC, Cremophor EL, Tween-80, and PEG-400. Droplet sizes were determined. In vitro release was investigated. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of probucol suspension, oil solution, and SMEDDS were evaluated and compared in rats. Plasma drug concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After administration of probucol suspension, plasma drug concentration was very low. Relative bioavailability of SMEDDS was dramatically enhanced in an average of 2.15- and 10.22-fold that of oil solution and suspension, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of probucol was enhanced greatly by SMEDDS. Improved solubility and lymphatic transport may contribute to the enhancement of bioavailability. PMID:22359449
Sha, Xianyi; Wu, Juan; Chen, Yanzuo; Fang, Xiaoling
The multifactorial pathological progress of spinal cord injury (SCI) is probably the main reason behind the absence of efficient therapeutic approaches. Hence, very recent highlights suggest the use of new multidrug delivery systems capable of local controlled release of therapeutic agents. In this work, a biocompatible hydrogel-based system was developed as multiple drug delivery tool, specifically designed for SCI repair strategies. Multiple release profiles were achieved by loading gel with a combination of low and high steric hindrance molecules. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo release studies showed an independent combination of fast diffusion-controlled kinetics for smaller molecules together with slow diffusion-controlled kinetics for bigger ones. A preserved functionality of loaded substances was always achieved, confirming the absence of any chemical stable interactions between gel matrix and loaded molecules. Moreover, the relevant effect of the cerebrospinal fluid flux dynamics on the drug diffusion in the spinal cord tissue was here revealed for the first time: an oriented delivery of the released molecules in the spinal cord tract caudally to the gel site is demonstrated, thus suggesting a more efficient gel positioning rostrally to the lesion. PMID:22227024
Perale, Giuseppe; Rossi, Filippo; Santoro, Marco; Peviani, Marco; Papa, Simonetta; Llupi, Dorina; Torriani, Paola; Micotti, Edoardo; Previdi, Sara; Cervo, Luigi; Sundström, Erik; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Masi, Maurizio; Forloni, Gianluigi; Veglianese, Pietro
Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare different catheter systems for local drug delivery with respect to the penetration depth of a biotin marker solution delivered into the vessel wall. Methods: Post-mortem carotid arteries from pigs were locally infused with a biotin solution using three different catheter systems. With all catheters (microporous balloon catheter, hydrogel-coated balloon catheter, and spiral balloon catheter) we used the same pressure of 405 kPa (4 atm) and infusion times of 60, 90, and 300 sec. After infusion the arteries were histologically prepared and stained using a biotin-specific method. With a light microscope an observer, blinded to the catheter type, scored the amount of biotin within the vessel wall, measured as staining intensity, and the penetration depth of the biotin. Results: Delivery with the hydrogel-coated balloon catheter was limited to the intima and the innermost parts of the media. The spiral balloon and microporous balloon catheter showed both a deeper penetration and a larger amount of delivered biotin compared with the hydrogel catheter, with a slightly deeper penetration using the microporous catheter. The penetration depth showed a correlation with infusion time for the spiral balloon and microporous catheters, but not for the hydrogel-coated catheter. Conclusion: Different catheter designs lead to different patterns of local drug delivery. The differences in penetration depth and amount of the substance delivered to the vessel wall should be known and might be useful for targeting specific areas within the vessel wall.
Alfke, Heiko; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Calmer, Christian; Klose, Klaus Jochen [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg (Germany)
The present study was aimed at designing a microflora triggered colon targeted drug delivery system (MCDDS) based on swellable polysaccharide, Sterculia gum in combination with biodegradable polymers with a view to specifically deliver azathioprine in the colonic region for the treatment of IBD with reduced systemic toxicity. The microflora degradation properties of Sterculia gum was investigated in rat caecal phosphate buffer medium. The polysaccharide tablet cores were coated to different film thicknesses with blends of Eudragit RLPO and chitosan and overcoated with Eudragit L00 to provide acid and intestinal resistance. Swelling and drug release studies were carried out in simulated gastric fluid, SGF (pH 1.2), simulated intestinal fluid, SIF (pH 6.8) and simulated colonic fluid, SCF (pH 7.4 under anaerobic environment), respectively. Drug release study in SCF revealed that swelling force of the Sterculia gum could concurrently drive the drug out of the polysaccharide core due to the rupture of the chitosan/Eudargit coating in microflora activated environment. The degradation of chitosan was the rate-limiting factor for drug release in the colon. Drug release from the MCDDS was directly proportional to the concentration of the pore former (chitosan), but inversely related to the Eudragit RLPO coating thickness. PMID:23167303
Nath, Bipul; Nath, L K
The colon-targeted delivery capsule (CTDC), a new capsule-type dosage form for colonic delivery of drugs, was investigated for the in vivo drug release behavior in dogs. A CTDC formulation with prednisolone as a model drug and theophylline as a marker substance for gastric emptying was prepared for this study. The enteric-coated capsule (ECC) formulation with a similar composition was also
Takashi Ishibashi; Harumi Hatano; Masao Kobayashi; Masakazu Mizobe; Hiroyuki Yoshino
Pectin-derived matrices are now being examined and tested for controlled drug delivery. Pectin is intact in the upper gastrointestinal tract and degraded by colonic microflora. The composition of this microflora remains relatively consistent across a diverse human population. Thus, pectin-derived drug carriers provide promising potential for colon-specific drug delivery. This paper reviews recent developments in pectin-derived formulations. Subjects reviewed include
LinShu Liu; Marshall L. Fishman; Joseph Kost; Kevin B. Hicks
The aim of the present study was to formulate a self-emulsifying drug delivery system of atorvastatin calcium and its characterization including in vitro and in vivo potential. The solubility of atorvastatin calcium was determined in various vehicles such as Captex 355, Captex 355 EP/NF, Ethyl oleate, Capmul MCM, Capmul PG-8, Gelucire 44/14, Tween 80, Tween 20, and PEG 400. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted on the basis of solubility data of drug in various components to evaluate the microemulsification region. Formulation development and screening was carried out based on results obtained from phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsion. Prepared formulations were tested for microemulsifying properties and evaluated for clarity, precipitation, viscosity determination, drug content and in vitro dissolution. The optimized formulation further evaluated for particle size distribution, zeta potential, stability studies and in vivo potential. In vivo performance of the optimized formulation was evaluated using a Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia model in male Albino Wistar rats. The formulation significantly reduced serum lipid levels as compared with atorvastatin calcium. Thus studies illustrated the potential use for the delivery of hydrophobic drug such as atorvastatin calcium by oral route. PMID:20088679
Kadu, Pawan J; Kushare, Sachin S; Thacker, Dhaval D; Gattani, Surendra G
Micro-/nanoscale technologies such as lithographic techniques and microfluidics offer promising avenues to revolutionalize the fields of tissue engineering, drug discovery, diagnostics and personalized medicine. Microfabrication techniques are being explored for drug delivery applications due to their ability to combine several features such as precise shape and size into a single drug delivery vehicle. They also offer to create unique asymmetrical features incorporated into single or multiple reservoir systems maximizing contact area with the intestinal lining. Combined with intelligent materials, such microfabricated platforms can be designed to be bioadhesive and stimuli-responsive. Apart from drug delivery devices, microfabrication technologies offer exciting opportunities to create biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models incorporating physiological cell types, flow patterns and brush-border like structures. Here we review the recent developments in this field with a focus on the applications of microfabrication in the development of oral drug delivery devices and biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models that can be used to evaluate the drug delivery efficacy.
Sant, Shilpa; Tao, Sarah L.; Fisher, Omar; Xu, Qiaobing; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali
For decades, researchers and medical professionals have aspired to develop mechanisms for noninvasive treatment and monitoring of pathological conditions within the human body. The emergence of nanotechnology has spawned new opportunities for novel drug delivery vehicles capable of concomitant detection, monitoring, and localized treatment of specific disease sites. In turn, researchers have endeavored to develop an imaging moiety that could be functionalized to seek out specific diseased conditions and could be monitored with conventional clinical imaging modalities. Such nanoscale detection systems have the potential to increase early detection of pathophysiological conditions because they can detect abnormal cells before they even develop into diseased tissue or tumors. Ideally, once the diseased cells are detected, clinicians would like to treat those cells simultaneously. This idea led to the concept of multifunctional carriers that could target, detect, and treat diseased cells. The term "theranostics" has been created to describe this promising area of research that focuses on the combination of diagnostic detection agents with therapeutic drug delivery carriers. Targeted theranostic nanocarriers offer an attractive improvement to disease treatment because of their ability to execute simultaneous functions at targeted diseased sites. Research efforts in the field of theranostics encompass a broad variety of drug delivery vehicles, imaging contrast agents, and targeting modalities for the development of an all-in-one, localized detection and treatment system. Nanotheranostic systems that utilize metallic or magnetic imaging nanoparticles can also be used as thermal therapeutic systems. This Account explores recent advances in the field of nanotheranostics and the various fundamental components of an effective theranostic carrier. PMID:21932809
Caldorera-Moore, Mary E; Liechty, William B; Peppas, Nicholas A
Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is an effective way of treating peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin after complete cytoreduction. Although IP therapy has been already performed for many years, no standardized treatment design has been developed in terms of schedule, residence time, drug, or carrier solution. Because of the fast clearance of the conventional intravenous (IV) drug delivery systems used for IP therapy, a lot of research is performed to optimize IP drug delivery and extend the residence time of the cytotoxic agent in the peritoneal cavity. This paper reviews the recent advances made in drug delivery systems for IP chemotherapy, discussing the use of microparticles, nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, implants, and injectable depots for IP delivery.
De Smet, L.; Ceelen, W.; Remon, J. P.; Vervaet, C.
The field of nanotechnology now has pivotal roles in electronics, biology and medicine. Its application can be appraised, as it involves the materials to be designed at atomic and molecular level. Due to the advantage of their size, nanospheres have been shown to be robust drug delivery systems and may be useful for encapsulating drugs and enabling more precise targeting with a controlled release. In this review specifically, we highlight the recent advances of this technology for medicine and drug delivery systems.
Mirza, Agha Zeeshan; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed
The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a floating-pulsatile drug delivery system intended for chronopharmacotherapy. Floating-pulsatile concept was applied to increase the gastric residence of the dosage form having lag phase followed by a burst release. To overcome limitations of various approaches for imparting buoyancy, we generated the system which consisted of three different parts, a core tablet, containing the active ingredient, an erodible outer shell and a top cover buoyant layer. The dry coated tablet consists in a drug-containing core, coated by a hydrophilic erodible polymer which is responsible for a lag phase in the onset of pulsatile release. The buoyant layer, prepared with Methocel K4M, Carbopol 934P and sodium bicarbonate, provides buoyancy to increase the retention of the oral dosage form in the stomach. The effect of the hydrophilic erodible polymer characteristics on the lag time and drug release was investigated. Developed formulations were evaluated for their buoyancy, dissolution and pharmacokinetic, as well gamma-scintigraphically. The results showed that a certain lag time before the drug released generally due to the erosion of the dry coated layer. Floating time was controlled by the quantity and composition of the buoyant layer. Both pharmacokinetic and gamma-scintigraphic data point out the capability of the system of prolonged residence of the tablets in the stomach and releasing drugs after a programmed lag time. PMID:17803198
Zou, Hao; Jiang, Xuetao; Kong, Lingshan; Gao, Shen
Self Microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEDDS) are a novel alternative to the conventional transdermal delivery systems. SMEDDS are water-free systems, made up of oils and surfactants that can readily form a microemulsion upon dilution within an aqueous medium. Before SMEDDS can be used as a drug delivery system it is necessary to investigate the internal microstructure of the resulting microemulsion. Novel Imwitor 308 based SMEDDS were prepared and investigated. Phase behaviour of the comprising components was investigated through the construction of pseudoternary phase diagrams. The formed systems were characterized using visual inspection, measurement of electrical conductivity, viscosity and droplet size. Amongst the pseudoternary systems investigated, IPM/Cremophor EL (50% w/w)/Imwitor (50% w/w) and Myritol 318/Tween 85 (64% w/w)/ Transcutol P (20% w/w)/Imwitor (16% w/w) possessed the largest microemulsion area. Electrical conductivity and viscosity studies depict structural transitions from w/o microemulsion to bicontinuous or o/w microemulsion around 20-35% water. This was further supported by the droplet size and Fourier transform (FT)-IR measurements. The FT-IR data suggests that below the percolation threshold (?(C)) the water molecules are mainly bounded to the surfactant head group (bound water). Above this value, water molecule move to the outer phase of the microemulsion mainly interacting with each other though hydrogen bounding (free water). It was also found that pseudoternary systems with water content of less than 30% were stable at 32°C. Such systems may form stable microemulsion upon contact with the skin. Absorption of water may also result in a supersaturated solution with enhanced transdermal flux. PMID:20930400
Zargar-Shoshtari, Sara; Wen, Jingyuan; Alany, Raid Ghassan
Formulations that are able to control the release of drug have become an integral part of the pharmaceutical industry. In particular oral drug delivery has been the focus of pharmaceutical research for many years. This type of drug delivery has been at the centre of research due to its many benefits over conventional dosage. The focus of this review is on matrix tablets due to their widely use and simplicity of the formulation. This includes the discussion of various types of matrix tablets and factors affecting the drug release from these formulations. The mechanism of drug release from HPMC matrices is also discussed.
Nokhodchi, Ali; Raja, Shaista; Patel, Pryia; Asare-Addo, Kofi
Malignant glioma is a common and severe primary brain tumor with a high recurrence rate and an extremely high mortality rate within 2 years of diagnosis, even when surgical, radiological, and chemotherapeutic interventions are applied. Intravenously administered drugs have limited use because of their adverse systemic effects and poor blood–brain barrier penetration. Here, we combine 2 methods to increase drug delivery to brain tumors. Focused ultrasound transiently permeabilizes the blood–brain barrier, increasing passive diffusion. Subsequent application of an external magnetic field then actively enhances localization of a chemotherapeutic agent immobilized on a novel magnetic nanoparticle. Combining these techniques significantly improved the delivery of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea to rodent gliomas. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles allowed their delivery to be monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting suppression of tumor progression without damaging the normal regions of the brain was verified by MRI and histological examination. This noninvasive, reversible technique promises to provide a more effective and tolerable means of tumor treatment, with lower therapeutic doses and concurrent clinical monitoring.
Chen, Pin-Yuan; Liu, Hao-Li; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Chu, Po-Chun; Lyu, Lee-Ang; Tseng, I-Chou; Feng, Li-Ying; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Chen, Shu-Mei; Lu, Yu-Jen; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Ma, Yunn-Hwa; Wu, Tony; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Hsueh, Chuen; Wei, Kuo-Chen
The present studies entail the formulation development and evaluation of chronomodulated drug delivery system of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMT), which comprises of a bilayer tablet containing a delayed release and a sustained release layer. Direct compression method was employed for the preparation of bilayer matrix tablets containing rational blend of polymers, such as Eudragit-L100 D55 as delayed release polymer and HPMCK4M, HPMCK15 and HPMCK100 are sustained release polymers. In- vitro drug release studies of bilayer tablets observed a good sustained release action with time-dependent burst release after a lag-time of 3 hrs. Evaluation of drug release kinetics from sustained release layer of bilayer tablets followed Higuchi model via quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. SEM studies revealed formation of pores on sustained release layer, which confirmed the drug release through diffusion and predominantly by surface erosion mechanism. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed a decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration of optimized bilayer tablets vis-à-vis conventional marketed formulation. Accelerated stability studies revealed that the optimized bilayer tablet formulation was found to be stable upto the period of 6 months. Solid state characterization employing FT-IR and DSC studies indicated lack of significant interaction of drug with formulation excipients. Thus, the present studies ratify the suitability of chronomodulated bilayer tablets of AMT for effective management of bacterial infections owing to specific time-dependent drug release, higher gastric protection and enhanced antimicrobial activity. PMID:22998051
Beg, Sarwar; Swain, Suryakanta; Gahoi, Sachin; Kohli, Kanchan
The main purpose of this research work was to design an optimized self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to enhance the bioavailability of the poor water soluble drug, astilbin. The solubility of astilbin was evaluated in various vehicles. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were used to select the components and their ranges by evaluating the micro-emulsification area. Central composite design was applied to optimize the properties of the formulation, including particle size, polydispersity index, drug loading capacity and effective intestinal permeability. The optimized SMEDDS characteristics were investigated including the study of factors influencing particle size and showed the stability of microemulsion when varying the pH and volume of diluents. In vitro drug release profile study was performed using the reverse dialysis method where 95% of the drug was released after 4 h. The developed astilbin SMEDDS was subjected to bioavailability studies in beagle dogs by LC-MS and showed a significant enhancement of bioavailability, indicating the possibility of using SMEDDS as possible drug carrier for astilbin. PMID:22026156
Mezghrani, O; Ke, X; Bourkaib, N; Xu, B H
The aim of the present study was to prepare nanoparticles of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high loading capacity for naltrexone as template drug. To achieve this goal, a computational protocol was employed to select the most appropriate monomer for MIP preparation. Density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP level of theory in conjugate with the 6-31+G(d) basis set was used to evaluate the extent of interaction between naltrexone and a small library of frequently used vinylic monomers. The results revealed that acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) can be considered as suitable monomers. To select the best monomer, two MIPs with AA and MAA monomer were synthesized and their loading capacity, selectivity and release profile were evaluated. The experimental results showed that the MIPs synthesized using AA (MIP-AA) exhibited a surprisingly high loading capacity to naltrexone (75mg of drug/g of MIP) compared to MIP-MAA (34mg of drug/g of MIP). In vitro release dynamics of the drug from MIPs was also investigated and modeled. It was found that non-Fickian-type diffusion mechanism was responsible for drug release. The results can lead to the conclusion that MIPs designed by computational approach can be considered as promising candidates for drug delivery systems. PMID:22230321
Rostamizadeh, K; Vahedpour, M; Bozorgi, S
Copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) are prototypic and well-characterized polymeric drug carriers that have been broadly implemented in the delivery of anticancer therapeutics. In an attempt to improve the tumor accumulation of HPMA copolymer-based drug delivery systems, their in vivo application was combined with radiotherapy and hyperthermia. As the effects of radiotherapy and hyperthermia were considered to depend significantly on the
Twan Lammers; Peter Peschke; Rainer Kühnlein; Vladimir Subr; Karel Ulbrich; Jürgen Debus; Peter Huber; Wim Hennink; Gert Storm
Background Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. Methods and results We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP) was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D), ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate “burst release” and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Conclusion Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue.
Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir bin; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah
Magnetic mesoporous carbonated hydroxyapatite microspheres have been fabricated hydrothermally by using CaCO(3)/Fe(3)O(4) microspheres as sacrificial templates. The high drug-loading capacity and sustained drug release property suggest that the multifunctional microspheres have great potentials for bone-implantable drug-delivery applications. PMID:21998826
Guo, Ya-Ping; Guo, Li-Hua; Yao, Yong-bo; Ning, Cong-Qin; Guo, Ya-Jun
To develop more effective treatment for bacterial vaginosis, bioadhesive film formulations of clindamycin phosphate (CL) for vaginal delivery were studied. The bioadhesive films were prepared by solvent evaporation method. A 3(2) full factorial design was utilized for optimization of the effect of independent variables such as amount of hydroxypropyl cellulose (X1), amount of xanthan gum (X2) on mechanical properties, and % drug retained on vaginal mucosa. The films were evaluated for various aesthetic and physicodynamic properties. Batch F(86) showed highest overall desirability of 0.99. Batch F86 was considered optimal composition for a novel bioadhesive vaginal formulation, as they have good peelability, high % elongation at break, moderate tensile strength, and retained on vaginal mucosa up to 8 h. Also, films were non-cytotoxic as indicated by negligible decrease in cell viability. Our study may provide a potential vaginal delivery system of CL against bacterial vaginosis. PMID:19842917
Dobaria, Nitin; Mashru, Rajashree
Lactose-based placebo tablets were coated using various combinations of two methacrylic acid copolymers, Eudragit® L100-55 and Eudragit® S100, by spraying from aqueous systems. The Eudragit® L100-55–Eudragit® S100 combinations (w\\/w) studied were 1:0, 4:1, 3:2, 1:1, 2:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 0:1. The coated tablets were tested in vitro for their suitability for pH dependent colon targeted oral drug delivery. The same
M. Zahirul I Khan; Željko Prebeg; Nevenka Kurjakovi?
Four polymeric bone-targeting conjugates were synthesized based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, two conjugates) and poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] (PHPMA, two conjugates). The well-known bone-targeting compounds, alendronate and aspartic acid peptide, were used as bone-targeting moieties. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was attached to the conjugates as a model drug for detection purposes. The bone-targeting potential of these conjugates was tested in vitro with hydroxyapatite (HA) and in mice. The data obtained indicated that these novel delivery systems could specifically accumulate in the bone tissue. PMID:13129387
Wang, Dong; Miller, Scott; Sima, Monika; Kopecková, Pavla; Kopecek, Jindrich
The aim of the present study is to improve solubility and bioavailability of Rosuvastatin calcium using self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Self emulsifying property of various oils including essential oils was evaluated with suitable surfactants and co-surfactants. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed based on Rosuvastatin calcium solubility analysis for optimizing the system. The prepared formulations were evaluated for self emulsifying time, robustness to dilution, droplet size determination and zeta potential analysis. The system was found to be robust in different pH media and dilution volume. The globule size of the optimized system was less than 200nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion size range. The zeta potential of the selected CN 7 SNEDDS formulation (cinnamon oil 30%; labrasol 60%; Capmul MCM C8 10%) was -29.5±0.63 with an average particle size distribution of 122nm. In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable increase in dissolution of CN7 SNEDDS compared to marketed formulation. In house developed HPLC method for determination of Rosuvastatin calcium in rat plasma was used in the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic evaluation. The relative bioavailability of self nanoemulsified formulation showed an enhanced bioavailability of 2.45 times greater than that of drug in suspension. The obtained plasma drug concentration data was processed with PKSolver 2.0 and it was best fit into the one compartment model. PMID:24012665
Balakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Raghavan, Chellan Vijaya; selvan, Natarajan Tamil; prasad, Ranganathan Hari; Abdu, Siyad
The central motivation for this study was to evaluate if the increased hydrophilic drug permeation across the skin, which is always observed in presence of vesicular systems, is dependent on the structural organization of niosomes, that are used to transport the active molecules, or if it is only dependent on the surfactant dual nature. To answer this question, non-ionic surfactants belonging to the class of Pluronic and sucrose esters were used both as components of niosomal systems or in the form of sub-micellar solutions. The obtained niosomes were characterized by their entrapment efficiency, size and morphology. The enhancing effect of niosomes on the ex vivo percutaneous penetration of a model drug was investigated using a Franz-type diffusion chamber and compared to that obtained by using sub-micellar solution of surfactant or achieving pretreatment of the skin with surfactants' sub-micellar solution or empty niosomes. The results suggest that the surfactants used in this study could be considered as percutaneous permeation enhancers only when they are in the form of drug-loaded vesicular systems: no percutaneous promotion was achieved by using sub-micellar solution containing free Sulfadiazine sodium salt or performing pretreatment with empty niosomes or sub-micellar solutions of the surfactant. In our experiments, only niosomes act as effective transdermal drug delivery systems. PMID:21303691
Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; Cassano, Roberta; Trombino, Sonia; Ferrarelli, Teresa; Picci, Nevio
Beta-lactam antimicrobials, commonly used in both veterinary and human medicine, generally present short biologic half-lives, whereas their activity is enhanced as pathogen exposure is prolonged. These properties necessitate multiple-dose regimens of standard dosage forms, thereby hampering pet owner adherence, frequently resulting in therapeutic failure. This study presents a novel controlled-release gastroretentive oral drug delivery system for beta-lactams with which single-dose administration provides an effective antimicrobial course, optimizing pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles, minimizing adverse effects and emergence of antimicrobial resistance and facilitating adherence. Our prototype sustained-delivery swelling-tablet (SDST), based on a degradable hydrophilic polymeric matrix, was designed to enable continuous input of these drugs to their absorption sites over several days. Several SDST formulations of the beta-lactam amoxicillin were evaluated in in vitro dissolution studies. Two formulations were selected for further in vivo canine studies, for determination of gastric retention and PK-PD profiling. Prolonged gastric retention times maintaining allowed for maintained effective drug concentrations against many clinically relevant pathogens for more than 48 h for one formulation and more than 5 days for the other. Both SDST formulations offer significant advantages over standard immediate-release therapy in achieving PK-PD goals and enhancing adherence. The prototypical formulations represent a novel platform which may be modified to meet various clinical requirements. PMID:21198678
Horwitz, E; Kagan, L; Chamisha, Y; Gati, I; Hoffman, A; Friedman, M; Lavy, E
The main object of this work is to prepare self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for oral bioavailability enhancement of a poorly water-soluble drug, baicalein. SMEDDS is the mixture of surfactants, cosurfactants, and oils, which are emulsified in aqueous media under conditions of gentle agitation or gastrointestinal motility. Solubility of baicalein was determined in various vehicles. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsification region and droplet size distributions of the resultant microemulsions were determined using a particle size analyzer. Optimized SMEDDS formulations for baicalein were Cremophor RH40 (53.57%) as surfactant, Transcutol P (21.43%) as cosurfactant, and Caprylic capric triglyceride (ODO, 25%) as oil. The drug release rate of SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of the baicalein suspension. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics between baicalein-loaded SMEDDS and baicalein suspension was also performed in rats. The plasma concentrations of baicalein and baicalin, its mainly conjugated metabolite, were determined by HPLC method. The in vivo results showed that the absorption of baicalein from SMEDDS resulted in about 200.7% increase in relative bioavailability compared with that of the baicalein suspension. Our studies illustrated the potential use of SMEDDS for the delivery of hydrophobic compounds, such as baicalein by the oral route. PMID:22982454
Liu, Wenli; Tian, Rui; Hu, Wenjing; Jia, Yuntao; Jiang, Huiming; Zhang, Jingqing; Zhang, Liangke
Oleanolic acid is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) has been developed to enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of oleanolic acid. The formulation design was optimized by solubility assay, compatibility tests, and pseudoternary phase diagrams. The morphology, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and refractive index of a SMEDDS loaded with oleanolic acid were studied in detail. Compared with oleanolic acid solution, the in vitro release of oleanolic acid from SMEDDS showed that the drug could be released in a sustained manner. A highly selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry method was developed for determination of oleanolic acid in rat plasma. This method was used for a pharmacokinetic study of an oleanolic acid-loaded SMEDDS compared with the conventional tablet in rats. Promisingly, a 5.07-fold increase in oral bioavailability of oleanolic acid was achieved for the SMEDDS compared with the marketed product in tablet form. Our studies illustrate the potential use of a SMEDDS for delivery of oleanolic acid via the oral route. PMID:23966781
Yang, Rui; Huang, Xin; Dou, Jinfeng; Zhai, Guangxi; Su, Lequn
The need for safe, therapeutically effective, and patient-compliant drug delivery systems continuously leads researchers to design novel tools and strategies. Clay minerals play a very crucial role in modulating drug delivery. This work examines the advantageous effect of clay mineral as drug carrier for timolol maleate (TM), a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent. The intercalation of TM into the interlayer of montmorillonite (MMT) at different pH and initial concentration is demonstrated. MMT-TM hybrid was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA). TM was successfully intercalated into the interlayer of MMT, and in vitro release properties of the intercalated TM have been investigated in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) at 37+/-0.5 degrees C. Controlled release of TM from MMT-TM hybrid has been observed during in vitro release experiments. PMID:19446759
Joshi, Ghanshyam V; Kevadiya, Bhavesh D; Patel, Hasmukh A; Bajaj, Hari C; Jasra, Raksh V
The objective of this research was to investigate the use of a preclinical system for MRI-guided focused ultrasound to achieve MRI-controlled hyperthermia and thermally-mediated drug delivery in vivo. Here we report results from ten rabbits, where a focused ultrasound (FUS) beam was scanned in a circular trajectory to heat 10-15 mm diameter regions in normal thigh to 43 °C for 20-30 minutes. MRI thermometry was used for closed-loop feedback control to achieve temporally and spatially uniform heating. Lyso-thermosensitive pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (ThermoDox®, Celsion Corporation, Columbia, MD) was infused intravenously during hyperthermia, and the tissue doxorubicin concentration was measured by the fluorescence intensity of homogenized tissue samples from heated and unheated thigh, obtained 2 hours after heating. Closed-loop control of FUS hyperthermia using MRI thermometry achieved temperature distributions with mean, T90 and T10 of 42.9 °C, 41.0 °C and 44.8 °C across the 10 mm diameter target, varying +/-0.9 °C (SD) over 20 min. Drug concentrations in heated regions were, on average 15.3+/-8.1 (SD) times higher than in the unheated contralateral thigh. The results show the feasibility of using MRI-controlled FUS hyperthermia for preclinical studies of thermally mediated drug delivery with temperature-sensitive liposomes.
Staruch, Robert; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo
Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy provides a new non-invasive method to examine and image cellular processes. Based on the spectral parameters of a cell's components it is possible to image cellular organelles, such as the nucleus, chromatin, mitochondria, or lipid bodies, at the resolution of conventional microscopy. Several multivariate or spectral de-mixing algorithms, for example, hierarchical cluster analysis or orthogonal subspace projection, may be used to reconstruct an image of a cell. The non-invasive character of the technique as well as the associated chemical information may offer advantages over other imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy. Currently of particular interest are the uptake and intracellular fate of various pharmaceutical nanocarriers, which are widely used for drug delivery purposes, including intracellular drug and gene delivery. We have imaged the uptake and distribution patterns of several carrier systems over time. In order to distinguish the species of interest from their cellular environment spectroscopically, the carrier particles or the drug load itself may be labeled with deuterium. The first part of the chapter will briefly introduce the concept of Raman imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis on some simple cell models, after which the results of the uptake studies are discussed.
Matthäus, Christian; Chernenko, Tatyana; Quintero, Luis; Miljkovi?, Miloš; Milane, Lara; Kale, Amit; Amiji, Mansoor; Torchilin, Vladimir; Diem, Max
Raman spectroscopy, in combination with optical microscopy provides a new non-invasive method to asses and image cellular processes. Based on the spectral signatures of a cell's components, it is possible to image cellular organelles such as the nucleus, chromatin, mitochondria or lipid bodies, at the resolution of conventional microscopy. Several multivariate algorithms, for example hierarchical cluster analysis or orthogonal subspace projection, may be used to reconstruct an image of a cell. The noninvasive character of the technique, as well as the associated chemical information, may offer advantages over other imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy. Currently of particular interest are uptake and intracellular fate of various pharmaceutical nanocarriers, which are widely used for drug delivery purposes, including intracellular drug and gene delivery. We have imaged the uptake and distribution patterns of several carrier systems over time. In order to distinguish the species of interest from their cellular environment spectroscopically, the carrier particles or the drug load itself may be labeled with deuterium. Here, we introduce the concept of Raman imaging in combination with vertex component data analysis to follow the uptake of nanocarriers based on phospholipids as well as biodegradable polymers.
Matthäus, Christian; Chernenko, Tatyana; Quintero, Luis; Milan, Lara; Kale, Amit; Amiji, Mansoor; Torchilin, Vladimir; Diem, Max
Background A drug delivery system specifically targeting endothelial cells (ECs) in tumors is required to prevent normal blood vessels from being damaged by angiogenesis inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether apelin, a ligand for APJ expressed in ECs when angiogenesis is taking place, can be used for targeting drug delivery to ECs in tumors. Methods and Results Uptake of apelin via APJ stably expressed in NIH-3T3 cells was investigated using TAMRA (fluorescent probe)-conjugated apelin. Both long and short forms of apelin (apelin 36 and apelin 13) were taken up, the latter more effectively. To improve efficacy of apelin- liposome conjugates, we introduced cysteine, with its sulfhydryl group, to the C terminus of apelin 13, resulting in the generation of apelin 14. In turn, apelin 14 was conjugated to rhodamine-encapsulating liposomes and administered to tumor-bearing mice. In the tumor microenvironment, we confirmed that liposomes were incorporated into the cytoplasm of ECs. In contrast, apelin non-conjugated liposomes were rarely found in the cytoplasm of ECs. Moreover, non-specific uptake of apelin-conjugated liposomes was rarely detected in other normal organs. Conclusions ECs in normal organs express little APJ; however, upon hypoxic stimulation, such as in tumors, ECs start to express APJ. The present study suggests that apelin could represent a suitable tool to effectively deliver drugs specifically to ECs within tumors.
Kawahara, Hiroki; Naito, Hisamichi; Takara, Kazuhiro; Wakabayashi, Taku; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki
Natural polymers are continuously investigated for use in pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications due to the renewability of their supply. Besides the conventional use of natural materials in dosage form design such as fillers, they are progressively investigated as functional excipients in specialised dosage forms. The hydrophilic nature of natural polymers together with their non-toxic and biodegradable properties make them useful in the design of modified release dosage forms. Matrix type tablets and beads made from natural gums and mucilages often exhibit sustained drug release through erosion in combination with swelling. Natural polymers are used to reach different pharmaceutical objectives, for instance, inulin and pectin are plant derived polymers that have suitable properties to produce colon-specific drug delivery. Alginate is an example of a natural polymer that has been used in the formulation of gastro-retentive dosage forms. Different cellulose derived polymers have been investigated as coating materials for dosage forms. Natural polymers can be chemically modified to produce molecules with specific properties and formation of co-polymers or polymer mixtures provide new opportunities to develop innovative drug delivery systems. PMID:24597532
Scholtz, Jacques; Van der Colff, Jaco; Steenekamp, Jan; Stieger, Nicole; Hamman, Josias
Oleanolic acid is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) has been developed to enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of oleanolic acid. The formulation design was optimized by solubility assay, compatibility tests, and pseudoternary phase diagrams. The morphology, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and refractive index of a SMEDDS loaded with oleanolic acid were studied in detail. Compared with oleanolic acid solution, the in vitro release of oleanolic acid from SMEDDS showed that the drug could be released in a sustained manner. A highly selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry method was developed for determination of oleanolic acid in rat plasma. This method was used for a pharmacokinetic study of an oleanolic acid-loaded SMEDDS compared with the conventional tablet in rats. Promisingly, a 5.07-fold increase in oral bioavailability of oleanolic acid was achieved for the SMEDDS compared with the marketed product in tablet form. Our studies illustrate the potential use of a SMEDDS for delivery of oleanolic acid via the oral route.
Yang, Rui; Huang, Xin; Dou, Jinfeng; Zhai, Guangxi; Su, Lequn
For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1) controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2) targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger
Jin-Oh You; Dariela Almeda; George JC Ye; Debra T Auguste
During the past years, buccal drug delivery has attracted the attention of researchers looking for alternative delivery routes of administration. As an alternative to oral drug delivery, the buccal mucosal route avoids the passage through the acidic gastric environment, intestinal and bacterial enzymatic activity, absorption issues associated with the intestinal epithelium (e.g. P-glycoprotein efflux), and the first pass metabolism of the liver. Therefore, the buccal route could be a good delivery route for macromolecules and other drugs not compatible with the gastrointestinal tract environment. This "Buccal Drug Delivery" special edition of Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy aims to bring together a range of different aspects relevant to the growing field of buccal drug delivery. The special edition includes thorough reviews of the literature, as well as original research articles touching on most prominent features related to buccal drug delivery systems, such as the move toward the use of nanotechnology in different ways to facilitate buccal drug delivery with the potential to prompt future product developments. PMID:24576264
Morales, Javier Octavio; McConville, Jason Thomas
An apparatus was designed to mimic lactation from a human breast. It was used to determine the influence of milk fat content and flow rate, and suction pulse rate of a breastfeeding infant upon the release of a model compound from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS). The NSDS would be worn by a mother to deliver drugs and nutrients to her infant during breastfeeding. Sulforhodamine B dye (SB) was used as model compound and formulated as a dispersible tablet to be placed within the NSDS. Increasing suction pulse rate from 30 to 120 pulses/min clearly correlated with increased cumulative release of SB for the same volume of milk passed through the NSDS. No distinct correlation was found between flow rates (1, 5, and 8 mL/min) and SB release, possibly because of competing factors controlling release rate at different flow rates. A highly similar SB release rate into two fat content fluids (2.9 and 4.2 wt %) was observed for identical flow conditions. This proof of concept study outlines a novel method to mimic lactation from a breast, and future studies will lead to effective methods to identify key physiological factors that influence drug release from a NSDS. PMID:23934768
Gerrard, Stephen E; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K H
Although ultrasound-based drug delivery has only seen limited clinical use for transdermal drug delivery, there has been considerable momentum in research aimed at using ultrasound for a wide variety of medical applications. Ultrasound-mediated gene therapy using sonoporation and targeted delivery has progressed from in vitro proof-of-concept studies to produce biological effects in angiogenesis and diabetes studies. These techniques have also
ERIC C. PUA; Pei Zhong
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have been intensively investigated, while only a few of them can be used for clinic application. Hematoporphyrin (HP), a major molecule in erythrocyte, has been widely used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified hematoporphyrin (HPP)-based nanoparticle system was designed to load doxorubicin (HPPD), in achieving a synergistic effect of chemotherapy and PDT. Herein we presented that HPPD formed narrowly dispersed nanoparticles at 35 ± 2 nm, yielding an enhanced drug release at pH5.8 along with laser radiation. This combined treatment with HPPD and radiation facilitated drug penetration to the nucleus thereby reducing 12-fold decrease in IC50 value and promoting apoptosis in drug-resistant breast cancer cells. Notably, little toxicity was detected with HPP at the cellular level and in animal models. Live animal imaging revealed that HPPD performed ultra high tumor uptake in both mice and marmoset models. Strikingly, intravenous administration of HPPD and radiation on the tumor achieved efficient tumor ablation, without inducing myocardial injury. We report here the development of a biomolecule, HP-based nanoparticle system, which can synergistically yield chemotherapy and PDT. PMID:24373420
Ren, Yu; Wang, Ruirui; Liu, Yang; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Xuan; Yuan, Xubo; Liu, Chaoyong; Tian, Jianguo; Yin, Haifang; Wang, Yinsong; Zhang, Ning
We have developed a nanocarrier drug-delivery system based on micelles formed by a new class of well-defined linear PEGylated two-arm oligomer of cholic acids in aqueous solution. By varying the length of the linear PEG chains and the configuration of cholic acid oligomer, one can easily fine-tune the physicochemical properties of the amphiphilic polymers and the resulting micelles. These include particle size, critical micelle concentration, and drug loading capacity. High level of hydrophobic anticancer drugs such as PTX, etoposide and SN-38 can be readily loaded into such nanocarriers. The loading capacity of the nanocarrier for PTX (PTX) is extremely high (12.0 mg/mL), which is equivalent to 37.5% (w/w) of the total mass of the micelle. PTX-loaded nanocarriers are much more stable than Abraxane® (PTX/human serum albumin nanoaggregate) when stored in bovine serum albumin solution or dog plasma. PTX release profile from the micelles is burst-free and sustained over a period of seven days. The anti-tumor activity of PTX-loaded nanocarriers against ovarian cancer cell line in vitro, with continuous drug exposure, is similar to Taxol® (formulation of PTX dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol) or Abraxane®. Targeted drug delivery to tumor site with these novel micelles was demonstrated by near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in nude mice bearing ovarian cancer xenograft. Furthermore, PTX-loaded nanocarriers demonstrated superior anti-tumor efficacy compared to Taxol® at equivalent PTX dose in ovarian cancer xenograft model.
Li, Yuanpei; Xiao, Kai; Luo, Juntao; Lee, Joyce; Pan, Shirong; Lam, Kit S.
We report on the deposition of triacetate-pullulan polysaccharide thin films on drug pellets (diclofenac sodium) by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation method. The radiation generated by a pulsed excimer KrF* laser source (? = 248 nm, ? = 20 ns) operated at 2 Hz repetition rate was used for ice targets evaporation. The timed - controlled drug delivery was proved by spectroscopic in vitro studies and in vivo anti-inflammatory investigations on rabbits. We showed that the coating of drug pellets with triacetate-pullulan thin films resulted in the delayed delivery of the drug for up to 30 min.
Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A. C.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.; Caraene, G.; Albulescu, R.; Buruiana, T.; Chrisey, D.
The objective of present investigation was to formulate self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) of tacrolimus (FK 506), a poorly water soluble immunosuppressant that exhibits low and erratic bioavailability. Solubility of FK 506 in various oils, surfactants cosurfactants and buffers was determined. Phase diagrams were constructed at different ratios of surfactant/cosurfactant (Km) to determine microemulsion existence region. The effect of oil content, pH of aqueous phase, dilution, and incorporation of drug on mean globule size of resulting microemulsions was studied. The optimized SMEDDS formulation was evaluated for in vitro dissolution profile in comparison to pure drug and marketed formulation (Pangraf capsules). The in vivo immunosuppressant activity of FK 506 SMEDDS was evaluated in comparison to Pangraf capsules. Area of o/w microemulsion region in phase diagram was increased with increase in Km. The SMEDDS yielded microemulsion with globule size less than 25 nm which was not affected by the pH of dilution medium. The SMEDDS was robust to dilution and did not show any phase separation and drug precipitation even after 24 h. Optimized SMEDDS exhibited superior in vitro dissolution profile as compared to pure drug and Pangraf capsules. Furthermore, FK 506 SMEDDS exhibited significantly higher immunosuppressant activity in mice as compared to Pangraf capsules.
Borhade, Vivek; Nair, Hema
Within this review we will provide a comprehensive understanding in order to improve existing strategies and to develop new systems to lower the barrier for improving mucosal drug delivery. Mucosal administration of drugs achieves a therapeutical effect as the permeation of significant amounts of a drug is permitted through the absorption membrane. The absorption membrane relies on the mucosal layer and the epithelial tissue. In order to overcome barriers, drug delivery systems have to exhibit various functions and features, such as mucoadhesive and protective activity, solubility improving, permeation and uptake enhancing, and drug release controlling properties. This review also aims to provide an insight of well-distinguished strategies to date, as well as provide a focus on the enhancement of membrane permeability. Furthermore, since the development and functions of drug delivery systems exert a high influence on the ability of drug permeation through membrane, these considerations will also be discussed in this review. PMID:24279493
Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas
We evaluated the ability of microemulsions containing medium-chain glycerides as penetration enhancers to increase the transdermal\\u000a delivery of lipophilic (progesterone) and hydrophilic (adenosine) model drugs as well as the effects of an increase in surfactant\\u000a blend concentration on drug transdermal